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Sample records for gamma-ray burst models

  1. Modeling gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxham, Amanda

    Discovered serendipitously in the late 1960s, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are huge explosions of energy that happen at cosmological distances. They provide a grand physical playground to those who study them, from relativistic effects such as beaming, jets, shocks and blastwaves to radiation mechanisms such as synchrotron radiation to galatic and stellar populations and history. Through the Swift and Fermi space telescopes dedicated to observing GRBs over a wide range of energies (from keV to GeV), combined with accurate pinpointing that allows ground based follow-up observations in the optical, infrared and radio, a rich tapestry of GRB observations has emerged. The general picture is of a mysterious central engine (CE) probably composed of a black hole or neutron star that ejects relativistic shells of matter into intense magnetic fields. These shells collide and combine, releasing energy in "internal shocks" accounting for the prompt emission and flaring we see and the "external shock" or plowing of the first blastwave into the ambient surrounding medium has well-explained the afterglow radiation. We have developed a shell model code to address the question of how X-ray flares are produced within the framework of the internal shock model. The shell model creates randomized GRB explosions from a central engine with multiple shells and follows those shells as they collide, merge and spread, producing prompt emission and X-ray flares. We have also included a blastwave model, which can constrain X-ray flares and explain the origin of high energy (GeV) emission seen by the Fermi telescope. Evidence suggests that gamma-ray prompt emission and X-ray flares share a common origin and that at least some flares can only be explained by long-lasting central engine activity. We pay special attention to the time history of central engine activity, internal shocks, and observed flares. We calculate the gamma-ray (Swift/BAT band) and X-ray (Swift/XRT band) lightcurves for arbitrary

  2. Energy sources in gamma-ray burst models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taam, Ronald E.

    1987-01-01

    The current status of energy sources in models of gamma-ray bursts is examined. Special emphasis is placed on the thermonuclear flash model which has been the most developed model to date. Although there is no generally accepted model, if the site for the gamma-ray burst is on a strongly magnetized neutron star, the thermonuclear model can qualitatively explain the energetics of some, but probably not all burst events. The critical issues that may differentiate between the possible sources of energy for gamma-ray bursts are listed and briefly discussed.

  3. An Integrated Universal Collapsar Gamma-ray Burst Model

    SciTech Connect

    Salmonson, J D

    2004-01-21

    Starting with two assumptions: (1) gamma-ray bursts originate from stellar death phenomena or so called ''collapsars'' and (2) that these bursts are quasi-universal, whereby the majority of the observed variation is due to our perspective of the jet, an integrated gamma-ray burst model is proposed. It is found that several of the key correlations in the data can be naturally explained with this simple picture and another possible correlation is predicted.

  4. THE ORTHOGONAL GAMMA-RAY BURST MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Pugliese, Daniela; Nathanail, Antonios

    2014-01-01

    We explore the analogy between a rotating magnetized black hole and an axisymmetric pulsar and derive the black hole's electromagnetic spindown after its formation in the core collapse of a supermassive star. The spindown shows two characteristic phases: an early Blandford-Znajek phase that lasts a few hundred seconds and a late pulsar-like afterglow phase that lasts much longer. During the first phase, the spindown luminosity decreases almost exponentially, whereas during the afterglow phase it decreases as t {sup –a} with 1 ≲ a ≲ 1.5. We associate our findings with long duration gamma-ray bursts and compare them with observations.

  5. Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  6. An iron absorption model of gamma-ray burst spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.; Kargatis, Vincent E.

    1994-01-01

    Most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibit deficits of X-rays below approximately 200 keV. Here we consider a spectral model in which the burst source is shielded by an optically thick layer of circumburster material (CBM) rich in iron-group elements whose photoelectric absorption opacity exceeds the Thomson opacity below approximately 120 keV. For power-law distributions of absorption depths along the lines of sight the absorbed spectrum can indeed mimic the typial GRB spectrum. This model predicts that (a) the spectrum should evolve monotonically from hard to soft during each energy release, which is observed in most bursts, especially in fast rise exponential decay bursts; (b) Fe spectral features near 7 keV may be present in some bursts; and (c) the ratio of burst distances to the CBM and to Earth should be approximately 10(exp -11) if the spectral evolution is purely due to Fe stripping by the photons.

  7. Classifying gamma-ray bursts with Gaussian Mixture Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Yang, En-Bo; Choi, Chul-Sung; Chang, Heon-Young

    2016-11-01

    Using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and expectation-maximization algorithm, we perform an analysis of time duration (T90) for Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO)/BATSE, Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The T90 distributions of 298 redshift-known Swift/BAT GRBs have also been studied in both observer and rest frames. Bayesian information criterion has been used to compare between different GMM models. We find that two Gaussian components are better to describe the CGRO/BATSE and Fermi/GBM GRBs in the observer frame. Also, we caution that two groups are expected for the Swift/BAT bursts in the rest frame, which is consistent with some previous results. However, Swift GRBs in the observer frame seem to show a trimodal distribution, of which the superficial intermediate class may result from the selection effect of Swift/BAT.

  8. Galactic dual population models of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, J. C.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate in more detail the properties of two-population models for gamma-ray bursts in the galactic disk and halo. We calculate the gamma-ray burst statistical properties, mean value of (V/V(sub max)), mean value of cos Theta, and mean value of (sin(exp 2) b), as functions of the detection flux threshold for bursts coming from both Galactic disk and massive halo populations. We consider halo models inferred from the observational constraints on the large-scale Galactic structure and we compare the expected values of mean value of (V/V(sub max)), mean value of cos Theta, and mean value of (sin(exp 2) b), with those measured by Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) and other detectors. We find that the measured values are consistent with solely Galactic populations having a range of halo distributions, mixed with local disk distributions, which can account for as much as approximately 25% of the observed BATSE bursts. M31 does not contribute to these modeled bursts. We also demonstrate, contrary to recent arguments, that the size-frequency distributions of dual population models are quite consistent with the BATSE observations.

  9. A MAD Model for Gamma-Ray Burst Variability

    DOE PAGES

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie; Dolence, Joshua C.; Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2016-06-09

    Here we present a model for the temporal variability of long gamma-ray bursts during the prompt phase (the highly variable first 100 seconds or so), in the context of a magnet- ically arrested disk (MAD) around a black hole. In this state, sufficient magnetic flux is held on to the black hole such that it stalls the accretion near the inner region of the disk. The system transitions in and out of the MAD state, which we relate to the vari- able luminosity of the GRB during the prompt phase, with a characteristic timescale defined by the free fall timemore » in the region over which the accretion is arrested. We present simple analytic estimates of the relevant energetics and timescales, and com- pare them to gamma-ray burst observations. In particular, we show how this model can reproduce the characteristic one second time scale that emerges from various analyses of the prompt emission light curve. Finally, we also discuss how our model can accommodate the potentially physically important correlation between a burst quiescent time and the duration of its subsequent pulse (Ramirez-Ruiz & Merloni 2001).« less

  10. A MAD Model for Gamma-Ray Burst Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie; Dolence, Joshua C.; Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2016-06-09

    Here we present a model for the temporal variability of long gamma-ray bursts during the prompt phase (the highly variable first 100 seconds or so), in the context of a magnet- ically arrested disk (MAD) around a black hole. In this state, sufficient magnetic flux is held on to the black hole such that it stalls the accretion near the inner region of the disk. The system transitions in and out of the MAD state, which we relate to the vari- able luminosity of the GRB during the prompt phase, with a characteristic timescale defined by the free fall time in the region over which the accretion is arrested. We present simple analytic estimates of the relevant energetics and timescales, and com- pare them to gamma-ray burst observations. In particular, we show how this model can reproduce the characteristic one second time scale that emerges from various analyses of the prompt emission light curve. Finally, we also discuss how our model can accommodate the potentially physically important correlation between a burst quiescent time and the duration of its subsequent pulse (Ramirez-Ruiz & Merloni 2001).

  11. GRO: Black hole models for gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, Malvin

    1995-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has established that the distribution of gamma-ray bursts (GRB's) is isotropic but is bound radially. This finding suggests that the bursts are either cosmological or they originate from an extended Galactic halo. The implied luminosities and the observed variability of the GRB's on time scales as short as one millisecond suggest that they originate from compact objects. We are presently studying black hole models for GRB's. Any such model must produce a non-thermal photon spectrum to agree with the observed properties. For a wide range of burst parameters the assumed bursting source consists of a non-thermal electron-positron-photon plasma of very high density. It seems possible to produce such a plasma in accretion onto black holes. In our on-going work, we are developing the kinetic theory for a non-equilibrium pair plasma. The main new features of our work are as follows: (1) We do not assume the presence of a thermal electron bath. (2) Non-thermal, high-energy pairs are allowed to have an arbitrary concentration and energy distribution. (3) There is no soft photon source in our model; initially all the photons in the plasma are either energetic X-rays or gamma-rays. (4) The initial energy distribution of the pairs as well as photons is arbitrary. (5) We collect the analytical expressions for the kinetic kernels for all relevant processes. And (6) we present a different approach to finding the time-evolution of pair and photon spectra, which is a combination of the kinetic-theory and the non-linear Monte-Carlo schemes. We have developed many Monte-Carlo programs to model various process, to take into account the time evolution, and to incorporate various physical effects which are unique to non-thermal plasmas. The hydrodynamics of fireballs in GRB's was studied before. Applying results from kinetic theory will improve our understanding of these systems.

  12. Models for Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woosley, Stan

    Supernovae and gamma-ray bursts are the brightest stellar mass explosions in the universe. As such, they serve as cosmic beacons for probing cosmic structure and diagnosing the properties of stars and the universe when it was young. They also produce black holes and neutron stars, interesting in themselves as laboratories where exotic physics comes into play, and they make the elements from which life arises. Consequently, supernovae and gamma-ray bursts are subject to intense study by many NASA missions. We propose focused studies in five areas of supernova research that are directly relevant to NASA's missions, especially SWIFT, HST, JWST, and planning for WFIRST. Our specific topics are a) models for Type Ia supernovae; b) extreme supernovae and first supernovae; c) magnetar-powered supernovae; d) ultra-long duration gamma-ray bursts; and e) shock breakout in supernovae. These phenomena all have in common their importance to NASA missions and the fact that they can be studied using similar tools - computer codes that do radiation hydrodynamics. Our two principal codes, KEPLER (one-dimension) and CASTRO (one to three dimensions), have been honed to the task by years of supernova modeling, and have some unique capabilities. Type Ia supernovae have long been of interest to NASA, but their importance has increased lately because of their utility in determining cosmic distances and because a string of recent observational breakthroughs has severely limited their progenitors. Responding to these developments, we propose to focus on a class of model we have previously neglected, the merger of two white dwarfs. The mergers will be studied with KEPLER and CASTRO in one and two dimensions, and the spectra and light curves determined. The library of model results will be useful in interpreting the results of present NASA missions and planning new ones. A second important area of investigation will be the study of first generation stars and the supernovae that they produce

  13. Models for Gamma-Ray Bursts and Diverse Transients

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Zhang, Weiqun; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-01-17

    The observational diversity of ''gamma-ray bursts'' (GRBs) has been increasing, and the natural inclination is a proliferation of models. We explore the possibility that at least part of this diversity is a consequence of a single basic model for the central engine operating in a massive star of variable mass, differential rotation rate, and mass loss rate. Whatever that central engine may be--and here the collapsar is used as a reference point--it must be capable of generating both a narrowly collimated, highly relativistic jet to make the GRB, and a wide angle, sub-relativistic outflow responsible for exploding the star and making the supernova bright. To some extent, the two components may vary independently, so it is possible to produce a variety of jet energies and supernova luminosities. We explore, in particular, the production of low energy bursts and find a lower limit, {approx} 10{sup 48} erg s{sup -1} to the power required for a jet to escape a massive star before that star either explodes or is accreted. Lower energy bursts and ''suffocated'' bursts may be particularly prevalent when the metallicity is high, i.e., in the modern universe at low redshift.

  14. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Afterglow and Prompt Emission Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2008-10-01

    Swift observations have revealed interesting but puzzling data that demand a rethink of the origins of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows. The chromatic breaks in X-ray/optical afterglow lightcurves stimulated several innovative suggestions, most invoking a non-forward-shock origin of the X-ray afterglows. The status of both the observational facts and the theoretical models is critically reviewed. Besides the late ``internal'' emission from a long-live central engine, most observed X-ray afterglows likely still include the contribution of the traditional forward shock component. The physical nature (e.g. energy dissipation mechanism, emission site, and radiation mechanism) of the GRB prompt emission is currently not identified. The motivations and issues of three proposed prompt emission sites are reviewed. Several independent methods, invoking prompt gamma-ray, X-ray, optical and GeV emission information, respectively, have been applied to constrain the unknown emission site. Tentative evidence suggests a large prompt emission radius. Finally, the implications of the broad band high quality data of the ``naked eye'' GRB 080319B for our understanding of the afterglow and prompt emission mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Modeling Gamma Ray Bursts in the Megnetically Dominated Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    Recent observations of broad-band prompt emission spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope suggest that they do not comply with the predictions of the standard fireball internal shock model. Several independent observations (including detections of high polarization degree of gamma-ray emission and early optical emission of some GRBs, as well as non-detection of PeV neutrinos from GRBs by IceCube) support or are consistent with the hypothesis that at least some GRBs have magnetically dominated jets. This calls for serious, detailed investigations of GRB models in the magnetically dominated regime, which interpret GRB emission as dissipation of strong magnetic fields entrained in the ejecta. On the other hand, because of their complexity, magnetic models are so far much less developed than the baryonic fireball models. Here we propose to tackle this difficult problem, aiming at making solid progress in this direction through a set of numerical investigations. Specifically, we propose to carry out the following simulations. (1) Using a relativistic MHD code, we will perform a global simulation to investigate whether efficient magnetic dissipation would occur when two high-σ magnetic blobs collide with a relativistic speed. (2) We will perform a local simulation of the relativistic collisions between two high-σ fluids, and track the evolution of magnetic field configuration in the colliding region and the interplay between magnetic reconnection and development of magnetic turbulence. (3) Through injecting test particles in the simulation box, we will study how electrons get accelerated in the turbulent reconnection regions. (4) Built upon the above-mentioned numerical simulation results, along with a Monte Carlo code and a synchrotron radiation code developed in our group before, we will develop a full numerical model to simulate lightcurves, time-dependent spectra, and polarization properties of GRB prompt emission within the framework of

  16. GRO: Black hole models for gamma ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaham, Jacob

    1993-01-01

    This grant deals with the production of gamma-ray bursts (GRB's) close to horizons of black holes (BH's), mainly via accretion of small chunks of matter onto extreme Kerr BH's. In the past year, we laid the ground work for actual calculations close to Kerr BH's. Because of technical reasons, actual work has only started very recently. Following the detailed list of research subprojects as per our original proposal, we have performed research in the following areas: spectrum calculation; burst dynamics; tidal capture and primordial cloud collapse; halo density profile; and capture of other objects.

  17. Delayed energy injection model for gamma-ray burst afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, J. J.; Huang, Y. F.; Yu, Y. B.; Wu, X. F. E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn

    2013-12-10

    The shallow decay phase and flares in the afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely believed to be associated with the later activation of the central engine. Some models of energy injection involve a continuous energy flow since the GRB trigger time, such as the magnetic dipole radiation from a magnetar. However, in the scenario involving a black hole accretion system, the energy flow from the fall-back accretion may be delayed for a fall-back time ∼t {sub fb}. Thus, we propose a delayed energy injection model. The delayed energy would cause a notable rise to the Lorentz factor of the external shock, which will 'generate' a bump in the multiple band afterglows. If the delayed time is very short, our model degenerates to the previous models. Our model can explain the significant re-brightening in the optical and infrared light curves of GRB 081029 and GRB 100621A. A considerable fall-back mass is needed to provide the later energy; this indicates that GRBs accompanied with fall-back material may be associated with a low energy supernova so that the fraction of the envelope can survive during eruption. The fall-back time can give meaningful information on the properties of GRB progenitor stars.

  18. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  19. Modeling Extragalactic Extinction through Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Alberto; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare; Mulas, Giacomo; Casu, Silvia; Aresu, Giambattista

    2016-09-01

    We analyze extragalactic extinction profiles derived through gamma-ray burst afterglows, using a dust model specifically constructed on the assumption that dust grains are not immutable but respond, time-dependently, to the local physics. Such a model includes core-mantle spherical particles of mixed chemical composition (silicate core, sp2, and sp3 carbonaceous layers), and an additional molecular component in the form of free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We fit most of the observed extinction profiles. Failures occur for lines of sight, presenting remarkable rises blueward of the bump. We find a tendency for the carbon chemical structure to become more aliphatic with the galactic activity, and to some extent with increasing redshifts. Moreover, the contribution of the molecular component to the total extinction is more important in younger objects. The results of the fitting procedure (either successes and failures) may be naturally interpreted through an evolutionary prescription based on the carbon cycle in the interstellar medium of galaxies.

  20. Radiative striped wind model for gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégué, D.; Pe'er, A.; Lyubarsky, Y.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the striped wind model in which the wind is accelerated by magnetic reconnection. In our treatment, radiation is included as an independent component, and two scenarios are considered. In the first one, radiation cannot stream efficiently through the reconnection layer, while the second scenario assumes that radiation is homogeneous in the striped wind. We show how these two assumptions affect the dynamics. In particular, we find that the asymptotic radial evolution of the Lorentz factor is not strongly modified whether radiation can stream through the reconnection layer or not. On the other hand, we show that the width, density and temperature of the reconnection layer are strongly dependent on these assumptions. We then apply the model to the gamma-ray burst context and find that photons cannot diffuse efficiently through the reconnection layer below radius r_D^{Δ } ˜ 10^{10.5} cm, which is about an order of magnitude below the photospheric radius. Above r_D^{Δ }, the dynamics asymptotes to the solution of the scenario in which radiation can stream through the reconnection layer. As a result, the density of the current sheet increases sharply, providing efficient photon production by the Bremsstrahlung process which could have profound influence on the emerging spectrum. This effect might provide a solution to the soft photon problem in GRBs.

  1. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Observations of gamma-ray bursts made by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory will be described. Most workers in the field now believe that they originate from cosmological distances. This view has been reinforced by observations this year of several optical afterglow counterparts to gamma-ray bursts. A summary of these recent discoveries will be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism and the energy source of the bursts.

  2. Two populations and models of gamma ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. I.

    1993-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst statistics are best explained by a source population at cosmological distances, while spectroscopy and intensity histories of some individual bursts imply an origin on Galactic neutron stars. To resolve this inconsistency I suggest the presence of two populations, one at cosmological distances and the other Galactic. I build on ideas of Shemi and Piran (1990) and of Rees and Mesozaros (1992) involving the interaction of fireball debris with surrounding clouds to explain the observed intensity histories in bursts at cosmological distances. The distances to the Galactic population are undetermined because they are too few to affect the statistics of intensity and direction; I explain them as resulting from magnetic reconnection in neutron star magnetospheres. An appendix describes the late evolution of the debris as a relativistic blast wave.

  3. The protomagnetar model for gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, B. D.; Giannios, D.; Thompson, T. A.; Bucciantini, N.; Quataert, E.

    2011-05-01

    Long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) originate from the core collapse of massive stars, but the identity of the central engine remains elusive. Previous work has shown that rapidly spinning, strongly magnetized protoneutron stars ('millisecond protomagnetars') produce outflows with energies, time-scales and magnetizations σ0 (maximum Lorentz factor) that are consistent with those required to produce long duration GRBs. Here we extend this work in order to construct a self-consistent model that directly connects the properties of the central engine to the observed prompt emission. Just after the launch of the supernova shock, a wind heated by neutrinos is driven from the protomagnetar. The outflow is collimated into a bipolar jet by its interaction with the progenitor star. As the magnetar cools, the wind becomes ultrarelativistic and Poynting flux dominated (σ0≫ 1) on a time-scale comparable to that required for the jet to clear a cavity through the star. Although the site and mechanism of the prompt emission are debated, we calculate the emission predicted by two models: magnetic dissipation and shocks. Magnetic reconnection may occur near the photosphere if the outflow develops an alternating field structure due to e.g. magnetic instabilities or a misalignment between the magnetic and rotation axes. Shocks may occur at larger radii because the Lorentz factor of the wind increases with time, such that the faster jet at late times collides with slower material released earlier. Our results favour magnetic dissipation as the prompt emission mechanism, in part because it predicts a relatively constant 'Band' spectral peak energy Epeak with time during the GRB. The baryon loading of the jet decreases abruptly when the neutron star becomes transparent to neutrinos at ? s. Jets with ultrahigh magnetization cannot effectively accelerate and dissipate their energy, which suggests this transition ends the prompt emission. This correspondence may explain both the

  4. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain on of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics in spite of recent observational advances and intense theoretical work. Although some of the basic properties of bursts were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory in the past five years. Recent observations of bursts and some proposed models will be discussed.

  5. A gamma-ray burst fireball model via the compression and heating of binary neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G J; Salmonson, J; Wilson, J R

    1999-06-11

    A model is proposed for gamma-ray bursts based upon general relativistic hydrodynamic studies of the compression, heating, and collapse of close binary neutron stars as they approach their last stable orbit. Relativistic compression and heating before collapse may produce a neutrino burst of {approx} 10{sup 53} ergs lasting several seconds. The associated thermal neutrino emission produces an e{sup +}e{sup -} pair plasma by {nu}{bar {nu}} annihilation. We present a hydrodynamic simulation of the formation and evolution of the pair plasma associated with the neutrino burst. We find that this pair plasma leads to the production of {approx} 10{sup 51} - 10{sup 52} ergs in {gamma}-rays with spectral and temporal properties consistent with observed gamma-ray bursts.

  6. Gamma-ray burst observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atteia, J.-L.

    1993-01-01

    The most important observational characteristics of gamma-ray bursts are reviewed, with emphasis on X-ray and gamma-ray data. The observations are used to derive some basic properties of the sources. The sources are found to be isotropically distributed; the burster population is limited in space, and the edge of the distribution is visible.

  7. Gamma-ray bursts: Modeling electron-positron pair plasmas in cataclysmic astrophysical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmonson, Jay David

    Despite three decades of intense scientific scrutiny, gamma-ray bursts have remained one of astronomy's biggest unsolved mysteries. Recent observational breakthroughs have allowed us to learn much about these big, brief, brilliant bangs seen from across the cosmos, but their origin remains a mystery. In this work we study three progenitor models: a neutron star binary system near its last stable orbit, a charged black hole, and the collapse of a globular star cluster. All of these scenarios result in a common theme; the relativistic expansion of a super- heated electron-positron-photon plasma. Thus we study the evolution of, and emission from, this plasma as it might result from these three progenitors using numerical general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations. This emission is then compared with that of gamma-ray bursts to test the feasibility of each of these models as a gamma-ray burst progenitor.

  8. Neutrino bursts from gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan; Xu, Guohong

    1994-01-01

    If gamma-ray bursts originate at cosmological distances, as strongly indicated by the results from Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), then ultrarelativistic ejecta are the likely consequence of the highly super-Eddington luminosity of the sources. If the energy injection rate varies with time, then the Lorentz factor of the wind also varies, and the shells of ejected matter collide with each other. The collisions between baryons produce pions which decay into high-energy photons, electrons, electron positron pairs, and neutrino pairs. The bulk Lorentz factor of approximately 300 is required if our model is to be compatible with the observed millisecond variability. The strongest gamma-ray bursts are observed to deliver approximately 10(exp -4) ergs/sq cm in 100-200 keV photons. In our scenario more energy may be delivered in a neutrino burst. Typical neutrinos may be approximately 30 GeV if the protons have a Maxwellian energy distribution, and up to approximately TeV if the protons have a power-law distribution. Such neutrino bursts are close to the detection limit of the DUMAND II experiment.

  9. POPULATION SYNTHESIS AND GAMMA RAY BURST PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. FREYER

    2000-12-11

    Population synthesis studies of binaries are always limited by a myriad of uncertainties from the poorly understood effects of binary mass transfer and common envelope evolution to the many uncertainties that still remain in stellar evolution. But the importance of these uncertainties depends both upon the objects being studied and the questions asked about these objects. Here I review the most critical uncertainties in the population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors. With a better understanding of these uncertainties, binary population synthesis can become a powerful tool in understanding, and constraining, gamma-ray burst models. In turn, as gamma-ray bursts become more important as cosmological probes, binary population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors becomes an important tool in cosmology.

  10. Swift's 500th Gamma Ray Burst

    NASA Video Gallery

    On April 13, 2010, NASA's Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer satellite discovered its 500th burst. Swift's main job is to quickly localize each gamma-ray burst (GRB), report its position so that others...

  11. Spectral properties of blast-wave models of gamma-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.; Papathanassiou, H.

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the spectrum of blast-wave models of gamma-ray burst sources, for various assumptions about the magnetic field density and the relativistic particle acceleration efficiency. For a range of physically plausible models we find that the radiation efficiency is high and leads to nonthermal spectra with breaks at various energies comparable to those observed in the gamma-ray range. Radiation is also predicted at other wavebands, in particular at X-ray, optical/UV, and GeV/TeV energies. We discuss the spectra as a function of duration for three basic types of models, and for cosmological, halo, and galactic disk distances. We also evaluate the gamma-ray fluences and the spectral characteristics for a range of external densities. Impulsive burst models at cosmological distances can satisfy the conventional X-ray paucity constraint S(sub x)/S(sub gamma)less than a few percent over a wide range of durations, but galactic models can do so only for bursts shorter than a few seconds, unless additional assumptions are made. The emissivity is generally larger for bursts in a denser external environment, with the efficiency increasing up to the point where all the energy input is radiated away.

  12. New constraints on neutron star models of gamma-ray bursts. II - X-ray observations of three gamma-ray burst error boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boer, M.; Hurley, K.; Pizzichini, G.; Gottardi, M.

    1991-01-01

    Exosat observations are presented for 3 gamma-ray-burst error boxes, one of which may be associated with an optical flash. No point sources were detected at the 3-sigma level. A comparison with Einstein data (Pizzichini et al., 1986) is made for the March 5b, 1979 source. The data are interpreted in the framework of neutron star models and derive upper limits for the neutron star surface temperatures, accretion rates, and surface densities of an accretion disk. Apart from the March 5b, 1979 source, consistency is found with each model.

  13. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash

    2001-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Gamma-ray burst-supernova relation B. Paczynski; Observations of gamma-ray bursts G. Fishman; Fireballs T. Piran; Gamma-ray mechanisms M. Rees; Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts R. Kehoe, C. Akerlof, R. Balsano, S. Barthelmy, J. Bloch, P. Butterworth, D. Casperson, T. Cline, S. Fletcher, F. Frontera, G. Gisler, J. Heise, J. Hills, K. Hurley, B. Lee, S. Marshall, T. McKay, A. Pawl, L. Piro, B. Priedhorsky, J. Szymanski and J. Wren; X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts L. Piro; The first year of optical-IR observations of SN1998bw I. Danziger, T. Augusteijn, J. Brewer, E. Cappellaro, V. Doublier, T. Galama, J. Gonzalez, O. Hainaut, B. Leibundgut, C. Lidman, P. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, J. Spyromilio, M. Turatto, J. Van Paradijs, P. Vreeswijk and J. Walsh; X-ray emission of Supernova 1998bw in the error box of GRB980425 E. Pian; Direct analysis of spectra of type Ic supernovae D. Branch; The interaction of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with their surroundings R. Chevalier; Magnetars, soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts A. Harding; Super-luminous supernova remnants Y. -H. Chu, C. -H. Chen and S. -P. Lai; The properties of hypernovae: SNe Ic 1998bw, 1997ef, and SN IIn 1997cy K. Nomoto, P. Mazzali, T. Nakamura, K. Iwanmoto, K. Maeda, T. Suzuki, M. Turatto, I. Danziger and F. Patat; Collapsars, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernovae S. Woosley, A. MacFadyen and A. Heger; Pre-supernova evolution of massive stars N. Panagia and G. Bono; Radio supernovae and GRB 980425 K. Weiler, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, S. Van Dyk, M. Montes and C. Lacey; Models for Ia supernovae and evolutionary effects P. Hoflich and I. Dominguez; Deflagration to detonation A. Khokhlov; Universality in SN Iae and the Phillips relation D. Arnett; Abundances from supernovae F. -K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, K. Iwamoto, T. Nakamura, K. Nomoto, H. Umeda, K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo, D. Dean, W. Hix and M. Strayer; Sne, GRBs, and the

  14. The Quark-Deconfinement Nova model for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Bombaci, I.

    2005-10-21

    We report on a new model which is able to explain how a gamma-ray burst (GRB) can take place days or years after a supernova explosion. We show that above a threshold value of the gravitational mass a pure hadronic star ('neutron star') is metastable to the conversion into a quark star (hybrid star or strange star), i.e. a star made at least in part of deconfined quark matter. The stellar conversion process can be delayed if finite size effects at the interface between hadronic and deconfined quark matter phases are taken into account. A huge amount of energy, on the order of 1052 - 1053 ergs, is released during the conversion process and can produce a powerful gamma-ray burst. The delay between the supernova explosion generating the metastable neutron star and the new collapse can explain the delay inferred in GRB 990705 and in GRB 011211.

  15. Gamma-ray burst populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgili, Francisco Javier

    Over the last fifty years the field of gamma-ray bursts has shown incredible growth, but the amassing of data has also left observers and theorists alike wondering about some of the basic questions surrounding these phenomena. Additionally, these events show remarkable individuality and extrema, ranging in redshift throughout the observable universe and over ten orders of magnitude in energy. This work focuses on analyzing groups of bursts that are different from the general trend and trying to understand whether these bursts are from different intrinsic populations and if so, what can be said about their progenitors. This is achieved through numerical Monte Carlo simulations and statistical inference in conjunction with current GRB observations. Chapter 1 gives a general introduction of gamma-ray burst theory and observations in a semi-historical context. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to the theory and practical issues surrounding the numerical simulations and statistics. Chapters 3--5 are each dedicated to a specific problem relating to a different type of GRB population: high-luminosity v. low-luminosity bursts, constraints from high-redshift bursts, and Type I v. Type II bursts. Chapter 6 follows with concluding remarks.

  16. Multi-messenger Light Curves from Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Internal Shock Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Heinze, Jonas; Murase, Kohta; Winter, Walter

    2017-03-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are promising as sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the internal shock scenario, blobs of plasma emitted from a central engine collide within a relativistic jet and form shocks, leading to particle acceleration and emission. Motivated by present experimental constraints and sensitivities, we improve the predictions of particle emission by investigating time-dependent effects from multiple shocks. We produce synthetic light curves with different variability timescales that stem from properties of the central engine. For individual GRBs, qualitative conclusions about model parameters, neutrino production efficiency, and delays in high-energy gamma-rays can be deduced from inspection of the gamma-ray light curves. GRBs with fast time variability without additional prominent pulse structure tend to be efficient neutrino emitters, whereas GRBs with fast variability modulated by a broad pulse structure can be inefficient neutrino emitters and produce delayed high-energy gamma-ray signals. Our results can be applied to quantitative tests of the GRB origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, and have the potential to impact current and future multi-messenger searches.

  17. Monte Carlo models and analysis of galactic disk gamma-ray burst distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkila, Jon

    1989-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are transient astronomical phenomena which have no quiescent counterparts in any region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although temporal and spectral properties indicate that these events are likely energetic, their unknown spatial distribution complicates astrophysical interpretation. Monte Carlo samples of gamma-ray burst sources are created which belong to Galactic disk populations. Spatial analysis techniques are used to compare these samples to the observed distribution. From this, both quantitative and qualitative conclusions are drawn concerning allowed luminosity and spatial distributions of the actual sample. Although the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) experiment on Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) will significantly improve knowledge of the gamma-ray burst source spatial characteristics within only a few months of launch, the analysis techniques described herein will not be superceded. Rather, they may be used with BATSE results to obtain detailed information about both the luminosity and spatial distributions of the sources.

  18. Naked-Eye Gamma-ray Burst Model for GRB 080319B

    NASA Video Gallery

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that are longer than two seconds are caused by the detonation of a rapidly rotating massive star at the end of its life. Jets of particles and gamma radiation are emitted in...

  19. Gamma-Ray Burst Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, Andrew; Crowther, Paul; de Grijs, Richard; Langer, Norbert; Xu, Dong; Yoon, Sung-Chul

    2016-12-01

    We review our current understanding of the progenitors of both long and short duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Constraints can be derived from multiple directions, and we use three distinct strands; (i) direct observations of GRBs and their host galaxies, (ii) parameters derived from modelling, both via population synthesis and direct numerical simulation and (iii) our understanding of plausible analog progenitor systems observed in the local Universe. From these joint constraints, we describe the likely routes that can drive massive stars to the creation of long GRBs, and our best estimates of the scenarios that can create compact object binaries which will ultimately form short GRBs, as well as the associated rates of both long and short GRBs. We further discuss how different the progenitors may be in the case of black hole engine or millisecond-magnetar models for the production of GRBs, and how central engines may provide a unifying theme between many classes of extremely luminous transient, from luminous and super-luminous supernovae to long and short GRBs.

  20. REVISITING THE LIGHT CURVES OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS IN THE RELATIVISTIC TURBULENCE MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Da-Bin; Gu, Wei-Min; Hou, Shu-Jin; Liu, Tong; Sun, Mou-Yuan; Lu, Ju-Fu E-mail: lujf@xmu.edu.cn

    2013-10-10

    Rapid temporal variability has been widely observed in the light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One possible mechanism for such variability is related to the relativistic eddies in the jet. In this paper, we include the contribution of the inter-eddy medium together with the eddies to the gamma-ray emission. We show that the gamma-ray emission can either lead or lag behind the observed synchrotron emission, where the latter originates in the inter-eddy medium and provides most of the seed photons for producing gamma-ray emission through inverse Compton scattering. As a consequence, we argue that the lead/lag found in non-stationary short-lived light curves may not reveal the intrinsic lead/lag of different emission components. In addition, our results may explain the lead of gamma-ray emission with respect to optical emission observed in GRB 080319B.

  1. Tests and consequences of disk plus halo models of gamma-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, I. A.

    1995-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst observations made by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) and by previous experiments are still consistent with a combined Galactic disk (or Galactic spiral arm) plus extended Galactic halo model. Testable predictions and consequences of the disk plus halo model are discussed here; tests performed on the expanded BATSE database in the future will constrain the allowed model parameters and may eventually rule out the disk plus halo model. Using examples, it is shown that if the halo has an appropriate edge, BATSE will never detect an anisotropic signal from the halo of the Andromeda galaxy. A prediction of the disk plus halo model is that the fraction of the bursts observed to be in the 'disk' population rises as the detector sensitivity improves. A careful reexamination of the numbers of bursts in the two populations for the pre-BATSE databases could rule out this class of models. Similarly, it is predicted that different satellites will observe different relative numbers of bursts in the two classes for any model in which there are two different spatial distribiutions of the sources, or for models in which there is one spatial distribution of the sources that is sampled to different depths for the two classes. An important consequence of the disk plus halo model is that for the birthrate of the halo sources to be small compared to the birthrate of the disk sources, it is necessary for the halo sources to release many orders of magnitude more energy over their bursting lifetime than the disk sources. The halo bursts must also be much more luminous than the disk bursts; if this disk-halo model is correct, it is necessary to explain why the disk sources do not produce halo-type bursts.

  2. Prompt Radio Emission from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthardt, Noelle

    2010-02-01

    Gamma-ray bursts have been observed, but these enigmatic objects are yet unexplained. These short duration events are undoubtedly due to high-energy events. Fading optical emission and even radio emission has been observed from such events, but prompt radio emission from these events would be very useful in pinning down the physics of the bursts, the nature of the progenitor object,and possibly the medium in which it occurs. If these phenomena occur at large redshifts, there is the possibility that the observations could probe the Epoch of Reionization, or the intergalactic medium. A number of models have been proposed to explain the gamma-ray bursts, ranging from compact object mergers, to maser-like coherent emission. These models are not well constrained by current observations. Prompt radio emission may be detected by a transient radio array. I will discuss a planned search for such signals by the Eight-meter-wavelength Transient Array (ETA). )

  3. A Model for Short Gamma-Ray Bursts: Heated Neutron Stars in Close Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmonson, Jay D.; Wilson, James R.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper we present a model for the short (< second) population of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this model heated neutron stars in a close binary system near their last stable orbit emit neutrinos at large luminosities (~ 1053 ergs/sec). A fraction of these neutrinos will annihilate to form an e+e- pair plasma wind which will, in turn, expand and recombine to photons which make the gamma-ray burst. We study neutrino annihilation and show that a substantial fraction (~ 1/2) of energy deposited comes from inter-star neutrinos, where each member of the neutrino pair originates from each neutron star. Thus, in addition to the annihilation of neutrinos blowing off of a single star, we have a new source of baryon free energy that is deposited between the stars. To model the e+e- pair plasma wind between stars, we do three-dimensional relativistic numerical hydrodynamic calculations. Preliminary results are also presented of new, fully general relativistic calculations of gravitationally attracting stars falling from infinity with no angular momentum. These simulations exhibit a compression effect.

  4. Corequake and shock heating model of the 5 March 1979 gamma ray burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, D. C.; Kazanas, D.

    1983-01-01

    Ramatry, et al. proposed a model to account for the 5 March 1979 gamma ray burst in terms of a neutron star corequake and subsequent shock heating of the neutron star atmosphere. This model is extended by examining the overall energetics and characteristics of these shocks, taking into account the e(+)-e(-) pair production behind the shock. The effects of a dipole magnetic field in the shock jump conditions are also examined and it is concluded that the uneven heating produced by such a field can account for the temperature difference between pole and equator implied by the pulsating phase of the burst. The overall energetics and distribution of energy between e(+)-(-) pairs and photons appears to be in agreement with observations if this event is at a distance of 55 kpc as implied by its association with the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  5. Do gamma-ray burst sources repeat?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb, 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter, 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al., 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and the two-point angular correlation function. We find the data to be consistent with the hypothesis that burst sources do not repeat; however, a repeater fraction of up to about 20% of the observed bursts cannot be excluded.

  6. Constraints on Short Gamma-ray Burst Models with Optical Limits of GRB 050509b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hjorth, J.; Sollerman, J.; Gorosabel, J.; Granot, J.; Klose, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Melinder, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Starling, R.; Thomsen, B.

    2005-01-01

    We have obtained deep optical images with the Very Large Telescope at ESO of the first well-localized short-duration gamma-ray burst, GRB 050509b. We observed in the V and R bands at epochs starting at approx. 2 days after the GRB trigger and lasting up to three weeks. We detect no variable objects inside the small Swift/XRT X-ray error circle down to 5(sigma) limiting magnitudes of V = 26.5 and R = 25.2. The X-ray error circle includes a giant elliptical galaxy at z = 0.225, which has been proposed as the likely host of this GRB. Our limits indicate that if the GRB originated at z = 0.225, any supernova-like event accompanying the GRB would have to be over 100 times fainter than normal Type Ia SNe or Type IC hypernovae, 5 times fainter than the faintest known Ia or IC SNe, and fainter than the faintest known Type II SNe. Moreover, we use the optical limits to constrain the energetics of the GRB outflow, and conclude that there was very little radioactive material produced during the GRB explosion. These limits strongly constrain progenitor models for this short GRB. Subject headings: gamma rays: bursts - supernovae

  7. GAMCIT: A gamma ray burst detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surka, Derek M.; Grunsfeld, John M.; Warneke, Brett A.

    1992-01-01

    The origin of celestial gamma ray bursts remains one of the great mysteries of modern astrophysics. The GAMCIT Get-Away-Special payload is designed to provide new and unique data in the search for the sources of gamma ray bursts. GAMCIT consists of three gamma ray detectors, an optical CCD camera, and an intelligent electronics system. This paper describes the major components of the system, including the electronics and structural designs.

  8. Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    Some basic observed properties of gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. Although some properties were known 25 years ago, new and more detailed observations have been made by the Compton Observatory in the past three years. The new observation with the greatest impact has been the observed isotropic distribution of bursts along with a deficiency of weak bursts which would be expected from a homogeneous burst distribution. This is not compatible with any known Galactic population of objects. Gamma-ray bursts show an enormous variety of burst morphologies and a wide spread in burst durations. The spectra of gamma-ray bursts are characterized by rapid variations and peak power which is almost entirely in the gamma-ray energy range. Delayed gamma-ray burst photons extending to GeV energies have been detected for the first time. A time dilation effect has also been reported to be observed in gamma-ray, bursts. The observation of a gamma-ray burst counterpart in another wavelength region has yet to be made.

  9. Modeling Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Flares Within the Internal Shock Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxham, Amanda; Zhang, Bing

    2009-12-01

    X-ray afterglow light curves have been collected for over 400 Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with nearly half of them having X-ray flares superimposed on the regular afterglow decay. Evidence suggests that gamma-ray prompt emission and X-ray flares share a common origin and that at least some flares can only be explained by long-lasting central engine activity. We have developed a shell model code to address the question of how X-ray flares are produced within the framework of the internal shock model. The shell model creates randomized GRB explosions from a central engine with multiple shells and follows those shells as they collide, merge, and spread, producing prompt emission and X-ray flares. We pay special attention to the time history of central engine activity, internal shocks, and observed flares, but do not calculate the shock dynamics and radiation processes in detail. Using the empirical Ep -E iso (Amati) relation with an assumed Band function spectrum for each collision and an empirical flare temporal profile, we calculate the gamma-ray (Swift/BAT band) and X-ray (Swift/XRT band) lightcurves for arbitrary central engine activity and compare the model results with the observational data. We show that the observed X-ray flare phenomenology can be explained within the internal shock model. The number, width, and occurring time of flares are then used to diagnose the central engine activity, putting constraints on the energy, ejection time, width, and number of ejected shells. We find that the observed X-ray flare time history generally reflects the time history of the central engine, which reactivates multiple times after the prompt emission phase with progressively reduced energy. The same shell model predicts an external shock X-ray afterglow component, which has a shallow decay phase due to the initial pile-up of shells onto the blast wave. However, the predicted X-ray afterglow is too bright as compared with the observed flux level, unless epsilon e is

  10. MODELING GAMMA-RAY BURST X-RAY FLARES WITHIN THE INTERNAL SHOCK MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Maxham, Amanda; Zhang Bing

    2009-12-20

    X-ray afterglow light curves have been collected for over 400 Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with nearly half of them having X-ray flares superimposed on the regular afterglow decay. Evidence suggests that gamma-ray prompt emission and X-ray flares share a common origin and that at least some flares can only be explained by long-lasting central engine activity. We have developed a shell model code to address the question of how X-ray flares are produced within the framework of the internal shock model. The shell model creates randomized GRB explosions from a central engine with multiple shells and follows those shells as they collide, merge, and spread, producing prompt emission and X-ray flares. We pay special attention to the time history of central engine activity, internal shocks, and observed flares, but do not calculate the shock dynamics and radiation processes in detail. Using the empirical E{sub p} -E{sub iso} (Amati) relation with an assumed Band function spectrum for each collision and an empirical flare temporal profile, we calculate the gamma-ray (Swift/BAT band) and X-ray (Swift/XRT band) lightcurves for arbitrary central engine activity and compare the model results with the observational data. We show that the observed X-ray flare phenomenology can be explained within the internal shock model. The number, width, and occurring time of flares are then used to diagnose the central engine activity, putting constraints on the energy, ejection time, width, and number of ejected shells. We find that the observed X-ray flare time history generally reflects the time history of the central engine, which reactivates multiple times after the prompt emission phase with progressively reduced energy. The same shell model predicts an external shock X-ray afterglow component, which has a shallow decay phase due to the initial pile-up of shells onto the blast wave. However, the predicted X-ray afterglow is too bright as compared with the observed flux level, unless

  11. AN OBSERVATIONAL IMPRINT OF THE COLLAPSAR MODEL OF LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, Omer; Piran, Tsvi; Sari, Re'em; Nakar, Ehud

    2012-04-20

    The Collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for the well-known association between long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and collapsing massive stars. A bipolar relativistic jet, launched at the core of a collapsing star, drills its way through the stellar envelope and breaks out of the surface before producing the observed gamma rays. While a wealth of observations associate GRBs with the death of massive stars, as yet there is no direct evidence for the Collapsar model itself. Here we show that a distinct signature of the Collapsar model is the appearance of a plateau in the duration distribution of the prompt GRB emission at times much shorter than the typical breakout time of the jet. This plateau is evident in the data of all three major satellites. Our findings provide evidence that directly supports the Collapsar model. In addition, the model suggests the existence of a large population of choked (failed) GRBs, and implies that the 2 s duration commonly used to separate Collapsars and non-Collapsars is inconsistent with the duration distributions of Swift and Fermi GRBs and only holds for BATSE GRBs.

  12. Gamma-ray burst prompt emission light curves and power density spectra in the ICMART model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-02-20

    In this paper, we simulate the prompt emission light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) within the framework of the Internal-Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection and Turbulence (ICMART) model. This model applies to GRBs with a moderately high magnetization parameter σ in the emission region. We show that this model can produce highly variable light curves with both fast and slow components. The rapid variability is caused by many locally Doppler-boosted mini-emitters due to turbulent magnetic reconnection in a moderately high σ flow. The runaway growth and subsequent depletion of these mini-emitters as a function of time define a broad slow component for each ICMART event. A GRB light curve is usually composed of multiple ICMART events that are fundamentally driven by the erratic GRB central engine activity. Allowing variations of the model parameters, one is able to reproduce a variety of light curves and the power density spectra as observed.

  13. PROGENITOR MODELS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENT ASSOCIATED WITH THE SHORT GAMMA RAY BURST 130603B

    SciTech Connect

    Hotokezaka, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Tanaka, Masaomi; Wanajo, Shinya; Kiuchi, Kenta; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru

    2013-11-20

    An electromagnetic transient powered by the radioactive decay of r-process elements, a so-called kilonova/macronova, is one of the possible observable consequences of compact binary mergers including at least one neutron star. Recent observations strongly suggest the discovery of the first electromagnetic transient, which is associated with the short gamma ray burst 130603B. We explore a possible progenitor of this event by combining numerical-relativity simulations and radiative transfer simulations of the dynamical ejecta of binary neutron star and black hole-neutron star mergers. We show that the ejecta models within a realistic parameter range consistently reproduce the observed near-infrared excess. We also show that the soft equation-of-state models for binary neutron star mergers and the stiff equation-of-state models for black hole-neutron star mergers are suitable for reproducing the observed luminosity.

  14. Progenitor Models of the Electromagnetic Transient Associated with the Short Gamma Ray Burst 130603B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotokezaka, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Tanaka, Masaomi; Kiuchi, Kenta; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru; Wanajo, Shinya

    2013-11-01

    An electromagnetic transient powered by the radioactive decay of r-process elements, a so-called kilonova/macronova, is one of the possible observable consequences of compact binary mergers including at least one neutron star. Recent observations strongly suggest the discovery of the first electromagnetic transient, which is associated with the short gamma ray burst 130603B. We explore a possible progenitor of this event by combining numerical-relativity simulations and radiative transfer simulations of the dynamical ejecta of binary neutron star and black hole-neutron star mergers. We show that the ejecta models within a realistic parameter range consistently reproduce the observed near-infrared excess. We also show that the soft equation-of-state models for binary neutron star mergers and the stiff equation-of-state models for black hole-neutron star mergers are suitable for reproducing the observed luminosity.

  15. The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Jens

    2013-06-13

    The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general.

  16. Gamma-Ray Bursts - A Cosmic Riddle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    1994-12-01

    A deep and abiding mystery is one of the greatest treasures nature has to offer to scientists and the public alike. Gamma-ray bursts have been observed for over 20 years. More than 2000 papers have been published about them and numerous theoretical models proposed, yet no one knows for sure what they are, where they come from, or even if they are a single class of phenomena. Isotropy and confinement (i.e., a deficiency of faint sources compared to that expected for an unbounded homogeneous sample), as exhibited in the BATSE observations from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, have lead us to consider seriously only two sites - an extended Galactic halo populated by neutron stars, or else cosmologically distant sources. Models of both varieties will be reviewed. At the present time, both classes of models are given about equal credence, though ALL current models make troublesome assumptions requiring clarification. Halo models have received several boosts lately, including the realization that the mean velocity of pulsars is greater than previously thought, the certain localization of two out of three (and possibly all) soft gamma-ray repeaters to supernova remnants in our Galaxy and in the LMC, and calculations to show that under certain, albeit highly restrictive assumptions, the BATSE statistics can be satisfied by high velocity neutron stars ejected from the Galaxy. Several current halo oriented theories would like to relate the soft repeaters to the more common ``classical" bursts and claim that the former are an earlier evolutionary stage of the latter. If, on the other hand, the soft repeaters are a separate class, as the cosmologists would require, perhaps there are other classes as well. Amid all this theoretical speculation, the solution to the gamma-ray burst riddle will most likely come from further observation. Some prospects for future observations, especially with the High Energy Transient Experiment, will be briefly discussed.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the collapsar model for early and late evolution of gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Proga, Daniel

    2007-05-15

    I present results from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of a gaseous envelope collapsing onto a black hole (BH). These results support the notion that the collapsar model is one of the most promising scenarios to explain the huge release of energy in a matter of seconds associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Additionally, the MHD simulations show that at late times, when the mass supply rate is expected to decrease, the region in the vicinity of the BH can play an important role in determining the rate of accretion, its time behaviour and ultimately the energy output. In particular, the magnetic flux accumulated around the BH can repeatedly stop and then restart the energy release. As proposed by Proga & Zhang, the episode or episodes of reoccurrence of accretion processes can correspond to X-ray flares discovered recently in a number of GRBs.

  18. Unveiling the secrets of gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomboc, Andreja

    2012-07-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts are unpredictable and brief flashes of gamma rays that occur about once a day in random locations in the sky. Since gamma rays do not penetrate the Earth's atmosphere, they are detected by satellites, which automatically trigger ground-based telescopes for follow-up observations at longer wavelengths. In this introduction to Gamma Ray Bursts we review how building a multi-wavelength picture of these events has revealed that they are the most energetic explosions since the Big Bang and are connected with stellar deaths in other galaxies. However, in spite of exceptional observational and theoretical progress in the last 15 years, recent observations raise many questions which challenge our understanding of these elusive phenomena. Gamma Ray Bursts therefore remain one of the hottest topics in modern astrophysics.

  19. ASTRONOMY: Neighborhood Gamma Ray Burst Boosts Theory.

    PubMed

    Schilling, G

    2000-07-07

    Titanic explosions that emit powerful flashes of energetic gamma rays are one of astronomy's hottest mysteries. Now an analysis of the nearest gamma ray burst yet detected has added weight to the popular theory that they are expelled during the death throes of supermassive stars.

  20. Gamma-ray burst cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Liang, E. W.

    2015-08-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous electromagnetic explosions in the Universe, which emit up to 8.8 × 1054 erg isotropic equivalent energy in the hard X-ray band. The high luminosity makes them detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the Universe. GRBs, as bright beacons in the deep Universe, would be the ideal tool to probe the properties of high-redshift universe: including the cosmic expansion and dark energy, star formation rate, the reionization epoch and the metal enrichment history of the Universe. In this article, we review the luminosity correlations of GRBs, and implications for constraining the cosmological parameters and dark energy. Observations show that the progenitors of long GRBs are massive stars. So it is expected that long GRBs are tracers of star formation rate. We also review the high-redshift star formation rate derived from GRBs, and implications for the cosmic reionization history. The afterglows of GRBs generally have broken power-law spectra, so it is possible to extract intergalactic medium (IGM) absorption features. We also present the capability of high-redshift GRBs to probe the pre-galactic metal enrichment and the first stars.

  1. The Synchrotron Shock Model Confronts a "Line of Death" in the BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Band, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The synchrotron shock model (SSM) for gamma-ray burst emission makes a testable prediction: that the observed low-energy power-law photon number spectral index cannot exceed -2/3 (where the photon model is defined with a positive index: $dN/dE \\propto E{alpha}$). We have collected time-resolved spectral fit parameters for over 100 bright bursts observed by the Burst And Transient Source Experiment on board the {\\it Compton Gamma Ray Observatory}. Using this database, we find 23 bursts in which the spectral index limit of the SSM is violated, We discuss elements of the analysis methodology that affect the robustness of this result, as well as some of the escape hatches left for the SSM by theory.

  2. On the Consistency of Gamma-Ray Burst Spectral Indices with the Synchrotron Shock Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preece, R. D.; Briggs, M. S.; Giblin, T. W.; Mallozzi, R. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Paciesad, W. S.; Band, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    The current scenario for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) involves internal shocks for the prompt GRB emission phase and external shocks for the afterglow phase. Assuming optically thin synchrotron emission from isotropically distributed energetic shocked electrons, GRB spectra observed with a low-energy power-law spectral index greater than -2/3 (for positive photon number indices E(exp alpha) indicate a problem with this model. For spectra that do not violate this condition, additional tests of the shock model can be made by comparing the low- and high-energy spectral indices, on the basis of the model's assertion that synchrotron emission from a single power-law distribution of electrons is responsible for both the low-energy and the high-energy power-law portions of the spectra. We find in most cases that the inferred relationship between the two spectral indices of observed GRB spectra is inconsistent with the constraints from the simple optically thin synchrotron shock emission model. In this sense, the prompt burst phase is different from the afterglow phase, and this difference may be related to anisotropic distributions of particles or to their continual acceleration in shocks during the prompt phase.

  3. Overview Animation of Gamma-ray Burst

    NASA Video Gallery

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the cosmos. Astronomers think most occur when the core of a massive star runs out of nuclear fuel, collapses under its own weight, and forms a b...

  4. Supernovae and gamma-ray bursts connection

    SciTech Connect

    Valle, Massimo Della

    2015-12-17

    I’ll review the status of the Supernova/Gamma-Ray Burst connection. Several pieces of evidence suggest that long duration Gamma-ray Bursts are associated with bright SNe-Ic. However recent works suggest that GRBs might be produced in tight binary systems composed of a massive carbon-oxygen cores and a neutron star companion. Current estimates of the SN and GRB rates yield a ratio GRB/SNe-Ibc in the range ∼ 0.4% − 3%.

  5. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jay P.

    2003-01-01

    The unrivalled, extreme luminosities of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) make them the favored beacons for sampling the high redshift Universe. To employ GRBs to study the cosmic terrain -- e.g., star and galaxy formation history -- GRB luminosities must be calibrated, and the luminosity function versus redshift must be measured or inferred. Several nascent relationships between gamma-ray temporal or spectral indicators and luminosity or total energy have been reported. These measures promise to further our understanding of GRBs once the connections between the luminosity indicators and GRB jets and emission mechanisms are better elucidated. The current distribution of 33 redshifts determined from host galaxies and afterglows peaks near z $\\sim$ 1, whereas for the full BATSE sample of long bursts, the lag-luminosity relation predicts a broad peak z $\\sim$ 1--4 with a tail to z $\\sim$ 20, in rough agreement with theoretical models based on star formation considerations. For some GRB subclasses and apparently related phenomena -- short bursts, long-lag bursts, and X-ray flashes -- the present information on their redshift distributions is sparse or entirely lacking, and progress is expected in Swift era when prompt alerts become numerous.

  6. Model-dependent high-energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Kumar, Pawan

    2013-03-22

    The IceCube Collaboration recently reported a stringent upper limit on the high energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which provides a meaningful constraint on the standard internal shock model. Recent broadband electromagnetic observations of GRBs also challenge the internal shock paradigm for GRBs, and some competing models for γ-ray prompt emission have been proposed. We describe a general scheme for calculating the GRB neutrino flux, and compare the predicted neutrino flux levels for different models. We point out that the current neutrino flux upper limit starts to constrain the standard internal shock model. The dissipative photosphere models are also challenged if the cosmic ray luminosity from GRBs is at least 10 times larger than the γ-ray luminosity. If the neutrino flux upper limit continues to go down in the next few years, then it would suggest the following possibilities: (i) the photon-to-proton luminosity ratio in GRBs is anomalously high for shocks, which may be achieved in some dissipative photosphere models and magnetic dissipation models; or (ii) the GRB emission site is at a larger radius than the internal shock radius, as expected in some magnetic dissipation models such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model.

  7. Compton-dragged Gamma-Ray Bursts Associated with Supernovae.

    PubMed

    Lazzati; Ghisellini; Celotti; Rees

    2000-01-20

    It is proposed that the gamma-ray photons that characterize the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts are produced through the Compton-drag process, which is caused by the interaction of a relativistic fireball with a very dense soft photon bath. If gamma-ray bursts are indeed associated with supernovae, then the exploding star can provide enough soft photons for radiative drag to be effective. This model accounts for the basic properties of gamma-ray bursts, i.e., the overall energetics, the peak frequency of the spectrum, and the fast variability, with an efficiency that can exceed 50%. In this scenario, there is no need for particle acceleration in relativistic collisionless shocks. Furthermore, although the Poynting flux may be important in accelerating the outflow, no magnetic field is required in the gamma-ray production. The drag also naturally limits the relativistic expansion of the fireball to Gamma less, similar104.

  8. Afterglow Radiation from Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, Hugh; /Leuven U. /SLAC

    2006-08-28

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are huge fluxes of gamma rays that appear randomly in the sky about once a day. It is now commonly accepted that GRBs are caused by a stellar object shooting off a powerful plasma jet along its rotation axis. After the initial outburst of gamma rays, a lower intensity radiation remains, called the afterglow. Using the data from a hydrodynamical numerical simulation that models the dynamics of the jet, we calculated the expected light curve of the afterglow radiation that would be observed on earth. We calculated the light curve and spectrum and compared them to the light curves and spectra predicted by two analytical models of the expansion of the jet (which are based on the Blandford and McKee solution of a relativistic isotropic expansion; see Sari's model [1] and Granot's model [2]). We found that the light curve did not decay as fast as predicted by Sari; the predictions by Granot were largely corroborated. Some results, however, did not match Granot's predictions, and more research is needed to explain these discrepancies.

  9. Gamma ray bursts from extragalactic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyle, Fred; Burbidge, Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    The properties of gamma ray bursts of classical type are found to be explicable in terms of high speed collisions between stars. A model is proposed in which the frequency of such collisions can be calculated. The model is then applied to the nuclei of galaxies in general on the basis that galaxies, or at least some fraction of them, originate in the expulsion of stars from creation centers. Evidence that low level activity of this kind is also taking place at the center of our own Galaxy is discussed. The implications for galactic evolution are discussed and a negative view of black holes is taken.

  10. A complete reference of the analytical synchrotron external shock models of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, He; Lei, Wei-Hua; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Wu, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Bing

    2013-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are most luminous explosions in the universe. Their ejecta are believed to move towards Earth with a relativistic speed. The interaction between this "relativistic jet" and a circumburst medium drives a pair of (forward and reverse) shocks. The electrons accelerated in these shocks radiate synchrotron emission to power the broad-band afterglow of GRBs. The external shock theory is an elegant theory, since it invokes a limit number of model parameters, and has well predicted spectral and temporal properties. On the other hand, depending on many factors (e.g. the energy content, ambient density profile, collimation of the ejecta, forward vs. reverse shock dynamics, and synchrotron spectral regimes), there is a wide variety of the models. These models have distinct predictions on the afterglow decaying indices, the spectral indices, and the relations between them (the so-called "closure relations"), which have been widely used to interpret the rich multi-wavelength afterglow observations. This review article provides a complete reference of all the analytical synchrotron external shock afterglow models by deriving the temporal and spectral indices of all the models in all spectral regimes, including some regimes that have not been published before. The review article is designated to serve as a useful tool for afterglow observers to quickly identify relevant models to interpret their data. The limitations of the analytical models are reviewed, with a list of situations summarized when numerical treatments are needed.

  11. High energy neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts: Recent observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan

    Neutrino astronomy began with the detection of solar neutrinos, supernova neutrinos (SN1987A) and more recently the 37 events in IceCube which are very likely to be an astrophysical origin. The result from IceCube is perhaps the most exciting discovery of the year 2013, capping a several decades long search. Various astrophysical candidates have been proposed as sources of high energy neutrinos, although the origin of the IceCube neutrinos remains a mystery. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the most energetic explosions in the universe, were considered as the most promising source for high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos (with AGNs). However, a previous search of GRB neutrinos by IceCube surprised the GRB community with negative results, challenging the simple standard picture of GRB prompt emission which is called the internal shock" model. In this thesis we give a closer investigation of this model as well as several leading alternative models. With a careful consideration of the particle physics and the model parameters we show that the previous negative result with GRB neutrinos is not surprising, and only those models with extremely optimistic parameters can be ruled out. We predict that GRBs are unlikely to be the sole sources of the IceCube events, but signals of GRB neutrinos may be detected in the near future, with the neutrino telescopes such as IceCube/DeepCore, KM3Net, ARA, ARIANNA, ANITA etc.

