Science.gov

Sample records for gamma-ray emission probabilities

  1. Determination of photon emission probabilities for the main gamma-rays of ²²³Ra in equilibrium with its progeny.

    PubMed

    Pibida, L; Zimmerman, B; Fitzgerald, R; King, L; Cessna, J T; Bergeron, D E

    2015-07-01

    The currently published (223)Ra gamma-ray emission probabilities display a wide variation in the values depending on the source of the data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology performed activity measurements on a (223)Ra solution that was used to prepare several sources that were used to determine the photon emission probabilities for the main gamma-rays of (223)Ra in equilibrium with its progeny. Several high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors were used to perform the gamma-ray spectrometry measurements.

  2. Precise determination of photon emission probabilities for the main X- and gamma-rays of 226Ra in equilibrium with daughters.

    PubMed

    Morel, J; Sepman, S; Rasko, M; Terechtchenko, E; Delgado, J U

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of a joint project between VNIIM (D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology) and LNHB (Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel), special 226Ra sources were prepared by VNIIM in order to determine as accurately as possible the absolute photon emission probabilities for the main X- and gamma-rays following the decay of 226Ra and daughters. The main purpose of this work was to supplement a previous joint study by Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiaçoes Ionizantes (LNMRI) and LNHB to determine their relative values. Some specific point sources were produced for alpha-spectrometry measurements that were undertaken at VNIIM and also for gamma-ray spectrometry studies at VNIIM and LNHB. The 226Ra activity for the gamma-spectrometric sources was measured relative to the alpha-spectrometric sources by comparing the counts of the main gamma-rays. The total uncertainty of the activity for these sources was 0.2% (k = 1). Using calibrated germanium detectors, several X- and gamma-ray spectra were analyzed to determine the absolute photon emission probabilities of 226Ra in radioactive equilibrium with daughters. The results are presented and compared to other published values.

  3. Hard gamma ray emission from blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Bloom, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    The gamma-ray emission expected from compact extragalactic sources of nonthermal radiation is examined. The highly variable objects in this class should produce copious amounts of self-Compton gamma-rays in the compact relativistic jet. This is shown to be a likely interpretation of the hard gamma-ray emission recently detected from the quasar 3C 279 during a period of strong nonthermal flaring at lower frequencies. Ways of discriminating between the self-Compton model and other possible gamma-ray emission mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Physics issues of gamma ray burst emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison

    1987-01-01

    The critical physics issues in the interpretation of gamma-ray-burst spectra are reviewed. An attempt is made to define the emission-region parameter space satisfying the maximum number of observational and theoretical constraints. Also discussed are the physical mechanisms responsible for the bursts that are most consistent with the above parameter space.

  5. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Pak-Hin T.; Hui, Chung Y.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs). Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC) emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  6. Diffuse Galactic Soft Gamma-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, S. E.; Lin, R. P.; Slassi-Sennou, S.; Coburn, W.; Pelling, R. M.

    2000-11-01

    The Galactic diffuse soft gamma-ray (30-800 keV) emission has been measured from the Galactic center by the High Resolution Gamma-Ray and Hard X-Ray Spectrometer balloon-borne germanium instrument to determine the spectral characteristics and origin of the emission. The resulting Galactic diffuse continuum is found to agree well with a single power law (plus positronium) over the entire energy range, consistent with RXTE and COMPTEL/Compton Gamma Ray Observatory observations at lower and higher energies, respectively. We find no evidence of spectral steepening below 200 keV, as has been reported in previous observations. The spatial distribution along the Galactic ridge is found to be nearly flat, with upper limits set on the longitudinal gradient and with no evidence of an edge in the observed region. The soft gamma-ray diffuse spectrum is well modeled by inverse Compton scattering of interstellar radiation off of cosmic-ray electrons, minimizing the need to invoke inefficient nonthermal bremsstrahlung emission. The resulting power requirement is well within that provided by Galactic supernovae. We speculate that the measured spectrum provides the first direct constraints on the cosmic-ray electron spectrum below 300 MeV.

  7. Prompt Radio Emission from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthardt, Noelle

    2010-02-01

    Gamma-ray bursts have been observed, but these enigmatic objects are yet unexplained. These short duration events are undoubtedly due to high-energy events. Fading optical emission and even radio emission has been observed from such events, but prompt radio emission from these events would be very useful in pinning down the physics of the bursts, the nature of the progenitor object,and possibly the medium in which it occurs. If these phenomena occur at large redshifts, there is the possibility that the observations could probe the Epoch of Reionization, or the intergalactic medium. A number of models have been proposed to explain the gamma-ray bursts, ranging from compact object mergers, to maser-like coherent emission. These models are not well constrained by current observations. Prompt radio emission may be detected by a transient radio array. I will discuss a planned search for such signals by the Eight-meter-wavelength Transient Array (ETA). )

  8. The diffuse galactic gamma ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, David L.

    1990-01-01

    The EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope) detector will provide a much more detailed view of the diffuse galactic gamma ray intensity in terms of higher resolution, greater statistical significance, and broader energy range than earlier missions. These observations will furnish insight into a number of very important questions related to the dynamics and structure of the Galaxy. A diffuse emission model is being developed that incorporates the latest information on matter distribution and source functions. In addition, it is tailored to the EGRET instrument response functions. The analysis code of the model maintains flexibility to accommodate the quality of the data that is anticipated. The discussion here focuses on the issues of the distributions of matter, cosmic rays, and radiation fields, and on the important source functions that enter into the model calculation of diffuse emission.