  12. Gamma-Ray Burst Physics with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Omodei, N.; /INFN, Pisa

    2006-10-06

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an international space mission that will study the cosmos in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV, the upper end of which is one of the last poorly observed region of the celestial electromagnetic spectrum. The ancestor of the GLAST/LAT was the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector, which flew onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). The amount of information and the step forward that the high energy astrophysics made thanks to its 9 years of observations are impressive. Nevertheless, EGRET uncovered the tip of the iceberg, raising many questions, and it is in the light of EGRET's results that the great potential of the next generation gamma-ray telescope can be appreciated. GLAST will have an imaging gamma-ray telescope, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) vastly more capable than instruments own previously, as well as a secondary instrument, the GLAST Bursts Monitor, or GBM, to augment the study of gamma-ray bursts. Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) science is one of the most exciting challenges for the GLAST mission, exploring the high energy emission of one of the most intense phenomena in the sky, shading light on various problems: from the acceleration of particles to the emission processes, to more exotic physics like Quantum Gravity effect. In this paper we report the work done so far in the simulation development as well as the study of the LAT sensitivity to GRB.

  13. Microsecond flares in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Cohen, Justin; Teegarden, Bonnard J.; Cline, Thomas L.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Matteson, James L.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that gamma-ray burst light curves may consist of many superposed flares with a duration shorter than 30/microsec. If true, the implications for the interpretation of burst data are enormous. With the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, four predictions of Mitrofanov's (1989) suggestion can be tested. Our results which contradict this suggestion are (1) the photon arrival times are not correlated between independent detectors, (2) the spectral hardness and intensity does not depend on the detector area, (3) the bursts seen by detectors which measure photon positions do not see microsecond flares, and (4) burst positions deduced from detectors with different projected areas are close to the positions deduced from time-of-flight differences between separated spacecraft. We conclude, therefore, that gamma-ray bursts are not composed of microsecond flares.

  14. An external-shock model for gamma-ray burst afterglow 130427A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaitescu, A.; Vestrand, W. T.; Woźniak, P.

    2013-12-01

    The complex multiwavelength emission of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow 130427A (monitored in the radio up to 10 d, in the optical and X-ray until 50 d, and at GeV energies until 1 d) can be accounted for by a hybrid reverse-forward shock synchrotron model, with inverse-Compton emerging only above a few GeV. The high ratio of the early optical to late radio flux requires that the ambient medium is a wind and that the forward-shock synchrotron spectrum peaks in the optical at about 10 ks. The latter has two consequences: the wind must be very tenuous and the optical emission before 10 ks must arise from the reverse-shock, as suggested also by the bright optical flash that Raptor has monitored during the prompt emission phase (<100 s). The Very Large Array radio emission is from the reverse-shock, the Swift X-ray emission is mostly from the forward-shock, but the both shocks give comparable contributions to the Fermi GeV emission. The weak wind implies a large blast-wave radius (8 t_day^{1/2} pc), which requires a very tenuous circumstellar medium, suggesting that the massive stellar progenitor of GRB 130427A resided in a superbubble.

  15. Constraints on Short Gamma-Ray Burst Models with Optical Limits of GRB 050509b

    SciTech Connect

    Hjorth, Jens; Sollerman, J.; Gorosabel, J.; Granot, J.; Klose, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Melinder, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Starling, R.; Thomsen, B.; Andersen, M.I.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Jensen, B.L.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Castro-Ceron, J.M.; Jakobsson, P.; Levan, A.; Pedersen, K.; Rhoads, J.E.; Tanvir, N.R.; Watson, D.; /Bohr Inst. /Stockholm U. /IAA, Granada /KIPAC, Menlo Park /TLS, Tautenburg /NASA, Marshall /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /Amsterdam U., Astron. Inst. /Aarhus U. /Potsdam, Astrophys. Inst. /European Southern Obs., Chile /Leicester U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Hertfordshire U.

    2005-06-15

    We have obtained deep optical images with the Very Large Telescope at ESO of the first well-localized short-duration gamma-ray burst, GRB 050509b. We observed in the V and R bands at epochs starting at {approx}2 days after the GRB trigger and lasting up to three weeks. We detect no variable objects inside the small Swift/XRT X-ray error circle down to 5{sigma} limiting magnitudes of V = 26.5 and R = 25.2. The X-ray error circle includes a giant elliptical galaxy at z = 0.225, which has been proposed as the likely host of this GRB. Our limits indicate that if the GRB originated at z = 0.225, any supernova-like event accompanying the GRB would have to be over 100 times fainter than normal Type Ia SNe or Type Ic hypernovae, 5 times fainter than the faintest known Ia or Ic SNe, and fainter than the faintest known Type II SNe. Moreover, we use the optical limits to constrain the energetics of the GRB outflow, and conclude that there was very little radioactive material produced during the GRB explosion. These limits strongly constrain progenitor models for this short GRB.

  16. X-ray flashes from M31 based on extended halo models of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Hui; Liang, Edison P.

    1992-01-01

    We consider X-ray flashes (XRFs) associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from M31, using an extended halo model. We find that for XRFs detectable with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter, the expected rate is much less than 1/d for a variety of halo models. Hence we need M31 surveys much longer than a weak to seriously confront the extended halo hypothesis.

  17. Physics issues of gamma ray burst emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison

    1987-01-01

    The critical physics issues in the interpretation of gamma-ray-burst spectra are reviewed. An attempt is made to define the emission-region parameter space satisfying the maximum number of observational and theoretical constraints. Also discussed are the physical mechanisms responsible for the bursts that are most consistent with the above parameter space.

  18. Environments of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roming, Peter; Tobler, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The death of some of the most massive stars are manifest as long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Studying their light curves and spectra are uncovering some of the properties of the "central engine" that remains after the progenitor star collapses, as well as the environment in which they reside. Much of our current understanding comes from data obtained in the gamma-ray to X-ray. Despite this progress in the high-energy regime, our understanding of the soft-energy component (UV/optical) is lacking, particularly with regards to UV/optical flaring from the central engine and distinguishing between interstellar material and wind environments. Although these questions have been addressed for individual bursts, no systematic study in the UV/optical has been done due to the lack of a large homogenous sample. The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) has observed more GRBs in the UV/optical than any other telescope. From these observations we have generated a homogenous UV/optical GRB afterglow catalog. From this catalog and coupled with archival Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) data, we examine the spectral evolution of GRBs in order to probe the circumburst environment and to test current progenitor models.

  19. Fuzzy correlations of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dieter H.; Linder, Eric V.; Blumenthal, George R.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of gamma-ray bursts is not known, both in the sense of the nature of the source emitting the radiation and literally, the position of the burst on the sky. Lacking unambiguously identified counterparts in any wavelength band studied to date, statistical approaches are required to determine the burster distance scale. Angular correlation analysis is one of the most powerful tools in this regard. However, poor detector resolution gives large localization errors, effectively beam smearing the positions. The resulting fuzzy angular correlation function is investigated and the generic isotropization that smearing induces on any intrinsic clustering is discussed. In particular, the extent to which gamma-ray burst observations by the BATSE detector aboard the Gamma-Ray Observatory might recover an intrinsic source correlation is investigated.

  20. Stirling Colgate and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Donald

    2014-10-01

    Even before the discovery of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), Stirling Colgate proposed that bursts of x rays and gamma rays might be produced by a relativistic shock created in the supernova explosion of a massive star. We trace the scientific story of GRBs from their detection to the present, highlighting along the way Stirling's interest in them and his efforts to understand them. We summarize our current understanding that short, soft, repeating bursts are produced by magnetic neutron stars; short, hard bursts are produced by the mergers of neutron star-neutron star binaries; and long, hard bursts are produced by the core collapse of massive stars that have lost their hydrogen and helium envelopes. We then discuss some important open questions about GRBs and how they might be answered. We conclude by describing the recent serendipitous discovery of an x-ray burst of exactly the kind he proposed, and the insights into core collapse supernovae and GRBs that it provided.

  1. Gravitational waves within the magnetar model of superluminous supernovae and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Wynn C. G.

    2016-11-01

    The light curve of many supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be explained by a sustained injection of extra energy from its possible central engine, a rapidly rotating strongly magnetic neutron star (i.e. magnetar). The magnetic dipole radiation power that the magnetar supplies comes at the expense of the star's rotational energy. However, radiation by gravitational waves (GWs) can be more efficient than magnetic dipole radiation because of its stronger dependence on neutron star spin rate Ω, i.e. Ω6 (for a static `mountain') or Ω8 (for an r-mode fluid oscillation) versus Ω4 for magnetic dipole radiation. Here, we use the magnetic field B and initial spin period P0 inferred from SN and GRB observations to obtain simple constraints on the dimensionless amplitude of the mountain of ε < 0.01 and r-mode oscillation of α < 1, the former being similar to that obtained by recent works. We then include GW emission within the magnetar model. We show that when ε > 10-4(B/1014 G)(P0/1 ms) or α > 0.01(B/1014 G)(P0/1 ms)2, light curves are strongly affected, with significant decrease in peak luminosity and increase in time to peak luminosity. Thus, the GW effects studied here are more pronounced for low B and short P0 but are unlikely to be important in modelling SN and GRB light curves since the amplitudes needed for noticeable changes are quite large.

  2. The Supercritical Pile Gamma-Ray Burst Model: The GRB Afterglow Steep Decline and Plateau Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, D.; Mastichiadis, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a process that accounts for the steep decline and plateau phase of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curves, vexing features of gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenology. This process is an integral part of the "supercritical pile" GRB model, proposed a few years ago to account for the conversion of the GRB kinetic energy into radiation with a spectral peak at E(sub pk) is approx. m(sub e)C(exp 2). We compute the evolution of the relativistic blast wave (RBW) Lorentz factor Gamma to show that the radiation-reaction force due to the GRB emission can produce an abrupt, small (approx. 25%) decrease in Gamma at a radius that is smaller (depending on conditions) than the deceleration radius R(sub D). Because of this reduction, the kinematic criticality criterion of the "supercritical pile" is no longer fulfilled. Transfer of the proton energy into electrons ceases and the GRB enters abruptly the afterglow phase at a luminosity smaller by approx. m(sub p)/m(sub e) than that of the prompt emission. If the radius at which this slow-down occurs is significantly smaller than R(sub D), the RBW internal energy continues to drive the RBW expansion at a constant (new) Gamma and its X-ray luminosity remains constant until R(sub D) is reached, at which point it resumes its more conventional decay, thereby completing the "unexpected" XRT light curve phase. If this transition occurs at R is approx. equal to R(sub D), the steep decline is followed by a flux decrease instead of a "plateau," consistent with the conventional afterglow declines. Besides providing an account of these peculiarities, the model suggests that the afterglow phase may in fact begin before the RBW reaches R is approx. equal to R(sub D), thus providing novel insights into GRB phenomenology.

  3. Gamma-Ray Burst Class Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Roiger, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    Guided by the supervised pattern recognition algorithm C4.5 developed by Quinlan in 1986, we examine the three gamma-ray burst classes identified by Mukherjee et al. in 1998. C4.5 provides strong statistical support for this classification. However, with C4.5 and our knowledge of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument, we demonstrate that class 3 (intermediate fluence, intermediate duration, soft) does not have to be a distinct source population: statistical/systematic errors in measuring burst attributes combined with the well-known hardness/intensity correlation can cause low peak flux class 1 (high fluence, long, intermediate hardness) bursts to take on class 3 characteristics naturally. Based on our hypothesis that the third class is not a distinct one, we provide rules so that future events can be placed in either class 1 or class 2 (low fluence, short, hard). We find that the two classes are relatively distinct on the basis of Band's work in 1993 on spectral parameters alpha, beta, and E (sub peak) alone. Although this does not indicate a better basis for classification, it does suggest that different physical conditions exist for class 1 and class 2 bursts. In the process of studying burst class characteristics, we identify a new bias affecting burst fluence and duration measurements. Using a simple model of how burst duration can be underestimated, we show how this fluence duration bias can affect BATSE measurements and demonstrate the type of effect it can have on the BATSE fluence versus peak flux diagram.

  4. Ginga Gamma-Ray Burst Line Occurrence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project is the statistical evaluation of the occurrence of spectral lines in the gamma-ray burst spectra detected by the Ginga burst detector, and the comparison of the Ginga results to the BATSE observations. Two significant line features were detected in the Ginga bursts, but thus far none have been detected in the bursts BATSE detected. These line features may indicate the presence of strong magnetic fields in bursts, and therefore are important physical diagnostics of the conditions in the plasma which radiates the observed gamma-rays. The issue is whether there is a discrepancy between the Ginga and BATSE results; the potential discrepancy must be evaluated statistically. Even if BATSE line detections are announced, the statistical methodology we have developed can be used to estimate the rate at which different types of spectral features occur.

  5. Gamma ray bursts: a 1983 overview

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, T.L.

    1983-10-01

    Gamma ray burst observations are reviewed with mention of new gamma-ray and optical transient measurements and with discussions of the controversial, contradictory and unresolved issues that have recently emerged: burst spectra appear to fluctuate in time as rapidly as they are measured, implying that any one spectrum may be incorrect. Energy spectra can be obligingly fitted to practically any desired shape, implying, in effect, that no objective spectral resolution exists at all. Burst fluxes and temporal quantities, including the total event energy, are characterized very differently with differing instruments, implying that even elementary knowledge of their properties is instrumentally subjective. Finally, the log N-log S determinations are deficient in the weak bursts, while there is no detection of a source direction anisotropy, implying that Ptolemy was right or that burst source distance estimates are basically guesswork. These issues may remain unsolved until vastly improved instruments are flown.

  6. Gamma Ray Bursts: a 1983 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma ray burst observations are reviewed with mention of new gamma-ray and optical transient measurements and with discussions of the controversial, contradictory and unresolved issues that have recently emerged: burst spectra appear to fluctuate in time as rapidly as they are measured, implying that any one spectrum may be incorrect; energy spectra can be obligingly fitted to practically any desired shape, implying, in effect, that no objective spectral resolution exists at all; burst fluxes and temporal quantities, including the total event energy, are characterized very differently with differing instruments, implying that even elementary knowledge of their properties is instrumentally subjective; finally, the log N-log S determinations are deficient in the weak bursts, while there is no detection of a source direction anisotropy, implying that Ptolemy was right or that burst source distance estimates are basically guesswork. These issues may remain unsolved until vastly improved instruments are flown.

  7. Iron K Lines from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T. R.; Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present models for reprocessing of an intense flux of X-rays and gamma rays expected in the vicinity of gamma ray burst sources. We consider the transfer and reprocessing of the energetic photons into observable features in the X-ray band, notably the K lines of iron. Our models are based on the assumption that the gas is sufficiently dense to allow the microphysical processes to be in a steady state, thus allowing efficient line emission with modest reprocessing mass and elemental abundances ranging from solar to moderately enriched. We show that the reprocessing is enhanced by down-Comptonization of photons whose energy would otherwise be too high to absorb on iron, and that pair production can have an effect on enhancing the line production. Both "distant" reprocessors such as supernova or wind remnants and "nearby" reprocessors such as outer stellar envelopes can reproduce the observed line fluxes with Fe abundances 30-100 times above solar, depending on the incidence angle. The high incidence angles required arise naturally only in nearby models, which for plausible values can reach Fe line to continuum ratios close to the reported values.

  8. More Gamma-ray Bursts from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Michael; Fermi GBM Team Team

    2017-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) Team has developed an offline search for weak gamma-ray bursts which were not already detected in-orbit as ``triggers''. This search is ``untargeted'', searching all of the GBM data without guidance from other observations. The initial version of the search has been operational from January 2016, finding several likely short GRBs per month that are posted to a webpage. The GBM individual photon data are binned to various timescales, a background model is created and the binned data are searched for significant signals above the background that are coincident in two or more detectors. The current search has a latency of several days because several steps require manual intervention. An improved version will be fully automatic so that the latency in detecting candidates will be dominated by the few hours delay in receiving the data. The new version of the search will also include additional detection algorithms to increase the GRB detection rate and will also detect some long GRBs. We will report the candidates via the Gamma-ray Coordinates Network (GCN). These prompt GRB detections and localization should aid multi-messenger observations, in some cases refining localizations on timescales useful for followup observations.

  9. The Gamma-Ray Burst Next Door

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    I hesitate to spawn a thousand bad sci-fi flicks, but here it goes: Scientists now say that some gamma-ray bursts, the most powerful explosions in the universe, originate in nearby galaxy clusters. If one were to occur nearby, it could wipe out life on Earth. Fortunately, the chances of mass extinction are slimmer than the Chicago Cubs meeting the Boston Red Sox in the World Series (. . . and the Red Sox winning). But a new analysis of over 1400 archived gamma-ray bursts reveals that about 100 bursts originated within 325 million light-years of Earth, and not billions of light-years away as previously thought. If so, there's no reason why a burst couldn't go off in our galaxy.

  10. Gamma-Ray Burst Counterparts: Optical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Cline, Thomas L.; Hurley, Kevin C.; Laros, John G.

    1998-10-01

    The surest solution of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) mystery is to find an unambiguous low-energy quiescent counterpart. To this end, we have intensively searched within the smallest GRB error boxes for any counterpart candidates. This paper reports on 255 hr of exposure with ground-based telescopes since 1981. We report our results in the U, B, V, R. I, J, H, and K bands. We find the usual array of mildly unusual sources in the boxes, but none is sufficiently unusual to suggest a causal connection. We find that the smallest boxes are empty to fairly deep magnitudes. This fact can be of significance since virtually all cosmological models place bright bursters inside normal host galaxies at moderate distances. To allow for quantitative evaluation of the predictions of these models, we have compiled a list of limits on the brighest galaxy inside each of the 26 regions in various bands. This list was compiled from our own results as well as from the published literature. The limits on host galaxy luminosities from these data are substantially more restrictive than the limits from recent optical transients because the bursts we report on are much brighter than the bursts with optical transients.

  11. "Short, Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts - Mystery Solved?????"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.

    2006-01-01

    After over a decade of speculation about the nature of short-duration hard-spectrum gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the recent detection of afterglow emission from a small number of short bursts has provided the first physical constraints on possible progenitor models. While the discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a real breakthrough linking their origin to star forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, the progenitors, energetics, and environments for short gamma-ray burst events remain elusive despite a few recent localizations. Thus far, the nature of the host galaxies measured indicates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors. On the other hand, some of the short burst afterglow observations cannot be easily explained in the coalescence scenario. These observations raise the possibility that short GRBs may have different or multiple progenitors systems. The study of the short-hard GRB afterglows has been made possible by the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer, launched in November of 2004. Swift is equipped with a coded aperture gamma-ray telescope that can observe up to 2 steradians of the sky and can compute the position of a gamma-ray burst to within 2-3 arcmin in less than 10 seconds. The Swift spacecraft can slew on to this burst position without human intervention, allowing its on-board x ray and optical telescopes to study the afterglow within 2 minutes of the original GRB trigger. More Swift short burst detections and afterglow measurements are needed before we can declare that the mystery of short gamma-ray burst is solved.

  12. A MULTIVARIATE FIT LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND WORLD MODEL FOR LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shahmoradi, Amir

    2013-04-01

    It is proposed that the luminosity function, the rest-frame spectral correlations, and distributions of cosmological long-duration (Type-II) gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) may be very well described as a multivariate log-normal distribution. This result is based on careful selection, analysis, and modeling of LGRBs' temporal and spectral variables in the largest catalog of GRBs available to date: 2130 BATSE GRBs, while taking into account the detection threshold and possible selection effects. Constraints on the joint rest-frame distribution of the isotropic peak luminosity (L{sub iso}), total isotropic emission (E{sub iso}), the time-integrated spectral peak energy (E{sub p,z}), and duration (T{sub 90,z}) of LGRBs are derived. The presented analysis provides evidence for a relatively large fraction of LGRBs that have been missed by the BATSE detector with E{sub iso} extending down to {approx}10{sup 49} erg and observed spectral peak energies (E{sub p} ) as low as {approx}5 keV. LGRBs with rest-frame duration T{sub 90,z} {approx}< 1 s or observer-frame duration T{sub 90} {approx}< 2 s appear to be rare events ({approx}< 0.1% chance of occurrence). The model predicts a fairly strong but highly significant correlation ({rho} = 0.58 {+-} 0.04) between E{sub iso} and E{sub p,z} of LGRBs. Also predicted are strong correlations of L{sub iso} and E{sub iso} with T{sub 90,z} and moderate correlation between L{sub iso} and E{sub p,z}. The strength and significance of the correlations found encourage the search for underlying mechanisms, though undermine their capabilities as probes of dark energy's equation of state at high redshifts. The presented analysis favors-but does not necessitate-a cosmic rate for BATSE LGRBs tracing metallicity evolution consistent with a cutoff Z/Z{sub Sun} {approx} 0.2-0.5, assuming no luminosity-redshift evolution.

  13. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Pulses and Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas J.; Hakkila, J. E.; Broadbent, M.; Wasserman, I. M.; Wolpert, R. L.

    2013-04-01

    We describe ongoing work on two projects that are enabling more thorough and accurate use of archival BATSE data for elucidating the nature of GRB sources; the methods and tools we are developing will also be valuable for analyzing data from other missions. The first project addresses modeling the spectro-temporal behavior of prompt gamma ray emission from GRBs by modeling gamma ray count and event data with a population of pulses, with the population drawn from one or more families of single-pulse kernels. Our approach is built on a multilevel nonparametric probabilistic framework we have dubbed "Bayesian droplets," and offers several important advances over previous pulse decomposition approaches: (1) It works in the pulse-confusion regime, quantifying uncertainty in the number, locations, and shapes of pulses, even when there is strong overlap. (2) It can self-consistently model pulse behavior across multiple spectral bands. (3) It readily handles a variety of spatio-temporal kernel shapes. (4) It reifies the idea of a burst as a population of pulses, enabling explicit modeling and estimation of the pulse population distribution. We describe the framework and present analyses of prototypical simple and complex GRB light curves. The second project aims to enable accurate demographic modeling of GRBs using the BATSE catalog. We present new calculations of the BATSE sky exposure, encompassing the full duration of the BATSE catalog for the first time, with many improvements over the currently available exposure map. A similar calculation of the detection efficiency is in progress. We also describe public Python software enabling access and accurate modeling of BATSE GRB data. The software enables demographic studies (e.g., modeling log N - log S distributions) with accurate accounting of both selection effects and measurement errors. It also enables spectro-temporal modeling of detailed data from individual GRBs. These projects are supported by NASA through the AISR

  14. Very high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Paula M

    2007-05-15

    Very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy has undergone a transformation in the last few years, with telescopes of unprecedented sensitivity having greatly expanded the source catalogue. Such progress makes the detection of a gamma-ray burst at the highest energies much more likely than previously. This paper describes the facilities currently operating and their chances for detecting gamma-ray bursts, and reviews predictions for VHE gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts. Results to date are summarized.

  15. The Compatibility of Friedmann Cosmological Models with Observed Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts and a Large Hubble Constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horack, John M.; Koshut, Thomas M.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Meegan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    The distance scale to cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRB's) is still uncertain by many orders of magnitude; however, one viable scenario places GRB's at cosmological distances, thereby permitting them to be used as tracers of the cosmological expansion over a significant range of redshifts zeta. Also, several recent measurements of the Hubble constant H(sub 0) appearing in the referred literature report values of 70-80 km/s /Mpc. Although there is significant debate regarding these measurements, we proceed here under the assumption that they are evidence of a large value for H(sub 0). This is done in order to investigate the additional constraints on cosmological models that can be obtained under this hypothesis when combined with the age of the universe and the brightness distribution of cosmological gamma-ray bursts. We show that the range of cosmological models that can be consistent with the GRB brightness distribution, a Hubble constant of 70-80 km/s/Mpc, and a minimum age of the universe of 13-15 Gyr is constrained significantly, largely independent of a wide range of assumptions regarding the evolutionary nature of the burst population. Low-density, Lambda greater than 0 cosmological models with deceleration parameter in the range -1 less than q(sub 0) less than 0 and density parameter sigma(sub 0) in the range approximately equals 0.10-0.25(Omega(sub 0) approximately equals 0.2-0.5) are strongly favored.

  16. Plasma Instabilities in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Tautz, Robert C.

    2008-12-24

    Magnetic fields are important in a variety of astrophysical scenarios, ranging from possible creation mechanisms of cosmological magnetic fields through relativistic jets such as that from Active Galactic Nuclei and gamma-ray bursts to local phenomena in the solar system. Here, the outstanding importance of plasma instabilities to astrophysics is illustrated by applying the so-called neutral point method to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are assumed to have a homogeneous background magnetic field. It is shown how magnetic turbulence, which is a prerequisite for the creation of dissipation and, subsequently, radiation, is created by the highly relativistic particles in the GRB jet. Using the fact that different particle compositions lead to different instability conditions, conclusions can be drawn about the particle composition of the jet, showing that it is more likely of baryonic nature.

  17. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of approx 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts - the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width - continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (approx 6 X 10(exp -10) erg / sq cm/ s) is approx > 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (approx 60,000 s) is approx 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into more dense environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently p()wers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  18. HETEROGENEITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels, Neil

    2011-07-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample is comprised of 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales-durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals-for EE bursts are factors of {approx}2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts-the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width-continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition, we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts ({approx}6x10{sup -10} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) is {approx}>20x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts ({approx}60,000 s) is {approx}30x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into denser environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently powers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  19. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Mystery Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Ann

    2007-01-01

    With the success of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer currently in orbit, this is quite an exciting time in the history of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The study of GRBs is a modern astronomical mystery story that began over 30 years ago with the serendipitous discovery of these astronomical events by military satellites in the late 1960's. Until the launch of BATSE on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, astronomers had no clue whether GRBs originated at the edge of our solar system, in our own Milky Way Galaxy or incredibly far away near the edge of the observable Universe. Data from BATSE proved that GRBs are distributed isotropically on the sky and thus could not be the related to objects in the disk of our Galaxy. Given the intensity of the gamma-ray emission, an extragalactic origin would require an astounding amount of energy. Without sufficient data to decide the issue, a great debate continued about whether GRBs were located in the halo of our own galaxy or were at extragalactic - even cosmological distances. This debate continued until 1997 when the BeppoSAX mission discovered a fading X-ray afterglow signal in the same location as a GRB. This discovery enabled other telescopes, to observe afterglow emission at optical and radio wavelengths and prove that GRBs were at cosmological distances by measuring large redshifts in the optical spectra. Like BeppoSAX Swift, slews to new GRB locations to measure afterglow emission. In addition to improved GRB sensitivity, a significant advantage of Swift over BeppoSAX and other missions is its ability to slew very quickly, allowing x-ray and optical follow-up measurements to be made as early as a minute after the gamma-ray burst trigger rather than the previous 6-8 hour delay. Swift afterglow measurements along with follow-up ground-based observations, and theoretical work have allowed astronomers to identify two plausible scenarios for the creation of a GRB: either through core collapse of super massive stars or

  20. RADIO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J.; Harrison, R.; Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.

    2015-06-20

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1–1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time.

  1. Physics of Gamma Ray Burst Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, Peter

    2004-01-01

    During this grant period, the physics of gamma-ray bursts was investigated. A number of new results have emerged. The importance of pair formation in high compactness burst spectra may help explain x-ray flashes; a universal jet shape is a likely explanation for the distribution of jet break times; gravitational waves may be copiously produced both in short bursts from compact mergers and in long bursts arising from collapsars; x-ray iron lines are likely to be due to interaction with the stellar atmosphere of the progenitor; prompt optical flashes from reverse shocks will give diagnostics on the Lorentz factor and the environment; GeV and TeV emission from bursts may be expected in the external shock; etc. The group working with the PI included postdocs Dr. Bing Zhang (now assistant professor at University of Nevada); Dr. Shiho Kobayashi; graduate student Lijun Gou; collaborators Drs. Tim Kallman and Martin Rees. Meszaros shared with Rees and Dr. Bohan Paczynsky the AAS Rossi Prize in 2000 for their work on the theory of gamma ray bursts. The refereed publications and conference proceedings resulting from this research are summarized below. The PI gave a number of invited talks at major conferences, also listed.

  2. MAGNETIC STRUCTURES IN GAMMA-RAY BURST JETS PROBED BY GAMMA-RAY POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yonetoku, Daisuke; Murakami, Toshio; Morihara, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Takuya; Wakashima, Yudai; Yonemochi, Hajime; Sakashita, Tomonori; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kodama, Yoshiki; Gunji, Shuichi; Toukairin, Noriyuki; Mihara, Tatehiro; Toma, Kenji

    2012-10-10

    We report polarization measurements in two prompt emissions of gamma-ray bursts, GRB 110301A and GRB 110721A, observed with the gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP) on borad the IKAROS solar sail mission. We detected linear polarization signals from each burst with polarization degree of {Pi} = 70 {+-} 22% with statistical significance of 3.7{sigma} for GRB 110301A, and {Pi} = 84{sup +16}{sub -28}% with 3.3{sigma} confidence level for GRB 110721A. We did not detect any significant change of polarization angle. These two events had shorter durations and dimmer brightness compared with GRB 100826A, which showed a significant change of polarization angle, as reported in Yonetoku et al. Synchrotron emission model can be consistent with the data of the three GRBs, while the photospheric quasi-thermal emission model is not favored. We suggest that magnetic field structures in the emission region are globally ordered fields advected from the central engine.

  3. LOCALIZATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS USING THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Burgess, J. M.; Goldstein, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Gibby, M. H.; Greiner, J.; Yu, H.-F.; Gruber, D.; Kippen, R. M.; Byrne, D.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; and others

    2015-02-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected over 1400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) since it began science operations in 2008 July. We use a subset of over 300 GRBs localized by instruments such as Swift, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, INTEGRAL, and MAXI, or through triangulations from the InterPlanetary Network, to analyze the accuracy of GBM GRB localizations. We find that the reported statistical uncertainties on GBM localizations, which can be as small as 1°, underestimate the distance of the GBM positions to the true GRB locations and we attribute this to systematic uncertainties. The distribution of systematic uncertainties is well represented (68% confidence level) by a 3.°7 Gaussian with a non-Gaussian tail that contains about 10% of GBM-detected GRBs and extends to approximately 14°. A more complex model suggests that there is a dependence of the systematic uncertainty on the position of the GRB in spacecraft coordinates, with GRBs in the quadrants on the Y axis better localized than those on the X axis.

  4. The GAMCIT gamma ray burst detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccall, Benjamin J.; Grunsfeld, John M.; Sobajic, Srdjan D.; Chang, Chinley Leonard; Krum, David M.; Ratner, Albert; Trittschuh, Jennifer E.

    1993-01-01

    The GAMCIT payload is a Get-Away-Special payload designed to search for high-energy gamma-ray bursts and any associated optical transients. This paper presents details on the design of the GAMCIT payload, in the areas of battery selection, power processing, electronics design, gamma-ray detection systems, and the optical imaging of the transients. The paper discusses the progress of the construction, testing, and specific design details of the payload. In addition, this paper discusses the unique challenges involved in bringing this payload to completion, as the project has been designed, constructed, and managed entirely by undergraduate students. Our experience will certainly be valuable to other student groups interested in taking on a challenging project such as a Get-Away-Special payload.

  5. SuperAGILE and Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Pacciani, Luigi; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Frutti, Massimo; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Lapshov, Igor; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Tavani, Marco; Barbiellini, Guido; Mastropietro, Marcello; Morelli, Ennio; Rapisarda, Massimo

    2006-05-19

    The solid-state hard X-ray imager of AGILE gamma-ray mission -- SuperAGILE -- has a six arcmin on-axis angular resolution in the 15-45 keV range, a field of view in excess of 1 steradian. The instrument is very light: 5 kg only. It is equipped with an on-board self triggering logic, image deconvolution, and it is able to transmit the coordinates of a GRB to the ground in real-time through the ORBCOMM constellation of satellites. Photon by photon Scientific Data are sent to the Malindi ground station at every contact. In this paper we review the performance of the SuperAGILE experiment (scheduled for a launch in the middle of 2006), after its first onground calibrations, and show the perspectives for Gamma Ray Bursts.

  6. Neutrino astronomy and gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Eli

    2007-05-15

    The construction of large-volume detectors of high energy, greater than 1TeV, neutrinos is mainly driven by the search for extragalactic neutrino sources. The existence of such sources is implied by the observations of ultra-high-energy, greater than or equal to 1019eV, cosmic rays, the origin of which is a mystery. In this lecture, I briefly discuss the expected extragalactic neutrino signal and the current state of the experimental efforts. Neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are probably sources of both high-energy protons and neutrinos, is discussed in some detail. The detection of the predicted GRB neutrino signal, which may become possible in the coming few years, will allow one to identify the sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and to resolve open questions related to the underlying physics of GRB models. Moreover, detection of GRB neutrinos will allow one to test for neutrino properties (e.g. flavour oscillations and coupling to gravity) with an accuracy many orders of magnitude better than is currently possible.

  7. Statistical properties of the time histories of cosmic gamma-ray bursts detected by the BATSE experiment of the Compton gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagdeev, Roald

    1995-01-01

    The main scientific objectives of the project were: (1) Calculation of average time history for different subsets of BATSE gamma-ray bursts; (2) Comparison of averaged parameters and averaged time history for different Burst And Transient Source Experiments (BASTE) Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB's) sets; (3) Comparison of results obtained with BATSE data with those obtained with APEX experiment at PHOBOS mission; and (4) Use the results of (1)-(3) to compare current models of gamma-ray bursts sources.

  8. Gravitational-wave Observations May Constrain Gamma-Ray Burst Models: The Case of GW150914-GBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, P.; Preece, R. D.; Goldstein, A.; Mészáros, P.; Burns, E.; Connaughton, V.

    2016-08-01

    The possible short gamma-ray burst (GRB) observed by Fermi/GBM in coincidence with the first gravitational-wave (GW) detection offers new ways to test GRB prompt emission models. GW observations provide previously inaccessible physical parameters for the black hole central engine such as its horizon radius and rotation parameter. Using a minimum jet launching radius from the Advanced LIGO measurement of GW 150914, we calculate photospheric and internal shock models and find that they are marginally inconsistent with the GBM data, but cannot be definitely ruled out. Dissipative photosphere models, however, have no problem explaining the observations. Based on the peak energy and the observed flux, we find that the external shock model gives a natural explanation, suggesting a low interstellar density (˜10-3 cm-3) and a high Lorentz factor (˜2000). We only speculate on the exact nature of the system producing the gamma-rays, and study the parameter space of a generic Blandford-Znajek model. If future joint observations confirm the GW-short-GRB association we can provide similar but more detailed tests for prompt emission models.

  9. A Gamma-Ray Burst Trigger Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The detection rate of a gamma-ray burst detector can be increased by using a count rate trigger with many accumulation times DELTAt and energy bands DELTAE Because a burst's peak flux varies when averaged over different DELTAt and DELTAE the nominal sensitivity (the numerical value of the peak flux) of a trigger system is less important than how much fainter a burst could be at the detection threshold as DELTAt and DELTAE are changed. The relative sensitivity of different triggers can be quantified by referencing the detection threshold back to the peak flux for a fiducial value of DELTAt and DELTA E. This mapping between peak flux values for different sets of DELTAt and DELTAE varies from burst to burst. Quantitative estimates of the burst detection rate for a given detector and trigger system can be based on the observed rate at a measured peak flux value in this fiducial trigger. Predictions of a proposed trigger's burst detection rate depend on the assumed burst population, and these predictions can be wildly in error for triggers that differ significantly from previous missions. I base the fiducial rate on the BATSE observations: 550 bursts per sky above a peak flux of 0.3 ph per square centimeter per second averaged over DELTAt=1.024 sec and DELTAE=50-300 keV. Using a sample of 100 burst lightcurves I find that triggering on any value of DELTAt that is a multiple of 0.064 sec decreases the average threshold peak flux on the 1.024 sec timescale by a factor of 0.6. Extending DELTAE to lower energies includes the large flux of the X-ray background, increasing the background count rate. Consequently a low energy DELTAE is advantageous only for very soft bursts. Whether a large fraction of the population of bright bursts is soft is disputed; the new population of X-ray Flashes is soft but relatively faint.

  10. Gamma ray burst outflows and afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsony, Brian J.

    2008-08-01

    We carry out a theoretical investigation of jet propagation in Gamma Ray Bursts and examine the jitter radiation mechanism as a means of producing prompt and afterglow emission. We study the long-term evolution of relativistic jets in collapsars and examine the effects of viewing angle on the subsequent gamma ray bursts. Our simulations allow us to single out three phases in the jet evolution: a precursor phase in which relativistic material turbulently shed from the head of the jet first emerges from the star; a shocked jet phase where a fully shocked jet of material is emerging; and an unshocked jet phase where the jet consists of a free-streaming, unshocked core surrounded by a thin boundary layer of shocked jet material. We also carry out a series of simulations with central engines that vary on long time periods comparable to the breakout time of the jet, on short time periods (0.1s) much less than the breakout time, and finally that decay as a power law at late times. We conclude that rapid variability seen in prompt GRB emission, as well as shallow decays and flares seen in the X-ray afterglow, can be caused by central engine variability. Finally, we present a detailed computation of the jitter radiation spectrum, including self-absorption, for electrons inside Weibel-like shock- generated magnetic fields. We apply our results to the case of the prompt and afterglow emission of gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that jitter and synchrotron afterglows can be distinguished from each other with good quality observations. However, it is unlikely that the difference can explain the peculiar behavior of several recent observations, such as flat X-ray slopes and uncorrelated optical and X-ray behavior.

  11. Gamma-ray bursts during neutron star formation. Gamma-ray bursts and transient X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Desai, U. D.; Holt, S. S.

    1973-01-01

    Discussions are presented of the associations between cosmic gamma ray bursts and transient X-ray sources, and the release of gravitational binding energy during the formation of neutron stars. The model for studying the associations is described along with the release of neutrinos during the collapse of white dwarfs.

  12. Spectral evolution of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Matteson, J.; Ford, L.; Schaefer, B.; Teegarden, B.; Cline, T.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.

    1992-01-01

    BATSE's Spectral Detectors provide a series of high resolution spectra over the duration of a gamma-ray burst; fits to these spectra show the evolution of the continuum as the burst progresses. The burst continuum can usually be fit by the spectral form AE sup alpha exp(-E/kT) from around 25 keV to more than 3 MeV, with varying trends in the value and evolution of the spectral parameters. As a result of limited statistics for E greater than 1 - 2 MeV in the individual spectra, a high energy power law is not required. Only long duration strong bursts can be studied by fitting a series of spectra, and therefore our conclusions concern only this class of burst. The bursts we analyzed tend to be characterized by a hard-to-soft trend both for individual intensity spikes and for the burst as a whole: the hardness leads the count rate in spectra which resolve the temporal variations, while the hardness of successive spikes decreases. We also summarize the performance of the Spectral Detectors and the development of analysis tools to date.

  13. Long-Lag, Wide-pulse Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, J. P.; Bonnell, J. T.; Kazanas, D.; Scargle, . D.; Hakkila, J.; Giblin, T. W.

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the best available probe of the early phase of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet attributes is the prompt gamma-ray emission, in which several intrinsic and extrinsic variables determine GRB pulse evolution. Bright, usually complex bursts have many narrow pulses that are difficult to model due to overlap. However, the relatively simple, long spectral lag, wide-pulse bursts may have simpler physics and are easier to model. In this work we analyze the temporal and spectral behavior of wide pulses in 24 long-lag bursts, using a pulse model with two shape parameters - width and asymmetry - and the Band spectral model with three shape parameters. We find that pulses in long-lag bursts are distinguished both temporally and spectrally from those in bright bursts: the pulses in long spectral lag bursts are few in number, and approximately 100 times wider (10s of seconds), have systematically lower peaks in vF(v), harder low-energy spectra and softer high-energy spectra. We find that these five pulse descriptors are essentially uncorrelated for our long-lag sample, suggesting that at least approximately 5 parameters are needed to model burst temporal and spectral behavior. However, pulse width is strongly correlated with spectral lag; hence these two parameters may be viewed as mutual surrogates. We infer that accurate formulations for estimating GRB luminosity and total energy will depend on several gamma-ray attributes, at least for long-lag bursts. The prevalence of long-lag bursts near the BATSE trigger threshold, their predominantly low vF(v) spectral peaks, and relatively steep upper power-law spectral indices indicate that Swift will detect many such bursts.

  14. Gamma ray bursts: Current status of observations and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Gamma ray bursts display a wide range of temporal and spectral characteristics, but typically last several seconds and emit most of their energy in a low energy, gamma ray region. The burst sources appear to be isotropically distributed on the sky. Several lines of evidence suggest magnetic neutron stars as sources for bursts. A variety of energy sources and emission mechanisms are proposed.

  15. MIRAX sensitivity for Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacahui, J. R.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Braga, J.; Castro, M. A.; D'Amico, F.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present the detection capability of the MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) experiment for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). MIRAX is an X-ray astronomy mission designed to perform a wide band hard X-ray (10-200 keV) survey of the sky, especially in the Galactic plane. With a total detection area of 169 cm2, large field of view (FoV, 20 ° × 20 °), angular resolution of 1°45‧ and good spectral and time resolution (∼8% at 60 keV, 10 μs), MIRAX will be optimized for the detection and study of transient sources, such as accreting neutron stars (NS), black holes (BH), Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), and both short and long GRBs. This is especially important because MIRAX is expected to operate in an epoch when probably no other hard X-ray wide-field imager will be active. We have performed detailed simulations of MIRAX GRB observations using the GEANT4 package, including the background spectrum and images of GRB sources in order to provide accurate predictions of the sensitivity for the expected GRB rate to be observed. MIRAX will be capable of detecting ∼44 GRBs per year up to redshifts of ∼4.5. The MIRAX mission will be able to contribute significantly to GRB science by detecting a large number of GRBs per year with wide band spectral response. The observations will contribute mainly to the part of GRB spectra where a thermal emission is predicted by the Fireball model. We also discuss the possibility of detecting GRB afterglows in the X-ray band with MIRAX.

  16. High-energy gamma rays from the intense 1993 January 31 gamma-ray burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommer, M.; Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fishman, G. J.; Harding, A. K.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Hurley, K.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    The intense gamma-ray burst of 1993 January 31 was detected by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Observatory. Sixteen gamma rays above 30 MeV were imaged in the telescope when only 0.04 gamma rays were expected by chance. Two of these gamma rays have energies of approximately 1 GeV, and the five bin spectrum of the 16 events is fitted by a power law of photon spectral index -2.0 +/- 0.4. The high-energy emission extends for at least 25 s. The most probable direction for this burst is determined from the directions of the 16 gamma rays observed by Egret and also by requiring the position to lie on annulus derived by the Interplanetary Network.

  17. The Most Remote Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    ESO Telescopes Observe "Lightning" in the Young Universe Summary Observations with telescopes at the ESO La Silla and Paranal observatories (Chile) have enabled an international team of astronomers [1] to measure the distance of a "gamma-ray burst", an extremely violent, cosmic explosion of still unknown physical origin. It turns out to be the most remote gamma-ray burst ever observed . The exceedingly powerful flash of light from this event was emitted when the Universe was very young, less than about 1,500 million years old, or only 10% of its present age. Travelling with the speed of light (300,000 km/sec) during 11,000 million years or more, the signal finally reached the Earth on January 31, 2000. The brightness of the exploding object was enormous, at least 1,000,000,000,000 times that of our Sun, or thousands of times that of the explosion of a single, heavy star (a "supernova"). The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) was also involved in trail-blazing observations of another gamma-ray burst in May 1999, cf. ESO PR 08/99. PR Photo 28a/00 : Sky field near GRB 000131 . PR Photo 28b/00 : The fading optical counterpart of GRB 000131 . PR Photo 28c/00 : VLT spectrum of GRB 000131 . What are Gamma-Ray Bursts? One of the currently most active fields of astrophysics is the study of the mysterious events known as "gamma-ray bursts" . They were first detected in the late 1960's by instruments on orbiting satellites. These short flashes of energetic gamma-rays last from less than a second to several minutes. Despite much effort, it is only within the last few years that it has become possible to locate the sites of some of these events (e.g. with the Beppo-Sax satellite ). Since the beginning of 1997, astronomers have identified about twenty optical sources in the sky that are associated with gamma-ray bursts. They have been found to be situated at extremely large (i.e., "cosmological") distances. This implies that the energy release during a gamma-ray burst within a few

  18. Gamma-ray bursts and neutron star field decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dieter; Blumenthal, George; Chuang, Kuan-Wen; Hurley, Kevin; Kargatis, Vincent; Liang, Edison; Linder, Eric

    1992-01-01

    Assuming a Galactic origin of gamma-ray bursts, we use pulsar data to calculate the spatial distribution of neutron stars and determine the sampling depths of current detectors. Based on these distance limits, we calculate the corresponding age distribution of Galactic neutron stars and apply an exponential field decay model to test whether the observed high incidence rate of cyclotron lines is consistent with suggested field decay time scales of order 10 exp 7 years. We find that the properties of the observed population of gamma-ray bursts are inconsistent with the idea that bursts originate at arbitrary times on neutron stars whose fields decay on time scales shorter than about 10 exp 9 years. Possible interpretations of this inconsistency are discussed.

  19. Gravitational lensing, time delay, and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Shude

    1992-01-01

    The probability distributions of time delay in gravitational lensing by point masses and isolated galaxies (modeled as singular isothermal spheres) are studied. For point lenses (all with the same mass) the probability distribution is broad, and with a peak at delta(t) of about 50 S; for singular isothermal spheres, the probability distribution is a rapidly decreasing function with increasing time delay, with a median delta(t) equals about 1/h month, and its behavior depends sensitively on the luminosity function of galaxies. The present simplified calculation is particularly relevant to the gamma-ray bursts if they are of cosmological origin. The frequency of 'recurrent' bursts due to gravitational lensing by galaxies is probably between 0.05 and 0.4 percent. Gravitational lensing can be used as a test of the cosmological origin of gamma-ray bursts.

  20. The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.; Mason, K. O.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A. A.; White, N. E.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Burrows, D. N.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift mission: scheduled for launch in early 2004: is a multiwavelength observatory for gamma-ray burst (GRB) astronomy. It is the first-of-its-kind autonomous rapid-slewing satellite for transient astronomy and pioneers the way for future rapid-reaction and multiwavelength missions. It will be far more powerful than any previous GRB mission, observing more than 100 bursts per year and performing detailed X-ray and UV/optical afterglow observations spanning timescales from 1 minute to several days after the burst. The objectives are to: 1) determine the origin of GFU3s; 2) classify GRBs and search for new types; 3) study the interaction of the ultra-relativistic outflows of GRBs with their surrounding medium; and 4) use GRBs to study the early universe out to z greater than 10. The mission is being developed by a NASA-led international collaboration. It will carry three instruments: a new-generation wide-field gamma-ray (15-150 keV) detector that will detect bursts, calculate 1-4 arcmin positions: and trigger autonomous spacecraft slews; a narrow-field X-ray telescope that will give 5 arcsec positions and perform spectroscopy in the 0.2 to 10 keV band; and a narrow-field UV/optical telescope that will operate in the 170-600 nm band and provide 0.3 arcsec positions and optical finding charts. Redshift determinations will be made for most bursts. In addition to the primary GRB science, the mission will perform a hard X-ray survey to a sensitivity of approx. 1 mCrab (approx. 2 x l0(exp -11) erg/sq cm s in the 15-150 keV band), more than an order of magnitude better than HEAO A-4. A flexible data and operations system will allow rapid follow-up observations of all types of high-energy transients. with rapid data downlink and uplink available through the NASA TDRSS system. Swift transient data will be rapidly distributed to the astronomical community and all interested observers are encouraged to participate in follow-up measurements. A Guest Investigator program

  1. BEAM ON TARGET MODEL Produces All Gamma Ray Burst Phenomena Including Afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greyber, H.

    2000-12-01

    While one must applaud the splendid research by L. Piro et al and L. Amati et al reported in SCIENCE recently, one must question, as M. Rees and S. Woolsey have done, their conclusion that a ``supranova model" is the only explanation for these new X-ray observations. In fact L. Piro was quoted as saying, ``Our data helps rule out the scenario where two neutron stars or black holes collide. We think GRBs result from something similar to a supernova explosion, but much more powerful." A relatively unknown physical model for GRBs, Greyber's Beam On Target model (BOT), dating back to the first CGRO observations, can plausibly explain the iron emission lines observed for GRB991216, and also the mass of the dense medium within a light-day of the GRB being roughly equivalent to at least one-tenth solar mass, as well as the initial shedding of material followed by the GRB event. When a galaxy forms under gravitational collapse in the presence of a primordial magnetic field, Mestel and Strittmatter demonstrated that, for finite Ohmic diffusion, a growing equatorial current loop is formed. Even if this stable ``Storage Ring" has only 10exp-9 of the total energy released during a typical galaxy's formation, the relativistic beam can possess 10exp58 ergs. The GRB ``fireball" occurs when a target star races across the powerful beam, blowing off target material as a hot, rapidly expanding plasma cloud, simulating an explosion. Since currents in space are known to be sometimes filamentary, sharp millisecond spikes can be expected in some GRBs. Proton and alpha particle nuclear reactions produce a gamma ray beam. Beam particles impinging on denser cloud material create an electromagnetic shower, producing X-ray, optical and radio radiation. Since the Storage Ring has an intense magnetic field around it, synchrotron radiation is expected. The beam, striking a highly evolved massive target star, produces the iron emission lines. H. D. Greyber, in ``After the Dark Ages:When Galaxies

  2. VERITAS OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS DETECTED BY SWIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; and others

    2011-12-10

    We present the results of 16 Swift-triggered Gamma-ray burst (GRB) follow-up observations taken with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) telescope array from 2007 January to 2009 June. The median energy threshold and response time of these observations were 260 GeV and 320 s, respectively. Observations had an average duration of 90 minutes. Each burst is analyzed independently in two modes: over the whole duration of the observations and again over a shorter timescale determined by the maximum VERITAS sensitivity to a burst with a t{sup -1.5} time profile. This temporal model is characteristic of GRB afterglows with high-energy, long-lived emission that have been detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite. No significant very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission was detected and upper limits above the VERITAS threshold energy are calculated. The VERITAS upper limits are corrected for gamma-ray extinction by the extragalactic background light and interpreted in the context of the keV emission detected by Swift. For some bursts the VHE emission must have less power than the keV emission, placing constraints on inverse Compton models of VHE emission.

  3. Solving the Mystery of Short Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. Until this year, the origin of short gamma-ray bursts was a complete mystery. A new NASA satellite named Swift has now captured the first images of these events and found that they are caused by tremendous explosions in the distant universe.

  4. Gamma ray bursts and their afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.

    2017-03-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) were among the greatest mysteries in modern astrophysics. They were first observed 50 years ago but it took three decades before optical counterparts could be found and the underlying physical phenomena studied in detail. GRB research represents currently one of the most rapidly growing areas in extragalactic astronomy. This is due in large part to the numerous connections that GRBs have with other disciplines like cosmology, supernovae, stellar evolution, nuclear physics, astroparticle and gravitational wave astronomy. Therefore, their study is of great importance to understand various astrophysical phenomena such as the formation of the first stars, the chemical evolution and the expansion of the Universe. Since gamma radiation can travel along cosmological distances without being affected by any possible intervening absorption, GRBs can be detected from the most distant universe, reaching redshifts up to z = 10 or more.

  5. Formation of cyclotron lines in gamma-ray burst spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. G.; Meszaros, P.

    1989-01-01

    A transmission model of gamma-ray burst sources is studied using the relativistic QED magnetic-resonant opacities including multiple photon scattering, incorporated into a discrete-ordinate radiative-transport scheme. The physics of the cyclotron line-producing region is discussed in general, and the expected line profiles, relative harmonic strengths, and polarizations are indicated under various conditions. The calculated spectra for these models show good agreement with the spectra reported from Ginga for GB 880205 and GB 870303.

  6. Time-resolved analysis of Fermi gamma-ray bursts with fast- and slow-cooled synchrotron photon models

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, J. M.; Preece, R. D.; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Goldstein, A.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Xiong, S.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Kienlin, A.; Rau, A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C. A.; Axelsson, M.; Baring, M. G.; Dermer, C. D.; Iyyani, S.; Kocevski, D. E-mail: Rob.Preece@nasa.gov E-mail: baring@rice.edu; and others

    2014-03-20

    Time-resolved spectroscopy is performed on eight bright, long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) dominated by single emission pulses that were observed with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Fitting the prompt radiation of GRBs by empirical spectral forms such as the Band function leads to ambiguous conclusions about the physical model for the prompt radiation. Moreover, the Band function is often inadequate to fit the data. The GRB spectrum is therefore modeled with two emission components consisting of optically thin non-thermal synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons and, when significant, thermal emission from a jet photosphere, which is represented by a blackbody spectrum. To produce an acceptable fit, the addition of a blackbody component is required in five out of the eight cases. We also find that the low-energy spectral index α is consistent with a synchrotron component with α = –0.81 ± 0.1. This value lies between the limiting values of α = –2/3 and α = –3/2 for electrons in the slow- and fast-cooling regimes, respectively, suggesting ongoing acceleration at the emission site. The blackbody component can be more significant when using a physical synchrotron model instead of the Band function, illustrating that the Band function does not serve as a good proxy for a non-thermal synchrotron emission component. The temperature and characteristic emission-region size of the blackbody component are found to, respectively, decrease and increase as power laws with time during the prompt phase. In addition, we find that the blackbody and non-thermal components have separate temporal behaviors as far as their respective flux and spectral evolutions.

  7. The First FERMI-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burgess, J. Michael; Buson, S.; Byrne, D.; Caliandro, G. A.; Ferrara, E. C.; Gehrels, N.; Guiriec, S.; McEnery, J. E.; Nemmen, R.; Perkins, J. S.; Racusin, J. L.; Thompson, D. J.; Kouveliotou, C.

    2013-01-01

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy great than (20 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected above 100 MeV and 7 GRBs above approximately 20 MeV. The first Fermi-LAT catalog of GRBs is a compilation of these detections and provides a systematic study of high-energy emission from GRBs for the first time. To generate the catalog, we examined 733 GRBs detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi and processed each of them using the same analysis sequence. Details of the methodology followed by the LAT collaboration for the GRB analysis are provided. We summarize the temporal and spectral properties of the LAT-detected GRBs. We also discuss characteristics of LAT-detected emission such as its delayed onset and longer duration compared with emission detected by the GBM, its power-law temporal decay at late times, and the fact that it is dominated by a power-law spectral component that appears in addition to the usual Band model.

  8. Cosmological Distance Scale to Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzam, W. J.; Linder, E. V.; Petrosian, V.

    1993-05-01

    The source counts or the so-called log N -- log S relations are the primary data that constrain the spatial distribution of sources with unknown distances, such as gamma-ray bursts. In order to test galactic, halo, and cosmological models for gamma-ray bursts we compare theoretical characteristics of the log N -- log S relations to those obtained from data gathered by the BATSE instrument on board the Compton Observatory (GRO) and other instruments. We use a new and statistically correct method, that takes proper account of the variable nature of the triggering threshold, to analyze the data. Constraints on models obtained by this comparison will be presented. This work is supported by NASA grants NAGW 2290, NAG5 2036, and NAG5 1578.

  9. Gamma Ray Bursts: an Enigma Being Unraveled

    SciTech Connect

    De Rujula, Alvaro

    2003-05-14

    The best astrophysical accelerators are quasars and the 'progenitors' of GRBs which, after decades of observations and scores of theories, we still do not understand. But, I shall argue, we now know quite well where GRBs come from, and we understand how their 'beams' behave, as they make short pulses of gamma rays and long-duration X-ray, optical and radio 'afterglows'. I shall argue that our understanding of these phenomena, based on the 'Cannonball Model', is unusually simple, precise and successful. The 'sociology' of GRBs is interesting per se and, in this sense, the avatars of the Cannonball Model in confronting the generally accepted 'fireball models' are also quite revealing.

  10. Gamma Ray Bursts and Their Links With Supernovae and Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, Peter; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, whose origin and mechanism is the focus of intense interest. They appear connected to supernova remnants from massive stars or the merger of their remnants, and their brightness makes them temporarily detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the Universe. After pioneering breakthroughs from space and ground experiments, their study is entering a new phase with observations from the recently launched Fermi satellite, as well as the prospect of detections or limits from large neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. The interplay between such observations and theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts is reviewed, as well as their connections to supernovae and cosmology.

  11. Central Engine Memory of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Bing; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.

    2016-04-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bursts of γ-rays generated from relativistic jets launched from catastrophic events such as massive star core collapse or binary compact star coalescence. Previous studies suggested that GRB emission is erratic, with no noticeable memory in the central engine. Here we report a discovery that similar light curve patterns exist within individual bursts for at least some GRBs. Applying the Dynamic Time Warping method, we show that similarity of light curve patterns between pulses of a single burst or between the light curves of a GRB and its X-ray flare can be identified. This suggests that the central engine of at least some GRBs carries “memory” of its activities. We also show that the same technique can identify memory-like emission episodes in the flaring emission in soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), which are believed to be Galactic, highly magnetized neutron stars named magnetars. Such a phenomenon challenges the standard black hole central engine models for GRBs, and suggest a common physical mechanism behind GRBs and SGRs, which points toward a magnetar central engine of GRBs.

  12. CENTRAL ENGINE MEMORY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND SOFT GAMMA-RAY REPEATERS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-04-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bursts of γ-rays generated from relativistic jets launched from catastrophic events such as massive star core collapse or binary compact star coalescence. Previous studies suggested that GRB emission is erratic, with no noticeable memory in the central engine. Here we report a discovery that similar light curve patterns exist within individual bursts for at least some GRBs. Applying the Dynamic Time Warping method, we show that similarity of light curve patterns between pulses of a single burst or between the light curves of a GRB and its X-ray flare can be identified. This suggests that the central engine of at least some GRBs carries “memory” of its activities. We also show that the same technique can identify memory-like emission episodes in the flaring emission in soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), which are believed to be Galactic, highly magnetized neutron stars named magnetars. Such a phenomenon challenges the standard black hole central engine models for GRBs, and suggest a common physical mechanism behind GRBs and SGRs, which points toward a magnetar central engine of GRBs.

  13. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    5 August 2004 A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, but also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed... Gamma ray burst model hi-res Size hi-res: 22 KB Credits: CXC/M. Weiss Artist impression of a low-energy gamma-ray burst This illustration describes a model for a gamma-ray burst, like the one detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 (GRB 031203). A jet of high-energy particles from a rapidly rotating black hole interacts with surrounding matter. Observations with Integral on 3 December 2003 and data on its afterglow, collected afterwards with XMM-Newton, Chandra and the Very Large Array telescope, show that GRB 031203 radiated only a fraction of the energy of normal gamma-ray bursts. Like supernovae, gamma-ray bursts are thought to be produced by the collapse of the core of a massive star. However, while the process leading to supernovae is relatively well understood, astronomers still do not know what happens when a core collapses to form a black hole. The discovery of 'under-energetic' gamma-ray bursts, like GRB 031203, should provide valuable clues as to links between supernovae, black holes and gamma-ray bursts. Lo-res JPG (22 Kb) Hi-res TIFF (5800 Kb) Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs

  14. Improved Limits on Gamma-Ray Burst Repetition from BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegmark, Max; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Briggs, Michael S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Hakkila, Jon

    1996-01-01

    We tighten previous upper limits on gamma-ray burst repetition by analyzing the angular power spectrum of the BATSE 3B catalog of 1122 bursts. At 95% confidence, we find that no more than 2% of all observed bursts can be labeled as repeaters, even if no sources are observed to repeat more than once. If a fraction f of all observed bursts can be labeled as repeaters that are observed to burst nu times each, then all models with (nu - 1)f greater than or equal to 0.05 are ruled out at 99% confidence, as compared to the best previous 99% limit (nu - 1)f greater than or equal to 0.27. At 95% confidence, our new limit is (nu - 1)f greater than or equal to 0.02. Thus, even a cluster of six events from a single source would have caused excess power above that present in the 3B catalog. We conclude that the current BATSE data are consistent with no repetition of classical gamma-ray bursts and that any repeater model is severely constrained by the near-perfect isotropy of their angular dis- tribution.

  15. Improved Limits on Gamma-Ray Burst Repetition from BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegmark, Max; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Briggs, Michael S.; Hakkila, Jon; Meegan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    We tighten previous upper limits on gamma-ray burst repetition by analyzing the angular power spectrum of the BATSE 3B catalog of 1122 bursts. At 95% confidence, we find that no more than 2% of all observed bursts can be labeled as repeaters, even if no sources are observed to repeat more than once. If a fraction f of all observed bursts can be labeled as repeaters that are observed to burst upsilon times each, then all models with (upsilon - 1)f greater than or equal to 0.05 are ruled out at 99% confidence, as compared to the best previous 99% limit (upsilon - 1)f greater than or equal to 0.27. At 95% confidence, our new limit is (upsilon - 1)f greater than or equal to 0.02. Thus, even a cluster of six events from a single source would have caused excess power above that present in the 3B catalog. We conclude that the current BATSE data are consistent with no repetition of classical gamma-ray bursts and that any repeater model is severely constrained by the near-perfect isotropy of their angular distribution.

  16. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Should cosmologists care?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laros, J. G.

    1996-03-01

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) locations are distributed isotropically on the sky, but the intensity distribution of the bursts seems clearly incompatible with spatial homogeneity. Of the scenarios that attempt to provide an explanation, there are two that enjoy current popularity: (1) GRBs are produced by high-velocity neutron stars that have formed an extended (˜100 kpc) spherical halo or “corona” around our galaxy. (2) The bursters are at cosmological distances, with redshifts near unity for the weaker events. The major evidence used to argue for or against each of these scenarios remains inconclusive. Assuming, not unreasonably, that the cosmological scenario is correct, one can discuss the advantages and disadvantages of studying GRBs as opposed to other objects at moderate redshift. We find that the advantages of GRBs-high intensity, penetrating radiation, rapid variability, and no expected source evolution-are offset by observational difficulties pertaining to the extraction of cosmological information from GRB data. If the cosmological scenario proves to be correct and if the observational difficulties are overcome, then cosmologists certainly should care.

  17. Hyperaccreting Black Hole as Gamma-Ray Burst Central Engine. I. Baryon Loading in Gamma-Ray Burst Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Bing; Liang, En-Wei

    2013-03-01

    A hyperaccreting stellar-mass black hole has been long speculated as the best candidate for the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Recent rich observations of GRBs by space missions such as Swift and Fermi pose new constraints on GRB central engine models. In this paper, we study the baryon-loading processes of a GRB jet launched from a black hole central engine. We consider a relativistic jet powered by \

  18. VERY HIGH ENERGY gamma-RAY AFTERGLOW EMISSION OF NEARBY GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, R. R.; Fan, Y. Z.; Wei, D. M.; Tam, P. H.; Wagner, S. J.; Behera, B. E-mail: phtam@lsw.uni-heidelberg.d

    2009-09-20

    The synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from gamma-ray burst (GRB) forward shock can extend to the very high energy (VHE; E{sub {gamma}} > 100 GeV) range. Such high energy photons are rare and are attenuated by the cosmic infrared background before reaching us. In this work, we discuss the prospect to detect these VHE photons using the current ground-based Cherenkov detectors. Our calculated results are consistent with the upper limits obtained with several Cherenkov detectors for GRB 030329, GRB 050509B, and GRB 060505 during the afterglow phase. For five bursts in our nearby GRB sample (except for GRB 030329), current ground-based Cherenkov detectors would not be expected to detect the modeled VHE signal. Only for those very bright and nearby bursts like GRB 030329, detection of VHE photons is possible under favorable observing conditions and a delayed observation time of {approx}<10 hr.

  19. High-energy spectral breaks in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Teegarden, Bonnard J.; Cline, Thomas L.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Matteson, James L.; Band, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Model fits are presented for 18 gamma-ray burst spectra from 100 keV to 27 MeV made with the BATSE spectroscopy detectors on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Most of the bursts are well fitted as power laws with spectral indices between -1.36 and -2.29; however, five bursts show definite departures from a simple power-law fit at high energies. Three of these bursts are well fitted with broken power-law spectra and break energies of from 400 to 690 keV, such as might arise from photon-photon interactions. If so, then the source compactness and hence distance will be sharply constrained. Two of the bursts have spectra with sharply confined slope changes and are well fitted with broken power-law spectra with break energies of 1.2 and 1.6 MeV at peak, such as might arise from photon-magnetic field interactions. If so, then these spectral breaks provide strong evidence for the existence of high magnetic fields in the burst emission region.

  20. Physics issues of gamma ray burst spectral evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1992-01-01

    It is suggested that the study of the rapid spectral evolution of gamma-ray bursts may provide information on the emission and particle energizing mechanisms independently of the ultimare astrophysical or energy source models. Correlation analysis of spectral hardness and other measurable quantities suggests that the luminosity is proportional to color temperature, especially during spike decay. The use of the peak power energy as a gauge of spectral hardness is proposed, and the notion of Type I and Type II burst spikes is introduced. If the temperature-luminosity correlations are confirmed, then an accelerating pair avalanche scenario may be worth pursuing.

  1. Probing the Expansion History of the Universe by Model-independent Reconstruction from Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Burst Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2016-04-01

    To probe the late evolution history of the universe, we adopt two kinds of optimal basis systems. One of them is constructed by performing the principle component analysis, and the other is built by taking the multidimensional scaling approach. Cosmological observables such as the luminosity distance can be decomposed into these basis systems. These basis systems are optimized for different kinds of cosmological models that are based on different physical assumptions, even for a mixture model of them. Therefore, the so-called feature space that is projected from the basis systems is cosmological model independent, and it provides a parameterization for studying and reconstructing the Hubble expansion rate from the supernova luminosity distance and even gamma-ray burst (GRB) data with self-calibration. The circular problem when using GRBs as cosmological candles is naturally eliminated in this procedure. By using the Levenberg-Marquardt technique and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we perform an observational constraint on this kind of parameterization. The data we used include the “joint light-curve analysis” data set that consists of 740 Type Ia supernovae and 109 long GRBs with the well-known Amati relation.

  2. PROBING THE EXPANSION HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSE BY MODEL-INDEPENDENT RECONSTRUCTION FROM SUPERNOVAE AND GAMMA-RAY BURST MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou E-mail: kychz@shnu.edu.cn

    2016-04-10

    To probe the late evolution history of the universe, we adopt two kinds of optimal basis systems. One of them is constructed by performing the principle component analysis, and the other is built by taking the multidimensional scaling approach. Cosmological observables such as the luminosity distance can be decomposed into these basis systems. These basis systems are optimized for different kinds of cosmological models that are based on different physical assumptions, even for a mixture model of them. Therefore, the so-called feature space that is projected from the basis systems is cosmological model independent, and it provides a parameterization for studying and reconstructing the Hubble expansion rate from the supernova luminosity distance and even gamma-ray burst (GRB) data with self-calibration. The circular problem when using GRBs as cosmological candles is naturally eliminated in this procedure. By using the Levenberg–Marquardt technique and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we perform an observational constraint on this kind of parameterization. The data we used include the “joint light-curve analysis” data set that consists of 740 Type Ia supernovae and 109 long GRBs with the well-known Amati relation.

  3. Gamma ray bursts: Current status of observations and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts display a wide range of temporal and spectral characteristics, but typically last several seconds and emit most of their energy in the low-energy gamma-ray region. The burst sources appear to be isotropically distributed on the sky. Several lines of evidence suggest magnetic neutron stars as sources for bursts. A variety of energy sources and emission mechanisms were proposed.

  4. High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts - Before GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Piran, Tsvi

    2011-11-29

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short and intense emission of soft {gamma}-rays, which have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in 1960s. The X-ray/optical/radio afterglow observations confirm the cosmological origin of GRBs, support the fireball model, and imply a long-activity of the central engine. The high-energy {gamma}-ray emission (> 20 MeV) from GRBs is particularly important because they shed some lights on the radiation mechanisms and can help us to constrain the physical processes giving rise to the early afterglows. In this work, we review observational and theoretical studies of the high-energy emission from GRBs. Special attention is given to the expected high-energy emission signatures accompanying the canonical early-time X-ray afterglow that was observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. We also discuss the detection prospect of the upcoming GLAST satellite and the current ground-based Cerenkov detectors.

  5. Blue supergiant model for ultra-long gamma-ray burst with superluminous-supernova-like bump

    SciTech Connect

    Nakauchi, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Suwa, Yudai

    2013-11-20

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) have a typical duration of ∼30 s, and some of them are associated with hypernovae, such as Type Ic SN 1998bw. Wolf-Rayet stars are the most plausible LGRB progenitors, since the free fall time of the envelope is consistent with the duration, and the natural outcome of the progenitor is a Type Ic SN. While a new population of ultra-long GRBs (ULGRBs), GRB 111209A, GRB 101225A, and GRB 121027A, has a duration of ∼10{sup 4} s, two of them are accompanied by superluminous-supernova-like (SLSN-like) bumps, which are ≲ 10 times brighter than typical hypernovae. Wolf-Rayet progenitors cannot explain ULGRBs because of durations that are too long and SN-like bumps that are too bright. A blue supergiant (BSG) progenitor model, however, can explain the duration of ULGRBs. Moreover, SLSN-like bumps can be attributed to the so-called cocoon fireball photospheric emissions (CFPEs). Since a large cocoon is inevitably produced during the relativistic jet piercing though the BSG envelope, this component can be smoking gun evidence of the BSG model for ULGRBs. In this paper, we examine u-, g-, r-, i-, and J-band light curves of three ULGRBs and demonstrate that they can be fitted quite well by our BSG model with the appropriate choices of the jet opening angle and the number density of the ambient gas. In addition, we predict that for 121027A, SLSN-like bump could have been observed for ∼20-80 days after the burst. We also propose that some SLSNe might be CFPEs of off-axis ULGRBs without visible prompt emissions.

  6. The first BATSE gamma-ray burst catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Brock, Martin N.; Horack, John M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Howard, Sethanne; Paciesas, William S.; Briggs, Michael S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory detected 260 cosmic gamma-ray bursts during the period 19 Apr 1991 to 5 Mar 1992. This paper presents the occurrence times, locations, peak count rates, peak fluxes, fluences, durations, and plots of time histories for these bursts. The angular distribution is consistent with isotropy. The intensity distribution shows a deficit in the number of weak bursts, which is not consistent with a homogeneous distribution of burst sources in Euclidean space. The duration distribution shows evidence for a separate class of bursts with durations less than about 2 seconds.

  7. Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Swift Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Fox, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    With its rapid-response capability and multiwavelength complement of instruments, the Swift satellite has transformed our physical understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Providing high-quality observations of hundreds of bursts, and facilitating a wide range of follow-up observations within seconds of each event, Swift has revealed an unforeseen richness in observed burst properties, shed light on the nature of short-duration bursts, and helped realize the promise of gamma-ray bursts as probes of the processes and environments of star formation out to the earliest cosmic epochs. These advances have opened new perspectives on the nature and properties of burst central engines, interactions with the burst environment from microparsec to gigaparsec scales, and the possibilities for non-photonic signatures. Our understanding of these extreme cosmic sources has thus advanced substantially; yet more than forty years after their discovery, gamma-ray bursts continue to present major challenges on both observational and theoretical fronts.

  8. Gamma Ray Bursts and recent Swift Results .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chincarini, G.

    Due to the large activity we had during these last months with the Swift satellite I started the writing of the presentation I gave at the SAIt Catania meeting only in the middle of September. The Swift satellite, however, never rested. Since then and in addition to the results I showed at the meeting in relation to the early and steep light curves observed with the XRT telescope in the 0.2 - 10 keV band, we had fundamental discoveries among which the detection and localization of short bursts and the detection of the largest redshift ever. It obviously would be improper to discuss here the most recent results but it would also be silly in such a fast evolving topics where the day by day observations show excellent results and the observer is far ahead of the theoretician, to write an article that, from the observational point of view, would be completely obsolete. The best approach here seems to be a brief description of what was presented during the meeting briefly mentioning also some of the most recent results. We remind the reader, however, that a copious literature written, and in preparation, exists so that we urge the reader to refer to the specialized articles. This brief article will touch on the basic characteristics of the Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the Introduction (section 1) and illustrate the basic characteristics of the Swift mission in section 2. Preliminary science results will be discussed in section 3 and finally we will mention one, among many, of the main goal we plan to achieve in Cosmology via the observations of very distant GRBs.

  9. A Strange Supernova with a Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-10-01

    1998bw is obviously an unusual supernova. It is therefore of particular significance that a Gamma-Ray Burst was observed from the same sky region just before it was discovered in optical light. It is very unlikely that these two very rare events would happen in the same region of the sky without being somehow related. Most astronomers therefore tend to believe that the gamma-rays do indeed originate in the supernova explosion. But can a single supernova be sufficiently energetic to produce a powerful Gamma-Ray Burst? New theoretical calculations, also published today in Nature, indicate that this may be so. Moreover, if the Gamma-Ray Burst observed on April 25 did originate in this supernova that is located in a relatively nearby galaxy, it was intrinsically much fainter than some of the other Gamma-Ray Bursts that are known to have taken place in extremely distant galaxies. The main idea is that while the centres of most other supernovae collapse into neutron stars at the moment of explosion, a black hole was created in a very massive star consisting mostly of carbon and oxygen. If so, a very strong shockwave may be produced that is capable of generating the observed gamma rays. A comparison of synthetic spectra from such a supernova model, based on a new spectrum-modelling technique developed by Leon Lucy at the ESA/ESO Space Telescope/European Coordinating Facility (ST/ECF), with the spectra of SN 1998bw observed at La Silla, show good agreement, thus lending credibility to the new models. Future work Much data has already been collected at ESO on the strange supernova SN 1998bw . More observations will be obtained by the astronomers at the ESO observatories in the future during a long-term monitoring programme of SN 1998bw . There is a good chance that this effort will ultimately provide fundamental information on the explosion mechanism and the nature of the progenitor star of this exceptional object. This supernova's connection with a Gamma-Ray Burst will

  10. Gamma-ray bursts at high and very high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piron, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are extra-galactic and extremely energetic transient emissions of gamma rays, which are thought to be associated with the death of massive stars or the merger of compact objects in binary systems. Their huge luminosities involve the presence of a newborn stellar-mass black hole emitting a relativistic collimated outflow, which accelerates particles and produces non-thermal emissions from the radio domain to the highest energies. In this article, I review recent progresses in the understanding of GRB jet physics above 100 MeV, based on Fermi observations of bright GRBs. I discuss the physical implications of these observations and their impact on GRB modeling, and I present some prospects for GRB observation at very high energies in the near future. xml:lang="fr"

  11. Cosmic Forensics Confirms Gamma-Ray Burst And Supernova Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Scientists announced today that they have used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to confirm that a gamma-ray burst was connected to the death of a massive star. This result is an important step in understanding the origin of gamma-ray bursts, the most violent events in the present-day universe. "If a gamma-ray burst were a crime, then we now have strong circumstantial evidence that a supernova explosion was at the scene," said Nathaniel Butler of Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, lead author of a paper presented today at the meeting of the High Energy Division of the American Astronomical Society. Chandra was able to obtain an unusually long observation (approximately 21 hours) of the afterglow of GRB 020813 (so named because the High-Energy Transient Explorer, HETE, discovered it on August 13, 2002.) A grating spectrometer aboard Chandra revealed an overabundance of elements characteristically dispersed in a supernova explosion. Narrow lines, or bumps, due to silicon and sulfur ions (atoms stripped of most of their electrons) were clearly identified in the X-ray spectrum of GRB 020813. "Our observation of GRB 020813 supports two of the most important features of the popular supra-nova model for gamma-ray bursts," said Butler. "An extremely massive star likely exploded less than two months prior to the gamma-ray burst, and the radiation from the gamma-ray burst was beamed into a narrow cone." An analysis of the data showed that the ions were moving away from the site of the gamma-ray burst at a tenth the speed of light, probably as part of a shell of matter ejected in the supernova explosion. The line features were observed to be sharply peaked, indicating that they were coming from a narrow region of the expanding shell. This implies that only a small fraction of the shell was illuminated by the gamma-ray burst, as would be expected if the burst was beamed into a narrow cone. The observed duration of the afterglow suggests a delay of about 60 days

  12. Testing the Gamma-Ray Burst Energy Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Preece, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Building on Nakar & Piran's analysis of the Amati relation relating gamma-ray burst peak energies E(sub p) and isotropic energies E(sub iso ) we test the consistency of a large sample of BATSE bursts with the Amati and Ghirlanda (which relates peak energies and actual gamma-ray energies E(sub gamma)) relations. Each of these relations can be exp ressed as a ratio of the different energies that is a function of red shift (for both the Amati and Ghirlanda relations) and beaming fraction f(sub B) (for the Ghirlanda relation). The most rigorous test, whic h allows bursts to be at any redshift, corroborates Nakar & Piran's r esult - 88% of the BATSE bursts are inconsistent with the Amati relat ion - while only l.6% of the bursts are inconsistent with the Ghirlan da relation if f(sub B) = 1. Modelling the redshift distribution resu lts in an energy ratio distribution for the Amati relation that is sh ifted by an order of magnitude relative to the observed distributions; any sub-population satisfying the Amati relation can comprise at mos t approx. 18% of our burst sample. A similar analysis of the Ghirland a relation depends sensitively on the beaming fraction distribution f or small values of f(sub B); for reasonable estimates of this distrib ution about a third of the burst sample is inconsistent with the Ghir landa relation. Our results indicate that these relations are an artifact of the selection effects of the burst sample in which they were f ound; these selection effects may favor sub-populations for which the se relations are valid.

  13. Constraints on cosmological models and reconstructing the acceleration history of the Universe with gamma-ray burst distance indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Nan; Wu Puxun; Zhang Shuangnan

    2010-04-15

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been regarded as standard candles at very high redshift for cosmology research. We have proposed a new method to calibrate GRB distance indicators with Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) data in a completely cosmology-independent way to avoid the circularity problem that had limited the direct use of GRBs to probe cosmology [N. Liang, W. K. Xiao, Y. Liu, and S. N. Zhang, Astrophys. J. 685, 354 (2008).]. In this paper, a simple method is provided to combine GRB data into the joint observational data analysis to constrain cosmological models; in this method those SNe Ia data points used for calibrating the GRB data are not used to avoid any correlation between them. We find that the {Lambda}CDM model is consistent with the joint data in the 1-{sigma} confidence region, using the GRB data at high redshift calibrated with the interpolating method, the Constitution set of SNe Ia, the cosmic microwave background radiation from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe five year observation, the baryonic acoustic oscillation from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 galaxy sample, the x-ray baryon mass fraction in clusters of galaxies, and the observational Hubble parameter versus redshift data. Comparing to the joint constraints with GRBs and without GRBs, we find that the contribution of GRBs to the joint cosmological constraints is a slight shift in the confidence regions of cosmological parameters to better enclose the {Lambda}CDM model. Finally, we reconstruct the acceleration history of the Universe up to z>6 with the distance moduli of SNe Ia and GRBs and find some features that deviate from the {Lambda}CDM model and seem to favor oscillatory cosmology models; however, further investigations are needed to better understand the situation.

  14. Can Gamma Ray Bursts be Detected Using Infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Jahi; McGruder, C.; Hetzer, C.

    2010-01-01

    CAN GAMMA RAY BURST BE DETECTED USING INFRASOUND Infrasound has been used to detect sonic disturbances in earth's atmosphere caused by terrestrial events such as earthquakes and lightning. It may be possible to detect celestial events such as Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB's) through this method. We have searched for GRB's which are known to have caused ionospheric disturbances in infrasonic data. None of the selected GRB's were found to be associated with infrasonic disturbances.

  15. The dependence of gamma-ray burst X-ray column densities on the model for Galactic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcodia, R.; Campana, S.; Salvaterra, R.

    2016-05-01

    We study the X-ray absorption of a complete sample of 99 bright Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In recent years, a strong correlation has been found between the intrinsic X-ray absorbing column density (NH(z)) and the redshift. This absorption excess in high-z GRBs is now thought to be due to the overlooked contribution of the absorption along the intergalactic medium (IGM), by means of both intervening objects and the diffuse warm-hot intergalactic medium along the line of sight. In this work we neglect the absorption along the IGM, because our purpose is to study the eventual effect of a radical change in the Galactic absorption model on the NH(z) distribution. Therefore, we derive the intrinsic absorbing column densities using two different Galactic absorption models: the Leiden Argentine Bonn HI survey and the more recent model that includes molecular hydrogen. We find that if, on the one hand, the new Galactic model considerably affects the single column density values, on the other hand, there is no drastic change in the distribution as a whole. It becomes clear that the contribution of Galactic column densities alone, no matter how improved, is not sufficient to change the observed general trend and it has to be considered as a second order correction. The cosmological increase of NH(z) as a function of redshift persists and, to explain the observed distribution, it is necessary to include the contribution of both the diffuse intergalactic medium and the intervening systems along the line of sight of the GRBs.

  16. Establishing the existence of lines in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loredo, T. J.; Lamb, D. Q.

    1992-01-01

    A rigorous method for establishing the existence of lines in gamma-ray bursts is described which is based on Bayesian inference. In particular, it is shown how the problem of line detection can be reduced to that of comparing two models, a model consisting only of a continuum spectrum and a model with an additional feature in it. The simple case of a Gaussian line is considered, and it is noted that the results can be readily extended to the case of time-dependent lines.

  17. First search for neutrinos in correlation with gamma-ray bursts with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    A search for neutrino-induced muons in correlation with a selection of 40 gamma-ray bursts that occurred in 2007 has been performed with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. During that period, the detector consisted of 5 detection lines. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is sensitive to TeV–PeV neutrinos that are predicted from gamma-ray bursts. No events were found in correlation with the prompt photon emission of the gamma-ray bursts and upper limits have been placed on the flux and fluence of neutrinos for different models.

  18. High energy neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts with precursor supernovae.

    PubMed

    Razzaque, Soebur; Mészáros, Peter; Waxman, Eli

    2003-06-20

    The high energy neutrino signature from proton-proton and photo-meson interactions in a supernova remnant shell ejected prior to a gamma-ray burst provides a test for the precursor supernova, or supranova, model of gamma-ray bursts. Protons in the supernova remnant shell and photons entrapped from a supernova explosion or a pulsar wind from a fast-rotating neutron star remnant provide ample targets for protons escaping the internal shocks of the gamma-ray burst to interact and produce high energy neutrinos. We calculate the expected neutrino fluxes, which can be detected by current and future experiments.

  19. BATSE spectroscopy catalog of bright gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Teegarden, Bonnard J.; Fantasia, Stephan F.; Palmer, David; Cline, Thomas L.; Matteson, James L.; Band, David L.; Ford, Lyle A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegar, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents comprehensive results on the spectra of 30 bright gamma ray bursts (GRBs) as observed by the Spectroscopy Detectors (SDs) of the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The data selection was strict in including only spectra that are of high reliability for continuum shape studies. This BATSE Spectroscopy Catalog presents fluences, model fits (for five spectral models for three energy ranges), and photon spectra in a standard manner for each burst. Complete information is provided to describe the data selection and analysis procedures. The catalog results are also presented in electronic format (from the Compton Observatory Science Support Center) and CD-ROM format (AAS CD-ROM series, Vol. 2). These electronic formats also present the count spectra and detector response matrices so as to allow for independent study and fitting by researchers outside the BATSE Team. This BATSE Spectroscopy Catalog complements the catalog from BATSE Large Area Detector (LAD) data by Fishman et al. (1994).

  20. Analysis of gamma-ray burst spectra with cyclotron lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargatis, Vincent; Liang, Edison P.

    1992-01-01

    Motivated by the recent developments in the cyclotron resonance upscattering of soft photons or CUSP model of Gamma Ray Burst (GBR) continuum spectra, we revisit a select database of GRBs with credible cyclotron absorption features. We measure the break energy of the continuum, the slope below the break and deduce the soft photon energy or the electron beam Lorentz factor cutoff. We study the correlation (or lack of) between various parameters in the context of the CUSP model. One surprise result is that there appears to be marginal correlation between the break energy and the spectral index below the break.

  1. Gamma-ray bursts from massive Population-III stars: clues from the radio band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, D.; Murphy, T.; Ghirlanda, G.; Hancock, P. J.; Parry, R.; Salvaterra, R.

    2016-07-01

    Current models suggest gamma-ray bursts could be used as a way of probing Population-III stars - the first stars in the early Universe. In this paper, we use numerical simulations to demonstrate that late-time radio observations of gamma-ray burst afterglows could provide a means of identifying bursts that originate from Population-III stars, if these were highly massive, independently from their redshift. We then present the results from a pilot study using the Australia Telescope Compact Array at 17 GHz, designed to test the hypothesis that there may be Population-III gamma-ray bursts amongst the current sample of known events. We observed three candidates plus a control gamma-ray burst, and make no detections with upper limits of 20-40 μJy at 500-1300 d post-explosion.

  2. Gamma-ray bursts and radio pulsar glitches

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, D.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M. California University, Berkeley Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse, )

    1992-03-01

    Upper limits to gamma-ray fluxes produced in conjunction with a radio pulsar glitch are presented. The glitch occurred on the Vela pulsar on December 24, 1988 and was the first to be observed as it occurred. Sensitive gamma-ray burst detectors aboard the Phobos 2 spacecraft were operating at this time, but recorded no significant burst at the time of the glitch. It is concluded that if a gamma-ray burst was generated in the energy range to which the Phobos detectors were sensitive, and if it was not beamed away from the spacecraft, the efficiency of glitch energy conversion into gamma-rays could not have exceeded 10 exp -4. 27 refs.

  3. Gamma-Ray Burst Intensity Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Norris, Jay P.; Bonnell, Jerry T.

    2004-01-01

    We use the lag-luminosity relation to calculate self-consistently the redshifts, apparent peak bolometric luminosities L(sub B1), and isotropic energies E(sub iso) for a large sample of BATSE bursts. We consider two different forms of the lag-luminosity relation; for both forms the median redshift, for our burst database is 1.6. We model the resulting sample of burst energies with power law and Gaussian dis- tributions, both of which are reasonable models. The power law model has an index of a = 1.76 plus or minus 0.05 (95% confidence) as opposed to the index of a = 2 predicted by the simple universal jet profile model; however, reasonable refinements to this model permit much greater flexibility in reconciling predicted and observed energy distributions.

  4. Gamma Ray Bursts in the Swift-Fermi Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Razzaque, Soebur

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the most violent occurrences in the universe. They are powerful explosions, visible to high redshift, and thought to be the signature of black hole birth. They are highly luminous events and provide excellent probes of the distant universe. GRB research has greatly advanced over the past 10 years with the results from Swift, Fermi and an active follow-up community. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  5. Long gamma-ray bursts trace the star formation history

    SciTech Connect

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon

    2014-04-10

    We show that if the broad-line supernova explosions of Type Ic (SNeIc) produce the bulk of the observed long duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), including high- and low-luminosity LGRBs and X-ray flashes, and if the LGRBs have the geometry assumed in the cannonball model of LGRBs, then their rate, measured by Swift, and their redshift distribution are consistent with the star formation rate (SFR) over the entire range of redshifts where the SFR has been measured with sufficient accuracy.

  6. NEW FERMI-LAT EVENT RECONSTRUCTION REVEALS MORE HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA RAYS FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Bregeon, J.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Tinivella, M.; Bruel, P.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Granot, J.; Longo, F.; Razzaque, S.; Zimmer, S. E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu

    2013-09-01

    Based on the experience gained during the four and a half years of the mission, the Fermi-LAT Collaboration has undertaken a comprehensive revision of the event-level analysis going under the name of Pass 8. Although it is not yet finalized, we can test the improvements in the new event reconstruction with the special case of the prompt phase of bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), where the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough that loose selection cuts are sufficient to identify gamma rays associated with the source. Using the new event reconstruction, we have re-analyzed 10 GRBs previously detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) for which an X-ray/optical follow-up was possible and found four new gamma rays with energies greater than 10 GeV in addition to the seven previously known. Among these four is a 27.4 GeV gamma ray from GRB 080916C, which has a redshift of 4.35, thus making it the gamma ray with the highest intrinsic energy ({approx}147 GeV) detected from a GRB. We present here the salient aspects of the new event reconstruction and discuss the scientific implications of these new high-energy gamma rays, such as constraining extragalactic background light models, Lorentz invariance violation tests, the prompt emission mechanism, and the bulk Lorentz factor of the emitting region.

  7. Observation of gamma-ray bursts with the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Share, G. H.; Strickman, M. S.; Kinzer, R. L.; Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Ryan, J. M.; Rieger, E.; Reppin, C.; Kanbach, G.

    1982-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrometer on SMM is sensitive to bursts within its field of view with intensities greater than 0.000005 erg/sq cm above 100 keV. It has detected 17 events between February 1980 and March 1981 with the characteristics of cosmic gamma-ray bursts. The most intense burst, on 19 April 1980, had a photon spectrum consistent with a power law with spectral index - 2.5 from 300 keV to approximately 7 MeV. It is not possible at present to exclude the sun as the source of this burst. Spectra of 11 of the bursts have been studied for line features with no clear evidence for line emission greater than 300 keV. The continuum radiation from about half of these events have hard emission extending to approximately equal to or greater than 2 MeV.

  8. GAMMA-RAY BURSTS ARE OBSERVED OFF-AXIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Geoffrey; Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew; Zhang, Bin-Bin

    2015-01-20

    We constrain the jet opening angle and, for the first time, the off-axis observer angle for gamma-ray bursts in the Swift-XRT catalog by using the ScaleFit package to fit afterglow light curves directly to hydrodynamic simulations. The ScaleFit model uses scaling relations in the hydrodynamic and radiation equations to compute synthetic light curves directly from a set of high-resolution two-dimensional relativistic blast wave simulations. The data sample consists of all Swift-XRT afterglows from 2005 to 2012 with sufficient coverage and a known redshift, 226 bursts in total. We find that the jet half-opening angle varies widely but is commonly less than 0.1 rad. The distribution of the electron spectral index is also broad, with a median at 2.30. We find the observer angle to have a median value of 0.57 of the jet opening angle over our sample, which has profound consequences for the predicted rate of observed jet breaks and affects the beaming-corrected total energies of gamma-ray bursts.

  9. Probing bulk viscous matter-dominated models with gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Montiel, A.; Bretón, N. E-mail: nora@fis.cinvestav.mx

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we extend the range of consistency of a constant bulk viscosity model to redshifts up to z ∼ 8.1. In this model the dark sector of the cosmic substratum is a viscous fluid with pressure p = −ζθ, where θ is the fluid-expansion scalar and ζ is the coefficient of bulk viscosity. Using the sample of 59 high-redshift GRBs reported by Wei (2010), we calibrate GRBs at low redshifts with the Union 2 sample of SNe Ia, thus avoiding the circularity problem. Testing the constant bulk viscosity model with GRBs we found the best fit for the viscosity parameter ζ-tilde in the range 0 < ζ-tilde < 3, so that it be consistent with previous probes; we also determined the deceleration parameter q{sub 0} and the redshift of transition to accelerated expansion. Besides, we present an updated analysis of the model with CMB5-year data and CMB7-year data, as well as with the baryon acoustic peak BAO. From the statistics with CMB it turns out that the model does not describe in a feasible way to such a far epoch of recombination of the universe, but is in very good concordance for epochs as far as z ∼ 8.1 till present.

  10. Gamma-Ray Bursts Search with HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, Cederik; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto; Villaseã+/-Or Cendejas, Luis Manuel; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-ray observatory is a wide field-of-view observatory sensitive to gamma rays in the 100 GeV - 100 TeV energy range, located in Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m. In the present work we present results on the search for excesses in the rates of signals from the individual photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) using the Time to Digital Converters (TDC) of HAWC. This search is based on the implementation of the Moving Average Ratio Analysis (MARA) focused on the characterization of the different physical phenomena that may give rise to such excesses: noise in the PMTs, atmospheric conditions related with thunderstorms and excesses of astrophysical origin such as variable sources of high energy gamma rays and in particular GRBs. In particular we present an analysis over the HAWC historical data for the search of such excesses and elaborate on the possible physical interpretation of the found excesses.

  11. Sensitivity of HAWC to gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taboada, Ignacio; HAWC Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    HAWC is a ground based very high-energy gamma ray detector under construction in Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m a.s.l. Higher altitude, improved design and a larger physical size used to reject CR background, make HAWC 10-20 times more sensitive than its predecessor Milagro. HAWC's large field of view, ~2sr, and over 90% duty cycle make it ideal to search for GRBs. We review the sensitivity of HAWC to GRBs with two independent data acquisition systems. We show that some of the brightest GRBs observed by Fermi LAT (e.g. GRB 090510) could result in >5 σ observation by HAWC. The observations (or limits) of GRBs by HAWC will provide information on the high-energy spectra of GRBs. The high-energy spectra will teach us about extra galactic background light, the Lorentz boost factor of the jets tha power GRBs and/or particle acceleration models of GRBs. Finally we present limits on > 10 GeV emission from GRB 111016B, recently studied with HAWC's engineering array VAMOS.

  12. Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehoe, Robert; Akerlof, Karl; Balsano, Richard; Barthelmy, Scott; Bloch, Jeff; Butterworth, Paul; Casperson, Don; Cline, Tom; Fletcher, Sandra; Frontera, Fillippo; Gisler, Galen; Heise, John; Hills, Jack; Hurley, Kevin; Lee, Brian; Marshall, Stuart; McKay, Tim; Pawl, Andrew; Piro, Luigi; Priedhorsky, Bill; Szymanski, John; Wren, Jim

    The Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) seeks to measure contemporaneous and early afterglow optical emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The ROTSE-I telescope array has been fully automated and responding to burst alerts from the GRB Coordinates Network since March 1998, taking prompt optical data for 30 bursts in its first year. We will briefly review observations of GRB990123 which revealed the first detection of an optical burst occurring during the gamma-ray emission, reaching 9th magnitude at its peak. In addition, we present here preliminary optical results for seven other gamma-ray bursts. No other optical counterparts were seen in this analysis, and the best limiting senisitivities are mV > 13.0 at 14.7 seconds after the gamma-ray rise, and mmV > 16.4 at 62 minutes. These are the most stringent limits obtained for GRB optical counterpart brightness in the first hour after the burst. This analysis suggests that there is not a strong correlation between optical flux and gamma-ray emission.

  13. The Prompt and High Energy Emission of Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Meszaros, P.

    2009-05-25

    I discuss some recent developments concerning the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts, in particular the jet properties and radiation mechanisms, as exemplified by the naked-eye burst GRB 080319b, and the prompt X-ray emission of XRB080109/SN2008d, where the progenitor has, for the first time, been shown to contribute to the prompt emission. I discuss then some recent theoretical calculations of the GeV/TeV spectrum of GRB in the context of both leptonic SSC models and hadronic models. The recent observations by the Fermi satellite of GRB 080916C are then reviewed, and their implications for such models are discussed, together with its interesting determination of a bulk Lorentz factor, and the highest lower limit on the quantum gravity energy scale so far.

  14. Constraints of the Luminosities of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakkila, J.; Meegan, C.; Horack, J.; Pendleton, G.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Emslie, G.; Mallozzi, R.

    1995-09-01

    Constraints are found on the gamma-ray burst luminosity function from an analysis of the combined BATSE/PVO intensity distribution. If bursts originate in an extended Galactic halo, then the intrinsic luminosity range is narrow, with bursts spanning only a factor of five or less in luminosity. If bursts originate in a simple Friedmann cosmology with Ω = 1 and Λ = 0, then very few luminosity constraints exist.

  15. Evidence for cyclotron absorption from spectral features in gamma-ray bursts seen with Ginga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, T.; Fujii, M.; Hayashida, K.; Itoh, M.; Nishimura, J.

    1988-01-01

    New observations by the gamma-ray burst detector on board the Ginga satellite, which has two well-calibrated detectors covering a wide energy range of 1.5 to 375 keV, are reported. The spectral features obtained are consistent with first and second cyclotron harmonics. This finding is taken as strong evidence for the magnetized neutron star model of gamma-ray bursts.

  16. Data Fusion for Gamma-Ray Burst Population Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas; Wasserman, I.

    2006-09-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) data are heterogeneous. Survey missions such as CGRO and Swift provide basic information (e.g., direction, peak flux) for all bursts. But for a subset of bursts with counterparts at other wavelengths, other data is available from afterglow observations, e.g., host galaxy redshifts, isotropic energy, and afterglow light curves. This heterogeniety significantly complicates global (population-level) analyses. We have developed a "data fusion" methodology that can rigorously combine GRB data from various sources, making optimum use of all the information available. We build upon our earlier Bayesian/likelihood approach for analyzing GRB population data, which is ideally suited to data fusion. We are initially focusing our efforts on methods for analysis of models for the GRB spatial and luminosity distributions using burst intensity and redshift data (possibly including redshifts from "luminosity indicators"). Roughly speaking, our approach uses the supplementary data available for the subset of bursts with afterglows to approximately "calibrate" the more widely available burst intensity data. This allows more accurate modelling of the burster redshift and luminosity distributions. Our approach accounts for significant biases and distortions ignored in other current analyses.

  17. Radiative Striped Wind Model for Gamma-Ray Busrts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégué, D. P.; Pe'er, A.; Lyubarski, Y.

    2016-10-01

    I will show how the inclusion of radiation in the striped wind model changes the dynamics and the radial evolution of the hydrodynamical parameters. I will conclude by discussing the implications for gamma-ray bursts.

  18. Effects of Goldstone bosons on gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Huitzu; Ng, Kin-Wang E-mail: nkw@phys.sinica.edu.tw

    2016-03-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most energetic explosion events in the universe. An amount of gravitational energy of the order of the rest-mass energy of the Sun is released from a small region within a short time. This should lead to the formation of a fireball of temperature in the MeV range, consisting of electrons/positrons, photons, and a small fraction of baryons. We exploit the potential of GRB fireballs for being a laboratory for testing particle physics beyond the Standard Model, where we find that Weinberg's Higgs portal model serves as a good candidate for this purpose. Due to the resonance effects, the Goldstone bosons can be rapidly produced by electron-positron annihilation process in the initial fireballs of the gamma-ray bursts. On the other hand, the mean free path of the Goldstone bosons is larger than the size of the GRB initial fireballs, so they are not coupled to the GRB's relativistic flow and can lead to significant energy loss. Using generic values for the GRB initial fireball energy, temperature, radius, expansion rate, and baryon number density, we find that the GRB bounds on the parameters of Weinberg's Higgs portal model are indeed competitive to current laboratory constraints.

  19. Observation of gamma ray bursts and flares by the EGRET telescope on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneid, E. J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kwok, P. W.; Mattox, J. R.; Sreekumar, P.; Thompson, D. J.; Kanbach, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory has observed energetic gamma ray bursts and flares. On May 3, 1991, EGRET detected a gamma ray burst both in the energy measuring NaI (Tl) scintillator and independently in the spark chamber imaging assembly. The NaI spectra were accumulated by a special BURST mode of EGRET. The spectra were measured over a range from 1 to 200 MeV, in three sequential spectra of 1,2, and 4 seconds. During the peak of the burst, six individual gamma rays were detected in the spark chamber, allowing a determination of the burst arrival direction. The intense flares of June were also detected. A solar flare on June 4 was observed to last for several minutes and for a brief time, less than a minute, had significant emission of gamma rays exceeding 150 MeV.

  20. Neutrino emission from gamma-ray burst fireballs, revised.

    PubMed

    Hümmer, Svenja; Baerwald, Philipp; Winter, Walter

    2012-06-08

    We review the neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts, which is estimated from gamma-ray observations and used for the interpretation of recent IceCube data, from a particle physics perspective. We numerically calculate the neutrino flux for the same astrophysical assumptions as the analytical fireball neutrino model, including the dominant pion and kaon production modes, flavor mixing, and magnetic field effects on the secondary muons, pions, and kaons. We demonstrate that taking into account the full energy dependencies of all spectra, the normalization of the expected neutrino flux reduces by about one order of magnitude and the spectrum shifts to higher energies, where we can pin down the exact origin of the discrepancies by the recomputation of the analytical models. We also reproduce the IceCube-40 analysis for exactly the same bursts and same assumptions and illustrate the impact of uncertainties. We conclude that the baryonic loading of the fireballs, which is an important control parameter for the emission of cosmic rays, can be constrained significantly with the full-scale experiment after about ten years.

  1. Gamma-ray-burst beaming and gravitational-wave observations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    Using the observed rate of short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) it is possible to make predictions for the detectable rate of compact binary coalescences in gravitational-wave detectors. We show that the nondetection of mergers in the existing LIGO/Virgo data constrains the beaming angles and progenitor masses of gamma-ray bursts, although these limits are fully consistent with existing expectations. We make predictions for the rate of events in future networks of gravitational-wave observatories, finding that the first detection of a neutron-star-neutron-star binary coalescence associated with the progenitors of short GRBs is likely to happen within the first 16 months of observation, even in the case of only two observatories (e.g., LIGO-Hanford and LIGO-Livingston) operating at intermediate sensitivities (e.g., advanced LIGO design sensitivity, but without signal recycling mirrors), and assuming a conservative distribution of beaming angles (e.g., all GRBs beamed within θ(j) = 30°). Less conservative assumptions reduce the waiting time until first detection to a period of weeks to months, with an event detection rate of >/~10/yr. Alternatively, the compact binary coalescence model of short GRBs can be ruled out if a binary is not seen within the first two years of operation of a LIGO-Hanford, LIGO-Livingston, and Virgo network at advanced design sensitivity. We also demonstrate that the gravitational wave detection rate of GRB triggered sources (i.e., those seen first in gamma rays) is lower than the rate of untriggered events (i.e., those seen only in gravitational waves) if θ(j)≲30°, independent of the noise curve, network configuration, and observed GRB rate. The first detection in gravitational waves of a binary GRB progenitor is therefore unlikely to be associated with the observation of a GRB.

  2. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Sans Second Postulate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzius, R.

    stars starting with Cepheid variables. The author cleared up a critical flaw in Sekerin's reasoning regarding the computed value of the periodic spectral variations involved, and created software simulations of binary star orbits which produce the light curves and spectral variations predicted by the Ritzian theory. (Constant speed-of-light simulations do not produce the variations.) A limited number of these simulations including some for various kinds of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are to be shown as part of this presentation. High-resolution spectral studies of variable stars, including GRBs, may eventually help us decide whether or not Ritz was as wrong as is currently generally thought. Further information on this topic is available at: http://www.ebicom.net/~rsf1/binaries.htm

  3. VHE-UHE Properties of Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Measzaros, P.

    2008-12-24

    Gamma-ray bursts are observed to emit at least up to GeV energies, and their photon spectrum at the source is expected to extend up to TeV, due to either or both leptonic and hadronic mechanisms. I review some recent developments in GRB phenomenology in the light of Swift and other sub-MeV measurement, as well as recent theoretical work. I discuss then the acceleration of cosmic rays in GRB, which can extend to GZK energies, and the possibility of acceleration in GRB-related or other hypernovae. In both, synchrotron and inverse Compton, as well as hadronic processes, can lead to GeV-TeV gamma-rays measurable by GLAST, AGILE, or ACTs, providing useful probes of the burst physics and model parameters. Photo-meson and pp interactions also produce neutrinos at energies ranging from sub-TeV to EeV, which are targets for experiments such as IceCube, ANITA and KM3NeT.

  4. Magnetic photon splitting and gamma ray burst spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    1992-01-01

    The splitting of photons into two photons becomes both possible and significant in magnetic fields in excess of 10(exp 12) Gauss. Below the threshold energy, 2m sub e c(exp 2) for single photon pair production, splitting can be an astronomically observable phenomenon evident in gamma ray burst spectra. In such circumstances, it was found that magnetic photon splitting reprocesses the gamma ray burst continuum by degrading the photon energy, with a net effect that is quite similar to pair cascade reprocessing of the spectrum. Results are presented for the spectral modifications due to splitting, taking into account the different probabilities for splitting for different polarization modes. Unpolarized and polarized pair cascade photon spectra form the input spectra for the model, which calculates the resulting splitting reprocessed spectra numerically by solving the photon kinetic equations for each polarization mode. This inclusion of photon polarizations is found to not alter previous predictions that splitting produce a significant flattening of the hard X ray continuum and a bump at MeV energies below a pair production turnover. The spectrum near the bump is always strongly polarized.

  5. Unthermalized positrons in gamma ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkaczyk, W.; Karakula, S.

    1992-01-01

    The spectra of the broadening 0.511 MeV annihilation line produced by high temperatures was calculated in the case of unthermalized plasma; i.e., T sub e(+) is not = T sub e(-). The flattening in the spectrum of the annihilation lines for large differences of electron and positron temperatures is a strong indication that the observed features of the hard tailed spectrum of the gamma bursts can be well described by annihilation of unthermalized positrons. It is proposed that the charge separation occurring in Eddington limited accretion onto a neutron star or the one photon pair production in strong magnetic fields as a mechanism for the production of unthermalized positrons in the sources of gamma bursts. From the best fit of experimental spectra by the model, the parameters of sources for which the regions with different plasma temperatures can exist is evaluated.

  6. Detection of gamma-ray bursts from Andromeda

    SciTech Connect

    Bulik, Tomasz; Coppi, Paolo S.; Lamb, Donald Q.

    1996-08-01

    If gamma-ray bursts originate in a corona around the Milky Way, it should also be possible to detect them from a similar corona around Andromeda. Adopting a simple model of high velocity neutron star corona, we evaluate the ability of instruments on existing missions to detect an excess of bursts toward Andromeda. We also calculate the optimal properties of an instrument designed to detect such an excess. We find that if the bursts radiate isotropically, an experiment with a sampling distance d{sub max} > or approx. 500 kpc could detect a significant excess of bursts in the direction of Andromeda in a few years of observation. If the radiation is beamed along the neutron star's direction of motion, an experiment with d{sub max} > or approx. 800 kpc would detect such an excess in a similar amount of time, provided that the width of the beam is greater than 10 deg. Lack of an excess toward Andromeda would therefore be compelling evidence that the bursts are cosmological in origin if made by an instrument at least 50 times more sensitive than BATSE, given current constraints on Galactic corona models. Comparisons with detailed dynamical calculations of the spatial distribution of high velocity neutron stars in the coronae around the Milky Way and Andromeda confirm these conclusions.

  7. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-06-01

    radiation. The team concludes that it is likely to be due to the nearly instantaneous, non-symmetrical collapse of the inner region of a highly developed star (known as the "collapsar" model) . The March 29 gamma-ray burst will pass into the annals of astrophysics as a rare "type-defining event", providing conclusive evidence of a direct link between cosmological gamma-ray bursts and explosions of very massive stars . PR Photo 17a/03 : Image of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329 (VLT FORS1+2). PR Photo 17b/03 : A series of VLT spectra of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329. What are Gamma-Ray Bursts? One of the currently most active fields of astrophysics is the study of the dramatic events known as "gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)" . They were first detected in the late 1960's by sensitive instruments on-board orbiting military satellites, launched for the surveillance and detection of nuclear tests. Originating, not on the Earth, but far out in space, these short flashes of energetic gamma-rays last from less than a second to several minutes. Despite major observational efforts, it is only within the last six years that it has become possible to pinpoint with some accuracy the sites of some of these events. With the invaluable help of comparatively accurate positional observations of the associated X-ray emission by various X-ray satellite observatories since early 1997, astronomers have until now identified about fifty short-lived sources of optical light associated with GRBs (the "optical afterglows"). Most GRBs have been found to be situated at extremely large ("cosmological") distances. This implies that the energy released in a few seconds during such an event is larger than that of the Sun during its entire lifetime of more than 10,000 million years. The GRBs are indeed the most powerful events since the Big Bang known in the Universe, cf. ESO PR 08/99 and ESO PR 20/00 . During the past years circumstantial evidence has mounted that GRBs signal the collapse of massive

  8. The First Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Barbier, L.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), which contains bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2007 June 16. This catalog (hereafter BAT1 catalog) contains burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, and time averaged spectral parameters for each of 237 GRBs, as measured by the BAT. The BAT-determined position reported here is within 1.75' of the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT)-determined position for 90% of these GRBs. The BAT T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) durations peak at 80 and 20 seconds, respectively. From the fluence-fluence correlation, we conclude that about 60% of the observed peak energies, E(sup obs)(sub peak) of BAT GRBs could be less than 100 keV. We confirm that GRB fluence to hardness and GRB peak flux to hardness are correlated for BAT bursts in analogous ways to previous missions' results. The correlation between the photon index in a simple power-law model and E(sup obs)(sub peak) is also confirmed. We also report the current status for the on-orbit BAT calibrations based on observations of the Crab Nebula.

  9. Systematic Effects on Duration Measurements of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshut, Thomas M.; Paciesas, William S.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; vanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    The parameters T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) have recently been introduced as a measurement of the duration of gamma-ray bursts. We present here a description of the method of measuring T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) and its application to gamma-ray bursts observed with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). We use simulated as well as observed time profiles to address some of the possible systematic effects affecting individual T(sub 90) (T(sub 50)) measurements. We show that these systematic effects do not mimic those effects that would result from time dilation if the burst sources are at distances of several Gpc. We discuss the impact of these systematic effects on the T(sub 90) (T(sub 50)) distributions for the gamma-ray bursts observed with BATSE. We distinguish between various types of T(sub 90) (T(sub 50)) distributions, and discuss the ways in which distributions observed with different experiments can vary, even though the measurements for commonly observed bursts may be the same. We then discuss the distributions observed with BATSE and compare them to those observed with other experiments.

  10. Performance study of the gamma-ray bursts polarimeter POLAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J. C.; Wu, B. B.; Bao, T. W.; Batsch, T.; Bernasconi, T.; Britvitch, I.; Cadoux, F.; Cernuda, I.; Chai, J. Y.; Dong, Y. W.; Gauvin, N.; Hajdas, W.; He, J. J.; Kole, M.; Kong, M. N.; Kong, S. W.; Lechanoine-Leluc, C.; Li, Lu; Liu, J. T.; Liu, X.; Marcinkowski, R.; Orsi, S.; Pohl, M.; Produit, N.; Rapin, D.; Rutczynska, A.; Rybka, D.; Shi, H. L.; Song, L. M.; Szabelski, J.; Wang, R. J.; Wen, X.; Xiao, H. L.; Xiong, S. L.; Xu, H. H.; Xu, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, X. F.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zwolinska, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Polarimeter-POLAR is a highly sensitive detector which is dedicated to the measurement of GRB's polarization with a large effective detection area and a large field of view (FOV). The optimized performance of POLAR will contribute to the capture and measurement of the transient sources like GRBs and Solar Flares. The detection energy range of POLAR is 50 keV 500 keV, and mainly dominated by the Compton scattering effect. POLAR consists of 25 detector modular units (DMUs), and each DMU is composed of low Z material Plastic Scintillators (PS), multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMT) and multi-channel ASIC Front-end Electronics (FEE). POLAR experiment is an international collaboration project involving China, Switzerland and Poland, and is expected to be launched in September in 2016 onboard the Chinese space laboratory "Tiangong-2 (TG-2)". With the efforts from the collaborations, POLAR has experienced the Demonstration Model (DM) phase, Engineering and Qualification Model (EQM) phase, Qualification Model (QM) phase, and now a full Flight Model (FM) of POLAR has been constructed. The FM of POLAR has passed the environmental acceptance tests (thermal cycling, vibration, shock and thermal vacuum tests) and experienced the calibration tests with both radioactive sources and 100% polarized Gamma-Ray beam at ESRF after its construction. The design of POLAR, Monte-Carlo simulation analysis, as well as the performance test results will all be introduced in this paper.

  11. INTERPLANETARY NETWORK LOCALIZATIONS OF KONUS SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Pal'shin, V. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D.; Mazets, E. P.; Oleynik, P. P.; Ulanov, M. V.; Hurley, K.; Cline, T.; Trombka, J.; McClanahan, T.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; and others

    2013-08-15

    Between the launch of the Global Geospace Science Wind spacecraft in 1994 November and the end of 2010, the Konus-Wind experiment detected 296 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (including 23 bursts which can be classified as short bursts with extended emission). During this period, the Interplanetary Network (IPN) consisted of up to 11 spacecraft, and using triangulation, the localizations of 271 bursts were obtained. We present the most comprehensive IPN localization data on these events. The short burst detection rate, {approx}18 yr{sup -1}, exceeds that of many individual experiments.

  12. UNCOVERING THE INTRINSIC VARIABILITY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkhou, V. Zach; Butler, Nathaniel R

    2014-08-01

    We develop a robust technique to determine the minimum variability timescale for gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves, utilizing Haar wavelets. Our approach averages over the data for a given GRB, providing an aggregate measure of signal variation while also retaining sensitivity to narrow pulses within complicated time series. In contrast to previous studies using wavelets, which simply define the minimum timescale in reference to the measurement noise floor, our approach identifies the signature of temporally smooth features in the wavelet scaleogram and then additionally identifies a break in the scaleogram on longer timescales as a signature of a true, temporally unsmooth light curve feature or features. We apply our technique to the large sample of Swift GRB gamma-ray light curves and for the first time—due to the presence of a large number of GRBs with measured redshift—determine the distribution of minimum variability timescales in the source frame. We find a median minimum timescale for long-duration GRBs in the source frame of Δtmin = 0.5 s, with the shortest timescale found being on the order of 10 ms. This short timescale suggests a compact central engine (3000 km). We discuss further implications for the GRB fireball model and present a tantalizing correlation between the minimum timescale and redshift, which may in part be due to cosmological time dilation.

  13. Correlation Analysis of Prompt Emission from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothapragada, Sriharsha

    Prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibits very rapid, complicated temporal and spectral evolution. This diverse variability in the light-curves reflects the complicated nature of the underlying physics, in which inter-penetrating relativistic shells in the outflow are believed to generate strong magnetic fields that vary over very small scales. We use the theory of jitter radiation to model the emission from such regions and the resulting overall prompt gamma ray emission from a series of relativistic collisionless shocks. We present simulated GRB light-curves developed as a series of "pulses" corresponding to instantaneously illuminated "thin-shell" regions emitting via the jitter radiation mechanism. The effects of various geometries, viewing angles, and bulk Lorentz factor profiles of the radiating outflow jets on the spectral features and evolution of these light-curves are explored. Our results demonstrate how an anisotropic jitter radiation pattern, in conjunction with relativistic shock kinematics, can produce certain features observed in the GRB prompt emission spectra, such as the occurrence of hard, synchrotron violating spectra, the "tracking" of observed flux with spectral parameters, and spectral softening below peak energy within individual episodes of the light curve. We highlight predictions in the light of recent advances in the observational sphere of GRBs.

  14. AGILE and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Francesco; Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Basset, M.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.; Chen, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.

    2006-05-19

    AGILE is a Scientific Mission dedicated to high-energy astrophysics supported by ASI with scientific participation of INAF and INFN. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a large field of view covering {approx} 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV. The broadband detection of GRBs and the study of implications for particle acceleration and high energy emission are primary goals of th emission. AGILE can image GRBs with 2-3 arcminutes error boxes in the hard X-ray range, and provide broadband photon-by photon detection in the 15-45 keV, 03-50 MeV, and 30 MeV-30 GeV energy ranges. Microsecond on-board photon tagging and a {approx} 100 microsecond gamma-ray detection deadtime will be crucial for fast GRB timing. On-board calculated GRB coordinates and energy fluxes will be quickly transmitted to the ground by an ORBCOMM transceiver. AGILE have recently (December 2005) completed its gamma-ray calibration. It is now (January 2006) undergoing satellite integration and testing. The PLSV launch is planned in early 2006. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2006. It will be the only mission entirely dedicated to high-energy astrophysics above 30 MeV during the period mid-2006/mid-2007.

  15. Gamma Ray Bursts and the Birth of Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Black holes have been predicted since the 1940's from solutions of Einstein's general relativity field equation. There is strong evidence of their existence from astronomical observations, but their origin has remained an open question of great interest. Gamma-ray bursts may the clue. They are powerful explosions, visible to high redshift, and appear to be the birth cries of black holes. The Swift and Fermi missions are two powerful NASA observatories currently in orbit that are discovering how gamma-ray bursts work. Evidence is building that the long and short duration subcategories of GRBs have very different origins: massive star core collapse to a black hole for long bursts and binary neutron star coalescence to a black hole for short bursts. The similarity to Type II and Ia supernovae originating from young and old stellar progenitors is striking. Bursts are tremendously luminous and are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. One Swift burst at z=8.3 is the most distant object known in the universe. The talk will present the latest gamma-ray burst results from Swift and Fermi and will highlight what they are teaching us about black holes and jet outflows.

  16. Constraints on relativity violations from gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Kostelecký, V Alan; Mewes, Matthew

    2013-05-17

    Tiny violations of the Lorentz symmetry of relativity and the associated discrete CPT symmetry could emerge in a consistent theory of quantum gravity such as string theory. Recent evidence for linear polarization in gamma-ray bursts improves existing sensitivities to Lorentz and CPT violation involving photons by factors ranging from ten to a million.

  17. The NuSTAR View of Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission was launched June 13, 2012. During the next two pears NuSTAR observed two Gamma Ray Bursts, GRBs 130427A and 130925A. I will describe here the NuSTAR GRB results and discuss their implications on the GRB field.

  18. Gamma-Ray Bursts Shower the Universe with Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    According to the results from a Livermore computer model, some of the small change jingling in your pocket contains zinc and copper created in massive gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that rank as the most impressive light shows in the universe. Livermore astrophysicist Jason Pruet and his colleagues Rebecca Surman and Gail McLaughlin from North Carolina State University (NCSU) reported on their calculations in the February 20, 2004, issue of ''Astrophysical Journal Letters''. They found that GRBs from black holes surrounded by a disk of dense, hot plasma may have contributed heavily to the galactic inventory of elements such as calcium, scandium, titanium, zinc, and copper. ''A typical GRB of this kind briefly outshines all the stars in millions of galaxies combined'', says Pruet. ''Plus it makes about 100 times as much of some common elements as an ordinary supernova''.

  19. SCIENCE Magazine: BATSE 1000 gamma-ray burst perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horack, John M.

    1995-01-01

    A historical highlight and analysis of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), which has been in operation for more than three years and has detected more than 1,000 cosmic gamma-ray bursts is presented. The questions BATSE has answered and those it has not are assessed, along with the problems and data correlation and processing that has occured from the BATSE operation.

  20. Constraints on the hadronic content of gamma ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Yacobi, Lee; Guetta, Dafne; Behar, Ehud

    2014-09-20

    The IceCube High-energy Neutrino Telescope has been collecting data since 2006. Conversely, hundreds of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been detected by the GRB Monitor on board Fermi since its launch in 2008. So far no neutrino event has been associated with a GRB, despite many models predicting the generation of high-energy neutrinos through GRB photon interaction with PeV protons in the GRB jet. We use the non-detection of neutrinos to constrain the hadronic content of GRB jets independent of jet model parameters. Assuming a generic particle spectrum of E {sup –α} with α = 2, we find that the ratio of the energy carried by pions to that in electrons has to be small f {sub π}/f{sub e} ≲ 0.24 at 95% confidence level. A distribution of spectral slopes can lower f {sub π}/f{sub e} by orders of magnitude. Another limit, independent of neutrinos, is obtained if one ascribes the measured Fermi/Large Area Telescope GeV gamma-ray emission to pair-photon cascades of high-energy photons resulting from (the same photon-hadronic interactions and subsequent) neutral pion decays. Based on the generally observed MeV-to-GeV GRB fluence ratio of ≈10, we show that f {sub π}/f{sub e} ≲ 0.3. In some bursts, this ratio is as low as unity, f {sub π}/f{sub e} ≲ 0.03. These findings add to mounting doubts regarding the presence of PeV protons in GRB jets.