  9. The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope for precision gamma-ray emission investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topchiev, N. P.; Galper, A. M.; Bonvicini, V.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Bergstrom, L.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bobkov, S. G.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cumani, P.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Dedenko, G. L.; De Donato, C.; Dogiel, V. A.; Finetti, N.; Gascon, D.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Hnatyk, B. I.; Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kaplun, A. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Korepanov, V. E.; Larsson, J.; Leonov, A. A.; Loginov, V. A.; Longo, F.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Martinez, M.; Men'shenin, A. L.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu; Papini, P.; Paredes, J. M.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Runtso, M. F.; Ryde, F.; Serdin, O. V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Yu I.; Suchkov, S. I.; Taraskin, A. A.; Tavani, M.; Tiberio, A.; Tyurin, E. M.; Ulanov, M. V.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Ward, J. E.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Zampa, N.; Zirakashvili, V. N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope with excellent angular and energy resolutions is designed to search for signatures of dark matter in the fluxes of gamma-ray emission and electrons + positrons. Precision investigations of gamma-ray emission from Galactic Center, Crab, Vela, Cygnus, Geminga, and other regions will be performed, as well as diffuse gamma-ray emission, along with measurements of high-energy electron + positron and nuclei fluxes. Furthermore, it will study gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun during periods of solar activity. The GAMMA-400 energy range is expected to be from ∼20 MeV up to TeV energies for gamma rays, up to 10 TeV for electrons + positrons, and up to 1015 eV for cosmic-ray nuclei. For 100-GeV gamma rays, the GAMMA-400 angular resolution is ∼0.01° and energy resolution is ∼1% the proton rejection factor is ∼5x105. GAMMA-400 will be installed onboard the Russian space observatory.

  10. Gamma ray emission from radio pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, Roger W.

    1994-01-01

    While the proposed research received partial funding under this grant, during the term of support substantial progress was made on the development of a new model for the emission of gamma-rays from isolated rotation-powered pulsars. In phase one of the work, we showed how a modified version of the 'outer gap' model of pulsar emission could reproduce the double peaked profiles seen in CGRO pulsar observations. This work also demonstrated the spectrum of gap radiation varies significantly with position in the magnetosphere, and produced approximate computations of the emission from outer magnetosphere gap zones, including primary curvature radiation, gamma - gamma pair production and synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering by the resulting secondary particles. This work was followed in phase two by a more complete treatment of the geometry of the radiation zone, and improved connections with observations at other wavelengths.

  11. Gamma-ray emission from young neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dieter H.; Liang, Edison P.; Cordes, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The emission models of Cheng et al. (1986) and Harding (1981) are employed to determine likely candidates for pulsed gamma-ray emission on the basis of recent radio data of pulsars. The recent detection of pulsed gamma rays from PSR 1951+32 lends observational support to the scenario of Cheng et al. which also suggests that PSR 1855+09 might be another excellent gamma-ray pulsar candidate. The possible contribution of young neutron stars to the diffuse high energy glow is also discussed.

  12. A search of the SAS-2 data for pulsed gamma-ray emission from radio pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogelman, H. B.; Fichtel, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    Data from the SAS-2 high energy gamma ray experiment were examined for pulsed emission from each of 75 radio pulsars which were viewed by the instrument and which have sufficiently well defined period and period derivative information from radio observations to allow for gamma ray periodicity searches. When gamma ray arrival times were converted to pulsar phase using the radio reference timing information, two pulsars, PSR 1747-46 and PSR 1818-04, showed positive effects, each with a probability less than 0.0001 of being a random fluctuation in the data for that pulsar. These are in addition to PSR 0531+21 and PSR 0833-45, previously reported. The results of this study suggest that gamma-ray astronomy has reached the detection threshold for gamma ray pulsars and that work in the near future should give important information on the nature of pulsars.

  13. RADIO AND GAMMA-RAY PULSED EMISSION FROM MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Y. J.; Chen, D.; Qiao, G. J.

    2013-01-20

    Pulsed {gamma}-ray emission from millisecond pulsars (MSPs) has been detected by the sensitive Fermi space telescope, which sheds light on studies of the emission region and its mechanism. In particular, the specific patterns of radio and {gamma}-ray emission from PSR J0101-6422 challenge the popular pulsar models, e.g., outer gap and two-pole caustic models. Using the three-dimensional annular gap model, we have jointly simulated radio and {gamma}-ray light curves for three representative MSPs (PSR J0034-0534, PSR J0101-6422, and PSR J0437-4715) with distinct radio phase lags, and present the best simulated results for these MSPs, particularly for PSR J0101-6422 with complex radio and {gamma}-ray pulse profiles, and for PSR J0437-4715 with a radio interpulse. We have found that both the {gamma}-ray and radio emission originate from the annular gap region located in only one magnetic pole, and the radio emission region is not primarily lower than the {gamma}-ray region in most cases. In addition, the annular gap model with a small magnetic inclination angle instead of an 'orthogonal rotator' can account for the MSPs' radio interpulse with a large phase separation from the main pulse. The annular gap model is a self-consistent model not only for young pulsars but also MSPs, and multi-wavelength light curves can be fundamentally explained using this model.

  14. Hard Gamma Ray Emission from the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, James M.; Marscher, Alan M.

    1996-01-01

    We have completed the study to search for hard gamma ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 253. Since supernovae are thought to provide the hard gamma ray emission from the Milky Way, starburst galaxies, with their extraordinarily high supernova rates, are prime targets to search for hard gamma ray emission. We conducted a careful search for hard gamma ray emission from NGC 253 using the archival data from the EGRET experiment aboard the CGRO. Because this starburst galaxy happens to lie near the South Galactic Pole, the Galactic gamma ray background is minimal. We found no significant hard gamma ray signal toward NGC 253, although a marginal signal of about 1.5 sigma was found. Because of the low Galactic background, we obtained a very sensitive upper limit to the emission of greater than 100 MeV gamma-rays of 8 x 10(exp -8) photons/sq cm s. Since we expected to detect hard gamma ray emission, we investigated the theory of gamma ray production in a dense molecular medium. We used a leaky-box model to simulate diffusive transport in a starburst region. Since starburst galaxies have high infrared radiation fields, we included the effects of self-Compton scattering, which are usually ignored. By modelling the expected gamma-ray and synchrotron spectra from NGC 253, we find that roughly 5 - 15% of the energy from supernovae is transferred to cosmic rays in the starburst. This result is consistent with supernova acceleration models, and is somewhat larger than the value derived for the Galaxy (3 - 10%). Our calculations match the EGRET and radio data very well with a supernova rate of 0.08/ yr, a magnetic field B approx. greater than 5 x 10(exp -5) G, a density n approx. less than 100/sq cm, a photon density U(sub ph) approx. 200 eV/sq cm, and an escape time scale tau(sub 0) approx. less than 10 Myr. The models also suggest that NGC 253 should be detectable with only a factor of 2 - 3 improvement in sensitivity. Our results are consistent with the standard picture

  15. Two probable optical flashes from gamma-ray bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, B. E.; Bradt, H. V.; Barat, C.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.; Teegarden, B. J.; Evans, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Two images on archival photographic plates which are most likely records of optical flashes from gamma-ray bursters (GRBs) were examined. One of these images appears on a 1901 plate in the field of the 5 Nov. 1979 GRB, while the other is in the field of the 13 Jan. 1979 GRB on a plate exposed in 1944. The 1901 optical transient image is circular in shape, while all normal star images are trailed by 8 in. No optical transients are found in a control region which is 34.3 times larger than the GRB error regions examined. Independent limits on the optical flash rate from the sky yield a probability of less than 0.0001 that any one of the optical transients is due to a background flash. A total exposure of 2.7 years was examined for GRB flashes at known GRB locations on the Harvard plates and a total of three GRB flashes were seen, that the average recurrence time scale for optical flashes is roughly one year. The optical fluence of these optical flashes was measured. For the three currently known GRB optical flashes, the ratio of gamma-ray fluence (from a modern burst) to the optical fluence (from a archival burst) were measured to be 800, 900, and 900.

  16. High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts - Before GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Piran, Tsvi

    2011-11-29

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short and intense emission of soft {gamma}-rays, which have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in 1960s. The X-ray/optical/radio afterglow observations confirm the cosmological origin of GRBs, support the fireball model, and imply a long-activity of the central engine. The high-energy {gamma}-ray emission (> 20 MeV) from GRBs is particularly important because they shed some lights on the radiation mechanisms and can help us to constrain the physical processes giving rise to the early afterglows. In this work, we review observational and theoretical studies of the high-energy emission from GRBs. Special attention is given to the expected high-energy emission signatures accompanying the canonical early-time X-ray afterglow that was observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. We also discuss the detection prospect of the upcoming GLAST satellite and the current ground-based Cerenkov detectors.

  17. Gravitational waves versus X-ray and gamma-ray emission in a short gamma-ray burst

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, F. G.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, R. E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it

    2014-06-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of the physical nature of neutron star equilibrium configurations and the first observational evidence of a genuinely short gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 090227B, allows us to give an estimate of the gravitational waves versus the X-ray and gamma-ray emission in a short GRB.

  18. Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehoe, Robert; Akerlof, Karl; Balsano, Richard; Barthelmy, Scott; Bloch, Jeff; Butterworth, Paul; Casperson, Don; Cline, Tom; Fletcher, Sandra; Frontera, Fillippo; Gisler, Galen; Heise, John; Hills, Jack; Hurley, Kevin; Lee, Brian; Marshall, Stuart; McKay, Tim; Pawl, Andrew; Piro, Luigi; Priedhorsky, Bill; Szymanski, John; Wren, Jim

    The Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) seeks to measure contemporaneous and early afterglow optical emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The ROTSE-I telescope array has been fully automated and responding to burst alerts from the GRB Coordinates Network since March 1998, taking prompt optical data for 30 bursts in its first year. We will briefly review observations of GRB990123 which revealed the first detection of an optical burst occurring during the gamma-ray emission, reaching 9th magnitude at its peak. In addition, we present here preliminary optical results for seven other gamma-ray bursts. No other optical counterparts were seen in this analysis, and the best limiting senisitivities are mV > 13.0 at 14.7 seconds after the gamma-ray rise, and mmV > 16.4 at 62 minutes. These are the most stringent limits obtained for GRB optical counterpart brightness in the first hour after the burst. This analysis suggests that there is not a strong correlation between optical flux and gamma-ray emission.