  1. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries by the Swift Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Swift Team

    2005-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most fascinating occurrences in the cosmos. They are thought to be the birth cries of black holes throughout the universe. The NASA Swift mission is an innovative new multiwavelength observatory designed to determine the origin of bursts and use them to probe the early Universe. Swift is now in orbit after a beautiful launch on November 20, 2004. A new-technology wide-field gamma-ray camera detects more than a hundred bursts per year. Sensitive narrow-field X-ray and UV/optical telescopes, built in collaboration with UK and Italian partners, are pointed at the burst location in 20 to 70 sec by an autonomously controlled "swift" spacecraft. For each burst, arcsec positions are determined and optical/UV/X-ray/gamma-ray spectrophotometry performed. Information is also rapidly sent to the ground to a team of more than 50 observers at telescopes around the world. The first year of findings from the mission will be presented. The long-standing mystery of short GRBs has been solved, and the answer is the most interesting possible scenario. High redshift bursts have been detected leading to a better understanding of star formation rates and distant galaxy environments. GRBs have been found with giant X-ray flares occurring in their afterglow. These, and other topics, will be discussed.

  2. Possible Evidence for Relativistic Shocks in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, E.; Katz, J. I.; Piran, T.; Sari, R.; Preece, R. D.; Band, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Relativistic shock models of gamma-ray bursts may be tested by comparing their predicted low-energy asymptotic spectral indices s to observations. Synchrotron radiation theory predicts that the instantaneous spectrum has s = 1/3, and the spectrum integrated over the radiative decay of the electrons' energies has s = 1/2 with other cases lying between these limits. We examine the spectra of 11 bursts obtained by the Large Area Detectors on BATSE. One agrees with the predicted instantaneous spectrum, as does the initial portion of a second, and three are close to the predicted integrated spectrum. All of the observed asymptotic spectral slopes lie in the predicted range. This evidence for relativistic shocks is independent of detailed models of bursts and of assumptions about their distances. Radiation observed with the predicted instantaneous spectrum has a comparatively smooth time dependence, consistent with the necessarily long radiation time, while radiation observed with the predicted integrated spectrum has a spiky time dependence, consistent with the necessarily short radiation time.

  3. Fermi-LAT Observations of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 130427A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Gehrels, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of these unique astrophysical sources. GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest-energy photon (95 GeV), longest gamma-ray duration (20 hours), and one of the largest isotropic energy releases ever observed from a GRB. Temporal and spectral analyses of GRB 130427A challenge the widely accepted model that the nonthermal high-energy emission in the afterglow phase of GRBs is synchrotron emission radiated by electrons accelerated at an external shock.

  4. Light Dawns on Dark Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are among the most energetic events in the Universe, but some appear curiously faint in visible light. The biggest study to date of these so-called dark gamma-ray bursts, using the GROND instrument on the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla in Chile, has found that these gigantic explosions don't require exotic explanations. Their faintness is now fully explained by a combination of causes, the most important of which is the presence of dust between the Earth and the explosion. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), fleeting events that last from less than a second to several minutes, are detected by orbiting observatories that can pick up their high energy radiation. Thirteen years ago, however, astronomers discovered a longer-lasting stream of less energetic radiation coming from these violent outbursts, which can last for weeks or even years after the initial explosion. Astronomers call this the burst's afterglow. While all gamma-ray bursts [1] have afterglows that give off X-rays, only about half of them were found to give off visible light, with the rest remaining mysteriously dark. Some astronomers suspected that these dark afterglows could be examples of a whole new class of gamma-ray bursts, while others thought that they might all be at very great distances. Previous studies had suggested that obscuring dust between the burst and us might also explain why they were so dim. "Studying afterglows is vital to further our understanding of the objects that become gamma-ray bursts and what they tell us about star formation in the early Universe," says the study's lead author Jochen Greiner from the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching bei München, Germany. NASA launched the Swift satellite at the end of 2004. From its orbit above the Earth's atmosphere it can detect gamma-ray bursts and immediately relay their positions to other observatories so that the afterglows could be studied. In the new study, astronomers combined Swift

  5. Energy Injections in Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. B.; Wu, X. F.; Huang, Y. F.; Xu, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we will introduce some special events, such as GRBs 081029, 100814A and 111209A. Unexpected features, such as multiple X-ray flares and significant optical rebrightenings, are observed in their afterglow light curves, unveiling the late-time activities of the central engines. Here, we will summarize our previous numerical results of these three bursts by using the energy injection model. Especially, we will focus on GRB 100814A, with an early-time shallow decay phase and a late-time significant rebrightening in its optical afterglow light curve. To explain the complex multi-band afterglow emission of GRB 100814A, we invoke a magnetar with spin evolution as its central engine. We argue that the optical shallow decay phase and the X-ray plateau are due to energy injection from t he magnetar in its early spin-down stage, while the significant optical rebrightening observed at late time naturally comes from the spin-up process of the magnetar, which is caused by subsequent fall back accretion.

  6. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF GAMMA-RAY BURST POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Toma, Kenji; Sakamoto, Takanori; Hill, Joanne E.; Zhang, Bing; McConnell, Mark L.; Bloser, Peter F.; Yamazaki, Ryo; Ioka, Kunihito; Nakamura, Takashi

    2009-06-20

    The emission mechanism and the origin and structure of magnetic fields in gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets are among the most important open questions concerning the nature of the central engine of GRBs. In spite of extensive observational efforts, these questions remain to be answered and are difficult or even impossible to infer with the spectral and light-curve information currently collected. Polarization measurements will lead to unambiguous answers to several of these questions. Recent developments in X-ray and {gamma}-ray polarimetry techniques have demonstrated a significant increase in sensitivity, enabling several new mission concepts, e.g., Polarimeters for Energetic Transients (POET), providing wide field of view and broadband polarimetry measurements. If launched, missions of this kind would finally provide definitive measurements of GRB polarizations. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to derive the distribution of GRB polarizations in three emission models; the synchrotron model with a globally ordered magnetic field (SO model), the synchrotron model with a small-scale random magnetic field (SR model), and the Compton drag model (CD model). The results show that POET, or other polarimeters with similar capabilities, can constrain the GRB emission models by using the statistical properties of GRB polarizations. In particular, the ratio of the number of GRBs for which the polarization degrees can be measured to the number of GRBs that are detected (N{sub m} /N{sub d} ) and the distributions of the polarization degrees ({pi}) can be used as the criteria. If N{sub m} /N{sub d} > 30% and {pi} is clustered between 0.2 and 0.7, the SO model will be favored. If, instead, N{sub m} /N{sub d} < 15%, then the SR or CD model will be favored. If several events with {pi}>0.8 are observed, then the CD model will be favored.

  7. Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flash Search in the Triggered Gamma Ray Burst Data of Fermi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, M.; Connaughton, V.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial Gamma Ray flashes (TGFs) occur near lightning-producing storms. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst monitor (GBM) has a catalog of over 200 TGFs which were found using an on-board algorithm. However, the limitations of the on-board algorithm mean that weaker events are undetected, and in normal data-taking mode (0.256 s resolution) cannot be found in an offline analysis. To get an idea of how many TGFs GBM could be expected to detect in an offline analysis of its highest temporal resolution data, we inspected the high-resolution data available around the times of non-TGF triggers gathered over the four years of the Fermi mission. The triggered data were from nearly 1000 gamma ray bursts observed by GBM. After applying statistical tests to the candidates we uncovered, and rejecting likely cosmic-ray events, 28 TGF candidates remained. Comparing the exposures of the high-resolution data with the time taken to record 28 TGFs on-board, we estimate a 36-fold increase in detected TGFs with the availability of high-resolution data throughout the Fermi orbit.

  8. The First Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Michael; Connaughton, Valerie; Stanbro, Matthew; Zhang, Binbin; Bhat, Narayana; Fishman, Gerald; Roberts, Oliver; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; McBreen, Shelia; Grove, Eric; Chekhtman, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    We present summary results from the first catalog of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Space Telescope. The catalog reports parameters for over 2700 TGFs. Since the launch of Fermi in 2008 the TGF detection sensitivity of GBM has been improved several times, both in the flight software and in ground analysis. Starting in 2010 July individual photons were downloaded for portions of the orbits, enabling an off-line search that found weaker and shorter TGFs. Since 2012 November 26 this telemetry mode has been extended to continuous coverage. The TGF sample is reliable, with cosmic rays rejected using data both from Fermi GBM and from the Large Area Telescope on Fermi. The online catalog include times (UTC and solar), spacecraft geographic positions, durations, count intensities and Bayesian Block durations. The catalog includes separate tables for bright TGFs detected by the flight software and for Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs).

  9. MAGIC Telescope Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Garczarczyk, M.; Becerra-Gonzalez, J.; Gaug, M.; Antonelli, A.; Carosi, A.; La Barbera, A.; Spiro, S.; Bastieri, D.; Covino, S.; Dominguez, A.; Longo, F.; Scapin, V.

    2010-10-15

    MAGIC is built to perform observations of prompt and early afterglow emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) above 25 GeV. The instrument is designed to have the lowest possible energy threshold among the ground based {gamma}-ray detectors and the fastest reaction time to alerts distributed over the GRB Coordinates Network (GCN). The MAGIC-I telescope observed 57 GRBs during the first six years. In no cases Very High Energy (VHE){gamma}-ray emission above the threshold energy could be detected. The telescope has undergone several major improvements in sensitivity and repositioning performance. The biggest improvement in sensitivity was achieved with the installation of the second MAGIC-II telescope. Since more than one year both telescopes are observing in stereo mode. MAGIC are the only telescopes fast and sensitive enough to extend the observational energy range of satellite detectors, while GRB prompt and early afterglow emission is still ongoing.

  10. DMSP satellite detections of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Terrell, J.; Lee, P.; Klebesadel, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Gamma-ray burst detectors are aboard six U. S. Air Force defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, two of which are currently in use. Their 800-km altitude orbits give a field of view to 117 degrees from the zenith. A great many bursts have been detected, usually in coincidence with detections by GRO or other satellites such as PVO or ULYSSES. The directions of the sources can be determined with considerable accuracy from such correlated observations, even when GRO/BATSE with its directional capabilities is not involved. Thus these DMSP data, especially in conjunction with other observations, should be helpful in trying to understand the true nature of gamma-ray bursts. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Analysis of the Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts duration

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, I.; Veres, P.; Balazs, L. G.; Kelemen, J.; Bagoly, Z.

    2008-10-22

    Two classes of gamma-ray bursts have been identified in the BATSE catalogs characterized by durations shorter and longer than about 2 seconds. There are, however, some indications for the existence of a third type of burst. Swift satellite detectors have different spectral sensitivity than pre-Swift ones for gamma-ray bursts. Therefore it is worth to reanalyze the durations and their distribution and also the classification of GRBs. Using The First BAT Catalog the maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyzed the duration distribution of GRBs. The three log-normal fit is significantly (99.54% probability) better than the two for the duration distribution. Monte-Carlo simulations also confirm this probability (99.2%)

  12. DMSP satellite detections of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, J.; Lee, P.; Klebesadel, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst detectors are aboard six U. S. Air Force defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, two of which are currently in use. Their 800-km altitude orbits give a field of view to 117 degrees from the zenith. A great many bursts have been detected, usually in coincidence with detections by GRO or other satellites such as PVO or ULYSSES. The directions of the sources can be determined with considerable accuracy from such correlated observations, even when GRO/BATSE with its directional capabilities is not involved. Thus these DMSP data, especially in conjunction with other observations, should be helpful in trying to understand the true nature of gamma-ray bursts.

  13. Gamma-Ray Burst Precursor Activity as Observed with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshut, Thomas M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Paciesas, William S.; vanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst time histories often consist of multiple episodes of emission with the count rate dropping to the background level between adjacent episodes. We define precursor activity as any case in which the first episode (referred to as the precursor episode) has a lower peak intensity than that of the remaining emission (referred to as the main episode) and is separated from the remaining burst emission by a background interval that is at least as long as the remaining emission. We find that approx. 3% of the bursts observed with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) satisfy this definition. We present the results of a study of the properties of these events. The spatial distribution of these sources is consistent with that of the larger set of all BATSE gamma-ray bursts: inhomogeneous and isotropic. A correlation between the duration of the precursor emission and the duration of the main episode emission is observed at about the 3 sigma confidence level. We find no meaningful significant correlations between or among any of the other characteristics of the precursor or main episode emission. It appears that the characteristics of the main episode emission are independent of the existence of the precursor emission.

  14. Is the Narrow E-Peak Distribution of Gamma-Ray Bursts Real?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, Jerome J.

    2000-01-01

    Over the performance period of the research grant, the authors conducted a study of the role that the detector response plays in the detection of gamma-ray bursts. The goal of the study was to determine whether the fact that the gamma-ray bursts observed by the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory are characterized by approximately the same characteristic energy is a consequence of the instrument's characteristics, or whether the distribution is a physical attribute of gamma-ray bursts. The authors succeeded in showing that instrumental effects are mild, and that the observed characteristic energy is a physical attribute of bursts. In the course of this research, the authors ported the computer code for calculating the BATSE detector response matrices to the Sun Solaris platform, and created a version of the code that runs under any platform that supports a Fortran 77 compiler with DEC extensions. This code has already been used by other investigators to analyze BATSE data. The authors constructed a Monte Carlo simulation of the BATSE burst trigger, with which they determined the efficiency of detecting a burst as a function of characteristic burst spectral energy. The results were then applied to BATSE observations to determine the physical model for the distribution of burst characteristic energies.

  15. The First Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesler, R. A.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Smidt, Joseph; Fryer, Chris L.; Lloyd-Ronning, N. M.; Pihlström, Y. M.

    2014-05-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the ultimate cosmic lighthouses, capable of illuminating the universe at its earliest epochs. Could such events probe the properties of the first stars at z ~ 20, the end of the cosmic Dark Ages? Previous studies of Population III (Pop III) GRBs only considered explosions in the diffuse relic H II regions of their progenitors or bursts that are far more energetic than those observed to date. However, the processes that produce GRBs at the highest redshifts likely reset their local environments, creating much more complicated structures than those in which relativistic jets have been modeled so far. These structures can greatly affect the luminosity of the afterglow and hence the redshift at which it can be detected. We have now simulated Pop III GRB afterglows in H II regions, winds, and dense shells ejected by the star during the processes that produce the burst. We find that GRBs with E iso, γ = 1051-1053 erg will be visible at z >~ 20 to the next generation of near infrared and radio observatories. In many cases, the environment of the burst, and hence progenitor type, can be inferred from the afterglow light curve. Although some Pop III GRBs are visible to Swift and the Very Large Array now, the optimal strategy for their detection will be future missions like the proposed EXIST and JANUS missions with large survey areas and onboard X-ray and infrared telescopes that can track their near-infrared flux from the moment of the burst, thereby identifying their redshifts.

  16. The first gamma-ray bursts in the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Mesler, R. A.; Pihlström, Y. M.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Smidt, Joseph; Fryer, Chris L.; Lloyd-Ronning, N. M.

    2014-05-20

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the ultimate cosmic lighthouses, capable of illuminating the universe at its earliest epochs. Could such events probe the properties of the first stars at z ∼ 20, the end of the cosmic Dark Ages? Previous studies of Population III (Pop III) GRBs only considered explosions in the diffuse relic H II regions of their progenitors or bursts that are far more energetic than those observed to date. However, the processes that produce GRBs at the highest redshifts likely reset their local environments, creating much more complicated structures than those in which relativistic jets have been modeled so far. These structures can greatly affect the luminosity of the afterglow and hence the redshift at which it can be detected. We have now simulated Pop III GRB afterglows in H II regions, winds, and dense shells ejected by the star during the processes that produce the burst. We find that GRBs with E {sub iso,γ} = 10{sup 51}-10{sup 53} erg will be visible at z ≳ 20 to the next generation of near infrared and radio observatories. In many cases, the environment of the burst, and hence progenitor type, can be inferred from the afterglow light curve. Although some Pop III GRBs are visible to Swift and the Very Large Array now, the optimal strategy for their detection will be future missions like the proposed EXIST and JANUS missions with large survey areas and onboard X-ray and infrared telescopes that can track their near-infrared flux from the moment of the burst, thereby identifying their redshifts.

  17. Simultaneous Observations of Compton Gamma Ray Observatory-BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts with the COBE DMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Peter D.; Winkler, Christoph; Stacy, J. Gregory; Bontekoe, Tj. Romke

    1998-09-01

    Data acquired with the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) provide a unique opportunity to observe simultaneous emission from cosmic gamma-ray bursts in the previously unexplored microwave region of the spectrum. We have searched the COBE DMR time-ordered data sets for instances when one of the DMR horns (FWHM ~ 7°) was pointing in the direction of a gamma-ray burst at the time of burst occurrence. During the overlap period 1991 April-December corresponding to the first public release of COBE data, 210 Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO)/BATSE gamma-ray bursts listed in the Third BATSE (3B) Catalog were viewable by the COBE DMR. For five of these events the DMR was pointing within 7° of the burst positions at the exact moment of burst occurrence. For another four events the DMR was pointed within 2° of the BATSE positions within 10 s of the burst trigger time. No obvious microwave emission (at 31.5, 53, or 90 GHz), with upper limits in the 10-100 kJy range, can be associated with any of these events. The COBE DMR has a relatively low sensitivity for the detection of point sources within its field of view. A positive detection of a gamma-ray burst by the COBE DMR would imply that the integrated microwave flux must be of the same order as the energy observed in gamma rays. By extending an acceptance window in time of up to 20 minutes before and after a gamma-ray burst another 60 bursts are sampled by the DMR, whose signals are analyzed statistically. We conclude that the ``average'' gamma-ray burst produces less than about 7-42 kJy in simultaneous microwave radiation.

  18. SVOM: a new mission for Gamma-Ray Bursts studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Diego; SVOM Collaboration

    The French Space Agency (CNES) in collaboration with the Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) are developing a new mission aiming at studying Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) called SVOM (Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Objects Monitor). The mission will consist of a set of space borne instruments and a set of ground based ones. The space borne instruments include two wide field of view gamma-ray instruments, and two narrow field ones operating in the X-ray and visible domains. The two gamma-ray instruments are a coded mask soft-gamma ray imager (4-250 keV), ECLAIRs, with a 2 sr field of view, which detects and localizes in real time GRB candidates, and a gamma-ray spectrometer (50 keV-5 MeV), GRM, with the same field of view as ECLAIRs, but without imaging capabilities. The narrow field instruments, used after an autonomous satellite slew for fine localization and afterglow studies, are MXT (0.2-10 keV) and VT (400-950 nm). The space borne instruments are complemented on ground by two dedicated robotic telescopes (GFTs), designed for position refinement and early afterglow studies, and a set of ground wide angle cameras (GWACs) that aim at monitoring the field of view of ECLAIRs with the goal of detecting the prompt optical emission of GRBs.

  19. Gravitational waves versus X-ray and gamma-ray emission in a short gamma-ray burst

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, F. G.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, R. E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it

    2014-06-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of the physical nature of neutron star equilibrium configurations and the first observational evidence of a genuinely short gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 090227B, allows us to give an estimate of the gravitational waves versus the X-ray and gamma-ray emission in a short GRB.

  20. Did A Galactic Gamma-Ray Burst Kill the Dinosaurs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    1997-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts now appear to be primarily of extragalactic origin. Statistically, assuming isotropic emission, the observed event rates and fluxes imply that one event occurs per 10(4) \\ - 10(6) \\ years per galaxy, with about 10(51) \\ - 10(53) \\ ergs in gamma-rays emitted per event. Unless the Milky Way is unusual, a gamma-ray burst should occur within 10(2) \\ - 10(3) \\ pc of the Sun in a time span of order 10(8) \\ years. Independent of the underlying cause of the event, it would irradiate the solar system with a brief flash of MeV gamma-rays with a fluence as large as 10(9) - 10(11) \\ erg cm(-2) . What is the effect of such an event on the Earth and objects nearby? Ruderman (\\underbar{Science}, 184, 1079, 1974) and subsequent authors have considered a number of effects of a flash of gamma-rays from a nearby supernova explosion on the Earth's atmosphere, and on its biota. However, with regard to the demise of the dinosaurs, it appears that there was a marked increase in the deposition rate of the rare earth iridium coincident with their extinction. For this reason, an asteroid-Earth impact has been considered the leading contender for the death of the dinosaurs. Here we consider a new mechanism for mass biological extinctions, caused by small comets nudged into the inner solar system by nearby gamma-ray bursts. If comets populate the Oort cloud with a wide distribution of masses, radii and orbital eccentricities, we find that small (< 1 km), low density (10(-2) \\ gm cm(-3) ) objects in highly eccentric orbits can be injected into the inner solar system by a nearby gamma-ray burst. For a relatively brief period of time, the near Earth comet population would increase dramatically. The consequent increased probability of comet-Earth impacts of appropriate energy and material content could account for many of the characteristics of the Cretaceous-Tertiary or other terrestrial mass biological extinctions.

  1. Testing an unifying view of Gamma Ray Burst afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardini, M.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Celotti, A.

    2011-04-01

    Four years after the launch the Swift satellite the nature of the Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) broadband afterglow behaviour is still an open issue. The standard external shock fireball model cannot easily explain the combined temporal and spectral properties of optical to X-ray afterglows. We analysed the rest frame de-absorbed and K-corrected optical and X-ray light curves of a sample of 33 GRBs with known redshift and optical extinction at the host frame. We modelled their broadband behaviour as the sum of the standard forward shock emission due to the interaction of a fireball with the circum-burst medium and an additional component. This description provides a good agreement with the observed light curves despite their complexity and diversity and can also account for the lack of achromatic late times jet breaks and the presence of chromatic breaks in several GRBs lightcurves. In order to test the predictions of such modelling we analysed the X-ray time resolved spectra searching for possible spectral breaks within the observed XRT energy band, finding seven GRBs showing such a break. The optical to X-ray SED evolution of these GRBs are consistent with what expected by our interpretation.

  2. Gamma Ray Burst 150518a measured at different wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apala, Ellizabeth Ann; Soderberg, Alicia Margarita; West, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Gamma Ray Burst (GRB's), extremely energetic flashes of Gamma Rays, are caused by either deaths of massive unstable stars or colliding binary neutron stars. A unique burst, GRB 150518a, had two recorded bursts fifteen minutes apart which is very rare and is considered to be ultra-long, lasting around thirty minutes total and is associated with a Supernova explosion. GBR 150518a is also extremely close compared to the average burst being measured to have a redshift of .2, this is important to note because GRB's measuring less than a redshift of .3 only are seen every ten years. Gamma rays are emitted by supernovae, neutron stars, black holes, and quasars and by studying GRB's it allows us to see more deeply into how these objects function. The first few days of GRB 150518as' detected afterglow was plotted in different wavelengths, including optical, x-ray, radio, and infrared, in flux verses time. Data is continuously being added as time goes on. This research is funded by the NSF, grant number 1358990.

  3. Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer: Mission Design for Rapid, Accurate Location of Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David J.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer is a NASA Mid-sized Explorer (MIDEX) with the primary mission of determining the origins of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). It will be the first mission to autonomously respond to newly-discovered GRBs and provide immediate follow-up with narrow field instruments capable of multi-wavelength (UV, Optical, X-ray) observations. The characteristics of GRBs that are the key mission design drivers, are their non-repeating and brief duration bursts of multi-wavelength photons. In addition, rapid notification of the location and characteristics of the GRBs to ground-and-space-based observatories drive the end-to-end data analysis and distribution requirements.

  4. Constraints on galactic distributions of gamma-ray burst sources from BATSE observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkila, Jon; Meegan, Charles A.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Wilson, Robert B.; Paciesas, William S.; Brock, Martin N.; Horack, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The paradigm that gamma-ray bursts originate from Galactic sources is studied in detail using the angular and intensity distributions observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on NASA's Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). Monte Carlo models of gamma-ray burst spatial distributions and luminosity functions are used to simulate bursts, which are then folded through mathematical models of BATSE selection effects. The observed and computed angular intensity distributions are analyzed using modifications of standard statistical homogeneity and isotropy studies. Analysis of the BATSE angular and intensity distributions greatly constrains the origins and luminosities of burst sources. In particular, it appears that no single population of sources confined to a Galactic disk, halo, or localized spiral arm satisfactorily explains BATSE observations and that effects of the burst luminosity function are secondary when considering such models. One family of models that still satisfies BATSE observations comprises sources located in an extended spherical Galactic corona. Coronal models are limited to small ranges of burst luminosity and core radius, and the allowed parameter space for such models shrinks with each new burst BATSE observes. Multiple-population models of bursts are found to work only if (1) the primary population accounts for the general isotropy and inhomogeneity seen in the BATSE observations and (2) secondary populations either have characteristics similar to the primary population or contain numbers that are small relative to the primary population.

  5. Precursors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troja, E.; Rosswog, S.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    We carried out a systematic search of precursors on the sample of short GRBs observed by Swift. We found that approx. 8-10% of short GRBs display such early episode of emission. One burst (GRB 090510) shows two precursor events, the former approx.13 s and the latter approx. 0.5 s before the GRB. We did not find any substantial difference between the precursor and the main GRB emission, and between short GRBs with and without precursors. We discuss possible mechanisms to reproduce the observed precursor emission within the scenario of compact object mergers. The implications of our results on quantum gravity constraints are also discussed.

  6. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanbro, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Roberts, O.; McBreen, S.; Bhat, N.; Fitzpatrick, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present results from the catalog of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first release, in January 2015, provided data on 2700 TGFs. Updates are extending the catalog at a rate of ~800 TGFs per year. The TGF sample is reliable, with cosmic rays rejected using data both from Fermi GBM and from the Large Area Telescope on Fermi. The online catalog include times (UTC and solar), spacecraft geographic positions, durations, count intensities and other Bayesian Block durations. The catalog includes separate tables for bright TGFs detected by the flight software and for Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs). In January 2016 additional data will be released online from correlating these TGFs with sferics detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). Maps of sferics in the vicinity of each TGF will be provided, as will the locations and times of sferics found to be associated with TGFs.

  7. High-energy emission in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matz, S. M.; Forrest, D. J.; Vestrand, W. T.; Chupp, E. L.; Share, G. H.; Rieger, E.

    1985-01-01

    Between February 1980 and August 1983 the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite (SMM) detected 72 events identified as being of cosmic origin. These events are an essentially unbiased subset of all gamma-ray bursts. The measured spectra of these events show that high energy (greater than 1 MeV) emission is a common and energetically important feature. There is no evidence for a general high-energy cut-off or a distribution of cut-offs below about 6 MeV. These observations imply a limit on the preferential beaming of high energy emission. This constraint, combined with the assumption of isotropic low energy emission, implies that the typical magnetic field strength at burst radiation sites is less than 1 x 10 to the 12th gauss.

  8. Neutron starquakes and the nature of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madau, P.; Blaes, O.; Blandford, R. D.; Goldreich, P.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility that gamma-ray bursts originate from quakes deep in the solid crust of a neutron star is investigated. Seismic waves are radiated if shear stress is relieved by brittle fracture. However they cannot propagate directly to the surface but are temporarily trapped below a reflecting layer. The shaking of the stellar surface couples the seismic waves to Alfven waves which propagate out into the magnetosphere. The crust-magnetosphere transmission coefficient strongly increases with wave frequency and magnetic field strength. Alfven wave luminosities sufficient to power galactic gamma-ray bursts are possible if magnetic fields greater than 100 billion G cover at least part of the stellar surface. As the Alfven waves propagate out into the low density magnetosphere, they become increasingly charge starved, thereby accelerating particles to relativistic energies.

  9. A revised analysis of gamma-ray bursts' prompt efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniamini, Paz; Nava, Lara; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-09-01

    The prompt gamma-ray bursts' (GRBs) efficiency is an important clue on the emission mechanism producing the γ-rays. Previous estimates of the kinetic energy of the blast waves, based on the X-ray afterglow luminosity LX, suggested that this efficiency is large, with values above 90 per cent in some cases. This poses a problem to emission mechanisms and in particular to the internal shocks model. These estimates are based, however, on the assumption that the X-ray emitting electrons are fast cooling and that their Inverse Compton (IC) losses are negligible. The observed correlations between LX (and hence the blast wave energy) and Eγ, iso, the isotropic equivalent energy in the prompt emission, has been considered as observational evidence supporting this analysis. It is reasonable that the prompt gamma-ray energy and the blast wave kinetic energy are correlated and the observed correlation corroborates, therefore, the notion LX is indeed a valid proxy for the latter. Recent findings suggest that the magnetic field in the afterglow shocks is significantly weaker than was earlier thought and its equipartition fraction, ɛB, could be as low as 10-4 or even lower. Motivated by these findings we reconsider the problem, taking now IC cooling into account. We find that the observed LX - Eγ, iso correlation is recovered also when IC losses are significant. For small ɛB values the blast wave must be more energetic and we find that the corresponding prompt efficiency is significantly smaller than previously thought. For example, for ɛB ˜ 10-4 we infer a typical prompt efficiency of ˜15 per cent.

  10. A NEW CLASSIFICATION METHOD FOR GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lue Houjun; Liang Enwei; Zhang Binbin; Zhang Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.ed

    2010-12-20

    Recent Swift observations suggest that the traditional long versus short gamma-ray burst (GRB) classification scheme does not always associate GRBs to the two physically motivated model types, i.e., Type II (massive star origin) versus Type I (compact star origin). We propose a new phenomenological classification method of GRBs by introducing a new parameter {epsilon} = E{sub {gamma},iso,52}/E {sup 5/3}{sub p,z,2}, where E{sub {gamma},iso} is the isotropic gamma-ray energy (in units of 10{sup 52} erg) and E{sub p,z} is the cosmic rest-frame spectral peak energy (in units of 100 keV). For those short GRBs with 'extended emission', both quantities are defined for the short/hard spike only. With the current complete sample of GRBs with redshift and E{sub p} measurements, the {epsilon} parameter shows a clear bimodal distribution with a separation at {epsilon} {approx} 0.03. The high-{epsilon} region encloses the typical long GRBs with high luminosity, some high-z 'rest-frame-short' GRBs (such as GRB 090423 and GRB 080913), as well as some high-z short GRBs (such as GRB 090426). All these GRBs have been claimed to be of Type II origin based on other observational properties in the literature. All the GRBs that are argued to be of Type I origin are found to be clustered in the low-{epsilon} region. They can be separated from some nearby low-luminosity long GRBs (in 3{sigma}) by an additional T{sub 90} criterion, i.e., T{sub 90,z} {approx}< 5 s in the Swift/BAT band. We suggest that this new classification scheme can better match the physically motivated Type II/I classification scheme.

  11. THE ENGINES BEHIND SUPERNOVAE AND GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    FRYER, CHRISTOPHER LEE

    2007-01-23

    The authors review the different engines behind supernova (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), focusing on those engines driving explosions in massive stars: core-collapse SNe and long-duration GRBs. Convection and rotation play important roles in the engines of both these explosions. They outline the basic physics and discuss the wide variety of ways scientists have proposed that this physics can affect the supernova explosion mechanism, concluding with a review of the current status in these fields.

  12. Fast Fourier transformation results from gamma-ray burst profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Norris, Jay P.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1992-01-01

    Several gamma-ray bursts in the BATSE data have sufficiently long durations and complex temporal structures with pulses that appear to be spaced quasi-periodically. In order to test and quantify these periods we have applied fast Fourier transformations (FFT) to all these events. We have also performed cross spectral analyses of the FFT of the two extreme (high-low) energy bands in each case to determine the lead/lag of the pulses in different energies.

  13. Toward a Unified Model for the Broadband Prompt Emission of Gamma Ray Bursts & a New Luminosity-Hardness Relation for Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiriec, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    We suggest here to replace the historical spectral model (Band function) for the Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) prompt emission (keV-MeV energy regime) with a new one. We show that the complex GRB spectral shapes are well described with a combination of three separate components: (i) a thermal-like component that we interpret as emission from a non-dissipative GRB jet photosphere, (ii) a non-thermal component that we interpret either as synchrotron radiation from charged particles propagating and accelerated within the GRB jet or as a dissipative photosphere, and (iii) a second non-thermal component that is not always present or detectable and which extends from optical up to hard gamma-rays. The smooth evolution of all three components during the burst duration reinforces the validity of this new model. Detailed studies of the evolution of these components provide insights on the nature and composition of GRB jets as well as on their magnetic fields. Moreover, this new model enables a new luminosity-hardness relation based on the first non-thermal component that may establish GRBs as standard candles. If statistically confirmed, this relation will be used to (i) constrain the mechanisms powering GRB jets, (ii) estimate GRB distances, (iii) probe the early Universe, and (iv) constrain the cosmological parameters in complement to the Type Ia SNe sample. I will present this new model using analysis of GRBs detected with various observatories and instruments such as Fermi, CGRO/BATSE and more recently Swift. I will discuss here the striking similarities of GRB spectral shapes as well as the possible universality of the proposed luminosity-hardness relation in the context of the new model.

  14. Gamma Ray Burst Optical Counterpart Search Experiment (GROCSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.S.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.

    1995-10-27

    GROCSE (Gamma-Ray Optical Counterpart Search Experiments) is a system of automated telescopes that search for simultaneous optical activity associated with gamma ray bursts in response to real-time burst notifications provided by the BATSE/BACODINE network. The first generation system, GROCSE 1, is sensitive down to Mv {approximately} 8.5 and requires an average of 12 seconds to obtain the first images of the gamma ray burst error box defined by the BACODINE trigger. The collaboration is now constructing a second generation system which has a 4 second slewing time and can reach Mv {approximately} 14 with a 5 second exposure. GROCSE 2 consists of 4 cameras on a single mount. Each camera views the night sky through a commercial Canon lens (f/1.8, focal length 200 mm) and utilizes a 2K x 2K Loral CCD. Light weight and low noise custom readout electronics were designed and fabricated for these CCDs. The total field of view of the 4 cameras is 17.6 x 17.6 {degree}. GROCSE II will be operated by the end of 1995. In this paper, the authors present an overview of the GROCSE system and the results of measurements with a GROCSE 2 prototype unit.

  15. The width of gamma-ray burst spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, Magnus; Borgonovo, Luis

    2015-03-01

    The emission processes active in the highly relativistic jets of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remain unknown. In this paper, we propose a new measure to describe spectra: the width of the EFE spectrum, a quantity dependent only on finding a good fit to the data. We apply this to the full sample of GRBs observed by Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Compton Gamma-ray Observatory/Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The results from the two instruments are fully consistent. We find that the median widths of spectra from long and short GRBs are significantly different (chance probability <10-6). The width does not correlate with either duration or hardness, and this is thus a new, independent distinction between the two classes. Comparing the measured spectra with widths of spectra from fundamental emission processes - synchrotron and blackbody radiation - the results indicate that a large fraction of GRB spectra are too narrow to be explained by synchrotron radiation from a distribution of electron energies: for example, 78 per cent of long GRBs and 85 per cent of short GRBs are incompatible with the minimum width of standard slow cooling synchrotron emission from a Maxwellian distribution of electrons, with fast cooling spectra predicting even wider spectra. Photospheric emission can explain the spectra if mechanisms are invoked to give a spectrum much broader than a blackbody.

  16. Gamma ray bursts: Short vs. long

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Nava, L.; Ghisellini, G.

    2011-04-01

    Short and long GRBs are thought to be two distinct classes based on their different duration and spectrum. Through the spectral analysis of two similarly selected samples of BATSE short and long GRBs, we show that short GRBs are harder than long events, confirming what found from the comparison of their hardness ratio. However, this spectral diversity seems to be due to a harder low energy spectral component of short GRBs, rather than a (slightly higher) peak energy. Interestingly short GRBs have a spectrum which is similar to the spectrum of the emission of the first 1-2 s of long events. We find evidence that short GRBs are inconsistent with the Epeak-Eiso correlation defined by long bursts while they follow the same Epeak-Liso correlation of long GRBs. These results, coupled to the similar variability timescale of short events and the first seconds of long ones, suggest that a common (or similar) dissipation mechanism could operate in both classes. The difference in the duration would then be due mainly to the central engine lifetime.

  17. The Third BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Koshut, Thomas M.; Lestrade, John Patrick; Paciesas, William S.; McCollough, Michael L.; Brainerd, Jerome J.; Horack, John M.; Hakkila, Jon; Henze, William; Preece, Robert D.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1996-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has triggered on 1122 cosmic gamma-ray bursts between 1991 April 19 and 1994 September 19. These events constitute the Third BATSE (3B) burst catalog. This catalog includes the events previously reported in the 2B catalog, which covered the time interval 1991 April 19 to 1993 March 9. We present tables of the burst occurrence times, locations, peak fluxes, fluences, and durations. In general, results from previous BATSE catalogs are confirmed here with greater statistical significance. The angular distribution is consistent with isotropy. The mean galactic dipole and quadrupole moments are within 0.6 a and 0.3 a, respectively, of the values expected for isotropy. The intensity distribution is not consistent with a homogeneous distribution of burst sources, with V/V(sub max) = 0.33 +/- 0.01. The duration distribution (T(sub 90)) exhibits bimodality, with peaks at approx. 0.5 and approx. 30 s. There is no compelling evidence for burst repetition, but only weak limits can be placed on the repetition rate.

  18. OPTICAL CLASSIFICATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS IN THE SWIFT ERA

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Horst, A. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Racusin, J.; Burrows, D. N.

    2009-07-10

    We propose a new method for the classification of optically dark gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), based on the X-ray and optical-to-X-ray spectral indices of GRB afterglows, and utilizing the spectral capabilities of Swift. This method depends less on model assumptions than previous methods, and can be used as a quick diagnostic tool to identify optically sub-luminous bursts. With this method we can also find GRBs that are extremely bright at optical wavelengths. We show that the previously suggested correlation between the optical darkness and the X-ray/gamma-ray brightness is merely an observational selection effect.

  19. The SWIFT Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. E.; Burrows, D. N.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A.; Chincarini, G.; Abbey, A. F.; Angelini, L.; Beardmore, A.; Brauninger, H. W.; Chang, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer is designed to make prompt multi-wavelength observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts and GRB afterglows. The X-ray Telescope enables Swift to determine GRB positions with a few arcseconds accuracy within 100 seconds of the burst onset. The XRT utilizes a mirror set built for JET-X and an XMM-Newton/ EPIC MOS CCD detector to provide a sensitive broad-band (0.2-10 keV) X-ray imager with an effective area of more than 120 sq cm at 1.5 keV, a field of view of 23.6 x 23.6 arcminutes, and an angular resolution of 18 arcseconds (HPD). The detection sensitivity is 2x10(exp 14) erg/sq cm/s in 10(exp 4) seconds. The instrument provides automated source detection and position reporting within 5 seconds of target acquisition. It can also measure the redshifts of GRBs with Iron line emission or other spectral features. The XRT operates in an auto-exposure mode, adjusting the CCD readout mode automatically to optimize the science return as the source intensity fades. The XRT measures spectra and lightcurves of the GRB afterglow beginning about a minute after the burst and follows each burst for days or weeks. We provide an overview of the X-ray Telescope scientific background from which the systems engineering requirements were derived, with specific emphasis on the design and qualification aspects from conception through to launch. We describe the impact on cleanliness and vacuum requirements for the instrument low energy response and to maintain the high sensitivity to the fading signal of the Gamma-ray Bursts.

  20. Integrated criteria of gamma-ray bursts spectral hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Voevodina, E. V.; Zenin, A. A.

    2013-02-01

    Most part of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) spectra are well described by Band model with following parameters: α, β (spectral indices in low and high energy bands) and Epeak (energy of spectral peak). For several GRB parameter β characterizing the spectral shape in the region up to some hundred MeV (for example, GRB100724B). Moreover, Band spectrum of GRB080916C covering 6 orders of magnitude. Until recently spectral hardness parameter H32 (the ratio of total counts in the 100 - 300 keV and 50 - 100 keV energy range) was used for additional classification events on hard and soft, for GRBs groups selection on hardness and duration distributions (subgroup of intermediate bursts) and so on. However, H32 is defined in energy intervals 50-100 keV and 100-300 keV, but for some GRB Epeak> 300 keV and this value is outside regions of H32 definition. Thus, parameter H32 is incompletely represents spectral properties of such events. Basing on Band model we introduce new integral criteria could be used in the wide energy band for data analysis in past experiments such as BATSE (0.02 - 2 MeV), COMPTEL (0.8 - 30 MeV); EGRET (20 MeV - 30 GeV); in now operated experiments Fermi (8 keV - 1MeV, 200 keV - 40 MeV and 300 MeV - 300 GeV), AGILE (18 - 60 keV and 30 MeV - 50 GeV) and in future experiments: GAMMA-400 (0.1 - 3000 GeV) and so on. In the present work spectral parameters taken from BATSE and from Fermi catalogues were analyzed and the new integral criteria were investigated. Results of data studying have shown that new criteria allow making GRB classification including intermediate bursts subgroup separation.

  1. Flares in gamma-ray bursts: disc fragmentation and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osso, Simone; Perna, Rosalba; Tanaka, Takamitsu L.; Margutti, Raffaella

    2017-02-01

    Flaring activity following gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), observed in both long and short GRBs, signals a long-term activity of the central engine. However, its production mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we develop a quantitative model of the idea proposed by Perna et al. of a disc whose outer regions fragment due to the onset of gravitational instability. The self-gravitating clumps migrate through the disc and begin to evolve viscously when tidal and shearing torques break them apart. Our model consists of two ingredients: theoretical bolometric flare light curves whose shape (width, skewness) is largely insensitive to the model parameters, and a spectral correction to match the bandpass of the available observations, that is calibrated using the observed spectra of the flares. This simple model reproduces, with excellent agreement, the empirical statistical properties of the flares as measured by their width-to-arrival time ratio and skewness (ratio between decay and rise time). We present model fits to the observed light curves of two well-monitored flares, GRB 060418 and GRB 060904B. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative model able to reproduce the flare light curves and explain their global statistical properties.

  2. Three precise gamma-ray burst source locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.; Teegarden, B. J.; Barat, C.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Evans, W. D.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Laros, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The precise source regions of three moderately intense gamma ray bursts are derived. These events were observed with the first interplanetary burst sensor network. The optimum locations of the detectors, widely separated throughout the inner solar system, allowed for high accuracy, over-determined source fields of size 0.7 to 7.0 arc-min(2). All three locations are at fairly high galactic latitude in regions of low source confusion; none can be identified with a steady source object. Archived photographs were searched for optical transients that are able to be associated with these source fields; one such association was made.

  3. Features in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Paczynski, Bohdan; Goodman, Jeremy

    1993-01-01

    Gravitational lensing of cosmological gamma-ray bursts by objects in the mass range about 10 exp 17 to 10 exp 20 g (femtolensing) may introduce complicated interference patterns that might be interpreted as absorption or emission lines in the bursts' spectra. This phenomenon, if detected, may be used as a unique probe of dark matter in the universe. The BATSE spectral data should allow one to detect such spectral features or to put significant upper limits on the cosmic density of a dark matter component that may be in the femtolensing range. Software to generate theoretical spectra has been developed, and it is accessible over the computer network with anonymous ftp.

  4. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Population III Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, Kenji; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Bromm, Volker

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are ideal probes of the epoch of the first stars and galaxies. We review the recent theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of the first (so-called Population III) stars, in light of their viability of providing GRB progenitors. We proceed to discuss possible unique observational signatures of such bursts, based on the current formation scenario of long GRBs. These include signatures related to the prompt emission mechanism, as well as to the afterglow radiation, where the surrounding intergalactic medium might imprint a telltale absorption spectrum. We emphasize important remaining uncertainties in our emerging theoretical framework.

  5. High-Energy Spectral Signatures in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew D.

    1999-01-01

    One of the principal results obtained by the EGRET experiment aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) was the detection of several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) above 100 MeV. The broad-band spectra obtained for these bursts gave no indication of any high-energy spectral attenuation that might preclude detection of bursts by ground-based Cerenkov telescopes (ACTs), thus motivating several TeV observational programs. This paper explores the expectations for the spectral properties in the TeV and sub-TeV bands for bursts, in particular how attenuation of photons by pair creation internal to the source modifies the spectrum to produce distinctive spectral signatures. The energy of spectral breaks and the associated spectral indices provide valuable information that can constrain the bulk Lorentz factor of the GRB outflow at a given time. These characteristics define palpable observational goals for ACT programs, and strongly impact the observability of bursts in the TeV band.

  6. High-Energy Spectral Signatures in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the principal results obtained by the EGRET experiment aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) was the detection of several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) above 100 MeV. The broad-band spectra obtained for these bursts gave no indication of any high energy spectral attenuation that might preclude detection of bursts by ground-based Cerenkov telescopes (ACTs), thus motivating several TeV observational programs. This paper explores the expectations for the spectral properties in the TeV and sub-TeV bands for bursts, in particular how attenuation of photons by pair creation internal to the source modifies the spectrum to produce distinctive spectral signatures. The energy of spectral breaks and the associated spectral indices provide valuable information that can constrain the bulk Lorentz factor of the GRB outflow at a given time. These characteristics define palpable observational goals for ACT programs, and strongly impact the observability of bursts in the TeV band.

  7. How Special Are Dark Gamma-Ray Burst: A Diagnostic Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rod, Evert; Wiers, Ralph A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kaper, Lex; Kaneko, Yuki; Kaper, Lex

    2005-01-01

    We present here a comprehensive study of the optical/near-infrared (IR) upper limits for gamma-ray bursts that have an X-ray afterglow. We have extrapolated the X-ray afterglows to optical wavelengths based on the physics of the fireball blast wave model and compared these results with optical upper limits for a large sample of bursts. We find a small set of only three bursts out of a sample of 20 for which the upper limits are not compatible with their X-ray afterglow properties within the context of any blast wave model. This sparse sample does not allow us to conclusively determine the cause of this optical/near-IR deficit. Extinction in the host galaxy is a likely cause, but high redshifts and different afterglow mechanisms might also explain the deficit in some cases. We note that the three bursts appear to have higher than average gamma-my peak fluxes. In a magnitude versus time diagram the bursts are separated from the majority of bursts with a detected optical/near-IR afterglow. However, two gamma- ray bursts with an optical afterglow (one of which is highly reddened) also fall in this region with dark bursts, making it likely that dark bursts are at the faint end of the set of optically detected bursts, and therefore the dark bursts likely form a continuum with the bursts with a detected optical afterglow. Our work provides a useful diagnostic tool for follow-up observations for potentially dark bursts; applied to the events detected with the Swift satellite, it will significantly increase our sample of truly dark bursts and shed light upon their nature. Subject headings: dust, extinction - gamma rays: bursts Online material: machine-readable tables

  8. The effects of pure density evolution on the brightness distribution of cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horack, J. M.; Emslie, A. G.; Hartmann, D. H.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, we explore the effects of burst rate density evolution on the observed brightness distribution of cosmological gamma-ray bursts. Although the brightness distribution of gamma-ray bursts observed by the BATSE experiment has been shown to be consistent with a nonevolving source population observed to redshifts of order unity, evolution of some form is likely to be present in the gamma-ray bursts. Additionally, nonevolving models place significant constraints on the range of observed burst luminosities, which are relaxed if evolution of the burst population is present. In this paper, three analytic forms of density evolution are examined. In general, forms of evolution with densities that increase monotonically with redshift require that the BATSE data correspond to bursts at larger redshifts, or to incorporate a wider range of burst luminosities, or both. Independent estimates of the maximum observed redshift in the BATSE data and/or the range of luminosity from which a large fraction of the observed bursts are drawn therefore allow for constraints to be placed on the amount of evolution that may be present in the burst population. Specifically, if recent measurements obtained from analysis of the BATSE duration distribution of the actual limiting redshift in the BATSE data at z(sub lim) = 2 are correct, the BATSE N(P) distribution in a Lambda = 0 universe is inconsistent at a level of approximately 3 alpha with nonevolving gamma-ray bursts and some form of evolution in the population is required. The sense of this required source evolution is to provide a higher density, larger luminosities, or both with increasing redshift.

  9. Fermi/GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR OBSERVATIONS OF SGR J0501+4516 BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Lin; Zhang Shuangnan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Finger, Mark H.; Guiriec, Sylvain; Preece, Robert; Chaplin, Vandiver; Bhat, Narayan; Woods, Peter M.; Goegues, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki; Scargle, Jeffrey; Von Kienlin, Andreas; Watts, Anna L.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Gehrels, Neil; Harding, Alice

    2011-10-01

    We present our temporal and spectral analyses of 29 bursts from SGR J0501+4516, detected with the gamma-ray burst monitor on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope during 13 days of the source's activation in 2008 (August 22- September 3). We find that the T{sub 90} durations of the bursts can be fit with a log-normal distribution with a mean value of {approx}123 ms. We also estimate for the first time event durations of soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts in photon space (i.e., using their deconvolved spectra) and find that these are very similar to the T{sub 90} values estimated in count space (following a log-normal distribution with a mean value of {approx}124 ms). We fit the time-integrated spectra for each burst and the time-resolved spectra of the five brightest bursts with several models. We find that a single power law with an exponential cutoff model fits all 29 bursts well, while 18 of the events can also be fit with two blackbody functions. We expand on the physical interpretation of these two models and we compare their parameters and discuss their evolution. We show that the time-integrated and time-resolved spectra reveal that E{sub peak} decreases with energy flux (and fluence) to a minimum of {approx}30 keV at F = 8.7 x 10{sup -6} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, increasing steadily afterward. Two more sources exhibit a similar trend: SGRs J1550-5418 and 1806-20. The isotropic luminosity, L{sub iso}, corresponding to these flux values is roughly similar for all sources (0.4-1.5 x 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}).

  10. Gamma Ray Bursts from a Quantum Critical Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G; Santiago, D I

    2002-11-20

    The logical inconsistency of quantum mechanics and general relativity can be avoided if the relativity principle fails for length scales smaller than the quantum coherence length for the vacuum state. Ordinarily this corresponds to energies near the Planck energy, but recently it has been pointed out that near to the event horizon of a black hole the coherence length can be much larger and Planck scale physics can take over at macroscopic distances from the event horizon. This has dramatic consequences for the phenomenology of black holes. If we assume that at the Planck scale elementary particles interact via a universal 4-point interaction and baryon number conservation is violated, then the rest mass of a star hitting the event horizon of a large black hole would be rapidly converted into a burst of gamma rays followed by a pulse of hard X-rays whose duration is on the order of the light transit time across the black hole. Predictions for the gamma ray spectra are strikingly similar to those observed for cosmic gamma ray bursts.

  11. The pulse luminosity function of Swift gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral-Rogers, A.; Willingale, R.; O'Brien, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    The complete Swift Burst Alert Telescope and X-Ray Telescope light curves of 118 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with known redshifts were fitted using the physical model of GRB pulses by Willingale et al. to produce a total of 607 pulses. We compute the pulse luminosity function utilizing three GRB formation rate models: a progenitor that traces the cosmic star formation rate density (CSFRD) with either a single population of GRBs, coupled to various evolutionary parameters, or a bimodal population of high- and low-luminosity GRBs; and a direct fit to the GRB formation rate excluding any a priori assumptions. We find that a single population of GRB pulses with an evolving luminosity function is preferred over all other univariate evolving GRB models, or bimodal luminosity functions in reproducing the observed GRB pulse L-z distribution and that the magnitude of the evolution in brightness is consistent with studies that utilize only the brightest GRB pulses. We determine that the appearance of a GRB formation rate density evolution component is an artefact of poor parametrization of the CSFRD at high redshifts rather than indicating evolution in the formation rate of early epoch GRBs. We conclude that the single brightest region of a GRB light curve holds no special property; by incorporating pulse data from the totality of GRB emission we boost the GRB population statistics by a factor of 5, rule out some models utilized to explain deficiencies in GRB formation rate modelling, and constrain more tightly some of the observed parameters of GRB behaviour.

  12. The AGILE Mission and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Francesco; Tavani, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Argan, A.; Basset, M.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.; Chen, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.

    2007-05-01

    The AGILE Mission will explore the gamma-ray Universe with a very innovative instrument combining for the first time a gamma-ray imager and a hard X-ray imager. AGILE will be operational at the beginning of 2007 and it will provide crucial data for the study of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, unidentified gamma-ray sources, Galactic compact objects, supernova remnants, TeV sources, and fundamental physics by microsecond timing. The AGILE instrument is designed to simultaneously detect and image photons in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 15 - 45 keV energy bands with excellent imaging and timing capabilities, and a large field of view covering {approx} 1/5 of the entire sky at energies above 30 MeV. A CsI calorimeter is capable of GRB triggering in the energy band 0.3-50 MeV. The broadband detection of GRBs and the study of implications for particle acceleration and high energy emission are primary goals of the mission. AGILE can image GRBs with 2-3 arcminute error boxes in the hard X-ray range, and provide broadband photon-by photon detection in the 15-45 keV, 03-50 MeV, and 30 MeV-30 GeV energy ranges. Microsecond on-board photon tagging and a {approx} 100 microsecond gamma-ray detection deadtime will be crucial for fast GRB timing. On-board calculated GRB coordinates and energy fluxes will be quickly transmitted to the ground by an ORBCOMM transceiver. AGILE is now (January 2007) undergoing final satellite integration and testing. The PLS V launch is planned in spring 2007. AGILE is then foreseen to be fully operational during the summer of 2007.

  13. Gamma-ray burst and spectroscopy instrumentation development at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities that are specifically related to the development of instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy. Three programs are described: (1) the Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS), a balloon-borne array of seven germanium detectors for high-resolution spectrographic studies of persistent gamma-ray sources; (2) the Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (TGRS), a single radiatively-cooled germanium detector for the spectrographic study of gamma-ray bursts, and (3) the Rapidly Moving Telescope (RMT), a ground-based optical telescope for the detection and study of short-lived optical transients, particularly those that occur in coincidence with gamma-ray bursts.

  14. A complete sample of long bright Swift gamma ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Salvaterra, Ruben; Campana, Sergio; Covino, Stefano; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Fugazza, Dino; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Melandri, Andrea; Nava, Lara; Sbarufatti, Boris; Vergani, Susanna

    2013-06-13

    Complete samples are the basis of any population study. To this end, we selected a complete subsample of Swift long bright gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The sample, made up of 58 bursts, was selected by considering bursts with favourable observing conditions for ground-based follow-up observations and with the 15-150 keV 1 s peak flux above a flux threshold of 2.6 photons cm(-2) s(-1). This sample has a redshift completeness level higher than 90 per cent. Using this complete sample, we investigate the properties of long GRBs and their evolution with cosmic time, focusing in particular on the GRB luminosity function, the prompt emission spectral-energy correlations and the nature of dark bursts.

  15. Photospheric Emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloborodov, A. M.; Mészáros, P.

    2017-03-01

    We review the physics of GRB production by relativistic jets that start highly opaque near the central source and then expand to transparency. We discuss dissipative and radiative processes in the jet and how radiative transfer shapes the observed nonthermal spectrum released at the photosphere. A comparison of recent detailed models with observations gives estimates for important parameters of GRB jets, such as the Lorentz factor and magnetization. We also discuss predictions for GRB polarization and neutrino emission.

  16. Microphysics in the Gamma-Ray Burst Central Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2017-03-01

    We calculate the structure and evolution of a gamma-ray burst central engine where an accreting torus has formed around the newly born black hole. We study the general relativistic, MHD models and we self-consistently incorporate the nuclear equation of state. The latter accounts for the degeneracy of relativistic electrons, protons, and neutrons, and is used in the dynamical simulation, instead of a standard polytropic γ-law. The EOS provides the conditions for the nuclear pressure in the function of density and temperature, which evolve with time according to the conservative MHD scheme. We analyze the structure of the torus and outflowing winds, and compute the neutrino flux emitted through the nuclear reaction balance in the dense and hot matter. We also estimate the rate of transfer of the black-hole rotational energy to the bipolar jets. Finally, we elaborate on the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the accretion flow and the wind, through computations of the thermonuclear reaction network. We discuss the possible signatures of the radioactive element decay in the accretion flow. We suggest that further detailed modeling of the accretion flow in the GRB engine, together with its microphysics, may be a valuable tool to constrain the black-hole mass and spin. It can be complementary to the gravitational wave analysis if the waves are detected with an electromagnetic counterpart.

  17. Testing a new view of gamma-ray burst afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardini, M.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Celotti, A.

    2010-04-01

    The optical and X-ray light curves of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) often show a complex evolution and in most cases do not track each other. This behaviour cannot be easily explained by the simplest standard afterglow models. A possible interpretation is to consider the observed optical and X-ray light curves as the sum of two separate components. This scenario requires the presence of a spectral break between these bands. One of the aims of this work is to test whether such a break is present within the observed Swift X-Ray Telescope energy range. We analyse the X-ray afterglow spectra of a sample of 33 long GRBs with known redshift, good optical photometry and published estimate of the host galaxy dust absorption AhostV. We find that indeed in seven bright events a broken power law provides a fit to the data that is better than a single power-law model. For eight events, instead, the X-ray spectrum is better fitted by a single power law. We discuss the role of these breaks in connection to the relation between the host hydrogen column density NhostH and AhostV and check the consistency of the X-ray spectral breaks with the optical bands photometry. We analyse the optical to X-ray spectral energy distributions at different times and find again consistency with two components interpretation.

  18. Luminosity function and jet structure of Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescalli, A.; Ghirlanda, G.; Salafia, O. S.; Ghisellini, G.; Nappo, F.; Salvaterra, R.

    2015-02-01

    The structure of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets impacts on their prompt and afterglow emission properties. The jet of GRBs could be uniform, with constant energy per unit solid angle within the jet aperture, or it could be structured, namely with energy and velocity that depend on the angular distance from the axis of the jet. We try to get some insight about the still unknown structure of GRBs by studying their luminosity function. We show that low (1046-48 erg s-1) and high (i.e. with L ≥ 1050 erg s-1) luminosity GRBs can be described by a unique luminosity function, which is also consistent with current lower limits in the intermediate luminosity range (1048-50 erg s-1). We derive analytical expressions for the luminosity function of GRBs in uniform and structured jet models and compare them with the data. Uniform jets can reproduce the entire luminosity function with reasonable values of the free parameters. A structured jet can also fit adequately the current data, provided that the energy within the jet is relatively strongly structured, i.e. E ∝ θ-k with k ≥ 4. The classical E ∝ θ-2 structured jet model is excluded by the current data.

  19. Strategies for Studying the Sources of Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.; Norris, J. P.; Hurley, K. C.

    2003-01-01

    The study of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) has rapidly evolved in recent years with the discovery of their cosmological nature and with BATSE, BeppoSAX, HETE and the IPN enabling a wide variety of associated . afterglow measurements. Multiwavelength observations ranging through the radio, optical, soft and hard x-ray, and gamma-ray regimes have exploded the field of GRB interpretation. Also, the Amanda, Milagro and LIGO experiments can search for related neutrino, cosmic-ray photon, and gravitational radiation events, even with the delayed alerts, such as from the IPN. The infrared region, where the optical emissions from sources at the extreme distances may be shifted, will become important but is undersubscribed. The soon-to-be launched Swift mission will greatly broaden the GRB discipline, and a strategy for associated ground-based measurements is outlined. The need for the improved global distribution of all instruments, in particular, robotic infrared detectors, is cited.

  20. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with the Swift Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Tueller, Jack

    2007-01-01

    There is a great synergy between the Swift and INTEGRAL missions. Swift provides wide-field hard x-ray monitoring and sensitive x-ray and UV/optical observations. INTEGRAL provides optical through gamma-ray coverage with emphasis on hard xray imaging and gamma-ray spectroscopy. For hard x-ray survey studies, the BAT and IBIS instruments are complementary with BAT covering the full sky every day and IBIS scanning the galactic plane. For GRBs, Swift follows up bursts detected by INTEGRAL. X-ray and optical observations give arcsecond positions and afterglow lightcurves. For IGR sources, X-ray observations identify counterparts. The joint BAT and IBIS survey data are giving the most complete picture of the hard x-ray sky ever obtained. This talk will review Swift capabilities and discuss joint observations that are taking place and planned

  1. Can we identify lensed gamma-ray bursts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Grossman, Scott A.

    1994-01-01

    A gravitationally lensed gamma-ray burst (GRB) would appear as multiple bursts with identical light curves, separated in time and differing only by the scaling of their amplitudes. In reality, the detected bursts will be noisy, and therefore they may be difficult to identify as lensed images. Furthermore, faint, intrinsically similar, yet distinct light curves may be falsely identified as lensing events. In this paper we develop two statistical tests to distinguish noisy burst light curves. We use Fourier analysis techniques to analyze the signals for both intrinsic variability and variability due to noise. We are able to determine the noise level, and we compare the bursts only at frequency channels that are signal dominated. Utilizing these methods, we are able to make quantitative statements about whether two bursts are distinct. We apply these statistics to scaled versions of two subbursts of GRB 910503 -- subbursts previously investigated by Wambsganss using a different statistical test. We find that our methods are able to distinguish these bursts at slightly smaller amplitudes than those at which Wambsganss's method succeeds. We then apply our techniques to 'candidate' lensing events taken from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) catalog, and we find that nearly all of them, except for the very shortest ones (durations approx. less than 3 sec), are distinguishable. We therefore expect that a majority of bursts will be distinguishable from one another.