  19. Sky and Elemental Planetary Mapping Via Gamma Ray Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roland, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Low-energy gamma ray emissions ((is) approximately 30keV to (is) approximately 30MeV) are significant to astrophysics because many interesting objects emit their primary energy in this regime. As such, there has been increasing demand for a complete map of the gamma ray sky, but many experiments to do so have encountered obstacles. Using an innovative method of applying the Radon Transform to data from BATSE (the Burst And Transient Source Experiment) on NASA's CGRO (Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory) mission, we have circumvented many of these issues and successfully localized many known sources to 0.5 - 1 deg accuracy. Our method, which is based on a simple 2-dimensional planar back-projection approximation of the inverse Radon transform (familiar from medical CAT-scan technology), can thus be used to image the entire sky and locate new gamma ray sources, specifically in energy bands between 200keV and 2MeV which have not been well surveyed to date. Samples of these results will be presented. This same technique can also be applied to elemental planetary surface mapping via gamma ray spectroscopy. Due to our method's simplicity and power, it could potentially improve a current map's resolution by a significant factor.

  20. Diffuse Galactic low energy gamma ray continuum emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skibo, J. G.; Ramaty, R.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the origin of diffuse low-energy Galactic gamma-ray continuum down to about 30 keV. We calculate gamma-ray emission via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering by propagating an unbroken electron power law injection spectrum and employing a Galactic emmissivity model derived from COSB observations. To maintain the low energy electron population capable of producing the observed continuum via bremsstrahlung, a total power input of 4 x 10 exp 41 erg/s is required. This exceeds the total power supplied to the nuclear cosmic rays by about an order of magnitude.

  1. Modelling Hard Gamma-Ray Emission from Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    1999-01-01

    The observation by the CANGAROO (Collaboration of Australia and Nippon Gamma Ray Observatory at Outback) experiment of TeV emission from SN 1006, in conjunction with several instances of non-thermal X-ray emission from supernova remnants, has led to inferences of super-TeV electrons in these extended sources. While this is sufficient to propel the theoretical community in their modelling of particle acceleration and associated radiation, the anticipated emergence in the next decade of a number of new experiments probing the TeV and sub-TeV bands provides further substantial motivation for modellers. In particular, the quest for obtaining unambiguous gamma-ray signatures of cosmic ray ion acceleration defines a "Holy Grail" for observers and theorists alike. This review summarizes theoretical developments in the prediction of MeV-TeV gamma-rays from supernova remnants over the last five years, focusing on how global properties of models can impact, and be impacted by, hard gamma-ray observational programs, thereby probing the supernova remnant environment. Properties of central consideration include the maximum energy of accelerated particles, the density of the unshocked interstellar medium, the ambient magnetic field, and the relativistic electron-to-proton ratio. Criteria for determining good candidate remnants for observability in the TeV band are identified.

  2. Short Gamma-Ray Bursts with Extended Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, J. P.; Bonnell, J. T.

    2005-01-01

    The recent association of several short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with early type galaxies with low star formation rate demonstrates that short bursts arise from a different progenitor mechanism than long bursts. However, since the duration distributions of the two classes overlap, membership is not always easily established. The picture is complicated by the occasional presence of softer, extended emission lasting tens of seconds after the initial spike- like emission comprising an otherwise short burst. Using the large BATSE sample with time-tagged event (TTE) data, we show that the fundamental defining characteristic of the short burst class is that the initial spike exhibits negligible spectral evolution at energies above approx. 25 keV. This is behavior is nearly ubiquitous for the 260 bursts with T(sub 90) less than 2s where the BATSE TTE data type completely included the initial spike: Their spectral lags measured between the 25-50 keV and 100-300 energy ranges are consistent with zero in 90-95% of the cases, with most outliers probably representing the tail of the long burst class. We also analyze a small sample of "short" BATSE bursts - those with the most fluent, intense extended emission. The same lack of evolution on the pulse timescale obtains for the extended emission in the brighter bursts where significant measurements can be made. One possible inference is that both emission components may arise in the same region. We also show that the dynamic range in the ratio of peak intensities, spike : extended, is at least approx. l0(exp 3), and that for some bursts, the extended emission is only a factor of 2-5 lower. However, for our whole sample the total counts fluence of the extended component equals or exceeds that in the spike by a factor of several.

  3. Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celik, O.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Johnson, T. J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Thompson, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets.

  4. Modulated high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-3.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chaty, S; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbel, S; Corbet, R; Dermer, C D; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dubus, G; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hill, A B; Hjalmarsdotter, L; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Koerding, E; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marchand, L; Marelli, M; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mazziotta, M N; McColl, N; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Migliari, S; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Ong, R A; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pooley, G; Porter, T A; Pottschmidt, K; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Rea, N; Readhead, A; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Richards, J L; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, J; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Stevenson, M; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tomsick, J A; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Wilms, J; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-12-11

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets.