  2. Spectral evolution of a subclass of gamma-ray bursts observed by batse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, P. N.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1994-01-01

    Among the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory we define a subclass of bursts based on similar morphology: a sharp rise followed by a longer decay time. About 7% of all the gamma-ray bursts observed by BATSE fall into this subclass. We study the spectral evolution of these bursts by fitting models to time-segmented burst spectra and find no clear distinction between the spectral evolutionary properties of this subclass and those of other bursts. Further, we study the high time resolution spectral evolution of this subclass of GRBs using their spectral hardness ratios. A majority of the bursts show hardness ratio leading the counting rate and also display a continuous hard to soft evolution. The time lag between the counting rate and the hardness ratio is found to be directly correlated with the rise time of the counting rate profile. We also find, for the first time, evidence for spectral variation in a timescale of 64 ms.

  3. Nucleosynthesis, neutrino bursts and gamma-rays from coalescing neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichler, David; Livio, Mario; Piran, Tsvi; Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    It is pointed out here that neutron-star collisions should synthesize neutron-rich heavy elements, thought to be formed by rapid neutron capture (the r-process). Furthermore, these collisions should produce neutrino bursts and resultant bursts of gamma rays; the latter should comprise a subclass of observable gamma-ray bursts. It is argued that observed r-process abundances and gamma-ray burst rates predict rates for these collisions that are both significant and consistent with other estimates.

  4. Do the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor and Swift Burst Alert Telescope see the Same Short Gamma-Ray Bursts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Eric; Connaughton, Valerie; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Lien, Amy; Briggs, Michael S.; Goldstein, Adam; Pelassa, Veronique; Troja, Eleonora

    2016-02-01

    Compact binary system mergers are expected to generate gravitational radiation detectable by ground-based interferometers. A subset of these, the merger of a neutron star with another neutron star or a black hole, are also the most popular model for the production of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) trigger on short GRBs (SGRBs) at rates that reflect their relative sky exposures, with the BAT detecting 10 per year compared to about 45 for GBM. We examine the SGRB populations detected by Swift BAT and Fermi GBM. We find that the Swift BAT triggers on weaker SGRBs than Fermi GBM, providing they occur close to the center of the BAT field of view, and that the Fermi GBM SGRB detection threshold remains flatter across its field of view. Overall, these effects combine to give the instruments the same average sensitivity, and account for the SGRBs that trigger one instrument but not the other. We do not find any evidence that the BAT and GBM are detecting significantly different populations of SGRBs. Both instruments can detect untriggered SGRBs using ground searches seeded with time and position. The detection of SGRBs below the on-board triggering sensitivities of Swift BAT and Fermi GBM increases the possibility of detecting and localizing the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) events seen by the new generation of GW detectors.

  5. DO THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR AND SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE SEE THE SAME SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS?

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Eric; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Lien, Amy; Goldstein, Adam; Troja, Eleonora

    2016-02-20

    Compact binary system mergers are expected to generate gravitational radiation detectable by ground-based interferometers. A subset of these, the merger of a neutron star with another neutron star or a black hole, are also the most popular model for the production of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) trigger on short GRBs (SGRBs) at rates that reflect their relative sky exposures, with the BAT detecting 10 per year compared to about 45 for GBM. We examine the SGRB populations detected by Swift BAT and Fermi GBM. We find that the Swift BAT triggers on weaker SGRBs than Fermi GBM, providing they occur close to the center of the BAT field of view, and that the Fermi GBM SGRB detection threshold remains flatter across its field of view. Overall, these effects combine to give the instruments the same average sensitivity, and account for the SGRBs that trigger one instrument but not the other. We do not find any evidence that the BAT and GBM are detecting significantly different populations of SGRBs. Both instruments can detect untriggered SGRBs using ground searches seeded with time and position. The detection of SGRBs below the on-board triggering sensitivities of Swift BAT and Fermi GBM increases the possibility of detecting and localizing the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) events seen by the new generation of GW detectors.

  6. BATSE Observations of the Large-Scale Isotropy of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Horack, John M.; Brock, Martin N.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Hakkila, Jon

    1996-01-01

    We use dipole and quadrupole statistics to test the large-scale isotropy of the first 1005 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). In addition to the entire sample of 1005 gamma-ray bursts, many subsets are examined. We use a variety of dipole and quadrupole statistics to search for Galactic and other predicted anisotropies and for anisotropies in a coordinate-system independent manner. We find the gamma-ray burst locations to be consistent with isotropy, e.g., for the total sample the observed Galactic dipole moment (cos theta) differs from the value predicted for isotropy by 0.9 sigma and the observed Galactic quadrupole moment (sin(exp 2) b - 1/3) by 0.3 sigma. We estimate for various models the anisotropies that could have been detected. If one-half of the locations were within 86 deg of the Galactic center, or within 28 deg of the Galactic plane, the ensuing dipole or quadrupole moment would have typically been detected at the 99% confidence level. We compare the observations with the dipole and quadrupole moments of various Galactic models. Several Galactic gamma-ray bursts models have moments within 2 sigma of the observations; most of the Galactic models proposed to date are no longer in acceptable agreement with the data. Although a spherical dark matter halo distribution could be consistent with the data, the required core radius is larger than the core radius of the dark matter halo used to explain the Galaxy's rotation curve. Gamma-ray bursts are much more isotropic than any observed Galactic population, strongly favoring but not requiring an origin at cosmological distances.

  7. GAMMA-RAY BURSTS FROM MAGNETIZED COLLISIONALLY HEATED JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Vurm, Indrek; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Poutanen, Juri E-mail: juri.poutanen@oulu.fi

    2011-09-01

    Jets producing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are likely to carry a neutron component that drifts with respect to the proton component. The neutron-proton collisions strongly heat the jet and generate electron-positron pairs. We investigate radiation produced by this heating using a new numerical code. Our results confirm the recent claim that collisional heating generates the observed Band-type spectrum of GRBs. We extend the model to study the effects of magnetic fields on the emitted spectrum. We find that the spectrum peak remains near 1 MeV for the entire range of the magnetization parameter 0 < {epsilon}{sub B} < 2 that is explored in our simulations. The low-energy part of the spectrum softens with increasing {epsilon}{sub B}, and a visible soft excess appears in the keV band. The high-energy part of the spectrum extends well above the GeV range and can contribute to the prompt emission observed by Fermi/LAT. Overall, the radiation spectrum created by the collisional mechanism appears to agree with observations, with no fine tuning of parameters.

  8. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts from BATSE - Another great debate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dieter H.; The, Lih-Sin; Clayton, Donald D.; Schnepf, Neil G.; Linder, Eric V.

    1992-01-01

    The BATSE detectors aboard Compton Observatory record about one cosmic gamma-ray burst (GRB) per day. Preliminary data analysis shows a highly isotropic sky map and a nonuniform brightness distribution. Anisotropies expected from a Galactic neutron star population, the most frequently considered source model, did not emerge from the data. Taken at face value, the data seem to suggest a heliocentric solution of the GRB puzzle. The observed isotropy can be achieved if sources are either very near or extragalactic. Pop I neutron stars in the disk do not simultaneously fit sky and brightness distributions. A possibility are sources in an extended Galactic halo with scale length large enough to avoid strong anisotropies due to the solar offset from the Galactic center. If GRBs are located in an extended halo we ask whether the neutron star paradigm can survive. We show that the recently discovered high velocity radio pulsars may provide a natural source population for GRBs. If these pulsars formed in the halo, as suggested by the radio data, the possibility arises that GRBs and high velocity pulsars are two related phenomena that provide observational evidence of the dark Galactic corona. We also discuss cosmological redshift constraints that follow from the observed brightness distribution.

  9. Identifying high-redshift gamma-ray bursts with RATIR

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Watson, A. M.; Lee, W. H.; Richer, M. G.; De Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H.; Klein, C. R.; Fox, O. D.; Bloom, J. S.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.

    2014-07-01

    We present a template-fitting algorithm for determining photometric redshifts, z {sub phot}, of candidate high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Using afterglow photometry, obtained by the Reionization and Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera, this algorithm accounts for the intrinsic GRB afterglow spectral energy distribution, host dust extinction, and the effect of neutral hydrogen (local and cosmological) along the line of sight. We present the results obtained by this algorithm and the RATIR photometry of GRB 130606A, finding a range of best-fit solutions, 5.6 < z {sub phot} < 6.0, for models of several host dust extinction laws (none, the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Clouds, and Small Magellanic Clouds), consistent with spectroscopic measurements of the redshift of this GRB. Using simulated RATIR photometry, we find that our algorithm provides precise measures of z {sub phot} in the ranges of 4 < z {sub phot} ≲ 8 and 9 < z {sub phot} < 10 and can robustly determine when z {sub phot} > 4. Further testing highlights the required caution in cases of highly dust-extincted host galaxies. These tests also show that our algorithm does not erroneously find z {sub phot} < 4 when z {sub sim} > 4, thereby minimizing false negatives and allowing us to rapidly identify all potential high-redshift events.

  10. APPLICATION OF JITTER RADIATION: GAMMA-RAY BURST PROMPT POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Jirong; Wang, Jiancheng

    2013-10-10

    A high degree of polarization of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission has been confirmed in recent years. In this paper, we apply jitter radiation to study the polarization feature of GRB prompt emission. In our framework, relativistic electrons are accelerated by turbulent acceleration. Random and small-scale magnetic fields are generated by turbulence. We further determine that the polarization property of GRB prompt emission is governed by the configuration of the random and small-scale magnetic fields. A two-dimensional compressed slab, which contains a stochastic magnetic field, is applied in our model. If the jitter condition is satisfied, the electron deflection angle in the magnetic field is very small and the electron trajectory can be treated as a straight line. A high degree of polarization can be achieved when the angle between the line of sight and the slab plane is small. Moreover, micro-emitters with mini-jet structures are considered to be within a bulk GRB jet. The jet 'off-axis' effect is intensely sensitive to the observed polarization degree. We discuss the depolarization effect on GRB prompt emission and afterglow. We also speculate that the rapid variability of GRB prompt polarization may be correlated with the stochastic variability of the turbulent dynamo or the magnetic reconnection of plasmas.

  11. Search of the energetic gamma-ray experiment telescope (EGRET) data for high-energy gamma-ray microsecond bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.; Esposito, J. A.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Hawking (1974) and Page & Hawking (1976) investigated theoretically the possibility of detecting high-energy gamma rays produced by the quantum-mechanical decay of a small black hole created in the early universe. They concluded that, at the very end of the life of the small black hole, it would radiate a burst of gamma rays peaked near 250 MeV with a total energy of about 10(exp 34) ergs in the order of a microsecond or less. The characteristics of a black hole are determined by laws of physics beyond the range of current particle accelerators; hence, the search for these short bursts of high-energy gamma rays provides at least the possibility of being the first test of this region of physics. The Compton Observatory Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) has the capability of detecting directly the gamma rays from such bursts at a much fainter level than SAS 2, and a search of the EGRET data has led to an upper limit of 5 x 10(exp -2) black hole decays per cu pc per yr, placing constraints on this and other theories predicting microsecond high-energy gamma-ray bursts.

  12. The First Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Stanbro, M.; Zhang, B.; Bhat, N.; Fishman, G. J.; Roberts, O.; Fitzpatrick, G.; McBreen, S.; Grove, J. E.; Chekhtman, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present summary results from the first catalog of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Space Telescope. The catalog is expected to contain about 2600 TGFs and will be released both online, to conveniently provide the community with TGF parameters, and as a publication. Since the launch of Fermi in 2008 the TGF detection sensitivity of GBM has been improved several times, both in the flight software and in ground analysis. Starting in 2010 July individual photons were downloaded for portions of the orbits, enabling an off-line search that found weaker and shorter TGFs. Since 2012 November 26 this telemetry mode has been extended to continuous coverage -- in the first year of this data mode 841 TGFs were detected. The TGF sample is reliable, with cosmic rays rejected using data both from Fermi GBM and from the Large Area Telescope on Fermi. The online catalog will include times (UTC and solar), spacecraft geographic positions, durations, count intensities and other parameters (e.g., see the Bayesian Block analysis by O. Roberts). There will be separate tables for bright TGFs detected by the flight software and Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs).

  13. A study of gamma ray burst continuum properties presnting evidence for two spectral states in bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Paciesas, William S.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Koshut, Tom M.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Harmon, B. A.; Lestrade, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the existence of two spectral states contributing simultaneously to the total spectrum observed in many gamma-ray bursts (GRB's). An ensemble of 120 GRB's measured by BATSE were studied, using 4 channel spectral data, to determine in which bursts the spectral states can be most effectively resolved. The technique of summing the low intensity spectra together to get an average spectrum allows for precise characterization of the average low intensity spectral behavior. The 4 and 16 channel spectra obtained by the BATSE Large Area Detectors (LAD's) are analyzed using a model-independent spectral inversion technique. The results of these analyses applied to an individual burst are discussed in detail.

  14. Very Large Array Detects Radio Emission from Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    Astronomers have used the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to make the first detection of radio emission from a cosmic gamma-ray burst. This sheds the first light on longstanding questions about the actual physics of these mysterious, tremendously energetic events. "The mere discovery of radio emission from this gamma-ray burst rules out some theoretical models," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. "We are still observing it and each additional observation will help further discriminate among competing models." "This detection may finally tell us what these mysterious gamma-ray bursts are, helping to resolve one of the biggest mysteries in astrophysics," said Hugh Van Horn, Director of the NSF's Division of Astronomical Sciences. The VLA detection was made by some of the same scientists who announced yesterday that optical observations showed that gamma-ray bursts come from great distances. In addition to Frail, the VLA astronomers are: Shri Kulkarni of Caltech and the BeppoSAX Gamma-Ray Burst Team, consisting of Luciano Nicastro, Eliana Palazi, Enrico Costa, Marco Feroci, Luigi Piro, Fillipo Frontera, and John Heise. The burst of gamma rays was detected May 8 by the Italian-Dutch satellite BeppoSAX. Hundreds of such bursts have been recorded by satellites in the past 30 years, but last week's event already has become the most scientifically significant of them all. For years, the difficulty of precisely locating the bursts' position in the sky made it nearly impossible to study them with optical and radio instruments. In late 1996, this situation improved with the launch of BeppoSAX, which can pinpoint the bursts' location much more accurately than previous spacecraft. Following BeppoSAX discoveries, optical and radio astronomers have been able to make quick observations of the burst locations. The largest unanswered question about gamma-ray bursts has been their

  15. How Sample Completeness Affects Gamma-Ray Burst Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkila, Jon; Giblin, Timothy W.; Roiger, Richard J.; Haglin, David J.; Paciesas, William S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Unsupervised pattern recognition algorithms support the existence of three gamma-ray burst classes; class I (long, large fluence bursts of intermediate spectral hardness), Class II (short, small fluence, hard bursts), and class III (soft bursts of intermediate durations and fluences). The algorithms surprisingly assign larger membership to class III than to either of the other two classes. A known systematic bias has been previously used to explain the existence of class III in terms of class I; this bias allows the fluences and durations of some bursts to be underestimated. We show that this bias primarily affects only the longest bursts and cannot explain the bulk of the class III properties. We resolve the question of class III existence by demonstrating how samples obtained using standard trigger mechanisms fail to preserve the duration characteristics of small peak flux bursts: (Sample incompleteness is thus primarily responsible for the existence of class III.) In order to avoid this incompleteness, we show how a new dual timescale peak flux can be defined in terms of peak flux and fluence. The dual timescale peak flux reserves the duration distribution of faint bursts and correlates either with spectral hardness (and presumably redshift) than either peak flux or fluence. The techniques presented here are generic and have applicability to the studies of other transient events. The results also indicate that pattern recognition algorithms are sensitive to sample completeness; this can influence the study of large astronomical databases such as those found in a Virtual Observatory.

  16. The Average Intensity and Spectral Evolution of Batse Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Chernenko, Anton M.; Pozanenko, Alexei S.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Sagdeev, Roald Z.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical studies of BATSE gamma-ray bursts are presented: we average the time profiles, aligning the events at their highest peaks. Using the time histories in different energy channels, we summarize the general features of the average intensity and spectral evolution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBS) and compare the average evolution of bright and dim events. While no differences are found between the average intensity histories, the average hardness ratio histories demonstrate a hardness/brightness correlation. The observed lack of differences between the intensity histories of bright and dim bursts is incompatible with cosmological time dilation effects predicted by simple cosmological models. The combined results of no intensity history difference but a hardness history difference between bright and dim bursts places constraints on galactic models for the origin of GRBS.

  17. PROBING EXTRAGALACTIC DUST THROUGH NEARBY GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, S. L.; Li Aigen E-mail: lia@missouri.ed

    2010-02-10

    The quantities and wavelength dependencies of the dust extinction along the lines of sight toward 33 nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with redshifts z < 2 are derived from fitting their afterglow spectral energy distributions. Unlike previous studies which often assume a specific extinction law like that of the Milky Way (MW) and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC/SMC), our approach-we call it the 'Drude' approach-is more flexible in determining the true wavelength dependence of the extinction (while the shape of the extinction curve inferred from that relying on a priori assumption of a template extinction law is, of course, fixed). The extinction curves deduced from the Drude approach display a wide diversity of shapes, ranging from relatively flat curves to curves which are featureless and steeply rise toward the far-ultraviolet, and from curves just like that of the MW, LMC, and SMC to curves resembling that of the MW and LMC but lacking the 2175 A bump. The visual extinction A{sub V} derived from the Drude approach is generally larger by a factor of {approx}2-5 than that inferred by assuming a SMC-type template extinction law. Consistent with previous studies, the extinction-to-gas ratio is mostly smaller than that of the MW, and does not seem to correlate with the shape of the extinction curve. It is shown that the standard silicate-graphite interstellar grain model closely reproduces the extinction curves of all 33 GRBs host galaxies. For these 33 bursts at z < 2, we find no evidence for the evolution of the dust extinction, dust sizes, and relative abundances of silicate to graphite on redshifts.

  18. Gamma-ray bursts in the comoving frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Nava, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Celotti, A.; Burlon, D.; Covino, S.; Melandri, A.

    2012-02-01

    We estimate the bulk Lorentz factor Γ0 of 31 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using the measured peak time of their afterglow light curves. We consider two possible scenarios for the estimate of Γ0: the case of a homogeneous circumburst medium or a wind density profile. The values of Γ0 are broadly distributed between few tens and several hundreds with average values ˜138 and ˜66 for the homogeneous and wind density profile, respectively. We find that the isotropic energy and luminosity correlate in a similar way with Γ0, i.e. ? and ?, while the peak energy Epeak∝Γ0. These correlations are less scattered in the wind density profile than in the homogeneous case. We then study the energetics, luminosities and spectral properties of our bursts in their comoving frame. The distribution of ? is very narrow with a dispersion of less than a decade in the wind case, clustering around ? erg s-1. Peak photon energies cluster around ?˜ 6 keV. The newly found correlations involving Γ0 offer a general interpretation scheme for the spectral energy correlation of GRBs. The Epeak-Eiso and Epeak-Liso correlations are due to the different Γ0 factors and the collimation-corrected correlation, Epeak-Eγ (obtained by correcting the isotropic quantities for the jet opening angle θj), can be explained if ?= constant. Assuming the Epeak-Eγ correlation as valid, we find a typical value of θjΓ0˜ 6-20, in agreement with the predictions of magnetically accelerated jet models.

  19. Accessing the population of high-redshift Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Ghisellini, G.; Mereghetti, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Osborne, J. P.; O'Brien, P.; Tanvir, N.; Willingale, D.; Amati, L.; Basa, S.; Bernardini, M. G.; Burlon, D.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Frontera, F.; Götz, D.; Melandri, A.; Nava, L.; Piro, L.; Vergani, S. D.

    2015-04-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are a powerful probe of the high-redshift Universe. We present a tool to estimate the detection rate of high-z GRBs by a generic detector with defined energy band and sensitivity. We base this on a population model that reproduces the observed properties of GRBs detected by Swift, Fermi and CGRO in the hard X-ray and γ-ray bands. We provide the expected cumulative distributions of the flux and fluence of simulated GRBs in different energy bands. We show that scintillator detectors, operating at relatively high energies (e.g. tens of keV to the MeV), can detect only the most luminous GRBs at high redshifts due to the link between the peak spectral energy and the luminosity (Epeak-Liso) of GRBs. We show that the best strategy for catching the largest number of high-z bursts is to go softer (e.g. in the soft X-ray band) but with a very high sensitivity. For instance, an imaging soft X-ray detector operating in the 0.2-5 keV energy band reaching a sensitivity, corresponding to a fluence, of ˜10-8 erg cm-2 is expected to detect ≈40 GRBs yr-1 sr-1 at z ≥ 5 (≈3 GRBs yr-1 sr-1 at z ≥ 10). Once high-z GRBs are detected the principal issue is to secure their redshift. To this aim we estimate their NIR afterglow flux at relatively early times and evaluate the effectiveness of following them up and construct usable samples of events with any forthcoming GRB mission dedicated to explore the high-z Universe.

  20. HYPERACCRETING BLACK HOLE AS GAMMA-RAY BURST CENTRAL ENGINE. I. BARYON LOADING IN GAMMA-RAY BURST JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Lei Weihua; Zhang Bing; Liang Enwei E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2013-03-10

    A hyperaccreting stellar-mass black hole has been long speculated as the best candidate for the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Recent rich observations of GRBs by space missions such as Swift and Fermi pose new constraints on GRB central engine models. In this paper, we study the baryon-loading processes of a GRB jet launched from a black hole central engine. We consider a relativistic jet powered by {nu} {nu}-bar -annihilation or by the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism. We consider baryon loading from a neutrino-driven wind launched from a neutrino-cooling-dominated accretion flow. For a magnetically dominated BZ jet, we consider neutron drifting from the magnetic wall surrounding the jet and subsequent positron capture and proton-neutron inelastic collisions. The minimum baryon loads in both types of jet are calculated. We find that in both cases a more luminous jet tends to be more baryon poor. A neutrino-driven ''fireball'' is typically ''dirtier'' than a magnetically dominated jet, while a magnetically dominated jet can be much cleaner. Both models have the right scaling to interpret the empirical {Gamma}-L{sub iso} relation discovered recently. Since some neutrino-driven jets have too much baryon loading as compared with the data, we suggest that at least a good fraction of GRBs should have a magnetically dominated central engine.

  1. Bayesian Block Analysis of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes Detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, O.; Fitzpatrick, G.; McBreen, S.; Briggs, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is one of two instruments aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Since the launch of the spacecraft in 2008, a sequence of flight software enhancements and new observing modes have resulted in the detection of over 2500 Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) by GBM. As a result, a catalogue of TGFs will be published and released online to provide the community with information on the most important characteristics of these TGFs. We will present a Bayesian Block analysis of the TGFs of this catalogue, obtaining for this large sample size the durations, peak times, hardness ratios, and delays between soft and hard counts.

  2. Properties of gamma-ray burst progenitor stars.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Narayan, Ramesh; Johnson, Jarrett L

    2008-07-18

    We determined some basic properties of stars that produce spectacular gamma-ray bursts at the end of their lives. We assumed that accretion of the outer portion of the stellar core by a central black hole fuels the prompt emission and that fall-back and accretion of the stellar envelope later produce the plateau in the x-ray light curve seen in some bursts. Using x-ray data for three bursts, we estimated the radius of the stellar core to be approximately (1 - 3) x 10(10) cm and that of the stellar envelope to be approximately (1 - 2) x 10(11) cm. The density profile in the envelope is fairly shallow, with rho approximately r(-2) (where rho is density and r is distance from the center of the explosion). The rotation speeds of the core and envelope are approximately 0.05 and approximately 0.2 of the local Keplerian speed, respectively.

  3. The Intensity Distribution of Faint Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kommers, Jefferson; Lewin, Walter H.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; vanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    We have recently completed a search of 6 years of archival Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) data for gamma-ray bursts (GRBS) that were too faint to activate the real-time burst detection system running onboard the spacecraft. These "non-triggered" bursts can be combined with the "triggered" bursts detected onboard to produce a GRB intensity distribution that reaches peak fluxes a factor of approximately 2 lower than could be studied previously. The value of the (V/V(max)) statistic (in Euclidean space) for the bursts we detect is 0.177 +/- 0.006. This surprisingly low value is obtained because we detected very few bursts on the 4.096 s and 8.192 s time scales (where most bursts have their highest signal-to-noise ratio) that were not already detected on the 1.024 s time scale. If allowance is made for a power-law distribution of intrinsic peak luminosities, the extended peak flux distribution is consistent with models in which the redshift distribution of the gamma-ray burst rate approximately traces the star formation history of the Universe. We argue that this class of models is preferred over those in which the burst rate is independent of redshift. These results lend support to the conclusions of previous studies predicting that relatively few faint bursts are waiting to be found below the BATSE onboard detection threshold.

  4. TWO POPULATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURST RADIO AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, P. J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murphy, T.

    2013-10-20

    The detection rate of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows is ∼30% at radio wavelengths, much lower than in the X-ray (∼95%) or optical (∼70%) bands. The cause of this low radio detection rate has previously been attributed to limited observing sensitivity. We use visibility stacking to test this idea, and conclude that the low detection rate is instead due to two intrinsically different populations of GRBs: radio-bright and radio-faint. We calculate that no more than 70% of GRB afterglows are truly radio-bright, leaving a significant population of GRBs that lack a radio afterglow. These radio-bright GRBs have higher gamma-ray fluence, isotropic energies, X-ray fluxes, and optical fluxes than the radio-faint GRBs, thus confirming the existence of two physically distinct populations. We suggest that the gamma-ray efficiency of the prompt emission is responsible for the difference between the two populations. We also discuss the implications for future radio and optical surveys.

  5. GRB 090727 and Gamma-Ray Bursts with Early-time Optical Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopač, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Gomboc, A.; Japelj, J.; Mundell, C. G.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.; Bersier, D.; Cano, Z.; Smith, R. J.; Steele, I. A.; Virgili, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of Swift gamma-ray burst GRB 090727, for which optical emission was detected during the prompt gamma-ray emission by the 2 m autonomous robotic Liverpool Telescope and subsequently monitored for a further two days with the Liverpool and Faulkes Telescopes. Within the context of the standard fireball model, we rule out a reverse shock origin for the early-time optical emission in GRB 090727 and instead conclude that the early-time optical flash likely corresponds to emission from an internal dissipation process. Putting GRB 090727 into a broader observational and theoretical context, we build a sample of 36 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with contemporaneous early-time optical and gamma-ray detections. From these GRBs, we extract a sub-sample of 18 GRBs, which show optical peaks during prompt gamma-ray emission, and perform detailed temporal and spectral analysis in gamma-ray, X-ray, and optical bands. We find that in most cases early-time optical emission shows sharp and steep behavior, and notice a rich diversity of spectral properties. Using a simple internal shock dissipation model, we show that the emission during prompt GRB phase can occur at very different frequencies via synchrotron radiation. Based on the results obtained from observations and simulation, we conclude that the standard external shock interpretation for early-time optical emission is disfavored in most cases due to sharp peaks (Δt/t < 1) and steep rise/decay indices, and that internal dissipation can explain the properties of GRBs with optical peaks during gamma-ray emission.

  6. Search for Very High Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts using Milagro

    SciTech Connect

    Saz Parkinson, P. M.

    2007-07-12

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) have been detected at GeV energies by EGRET and models predict emission at > 100 GeV. Milagro is a wide field (2 sr) high duty cycle (> 90%) ground based water Cherenkov detector that records extensive air showers in the energy range 100 GeV to 100 TeV. We have searched for very high energy emission from a sample of 106 gamma-ray bursts (GRB) detected since the beginning of 2000 by BATSE, BeppoSax, HETE-2, INTEGRAL, Swift or the IPN. No evidence for emission from any of the bursts has been found and we present upper limits from these bursts.

  7. Analysis and Interpretation of Gamma-Ray Burst Continuum Spectral Evolution with BATSE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crider, Anthony Wayne

    1999-10-01

    Once a day, a flash of gamma-rays erupts somewhere in space and is detected by an international fleet of satellites. Since their first detection over a quarter century ago, these gamma-ray bursts have puzzled researchers who could not determine their distance, emission mechanism, or progenitor. Much of this confusion arose as theorists attempted to create a single model to explain what we now believe are at least two, and probably more, populations of gamma-ray transients. Within the past two years, thanks largely to the Dutch-Italian satellite BeppoSAX, astronomers discovered that bursts have multiwavelength fading afterglows. This helped them determine that most gamma-ray bursts are from distant galaxies. However, it did not answer the questions regarding the emission mechanism or the progenitor. We place constraints on the emission mechanism by closely examining the spectral evolution of gamma-ray bursts observed by the American instrument BATSE. From a sample of 41 distinct pulses in 26 bright gamma-ray bursts, we have determined that the pulses appear to be radiatively cooling. We also studied the evolving spectral shape in 79 bursts. In particular, we found that both the range and evolution of the spectral index below the spectral break conflict with the predictions of a popular synchrotron shock model. They instead suggest inverse Comptonization in a hybrid thermal plus nonthermal plasma as the emission mechanism. With our Monte Carlo codes, we have begun the generation of a library of inverse Compton spectra. Using them, we have made preliminary fits to two bursts with prompt multiwavelength data. The characteristic "terrace-shaped" Compton spectrum is evident in both using BATSE data alone. This shape appears to be confirmed for the January 1, 1997 burst using BeppoSAX X-ray data and for the January 23, 1999 burst using optical data from the ground-based robotic telescope, ROTSE. Both bursts appear to be enshrouded in a material with a high initial Thomson

  8. Gravitational waves and neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are not only strong sources of gammaray emission, but also of neutrinos and gravitational waves (GWs). Observat.ions of these particles can provide a good deal of insight into the progenitor and engine behind these outbursts. But to do so, these particles must be detected . Here we review the different phases of GW and neutrino emission from a range of GRB progenitors, outlining the features and detectability of these phases. Unfortunately, except for a few cases, the detection of non-photon emission is very difficult. But the potential gain from any detection make understanding these sources critically important.

  9. Cyclotron scattering lines in gamma-ray burst spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Preece, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    If cyclotron scattering, rather than absorption, is responsible for the line features observed recently in two gamma-ray burst spectra (Murakami et al., 1988), then the second and higher harmonics are due to resonant scattering events that excite the electron to Landau levels above the ground state. Here, relativistic Compton scattering cross sections are used to estimate the expected ratio of third to second harmonics in the presence of Doppler broadening. At the field strength (1.7 TG) required to give first and second harmonics at 19 keV and 38 keV, there should be no detectable third harmonic in the spectrum.

  10. Delayed hard photons from gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. I.

    1994-01-01

    The delayed hard (up to 25 GeV) photons observed more than an hour following a gamma-ray burst on 1994 February 17 may result from the collisions of relativistic nucleons with a dense cloud, producing pi(0). The required cloud density is approx. 2 x 10(exp 11)/cu cm. This cloud may be the remains of the disrupted envelope of a neutron star, and may survive as an excretion disk of approx. 10(exp 14) - 10 (exp 15) cm radius around the coalescing binary.

  11. Identification of two classes of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Bhat, Narayana P.; Briggs, Michael S.; Koshut, Thomas M.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the duration distribution of the gamma-ray bursts of the first BATSE catalog. We find a bimodality in the distribution, which separates GRBs into two classes: short events (less than 2 s) and longer ones (more than 2 s). Both sets are distributed isotropically and inhomogeneously in the sky. We find that their durations are anticorrelated with their spectral hardness ratios: short GRBs are predominantly harder, and longer ones tend to be softer. Our results provide a first GRB classification scheme based on a combination of the GRB temporal and spectral properties.

  12. BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. 2: Peak energy evolution in bright, long bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. A.; Band, D. L.; Matteson, J. L.; Briggs, M. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Preece, R. D.; Paciesas, W. S.; Teegarden, B. J.; Palmer, D. M.; Schaefer, B. E.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate spectral evolution in 37 bright, long gamma-ray bursts observed with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) spectroscopy detectors. High-resolution spectra are chracterized by the energy of the peak of nu F(sub nu), and the evolution of this quantity is examined relative to the emission intensity. In most cases it is found that this peak energy either rises with or slightly precedes major intensity increases and softens for the remainder of the pulse. Interpulse emission is generally harder early in the burst. For bursts with multiple intensity pulses, later spikes tend to be softer than earlier ones, indicating that the energy of the peak of nu F(sub nu) is bounded by an envelope which decays with time. Evidence is found that bursts in which the bulk of the flux comes well after the event which triggers the instrument tend to show less peak energy variability and are not as hard as several bursts in which the emission occurs promptly after the trigger. Several recently proposed burst models are examined in light of these results and no qualitative conflicts with the observations presented here are found.

  13. Spectral-luminosity relation within individual Fermi gamma rays bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Nava, L.; Ghisellini, G.

    2010-02-01

    We study the spectra of all long gamma ray bursts (GRBs) of known redshift detected by the Fermi satellite untill the end of July 2009. Their fluxes and fluences are large enough to allow a time dependent study of their spectral characteristics in the 8 keV-1 MeV energy range. We find that the peak energy Epeak of their EL(E) spectrum correlates with the luminosity in a remarkably tight way within individual bursts. This time-resolved Epeak - Liso correlation is very similar for all the considered bursts and has a slope and normalisation similar to the analogous Epeak - Liso correlation defined by the time-integrated spectra of different bursts detected by several different satellites. For a few of the considered GRBs, we could also study the behaviour of the Epeak - Liso correlation during the rising and decaying phases of individual pulses within each burst, finding no differences. Our results indicate the presence of a similar physical mechanism, operating for the duration of different GRBs, tightly linking the burst luminosity with the peak energy of the spectrum emitted at different times. Such a physical mechanism is the same during the rise and decay phase of individual pulses composing a GRB. While calling for a robust physical interpretation, these results strongly indicate that the Epeak - Liso spectral energy correlation found considering the time-integrated spectra of different bursts is real and not the result of instrumental selection effects.

  14. Stacked search for time shifted high energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursts with the Antares neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Müller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    A search for high-energy neutrino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts outside the electromagnetic prompt-emission time window is presented. Using a stacking approach of the time delays between reported gamma-ray burst alerts and spatially coincident muon-neutrino signatures, data from the Antares neutrino telescope recorded between 2007 and 2012 are analysed. One year of public data from the IceCube detector between 2008 and 2009 have been also investigated. The respective timing profiles are scanned for statistically significant accumulations within 40 days of the Gamma Ray Burst, as expected from Lorentz Invariance Violation effects and some astrophysical models. No significant excess over the expected accidental coincidence rate could be found in either of the two data sets. The average strength of the neutrino signal is found to be fainter than one detectable neutrino signal per hundred gamma-ray bursts in the Antares data at 90% confidence level.

  15. Cosmological blueshifting may explain the gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasiński, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that the basic observed properties of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are accounted for if one assumes that the GRBs arise by blueshifting the emission radiation of hydrogen and helium generated during the last scattering epoch. The blueshift generator for a single GRB is a region with a nonconstant bang-time function tB(r ) (described by a Lemaître-Tolman (L-T) exact solution of Einstein's equations) matched into a homogeneous and isotropic (Friedmann) background. Blueshift visible to the present observer arises only on those rays that are emitted radially in an L-T region. The paper presents three L-T models with different Big Bang profiles, adapted for the highest and the lowest end of the GRB frequency range. The models account for (1) the observed frequency range of the GRBs; (2) their limited duration; (3) the afterglows; (4) their hypothetical collimation into narrow jets; (5) the large distances to their sources; (6) the multitude of the observed GRBs. Properties (2), (3) and (6) are accounted for only qualitatively. With a small correction of the parameters of the model, the implied perturbations of the CMB radiation will be consistent with those actually caused by the GRBs. A complete model of the Universe would consist of many L-T regions with different tB(r ) profiles, matched into the same Friedmann background. This paper is meant to be an initial exploration of the possibilities offered by models of this kind; the actual fitting of all parameters to observational results requires fine-tuning of several interconnected variables and is left for a separate study.

  16. Short Gamma-Ray Bursts with Extended Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, J. P.; Bonnell, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    The recent association of several short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with early type galaxies with low star formation rate demonstrates that short bursts arise from a different progenitor mechanism than long bursts. However, since the duration distributions of the two classes overlap, membership is not always easily established. The picture is complicated by the occasional presence of softer, extended emission lasting tens of seconds after the initial spike- like emission comprising an otherwise short burst. Using the large BATSE sample with time-tagged event (TTE) data, we show that the fundamental defining characteristic of the short burst class is that the initial spike exhibits negligible spectral evolution at energies above approx. 25 keV. This is behavior is nearly ubiquitous for the 260 bursts with T(sub 90) less than 2s where the BATSE TTE data type completely included the initial spike: Their spectral lags measured between the 25-50 keV and 100-300 energy ranges are consistent with zero in 90-95% of the cases, with most outliers probably representing the tail of the long burst class. We also analyze a small sample of "short" BATSE bursts - those with the most fluent, intense extended emission. The same lack of evolution on the pulse timescale obtains for the extended emission in the brighter bursts where significant measurements can be made. One possible inference is that both emission components may arise in the same region. We also show that the dynamic range in the ratio of peak intensities, spike : extended, is at least approx. l0(exp 3), and that for some bursts, the extended emission is only a factor of 2-5 lower. However, for our whole sample the total counts fluence of the extended component equals or exceeds that in the spike by a factor of several.

  17. Relationships between log N-log S and celestial distribution of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, J.; Yamagami, T.

    1985-01-01

    The apparent conflict between log N-log S curve and isotropic celestial distribution of the gamma ray bursts is discussed. A possible selection effect due to the time profile of each burst is examined. It is shown that the contradiction is due to this selection effect of the gamma ray bursts.

  18. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with the Swift Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the most fascinating occurrences in the universe. They are powerful explosions, visible to high redshift, and thought to be the signature of black hole formation. The Swift Observatory has been detecting 100 bursts per year for 4 years and has greatly stimulated the field with new findings. Observations are made of the X-ray and optical afterglow from approximately 1 minute after the burst, continuing for days. Evidence is building that the long and short duration subcategories of GRBs have very different origins: massive star core collapse to a black hole for long bursts and binary neutron star coalescence to a black hole for short bursts. The similarity to Type II and Ia supernovae originating from young and old stellar progenitors is striking. Bursts are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. Swift has detected several events at z>5 and one at z=6.7 giving metallicity measurements and other data on galaxies at previously inaccessible distances. The talk will present the latest results from Swift in GRB astronomy.

  19. Gamma Ray Burst Discoveries with the Swift Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the most fascinating occurrences in the universe. They are powerful explosions, visible to high redshift, and thought to be the signature of black hole formation. The Swift Observatory has been detecting 100 bursts per year for 3 years and has greatly stimulated the field with new findings. Observations are made of the X-ray and optical afterglow from - 1 minute after the burst, continuing for days. Evidence is building that the long and short duration subcategories of GRBs have very different origins: massive star core collapse to a black hole for long bursts and binary neutron star coalescence to a black hole for short bursts. The similarity to Type I1 and Ia supernovae originating from young and old stellar progenitors is striking. Bursts are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. Swift has detected several events at z>5 and one at z=6.3 giving metallicity measurements and other data on galaxies at previously inaccessible distances. The talk will present the latest results from Swift in GRB astronomy.

  20. THRESHOLD FOR EXTENDED EMISSION IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels, Neil

    2010-07-01

    The initial pulse complex (IPC) in short gamma-ray bursts is sometimes accompanied by a softer, low-intensity extended emission (EE) component. In cases where such a component is not observed, it is not clear if it is present but below the detection threshold. Using Bayesian Block (BB) methods, we measure the EE component and show that it is present in one-quarter of a Swift/BAT sample of 51 short bursts, as was found for the Compton/BATSE sample. We simulate bursts with EE to calibrate the BAT threshold for EE detection and show that this component would have been detected in nearly half of BAT short bursts if it were present, to intensities {approx}10{sup -2} counts cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, a factor of 5 lower than actually observed in short bursts. In the BAT sample, the ratio of average EE intensity to IPC peak intensity, R{sub int}, ranges over a factor of 25, R{sub int} {approx} 3 x 10{sup -3} to 8 x 10{sup -2}. In comparison, for the average of the 39 bursts without an EE component, the 2{sigma} upper limit is R{sub int} < 8 x 10{sup -4}. These results suggest that a physical threshold effect operates near R{sub int} {approx} few x 10{sup -3} below which the EE component is not manifest.

  1. A unifying view of gamma-ray burst afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Nardini, M.; Ghirlanda, G.; Celotti, A.

    2009-02-01

    We selected a sample of 33 gamma-ray bursts detected by Swift, with known redshift and optical extinction at the host frame. For these, we constructed the de-absorbed and K-corrected X-ray and optical rest-frame light curves. These are modelled as the sum of two components: emission from the forward shock due to the interaction of a fireball with the circumburst medium and an additional component, treated in a completely phenomenological way. The latter can be identified, among other possibilities, as a `late prompt' emission produced by a long-lived central engine with mechanisms similar to those responsible for the production of the `standard' early prompt radiation. Apart from flares or re-brightenings, that we do not model, we find a good agreement with the data, despite of their complexity and diversity. Although based, in part, on a phenomenological model with a relatively large number of free parameters, we believe that our findings are a first step towards the construction of a more physical scenario. Our approach allows us to interpret the behaviour of the optical and X-ray afterglows in a coherent way, by a relatively simple scenario. Within this context, it is possible to explain why sometimes no jet break is observed; why, even if a jet break is observed, it is often chromatic and why the steepening after the jet break time is often shallower than predicted. Finally, the decay slope of the late prompt emission after the shallow phase is found to be remarkably similar to the time profile expected by the accretion rate of fall-back material (i.e. ~ t-5/3), suggesting that this can be the reason why the central engine can be active for a long time.

  2. EGRET detection of high energy gamma rays from the gamma-ray burst of 3 May 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneid, E. J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    On May 3, 1991, the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detected a gamma-ray burst both in the energy measurement subsystem and independently in the spark chamber assembly. Six individual photons were detected in the spark chamber, allowing a determination of the burst arrival direction which was l(II) = 171.9 deg +/- 1.3 deg, b(II) = 5.3 deg +/- 1.1 deg. Three energy spectra were measured from 1 to 200 MeV; they were measured during the first second after the Burst and Transient Sources Experiment trigger, the next two seconds, and the subsequent four seconds. The first two spectra exhibit a similar differential spectra index of about -2.2 with no apparent high-energy cut-off. By the time of the third spectrum, an additional soft component is evident.

  3. On the possible gamma-ray burst-gravitational wave association in GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiuk, Agnieszka; Bejger, M.; Charzyński, S.; Sukova, P.

    2017-02-01

    Data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor satellite observatory suggested that the recently discovered gravitational wave source, a pair of two coalescing black holes, was related to a gamma-ray burst. The observed high-energy electromagnetic radiation (above 50 keV) originated from a weak transient source and lasted for about 1 s. Its localization is consistent with the direction to GW150914. We speculate about the possible scenario for the formation of a gamma-ray burst accompanied by the gravitational-wave signal. Our model invokes a tight binary system consisting of a massive star and a black hole which leads to the triggering of a collapse of the star's nucleus, the formation of a second black hole, and finally to the binary black hole merger. For the most-likely configuration of the binary spin vectors with respect to the orbital angular momentum in the GW150914 event, the recoil speed (kick velocity) acquired by the final black hole through gravitational wave emission is of the order of a few hundred km/s and this might be sufficient to get it closer to the envelope of surrounding material and capture a small fraction of matter from the remnant of the host star. The gamma-ray burst is produced by the accretion of this remnant matter onto the final black hole. The moderate spin of the final black hole suggests that the gamma-ray burst jet is powered by weak neutrino emission rather than the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, and hence explains the low power available for the observed GRB signal.

  4. Gamma ray bursts: A review of recent high-precision measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Recent measurements and discoveries in gamma ray bursts and transients are reviewed including observations of the red shifted annihilation line in two kinds of slow transients (in 'classical' gamma ray bursts and in the unique 1979 March 5th event); of red shifted nuclear lines in a slow transient and in one gamma ray burst; and of the positions of precise source locations of gamma ray bursts and of the March 5th event, within the supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  5. Gamma-Ray Bursts, Collisionless Shocks and Synthetic Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hededal, Christian

    2005-06-01

    The radiation from afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) is generated in collisionless plasma shocks. The two main ingredients behind the radiation are high-energy, non-thermal electrons and a strong magnetic field. I argue that in order to make the right conclusions about gamma-ray burst and afterglow parameters from observations, it is crucial to have a firm understanding of the microphysics of collisionless shock. I present the results of self-consistent, three-dimensional particle-in-cell computational simulations of the collision of weakly magnetized plasma shells: The experiments show how a plasma instability generates a magnetic field in the shock. The field has strength up to percents of the equipartition value. The experiments also reveal a new, non-thermal electron acceleration mechanism that differs substantially from Fermi acceleration. Finally, I present the results from a new numerical tool that enables us to extract synthetic radiation spectra directly from the experiments. The preliminary results differ from synchrotron radiation but are consistent with GRB afterglow observations. I conclude that strong magnetic field generation, non-thermal particle acceleration and the emission of radiation that is consistent with GRB afterglow observations, are all unavoidable consequences of the collision between two relativistic plasma shells.

  6. Predicting supernova associated to gamma-ray burst 130427a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Ruffini, R.; Kovacevic, M.; Bianco, C. L.; Enderli, M.; Muccino, M.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Pisani, G. B.; Rueda, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    Binary systems constituted by a neutron star and a massive star are not rare in the universe. The Induced Gravitational Gamma-ray Burst (IGC) paradigm interprets Gamma-ray bursts as the outcome of a neutron star that collapses into a black hole due to the accretion of the ejecta coming from its companion massive star that underwent a supernova event. GRB 130427A is one of the most luminous GRBs ever observed, of which isotropic energy exceeds 1054 erg. And it is within one of the few GRBs obtained optical, X-ray and GeV spectra simultaneously for hundreds of seconds, which provides an unique opportunity so far to understand the multi-wavelength observation within the IGC paradigm, our data analysis found low Lorentz factor blackbody emission in the Episode 3 and its X-ray light curve overlaps typical IGC Golden Sample, which comply to the IGC mechanisms. We consider these findings as clues of GRB 130427A belonging to the IGC GRBs. We predicted on GCN the emergence of a supernova on May 2, 2013, which was later successfully detected on May 13, 2013.

  7. Measuring Cosmological Parameters with Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, Lorenzo; Valle, Massimo Della

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) emit in a few dozen of seconds up to ~1054 erg, in terms of isotropic equivalent radiated energy Eiso, therefore they can be observed up to z ~ 10 and appear very promising tools to describe the expansion rate history of the Universe. In this paper we review the use of the Ep,i-Eiso correlation of Gamma-Ray Bursts to measure ΩM. We show that the present data set of GRBs, coupled with the assumption that we live in a flat universe, can provide indipendent evidence, from other probes, that ΩM~0.3. We show that current (e.g., Swift, Fermi/GBM, Konus-WIND) and next GRB experiments (e.g., CALET/GBM, SVOM, Lomonosov/UFFO, LOFT/WFM) will allow us, within a few years, to constrain ΩM and the evolution of dark energy with time, with an accuracy comparable to that currently exhibited by SNe-Ia.

  8. Gamma-ray burst afterglows from transrelativistic blast wave simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Leventis, K.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Keppens, R.

    2010-03-01

    We present a study of the intermediate regime between ultrarelativistic and non-relativistic flow for gamma-ray burst afterglows. The hydrodynamics of spherically symmetric blast waves is numerically calculated using the AMRVAC adaptive mesh refinement code. Spectra and light curves are calculated using a separate radiation code that, for the first time, links a parametrization of the microphysics of shock acceleration, synchrotron self-absorption and electron cooling to a high-performance hydrodynamic simulation. For the dynamics, we find that the transition to the non-relativistic regime generally occurs later than expected, the Sedov-Taylor solution overpredicts the late-time blast wave radius and the analytical formula for the blast wave velocity from Huang, Dai & Lu overpredicts the late-time velocity by a factor of 4/3. Also, we find that the lab frame density directly behind the shock front divided by the fluid Lorentz factor squared remains very close to four times the unshocked density, while the effective adiabatic index of the shock changes from relativistic to non-relativistic. For the radiation, we find that the flux may differ up to an order of magnitude depending on the equation of state that is used for the fluid and that the counterjet leads to a clear rebrightening at late times for hard-edged jets. Simulating GRB 030329 using predictions for its physical parameters from the literature leads to spectra and light curves that may differ significantly from the actual data, emphasizing the need for very accurate modelling. Predicted light curves at low radio frequencies for a hard-edged jet model of GRB 030329 with opening angle 22° show typically two distinct peaks, due to the combined effect of jet break, non-relativistic break and counterjet. Spatially resolved afterglow images show a ring-like structure.

  9. Null Result in gamma-ray burst lensed echo search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemiroff, R. J.; Wickramasinghe, W. A. D. T.; Norris, J. P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Horack, J.

    1994-01-01

    We have searched for gravitational-lens-induced echoes between gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) data. The search was conducted in two phases. In the first phase we compared all GRBs in a brightness-complete sample of the first 260 GRBs with recorded angular positions having at least a 5% chance of being coincident from their combined positional error. In the second phase, we compared all GRB light curves of the first 611 GRBs with recorded angular positions having at least a 55% chance of being coincident from their combined positional error. No unambiguous gravitational lens candidate pairs were found in either phase, although a 'library of close calls' was accumulated for future reference. This result neither excludes nor significantly constrains a cosmological origin for GRBs.

  10. The Decay of Optical Emission from the gamma-Ray Burst GRB970228

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galama, T.; Groot, P. J.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Robinson, C. R.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Sahu, K. C.; Livio, M.; Petro, L.; Macchetto, F. D.; Heise, J.; Int Zand, J.; Strom, R. G.; Telting, J.; Rutten, R. G. M.; Pettini, M.; Tanvir, N.; Bloom, J.

    1997-01-01

    The origin of gamma-ray bursts has been one of the great unsolved mysteries in high-energy astrophysics for almost 30 years. The recent discovery of fading sources at X-ray and optical wavelengths coincident with the location of the gamma-ray burst GRB970228 therefore provides an unprecedented opportunity to probe the nature of these high-energy events. The optical counterpart appears to be a transient point source embedded in a region of extended nebulosity, the latter having been tentatively identified as a high-redshift galaxy. This would seem to favour models that place gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances, although a range of mechanisms for producing the bursts is still allowed. A crucial piece of information for distinguishing between such models is how the brightness of the optical counterpart evolves with time. Here we re-evaluate the existing photometry of the optical counterpart of GRB970228 to construct an optical light curve for the transient event. We find that between 21 hours and six days after the burst, the R-band brightness decreased by a factor of approximately 40, with any subsequent decrease in brightness occurring at a much slower rate. As the point source faded, it also became redder. The initial behaviour of the source appears to be consistent with the 'fireball' model, but the subsequent decrease in the rate of fading may prove harder to explain.

  11. Gamma-ray burst constraints on the galactic frequency of extrasolar Oort Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Stern, S. Alan

    1995-01-01

    With the strong Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory/Burst and Transient Source Experiment (CGRO/BATSE) evidence that most gamma-ray bursts do not come from galactic neutron stars, models involving the accretion of a comet onto a neutron star (NS) no longer appear to be strong contenders for explaining the majority of bursts. If this is the case, then it is worth asking whether the lack of an observed galactic gamma-ray burst population provides a useful constraint on the number of comets and comet clouds in the galaxy. Owing to the previously unrecognized structural weakness of cometary nuclei, we find the capture cross sections for comet-NS events to be much higher than previously published estimates, with tidal breakup at distances R(sub b) approx. equals 4 x 10(exp 10) cm from the NS. As a result, impacts of comets onto field NSs penetrating the Oort Clouds of other stars are found to dominate all other galactic NS-comet capture rates by a factor of 100. This in turn predicts that if comet clouds are common, there should be a significant population of repeater sources with (1) a galactic distribution, (2) space-correlated repetition, and (3) a wide range of peak luminosities and luminosity time histories. If all main sequence stars have Oort Clouds like our own, we predict approximately 4000 such repeater sources in the Milky Way at any time, each repeating on time scales of months to years. Based on estimates of the sensitivity of the CGRO/BATSE instrument and assuming isotropic gamma-ray beaming from such events, we estimate that a population of approximately 20-200 of these galactic NS-Oort Cloud gamma-ray repeater sources should be detectable by CGRO. In addition, if giant planet formation is common in the galaxy, we estimate that the accretion of isolated comets injected to the interstellar medium by giant planet formation should produce an additional source of galactic, nonrepeating, events. Comparing these estimates to the 3-4 soft gamma-ray repeater sources

  12. A search for pre- and post-burst emission from well-localized gamma-ray burst locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emslie, A. Gordon

    1994-01-01

    We present the results from the first long-term search for nonburst gamma-ray emission from the positions of 70 intense, well-localized bursts. Using the BATSE occultation technique, designed for monitoring of discrete sources, these burst positions were measured in the energy range of approximately 15 keV to 1.8 MeV over a 112 day interval during 1991. None of these 70 locations exhibited detectable emission at or above the level of approximately 5 x 10(exp -9) ergs cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) during the 112 day interval. This level is approximately 1000 times less than the typical intensity of the burst associated with the given location. In addition, 35 intense gamma-ray bursts detected by BATSE were examined in a five day interval centered on the time of detection. We find no compelling evidence that these bursts emit preburst emission or display prompt postburst emission at a level of approximately 5 x 10(exp -9) ergs cm(exp 2) s(exp -1) on timescales of approximately 1 hr or longer. The lack of detectable long-term emission or preburst and postburst emission from the positions of gamma-ray bursts has important consequences for a variety of burst production models.

  13. Regulation of the Spectral Peak in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2013-02-01

    Observations indicate that the peak of a gamma-ray burst spectrum forms in the opaque region of an ultrarelativistic jet. Recent radiative transfer calculations support this picture and show that the spectral peak is inherited from initially thermal radiation, which is changed by heating into a broad photon distribution with a high-energy tail. We discuss the processes that regulate the observed position of the spectral peak E pk. The opaque jet has three radial zones: (1) the Planck zone r < R P where a blackbody spectrum is enforced; this zone ends where the Thomson optical depth decreases to τ ≈ 105, (2) the Wien zone R P < r < R W with a Kompaneets parameter y Gt 1 where radiation has a Bose-Einstein spectrum, and (3) the Comptonization zone r > R W where the radiation spectrum develops a high-energy tail. Besides the initial jet temperature, an important factor regulating E pk is internal dissipation (of bulk motions and magnetic energy) at large distances from the central engine. Dissipation in the Planck zone reduces E pk, and dissipation in the Wien zone can increase E pk. In jets with subdominant magnetic fields, the predicted E pk varies around 1 MeV up to a maximum value of about 10 MeV. If the jet carries an energetically important magnetic field, E pk can be additionally increased by dissipation of magnetic energy. This increase is suggested by observations, which show E pk up to about 20 MeV. We also consider magnetically dominated jets; then a simple model of magnetic dissipation gives E pk ≈ 30 ΓW keV where ΓW is the jet Lorentz factor at the Wien radius R W.

  14. Metallicities in long gamma-ray burst host galaxies at z < 0.5 calculated by the detailed modelling of optical and infrared line ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, M.

    2017-04-01

    We revisit the line spectra emitted from long gamma-ray burst (LGRB) host galaxies at z ≤ 0.5 in order to calculate, through the detailed modelling of line ratios, the physical conditions and relative abundances in LGRB hosts in this redshift range. We have found lower metallicities than in LGRB hosts at higher z. New results regarding the metallicities and physical conditions in different regions throughout the LGRB 980425 host at z = 0.0085 are presented. In particular, we have found that the effective starburst temperature in the supernova (SN) region is the highest in the entire host galaxy. The low ionization parameter reveals that the radiation source is far away, or is somehow prevented from reaching the emitting gas in the SN region. Models constrained by a few oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur line ratios to Hβ in the LGRB 980425 host reproduce the He II/Hβ and [Ar III]/Hβ line ratios satisfactorily. Modelling of the observed [S IV]10.51 μm/[S III]18.71 μm and [Ne III]10.6 μm/[Ne II]12.81 μm line ratios from the LGRB 031203 host galaxy at z = 0.105 shows that the mid-infrared lines are emitted from geometrically thin shock-dominated filaments that are not reached by photoionizing flux, while the optical lines are emitted from radiation-dominated outflowing clouds.

  15. ARE ULTRA-LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS DIFFERENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Boër, M.; Gendre, B.; Stratta, G.

    2015-02-10

    The discovery of a number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with duration exceeding 1000 s has opened the debate on whether these bursts form a new class of sources, the so-called ultra-long GRBs, or if they are rather the tail of the distribution of the standard long GRB duration. Using the long GRB sample detected by Swift, we investigate the statistical properties of long GRBs and compare them with the ultra-long burst properties. We compute the burst duration of long GRBs using the start epoch of the so-called ''steep decay'' phase detected with Swift/XRT. We discuss also the differences observed in their spectral properties. We find that ultra-long GRBs are statistically different from the standard long GRBs with typical burst duration less than 100-500 s, for which a Wolf-Rayet star progenitor is usually invoked. Together with the presence of a thermal emission component we interpret this result as indication that the usual long GRB progenitor scenario cannot explain the extreme duration of ultra-long GRBs, their energetics, as well as the mass reservoir and size that can feed the central engine for such a long time.

  16. How Sample Completeness Affects Gamma-Ray Burst Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkila, Jon; Giblin, Timothy W.; Roiger, Richard J.; Haglin, David J.; Paciesas, William S.; Meegan, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    Unsupervised pattern-recognition algorithms support the existence of three gamma-ray burst classes: class 1 (long, large-fluence bursts of intermediate spectral hardness), class 2 (short, small-fluence, hard bursts), and class 3 (soft bursts of intermediate durations and fluences). The algorithms surprisingly assign larger membership to class 3 than to either of the other two classes. A known systematic bias has been previously used to explain the existence of class 3 in terms of class 1 ; this bias allows the fluences and durations of some bursts to be underestimated, as recently shown by Hakkila et al. We show that this bias primarily affects only the longest bursts and cannot explain the bulk of the class 3 properties. We resolve the question of class 3's existence by demonstrating how samples obtained using standard trigger mechanisms fail to preserve the duration characteristics of small-peak flux bursts. Sample incompleteness is thus primarily responsible for the existence of class 3. In order to avoid this incompleteness, we show how a new, dual-timescale peak flux can be defined in terms of peak flux and fluence. The dual-timescale peak flux preserves the duration distribution of faint bursts and correlates better with spectral hardness (and presumably redshift) than either peak flux or fluence. The techniques presented here are generic and have applicability to the studies of other transient events. The results also indicate that pattern recognition algorithms are sensitive to sample completeness; this can influence the study of large astronomical databases, such as those found in a virtual observatory.

  17. Why galactic gamma-ray bursts might depend on environment: Blast waves around neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, Martin J.; Meszaros, Peter; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1994-01-01

    Although galactic models for gamma-ray bursts are hard to reconcile with the isotropy data, the issue is still sufficiently open that both options should be explored. The most likely 'triggers' for bursts in our Galaxy would be violent disturbances in the magnetospheres of neutron stars. Any event of this kind is likely to expel magnetic flux and plasma at relativistic speed. Such ejecta would be braked by the interstellar medium (ISM), and a gamma-ray flash may result from this interaction. The radiative efficiency, of this mechanism would depend on the density of the circumstellar ISM. Therefore, even if neutron stars were uniformly distributed in space (at least within 1-2 kpc of the Sun), the observed locations of bursts would correlate with regions of above-average ISM density.