  5. VERY HIGH ENERGY gamma-RAY AFTERGLOW EMISSION OF NEARBY GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, R. R.; Fan, Y. Z.; Wei, D. M.; Tam, P. H.; Wagner, S. J.; Behera, B. E-mail: phtam@lsw.uni-heidelberg.d

    2009-09-20

    The synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from gamma-ray burst (GRB) forward shock can extend to the very high energy (VHE; E{sub {gamma}} > 100 GeV) range. Such high energy photons are rare and are attenuated by the cosmic infrared background before reaching us. In this work, we discuss the prospect to detect these VHE photons using the current ground-based Cherenkov detectors. Our calculated results are consistent with the upper limits obtained with several Cherenkov detectors for GRB 030329, GRB 050509B, and GRB 060505 during the afterglow phase. For five bursts in our nearby GRB sample (except for GRB 030329), current ground-based Cherenkov detectors would not be expected to detect the modeled VHE signal. Only for those very bright and nearby bursts like GRB 030329, detection of VHE photons is possible under favorable observing conditions and a delayed observation time of {approx}<10 hr.

  6. Fermi Discovery of Gamma-Ray Emission from NGC 1275

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, Thompson H.; Caliandro, G.A.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    We report the discovery of high-energy (E > 100 MeV) {gamma}-ray emission from NGC 1275, a giant elliptical galaxy lying at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, based on observations made with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The positional center of the {gamma}-ray source is only {approx}3{prime} away from the NGC 1275 nucleus, well within the 95% LAT error circle of {approx}5{prime}. The spatial distribution of {gamma}-ray photons is consistent with a point source. The average flux and power-law photon index measured with the LAT from 2008 August 4 to 2008 December 5 are F{sub {gamma}} = (2.10 {+-} 0.23) x 10{sup -7} ph (>100 MeV) cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and {Gamma} = 2.17 {+-} 0.05, respectively. The measurements are statistically consistent with constant flux during the four-month LAT observing period. Previous EGRET observations gave an upper limit of F{sub {gamma}} < 3.72 x 10{sup -8} ph (>100 MeV) cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} to the {gamma}-ray flux from NGC 1275. This indicates that the source is variable on timescales of years to decades, and therefore restricts the fraction of emission that can be produced in extended regions of the galaxy cluster. Contemporaneous and historical radio observations are also reported. The broadband spectrum of NGC 1275 is modeled with a simple one-zone synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model and a model with a decelerating jet flow.

  7. High-energy emission in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matz, S. M.; Forrest, D. J.; Vestrand, W. T.; Chupp, E. L.; Share, G. H.; Rieger, E.

    1985-01-01

    Between February 1980 and August 1983 the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite (SMM) detected 72 events identified as being of cosmic origin. These events are an essentially unbiased subset of all gamma-ray bursts. The measured spectra of these events show that high energy (greater than 1 MeV) emission is a common and energetically important feature. There is no evidence for a general high-energy cut-off or a distribution of cut-offs below about 6 MeV. These observations imply a limit on the preferential beaming of high energy emission. This constraint, combined with the assumption of isotropic low energy emission, implies that the typical magnetic field strength at burst radiation sites is less than 1 x 10 to the 12th gauss.

  8. Flare gamma ray continuum emission from neutral pion decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David; Mackinnon, Alec L.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate, in detail, the production of solar flare gamma ray emission above 100 MeV via the interaction of high energy protons with the ambient solar atmosphere. We restrict our considerations to the broadband gamma ray spectrum resulting from the decay of neutral pions produced in p-H reactions. Thick-target calculations are performed to determine the photon fluences. However, proton transport is not considered. Inferences about the form of the proton spectrum at 10-100 MeV have already been drawn from de-excitation gamma ray lines. Our aim is to constrain the proton spectrum at higher energies. Thus, the injected proton spectrum is assumed to have the form of a Bessel Function, characteristics of stochastic energy at higher energies. The detailed shape of the gamma ray spectra around 100 MeV is found to have a strong dependence on the spectral index of the power law and on the turnover energy (from Bessel function to power law). As would be expected, the harder the photon spectrum the wider the 100 MeV feature. The photon spectra are to be compared with observations and used to place limits upon the number of particles accelerated and to constrain acceleration models.

  9. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  10. Photospheric Emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloborodov, A. M.; Mészáros, P.

    2017-03-01

    We review the physics of GRB production by relativistic jets that start highly opaque near the central source and then expand to transparency. We discuss dissipative and radiative processes in the jet and how radiative transfer shapes the observed nonthermal spectrum released at the photosphere. A comparison of recent detailed models with observations gives estimates for important parameters of GRB jets, such as the Lorentz factor and magnetization. We also discuss predictions for GRB polarization and neutrino emission.

  11. Gamma-Ray Emission From Crushed Clouds in Supernova Remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Blandford, Roger D.; Funk, Stefan; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takaaki; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2010-10-27

    It is shown that the radio and gamma-ray emission observed from newly-found 'GeV-bright' supernova remnants (SNRs) can be explained by a model, in which a shocked cloud and shock-accelerated cosmic rays (CRs) frozen in it are simultaneously compressed by the supernova blastwave as a result of formation of a radiative cloud shock. Simple reacceleration of pre-existing CRs is generally sufficient to power the observed gamma-ray emission through the decays of {pi}{sup 0}-mesons produced in hadronic interactions between high-energy protons (nuclei) and gas in the compressed-cloud layer. This model provides a natural account of the observed synchrotron radiation in SNRs W51C, W44 and IC 443 with flat radio spectral index, which can be ascribed to a combination of secondary and reaccelerated electrons and positrons.