  18. An Analysis of Gamma-ray Burst Time Profiles from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestrade, John Patrick

    1996-01-01

    This proposal requested funding to measure the durations of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) in the 4B catalog as well as to study the structure of GRB time profiles returned by the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The duration (T90) was to be measured using the same techniques and algorithms developed by the principal investigator for the 3B data. The profile structure studies fall into the two categories of variability and fractal analyses.

  19. Earth Occultation Monitoring with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi, we are monitoring the hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Earth occultation technique (EOT). Each time a source in our catalog is occulted by (or exits occultation by) the Earth, we measure its flux using the change in count rates due to the occultation. Currently we are using CTIME data with 8 energy channels spanning 8 keV to 1 MeV for the GBM NaI detectors for daily monitoring. Light curves, updated daily, are available on our website http://heastro.phys.lsu.edu/gbm. Our software is also capable of performing the Earth occultation monitoring using up to 128 energy bands, or any combination of those bands, using our 128-channel, 4-s CSPEC data. The GBM BGO detectors, sensitive from about 200 keV to 40 keV, can also be used with this technique. In our standard application of the EOT, we use a catalog of sources to drive the measurements. To ensure that our catalog is complete, our team has developed an Earth occultation imaging method. In this talk, I will describe both techniques and the current data products available. I will highlight recent and important results from the GBM EOT, including the current status of our observations of hard X-ray variations in the Crab Nebula.

  20. GRB 070724B: the first Gamma Ray Burst localized by SuperAGILE

    SciTech Connect

    Del Monte, E.; Costa, E.; Donnarumma, I.; Feroci, M.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Soffitta, P.; Argan, A.; Pucella, G.; Trois, A.; Vittorini, V.; Evangelista, Y.; Rapisarda, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Longo, F.; Basset, M.; Foggetta, L.; Vallazza, E.; Bulgarelli, A.; Di Cocco, G.

    2008-05-22

    GRB070724B is the first Gamma Ray Burst localized by the SuperAGILE instrument aboard the AGILE space mission. The SuperAGILE localization has been confirmed after the after-glow observation by the XRT aboard the Swift satellite. No significant gamma ray emission above 50 MeV has been detected for this GRB. In this paper we describe the SuperAGILE capabilities in detecting Gamma Ray Burst and the AGILE observation of GRB 070724B.

  1. The Second Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parametert:; measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8% and 2% respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX and HETE-2 GRB samples. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs. The time-averaged spectra of the BAT S GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the L-GRBs. Whereas, the spectra of the initial short spikes of the S-GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the S-GRBs. We show that the BAT GRB samples are significantly softer than the BATSE bright GRBs, and that the time-averaged E obs/peak of the BAT GRBs peaks at 80 keV which is significantly lower energy than those of the BATSE sample which peak at 320 keV. The time-averaged spectral properties of the BAT GRB sample are similar to those of the HETE-2 GRB samples. By time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that 10% of the BAT observed photon indices are outside the allowed region of the synchrotron shock model. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate

  2. The low energy spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussard, R. W.; Lamb, F. K.

    1982-01-01

    The implications of observed gamma-ray burst spectra for the physical conditions and geometries of the sources are examined. It is noted that an explanation of the continua in terms of optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung requires a relatively large area but a fairly shallow depth. On the other hand, a spectrum similar to that observed could be produced by rapid flickering of sources with less extreme geometries if each flicker emits a Comptonized thermal spectrum. Either field inhomogeneities or plasma motions are required to interpret the low energy features as cyclotron extinction. An alternative explanation is photoelectric absorption by heavy atoms; this requires a field strength high enough to make one-photon electron positron annihilation possible. Observational tests of these possibilities are proposed

  3. The Quest for Short Gamma-ray Burst Radio Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, Davide; Gaensler, Bryan; Murphy, Tara; Hancock, Paul; Bell, Martin; Bannister, Keith; Greiner, Jochen; Klose, Sylvio; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Nardini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Short Gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are the most elusive among GRBs with just a few of them having being studied pan- chromatically. Only two SGRBs have been detected in the radio band in the last 14 years. Radio observations of short GRBs should provide fundamental parameters of the physical process acting in these sources and on the nature of their progenitors. The detection of even a few more short GRBs in the radio band could constrain their true energetics, their radiative efficiency and the density of the environment where they happen (with immediate implications on the nature of their progenitors). The proposed joint radio-optical observations, will allow us for the first time to probe the hydrodynamics of the explosion and the radiation mechanism.

  4. The Quest for Short Gamma-ray Burst Radio Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, Davide; Murphy, Tara; Hancock, Paul; Bell, Martin; Bannister, Keith; Greiner, Jochen; Klose, Sylvio; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Nardini, Marco

    2012-10-01

    Short Gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are the most elusive among GRBs with just a few of them having being studied pan- chromatically. Only two SGRBs have been detected in the radio band in the last 14 years. Radio observations of short GRBs should provide fundamental parameters of the physical process acting in these sources and on the nature of their progenitors. The detection of even a few more short GRBs in the radio band could constrain their true energetics, their radiative efficiency and the density of the environment where they happen (with immediate implications on the nature of their progenitors). The proposed joint radio-optical observations, will allow us for the first time to probe the hydrodynamics of the explosion and the radiation mechanism.

  5. Astrophysical High-Energy Neutrinos and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta

    2008-10-22

    High-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been expected in various scenarios. Many predictions for prompt and afterglow emission were done in the pre-Swift era. After the launch of Swift, several new discoveries such as flares have allowed us to expect additional new possibilities of high-energy neutrino emission from GRBs. In this paper, we overview various predictions of GRB neutrino emission, and discuss feature prospects. High-energy neutrino signals may be detected by future-coming large neutrino detectors such as IceCube and KM3Net. If detected, they should be very useful to know the nature of cosmic-ray acceleration sites. It would also help us to reveal the possible connection between ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and GRBs. Finally, we also compare a prediction of GRB neutrinos with several predictions for other sources such as active galactic nuclei (AGN) and clusters of galaxies.

  6. Gamma ray bursts and extreme energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Scarsi, Livio

    1998-06-15

    Extreme Energy Cosmic Ray particles (EECR) with E>10{sup 20} eV arriving on Earth with very low flux ({approx}1 particle/Km{sup 2}-1000yr) require for their investigation very large detecting areas, exceeding values of 1000 km{sup 2} sr. Projects with these dimensions are now being proposed: Ground Arrays ('Auger' with 2x3500 km{sup 2} sr) or exploiting the Earth Atmosphere as seen from space ('AIR WATCH' and OWL,'' with effective area reaching 1 million km{sup 2} sr). In this last case, by using as a target the 10{sup 13} tons of air viewed, also the high energy neutrino flux can be investigated conveniently. Gamma Rays Bursts are suggested as a possible source for EECR and the associated High Energy neutrino flux.

  7. Black Holes in Gamma Ray Bursts and Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, Remo; Argüelles, C. R.; Fraga, B. M. O.; Geralico, A.; Quevedo, H.; Rueda, J. A.; Siutsou, I.

    2013-09-01

    Current research marks a clear success in identifying the moment of formation of a Black Hole of 10M⊙, with the emission of a Gamma Ray Burst. This explains in terms of the 'Blackholic Energy' the source of the energy of these astrophysical systems. Their energetics up to 1054 erg, make them detectable all over our Universe. Concurrently a new problematic has been arising related to: (a) The evidence of Dark Matter in galactic halos; (b) The origin of the Super Massive Black Holes in active galactic nuclei and Quasars and (c) The purported existence of a Black Hole in the Center of our Galaxy. These three aspects of this new problematic have been traditionally approached independently. We propose an unified approach to all three of them based on a system of massive self-gravitating neutrinos in General Relativity. Perspectives of future research are presented.

  8. High-z Universe with Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in space and trace the cosmic star formation history back to the first generations of stars. Their bright afterglows allow us to trace the abundances of heavy elements to large distances, thereby measuring cosmic chemical evolution. To date GRBs have been detected up to distances of z=8.23 and possibly even beyond z9. This makes GRBs a unique and powerful tool to probe the high-z Universe up to the re-ionization era. We discuss the current status of the field, place it in context with other probes, and also discuss new mission concepts that have been planned to utilize GRBs as probes.

  9. The duration-photon energy relation in gamma-ray bursts and its interpretations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; Titarchuk, Lev G.; Hua, Xin-Min

    1997-01-01

    A correlation between the spectral and temporal structure in gamma ray bursts was presented elsewhere, where it was discovered that the duration of the constituent subpulses of the time profile of a given gamma ray burst have a well-defined power law dependence, of approximately index 0.45, on the energy of the observed photons. Two models are presented which account for the observed correlation. These models involve: the impulsive injection of a population of relativistic electrons; their subsequent cooling by synchrotron radiation; the impulsive injection of mono-energetic high energy photons in a medium of a Thomson depth of approximately 5, and their subsequent downgrading in energy due to electron scattering. Arguments are presented for distinguishing between these two models from the existing data.

  10. The Decay of Optical Emission Form the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 970228

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galama, T.; Groot, P. J.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouvellotou, C.; Robinson, C. R.; Fishmans, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Sahu, K. C.; Livio, M.; Petro, L.

    1997-01-01

    The origin of gamma-ray bursts has been one of the great unsolved mysteries in high-energy astrophysics for almost 30 years. The recent discovery of fading sources at X-ray and optical wave-lengths coincident with the location of the gamma-ray burst GRB970228 therefore provides an unprecedented opportunity to probe the nature of these high-energy events. The optical counterpart appears to be a transient point source embedded in a region of extended nebulosity, the latter having been tentatively identified as a high-redshift galaxy. This would seem to favour models that place gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances, although a range of mechanisms for producing the bursts is still allowed. A crucial piece of information for distinguishing between such models is how the brightness of the optical counterpart evolves with time. Here we re-evaluate the existing photometry of the optical counterpart of GRB970228 to construct an optical light curve for the transient event. We find that between 21 hours and six days after the burst, the R-band brightness decreased by a factor of approx. 50, with any subsequent decrease in brightness occurring at a much slower rate. As the point source faded, it also became redder. The initial behaviour of the source appears to be consistent with the 'fireball' model, in which the burst results from the merger of two neutron stars, but the subsequent decrease in the rate of fading may prove harder to explain. The gamma-ray burst of 28 February 1997, detected with the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor on board the BeppoSAX satellite, and located with an approx. 3 feet radius position with the Wide Field Camera on the same satellite, was the first for which a fading X-ray and optical counterpart were discovered. The optical Counterpart was discovered from a comparison of V- and I-band images taken with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) on February 28.99 UT, and the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT; V band) and the WHT (I band) on March 8.8 uT.

  11. GRB 081029: A Gamma-Ray Burst with a Multi-Component Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Stephen T.; DePasquale, Massimiliano; Mao, Jirong; Sakamoto, Taka; Shady, Patricia; Covino, Stefano; Yi-Zhong, Fan; Zhi-Ping, Jin; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Antonelli, Angelo; D'Elia, Valerio; Chincarini, Guido; Fiore, Fabrizio; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the unusual optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 081029, a long-soft burst with a redshift of z = 3.8479. We combine X-ray and optical observations from the Swift X-Ray Telescope and the Swift UltraViolet Optical Telescope with ground-based optical and infrared data obtained using the REM and ROTSE telescopes to construct a detailed data set extending from 86 s to approx. 100000 s after the BAT trigger. Our data cover a wide energy range, from 10 keV to 0.77 eV (1.24 A to 16000 A). The X-ray afterglow shows a shallow initial decay followed by a rapid decay starting at about 18000 s. The optical and infrared afterglow, however, shows an uncharacteristic rise at about 5000 s that does not correspond to any feature in the X-ray light curve. Our data are not consistent with synchrotron radiation from a jet interacting with an external medium, a two-component jet, or continuous energy injection from the central engine. We find that the the optical light curves can be broadly explained by a collision between two ejecta shells within a two-component jet. A growing number of gamma-ray burst afterglows are consistent with complex jets, which suggests that some (or all) gamma-ray burst jets are complex and will require detailed modelling to fully understand them.

  12. Short and long gamma-ray bursts: same emission mechanism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Nava, L.

    2011-11-01

    We study the spectral evolution on second and subsecond time-scales in 11 long and 12 short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with peak flux >8.5 × 10-6 erg cm-2 s (8 keV-35 MeV) detected by the Fermi satellite. The peak flux correlates with the time-averaged peak energy in both classes of bursts. The peak energy evolution, as a function of time, tracks the evolution of the flux on short time-scales in both short and long GRBs. We do not find evidence of a hard-to-soft spectral evolution. While short GRBs have observed peak energies larger than few MeV during most of their evolution, long GRBs can start with a softer peak energy (of few hundreds keV) and become as hard as short ones (i.e. with Eobspeak larger than few MeV) at the peak of their light curve. Six GRBs in our sample have a measured redshift. In these few cases we find that their correlations between the rest frame Epeak and the luminosity Liso are less scattered than their correlations in the observer frame between the peak energy Eobspeak and the flux P. We find that the rest frame Epeak of long bursts can be as high or even larger than that of short GRBs and that short and long GRBs follow the same Epeak(t)-Liso(t) correlation, despite the fact that they likely have different progenitors.

  13. THE FERMI GBM GAMMA-RAY BURST SPECTRAL CATALOG: THE FIRST TWO YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Adam; Burgess, J. Michael; Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.; Guiriec, Sylvain; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, William S.; Bhat, P. N.; Chaplin, Vandiver; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Gibby, Melissa; Giles, Misty; and others

    2012-03-01

    We present systematic spectral analyses of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) during its first two years of operation. This catalog contains two types of spectra extracted from 487 GRBs, and by fitting four different spectral models, this results in a compendium of over 3800 spectra. The models were selected based on their empirical importance to the spectral shape of many GRBs, and the analysis performed was devised to be as thorough and objective as possible. We describe in detail our procedure and criteria for the analyses, and present the bulk results in the form of parameter distributions. This catalog should be considered an official product from the Fermi GBM Science Team, and the data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center.

  14. The Swift Burst Analyser. I. BAT and XRT spectral and flux evolution of gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, P. A.; Willingale, R.; Osborne, J. P.; O'Brien, P. T.; Page, K. L.; Markwardt, C. B.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Beardmore, A. P.; Burrows, D. N.; Pagani, C.; Starling, R. L. C.; Gehrels, N.; Romano, P.

    2010-09-01

    Context. Gamma ray burst models predict the broadband spectral evolution and the temporal evolution of the energy flux. In contrast, standard data analysis tools and data repositories provide count-rate data, or use single flux conversion factors for all of the data, neglecting spectral evolution. Aims: We produce Swift BAT and XRT light curves in flux units, where the spectral evolution is accounted for. Methods: We have developed software to use the hardness ratio information to track spectral evolution of GRBs, and thus to convert the count-rate light curves from the BAT and XRT instruments on Swift into accurate, evolution-aware flux light curves. Results: The Swift Burst Analyser website (burst_analyser">http://www.swift.ac.uk/burst_analyser) contains BAT, XRT and combined BAT-XRT flux light curves in three energy regimes for all GRBs observed by the Swift satellite. These light curves are automatically built and updated when data become available, are presented in graphical and plain-text format, and are available for download and use in research.

  15. The Intensity Distribution of Faint Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kommers, Jefferson M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; vanParadus, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    2000-01-01

    We have recently completed a search of six years of archival Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) data for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that were too faint to activate the real-time burst detection system running on board the spacecraft. These 'nontriggered' bursts can be combined with the 'triggered' bursts detected on board to produce a GRB intensity distribution that reaches peak fluxes a factor of approximately two lower than could be studied previously. The value of the statistic (in Euclidean space) for the bursts we detect is 0.177 +/- 0.006. This surprisingly low value is obtained because we detected very few bursts on the 4.096 s and 8.192 s timescales (where most bursts have their highest signal-to-noise ratio) that were not already detected on the 1.024 s timescale. If allowance is made for a power-law distribution of intrinsic peak luminosities, the extended peak flux distribution is consistent with models in which the redshift distribution of the gamma-ray burst rate approximately traces the star formation history of the universe. We argue that this class of models is preferred over those in which the burst rate is independent of redshift. We use the peak flux distribution to derive a limit of 10% (99% confidence) on the fraction of the total burst rate that could be contributed by a spatially homogeneous (in Euclidean space) subpopulation of burst sources, such as type Ib/c supernovae. These results lend support to the conclusions of previous studies predicting that relatively few faint 'classical' GRBs will be found below the BATSE onboard detection threshold.

  16. Gamma-ray bursts, QSOs and active galaxies.

    PubMed

    Burbidge, Geoffrey

    2007-05-15

    The similarity of the absorption spectra of gamma-ray burst (GRB) sources or afterglows with the absorption spectra of quasars (QSOs) suggests that QSOs and GRB sources are very closely related. Since most people believe that the redshifts of QSOs are of cosmological origin, it is natural to assume that GRBs or their afterglows also have cosmological redshifts. For some years a few of us have argued that there is much optical evidence suggesting a very different model for QSOs, in which their redshifts have a non-cosmological origin, and are ejected from low-redshift active galaxies. In this paper I extend these ideas to GRBs. In 2003, Burbidge (Burbidge 2003 Astrophys. J. 183, 112-120) showed that the redshift periodicity in the spectra of QSOs appears in the redshift of GRBs. This in turn means that both the QSOs and the GRB sources are similar objects ejected from comparatively low-redshift active galaxies. It is now clear that many of the GRBs of low redshift do appear in, or very near, active galaxies.A new and powerful result supporting this hypothesis has been produced by Prochter et al. (Prochter et al. 2006 Astrophys. J. Lett. 648, L93-L96). They show that in a survey for strong MgII absorption systems along the sightlines to long-duration GRBs, nearly every sightline shows at least one absorber. If the absorbers are intervening clouds or galaxies, only a small fraction should show absorption of this kind. The number found by Prochter et al. is four times higher than that normally found for the MgII absorption spectra of QSOs. They believe that this result is inconsistent with the intervening hypothesis and would require a statistical fluctuation greater than 99.1% probability. This is what we expect if the absorption is intrinsic to the GRBs and the redshifts are not associated with their distances. In this case, the absorption must be associated with gas ejected from the QSO. This in turn implies that the GRBs actually originate in comparatively low

  17. Gamma-Ray Bursts and Their Links with Supernovae and Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, Peter; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous explosions in the Universe, whose origin and mechanism are the focus of intense interest. They appear connected to supernova remnants from massive stars or the merger of their remnants, and their brightness makes them temporarily detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the universe. After pioneering breakthroughs from space and ground experiments, their study is entering a new phase with observations from the recently launched Fermi satellite, as well as the prospect of detections or limits from large neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. The interplay between such observations and theoretical models of gamma-ray bursts is reviewed, as well as their connections to supernovae and cosmology.

  18. The Spectral Evolution of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed project was a continuation of our work on the spectral evolution of gamma-ray bursts begun when the Co-I on this proposal. Lyle Ford, was my graduate student. In the proposal we discussed two projects. The first was finishing and publishing the last chapter of Professor Ford's thesis. In this research effort we looked for correlations in the energies of pairs of counts recorded by the BATSE Spectroscopy Detectors within a short time of each other. A greater correlation within a short time would indicate that the observed broadband spectrum is really composed of narrowband spectral components which last for a short time and which rapidly sum to the observed spectrum. We did not find any evidence for such narrowband emission, and are setting limits on its presence. Professor Ford is revising the last chapter of his thesis for publication with my participation. The second project was a continuation of my study of the cross-correlations between the gamma-ray burst lightcurves in different energy bands. I published a first study with this technique (1997. Ap.J., 486, 928) which showed that "hard-to-soft" spectral evolution is prevalent both within and between the bursts' intensity spikes. I proposed to continue developing this technique. However, I have been somewhat disillusioned about using this methodology quantitatively since it averages the spectral evolution on a given timescale over the entire burst. Nonetheless, I have been applying the technique to new bursts which are scientifically interesting for other reasons. Attached I include the cross-correlations for the burst GRB 990123, the burst during which ROTSE discovered an optical transient. The solid curve is the autocorrelatl'on of BATSE's channel 3 (100-300 keV), while the dashed, dot-dashed and 3 dots-dashed curves are the crosscorrelations of channel 3 with channels 1 (25-50 keV), 2 (50-100 keV), and 4 (300-2000 keV). The order of, and separation between, the curves on the positive lag side

  19. Gamma-ray burst constraints on the galactic frequency of extra-solar Oort clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Stern, S. Alan

    1994-01-01

    With the strong CGRO/BATSE evidence that most gamma-ray bursts do not come from galactic neutron stars, models involving the accretion of a comet onto a neutron star (NS) no longer appear to be strong contenders for explaining the majority of bursts. If this is the case, then it is worth asking whether the lack of an observed galactic gamma-ray burst population provides a useful constraint on the number of comets and comet clouds in the galaxy. Owing to the previously unrecognized structural weakness of cometary nuclei, we find the capture cross sections for comet-NS events to be much higher than previously published estimates, with tidal breakup at distances R(sub b) approximately equals to 4 x 10(exp 10) cm from the NS. As a result, impacts of comets onto field NS's penetrating the Oort Clouds of other stars are found to dominate all other galactic NS-comet capture rates by a factor of 100. This in turn predicts that if comet clouds are common, there should be a significant population of repeater sources with (1) a galactic distribution, (2) space-correlated repetition, and (3) a wide range of peak luminosities and luminosity time histories. If all main sequences stars have Oort Clouds like our own, we predict approximately 4000 such repeater sources in the Milky Way at any time, each repeating on timescales of months to years. Based on estimates of the sensitivity of the CGRO/BATSE instrument and assuming isotropic gamma-ray beaming from such events, we estimate that a population of approximately 20-200 of these galactic NS-Oort Cloud gamma-ray repeater sources should be detectable by CGRO. In addition, if giant planet formation is common in the galaxy, we estimate that the accretion of isolated comets injected to the interstellar medium by giant planet formation should produce an additional source of galactic, nonrepeating events. Comparing these estimates to the three to four soft gamma-ray repeater sources detected by BATSE, one is forced to conclude that (1

  20. The Intensity Distribution of Faint Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kommers, Jefferson M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; VanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    2000-01-01

    We have recently completed a search of 6 years of archival BATSE data for gamma-ray bursts (GRBS) that were too faint to activate the real-time burst detection system running on board the spacecraft. These "nontriggered" bursts can be combined with the "triggered" bursts detected on board to produce a GRB intensity distribution that reaches peak fluxes a factor of approximately 2 lower than could be studied previously. The value of the statistic (in Euclidean space) for the bursts we detect is 0.177 plus or minus 0.006. This surprisingly low value is obtained because we detected very few bursts on the 4.096 s and 8.192 s timescales (where most bursts have their highest signal-to-noise ratio) that were not already detected on the 1.024 s timescale. If allowance is made for a power-law distribution of intrinsic peak luminosities, the extended peak flux distribution is consistent with models in which the redshift distribution of the gamma-ray burst rate approximately traces the star formation history of the universe. We argue that this class of models is preferred over those in which the burst rate is independent of redshift. We use the peak flux distribution to derive a limit of 10% (99% confidence) on the fraction of the total burst rate that could be contributed by a spatially homogeneous (in Euclidean space) subpopulation of burst sources, such as type lb/c supernovae. These results lend support to the conclusions of previous studies predicting that relatively few faint "classical" GRBs will be found below the BATSE onboard detection threshold.

  1. SVOM: a new mission for Gamma-Ray Burst Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, D.; Paul, J.; Basa, S.; Wei, J.; Zhang, S. N.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barret, D.; Cordier, B.; Claret, A.; Deng, J.; Fan, X.; Hu, J. Y.; Huang, M.; Mandrou, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Qiu, Y.; Wu, B.

    2009-05-01

    We present the SVOM (Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Object Monitor) mission, that is being developed in cooperation between the Chinese National Space Agency (CNSA), the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) and the French Space Agency (CNES), and is expected to be launched in 2013. Its scientific objectives include the study of the GRB phenomenon (diversity and unity), GRB physics (particle acceleration, radiation mechanisms), GRB progenitors, cosmology (host galaxies, intervening medium, star formation history, re-ionization, cosmological parameters), and fundamental physics (origin of cosmic rays, Lorentz invariance, gravitational waves sources). SVOM is designed to detect all known types of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), to provide fast and reliable GRB positions, to measure the broadband spectral characteristics and temporal properties of the GRB prompt emission. This will be obtained in first place thanks to a set of four space flown instruments. A wide field (~2 sr) coded mask telescope (ECLAIRs), operating in the 4-250 keV energy range, will provide the triggers and localizations, while a gamma-ray non-imaging spectrometer (GRM), sensitive in the 50 keV-5 MeV domain, will extend the prompt emission energy coverage. After a satellite slew, in order to place the GRB direction within field of view of the two narrow field instruments-a soft X-ray (XIAO), and a visible telescope (VT)-the GRB position will be refined and the study of the early phases of the GRB afterglow will be possible. A set of three ground based dedicated instruments, two robotic telescopes (GFTs) and a wide angle optical monitor (GWAC), will complement the space borne instruments. Thanks to the low energy trigger threshold (~4 keV) of the ECLAIRs, SVOM is ideally suited for the detection of soft, hence potentially most distant, GRBs. Its observing strategy is optimized to facilitate follow-up observations from the largest ground based facilities.

  2. The SKA View of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, D.; Ghirlanda, G.; van der Horst, A.; Murphy, T.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Gaensler, B.; Ghisellini, G.; Prandoni, I.

    2015-04-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are some of the most extreme events in the Universe. As well as providing a natural laboratory for investigating fundamental physical processes, they might trace the cosmic star formation rate up to extreme redshifts and probe the composition of the intergalactic medium over most of the Universe's history. Radio observations of GRBs play a key part in determining their physical properties, but currently they are largely limited to follow-up observations of $\\gamma$-ray-detected objects. The SKA will significantly increase our ability to study GRB afterglows, following up several hundred objects in the high frequency bands already in the "early science" implementation of the telescope. SKA1-MID Bands 4 (4 GHz) and 5 (9.2 GHz) will be particularly suited to the detection of these transient phenomena. The SKA will trace the peak of the emission, sampling the thick-to-thin transition of the evolving spectrum, and follow-up the afterglow down to the time the ejecta slow down to non-relativistic speeds. The full SKA will be able to observe the afterglows across the non-relativistic transition, for ~25% of the whole GRB population. This will allow us to get a significant insight into the true energy budget of GRBs, probe their surrounding density profile, and the shock microphysics. The SKA will also be able to routinely detect the elusive "orphan afterglow" emission, from the population of GRBs whose jets are not pointed towards the Earth. We expect that a deep all-sky survey such as SKA1-SUR will see around 300 orphan afterglows every week. We predict these detection to be >1000 when the full SKA telescope will be operational.

  3. Faint gamma-ray bursts and other high-energy transients detected with BATSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kommers, Jefferson Michael

    1999-03-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detects gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and other high-energy astronomical transients using a real-time burst detection system running onboard the spacecraft. This thesis describes a search of the archival BATSE data for GRBs, emission from soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), bursts and flares from X-ray binaries, and other transients that were not detected by the onboard system. The search covers six years of the mission, from 1992 December 9.0 to 1997 December 17.0. The search reveals 873 GRB candidates that did not activate the onboard burst detection because they were too faint, because they occurred while the onboard system was disabled for technical reasons, or because their time profile artificially raised the onboard detection threshold. The catalog of these bursts increases the number of GRBs detected with BATSE by 48% during the time period of the search. The intensity distribution of the GRBs detected with the search reaches peak fluxes that are a factor of ~2 lower than could be studied previously. The value of the statistic (in Euclidean space) for these bursts, 0.177 +/- 0.006, is the lowest so far obtained for a global sample of GRBs. The differential peak flux distribution is consistent with cosmological models in which the co-moving GRB rate approximately traces the star-formation history of the Universe. These results suggest that more sensitive detectors are likely to discover relatively few GRBs (of the kind currently known) that are fainter than the BATSE detection threshold. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  4. The rate and luminosity function of long gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescalli, A.; Ghirlanda, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Ghisellini, G.; Vergani, S. D.; Nappo, F.; Salafia, O. S.; Melandri, A.; Covino, S.; Götz, D.

    2016-03-01

    We derive, adopting a direct method, the luminosity function and the formation rate of long Gamma Ray Bursts through a complete, flux-limited, sample of Swift bursts which has a high level of completeness in redshift z (~82%). We parametrise the redshift evolution of the GRB luminosity as L = L0(1 + z)k and we derive k = 2.5, consistently with recent estimates. The de-evolved luminosity function φ(L0) of GRBs can be represented by a broken power law with slopes a = -1.32 ± 0.21 and b = -1.84 ± 0.24 below and above, respectively, a break luminosity L0,b = 1051.45±0.15 erg/s. Under the hypothesis of luminosity evolution we find that the GRB formation rate increases with redshift up to z ~ 2, where it peaks, and then decreases in agreement with the shape of the cosmic star formation rate. We test the direct method through numerical simulations and we show that if it is applied to incomplete (both in redshift and/or flux) GRB samples it can misleadingly result in an excess of the GRB formation rate at low redshifts.

  5. Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts by HETE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, N.; Matsuoka, M.; Yoshida, A.; Shirasaki, Y.; Ricker, G.; Doty, J.; Vanderspek, R.; Crew, G.; Villasenor, J.; Atteia, J.-L.; Fenimore, E. E.; Galassi, M.; Lamb, D. Q.; Graziani, C.; Hurley, K.; Jernigan, J. G.; Woosley, S.; Martel, F.; Monnelly, G.; Prigozhin, G.; Olive, J.-F.; Dezalay, J.P.; Boer, M.; Pizzichini, G.; Cline, T.

    2004-01-01

    The High Energy Transient Explorer 2 (HETE-2), launched in October 2000, is currently localizing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at a rate of approximately 20/yr, many in real time. As of August 2003, HETE-2 had localized 43 GRBs; 16 localizations had led to the detection of an X-ray, optical, or radio afterglows. The prompt position notification of HETE-2 enabled probing the nature of so-called "dark bursts" for which no optical afterglows were found despite of accurate localizations. In some cases, the optical afterglow was found to be intrinsically faint , and its flux declined rapidly. In another case, the optical emission was likely to be extinguished by the dust in the vicinity of the GRB source. The bright afterglows of GRB021004 and GRB030329 were observed in unprecedented details by telescopes around the world. Strong evidence for the association of long GRBs with the core-collapse supernovae was found. HETE-2 has localized almost as many X-ray rich GRBs as classical GRBs. The nature of the X-ray rich GRBs and X-ray flashes have been studied systematically with HETE-2, and they are found to have many properties in common with the classical GRBs, suggesting that they are a single phenomenon.

  6. Using Boosting Decision Trees in Gravitational Wave Searches triggered by Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuraw, Sarah; LIGO Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The search for gravitational wave bursts requires the ability to distinguish weak signals from background detector noise. Gravitational wave bursts are characterized by their transient nature, making them particularly difficult to detect as they are similar to non-Gaussian noise fluctuations in the detector. The Boosted Decision Tree method is a powerful machine learning algorithm which uses Multivariate Analysis techniques to explore high-dimensional data sets in order to distinguish between gravitational wave signal and background detector noise. It does so by training with known noise events and simulated gravitational wave events. The method is tested using waveform models and compared with the performance of the standard gravitational wave burst search pipeline for Gamma-ray Bursts. It is shown that the method is able to effectively distinguish between signal and background events under a variety of conditions and over multiple Gamma-ray Burst events. This example demonstrates the usefulness and robustness of the Boosted Decision Tree and Multivariate Analysis techniques as a detection method for gravitational wave bursts. LIGO, UMass, PREP, NEGAP.

  7. BATSE Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Spectra. Part 3; Low-Energy Behavior of Time-Averaged Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preece, R. D.; Briggs, M. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Matteson, J. L.; Band, D. L.; Skelton, R. T.; Meegan, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze time-averaged spectra from 86 bright gamma-ray bursts from the first 5 years of the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory to determine whether the lowest energy data are consistent with a standard spectra form fit to the data at all energies. The BATSE Spectroscopy Detectors have the capability to observe photons as low as 5 keV. Using the gamma-ray burst locations obtained with the BATSE Large Area Detectors, the Spectroscopy Detectors' low-energy response can be modeled accurately. This, together with a postlaunch calibration of the lowest energy Spectroscopy Detector discriminator channel, which can lie in the range 5-20 keV, allows spectral deconvolution over a broad energy range, approx. 5 keV to 2 MeV. The additional coverage allows us to search for evidence of excess emission, or for a deficit, below 20 keV. While no burst has a significant (greater than or equal to 3 sigma) deficit relative to a standard spectra model, we find that 12 bursts have excess low-energy emission, ranging between 1.2 and 5.8 times the model flux, that exceeds 5 sigma in significance. This is evidence for an additional low-energy spectral component in at least some bursts, or for deviations from the power-law spectral form typically used to model gamma-ray bursts at energies below 100 keV.

  8. Methodological problems with gamma-ray burst hardness/intensity correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1993-01-01

    The hardness and intensity are easily measured quantities for all gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and so, many past and current studies have sought correlations between them. This Letter presents many serious methodological problems with the practical definitions for both hardness and intensity. These difficulties are such that significant correlations can be easily introduced as artifacts of the reduction procedure. In particular, cosmological models of GRBs cannot be tested with hardness/intensity correlations with current instrumentation and the time evolution of the hardness in a given burst may be correlated with intensity for reasons that are unrelated to intrinsic change in the spectral shape.

  9. SEARCH FOR PROMPT NEUTRINO EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH ICECUBE

    SciTech Connect

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; BenZvi, S.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; and others

    2015-05-20

    We present constraints derived from a search of four years of IceCube data for a prompt neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). A single low-significance neutrino, compatible with the atmospheric neutrino background, was found in coincidence with one of the 506 observed bursts. Although GRBs have been proposed as candidate sources for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, our limits on the neutrino flux disfavor much of the parameter space for the latest models. We also find that no more than ∼1% of the recently observed astrophysical neutrino flux consists of prompt emission from GRBs that are potentially observable by existing satellites.

  10. Are short Gamma Ray Bursts similar to long ones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Bernardini, M. G.; Calderone, G.; D'Avanzo, P.

    2015-09-01

    The apparent separation of short and long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the hardness ratio vs duration plot has been considered as a direct evidence of the difference between these two populations. The origin of this diversity, however, has been only confirmed with larger GRB samples but not fully understood. In particular, the hardness ratio is only a proxy of the shape of the spectra of GRBs and itself, together with the observed duration, does not consider the possible different redshift distribution of short and long bursts, which might arise from their different progenitors' nature. By correcting the spectral shape of short and long GRBs for the redshift effects, short GRBs are harder than long ones due to a harder low energy spectral component while the two populations have similar (rest frame) peak energy. In the rest frame, the temporal break of the long/short duration distribution is blurred away and short and long GRBs have a continuous differential duration distribution. Moreover, they show similar luminosities but their energetics differ by a factor proportional to their different average duration. The spectral evolution of long GRBs shows that the initial phase (of the order of 0.3 s rest frame) has similar spectral properties of that of short GRBs. As a consequence, the different hardness at low energies might be due to a prolonged spectral evolution of long GRBs with respect to short ones. Finally, we show that long GRBs can have a null lag similarly to short bursts. Moreover, we find that a considerable fraction of long (and most of short) GRBs are inconsistent with the lag-luminosity relation which could be a boundary in the corresponding plane, rather than a correlation.

  11. A Non-Triggered Burst Supplement to the BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Catalogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kommers, J.; Lewin, W. H.; Kouveliotou, C.; vanParadijs, J.; Pendleton, G. N.; Meegan, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detects gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a real-time burst detection (or "trigger") system running onboard the spacecraft. Under some circumstances, however, a GRB may not activate the onboard burst trigger. For example, the burst may be too faint to exceed the onboard detection threshold, or it may occur while the onboard burst trigger is disabled for technical reasons. This paper is a catalog of such "non-triggered" GRBs that were detected in a search of the archival continuous data from BATSE. It lists 873 non-triggered bursts that were recorded between 1991 December 9.0 and 1997 December 17.0. For each burst, the catalog gives an estimated source direction, duration, peak flux, and fluence. Similar data are presented for 50 additional bursts of unknown origin that were detected in the 25-50 keV range; these events may represent the low-energy "tail" of the GRB spectral distribution. This catalog increases the number of GRBs detected with BATSE by 48% during the time period covered by the search.

  12. Gamma-ray Pulsars: Models and Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding Alice K.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed emission from gamma-ray pulsars originates inside the magnetosphere, from radiation by charged particles accelerated near the magnetic poles or in the outer gaps. In polar cap models, the high energy spectrum is cut off by magnetic pair production above an energy that is, dependent on the local magnetic field strength. While most young pulsars with surface fields in the range B = 10(exp 12) - 10(exp 13) G are expected to have high energy cutoffs around several GeV, the gamma-ray spectra of old pulsars having lower surface fields may extend to 50 GeV. Although the gamma-ray emission of older pulsars is weaker, detecting pulsed emission at high energies from nearby sources would be an important confirmation of polar cap models. Outer gap models predict more gradual high-energy turnovers of the primary curvature emission around 10 GeV, but also predict an inverse Compton component extending to TeV energies. Detection of pulsed TeV emission, which would not survive attenuation at the polar caps, is thus an important test of outer gap models. Next-generation gamma-ray telescopes sensitive to GeV-TeV emission will provide critical tests of pulsar acceleration and emission mechanisms.

  13. Gamma-Ray bursts: accumulating afterglow implications, progenitor clues, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Mészáros, P

    2001-01-05

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are sudden, intense flashes of gamma rays that, for a few blinding seconds, light up in an otherwise fairly dark gamma-ray sky. They are detected at the rate of about once a day, and while they are on, they outshine every other gamma-ray source in the sky, including the sun. Major advances have been made in the last 3 or 4 years, including the discovery of slowly fading x-ray, optical, and radio afterglows of GRBs, the identification of host galaxies at cosmological distances, and evidence showing that many GRBs are associated with star-forming regions and possibly supernovae. Progress has been made in understanding how the GRB and afterglow radiation arises in terms of a relativistic fireball shock model. These advances have opened new vistas and questions on the nature of the central engine, the identity of their progenitors, the effects of the environment, and their possible gravitational wave, cosmic ray, and neutrino luminosity. The debates on these issues indicate that GRBs remain among the most mysterious puzzles in astrophysics.

  14. Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on High Energy Delayed Gamma-Rays From Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta; Asano, Katsuaki; Nagataki, Shigehiro; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-04-06

    Regenerated high energy emissions from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are studied in detail. If the primary emission spectrum extends to TeV range, these very high energy photons will be absorbed by the cosmic infrared background (CIB). The created high energy electron-positron pairs up-scatter not only cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons but also CIB photons, and secondary photons are generated in the GeV-TeV range. These secondary delayed photons may be observed in the near future, and useful for a consistency check for the primary spectra and GRB physical parameters. The up-scattered CIB photons cannot be neglected for low redshift bursts and/or GRBs with a relatively low maximum photon energy. The secondary gamma-rays also give us additional information on the CIB, which is uncertain in observations so far.

  15. Gravitational Wave Observations can Constrain Gamma-Ray Busrt Models: The Case of GW 150914 - GBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, P.; Preece, R. D.; Goldstein, A.; Meszaros, P.; Burns, E.; Connaughton, V.

    2016-10-01

    Assuming a common origin for the GW150914 gravitational wave and the GW150914-GBM event, we present the implications of joint observations on leading gamma-ray burst models (photospheric, internal- and external shocks).

  16. A New Variability Parameter for Gamma-Ray Burst Time Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestrade, John Patrick

    1994-01-01

    We present a parameter that measures the structure of gamma-ray burst time profiles. This parameter is based on the statistics of runs and is a good measure of time profile variability. It is shown to be independent of burst duration and less sensitive to burst distance than algorithms that depend directly on the intensity of a burst.

  17. Modeling the radiation doses from terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Joseph; Liu, Ningyu; Rassoul, Hamid

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are intense bursts of gamma-rays that originate from thunderclouds, from altitudes that commercial aircraft fly. Based upon the fluence of gamma-rays measured by the RHESSI spacecraft, Dwyer et al. [2010] inferred radiation doses to individuals inside aircraft in the 0.001 - 0.1 Sv range, depending upon the assumed size of the TGF source region. The largest doses occur when an aircraft is directly struck by the energetic electron beam that produces the TGF. The relativistic feedback discharge model is a self-consistent model that includes the generation of runaway electrons via the positron and x-ray feedback mechanisms and the electric field changes due to the resulting ionization and low-energy electron and ion currents. This model has successfully explained many properties of TGFs, including the gamma-ray intensities, durations, multi-pulsed structures as well as discharge currents and radio emissions. In this presentation we discuss new radiation dose calculations based upon the relativistic feedback discharge model and compare these calculations to previous work.

  18. A Nontriggered Burst Supplement to the BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Catalogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kommers, Jefferson M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; vanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory detects gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a real-time burst detection (or "trigger") system running onboard the spacecraft. Under some circumstances, however, a GRB may not activate the on-board burst trigger. For example, the burst may be too faint to exceed the on-board detection threshold, or it may occur while the on-board burst trigger is disabled for technical reasons. This paper describes a catalog of 873 "nontriggered" GRBs that were detected in a search of the archival continuous data from BATSE recorded between 1991 December 9.0 and 1997 December 17.0. For each burst, the catalog gives an estimated source direction, duration, peak flux, and fluence. Similar data are presented for 50 additional bursts of unknown origin that were detected in the 25-50 keV range; these events may represent the low-energy "tail" of the GRB spectral distribution. This catalog increases the number of GRBs detected with BATSE by 48% during the time period covered by the search.

  19. Closest Gamma Ray Burst Providing Scientists With Crucial Test for Burst Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    The closest Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) yet known is providing astronomers with a rare opportunity to gain information vital to understanding these powerful cosmic explosions. Extremely precise radio-telescope observations already have ruled out one proposed mechanism for the bursts. "This is the closest and brightest GRB we've ever seen, and we can use it to decipher the physics of how these bursts work," said Greg Taylor of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Taylor worked with Dale Frail, also of the NRAO, along with Prof. Shri Kulkarni and graduate student Edo Berger of Caltech in studying a GRB detected on March 29, 2003. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Nashville, TN. VLBA image of GRB 030329 VLBA IMAGE of GRB 030329 CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for Larger Version) Taylor and Frail used the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and other radio telescopes to study the burst, known as GRB 030329. In a series of observations from April 1 to May 19, they determined the size of the expanding "fireball" from the burst and measured its position in the sky with great precision. At a distance of about 2.6 billion light-years, GRB 030329 is hardly next door. However, compared to other GRBs at typical distances of 8-10 billion light-years, it presents an easier target for study. "We only expect to see one burst per decade this close," said Frail. The precise measurement of the object's position allowed the scientists to show that one theoretical model for GRBs can be ruled out. This model, proposed in 2000, says that the radio-wave energy emitted by the GRB comes from "cannonballs" of material shot from the explosion at extremely high speeds. "The 'cannonball model' predicted that we should see the radio-emitting object move across the sky by a specific amount. We have not seen that motion," Taylor said. The currently standard "fireball model" of GRBs

  20. Probing for correlated neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts with Antarctic Cherenkov telescopes: A theoretical modeling and analytical search paradigm in the context of the fireball phenomenolgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatikos, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Intrinsic neutrino properties qualify them as unique cosmic messengers, which may open a new window on the most energetic and enigmatic processes in the universe. Canonical fireball phenomenology, in the context of hadronic acceleration, predicts correlated MeV to EeV neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Ideal for detection are ~ TeV-PeV muon neutrinos, which are expected to be in spatial and temporal coincidence with prompt g-ray emission, which is tantamount to nearly background-free searches in operational and planned neutrino observatories such as the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) and IceCube, respectively. A positive detection of such high energy neutrinos would confirm hadronic acceleration in the relativistic GRB-wind, providing critical insight to the associated micro-physics of the fireball, while possibly revealing an astrophysical acceleration mechanism for the highest energy cosmic rays. Depending on the signal model assumption(s), a null detection may constrain some GRB progenitor scenarios, as well as restrict models featuring GRBs as cosmic ray accelerators. We describe the theoretical modeling and analysis techniques associated with a search for correlated leptonic emission from GRB030329, which triggered the High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE-II). Under the assumption of associated hadronic acceleration, the expected neutrino energy flux is directly derived, based upon confronting the fireball description with GRB030329's individual (discrete) set of observed electromagnetic parameters, for various models. In particular, spectral analysis, featuring a prompt photon energy fit to the Band function, and a spectroscopically observed redshift, due to doppler analysis of the optical transient afterglow, have been used to characterize various neutrino spectra and their response in AMANDA and IceCube. The effects of anisotropic emission, via an inferred beaming angle, and the consequences of non-trivial neutrino mass, such as

  1. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) Observations with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on the Fermi Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) have now been detected with four different orbiting spacecraft. The latest observations are being made with the scintillation detectors of Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory (Fermi). Although this experiment was designed and optimized for the observation of cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), it has unprecedented capabilities for TGF observations, surpassing those of the experiment that discovered TGFs, the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory. Launched in June 2008 from the Kennedy Space Center, the Fermi-GBM has been detecting about one TGF every four weeks. The thick bismuth germinate (BGO) scintillation detectors of the GBM have now observed photon energies from TGFs at energies up to approx.40 MeV. Individual photons are detected with an absolute timing accuracy of 2 microsec. Unlike the BATSE instrument, the GBM data system allows higher counting rates to be recorded and deadtime characteristics are well-known and correctable; thus the saturation effects seen with BATSE are avoided. TGF pulses as narrow as approx.0.1ms have been observed with the GBM. Like BATSE (and unlike RHESSI) an on-board trigger is required to detect TGFs. The minimum time window for this trigger is 16ms. A trigger window this wide greatly reduces the number of detected TGFs, since they most often have a much shorter duration than this window, thus reducing the signal-to-background. New on-board trigger algorithms based on detected photon energies are about to be implemented; this should increase the number of TGF triggers. High-energy spectra from TGFs observed with Fermi-GBM will be described.

  2. PROGRESS ON MARGIE, A GAMMA-RAY BURST ULTRA-LONG DURATION BALLOON MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    D. BAND; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    We are designing the Minute of Arc Resolution Gamma-ray Imaging Experiment (MARGIE) as a 100 day Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) mission to: (1) detect and localize gamma-ray bursts; and (2) survey the hard X-ray sky. Major advances in designing the CZT detectors increase the sensitivity to higher energy. Design of the gondola has also progressed.

  3. Gamma-Ray Burst Supernovae as Standardizable Candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Z.

    2014-10-01

    A long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) marks the violent end of a massive star. GRBs are rare in the universe, and their progenitor stars are thought to possess unique physical properties such as low metal content and rapid rotation, while the supernovae (SNe) that are associated with GRBs are expected to be highly aspherical. To date, it has been unclear whether GRB-SNe could be used as standardizable candles, with contrasting conclusions found by different teams. In this paper, I present evidence that GRB-SNe have the potential to be used as standardizable candles and show that a statistically significant relation exists between the brightness and width of their decomposed light curves relative to a template SN. Every single nearby spectroscopically identified GRB-SN for which the rest frame and host contributions have been accurately determined follows this relation. Additionally, it is shown that not only GRB-SNe, but perhaps all SNe whose explosions are powered by a central engine may eventually be used as a standardizable candle. Finally, I suggest that the use of GRB-SNe as standardizable candles likely arises from a combination of the viewing angle and similar explosion geometry in each event, the latter of which is influenced by the explosion mechanism of GRB-SNe.

  4. The dyadosphere of black holes and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preparata, Giuliano; Ruffini, Remo; Xue, She-Sheng

    1998-10-01

    The ``dyadosphere" has been defined (Ruffini \\cite{r2}, Preparata et al. \\cite{prx}) as the region outside the horizon of a black hole endowed with an electromagnetic field (abbreviated to EMBH for ``electromagnetic black hole") where the electromagnetic field exceeds the critical value, predicted by Heisenberg & Euler (\\cite{he}) for e(+) e(-) pair production. In a very short time ( ~ O / mc(2),) a very large number of pairs is created there. We here give limits on the EMBH parameters leading to a Dyadosphere for 10M_{\\odot} and 10^5M_{\\odot} EMBH's, and give as well the pair densities as functions of the radial coordinate. We here assume that the pairs reach thermodynamic equilibrium with a photon gas and estimate the average energy per pair as a function of the EMBH mass. These data give the initial conditions for the analysis of an enormous pair-electromagnetic-pulse or ``P.E.M. pulse" which naturally leads to relativistic expansion. Basic energy requirements for gamma ray bursts (GRB), including GRB971214 recently observed at z=3.4$, can be accounted for by processes occurring in the dyadosphere. In this letter we do not address the problem of forming either the EMBH or the dyadosphere: we establish some inequalities which must be satisfied during their formation process.

  5. MAGNETIZATION DEGREE OF GAMMA-RAY BURST FIREBALLS: NUMERICAL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Richard; Kobayashi, Shiho

    2013-08-01

    The relative strength between forward and reverse shock emission in early gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow reflects that of magnetic energy densities in the two shock regions. We numerically show that with the current standard treatment, the fireball magnetization is underestimated by up to two orders of magnitude. This discrepancy is especially large in the sub-relativistic reverse shock regime (i.e., the thin shell and intermediate regime), where most optical flashes were detected. We provide new analytic estimates of the reverse shock emission based on a better shock approximation, which well describe numerical results in the intermediate regime. We show that the reverse shock temperature at the onset of afterglow is constant, ( {Gamma}-bar{sub d}-1){approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}, when the dimensionless parameter {xi}{sub 0} is more than several. Our approach is applied to case studies of GRB 990123 and 090102, and we find that magnetic fields in the fireballs are even stronger than previously believed. However, these events are still likely to be due to a baryonic jet with {sigma} {approx} 10{sup -3} for GRB 990123 and {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} to 3 for GRB 090102.

  6. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, J. L.; Oates, S. R.; Schady, P.; Burrows, D. N.; de Pasquale, M.; Donato, D.; Gehrels, N.; Koch, S.; McEnery, J.; Piran, T.; Roming, P.; Sakamoto, T.; Swenson, C.; Virgili, F.; Wanderman, D.; Zhang, B.

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi-LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift-BAT is only beginning to be explored by multiwavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi-GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  7. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; Schady, P.; Burrows, D. N.; dePasquale, M.; Donato, D.; Gehrels, N.; Koch, S.; McEnery, J.; Piran, T.; Roming, P.; Sakamoto, T.; Swenson, C.; Troja, E.; Vasileiou, V.; Virgili, F.; Wanderman, D.; Zhang, B.

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi -LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust dataset of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT detected GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift -BAT is only beginning to be explored by multi-wavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi -GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  8. Fermi and Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Population Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racusin, Judith I.

    2011-01-01

    The new and extreme population of GRBs detected by Fermi-LAT shows several new features in high energy gamma-rays that are providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 6 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into components of GRB emission structure. The relationship between the LAT GRBs and the well studied, fainter, less energetic GRBs detected by Swift-BAT is only beginning to be explored by multi-wavelength studies. We explore the large sample of GRBs detected by BAT only, BAT and Fermi-GBM, and GBM and LAT, focusing on these samples separately in order to search for statistically significant differences between the populations, using only those GRBs with measured redshifts in order to physically characterize these objects. We disentangle which differences are instrumental selection effects versus intrinsic properties, in order to better understand the nature of the special characteristics of the LAT bursts.

  9. Gamma-ray burst flares: X-ray flaring. II

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, C. A.; Roming, P. W. A.

    2014-06-10

    We present a catalog of 498 flaring periods found in gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves taken from the online Swift X-Ray Telescope GRB Catalogue. We analyzed 680 individual light curves using a flare detection method developed and used on our UV/optical GRB Flare Catalog. This method makes use of the Bayesian Information Criterion to analyze the residuals of fitted GRB light curves and statistically determines the optimal fit to the light curve residuals in an attempt to identify any additional features. These features, which we classify as flares, are identified by iteratively adding additional 'breaks' to the light curve. We find evidence of flaring in 326 of the analyzed light curves. For those light curves with flares, we find an average number of ∼1.5 flares per GRB. As with the UV/optical, flaring in our sample is generally confined to the first 1000 s of the afterglow, but can be detected to beyond 10{sup 5} s. Only ∼50% of the detected flares follow the 'classical' definition of Δt/t ≤ 0.5, with many of the largest flares exceeding this value.

  10. Gamma-Ray Burst Associated Supernovae: Outliers Become Mainstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Masetti, N.; Ferrero, P.; Klose, S.; Palazzi, E.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Woosley, S. E.; Kouveliotou, C.; Deng, J.

    2006-01-01

    During the last eight years a clear connection has been established-between the two most powerful explosions in our Universe: core-collapse supernovae (SNe) and long gamma ray bursts (GRBs). Theory suggests4 that every GRB is simultaneously accompanied by a SN, but in only a few nearby cases have these two phenomena been observed together. We report the discovery and daily monitoring of SN 2006aj associated with the GRB 060218. Because the event was the second closest GRB, both explosions could be examined in detail. GRB 060218 had an unusually soft spectrum, long duration, and a total energy 100 to 1000 times less than most other GRBs. Yet SN 2006aj was similar to those in other GRBs, aside from rising more rapidly and being approximately 40% fainter. Taken together, these observations suggest that GRBs have two components: a broad, energetic, but only mildly relativistic outflow that makes a SN, and a more narrowly focused, highly relativistic jet responsible for the GRB. The properties of the GRB jet apparently vary greatly from event to event, while the broad SN outflow varies much less. Low energy transients like GRB 060218 may be the most common events in the Universe.

  11. Gamma-ray burst supernovae as standardizable candles

    SciTech Connect

    Cano, Z.

    2014-10-20

    A long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) marks the violent end of a massive star. GRBs are rare in the universe, and their progenitor stars are thought to possess unique physical properties such as low metal content and rapid rotation, while the supernovae (SNe) that are associated with GRBs are expected to be highly aspherical. To date, it has been unclear whether GRB-SNe could be used as standardizable candles, with contrasting conclusions found by different teams. In this paper, I present evidence that GRB-SNe have the potential to be used as standardizable candles and show that a statistically significant relation exists between the brightness and width of their decomposed light curves relative to a template SN. Every single nearby spectroscopically identified GRB-SN for which the rest frame and host contributions have been accurately determined follows this relation. Additionally, it is shown that not only GRB-SNe, but perhaps all SNe whose explosions are powered by a central engine may eventually be used as a standardizable candle. Finally, I suggest that the use of GRB-SNe as standardizable candles likely arises from a combination of the viewing angle and similar explosion geometry in each event, the latter of which is influenced by the explosion mechanism of GRB-SNe.

  12. Broadband turbulent spectra in gamma-ray burst light curves

    SciTech Connect

    Van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Frontera, Filippo

    2014-05-10

    Broadband power density spectra offer a window to understanding turbulent behavior in the emission mechanism and, at the highest frequencies, in the putative inner engines powering long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We describe a chirp search method alongside Fourier analysis for signal detection in the Poisson noise-dominated, 2 kHz sampled, BeppoSAX light curves. An efficient numerical implementation is described in O(Nnlog n) operations, where N is the number of chirp templates and n is the length of the light-curve time series, suited for embarrassingly parallel processing. For the detection of individual chirps over a 1 s duration, the method is one order of magnitude more sensitive in signal-to-noise ratio than Fourier analysis. The Fourier-chirp spectra of GRB 010408 and GRB 970816 show a continuation of the spectral slope with up to 1 kHz of turbulence identified in low-frequency Fourier analysis. The same continuation is observed in an average spectrum of 42 bright, long GRBs. An outlook on a similar analysis of upcoming gravitational wave data is included.

  13. Dominant Gamma-Ray Bursts Production in the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, S. N.; Lin, J. R.; Li, T. P.

    2003-01-01

    It has been known that at least some of the observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are produced at cosmological distances and the GRB production rate may follow the star formation rate. Here we report that the lower and upper distance limits to the GRB production are z approx. 0.22 and 8, respectively, as determined from BATSE's GRB fluence distribution. This result suggests that GRBs are no longer produced presently, and that the actual star formation rate peaks at much higher redshift and thus the 'dark ages' of the universe have ended much earlier than believed previously. We have also determined that the GRB opening angles follow an exponential distribution with a mean opening angle of about 0.03 radian. This study is supported in part by the Special Funds for Major State Basic Research Projects and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China. SNZ also acknowledges supports by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and through NASA's Long Term Space Astrophysics Program.

  14. COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS FROM SUPERNOVAE ASSOCIATED WITH GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xue; Hjorth, Jens; Wojtak, Radosław

    2014-11-20

    We report estimates of the cosmological parameters Ω {sub m} and Ω{sub Λ} obtained using supernovae (SNe) associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at redshifts up to 0.606. Eight high-fidelity GRB-SNe with well-sampled light curves across the peak are used. We correct their peak magnitudes for a luminosity-decline rate relation to turn them into accurate standard candles with dispersion σ = 0.18 mag. We also estimate the peculiar velocity of the low-redshift host galaxy of SN 1998bw using constrained cosmological simulations. In a flat universe, the resulting Hubble diagram leads to best-fit cosmological parameters of (Ω{sub m},Ω{sub Λ})=(0.58{sub −0.25}{sup +0.22},0.42{sub −0.22}{sup +0.25}). This exploratory study suggests that GRB-SNe can potentially be used as standardizable candles to high redshifts to measure distances in the universe and constrain cosmological parameters.

  15. Gamma-ray burst jets: uniform or structured?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salafia, O. S.; Pescalli, A.; Nappo, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    The structure of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) jets impacts on their prompt and afterglow emission properties. Insights into the still unknown structure of GRBs can be achieved by studying how different structures impact on the luminosity function (LF): i) we show that low ($10^{46} < L_{\\rm iso} < 10^{48}$ erg/s) and high (i.e. with $L_{\\rm iso} > 10^{50}$ erg/s) luminosity GRBs can be described by a unique LF; ii) we find that a uniform jet (seen on- and off-axis) as well as a very steep structured jet (i.e. $\\epsilon(\\theta) \\propto \\theta^{-s}$ with $s > 4$) can reproduce the current LF data; iii) taking into account the emission from the whole jet (i.e. including contributions from mildly relativistic, off-axis jet elements) we find that $E_{\\rm iso}(\\theta_{\\rm v})$ (we dub this quantity "apparent structure") can be very different from the intrinsic structure $\\epsilon(\\theta)$: in particular, a jet with a Gaussian intrinsic structure has an apparent structure which is more similar to a power law. This opens a new viewpoint on the quasi-universal structured jet hypothesis.

  16. The Maximum Isotropic Energy of Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atteia, J.-L.; Heussaff, V.; Dezalay, J.-P.; Klotz, A.; Turpin, D.; Tsvetkova, A. E.; Frederiks, D. D.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Daigne, F.; Mochkovitch, R.

    2017-03-01

    The most energetic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are remarkable sources releasing huge amounts of energy on short timescales. Their prompt emission, which usually lasts a few seconds, is so bright that it is visible across the whole observable universe. Studying these extreme events may provide clues on the nature of GRB progenitors and on the physical processes at work in relativistic jets. In this paper, we study the bright end of the isotropic energy distribution of long GRBs. We use two samples of long GRBs with redshift detected by Fermi/GBM or Konus-Wind, two instruments that measure the spectral shape and the energetics of the prompt emission accurately. We focus on GRBs within a range of redshifts z = 1–5, a volume that contains a large number of energetic GRBs, and we propose a simple method to reconstruct the bright end of the GRB energy distribution from the observed one. We find that the GRB energy distribution cannot be described by a simple power law but requires a strong cutoff above 1{--}3× {10}54 erg. We attribute this feature to an intrinsic limit on the energy per unit of solid angle radiated by GRBs.

  17. The physics of gamma-ray bursts & relativistic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Zhang, Bing

    2015-02-01

    We provide a comprehensive review of major developments in our understanding of gamma-ray bursts, with particular focus on the discoveries made within the last fifteen years when their true nature was uncovered. We describe the observational properties of photons from the radio to 100s GeV bands, both in the prompt emission and the afterglow phases. Mechanisms for the generation of these photons in GRBs are discussed and confronted with observations to shed light on the physical properties of these explosions, their progenitor stars and the surrounding medium. After presenting observational evidence that a powerful, collimated, jet moving at close to the speed of light is produced in these explosions, we describe our current understanding regarding the generation, acceleration, and dissipation of the jet. We discuss mounting observational evidence that long duration GRBs are produced when massive stars die, and that at least some short duration bursts are associated with old, roughly solar mass, compact stars. The question of whether a black-hole or a strongly magnetized, rapidly rotating neutron star is produced in these explosions is also discussed. We provide a brief summary of what we have learned about relativistic collisionless shocks and particle acceleration from GRB afterglow studies, and discuss the current understanding of radiation mechanism during the prompt emission phase. We discuss theoretical predictions of possible high-energy neutrino emission from GRBs and the current observational constraints. Finally, we discuss how these explosions may be used to study cosmology, e.g. star formation, metal enrichment, reionization history, as well as the formation of first stars and galaxies in the universe.

  18. Limits on neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts with the 40 string IceCube detector.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Bazo Alba, J L; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K-H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Geisler, M; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülss, J-P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K-H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kemming, N; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lehmann, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pérez de los Heros, C; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schoenwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Turčan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Voigt, B; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Weaver, C; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P

    2011-04-08

    IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if gamma-ray bursts are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above 10(18)  eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search for neutrinos from pγ interactions in the prompt phase of the gamma-ray burst fireball and the other a generic search for any neutrino emission from these sources over a wide range of energies and emission times, produced no evidence for neutrino emission, excluding prevailing models at 90% confidence.

  19. Episodic Jets as the Central Engine of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Feng; Zhang, Bing

    2012-09-01

    Most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have erratic light curves, which demand that the GRB central engine launches an episodic outflow. Recent Fermi observations of some GRBs indicate a lack of the thermal photosphere component as predicted by the baryonic fireball model, which suggests a magnetic origin of GRBs. Given that powerful episodic jets have been observed along with continuous jets in other astrophysical black hole systems, here we propose an intrinsically episodic, magnetically dominated jet model for the GRB central engine. Accumulation and eruption of free magnetic energy in the corona of a differentially rotating, turbulent accretion flow around a hyperaccreting black hole lead to ejections of episodic, magnetically dominated plasma blobs. These blobs are accelerated magnetically, collide with each other at large radii, trigger rapid magnetic reconnection and turbulence, efficient particle acceleration, and radiation, and power the observed episodic prompt gamma-ray emission from GRBs.

  20. Calibration of gamma-ray burst luminosity indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Enwei; Zhang, Bing

    2006-06-01

    Several gamma-ray burst (GRB) luminosity indicators have been proposed which can be generally written in the form of , where c is the coefficient, xi is the ith observable, and ai is its corresponding power-law index. Unlike in Type Ia supernovae, calibration of GRB luminosity indicators using a low-redshift sample is difficult. This is because the GRB rate drops rapidly at low redshifts, and some nearby GRBs may be different from their cosmological brethren. Calibrating the standard candles using GRBs in a narrow redshift range (Δz) near a fiducial redshift has been proposed recently. Here we elaborate such a possibility and propose to calibrate {ai} based on the Bayesian theory and to marginalize the c value over a reasonable range of cosmological parameters. We take our newly discovered multivariable GRB luminosity indicator, Eiso=cEa1pta2b, as an example and test the validity of this approach through simulations, where Eiso is the isotropic energy of prompt gamma-rays, Ep is the spectral break energy, and tb is the temporal break time of the optical afterglow light curve. We show that while c strongly depends on the cosmological parameters, neither a1 nor a2 does as long as Δz is small enough. The selection of Δz for a particular GRB sample could be judged according to the size and the observational uncertainty of the sample. There is no preferable redshift to perform the calibration of the indices {ai}, while a lower redshift is preferable for c-marginalization. The best strategy would be to collect GRBs within a narrow redshift bin around a fiducial intermediate redshift (e.g. zc~ 1 or zc~ 2), as the observed GRB redshift distribution is found to peak around this range. Our simulation suggests that with the current observational precisions of measuring Eiso, Ep and tb, 25 GRBs within a redshift bin of Δz~ 0.30 would give fine calibration to the Liang-Zhang luminosity indicator.

  1. Light curves and spectra from off-axis gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salafia, O. S.; Ghisellini, G.; Pescalli, A.; Ghirlanda, G.; Nappo, F.

    2016-10-01

    If gamma-ray burst prompt emission originates at a typical radius, and if material producing the emission moves at relativistic speed, then the variability of the resulting light curve depends on the viewing angle. This is due to the fact that the pulse evolution time-scale is Doppler contracted, while the pulse separation is not. For off-axis viewing angles θview ≳ θjet + Γ-1, the pulse broadening significantly smears out the light-curve variability. This is largely independent of geometry and emission processes. To explore a specific case, we set up a simple model of a single pulse under the assumption that the pulse rise and decay are dominated by the shell curvature effect. We show that such a pulse observed off-axis is (i) broader, (ii) softer and (iii) displays a different hardness-intensity correlation with respect to the same pulse seen on-axis. For each of these effects, we provide an intuitive physical explanation. We then show how a synthetic light curve made by a superposition of pulses changes with increasing viewing angle. We find that a highly variable light curve (as seen on-axis) becomes smooth and apparently single-pulsed (when seen off-axis) because of pulse overlap. To test the relevance of this fact, we estimate the fraction of off-axis gamma-ray bursts detectable by Swift as a function of redshift, finding that a sizeable fraction (between 10 per cent and 80 per cent) of nearby (z < 0.1) bursts are observed with θview ≳ θjet + Γ-1. Based on these results, we argue that low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts are consistent with being ordinary bursts seen off-axis.

  2. Terrestrial Ozone Depletion Due to a Milky Way Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Brian C.; Jackman, Charles H.; Melott, Adrian L.; Laird, Claude M.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Hogan, Daniel P.

    2005-01-01

    Based on cosmological rates, it is probable that at least once in the last Gy the Earth has been irradiated by a gamma-ray burst in our Galaxy from within 2 kpc. Using a two-dimensional atmospheric model we have computed the effects upon the Earth's atmosphere of one such burst. A ten second burst delivering 100 kJ/sq m to the Earth results in globally averaged ozone depletion of 35%, with depletion reaching 55% at some latitudes. Significant global depletion persists for over 5 years after the burst. This depletion would have dramatic implications for life since a 50% decrease in ozone column density results in approximately three times the normal UVB flux. Widespread extinctions are likely, based on extrapolation from UVB sensitivity of modern organisms.

  3. Gamma-ray bursts as the death throes of massive binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Ramesh; Paczynski, Bohdan; Piran, Tsvi

    1992-01-01

    We propose that gamma-ray bursts are created in the mergers of double neutron star binaries and black hole neutron star binaries at cosmological distances. Two different processes provide the electromagnetic energy for the bursts: neutrino-antineutrino annihilation into electron-position pairs during the merger, and magnetic flares generated by the Parker instability in a postmerger differentially rotating disk. In both cases, an optically thick fireball of size less than or approximately equal to 100 km is initially created, which expands ultrarelativistically to large radii before radiating. The scenario is only qualitative at this time, but it eliminates many previous objections to the cosmological merger model. The strongest bursts should be found close to, but not at the centers of, galaxies at redshifts of order 0.1, and should be accompanied by bursts of gravitational radiation from the spiraling-in binary which could be detected by LIGO.

  4. Testing black hole neutrino-dominated accretion discs for long-duration gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Cui-Ying; Liu, Tong; Gu, Wei-Min; Tian, Jian-Xiang

    2016-05-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) are generally considered to originate from the massive collapsars. It is believed that the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is a neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF) around a rotating stellar-mass black hole (BH). The neutrino annihilation above the NDAF is a feasible mechanism to power GRB. In this work, we analyse the distributions of the isotropic gamma-ray-radiated energy and jet kinetic energy of 48 LGRBs. According to the NDAF and fireball models, we estimate the mean accreted masses of LGRBs in our sample to investigate whether the NDAFs can power LGRBs with the reasonable BH parameters and conversion efficiency of neutrino annihilation. The results indicate that most of the values of the accreted masses are less than 5 M⊙ for the extreme Kerr BHs and high conversion efficiency. It suggests that the NDAFs may be suitable for most of LGRBs except for some extremely high energy sources.

  5. Revisiting the formation rate and redshift distribution of long gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaan, C.; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    Using a novel approach, the distribution of fluences of long gamma-ray bursts derived from the Swift-BAT catalog was reproduced by a jet-model characterized by the distribution of the total radiated energy in γ-rays and the distribution of the aperture angle of the emission cone. The best fit between simulated and observed fluence distributions permits one to estimate the parameters of the model. An evolution of the median energy of the bursts is required to adequately reproduce the observed redshift distribution of the events when the formation rate of γ-ray bursts follows the cosmic star formation rate. For our preferred model, the median jet energy evolves as EJ ∝ e0.5(1 + z) and the mean expected jet energy is 3.0 × 1049 erg, which agrees with the mean value derived from afterglow data. The estimated local formation rate is Rgrb = 290 Gpc-3 yr-1, representing less than 9% of the local formation rate of type Ibc supernovae. This result also suggests that the progenitors of long gamma-ray bursts have masses ≥ 90 M⊙ when a Miller-Scalo initial mass function is assumed.

  6. Focusing of Alfvenic wave power in the context of gamma-ray burst emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Melia, Fulvio

    1993-01-01

    Highly dynamic magnetospheric perturbations in neutron star environments can naturally account for the features observed in gamma-ray burst spectra. The source distribution, however, appears to be extragalactic. Although noncatastrophic isotropic emission mechanisms may be ruled out on energetic and timing arguments, MHD processes can produce strongly anisotropic gamma rays with an observable flux out to distances of about 1-2 Gpc. Here we show that sheared Alfven waves propagating along open magnetospheric field lines at the poles of magnetized neutron stars transfer their energy dissipationally to the current sustaining the field misalignment and thereby focus their power into a spatial region about 1000 times smaller than that of the crustal disturbance. This produces a strong (observable) flux enhancement along certain directions. We apply this model to a source population of 'turned-off' pulsars that have nonetheless retained their strong magnetic fields and have achieved alignment at a period of approximately greater than 5 sec.

  7. Variabilities of gamma-ray bursts from black hole hyper-accretion discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Da-Bin; Lu, Zu-Jia; Mu, Hui-Jun; Liu, Tong; Hou, Shu-Jin; Lü, Jing; Gu, Wei-Min; Liang, En-Wei

    2016-11-01

    The emission from black hole binaries (BHBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) display significant aperiodic variabilities. The most promising explanation for these variabilities is the propagating fluctuations in the accretion flow. It is natural to expect that the mechanism driving variabilities in BHBs and AGNs may operate in a black hole hyper-accretion disc, which is believed to power gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We study the variabilities of jet power in GRBs based on the model of propagating fluctuations. It is found that the variabilities of jet power and the temporal profile of erratic spikes in this scenario are similar to those in observed light curves of prompt gamma-ray emission of GRBs. Our results show that the mechanism driving X-ray variabilities in BHBs and AGNs may operate in the central engine to drive the variabilities of GRBs.

  8. BATSE observations of gamma-ray burst spectra. I - Spectral diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Matteson, J.; Ford, L.; Schaefer, B.; Palmer, D.; Teegarden, B.; Cline, T.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W.; Pendleton, G.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the time-averaged gamma-ray burst spectra accumulated by the spectroscopy detectors of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment. The spectra are described well at low energy by a power-law continuum with an exponential cutoff and by a steeper power law at high energy. However, the spectral parameters vary from burst to burst with no universal values. The break in the spectrum ranges from below 100 keV to more than 1 MeV, but peaks below 200 keV with only a small fraction of the spectra breaking above 400 keV; it is therefore unlikely that a majority of the burst spectra are shaped directly by pair processes, unless bursts originate from a broad redshift range. The correlations among burst parameters do not fulfill the predictions of the cosmological models of burst origin. No correlations with burst morphology or the spatial distribution were found. We demonstrate the importance of using a complete spectral description even if a partial description (e.g., a model without a high-energy tail) is statistically satisfactory.

  9. Computational Astrophysics Consortium 3 - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, Stan

    2014-08-29

    Final project report for UCSC's participation in the Computational Astrophysics Consortium - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis. As an appendix, the report of the entire Consortium is also appended.

  10. In-Orbit Performance of the CALET Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Calet Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    This poster presentation describes in-orbit operation and performance of the CALET Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (CGBM) which has been operated for about one year since October 2015 on the International Space Station (ISS).

  11. MCRaT Simulations of Long Gamma Ray Burst Spectra and Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsotan, T.; Lazzati, D.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of the Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer, MCRaT, simulations of long gamma ray bursts from a variety of stellar progenitors and jet properties, including variable engines. We also compare the resulting spectra to observed data.

  12. GRB 110205A: ANATOMY OF A LONG GAMMA-RAY BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Gendre, B.; Stratta, G.; Atteia, J. L.; Klotz, A.; Boeer, M.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.; Kugel, F.; Rinner, C.; Laas-Bourez, M.

    2012-03-20

    The Swift burst GRB 110205A was a very bright burst visible in the Northern Hemisphere. GRB 110205A was intrinsically long and very energetic and it occurred in a low-density interstellar medium environment, leading to delayed afterglow emission and a clear temporal separation of the main emitting components: prompt emission, reverse shock, and forward shock. Our observations show several remarkable features of GRB 110205A: the detection of prompt optical emission strongly correlated with the Burst Alert Telescope light curve, with no temporal lag between the two; the absence of correlation of the X-ray emission compared to the optical and high-energy gamma-ray ones during the prompt phase; and a large optical re-brightening after the end of the prompt phase, that we interpret as a signature of the reverse shock. Beyond the pedagogical value offered by the excellent multi-wavelength coverage of a gamma-ray burst with temporally separated radiating components, we discuss several questions raised by our observations: the nature of the prompt optical emission and the spectral evolution of the prompt emission at high energies (from 0.5 keV to 150 keV); the origin of an X-ray flare at the beginning of the forward shock; and the modeling of the afterglow, including the reverse shock, in the framework of the classical fireball model.

  13. Modeling of Pulses in Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts originating from the Earth's atmosphere that are associated with lightning activities. After their discovery in 1994 by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994], this phenomenon has been further observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010] and the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010]. Photon spectra corresponding to the mechanism of relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) usually provide a very good agreement with satellite observations [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005]. On the other hand, Celestin and Pasko [JGR, 116, A03315, 2011] have shown theoretically that the large flux of thermal runaway electrons generated by streamers during the negative corona flash stage of stepping lightning leaders in intracloud lightning flashes could be responsible for TGFs. Recently, based on analysis of the temporal profiles of 278 TGF events observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor, Foley et al. [JGR, 119, 5931, 2014] have suggested that 67% of TGF pulses detected are asymmetric and these asymmetric pulses are consistent with the production mechanism of TGFs by relativistic feedback discharges. In the present work, we employ a Monte Carlo model to study the temporal distribution of photons at low-orbit satellite altitudes during TGF events. Using the pulse fitting method described in [Foley et al., 2014], we further investigate the characteristics of TGF pulses. We mainly focus on the effects of Compton scattering on the symmetry properties and the rise and fall times of TGF pulses.

  14. The dark bursts population in a complete sample of bright Swift long gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melandri, A.; Sbarufatti, B.; D'Avanzo, P.; Salvaterra, R.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; Vergani, S. D.; Nava, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Fugazza, D.; Mangano, V.; Capalbi, M.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2012-04-01

    We study the properties of the population of optically dark events present in a carefully selected complete sample of bright Swift long gamma-ray bursts. The high level of completeness in redshift of our sample (52 objects out of 58) allows us to establish the existence of a genuine dark population, and we are able to estimate the maximum fraction of dark burst events (˜30 per cent) expected for the whole class of long gamma-ray burst. The redshift distribution of this population of dark bursts is similar to that of the whole sample. Interestingly, the rest-frame X-ray luminosity (and the de-absorbed X-ray flux) of the subclass of dark bursts is slightly higher than the average luminosity of the non-dark events. At the same time, the prompt properties do not differ and the optical flux of dark events is at the lower tail of the optical flux distribution, corrected for Galactic absorption. All these properties suggest that dark bursts events generate in much denser environments with respect to normal bright events. We can therefore exclude the high-z and the low-density scenarios and conclude that the major cause of the origin of optically dark events is the dust extinction.

  15. Spectral feature of 31 December 1981 gamma-ray burst not confirmed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, P. L.; Share, G. H.; Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Matz, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of a gamma ray burst at 01:37 UT on December 31, 1981 using the SMM gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) are compared with those made by the Konus instruments on Veneras 11-14. Burst time profiles, photon spectra, and detector energy loss spectra for three time intervals are compared for the GRS and the Konus instruments. It is concluded that the SMM spectra exhibit no evidence for the presence of emission features reported by the Konus group.

  16. Rest-frame properties of 32 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, D.; Greiner, J.; von Kienlin, A.; Rau, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Goldstein, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Nardini, M.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Burgess, J. M.; Chaplin, V. L.; Diehl, R.; Fishman, G. J.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Gibby, M. H.; Giles, M. M.; Guiriec, S.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lin, L.; McBreen, S.; Meegan, C. A.; Olivares E., F.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Tierney, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2011-07-01

    Aims: In this paper we study the main spectral and temporal properties of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by Fermi/GBM. We investigate these key properties of GRBs in the rest-frame of the progenitor and test for possible intra-parameter correlations to better understand the intrinsic nature of these events. Methods: Our sample comprises 32 GRBs with measured redshift that were observed by GBM until August 2010. 28 of them belong to the long-duration population and 4 events were classified as short/hard bursts. For all of these events we derive, where possible, the intrinsic peak energy in the νFν spectrum (Ep,rest), the duration in the rest-frame, defined as the time in which 90% of the burst fluence was observed (T90,rest) and the isotropic equivalent bolometric energy (Eiso). Results: The distribution of Ep,rest has mean and median values of 1.1 MeV and 750 keV, respectively. A log-normal fit to the sample of long bursts peaks at ~800 keV. No high-Ep population is found but the distribution is biased against low Ep values. We find the lowest possible Ep that GBM can recover to be ≈ 15 keV. The T90,rest distribution of long GRBs peaks at ~10 s. The distribution of Eiso has mean and median values of 8.9 × 1052 erg and 8.2 × 1052 erg, respectively. We confirm the tight correlation between Ep,rest and Eiso (Amati relation) and the one between Ep,rest and the 1-s peak luminosity (Lp) (Yonetoku relation). Additionally, we observe a parameter reconstruction effect, i.e. the low-energy power law index α gets softer when Ep is located at the lower end of the detector energy range. Moreover, we do not find any significant cosmic evolution of neither Ep,rest nor T90,rest.

  17. Biological radiation dose from secondary particles in a Milky Way gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atri, Dimitra; Melott, Adrian L.; Karam, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are a class of highly energetic explosions emitting radiation in a very short timescale of a few seconds and with a very narrow opening angle. Although, all GRBs observed so far are extragalactic in origin, there is a high probability of a GRB of galactic origin beaming towards the Earth in the past ~0.5 Gyr. We define the level of catastrophic damage to the biosphere as approximation 100 kJ m-2, based on Thomas et al. (2005a, b). Using results in Melott & Thomas (2011), we estimate the probability of the Earth receiving this fluence from a GRB of any type, as 87% during the last 500 Myr. Such an intense burst of gamma rays would ionize the atmosphere and deplete the ozone (O3) layer. With depleted O3, there will be an increased flux of Solar UVB on the Earth's surface with potentially harmful biological effects. In addition to the atmospheric damage, secondary particles produced by gamma ray-induced showers will reach the surface. Among all secondary particles, muons dominate the ground-level secondary particle flux (99% of the total number of particles) and are potentially of biological significance. Using the Monte Carlo simulation code CORSIKA, we modelled the air showers produced by gamma-ray primaries up to 100 GeV. We found that the number of muons produced by the electromagnetic component of hypothetical galactic GRBs significantly increases the total muon flux. However, since the muon production efficiency is extremely low for photon energies below 100 GeV, and because GRBs radiate strongly for only a very short time, we find that the biological radiation dose from secondary muons is negligible. The main mechanism of biological damage from GRBs is through Solar UVB irradiation from the loss of O3 in the upper atmosphere.

  18. Gamma-ray bursts from the accretion of solid bodies onto high-velocity Galactic neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Leonard, P.J.T.

    1993-12-31

    We propose a simple model for the gamma-ray bursts based on high- velocity Galactic neutron stars that have accretion disks. The latter are formed from a mixture of material from the supernova shell and that ablated from a pre-supernova binary companion. Accretion onto the neutron star from this disk when the disk is still largely gaseous may result in a soft gamma-ray repeater phase. Much later, after the neutron star has moved away from its birthplace, solid bodies form in the disk, and some are perturbed into hitting the neutron star to create gamma-ray bursts. This model makes several predictions that are consistent with the observations. The observed combination of a high degree of isotropy on the sky coupled with the observed value of < V/V{sub max}> is not, at first glance, predicted, but is not impossible to attain in our model.

  19. Generation of circular polarization of gamma ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batebi, S.; Mohammadi, R.; Ruffini, R.; Tizchang, S.; Xue, S.-S.

    2016-09-01

    The generation of the circular polarization of gamma ray burst (GRB) photons is discussed in this paper via their interactions with astroparticles in the presence or absence of background fields such as magnetic fields and noncommutative space-time geometry. Solving the quantum Boltzmann equation for GRB photons as a photon ensemble, we discuss the generation of circular polarization (as Faraday conversion phase shift Δ ϕFC) of GRBs in the following cases: (i) intermediate interactions, i.e., the Compton scattering of GRBs in the galaxy cluster magnetic field and in the presence of noncommutative space-time geometry, as well as the scattering of GRBs in the cosmic neutrino background (CNB) and cosmic microwave background (CMB); (ii) interactions with particles and fields in shockwaves, i.e., the Compton scattering of GRBs with accelerated charged particles in the presence of magnetic fields. We found that (i) after shockwave crossing, the greatest contribution of Δ ϕFC for energetic GRBs (of the order of GeV and larger) comes from GRB-CMB interactions, but for low-energy GRBs the contributions of the Compton scattering of GRBs in the galaxy cluster magnetic field dominate; (ii) in shockwave crossing, the magnetic field has significant effects on converting a GRB's linear polarization to a circular one, and this effect can be used to better understand the magnetic profile in shockwaves. The main aim of this work is to study and measure the circular polarization of GRBs for a better understanding of the physics and mechanism of the generation of GRBs and their interactions before reaching us.

  20. Nuclear composition of magnetized gamma-ray burst jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Sanshiro; Tominaga, Nozomu

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the fraction of metal nuclei in the relativistic jets of gamma-ray bursts associated with core-collapse supernovae. We simulate the fallback in jet-induced explosions with two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics calculations and the jet acceleration with steady, radial, relativistic magnetohydrodynamics calculations, and derive the detailed nuclear composition of the jet by post-processing calculation. We found that if the temperature at the jet launch site is above 4.7 × 109 K, quasi-statistical equilibrium is established and heavy nuclei are dissociated into light particles such as 4He during the acceleration of the jets. The criterion for the survival of metal nuclei is written in terms of the isotropic jet luminosity as L_j^iso ≲ 3.9 × 10^{50} ( R_i/107 cm)^2(1 + σi) erg s-1, where Ri and σi are the initial radius of the jets and the initial magnetization parameter, respectively. If the jet is initially dominated by radiation field (i.e., σi ≪ 1) and the isotropic luminosity is relatively high (L_j^iso ≳ 4 × 10^{52} erg s-1), the metal nuclei cannot survive in the jet. On the other hand, if the jet is mainly accelerated by magnetic field (i.e., σi ≫ 1), metal nuclei initially contained in the jet can survive without serious dissociation even in the case of a high-luminosity jet. If the jet contains metal nuclei, the dominant nuclei are 28Si, 16O, and 32S and the mean mass number can be ˜ 25.

  1. Compact Binary Progenitors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Perna, Rosalba; Rezzolla, Luciano; Troja, Eleonora; Lazzati, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, detailed observations and accurate numerical simulations have provided support to the idea that mergers of compact binaries containing either two neutron stars (NSs) or an NS and a black hole (BH) may constitute the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The merger of such compact binaries is expected to lead to the production of a spinning BH surrounded by an accreting torus. Several mechanisms can extract energy from this system and power the SGRBs. Here we connect observations and numerical simulations of compact binary mergers, and use the current sample of SGRBs with measured energies to constrain the mass of their powering tori. By comparing the masses of the tori with the results of fully general-relativistic simulations, we are able to infer the properties of the binary progenitors that yield SGRBs. By assuming a constant efficiency in converting torus mass into jet energy epsilon(sub jet) = 10%, we find that most of the tori have masses smaller than 0.01 Solar M, favoring "high-mass" binary NSs mergers, i.e., binaries with total masses approx >1.5 the maximum mass of an isolated NS. This has important consequences for the gravitational wave signals that may be detected in association with SGRBs, since "high-mass" systems do not form a long-lived hypermassive NS after the merger. While NS-BH systems cannot be excluded to be the engine of at least some of the SGRBs, the BH would need to have an initial spin of approx. 0.9 or higher.

  2. Gamma-Ray Bursts from Evolved Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Ozernoy, L. M.

    1998-07-01

    A new cosmological scenario for the origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is proposed. In our scenario, a highly evolved central core in the dense galactic nucleus is formed, containing a subsystem of compact stellar remnants (CSRs), such as neutron stars and black holes. Those subsystems result from the dynamical evolution of dense central stellar clusters in the galactic nuclei through merging of stars, thereby forming (as has been realized by many authors) the short-lived massive stars and then CSRs. We estimate the rate of random CSR collisions in the evolved galactic nuclei by taking into account, in a procedure similar to that of Quinlan & Shapiro, the dissipative encounters of CSRs, mainly due to radiative losses of gravitational waves, which result in the formation of intermediate short-lived binaries, with further coalescence of the companions to produce GRBs. We also consider how the possible presence of a central supermassive black hole, formed in a highly evolved galactic nucleus, influences the CSR binary formation. This scenario does not postulate ad hoc a required number of tight binary neutron stars in the galaxies. Instead, it gives, for the most realistic parameters of the evolved nuclei, the expected rate of GRBs consistent with the observed one, thereby explaining the GRB appearance as a natural part of the dynamical evolution of galactic nuclei. In addition, this scenario provides an opportunity for a cosmological GRB recurrence, previously considered to be a distinctive feature of GRBs of a local origin only. We also discuss some other observational tests of the proposed scenario.

  3. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbertson, Christian; Dainotti, Maria; Postnikov, Sergey; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Willingale, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A class of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obeys a three-dimensional (3D) relation (Dainotti et al. 2016), between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, Ta, its corresponding X-ray luminosity, La, and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, Lpeak. We extended the original analysis with X-ray data from July 2014 to July 2016 achieving a total sample of 183 Swift GRBs with afterglow plateaus and known redshifts. We added the most recent GRBs to the previous ‘gold sample’ (now including 45 GRBs) and obtained a relation plane with intrinsic scatter compatible within one σ with the previous result. We compared several GRB categories, such as short with extended emission, X-ray Flashes, GRBs associated with SNe, long-duration GRBs, and the gold sample, composed only by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus and evaluated their relation planes. We found that they are not statistically different from the fundamental plane derived from the gold sample and that the fundamental plane still has the smallest scatter. We compared the jet opening angles tabulated in literature with the angles derived using the Eiso-Egamma relation of the method in Pescalli et al. (2015) and calculated the relation plane for a sample of long GRBs accounting for the different jet opening angles. We observed that this correction does not significantly reduce the scatter. In an extended analysis, we found that the fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters.

  4. Long gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae have different environments.

    PubMed

    Fruchter, A S; Levan, A J; Strolger, L; Vreeswijk, P M; Thorsett, S E; Bersier, D; Burud, I; Castro Cerón, J M; Castro-Tirado, A J; Conselice, C; Dahlen, T; Ferguson, H C; Fynbo, J P U; Garnavich, P M; Gibbons, R A; Gorosabel, J; Gull, T R; Hjorth, J; Holland, S T; Kouveliotou, C; Levay, Z; Livio, M; Metzger, M R; Nugent, P E; Petro, L; Pian, E; Rhoads, J E; Riess, A G; Sahu, K C; Smette, A; Tanvir, N R; Wijers, R A M J; Woosley, S E

    2006-05-25

    When massive stars exhaust their fuel, they collapse and often produce the extraordinarily bright explosions known as core-collapse supernovae. On occasion, this stellar collapse also powers an even more brilliant relativistic explosion known as a long-duration gamma-ray burst. One would then expect that these long gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae should be found in similar galactic environments. Here we show that this expectation is wrong. We find that the gamma-ray bursts are far more concentrated in the very brightest regions of their host galaxies than are the core-collapse supernovae. Furthermore, the host galaxies of the long gamma-ray bursts are significantly fainter and more irregular than the hosts of the core-collapse supernovae. Together these results suggest that long-duration gamma-ray bursts are associated with the most extremely massive stars and may be restricted to galaxies of limited chemical evolution. Our results directly imply that long gamma-ray bursts are relatively rare in galaxies such as our own Milky Way.

  5. Analyzing Space-Based Interferometric Measurements of Stars and Network Measurements of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taff, L. G.

    1998-01-01

    Since the announcement of the discovery of sources of bursts of gamma-ray radiation in 1973, hundreds more reports of such bursts have now been published. Numerous artificial satellites have been equipped with gamma-ray detectors including the very successful Compton Gamma Ray Observatory BATSE instrument. Unfortunately, we have made no progress in identifying the source(s) of this high energy radiation. We suspected that this was a consequence of the method used to define gamma-ray burst source "error boxes." An alternative procedure to compute gamma-ray burst source positions, with a purely physical underpinning, was proposed in 1988 by Taff. Since then we have also made significant progress in understanding the analytical nature of the triangulation problem and in computing actual gamma-ray burst positions and their corresponding error boxes. For the former, we can now mathematically illustrate the crucial role of the area occupied by the detectors, while for the latter, the Atteia et al. (1987) catalog has been completely re-reduced. There are very few discrepancies in locations between our results and those of the customary "time difference of arrival" procedure. Thus, we have numerically demonstrated that the end result, for the positions, of these two very different-looking procedures is the same. Finally, for the first time, we provide a sample of realistic "error boxes" whose non-simple shapes vividly portray the difficulty of burst source localization.

  6. GRB 081029: A Gamma-Ray Burst with a Multi-Component Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Stephen T.; De Pasquale, Massimiliano; Mao, Jirong; Sakamoto, Takanori; Schady, Patricia; Covino, Stefano; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Jin, Zhi-Ping; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Antonelli, Angelo; D'Elia, Valerio; Ohincarini, Guido; Fiore, Fabrizio; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Cobb, Bethany E.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the unusual optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 081029, a long-soft burst with a redshift of z = 3.8479. We combine X-ray and optical observations from the Swift X-Ray Telescope and the Swift Ultra Violet/Optical Telescope with ground-based optical and infrared data obtained using the REM, ROTSE, and CTIO 1.3-m telescopes to construct a detailed data set extending from 86 s to approx.100,000 s after the BAT trigger. Our data covers a wide energy range, from 10 keV to 0.77 eV (1.24 A to 16000 A). The X-ray afterglow shows a shallow initial decay followed by a rapid decay starting at about 18,000 s. The optical and infrared afterglow, however, shows an uncharacteristic rise at about 3000 s that does not correspond to any feature in the X-ray light curve. Our data are not consistent with synchrotron radiation from a jet interacting with an external medium, a two-component jet, or continuous energy injection from the central engine. We find that the optical light curves can be broadly explained by a collision between two ejecta shells within a two-component jet. A growing number of gamma-ray burst afterglows are consistent with complex jets, which suggests that some (or all) gamma-ray burst jets are complex and will require detailed modelling to fully understand them.injection

  7. Smoking Gun Found for Gamma-Ray Burst in Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    plane of the sky by about 20 degrees. W49B Chandra Fe K-line Image of W49B Four rings about 25 light years in diameter can be identified in the infrared image. These rings, which are due to warm gas, were presumably flung out by the rapid rotation of the massive star a few hundred thousand years before the star exploded. The rings were pushed outward by a hot wind from the star a few thousand years before it exploded. Chandra's image and spectral data show that the jets of multimillion-degree-Celsius gas extending along the axis of the barrel are rich in iron and nickel ions, consistent with their being ejected from the center of the star. This distinguishes the explosion from a conventional type II supernova in which most of the Fe and Ni goes into making the neutron star, and the outer part of the star is what is flung out. In contrast, in the collapsar model of gamma ray bursts iron and nickel from the center is ejected along the jet. At the ends of the barrel, the X-ray emission flares out to make a hot cap. The X-ray cap is surrounded by a flattened cloud of hydrogen molecules detected in the infrared. These features indicate that the shock wave produced by the explosion has encountered a large, dense cloud of gas and dust. The scenario that emerges is one in which a massive star formed from a dense cloud of dust, shone brightly for a few million years while spinning off rings of gas and pushing them away, forming a nearly empty cavity around the star. The star then underwent a collapsar-type supernova explosion that resulted in a gamma-ray burst. The observations of W49B may help to resolve a problem that has bedeviled the collapsar model for gamma-ray bursts. On the one hand, the model is based on the collapse of a massive star, which is normally formed from a dense cloud. On the other hand, observations of the afterglow of many gamma-ray bursts indicate that the explosion occurred in a low-density gas. Based on the W49B data, the resolution proposed by Keohane

  8. On The Origin Of High Energy Correlations in Gamma-ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Kocevski, Daniel

    2012-04-03

    I investigate the origin of the observed correlation between a gamma-ray burst's {nu}F{sub {nu}} spectral peak E{sub pk} and its isotropic equivalent energy E{sub iso} through the use of a population synthesis code to model the prompt gamma-ray emission from GRBs. By using prescriptions for the distribution of prompt spectral parameters as well as the population's luminosity function and co-moving rate density, I generate a simulated population of GRBs and examine how bursts of varying spectral properties and redshift would appear to a gamma-ray detector here on Earth. I find that a strong observed correlation can be produced between the source frame Epk and Eiso for the detected population despite the existence of only a weak and broad correlation in the original simulated population. The energy dependance of a gamma-ray detector's flux-limited detection threshold acts to produce a correlation between the source frame E{sub pk} and E{sub iso} for low luminosity GRBs, producing the left boundary of the observed correlation. Conversely, very luminous GRBs are found at higher redshifts than their low luminosity counterparts due to the standard Malquest bias, causing bursts in the low E{sub pk}, high E{sub iso} regime to go undetected because their E{sub pk} values would be redshifted to energies at which most gamma-ray detectors become less sensitive. I argue that it is this previously unexamined effect which produces the right boundary of the observed correlation. Therefore, the origin of the observed correlation is a complex combination of the instrument's detection threshold, the intrinsic cutoff in the GRB luminosity function, and the broad range of redshifts over which GRBs are detected. Although the GRB model presented here is a very simplified representation of the complex nature of GRBs, these simulations serve to demonstrate how selection effects caused by a combination of instrumental sensitivity and the cosmological nature of an astrophysical population

  9. GRB 990712: First Detection of Polarization Variability in a Gamma-ray Burst Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Galama, T. J.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pian, E.; Palazzi, E.; Frontera, F.

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of significant polarization in the afterglow of GRB 990712 on three instances 0.44-1.45 days after the gamma-ray burst. This polarization is intrinsic to the afterglow. The degree of polarization is not constant, and smallest at the second measurement. The polarization angle does not vary significantly during these observations. We find that none of the existing models predict such polarization variations constant polarization angle, and discuss ways in which these models might be modified to accommodate the observed behavior of this afterglow.

  10. Relativistic feedback models of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and gamma-ray glows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Relativistic feedback discharges, also known as dark lightning, are capable of explaining many of the observed properties of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) and gamma-ray glows, both created within thunderstorms. During relativistic feedback discharges, the generation of energetic electrons is self-sustained via the production of backward propagating positrons and back-scattered x-rays, resulting in very larges fluxes of energetic radiation. In addition, ionization produces large electric currents that generate LF/VLF radio emissions and eventually discharge the electric field, terminating the gamma-ray production. In this presentation, new relativistic feedback model results will be presented and compared to recent observations.

  11. Beam On Target (BOT) Produces Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) Fireballs and Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greyber, H. D.

    1997-12-01

    Unlike the myriads of ad hoc models that have been offered to explain GRB, the BOT process is simply the very common process used worldwide in accelerator laboratories to produce gamma rays. The Strong Magnetic Field (SMF) model postulates an extremely intense, highly relativistic current ring formed during the original gravitational collapse of a distant galaxy when the plasma cloud was permeated by a primordial magnetic field. GRB occur when solid matter (asteroid, white dwarf, neutron star, planet) falls rapidly through the Storage Ring beam producing a very strongly collimated electromagnetic shower, and a huge amount of matter from the target, in the form of a giant, hot, expanding plasma cloud, or ``Fireball,'' is blown off. BOT satisfies all the ``severe constraints imposed on the source of this burst --'' concluded by the CGRO team (Sommer et al, Astrophys. J. 422 L63 (1994)) for the huge intense burst GRB930131, whereas neutron star merger models are ``difficult to reconcile.'' BOT expects the lowest energy gamma photons to arrive very slightly later than higher energy photons due to the time for the shower to penetrate the target. The millisecond spikes in bursts are due to the slender filaments of current that make up the Storage Ring beam. Delayed photons can be explained by a broken target ``rock.'' See H. Greyber in the book ``Compton Gamma Ray Observatory,'' AIP Conf. Proc. 280, 569 (1993).

  12. A search for luminosity - Spectral hardness correlations in SIGNE gamma-ray burst data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargatis, Vincent E.; Liang, Edison P.; Hurley, Kevin C.

    1992-01-01

    We use simple 2-parameter models to fit gamma-ray burst spectra from the SIGNE experiments aboard the Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft in order to estimate burst luminosity and spectral hardness. We then look for correlations between these two parameters. The hardness is characterized by kT and Ec for thermal bremsstrahlung and thermal synchrotron fits, respectively. The spectra are integrated over 1/2 s or longer, depending on photon statistics. We find that generally luminosity increases with spectral hardness. We fit power laws of the form L varies as kT sup gamma to 12 bursts. A wide range of indices with gamma = 0.5-2.5 is found, broader than that reported by Golenetskii et al. (1983).

  13. A search for optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hye-Sook

    1995-03-09

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBS) are mysterious flashes of gamma rays lasting several tens to hundreds of seconds that occur approximately once per day. NASA launched the orbiting Compton Gamma Ray Observatory to study GRBs and other gamma ray phenomena. CGRO carries the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) specifically to study GRBS. Although BATSE has collected data on over 600 GRBS, and confirmed that GRBs are localized, high intensity point sources of MeV gamma rays distributed isotropically in the sky, the nature and origin of GRBs remains a fundamental problem in astrophysics. BATSE`s 8 gamma ray sensors located on the comers of the box shaped CGRO can detect the onset of GRBs and record their intensity and energy spectra as a function of time. The position of the burst on the sky can be determined to < {plus_minus}10{degrees} from the BATSE data stream. This position resolution is not sufficient to point a large, optical telescope at the exact position of a GRB which would determine its origin by associating it with a star. Because of their brief duration it is not known if GRBs are accompanied by visible radiation. Their seemingly large energy output suggests thatthis should be. Simply scaling the ratio of visible to gamma ray intensities of the Crab Nebula to the GRB output suggests that GRBs ought to be accompanied by visible flashes of magnitude 10 or so. A few photographs of areas containing a burst location that were coincidentally taken during the burst yield lower limits on visible output of magnitude 4. The detection of visible light during the GRB would provide information on burst physics, provide improved pointing coordinates for precise examination of the field by large telescope and provide the justification for larger dedicated optical counterpart instruments. The purpose of this experiment is to detect or set lower limits on optical counterpart radiation simultaneously accompanying the gamma rays from

  14. RELATIVISTIC POSITRON-ELECTRON-ION SHEAR FLOWS AND APPLICATION TO GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Edison; Fu, Wen; Smith, Ian; Roustazadeh, Parisa; Boettcher, Markus

    2013-12-20

    We present particle-in-cell simulation results of relativistic shear flows for hybrid positron-electron-ion plasmas and compare to those for pure e {sup +} e {sup –} and pure e {sup –} ion plasmas. Among the three types of relativistic shear flows, we find that only hybrid shear flow is able to energize the electrons to form a high-energy spectral peak plus a hard power law tail. Such electron spectra are needed to model the observational properties of gamma-ray bursts.

  15. The Truncated Lognormal Distribution as a Luminosity Function for SWIFT-BAT Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaninetti, Lorenzo

    2016-11-01

    The determination of the luminosity function (LF) in gamma ray bursts (GRBs) depends on the adopted cosmology, each one characterized by its corresponding luminosity distance. Here we analyse three cosmologies: the standard cosmology, the plasma cosmology, and the pseudo-Euclidean universe. The LF of the GRBs is firstly modeled by the lognormal distribution and the four broken power law, and secondly by a truncated lognormal distribution. The truncated lognormal distribution fits acceptably the range in luminosity of GRBs as a function of the redshift.

  16. The Identification of Two Different Spectral Types of Pulses in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, G. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Briggs, M. S.; Preece, R. D.; Mallozzi, R. S.; Meegan, C. A.; Horack, J. M.; Fishman, G. J.; Band, D. L.; Matteson, J. L.; Skelton, R. T.; Hakkila, J.; Ford, L. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Koshut, T. M.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown in this study that two different types of spectral emission are generally produced in gamma-ray bursts. A subset of bursts is identified that exhibits a marked lack of fluence above 300 keV, and these bursts are shown to have luminosities about an order of magnitude lower than bursts with significant fluence above 300 keV. The bursts lacking emission above 300 keV exhibit an effectively homogeneous intensity distribution. In addition, it is shown that both types of emission are common in many bursts, demonstrating that a single source object is capable of generating both of them. These results strongly favor a gamma-ray burst source object that produces two different types of emission with varying degrees of superposition. The impact of this behavior is strong enough that it affects the properties of the burst intensity distribution, as well as the burst spectral characteristics.

  17. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) Observed with the Fermi-Gamma-ray Burst Monitor: Temporal and Spectral Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, W.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Bhat, P. N.

    2010-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory (Fermi) was detecting 2.1 TGFs per week. This rate has increased by a factor of 8 since new flight software was uploaded to the spacecraft in November 2009 in order to increase the sensitivity of GBM to TGFs. Further upgrades to Fermi-GBM to allow observations of weaker TGFs are in progress. The high time resolution (2 s) allows temporal features to be resolved so that some insight may be gained on the origin and transport of the gamma-ray photons through the atmosphere. The absolute time of the TGFs, known to several microseconds, also allows accurate correlations of TGFs with lightning networks and other lightning-related phenomena. The thick bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors of the GBM system have observed photon energies from TGFs at energies above 40 MeV. New results on the some temporal aspects of TGFs will be presented along with spectral characteristics and properties of several electron-positron TGF events that have been identified.

  18. Gamma-Ray Burst Arrival Time Localizations: Simultaneous Observations by Mars Observer, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laros, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Hurley, K.; Kouveliotou, C.; McCollough, M. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1992 October 4 and 1993 August 1, concurrent coverage by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), Mars Observer (MO), and Ulysses spacecraft was obtained for 78 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although most of these were below the MO and Ulysses thresholds, nine were positively detected by all three spacecraft, with data quality adequate for quantitative localization analysis. All were localized independently to approximately 2 deg accuracy by the CGRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). We computed arrival-time error boxes with larger dimensions ranging from a few arcminutes to the diameters of the BATSE-only boxes and with smaller dimensions in the arcminute range. Three events are of particular interest: GB 930704 (BATSE 2428) has been described as a possible repeater. The arrival-time information is consistent with that hypothesis, but only just so. The GB 930706 (2431) box, at approximately 1 min x 4 min, is the only one this small obtained since Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) entered the Venusian atmosphere in 1992 October. Sensitive radio and optical observations of this location were made within 8 and 9 days of the burst, but no counterpart candidates were identified. GB 930801 (2477) is the first GRB that had its localization improved by taking into account BATSE Earth occultation.

  19. Choked Jets and Low-Luminosity Gamma-Ray Bursts as Hidden Neutrino Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-03-01

    I will discuss choked gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets as possible sources of very high-energy (VHE) cosmic neutrinos. The jet propagation physics and radiation constraints are taken into account. We find that efficient shock acceleration of cosmic rays inside a high density stellar environment is possible for sufficiently low-powered jets and/or jets buried in an extended optically think envelope. Such conditions are favorable also for the GRB jets to become stalled. Such choked jets may explain transrelativistic SNe or low-luminosity GRBs by launching quasi-spherical shocks that breakout in the optically thick wind. Focusing on this possibility, we calculate the resulting diffuse neutrino spectra using the latest results of the local llGRB rate and luminosity function. We confirm that llGRBs can potentially give a significant contribution to the measured neutrino flux. The results are compatible with the IceCube (IC) data around 10-100 TeV without contradicting other IC limits on classical GRBs. Choked and llGRBs are dark in GeV-TeV gamma rays, and do not contribute significantly to the Fermi diffuse gamma-ray background. Precursor TeV neutrinos emerging prior to the shock breakout emission can be used as smoking gun evidence for a choked jet model for llGRBs.

  20. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dainotti, Maria; Gilbertson, Christian; Postnikov, Sergey; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Willingale, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A class of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obeys a three dimensional (3D) relation (Dainotti et al. 2016), between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, $T_a$, its corresponding X-ray luminosity, $L_{a}$, and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, $L_{peak}$, which is an extension of the two dimensional Dainotti relation. This 3D relation identifies a GRB fundamental plane whose existence we confirmed. We extended the original analysis with X-ray data from July 2014 to July 2016 achieving a total sample of 183 {\\it Swift} GRBs with afterglow plateaus and known redshifts. We added the most recent GRBs to the previous `gold sample' (now including 45 GRBs) and obtained an intrinsic scatter compatible within one $\\sigma$ with the previous result. We compared several GRB categories, such as short with extended emission, X-ray Flashes, GRBs associated with SNe, a sample of only long duration GRBs (132), selected from the total sample by excluding GRBs of the previous categories, and the gold sample, composed only by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus. We evaluated the relation planes for each of the mentioned categories and showed that they are not statistically different from the plane derived from the gold sample and that the fundamental plane derived from the gold sample has an intrinsic scatter smaller than any plane derived from the other sample categories. We compared the jet opening angles tabulated in literature with the angles derived using the $E_{iso}-E_{gamma}$ relation of the method in Pescalli et al. (2015) and calculated the relation plane for a sample of long GRBs accounting for the different jet opening angles. We observed that this correction does not significantly reduce the scatter. In an extended analysis, we found that the fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters, such as the jet opening angle, $\\theta

  1. Long gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae have differentenvironments

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchter, A.S.; Levan, A.J.; Strolger, L.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Thorsett, S.E.; Bersier, D.; Burud, I.; Castro Ceren, J.M.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Conselice, C.; Dahlen, T.; Ferguson, H.C.; Fynbo,J.P.U.; Garnavich, P.M.; Gibbons, R.A.; Gorosabel, J.; Gull, T.R.; Hjorth, J.; Holland, S.T.; Kouveliotou, C.; Levay, Z.; Livio, M.; Metzger, M.R.; Nugent, P.E.; Petro, L.; Pian, E.; Rhoads, J.E.; Riess,A.G.; Sahu, K.C.; Smette, A.; Tanvir, N.R.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Woosley, S.E.

    2006-05-01

    When massive stars exhaust their fuel they collapse andoften produce the extraordinarily bright explosions known ascore-collapse supernovae. On occasion, this stellar collapse also powersan even more brilliant relativistic explosion known as a long-durationgamma-ray burst. One would then expect that long gamma-ray bursts andcore-collapse supernovae should be found in similar galacticenvironments. Here we show that this expectation is wrong. We find thatthe long gamma-ray bursts are far more concentrated on the very brightestregions of their host galaxies than are the core-collapse supernovae.Furthermore, the host galaxies of the long gamma-ray bursts aresignificantly fainter and more irregular than the hosts of thecore-collapse supernovae. Together theseresults suggest thatlong-duration gamma-ray bursts are associated with the most massive starsand may be restricted to galaxies of limited chemical evolution. Ourresults directly imply that long gamma-ray bursts are relatively rare ingalaxies such as our own MilkyWay.

  2. A Search for Microsecond Gamma Ray Bursts From Primordial Black Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Krennrich

    2004-08-12

    The project is called SGARFACE (Short Gamma Ray Front Air Cherenkov Experiment) and is an atmospheric Cherenkov detector to provide sensitivity to short bursts of gamma rays of extraterrestrial origin. The detector is an addition to the Whipple 10m gamma ray telescope on Mt. Hopkins in southern Arizona and uses a digital trigger module for recognizing Cherenkov light flashes from gamma ray bursts. The digital trigger modules have been designed, tested and constructed at Iowa State University and have been installed at the Whipple 10m telescope. Operation of the experiment started in March 2003 and data collecting will likely continue until spring of 2005. A final results paper addressing a search for primordial black holes is likely to be finished by summer of 2005.

  3. New activity in the Dorado gamma-ray burst source

    SciTech Connect

    Golenetskii, S.V.; Mazets, E.P.; Aptekar, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    On 1981 December 1 and 1982 January 2 the Cone detectors aboard the Venera 13 and Venera 14 probes recorded ..gamma..-ray transients generated by the same source in Dorado as the notable sequence of events observed 1979 March 5, 6 and April 4, 24.

  4. Real-Time Optical Flux Limits from Gamma-Ray Bursts Measured by the Gamma-Ray Optical Counterpart Search Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H. S. (Editor); Ables, E. (Editor); Band, D. L. (Editor); Barthelmy, S. D. (Editor); Bionta, R. M. (Editor); Butterworth, P. S. (Editor); Cline, T. L. (Editor); Ferguson, D. H. (Editor); Fishman, G. J. (Editor); Gehrels, N. (Editor); Hurley, K. (Editor); Kouveliotou, C. (Editor); Lee, B. C. (Editor); Meegan, C. A. (Editor); Ott, L. L. (Editor); Parker, E. L. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Optical Counterpart Search Experiment presents new experimental upper limits on the optical flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Our experiment consisted of a fully automated very wide-field opto-electronic detection system that imaged locations of GRBs within a few seconds of receiving trigger signals provided by BATSE's real-time burst coordinate distribution network. The experiment acquired 3800 observing hours, recording 22 gamma-ray burst triggers within approx. 30 s of the start of the burst event. Some of these bursts were imaged while gamma-ray radiation was being detected by BATSE. We identified no optical counterparts associated with gamma-ray bursts among these events at the mV approx. 7.0-8.3 sensitivity level. We find the ratio of the upper limit to the V-band optical flux, F nu, to the gamma-ray fluence, Phi gamma, from these data to be 1 x 10(exp-18) less than F nu Phi gamma less than 2 x 10(exp -16).

  5. Rapid optical variability of the gamma-ray burst grb 080319b and its central engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskin, G.; Karpov, S.; Bondar, S.; Guarnieri, A.; Bartolini, C.; Greco, D.; Piccioni, A.

    2010-07-01

    The results of observations of the optical emission that accompanied the gamma-ray burst GRB 080319B are reported. Observations were made using the TORTORA fast wide-field camera mounted on the REM robotic telescope in Chile. The behavior of the light curve before, during, and after the gamma-ray burst is described. The light curve consists of four, possibly periodic, 5-7 s long peaks 8-9 s apart. The behavior of the burst in the gamma and optical energy ranges are compared and the results of the theoretical interpretation of this comparison are reported.

  6. Ring of nine Gamma Ray Burst overlap with the hot spot of my hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2016-03-01

    During 2004 to 2014, a symmetry axis and a cold spot (a structure of one billion light years across) of CMB were observed, and I supposed there is a hot spot, and there is a symmetry between the cold spot and the hot spot of CMB. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2430415 http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2014.MAR.Y33.9 In 2015, a Ring of Nine Gamma Ray Burst (a structure of FIVE BILLION light years across) which is a part of structure of double helix and overlap with the hot spot was observed. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3185193 The Ring of Nine Gamma Ray Burst could be explained by the hot spot. There is a balance systemic model with structure of double helix of the flat universe between cold spot and hot spot-a balance between stellar matter and dark massenergy (include dark matter and dark energy). The model can explain of the Hubble's redshift. There is a larger dark hole instead of the huge black hole of the center of the Milky Way galaxy, and a dark hole builds up a balance system with sun. This model should explain of the seasonal Extinctions. http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2015.APR.H14.8

  7. Investigation of primordial black hole bursts using interplanetary network gamma-ray bursts

    DOE PAGES

    Ukwatta, Tilan Niranjan; Hurley, Kevin; MacGibbon, Jane H.; ...

    2016-07-25

    The detection of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) in the solar neighborhood would have very important implications for GRB phenomenology. The leading theories for cosmological GRBs would not be able to explain such events. The final bursts of evaporating primordial black holes (PBHs), however, would be a natural explanation for local GRBs. We present a novel technique that can constrain the distance to GRBs using detections from widely separated, non-imaging spacecraft. This method can determine the actual distance to the burst if it is local. We applied this method to constrain distances to a sample of 36 short-duration GRBs detected bymore » the Interplanetary Network (IPN) that show observational properties that are expected from PBH evaporations. These bursts have minimum possible distances in the 1013–1018 cm (7–105 au) range, which are consistent with the expected PBH energetics and with a possible origin in the solar neighborhood, although none of the bursts can be unambiguously demonstrated to be local. Furthermore, assuming that these bursts are real PBH events, we estimate lower limits on the PBH burst evaporation rate in the solar neighborhood.« less

  8. Investigation of primordial black hole bursts using interplanetary network gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Ukwatta, Tilan Niranjan; Hurley, Kevin; MacGibbon, Jane H.; Svinkin, D. S.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D.; Pal'Shin, V. D.; Goldsten, J.; Boynton, W.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Rau, A.; von Kienlin, A.; Zhang, X.; Connaughton, V.; Yamaoka, K.; Ohno, M.; Ohmori, N.; Feroci, M.; Cline, T.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; McTiernan, J.

    2016-07-25

    The detection of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) in the solar neighborhood would have very important implications for GRB phenomenology. The leading theories for cosmological GRBs would not be able to explain such events. The final bursts of evaporating primordial black holes (PBHs), however, would be a natural explanation for local GRBs. We present a novel technique that can constrain the distance to GRBs using detections from widely separated, non-imaging spacecraft. This method can determine the actual distance to the burst if it is local. We applied this method to constrain distances to a sample of 36 short-duration GRBs detected by the Interplanetary Network (IPN) that show observational properties that are expected from PBH evaporations. These bursts have minimum possible distances in the 1013–1018 cm (7–105 au) range, which are consistent with the expected PBH energetics and with a possible origin in the solar neighborhood, although none of the bursts can be unambiguously demonstrated to be local. Furthermore, assuming that these bursts are real PBH events, we estimate lower limits on the PBH burst evaporation rate in the solar neighborhood.

  9. Spectra of X-ray and Gamma-ray Bursts Produced by Stepping Lightning Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestin, Sebastien; Xu, Wei; Pasko, Victor

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are bursts of high-energy photons originating from the Earth's atmosphere in association with thunderstorm activity. TGFs were serendipitously discovered by BATSE detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory originally launched to perform observations of celestial gamma-ray sources [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994]. These events have also been detected by the RHESSI satellite [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the AGILE satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010], and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010]. Moreover, measurements have correlated TGFs with initial development stages of normal polarity intra-cloud lightning that transports negative charge upward (+IC) [e.g, Lu et al., JGR, 116, A03316, 2011]. Photon spectra corresponding to well-established model of relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) usually provide a very good agreement with satellite observations [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005]. However, it has been suggested that high-potential +IC lightning leaders could produce a sufficient number of energetic electrons to explain TGFs [Celestin and Pasko, JGR, 116, A03315, 2011] and Xu et al. [GRL, 39, L08801, 2012] have shown that this mechanism could explain the TGF spectrum for lightning potentials higher than 100 MV. In addition to TGFs, X-ray bursts are produced by negative lightning leaders in association with stepping processes and are observed from the ground [Dwyer et al., GRL, 32, L01803, 2005]. However, the energy spectrum of X-ray bursts from lightning is still poorly known, mainly due to the low fluence detected from the ground. In this work, we use Monte Carlo models to study the acceleration of runaway electrons in the electric field produced around lightning leader tip and the associated bremsstrahlung photon spectra observed by low-orbit satellites in the case of high potential +IC discharges and from the ground in the

  10. On the Theory of Gamma Ray Bursts and Hypernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Brown, Gerald E.

    We show that a common evolutionary history can produce the black hole binaries in the Galaxy in which the black holes have masses of ~ 5 - 10Msolar. In the black hole binaries with low-mass, <~ 2.5Msolar ZAMS (zero age main sequence) companions, the latter remain in main sequence during the active stage of soft X-ray transients (SXT's), most of them being of K or M classification. In two intermediate cases, IL Lupi and Nova Scorpii with ZAMS ~ 2.5Msolar companions the orbits are greatly widened because of large mass loss in the explosion forming the black hole, and whereas these companions are in late main sequence evolution, they are close to evolving. Binaries with companion ZAMS masses >~ 3Msolar are initially ``silent'' until the companion begins evolving across the Herzsprung gap. We provide evidence that the narrower, shorter period binaries, with companions now in main sequence, are fossil remnants of gamma ray bursters (GRB's). We also show that the GRB is generally accompanied by a hypernova explosion (a very energetic supernova explosion). We further show that the binaries with evolved companions are good models for some of the ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULX's) recently seen by Chandra in other galaxies. The great regularity in our evolutionary history, especially the fact that most of the companions of ZAMS mass <~ 2.5Msolar remain in main sequences as K or M stars can be explained by the mass loss in common envelope evolution to be Case C; i.e. to occur only after core He burning has finished. Since our argument for Case C mass transfer is not generally understood in the community, we add an appendix, showing that with certain assumptions which we outline we can reproduce the regularities in the evolution of black hole binaries by Case C mass transfer.

  11. Properties of long gamma-ray bursts from massive compact binaries.

    PubMed

    Church, Ross P; Levan, Andrew J; Davies, Melvyn B; Kim, Chunglee

    2013-06-13

    We consider the implications of a model for long-duration gamma-ray bursts in which the progenitor is spun up in a close binary by tidal interactions with a massive black-hole companion. We investigate a sample of such binaries produced by a binary population synthesis, and show that the model predicts several common features in the accretion on to the newly formed black hole. In all cases, the accretion rate declines as approximately t(-5/3) until a break at a time of order 10(4) s. The accretion rate declines steeply thereafter. Subsequently, there is flaring activity, with the flare peaking between 10(4) and 10(5) s, the peak time being correlated with the flare energy. We show that these times are set by the semi-major axis of the binary, and hence the process of tidal spin-up; furthermore, they are consistent with flares seen in the X-ray light curves of some long gamma-ray bursts.

  12. Low-Energy Study of Gamma-Ray Bursts Having Spectral Line Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pangia, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are energetic, short-duration emissions of gamma-rays. The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) that was onboard NASA s Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory has done much to advance our understanding of GRBs. Perhaps foremost is to establish that GRBs originate from astronomical sources that exist well beyond our galaxy. Another area in which BATSE has been instrumental is to provide high-resolution data that can be used in spectral studies. Before BATSE, there were many reports of GRB spectra containing what appeared to be spectral absorption lines, whereas Briggs, after an extensive computer search of 117 bright BATSE GRBs, reported finding only one case that might be an absorption line and ten cases that might be emission lines. None of the eleven BATSE cases were definitively identified as spectral lines, and Briggs indicated reasons as to why the pre-BATSE reports should not be taken as conclusive. It remains an open question as to what these spectral-like features are, or if they are even real. The purpose of this work is, for the subset of the eleven BATSE GRBs for which low-energy data are available from two BATSE's Spectroscopy Detectors (SDs), to include these data in the spectral analysis. Such a study will provide additional constraints on the model spectral functions to better ascertain the reality of the line features. The spectral analysis program used was RMFIT. Of the six GRBs that met the selection criteria, the analysis was performed on only three of them due to a lack of time.