  12. SEARCH FOR PULSED {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM GLOBULAR CLUSTER M28

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J. H. K.; Kong, A. K. H.; Huang, R. H. H.; Tam, P. H. T.; Hui, C. Y.; Wu, E. M. H.; Takata, J.; Cheng, K. S. E-mail: cyhui@cnu.ac.kr

    2013-03-10

    Using the data from the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, we have searched for {gamma}-ray pulsations from the direction of the globular cluster M28 (NGC 6626). We report the discovery of a signal with a frequency consistent with that of the energetic millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR B1821-24 in M28. A weighted H-test test statistic of 28.8 is attained, which corresponds to a chance probability of {approx}10{sup -5} (4.3{sigma} detection). With a phase-resolved analysis, the pulsed component is found to contribute {approx}25% of the total observed {gamma}-ray emission from the cluster. However, the unpulsed level provides a constraint for the underlying MSP population and the fundamental plane relations for the scenario of inverse Compton scattering. Follow-up timing observations in radio/X-ray are encouraged to further investigate this periodic signal candidate.

  13. FERMI Observations of Gamma -Ray Emission From the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwoo, W. B.; Baldini, I.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Gehrels, N.; Hays, E.; Thompson, D. J.; McEnery, J. E.; Troja, E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the detection of high-energy ? -ray emission from the Moon during the first 24 months of observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). This emission comes from particle cascades produced by cosmicray (CR) nuclei and electrons interacting with the lunar surface. The differential spectrum of the Moon is soft and can be described as a log-parabolic function with an effective cutoff at 2-3 GeV, while the average integral flux measured with the LAT from the beginning of observations in 2008 August to the end of 2010 August is F(greater than100 MeV) = (1.04 plus or minus 0.01 [statistical error] plus or minus 0.1 [systematic error]) × 10(sup -6) cm(sup -2) s(sup -1). This flux is about a factor 2-3 higher than that observed between 1991 and 1994 by the EGRET experiment on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, F(greater than100 MeV)˜5×10(sup -7) cm(sup -2) s(sup -1), when solar activity was relatively high. The higher gamma -ray flux measured by Fermi is consistent with the deep solar minimum conditions during the first 24 months of the mission, which reduced effects of heliospheric modulation, and thus increased the heliospheric flux of Galactic CRs. A detailed comparison of the light curve with McMurdo Neutron Monitor rates suggests a correlation of the trends. The Moon and the Sun are so far the only known bright emitters of gamma-rays with fast celestial motion. Their paths across the sky are projected onto the Galactic center and high Galactic latitudes as well as onto other areas crowded with high-energy gamma-ray sources. Analysis of the lunar and solar emission may thus be important for studies of weak and transient sources near the ecliptic.

  14. A search of the SAS-2 data for pulsed gamma-ray emission from radio pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogelman, H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Data from the SAS-2 high-energy (above 35 MeV) gamma-ray experiment have been examined for pulsed emission from each of 75 radio pulsars which were viewed by the instrument and which have sufficiently well-defined period and period-derivative information from radio observations to allow for gamma-ray periodicity searches. When gamma-ray arrival times were converted to pulsar phase using the radio reference timing information, two pulsars, PSR 1747-46 and PSR 1818-04, showed positive effects, each with a probability of less than 1 part in 10,000 of being a random fluctuation in the data for that pulsar. These are in addition to PSR 0531+21 and PSR 0833-45, previously reported. The results of this study suggest that gamma-ray astronomy has reached the detection threshold for gamma-ray pulsars and that work in the near future should give important new information on the nature of pulsars.

  15. Dark matter properties implied by gamma ray interstellar emission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong

    2017-02-01

    We infer dark matter properties from gamma ray residuals extracted using eight different interstellar emission scenarios proposed by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration to explain the Galactic Center gamma ray excess. Adopting the most plausible simplified ansatz, we assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion interacting with standard fermions via a scalar mediator. To trivially respect flavor constraints, we only couple the mediator to third generation fermions. Using this theoretical hypothesis, and the Fermi residuals, we calculate Bayesian evidences, including Fermi-LAT exclusion limits from 15 dwarf spheroidal galaxies as well. Our evidence ratios single out one of the Fermi scenarios as most compatible with the simplified dark matter model. In this scenario the dark matter (mediator) mass is in the 25-200 (1-1000) GeV range and its annihilation is dominated by bottom quark final state. Our conclusion is that the properties of dark matter extracted from gamma ray data are highly sensitive to the modeling of the interstellar emission.

  16. Modelling Hard Gamma-Ray Emission from Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2000-01-01

    The observation by the CANGAROO experiment of TeV emission from SN 1006, in conjunction with several instances of non-thermal X-ray emission from supernova remnants, has led to inferences of super-TeV electrons in these extended sources. While this is sufficient to propel the theoretical community in their modelling of particle acceleration and associated radiation, the anticipated emergence in the next decade of a number of new experiments probing the TeV and sub-TeV bands provides further substantial motivation for modellers. In particular, the quest for obtaining unambiguous gamma-ray signatures of cosmic ray ion acceleration defines a "Holy Grail" for observers and theorists alike. This review summarizes theoretical developments in the prediction of MeV-TeV gamma-rays from supernova remnants over the last five years, focusing on how global properties of models can impact, and be impacted by, hard gamma-ray observational programs, thereby probing the supernova remnant environment. Properties of central consideration include the maximum energy of accelerated particles, the density of the unshocked interstellar medium, the ambient magnetic field, and the relativistic electron-to-proton ratio. Criteria for determining good candidate remnants for observability in the TeV band are identified.

  17. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Afterglow and Prompt Emission Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2008-10-01

    Swift observations have revealed interesting but puzzling data that demand a rethink of the origins of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows. The chromatic breaks in X-ray/optical afterglow lightcurves stimulated several innovative suggestions, most invoking a non-forward-shock origin of the X-ray afterglows. The status of both the observational facts and the theoretical models is critically reviewed. Besides the late ``internal'' emission from a long-live central engine, most observed X-ray afterglows likely still include the contribution of the traditional forward shock component. The physical nature (e.g. energy dissipation mechanism, emission site, and radiation mechanism) of the GRB prompt emission is currently not identified. The motivations and issues of three proposed prompt emission sites are reviewed. Several independent methods, invoking prompt gamma-ray, X-ray, optical and GeV emission information, respectively, have been applied to constrain the unknown emission site. Tentative evidence suggests a large prompt emission radius. Finally, the implications of the broad band high quality data of the ``naked eye'' GRB 080319B for our understanding of the afterglow and prompt emission mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Correlation Analysis of Prompt Emission from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothapragada, Sriharsha

    Prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibits very rapid, complicated temporal and spectral evolution. This diverse variability in the light-curves reflects the complicated nature of the underlying physics, in which inter-penetrating relativistic shells in the outflow are believed to generate strong magnetic fields that vary over very small scales. We use the theory of jitter radiation to model the emission from such regions and the resulting overall prompt gamma ray emission from a series of relativistic collisionless shocks. We present simulated GRB light-curves developed as a series of "pulses" corresponding to instantaneously illuminated "thin-shell" regions emitting via the jitter radiation mechanism. The effects of various geometries, viewing angles, and bulk Lorentz factor profiles of the radiating outflow jets on the spectral features and evolution of these light-curves are explored. Our results demonstrate how an anisotropic jitter radiation pattern, in conjunction with relativistic shock kinematics, can produce certain features observed in the GRB prompt emission spectra, such as the occurrence of hard, synchrotron violating spectra, the "tracking" of observed flux with spectral parameters, and spectral softening below peak energy within individual episodes of the light curve. We highlight predictions in the light of recent advances in the observational sphere of GRBs.

  19. INTEGRAL upper limits on gamma-ray emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Mereghetti, S.; Natalucci, L.; Kuulkers, E.

    2016-06-01

    Using observations of the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), we put tight upper limits on the gamma-ray and hard X-ray prompt emission associated with the gravitational wave event GW150914, discovered by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration. The omni-directional view of the INTEGRAL/SPI-ACS has allowed us to constrain the fraction of energy emitted in the hard X-ray electromagnetic component for the full high-probability sky region of LIGO/Virgo trigger. Our upper limits on the hard X-ray fluence at the time of the event range from F_{γ}=2 × 10^{-8} erg cm^{-2} to F_{γ}=10^{-6} erg cm^{-2} in the 75 keV - 2 MeV energy range for typical spectral models. Our results constrain the ratio of the energy promptly released in gamma-rays in the direction of the observer to the gravitational wave energy E_γ/E_{GW}<10^{-6}. We discuss the implication of gamma-ray limits on the characteristics of the gravitational wave source, based on the available predictions for prompt electromagnetic emission. This work has been possible thanks to a Memorandum of Understanding with the LIGO-Virgo scientific collaboration and is presented on behalf of a larger collaboration.

  20. Diffuse Gamma Rays Galactic and Extragalactic Diffuse Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Reimer, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    Diffuse gamma rays consist of several components: truly diffuse emission from the interstellar medium, the extragalactic background, whose origin is not firmly established yet, and the contribution from unresolved and faint Galactic point sources. One approach to unravel these components is to study the diffuse emission from the interstellar medium, which traces the interactions of high energy particles with interstellar gas and radiation fields. Because of its origin such emission is potentially able to reveal much about the sources and propagation of cosmic rays. The extragalactic background, if reliably determined, can be used in cosmological and blazar studies. Studying the derived average spectrum of faint Galactic sources may be able to give a clue to the nature of the emitting objects.

  1. The Prompt and High Energy Emission of Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Meszaros, P.

    2009-05-25

    I discuss some recent developments concerning the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts, in particular the jet properties and radiation mechanisms, as exemplified by the naked-eye burst GRB 080319b, and the prompt X-ray emission of XRB080109/SN2008d, where the progenitor has, for the first time, been shown to contribute to the prompt emission. I discuss then some recent theoretical calculations of the GeV/TeV spectrum of GRB in the context of both leptonic SSC models and hadronic models. The recent observations by the Fermi satellite of GRB 080916C are then reviewed, and their implications for such models are discussed, together with its interesting determination of a bulk Lorentz factor, and the highest lower limit on the quantum gravity energy scale so far.

  2. Standardization and measurement of gamma-ray probability per decay of 177Lu.

    PubMed

    Dias, Mauro S; Silva, Fabrício F V; Koskinas, Marina F

    2010-01-01

    The procedure followed by the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN), at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), for the primary standardization of (177)Lu is described. This radionuclide is widely used in radiopharmacy due to its convenient half-life and emitted beta ray energies. The (177)Lu solution was supplied during an international comparison sponsored by BIPM in 2009 and the primary standardization has been accomplished by the 4pibeta-gamma coincidence method using a proportional counter in 4pi geometry coupled with two NaI(Tl) scintillation counters. The beta efficiency was varied by placing Collodion and aluminum absorbers over and under the radioactive source. The (177)Lu calibrated sources were also measured in a previously calibrated HPGe spectrometer, in order to obtain the emission probability per decay for the selected gamma-ray transitions. The experimental extrapolation curves were also compared with Monte Carlo simulations by means of code ESQUEMA developed at the LMN.