  13. Diffuse emission of high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Tamborra, Irene; Ando, Shin'ichiro E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl

    2015-09-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been suggested as possible sources of the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by the IceCube telescope. We revisit the fireball emission model and elaborate an analytical prescription to estimate the high-energy neutrino prompt emission from pion and kaon decays, assuming that the leading mechanism for the neutrino production is lepto-hadronic. To this purpose, we include hadronic, radiative and adiabatic cooling effects and discuss their relevance for long- (including high- and low-luminosity) and short-duration GRBs. The expected diffuse neutrino background is derived, by requiring that the GRB high-energy neutrino counterparts follow up-to-date gamma-ray luminosity functions and redshift evolutions of the long and short GRBs. Although dedicated stacking searches have been unsuccessful up to now, we find that GRBs could contribute up to a few % to the observed IceCube high-energy neutrino flux for sub-PeV energies, assuming that the latter has a diffuse origin. Gamma-ray bursts, especially low-luminosity ones, could however be the main sources of the IceCube high-energy neutrino flux in the PeV range. While high-luminosity and low-luminosity GRBs have comparable intensities, the contribution from the short-duration component is significantly smaller. Our findings confirm the most-recent IceCube results on the GRB searches and suggest that larger exposure is mandatory to detect high-energy neutrinos from high-luminosity GRBs in the near future.

  14. A Search for Nontriggered Gamma-Ray Bursts in the BATSE Continuous Records: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, B. E.; Tikhomirova, Ya.; Stepanov, M.; Kompaneets, D.; Berezhnoy, A.; Svensson, R.

    2000-09-01

    An off-line scan for nontriggered gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the BATSE daily records at 1024 ms time resolution covering about 7 yr of observations gave 1353 nontriggered and 1581 triggered GRBs. The scan efficiency was measured by adding artificial test bursts to the data. The logN-logP distribution could be extended down to peak fluxes, P~0.1 photons cm-2 s-1. Previous indications of a turnover at small P are not confirmed. The logN-logP distribution cannot be fitted with a standard candle model with a nonevolving GRB source population, assuming that there are no large non-GRB contaminations. It is likely that the intrinsic luminosity function of GRBs is wide.

  15. A New Limit on Planck Scale Lorentz Violation from Gamma-ray Burst Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2011-01-01

    Constraints on possible Lorentz invariance violation (UV) to first order in E/M(sub Plank) for photons in the framework of effective field theory (EFT) are discussed, taking cosmological factors into account. Then. using the reported detection of polarized soft gamma-ray emission from the gamma-ray burst GRB041219a that is indicative' of an absence of vacuum birefringence, together with a very recent improved method for estimating the redshift of the burst, we derive constraints on the dimension 5 Lorentz violating modification to the Lagrangian of an effective local QFT for QED. Our new constraints are more than five orders of magnitude better than recent constraints from observations of the Crab Nebula.. We obtain the upper limit on the Lorentz violating dimension 5 EFT parameter absolute value of zeta of 2.4 x 10(exp -15), corresponding to a constraint on the dimension 5 standard model extension parameter. Kappa (sup 5) (sub (v)oo) much less than 4.2 X 10(exp -3)4 / GeV.

  16. The Fermi GBM Gamma-Ray Burst Spectral Catalog: Four Years of Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, David; Goldstein, Adam; Weller von Ahlefeld, Victoria; Narayana Bhat, P.; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Briggs, Michael S.; Byrne, Dave; Cleveland, William H.; Connaughton, Valerie; Diehl, Roland; Fishman, Gerald J.; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Foley, Suzanne; Gibby, Melissa; Giles, Misty M.; Greiner, Jochen; Guiriec, Sylvain; van der Horst, Alexander J.; von Kienlin, Andreas; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Layden, Emily; Lin, Lin; Meegan, Charles A.; McGlynn, Sinéad; Paciesas, William S.; Pelassa, Vèronique; Preece, Robert D.; Rau, Arne; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Xiong, Shaolin; Younes, George; Yu, Hoi-Fung

    2014-03-01

    In this catalog we present the updated set of spectral analyses of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor during its first four years of operation. It contains two types of spectra, time-integrated spectral fits and spectral fits at the brightest time bin, from 943 triggered GRBs. Four different spectral models were fitted to the data, resulting in a compendium of more than 7500 spectra. The analysis was performed similarly but not identically to Goldstein et al. All 487 GRBs from the first two years have been re-fitted using the same methodology as that of the 456 GRBs in years three and four. We describe, in detail, our procedure and criteria for the analysis and present the results in the form of parameter distributions both for the observer-frame and rest-frame quantities. The data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center.

  17. THE FERMI GBM GAMMA-RAY BURST SPECTRAL CATALOG: FOUR YEARS OF DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, David; Von Ahlefeld, Victoria Weller; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Von Kienlin, Andreas; Goldstein, Adam; Bhat, P. Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Byrne, Dave; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Foley, Suzanne; Cleveland, William H.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Guiriec, Sylvain; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; and others

    2014-03-01

    In this catalog we present the updated set of spectral analyses of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor during its first four years of operation. It contains two types of spectra, time-integrated spectral fits and spectral fits at the brightest time bin, from 943 triggered GRBs. Four different spectral models were fitted to the data, resulting in a compendium of more than 7500 spectra. The analysis was performed similarly but not identically to Goldstein et al. All 487 GRBs from the first two years have been re-fitted using the same methodology as that of the 456 GRBs in years three and four. We describe, in detail, our procedure and criteria for the analysis and present the results in the form of parameter distributions both for the observer-frame and rest-frame quantities. The data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center.

  18. An Artificial Intelligence Classification Tool and Its Application to Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.; Giblin, Timothy; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite being the most energetic phenomenon in the known universe, the astrophysics of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has still proven difficult to understand. It has only been within the past five years that the GRB distance scale has been firmly established, on the basis of a few dozen bursts with x-ray, optical, and radio afterglows. The afterglows indicate source redshifts of z=1 to z=5, total energy outputs of roughly 10(exp 52) ergs, and energy confined to the far x-ray to near gamma-ray regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multi-wavelength afterglow observations have thus far provided more insight on the nature of the GRB mechanism than the GRB observations; far more papers have been written about the few observed gamma-ray burst afterglows in the past few years than about the thousands of detected gamma-ray bursts. One reason the GRB central engine is still so poorly understood is that GRBs have complex, overlapping characteristics that do not appear to be produced by one homogeneous process. At least two subclasses have been found on the basis of duration, spectral hardness, and fluence (time integrated flux); Class 1 bursts are softer, longer, and brighter than Class 2 bursts (with two second durations indicating a rough division). A third GRB subclass, overlapping the other two, has been identified using statistical clustering techniques; Class 3 bursts are intermediate between Class 1 and Class 2 bursts in brightness and duration, but are softer than Class 1 bursts. We are developing a tool to aid scientists in the study of GRB properties. In the process of developing this tool, we are building a large gamma-ray burst classification database. We are also scientifically analyzing some GRB data as we develop the tool. Tool development thus proceeds in tandem with the dataset for which it is being designed. The tool invokes a modified KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Databases) process, which is described as follows.

  19. SGR J1550-5418 Bursts Detected with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor during Its Most Prolific Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderHorst, A. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Gorgone, N. M.; Kaneko, Y.; Baring, M. G.; Guiriec, S.; Gogus, E,; Granot, J.; Watts, A. L.; Lin, L.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Chaplin, V. L.; Finger, M. H.; Gehrels, N.; Gibby, M. H.; Giles, M. M.; Goldstein, A.; Gruber, D.; Harding, A. K.; McEnery, J.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2012-01-01

    We have performed detailed temporal and time-integrated spectral analysis of 286 bursts from SGR J1550-5418 detected with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in 2009 January, resulting in the largest uniform sample of temporal and spectral properties of SGR J1550-5418 bursts. We have used the combination of broadband and high time-resolution data provided with GBM to perform statistical studies for the source properties.We determine the durations, emission times, duty cycles, and rise times for all bursts, and find that they are typical of SGR bursts. We explore various models in our spectral analysis, and conclude that the spectra of SGR J15505418 bursts in the 8-200 keV band are equally well described by optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung (OTTB), a power law (PL) with an exponential cutoff (Comptonized model), and two blackbody (BB) functions (BB+BB). In the spectral fits with the Comptonized model, we find a mean PL index of -0.92, close to the OTTB index of -1. We show that there is an anti-correlation between the Comptonized E(sub peak) and the burst fluence and average flux. For the BB+BBfits, we find that the fluences and emission areas of the two BB functions are correlated. The low-temperature BB has an emission area comparable to the neutron star surface area, independent of the temperature, while the high temperature BB has a much smaller area and shows an anti-correlation between emission area and temperature.We compare the properties of these bursts with bursts observed from other SGR sources during extreme activations, and discuss the implications of our results in the context of magnetar burst models.

  20. SGR J1550-5418 BURSTS DETECTED WITH THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR DURING ITS MOST PROLIFIC ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Horst, A. J.; Finger, M. H.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kaneko, Y.; Goegues, E.; Lin, L.; Baring, M. G.; Guiriec, S.; Bhat, P. N.; Chaplin, V. L.; Goldstein, A.; Granot, J.; Watts, A. L.; Bissaldi, E.; Gruber, D.; Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K.; Gibby, M. H.; Giles, M. M.; and others

    2012-04-20

    We have performed detailed temporal and time-integrated spectral analysis of 286 bursts from SGR J1550-5418 detected with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in 2009 January, resulting in the largest uniform sample of temporal and spectral properties of SGR J1550-5418 bursts. We have used the combination of broadband and high time-resolution data provided with GBM to perform statistical studies for the source properties. We determine the durations, emission times, duty cycles, and rise times for all bursts, and find that they are typical of SGR bursts. We explore various models in our spectral analysis, and conclude that the spectra of SGR J1550-5418 bursts in the 8-200 keV band are equally well described by optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung (OTTB), a power law (PL) with an exponential cutoff (Comptonized model), and two blackbody (BB) functions (BB+BB). In the spectral fits with the Comptonized model, we find a mean PL index of -0.92, close to the OTTB index of -1. We show that there is an anti-correlation between the Comptonized E{sub peak} and the burst fluence and average flux. For the BB+BB fits, we find that the fluences and emission areas of the two BB functions are correlated. The low-temperature BB has an emission area comparable to the neutron star surface area, independent of the temperature, while the high-temperature BB has a much smaller area and shows an anti-correlation between emission area and temperature. We compare the properties of these bursts with bursts observed from other SGR sources during extreme activations, and discuss the implications of our results in the context of magnetar burst models.

  1. Effects of Spectral and Temporal Variations in Gamma Ray Burst Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejzak, L. M.; Melott, A. L.; Thomas, B. C.; Medvedev, M. V.

    2005-12-01

    It has previously been shown that a typical gamma ray burst could have significant effects on the Earth, including such considerations as ozone depletion and production of odd nitrogen compounds. These effects in turn contribute to processes such as DNA damage in organisms, increasing opacity of the atmosphere, and nitric acid rain. Our interest lies in the role that these processes may play in mass extinction events, in particular the Ordovician mass extinction 443 Mya. Here we investigate variations in certain burst parameters and the resulting variation in the severity of effect that the burst radiation has on the Earth's atmosphere. We extend the range of photon energies used in the model beyond the range used in previous studies, and model bursts with a number of different peak energies. We also alter the temporal profile of the radiation during the burst itself. This research is conducted with support from NASA's Astrobiology: Exobiology and Evolutionary Biology Program and in collaboration with NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and with supercomputer support from NCSA.

  2. The BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Spectral Catalog. 1; High Time Resolution Spectroscopy of Bright Bursts Using High Energy Resolution Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Band, David L.

    1999-01-01

    This is the first in a series of gamma-ray burst spectroscopy catalogs from the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Abstract: Observatory, each covering a different aspect of burst phenomenology. In this paper, we present time-sequences of spectral fit parameters for 156 bursts selected either for their high peak flux or fluence.

  3. All-Sky Monitoring with the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    We are currently monitoring the transient hard X-ray/soft gamma ray sky using the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on-board Fermi. The twelve GBM NaI detectors span 8 keV to 1MeV, while the two GBM BGO detectors span about 150 keV to 40 MeV. With GBM, we detect transient events on multiple timescales. Brief events, such as Gamma Ray Bursts, Solar flares, and magnetar bursts are detected with on-board triggers. On longer timescales, we use the Earth occultation technique to monitor a number of sources, including X-ray binaries, AGN, and solar flaring activity. To date we have detected 7 sources above 100 keV. Transient activity from accretion-powered pulsars is monitored using epoch-folding techniques. With GBM we track the pulsed flux and frequency for a number of pulsars. We will present highlights of GBM observations on various timescales.

  4. A POSSIBLE CONNECTION BETWEEN FAST RADIO BURSTS AND GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-10

    The physical nature of fast radio bursts (FRBs), a new type of cosmological transient discovered recently, is not known. It has been suggested that FRBs can be produced when a spinning supra-massive neutron star loses centrifugal support and collapses to a black hole. Here, we suggest that such implosions can happen in supra-massive neutron stars shortly (hundreds to thousands of seconds) after their births, and an observational signature of such implosions may have been observed in the X-ray afterglows of some long and short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Within this picture, a small fraction of FRBs would be physically connected to GRBs. We discuss possible multi-wavelength electromagnetic signals and gravitational wave signals that might be associated with FRBs, and propose an observational campaign to unveil the physical nature of FRBs. In particular, we strongly encourage a rapid radio follow-up observation of GRBs starting from 100 s after a GRB trigger.

  5. No supernovae detected in two long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Watson, D; Fynbo, J P U; Thöne, C C; Sollerman, J

    2007-05-15

    There is strong evidence that long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are produced during the collapse of a massive star. In the standard version of the collapsar model, a broad-lined and luminous Type Ic core-collapse supernova (SN) accompanies the GRB. This association has been confirmed in observations of several nearby GRBs. Recent observations show that some long-duration GRBs are different. No SN emission accompanied the long-duration GRBs 060505 and 060614 down to limits fainter than any known Type Ic SN and hundreds of times fainter than the archetypal SN 1998bw that accompanied GRB 980425. Multi-band observations of the early afterglows, as well as spectroscopy of the host galaxies, exclude the possibility of significant dust obscuration. Furthermore, the bursts originated in star-forming galaxies, and in the case of GRB 060505, the burst was localized to a compact star-forming knot in a spiral arm of its host galaxy. We find that the properties of the host galaxies, the long duration of the bursts and, in the case of GRB 060505, the location of the burst within its host, all imply a massive stellar origin. The absence of an SN to such deep limits therefore suggests a new phenomenological type of massive stellar death.

  6. Exploring biases in the measurement of Isotropic Equivalent Energies of Gamma-ray Bursts with the Fermi Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoldak, Kimberly; Racusin, Judith L.; Kennefick, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    This study is being performed to determine if isotropic equivalent energies, Eiso, measured for gamma-ray bursts are significantly biased by lack of high-energy gamma-ray photon data, leading to inconsistent best-fit spectral models which diverge at high energies. Isotropic equivalent energies are often measured between energies of 10 keV to 10 MeV and prior to the 2008 launch of Fermi, the BATSE gamma-ray burst telescope was limited to observable energies below 700 keV, missing ~90% of the integrated energy band. The brightest bursts often peak at energies exceeding previous detector thresholds, therefore missing large portions of a burst's fluence and leading to incorrect modeling of the spectral shape. Despite these limitations on accurately measuring the full energy output, correlations have emerged, treating Eiso as an intrinsic property with physical application to gamma-ray burst physics rather than an observational quantity. We explore the impact of detector truncation on Eiso by performing time-integrated analysis both with and without spectra from Fermi's high-energy Large Area Telescope (LAT). Preliminary results show that multiple models, providing good statistics, measure inconsistent isotropic equivalent energies for the same burst, and consistently underestimate the energy output when LAT data is excluded from the analysis. Exclusion of the LAT data leads to unconstrained high-energy spectral slopes of the Band function allowing for observer influence on the choice of how to constrain the slope or to accept a cutoff power-law as the better fit. This proves that correlations involving Eiso are currently biased by detector limitations and the true meaning of Eiso has yet to be determined.

  7. Some energy considerations in gamma ray burst location determinations by an anisotropic array of detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The anisotropic array of detectors to be used in the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) for locating gamma ray burst sources is examined with respect to its ability to locate those sources by means of the relative response of its eight detectors. It was shown that the energy-dependent attenuation effects of the aluminum window covering each detector has a significant effect on source location determinations. Location formulas were derived as a function of detector counts and gamma ray energies in the range 50 to 150 keV. Deviation formulas were derived and serve to indicate the location error that would be cuased by ignoring the influence of the passive absorber.

  8. THE FERMI GBM GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG: THE FIRST TWO YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Paciesas, William S.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Burgess, J. Michael; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Goldstein, Adam; Guiriec, Sylvain; Meegan, Charles A.; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Von Kienlin, Andreas; Diehl, Roland; Foley, Suzanne; Greiner, Jochen; Gruber, David; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Fishman, Gerald J.; Gibby, Melissa; Giles, Misty; and others

    2012-03-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is designed to enhance the scientific return from Fermi in studying gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In its first two years of operation GBM triggered on 491 GRBs. We summarize the criteria used for triggering and quantify the general characteristics of the triggered GRBs, including their locations, durations, peak flux, and fluence. This catalog is an official product of the Fermi GBM science team, and the data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center.

  9. Spectral Tests of the Homogeneity of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.

    1999-01-01

    We proposed to determine whether the spectral-hardness-intensity relation found when comparing dim and bright bursts is also found within the set of bright bursts. In the simplest cosmological burst paradigm all bursts have the same intrinsic brightness (they are "standard candles") and the faintest BATSE bursts are at a redshift of approx. 1. The cumulative intensity distribution, which is a -3/2 power law at the bright end but flatter at the low intensity end, is explained by the cosmological curvature of space. Thus bursts at the bright end should be at such low redshifts that they do not suffer cosmological redshifting of their spectra or time dilation of their lightcurves. The spectral-hardness and burst intensity are correlated when dim and bright bursts are compared, consistent with cosmological redshifting. However, the actual redshifts of a number of bursts have been determined, showing that bursts are not standard candles, and that their redshifts are frequently greater than approx. 1; the maximum redshift is 3.4! Consequently many bright bursts are at redshifts where cosmological effects are significant. We had proposed to determine A,hether the redshifting effect continued into the bright bursts; even moderately bright bursts should be at cosmological distances.

  10. A Search for Nontriggered Gamma-Ray Bursts in the BATSE Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kommers, Jefferson M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; VanParadus, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a search of archival data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The purpose of the search is to find astronomically interesting transients that did not activate the burst-detection (or "trigger") system on board the spacecraft. Our search is sensitive to events with peak fluxes (on the 1.024 s timescale) that are lower by a factor of approximately 2 than can be detected with the on-board burst trigger. In a search of 345 days of archival data, we detected 91 events in the 50-300 keV range that resemble classical gamma-ray bursts but that did not activate the on-board burst trigger. We also detected 110 low-energy (25-50 keV) events of unknown origin that may include activity from' soft gamma repeater (SGR) 1806-20 and bursts and flares from X-ray binaries. This paper gives the occurrence times, estimated source directions, durations, peak fluxes, and fluences for the 91 gamma-ray burst candidates. The direction and intensity distributions of these bursts imply that the biases inherent in the on-board trigger mechanism have not significantly affected the completeness of the published BATSE gamma-ray burst catalogs.

  11. Extragalactic origin of gamma-ray bursts. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.; Teller, E.

    1984-11-02

    Detectors of gamma-rays carried by satellites and later by high-flying balloons showed the existence of events lasting from fifteen milliseconds to about a hundred seconds, arriving from all directions in space. A few hundred events have been observed in a little more than a decade. The energy of gamma-rays range from a few kilovolts to millions of volts. Recent evidence indicates that considerable energy may be carried at least in some cases even above 10 MeV. But the bulk of the energy appeared to be emitted between 100 and 200 keV. The observed intensities range between 10/sup -3/ and 10/sup -7/ ergs/cm/sup 2/. The simple facts about intensity distribution are compatible with two extreme assumptions but exclude intermediate hypotheses. Either the events occur in our own galaxy in a region smaller than the thickness of the galaxy or they are of extragalactic origin and come from distant galaxies. Practically all attempted explanations have made the former explanation which requires that a mass of approximately 10/sup 20/ grams impinges on a neutron star (assuming a near to 100% conversion of gravitational energy available on the surface of the neutron star or 10/sup 20/ ergs/gram into gamma-rays which, of course, is unrealistic). In case of an extragalactic origin, the neutron star must attract and convert, as we shall see, about 2 x 10/sup 30/ grams or 10/sup -3/ of the solar mass. It is perhaps the size of such events which deterred a detailed discussion of this alternative. Montgomery Johnson and I have tried to assume these big collisions, explore the consequences, and I shall talk about this extragalactic hypothesis.

  12. The plateau phase of gamma-ray burst afterglows in the thick-shell scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leventis, K.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; van der Horst, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present analytic calculations of synchrotron radiation from the forward and the reverse shock of gamma-ray burst blast waves, in the thick-shell scenario (i.e. when the reverse shock is relativistic). We show that this scenario can naturally account for the plateau phase, observed early in the afterglows of about half the bursts detected by Swift. We generalize our approach to include power-law luminosity of the central engine and show that when radiation from both regions (forward and reverse shock) is taken into account, a wide range of possibilities emerge, including chromatic and achromatic breaks, frequency-dependent spectral evolution during the injection break and widely varying decay indices in different bands. For both the forward and the reverse shock, we derive formulas for the spectral parameters and the observed flux in different power-law segments of the spectrum, as a function of observer time. We explore the Fb-tb relation (between the observed time of the end of the plateau phase and the flux at that point) in the framework of the presented model and show that model predictions favour the reverse shock as the dominant source of emission in both optical and X-rays. As case studies, we present simultaneous fits to X-ray and optical/IR afterglow data of GRB 080928 and GRB 090423. We identify the end of the plateau phase with the cessation of energy injection and infer the corresponding upper limits to central-engine activity, which are about 1 h for the former and 1.5 h for the latter. We conclude that smooth energy injection through the reverse shock is a plausible explanation for the plateau phase of gamma-ray burst afterglows. During that phase, radiation from the reverse shock is likely to be important, or even dominant, and should be taken into account when fitting model parameters to observations.

  13. Pulse Decomposition of Gamma-Ray Burst Light Curves Using Bayesian Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas J.; Hakkila, J. E.; Broadbent, M. E.; Wolpert, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe ongoing work on modeling the spectro-temporal behavior of prompt gamma ray emission from GRBs by modeling gamma ray count and event data with a population of pulses, with the pulses drawn from one or more families of single-pulse kernels. Our approach is built on a multilevel nonparametric probabilistic framework we have dubbed "Bayesian droplets," and offers several important advances over previous pulse decomposition approaches: (1) It works in the pulse-confusion regime, quantifying uncertainty in the number, locations, and shapes of pulses, even when there is strong overlap. (2) It can self-consistently model pulse behavior across multiple spectral bands. (3) It readily handles a variety of spatio-temporal kernel shapes. (4) It provides an explicit, quantitative description of a burst as a population of pulses, enabling direct modeling and estimation of the pulse population distribution. We describe the framework and present analyses of prototypical simple and complex GRB light curves. This work has been supported by the NASA Applied Information Systems Research Program.

  14. Fast Radio Bursts with Extended Gamma-Ray Emission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter; Fox, Derek B.

    2017-02-01

    We consider some general implications of bright γ-ray counterparts to fast radio bursts (FRBs). We show that even if these manifest in only a fraction of FRBs, γ-ray detections with current satellites (including Swift) can provide stringent constraints on cosmological FRB models. If the energy is drawn from the magnetic energy of a compact object such as a magnetized neutron star, the sources should be nearby and be very rare. If the intergalactic medium is responsible for the observed dispersion measure, the required γ-ray energy is comparable to that of the early afterglow or extended emission of short γ-ray bursts. While this can be reconciled with the rotation energy of compact objects, as expected in many merger scenarios, the prompt outflow that yields the γ-rays is too dense for radio waves to escape. Highly relativistic winds launched in a precursor phase, and forming a wind bubble, may avoid the scattering and absorption limits and could yield FRB emission. Largely independent of source models, we show that detectable radio afterglow emission from γ-ray bright FRBs can reasonably be anticipated. Gravitational wave searches can also be expected to provide useful tests.

  15. Investigation of redshift- and duration-dependent clustering of gamma-ray bursts

    DOE PAGES

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Woźniak, P. R.

    2015-11-05

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are detectable out to very large distances and as such are potentially powerful cosmological probes. Historically, the angular distribution of GRBs provided important information about their origin and physical properties. As a general population, GRBs are distributed isotropically across the sky. However, there are published reports that once binned by duration or redshift, GRBs display significant clustering. We have studied the redshift- and duration-dependent clustering of GRBs using proximity measures and kernel density estimation. Utilizing bursts detected by Burst and Transient Source Experiment, Fermi/gamma-ray burst monitor, and Swift/Burst Alert Telescope, we found marginal evidence for clustering inmore » very short duration GRBs lasting less than 100 ms. As a result, our analysis provides little evidence for significant redshift-dependent clustering of GRBs.« less

  16. V/V(max) test applied to SMM gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matz, S. M.; Higdon, J. C.; Share, G. H.; Messina, D. C.; Iadicicco, A.

    1992-01-01

    We have applied the V/V(max) test to candidate gamma-ray bursts detected by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard the SMM satellite to examine quantitatively the uniformity of the burst source population. For a sample of 132 candidate bursts identified in the GRS data by an automated search using a single uniform trigger criterion we find average V/V(max) = 0.40 +/- 0.025. This value is significantly different from 0.5, the average for a uniform distribution in space of the parent population of burst sources; however, the shape of the observed distribution of V/V(max) is unusual and our result conflicts with previous measurements. For these reasons we can currently draw no firm conclusion about the distribution of burst sources.

  17. The Ulysses Supplement to the BATSE 4B Catalog of Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, K.; Briggs, Michael S.; Kippen, Richard M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Cline, T. L.; Boer, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present Interplanetary Network Localization information for 150 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment(BATSE) between the end of the 3rd BATSE catalog and the end of the 4th BATSE catalog obtained by analyzing the arrival times of these bursts at the Ulysses and Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) spacecraft. For any given burst observed by these two spacecraft, arrival time analysis (triangulation) results in an annulus of possible arrival directions whose width varies between 7 arcseconds and 2.3 degrees, depending on the intensity and time history of the burst, and the distance of the Ulysses spacecraft from Earth. This annulus generally intersects the BATSE error circle, resulting in an average reduction of the error box area by a factor of 25.

  18. Investigation of redshift- and duration-dependent clustering of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Woźniak, P. R.

    2015-11-05

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are detectable out to very large distances and as such are potentially powerful cosmological probes. Historically, the angular distribution of GRBs provided important information about their origin and physical properties. As a general population, GRBs are distributed isotropically across the sky. However, there are published reports that once binned by duration or redshift, GRBs display significant clustering. We have studied the redshift- and duration-dependent clustering of GRBs using proximity measures and kernel density estimation. Utilizing bursts detected by Burst and Transient Source Experiment, Fermi/gamma-ray burst monitor, and Swift/Burst Alert Telescope, we found marginal evidence for clustering in very short duration GRBs lasting less than 100 ms. As a result, our analysis provides little evidence for significant redshift-dependent clustering of GRBs.

  19. The Synergy of Gamma-Ray Burst Detectors In The Glast Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous observations by the large number of gamma-ray burst detectors operating in the GLAST era will provide the spectra, lightcurves and locations necessary for studying burst physics and testing the putative relations between intrinsic burst properties. The detectors' energy band and the accumulation timescale of their trigger system affect their sensitivity to hard vs. soft and long vs. short bursts. Coordination of the Swift and GLAST observing plans consistent with Swift's other science objectives could increase the rate of GLAST bursts with redshifts.

  20. The Second SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

    2012-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts. (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8% and 2% respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX and HETE-2 GRB samples.. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs.

  1. Producing the universal spectrum of cosmological gamma-ray bursts with the Klein-Nishina cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    A power-law spectrum attenuated through Compton scattering by an optically thick medium produces spectra that have a characteristic energy of several hundred keV. Add a redshift, and one finds that this model can qualitatively reproduce the color-color diagrams found for individual gamma-ray bursts. This model is easily tested through model fits to burst spectra and through comparisons of the parameters derived from model fits to the limits on parameters derived from the burst log N - log P(sub max) curve. The heavy attenuation makes the amount of energy released in the burst approximately equal to 10(exp 3) times larger than is inferred from the observed flux. The requirements of high optical depth and no photon-photon pair creation place a lower limit on the size of the scattering region. This size suggests that the attenuation occurs in giant molecular clouds in the cores of galaxies. This indicates that gamma-ray bursts are probably from supermassive black holes. If the Lorentz factor of the radiation source is large, the optical depth, and therefore the hardness ratio of a burst, can change over the duration of the burst.

  2. Gamma-ray bursts generated from phase transition of neutron stars to quark stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Xiao-Yu; Huang, Yong-Feng; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of compact stars is believed to be able to produce various violent phenomena in our universe. In this paper, we discuss the possibility that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) might result from the phase transition of a neutron star to a quark star and calculate the energy released from the conversion. In our study, we utilize the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory to describe the hadronic phase of neutron stars, while an improved quasi-particle model is adopted to describe the quark phase of quark stars. With quark matter equation-of-state (EOS) more reliable than models used before, it is found that the energy released is of the order of 1052 erg, which confirms the validity of the phase transition model.

  3. Gamma-ray bursts: cosmic rulers for the high-redshift universe?

    PubMed

    Speirits, Fiona C; Hendry, Martin A; Gonzalez, Alejandro

    2007-05-15

    The desire to extend the Hubble Diagram to higher redshifts than the range of current Type 1a Supernovae observations has prompted investigation into spectral correlations in gamma-ray bursts (GBRs), in the hope that standard candle-like properties can be identified. In this paper, we discuss the potential of these new 'cosmic rulers' and highlight their limitations by investigating the constraints that current data can place on an alternative Cosmological model in the form of Conformal Gravity. By fitting current Type 1a Supernovae and GRB data to the predicted luminosity distance redshift relation of both the standard Concordance Model and the Conformal Gravity, we show that currently neither model is strongly favoured at high redshift. The scatter in the current GRB data testifies to the further work required if GRBs are to cement their place as effective probes of the cosmological distance scale.

  4. AN OBSERVED CORRELATION BETWEEN THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL EMISSION IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Burgess, J.; Preece, Robert D.; Ryde, Felix; Axelsson, Magnus; Veres, Peter; Mészáros, Peter; Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael; Bhat, P. N.; Pelassa, Veronique; Pe'er, Asaf; Iyyani, Shabnam; Goldstein, Adam; Byrne, David; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Foley, Suzanne; Kocevski, Daniel; Omodei, Nicola; Paciesas, William S. E-mail: rob.preece@nasa.gov E-mail: veres@gwu.edu; and others

    2014-04-01

    Recent observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have confirmed the existence of thermal and non-thermal components in the prompt photon spectra of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Through an analysis of six bright Fermi GRBs, we have discovered a correlation between the observed photospheric and non-thermal γ-ray emission components of several GRBs using a physical model that has previously been shown to be a good fit to the Fermi data. From the spectral parameters of these fits we find that the characteristic energies, E {sub p} and kT, of these two components are correlated via the relation E {sub p}∝T {sup α} which varies from GRB to GRB. We present an interpretation in which the value of the index α indicates whether the jet is dominated by kinetic or magnetic energy. To date, this jet composition parameter has been assumed in the modeling of GRB outflows rather than derived from the data.

  5. The late X-ray afterglow of gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Willingale, Richard; O'Brien, Paul T

    2007-05-15

    We have developed a functional fit which can be used to represent the entire temporal decay of the X-ray afterglow of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The fit delineates and parameterizes well-defined phases for the decay: the prompt emission; an initial steep decay; a shallow plateau phase; and finally, a powerlaw afterglow. For 20% of GRBs, the plateau phase is weak, or not seen, and the initial powerlaw decay becomes the final afterglow.We compare the temporal decay parameters and X-ray spectral indices for 107 GRBs discovered by Swift with the expectations of the standard fireball model including a search for possible jet breaks. For approximately 50% of GRBs, the observed afterglow is in accord with the model, but for the rest the temporal and spectral properties are not as expected. We identify a few possible jet breaks, but there are many examples where such breaks are predicted but are absent. We also find that the start time of the final afterglow decay, Ta, is associated with the peak of the prompt gamma-ray emission spectrum, Epeak, just as optical jet-break times, tj, are associated with Epeak in the Ghirlanda relation.

  6. Searches for optical counterparts of BATSE gamma-ray bursts with the Explosive Transient Camera.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimm, H. A.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Ricker, G. R.

    1996-12-01

    The Explosive Transient Camera (ETC) is a wide-field CCD camera system capable of detecting short (1-10s) celestial optical flashes as faint as m~10 over a field-of-view of 0.75-steradians between -15° and +62° declination. The ETC has been operating automatically under computer control since January 1991. Since the launch of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the ETC has been capable of observing an optical flash coincident with a gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by the Burst and Transient Spectroscopy Experiment (BATSE). Between April 1991 and August 1995, there were seven cases of at least partial spatial overlap between a BATSE 68% confidence positional error box and the ETC field-of-view during an ETC observation. In each case upper limits are placed on the optical-to-gamma-ray flux ratio.

  7. Searches for optical counterparts of BATSE gamma-ray bursts with the Explosive Transient Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimm, Hans A.; Vanderspek, Roland K.; Ricker, George R.

    1996-08-01

    The Explosive Transient Camera (ETC) is a wide-field CCD camera system capable of detecting short (1-10 s) celestial optical flashes as faint as m~10 over a field-of-view of 0.75 steradians between -15° and +62° declination. The ETC has been operating automatically under computer control since January 1991. Since the launch of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the ETC has been capable of observing an optical flash coincident with a gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). Between April 1991 and August 1995, there were seven cases of at least partial spatial overlap between a BATSE 68% confidence positional error box and the ETC field-of-view during an ETC observation. In each case upper limits are placed on the optical-to-gamma-ray flux ratio.

  8. The Angular Power Spectrum of BATSE 3B Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegmark, Max; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Briggs, Michael S.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    We compute the angular power spectrum C(sub l) from the BATSE 3B catalog of 1122 gamma-ray bursts and find no evidence for clustering on any scale. These constraints bridge the entire range from small scales (which probe source clustering and burst repetition) to the largest scales (which constrain possible anisotropics from the Galactic halo or from nearby cosmological large-scale structures). We develop an analysis technique that takes the angular position errors into account. For specific clustering or repetition models, strong upper limits can be obtained down to scales l approx. equal to 30, corresponding to a couple of degrees on the sky. The minimum-variance burst weighting that we employ is visualized graphically as an all-sky map in which each burst is smeared out by an amount corresponding to its position uncertainty. We also present separate bandpass-filtered sky maps for the quadrupole term and for the multipole ranges l = 3-10 and l = 11-30, so that the fluctuations on different angular scales can be inspected separately for visual features such as localized 'hot spots' or structures aligned with the Galactic plane. These filtered maps reveal no apparent deviations from isotropy.

  9. Resonant Compton cooling and annihilation line production in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preece, R. D.; Harding, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a synchrotron self-Compton emission model for gamma-ray bursts which produces narrow annihilation features for a variety of field strengths, primary electron injection energies, and injection rates. In this model, primary electrons are injected and cooled by synchrotron emission in a strong, homogeneous magnetic field, resulting in a pair cascade. Multiple resonant scattering with cyclotron photons efficiently traps and cools pairs in the ground state to an average energy where the Compton energy loss rate is zero, which is in agreement with previous estimates of a Compton temperature. The particle distributions in the ground state are determined by numerically solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the steady state. In the case of isotropic injection of primary electrons, a significant narrow-line feature appears in the overall emission. In the case of beamed injection, the annihilation line is broadened to the extent that it would not be observable.

  10. Observing gamma-ray bursts with the scaler system of the HAWC Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennarz, Dirk; Taboada, Ignacio

    2014-03-01

    The origin and acceleration mechanisms of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are important questions in contemporary astrophysics. Several models are competing to explain the recent observations at higher energies (HE, above ~ 20 MeV). The detection and temporal evolution of GRB emission at the highest energies (>~ 10 GeV) would have important implications for the GRB physics. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a new very-high-energy (VHE, > 100 GeV) gamma-ray detector currently under construction at Sierra Negra in Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m above sea level. Unlike Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, it has a large field of view and near 100% duty cycle that will allow for observations of the prompt GRB phase. HAWC has two data acquisition (DAQ) systems - one reading out full air-shower events (TDC-DAQ) and the other one counting the hits in each photomultiplier tube (scaler DAQ). GRB 130427A was the most energetic GRB so far detected at a redshift z < 0 . 5 . It featured an unprecedented long high-energy emission and the most energetic photon so far detected from a GRB. In this contribution the results of the scaler analysis of GRB 130427A and other GRBs of interest are shown.

  11. Instabilities in the Gamma Ray Burst central engine. What makes the jet variable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiuk, Agnieszka; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Perna, Rosalba; Di Matteo, Tiziana

    2011-02-01

    Both types of long and short gamma ray bursts involve a stage of a hyper-Eddington accretion of hot and dense plasma torus onto a newly born black hole. The prompt gamma ray emission originates in jets at some distance from this `central engine' and in most events is rapidly variable, having a form of sipkes and subpulses. This indicates at the variable nature of the engine itself, for which a plausible mechanism is an internal instability in the accreting flow. We solve numerically the structure and evolution of the neutrino-cooled torus. We take into account the detailed treatment of the microphysics in the nuclear equation of state that includes the neutrino trapping effect. The models are calculated for both Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes. We find that for sufficiently large accretion rates (>~10Msolar s-1 for non-rotating black hole, and >~1Msolar s-1 for rotating black hole, depending on its spin), the inner regions of the disk become opaque, while the helium nuclei are being photodissociated. The sudden change of pressure in this region leads to the development of a viscous and thermal instability, and the neutrino pressure acts similarly to the radiation pressure in sub-Eddington disks. In the case of rapidly rotating black holes, the instability is enhanced and appears for much lower accretion rates. We also find the important and possibly further destabilizing role of the energy transfer from the rotating black hole to the torus via the magnetic coupling.

  12. CAN STELLAR MIXING EXPLAIN THE LACK OF TYPE Ib SUPERNOVAE IN LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS?

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, Lucille H.; Fryer, Chris L.; Young, Patrick A.

    2013-08-10

    The discovery of supernovae associated with long-duration gamma-ray burst observations is primary evidence that the progenitors of these outbursts are massive stars. One of the principle mysteries in understanding these progenitors has been the fact that all of these gamma-ray-burst-associated supernovae are Type Ic supernovae with no evidence of helium in the stellar atmosphere. Many studies have focused on whether or not this helium is simply hidden from spectral analyses. In this Letter, we show results from recent stellar models using new convection algorithms based on our current understanding of stellar mixing. We demonstrate that enhanced convection may lead to severe depletion of stellar helium layers, suggesting that the helium is not observed simply because it is not in the star. We also present light curves and spectra of these compact helium-depleted stars compared to models with more conventional helium layers.

  13. Swiftly searching the sky: the first three years of the Swift gamma-ray burst explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Nousek, John; Varela, Karen; Quijandria, Fernando

    2009-04-30

    The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer has revolutionized the study of these remarkable high-energy explosions. We summarize the technical developments which lead to the creation of the Swift mission, and outline the highlights of the first three years, and the prospects ahead.

  14. Gamma-ray burst observations above 100 GeV with STACEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Alexander Charles

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful known explosions in the universe. Forty years after their discovery, they are still some of the most enigmatic phenomena in the universe. Sensitive measurements of the high-energy spectra of GRBs can place important constraints on the burst environments, particle acceleration mechanisms and radiation mechanisms. Until the past few years, there were no observations of the early minutes of GRB afterglows in the energy range between 30 GeV and 1 TeV. With the launch of the Swift GRB Explorer in late 2004, GRB alerts and localizations within seconds of the bursts became available. The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) was a ground-based, gamma-ray telescope sensitive to gamma rays with energies above 50 GeV. At the time of Swift's launch, STACEE was in a rare position to provide rapid, low-energy-threshold follow-up observations of GRBs. In addition, STACEE performed follow-up observations of several GRBs that were localized by other satellites. Between the end of major modifications to the experiment in 2002 and the decommissioning of the experiment in 2007, STACEE obtained follow-up observations of 23 GRBs. In this thesis, STACEE's GRB observations are described and limits are placed on the high-energy, gamma-ray fluxes that reached Earth from these bursts.

  15. An origin in the local Universe for some short gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Tanvir, N R; Chapman, R; Levan, A J; Priddey, R S

    2005-12-15

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) divide into two classes: 'long', which typically have initial durations of T90 > 2 s, and 'short', with durations of T90 < 2 s (where T90 is the time to detect 90% of the observed fluence). Long bursts, which on average have softer gamma-ray spectra, are known to be associated with stellar core-collapse events-in some cases simultaneously producing powerful type Ic supernovae. In contrast, the origin of short bursts has remained mysterious until recently. A subsecond intense 'spike' of gamma-rays during a giant flare from the Galactic soft gamma-ray repeater, SGR 1806-20, reopened an old debate over whether some short GRBs could be similar events seen in galaxies out to approximately 70 Mpc (refs 6-10; redshift z approximately 0.016). Shortly after that, localizations of a few short GRBs (with optical afterglows detected in two cases) have shown an apparent association with a variety of host galaxies at moderate redshifts. Here we report a correlation between the locations of previously observed short bursts and the positions of galaxies in the local Universe, indicating that between 10 and 25 per cent of short GRBs originate at low redshifts (z < 0.025).

  16. Multi-Messenger Time-Domain Astronomy with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Adam; Fermi GBM Team

    2017-01-01

    With exciting new detections of gravitational waves by LIGO and astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube and ANTARES, the era of multi-messenger time-domain astronomy has arrived. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) continuously observes the entire sky that is not occulted by the Earth in gamma-rays from 8 keV - 40 MeV with 2 microsecond temporal resolution, and that continuous data is downlinked every few hours. This wealth of near-real-time all-sky data has lead to the development of continuous data searches for gamma-ray events, such as Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), in coincidence with astrophysical neutrinos and gravitational wave events. Additionally, GBM has the ability to localize triggered and un-triggered transient events to a few-degree accuracy, rapidly disseminate the alerts and localization sky maps, and there have been several successful follow-up attempts by wide-field optical telescopes, such as the Palomar Transient Factory, to catch the fading optical afterglow of GBM-triggered GRBs. We discuss the current applications and importance of Fermi GBM in leading multi-messenger time-domain astronomy in the gamma-ray regime.

  17. Multi-Messenger Time-Domain Astronomy with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connaughton, Valerie; Goldstein, Adam; Fermi GBM - LIGO Group

    2017-01-01

    With exciting new detections of gravitational waves by LIGO and astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube and ANTARES, the era of multi-messenger time-domain astronomy has arrived. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) continuously observes the entire sky that is not occulted by the Earth in gamma-rays from 8 keV - 40 MeV with 2 microsecond temporal resolution, with regular data downlinks every few hours. This wealth of near-realtime all-sky data has lead to the development of continuous data searches for gamma-ray events, such as Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), in coincidence with astrophysical neutrinos and gravitational wave events. Additionally, GBM has the ability to localize triggered and untriggered transient events to a few-degree accuracy, rapidly disseminate the alerts and localization sky maps within tens of seconds, and there have been several successful follow-up attempts by wide-field optical telescopes, such as the Palomar Transient Factory, to catch the fading optical afterglow of GBM-triggered GRBs. We discuss the current applications and importance of Fermi GBM in leading multi-messenger time-domain astronomy in the gamma-ray regime.

  18. A search for fast radio bursts associated with gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Palaniswamy, Divya; Wayth, Randall B.; Trott, Cathryn M.; Tingay, Steven J.; Reynolds, Cormac; McCallum, Jamie N.

    2014-07-20

    The detection of seven fast radio bursts (FRBs) has recently been reported. FRBs are short duration (∼1 ms), highly dispersed radio pulses from astronomical sources. The physical interpretation for the FRBs remains unclear but is thought to involve highly compact objects at cosmological distance. It has been suggested that a fraction of FRBs could be physically associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Recent radio observations of GRBs have reported the detection of two highly dispersed short duration radio pulses using a 12 m radio telescope at 1.4 GHz. Motivated by this result, we have performed a systematic and sensitive search for FRBs associated with GRBs. We have observed five GRBs at 2.3 GHz using a 26 m radio telescope located at the Mount Pleasant Radio Observatory, Hobart. The radio telescope was automated to rapidly respond to Gamma-ray Coordination Network notifications from the Swift satellite and slew to the GRB position within ∼140 s. The data were searched for pulses up to 5000 pc cm{sup –3} in dispersion measure and pulse widths ranging from 640 μs to 25.60 ms. We did not detect any events ≥6σ. An in depth statistical analysis of our data shows that events detected above 5σ are consistent with thermal noise fluctuations only. A joint analysis of our data with previous experiments shows that previously claimed detections of FRBs from GRBs are unlikely to be astrophysical. Our results are in line with the lack of consistency noted between the recently presented FRB event rates and GRB event rates.

  19. Constraining the mass of the photon with gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Chai, Ya-Ting; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2016-09-01

    One of the cornerstones of modern physics is Einstein's special relativity, with its constant speed of light and zero photon mass assumptions. Constraint on the rest mass mγ of photons is a fundamental way to test Einstein's theory, as well as other essential electromagnetic and particle theories. Since non-zero photon mass can give rise to frequency- (or energy-) dependent dispersions, measuring the time delay of photons with different frequencies emitted from explosive astrophysical events is an important and model-independent method to put such a constraint. The cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), with short time scales, high redshifts as well as broadband prompt and afterglow emissions, provide an ideal testbed for mγ constraints. In this paper we calculate the upper limits of the photon mass with GRB early time radio afterglow observations as well as multi-band radio peaks, thus improve the results of Schaefer (1999) by nearly half an order of magnitude.

  20. SHORT-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS FROM OFF-AXIS COLLAPSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2010-07-01

    We present two-dimensional (2D) high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the relativistic outflows of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitors. We analyze the properties of the outflows at wide off-axis angles, produced by the expansion of the hot cocoon that surrounds the jet inside the progenitor star. We find that the cocoon emission at wide angles may have properties similar to those of the subclass of short-duration GRBs with persistent X-ray emission. We compute the predicted duration distribution, redshift distribution, and afterglow brightness, and we find that they are all in agreement with the observed properties of short GRBs with persistent emission. We suggest that a supernova component, the properties of the host galaxies, and late afterglow observations can be used as a crucial test to verify this model.

  1. Neutrino and cosmic-ray emission from multiple internal shocks in gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Baerwald, Philipp; Murase, Kohta; Winter, Walter

    2015-04-10

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short-lived, luminous explosions at cosmological distances, thought to originate from relativistic jets launched at the deaths of massive stars. They are among the prime candidates to produce the observed cosmic rays at the highest energies. Recent neutrino data have, however, started to constrain this possibility in the simplest models with only one emission zone. In the classical theory of GRBs, it is expected that particles are accelerated at mildly relativistic shocks generated by the collisions of material ejected from a central engine. Here we consider neutrino and cosmic-ray emission from multiple emission regions since these internal collisions must occur at very different radii, from below the photosphere all the way out to the circumburst medium, as a consequence of the efficient dissipation of kinetic energy. We demonstrate that the different messengers originate from different collision radii, which means that multi-messenger observations open windows for revealing the evolving GRB outflows.

  2. CAN BLACK HOLE NEUTRINO-COOLED DISKS POWER SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tong; Gu, Wei-Min; Lin, Yi-Qing; Hou, Shu-Jin

    2015-06-10

    Stellar-mass black holes (BHs) surrounded by neutrino-dominated accretion flows (NDAFs) are plausible sources of power for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) via neutrino emission and their annihilation. The progenitors of short-duration GRBs (SGRBs) are generally considered to be compact binary mergers. According to the simulation results, the disk mass of the NDAF is limited after merger events. We can estimate such disk masses using the current SGRB observational data and fireball model. The results show that the disk mass of a certain SGRB mainly depends on its output energy, jet opening angle, and central BH characteristics. Even for the extreme BH parameters, some SGRBs require massive disks, which approach or exceed the limits in simulations. We suggest that there may exist alternative MHD processes or mechanisms that increase the neutrino emission to produce SGRBs with reasonable BH parameters and disk masses.

  3. Fermi/GBM and BATSE gamma-ray bursts: comparison of the spectral properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, L.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Celotti, A.

    2011-08-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board Fermi allows us to study the spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) over an unprecedented wide energy range (8 keV-35 MeV). We compare the spectral properties of short and long GRBs detected by the GBM (up to 2010 March) with those of GRBs detected by the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). GBM and BATSE long bursts have similar distributions of fluence (F), Eobspeak and peak flux (P) but GBM bursts have a slightly harder low-energy spectral index α with respect to BATSE GRBs. GBM and BATSE short bursts have similar distributions of fluence, α and peak flux, with GBM bursts having slightly larger Eobspeak. We discuss these properties in light of the correlations found between Eobspeak and the fluence and the peak flux. GBM bursts confirm that these correlations are not determined by instrumental selection effects. Indeed, GBM bursts extend the Eobspeak-F and Eobspeak-P correlations both in fluence/peak flux and in peak energy. No GBM long burst with Eobspeak exceeding a few MeV is found, despite the possibility of detecting it. Similarly to what is found with BATSE, there are 3 per cent of GBM long bursts (and almost all short ones) that are outliers at more than 3σ of the Epeak-Eiso correlation. In contrast, there is no outlier of the Epeak-Liso correlation, for both long and short GBM bursts.

  4. Choked jets and low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts as hidden neutrino sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We consider gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets that are choked by extended material as sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. We take into account the jet propagation physics both inside the progenitor star and the surrounding dense medium. Radiation constraints, which are relevant for high-energy neutrino production, are considered as well. Efficient shock acceleration of cosmic rays is possible for sufficiently low-power jets and/or jets buried in a dense, extended wind or outer envelope. Such conditions also favor GRB jets to become stalled, and the necessary conditions for stalling are explicitly derived. Such choked jets may explain transrelativistic supernovae (SNe) and low-luminosity (LL) GRBs, giving a unified picture of GRBs and GRB-SNe. Focusing on this unified scenario for GRBs, we calculate the resulting neutrino spectra from choked jets, including the relevant microphysical processes such as multipion production in p p and p γ interactions, as well as the energy losses of mesons and muons. We obtain diffuse neutrino spectra using the latest results for the luminosity function of LL GRBs. Although uncertainties are large, we confirm that LL GRBs can potentially give a significant contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux. Our results are consistent with the present IceCube data and do not violate the stacking limits on classical high-luminosity GRBs. We find that high-energy neutrino production in choked jets is dominated by p γ interactions. These sources are dark in GeV-TeV gamma rays and do not contribute significantly to the Fermi diffuse gamma-ray background. Assuming stalled jets can launch a quasispherical shock in the dense medium, "precursor" TeV neutrinos emerging prior to the shock breakout gamma-ray emission can be used as smoking-gun evidence for a choked jet model for LL GRBs. Our results strengthen the relevance of wide field-of-view sky monitors with better sensitivities in the 1-100 keV range.

  5. The Complete Spectral Catalog of Bright BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Yuki; Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Band, David L.

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic spectral analysis of 350 bright Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE; approx. 30 keV - 2 MeV; including 17 short GRBs) with high energy and time resolution. Our sample was selected from the complete set of 2704 BATSE GRBs based on their energy fluence or peak photon flux values to assure good statistics. To obtain well-constrained, model-unbiased spectral parameters, a set of various photon models is used to fit each spectrum, and internal characteristics of each model are also investigated. A thorough analysis has been performed on 342 time-integrated and 8459 time-resolved burst spectra, and the effects of integration times in determining the spectral parameters are explored. The analysis results presented here provide the most detailed perspective of spectral aspects of the GRB prompt emission to date. Using the results, we study correlations among spectral parameters and spectral evolutions. The results of all spectral fits are available electronically in FITS format, from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC).

  6. Gamma-Ray Burst Follow Up Observations with BOOTES in 1998--2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerón, J. M. Castro; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Hudec, R.; Soldán, J.; Bernas, M.; Páta, P.; Sanguino, T. J. Mateo; Postigo, A. De Ugarte; Berná, J. Á.; Nekola, M.; Gorosabel, J.; Morena, B. A. De La; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Giménez, Á.; Riera, J. Torres

    The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES) provides an automated realtime observing response to the detection of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Error box size depending, it uses wide field cameras attached to small robotic telescopes or the telescopes themselves. To date we have acquired photometry for about 30 events with the Ultra Wide (UWFC) and the Narrow Field Cameras (NFC) and about 50 events with the Wide Field Camera (WFC).

  7. The Onset of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shiho; Zhang, Bing

    2007-02-01

    We discuss the reference time t0 of afterglow light curves in the context of the standard internal-external shock model. The decay index of early afterglow is very sensitive to the reference time one chooses. In order to understand the nature of early afterglow, it is essential to take a correct reference time. Our simple analytic model provides a framework for understanding special relativistic effects involved in early afterglow phase. We evaluate light curves of reverse shock emission as well as those of forward shock emission, based on full hydrodynamic calculations. We show that the reference time does not shift significantly even in the thick-shell case. For external shock emission components, measuring times from the beginning of the prompt emission is a good approximation and it does not cause an early steep decay. In the thin-shell case, the energy transfer time from fireball ejecta to ambient medium typically extends to thousands of seconds. This might be related to the shallow decay phases observed in early X-ray afterglow at least for some bursts.

  8. The Probable Connection Between Relativistic Shock Acceleration and Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieu, R.

    1998-01-01

    The recent detection of delayed Gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglows at longer wavelengths (van Paradijs et al 1997, Piro et al 1997, Bond 1997, Frail and Kulkarni 1997, Halpern et al 1997) supports strongly the notion that GRBs are produced at relativistic cosmological shocks (Pacynski 1986, Goodman 1986, Rees and Meszaros 1992). The current understanding is that these shocks are ultra-relativistic, with an upstream Lorentz factor Gamma ~300, and radiate the gamma rays as the shock accelerated electrons emit by the synchrotron or inverse-Compton process (Waxman 1997).

  9. SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND DARK MATTER SEEDING IN NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles

    2013-05-10

    We present a mechanism based on internal self-annihilation of dark matter accreted from the galactic halo in the inner regions of neutron stars that may trigger full or partial conversion into a quark star. We explain how this effect may induce a gamma-ray burst (GRB) that could be classified as short, according to the usual definition based on time duration of the prompt gamma-ray emission. This mechanism differs in many aspects from the most discussed scenario associating short GRBs with compact object binary mergers. We list possible observational signatures that should help distinguish between these two possible classes of progenitors.

  10. Results from GROCSE I: A real-time search for gamma ray burst optical counterparts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.; Akerlof, C.; Ables, E.

    1995-10-27

    The GROCSE I experiment (Gamma-Ray Optical Counterpart Search Experiment) is a rapid slewing wide field of view optical telescope at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory which responds to triggers from the BATSE GRB data telemetry stream that have been processed and distributed by the BACODINE network. GROCSE 1 has been in continuous automated operation since January 1994. As of October 1995, sky images for 22 GRB triggers have been recorded, in some cases while the burst was still emitting gamma rays. The preliminary analysis of eight of these events are presented here. No optical counterparts have yet been detected. Limits for optical emission are given.

  11. Observations of low energy gamma-ray bursts with SAS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegelman, H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper reports on the low-energy gamma-ray bursts observed by the plastic scintillator anticoincidence dome of the Small Astronomy Satellite-2 (SAS-2) gamma-ray telescope. SAS-2 detected two events observed by other satellites and discovered one which was subsequently confirmed by other satellite observations. Two events seen by other satellites were not detected by SAS-2, probably due to earth occultation. The event detection threshold for SAS-2 was almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of the Vela satellites.

  12. Lag-luminosity relation in gamma-ray burst X-ray flares

    SciTech Connect

    Margutti, R.

    2010-10-15

    In strict analogy to prompt pulses, X-ray flares observed by Swift-XRT in long Gamma-Ray Bursts define a lag-luminosity relation: L{sub p,iso}{sup 0.3-10} k{sup eV} {infinity}t{sub lag}{sup -0.95{+-}0.23}. The lag-luminosity is proven to be a fundamental law extending {approx}5 decades in time and {approx}5 in energy. This is direct evidence that GRB X-ray flares and prompt gamma-ray pulses are produced by the same mechanism.

  13. Pulsar-driven Jets in Supernovae, Gamma-ray Bursts, and SS 433

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleditch, John

    2010-05-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents (SLIP) predicts that pulsations produced by such currents, induced at many light cylinder radii by a rotating, magnetized body, as would be the case for a neutron star born within any star of more than 1.4 solar masses, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. In SN 1987A, such highly collimated (less than 1 in 10,000) 2.14 ms pulsations, and the similarly collimated jets of particles which they drove, including 1e-6 solar masses with velocities of up to 0.95 c, were responsible for the features of its very early light (days 3 - 20), its "Mystery Spot," observed slightly later (days 30 - 50 and after), and still later, in less collimated form, its bipolarity. SLIP also explains why the 2.14 ms pulsations were more or less consistently observed between years 5.0 and 6.5, and why they eventually disappeared after year 9.0. There is no reason to suggest that this mechanism is not universally applicable to all SNe with gaseous remnants remaining, and thus SN 1987A is the Rosetta Stone for 99% of SNe, gamma-ray bursts, and millisecond pulsars, and possibly SS 433. The axially driven pulsations enforce a toroidal geometry onto all early SNRs, rendering even Ia's unsuitable as standard candles. SLIP predicts that almost all pulsars with very sharp single pulses have been detected because the Earth is in a favored direction where their fluxes diminish only as 1/distance, and this has been verified in the laboratory as well as for the Parkes Multibeam Survey. SLIP also specifically predicts that gamma-ray-burst afterglows will be essentially 100% pulsed at 500 Hz in their proper frame. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  14. Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Swift Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Norris, Jay P.

    2007-01-01

    GRB research has undergone a revolution in the last two years. The launch of Swift, with its rapid slewing capability, has greatly increased the number and quality of GRB localizations and X-ray and optical afterglow lightcurves. Over 160 GRBs have been detected, and nearly all that have been followed up with the on-board narrow field telescopes. Advances in our understanding of short GRBs have been spectacular. The detection of X-ray afterglows has led to accurate localizations from ground based observatories, which have given host identifications and redshifts. Theoretical models for short GRB progenitors have, for the first time, been placed on a sound foundation. The hosts for the short GRBs differ in a fundamental way from the long GRB hosts: short GRBs tend to occur in non-star forming galaxies or regions, whereas long GRBs are strongly concentrated within star forming regions. Observations are consistent with a binary neutron star merger model, but other models involving old stellar populations are also viable. Swift has greatly increased the redshift range of GRB detection. The highest redshift GRBs, at zeta approx. 5-6, are approaching the era of reionization. Ground-based deep optical spectroscopy of high redshift bursts is giving metallicity measurements and other information on the source environment to much greater distance than other techniques. The localization of GRB 060218 to a nearby galaxy, and association with SN 2006aj, added a valuable member to the class of GRBs with detected supernova. The prospects for future progress are excellent given the >10 year orbital lifetime of the Swift satellite.

  15. Scattered emission from a relativistic outflow and its application to gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, R.-F.; Barniol Duran, R.; Kumar, P.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate a scenario of photon scattering by electrons within a relativistic outflow. The outflow is composed of discrete shells with different speeds. One shell emits radiation for a short duration. Some of this radiation is scattered by the shell(s) behind. We calculate in a simple two-shell model the observed scattered flux density as a function of the observed primary flux density, the normalized arrival time delay between the two emission components, the Lorentz factor ratio of the two shells and the scattering shell's optical depth. Thomson scattering in a cold shell and inverse Compton scattering in a hot shell are both considered. The results of our calculations are applied to the gamma-ray bursts and the afterglows. We find that the scattered flux from a cold slower shell is small and likely to be detected only for those bursts with very weak afterglows. A hot scattering shell could give rise to a scattered emission as bright as the X-ray shallow decay component detected in many bursts, on a condition that the isot