  3. Optical Emissions Associated with Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts originating from the Earth's atmosphere. After their discovery in 1994 by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994], this phenomenon has been further observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010] and the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010]. Measurements have correlated TGFs with initial development stages of normal polarity intracloud lightning that transports negative charge upward (+IC) [e.g., Lu et al., GRL, 37, L11806, 2010; JGR, 116, A03316, 2011]. Moreover, Østgaard et al. [GRL, 40, 2423, 2013] have recently reported, for the first time, space-based observations of optical emissions from TGF-associated IC lightning flashes, and Dwyer et al. [GRL, 40, 4067, 2013] recently quantified optical emissions associated with TGFs based on assumption that these emissions are similar to those produced by extensive air showers. In the present study, we quantify optical emissions resulting from the excitation of air molecules produced by the large population of electrons involved in TGF events based on two possible production mechanisms: relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005] and acceleration of thermal runaway electrons produced by high-potential intra-cloud lightning leaders [e.g., Celestin and Pasko, JGR, 116, A03315, 2011; Xu et al., GRL, 39, L08801, 2012]. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that electron energy distributions established from these two production mechanisms are inherently different over the full energy range, and also substantially different from those produced in extensive air showers. Moreover, we show that TGFs are

  4. Neutrino emission from gamma-ray burst fireballs, revised.

    PubMed

    Hümmer, Svenja; Baerwald, Philipp; Winter, Walter

    2012-06-08

    We review the neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts, which is estimated from gamma-ray observations and used for the interpretation of recent IceCube data, from a particle physics perspective. We numerically calculate the neutrino flux for the same astrophysical assumptions as the analytical fireball neutrino model, including the dominant pion and kaon production modes, flavor mixing, and magnetic field effects on the secondary muons, pions, and kaons. We demonstrate that taking into account the full energy dependencies of all spectra, the normalization of the expected neutrino flux reduces by about one order of magnitude and the spectrum shifts to higher energies, where we can pin down the exact origin of the discrepancies by the recomputation of the analytical models. We also reproduce the IceCube-40 analysis for exactly the same bursts and same assumptions and illustrate the impact of uncertainties. We conclude that the baryonic loading of the fireballs, which is an important control parameter for the emission of cosmic rays, can be constrained significantly with the full-scale experiment after about ten years.

  5. SAS-2 galactic gamma-ray results. 1: Diffuse emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.; Lamb, R. C.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing analysis of the data from the SAS-2 high energy gamma ray experiment has produced an improved picture of the sky at photon energies above 35 MeV. On a large scale, the diffuse emission from the galactic plane is the dominant feature observed by SAS-2. This galactic plane emission is most intense between galactic longitudes 310 deg and 45 deg, corresponding to a region within 7 kpc of the galactic center. Within the high-intensity region, SAS-2 observes peaks around galactic longitudes 315, 330, 345, 0, and 35 deg. These peaks appear to be correlated with galactic features and components such as molecular hydrogen, atomic hydrogen, magnetic fields, cosmic-ray concentrations, and photon fields.

  6. On the nature of the gamma ray emission from CG 195 + 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlickeiser, R.

    1981-01-01

    The observed gamma ray energy spectrum of CG 195 + 4 is compared with the predictions of various proposed emission models. It is shown that the observations favor an inverse Compton origin of the gamma ray emission from this source. A scenario is suggested in which ultraviolet and soft X-ray photons (E less than 20 keV) are scattered by relativistic electrons into the gamma ray regime.

  7. Optical Emissions Associated with Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Celestin, S. J.; Pasko, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts originating from the Earth's atmosphere. After their discovery in 1994 by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994], this phenomenon has been further observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010] and the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010]. Measurements have correlated TGFs with initial development stages of normal polarity intracloud lightning that transports negative charge upward (+IC) [e.g., Lu et al., GRL, 37, L11806, 2010; JGR, 116, A03316, 2011]. Moreover, Østgaard et al. [GRL, 40, 2423, 2013] have recently reported, for the first time, space-based observations of optical emissions from TGF-associated IC lightning flashes. The purpose of the present work is to quantify the intensities of optical emissions resulting from the excitation of air molecules produced by conventional streamer discharges in negative corona flashes of stepping negative leaders and by the large amount of electrons involved in TGF events based on two production mechanisms: relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005] and production of runaway electrons by high-potential +IC lightning leaders [e.g., Celestin and Pasko, JGR, 116, A03315, 2011; Xu et al., GRL, 39, L08801, 2012]. We employ a Monte Carlo model to simulate the acceleration of electrons in the energy range from sub-eV to GeV in either large-scale homogeneous electric field sustaining RREAs or highly inhomogeneous electric field produced around the lightning leader tip region. With the knowledge of the electron energy distribution function, a model similar to that described in [Liu and Pasko, JGR, 109, A

  8. GRB 080503: IMPLICATIONS OF A NAKED SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST DOMINATED BY EXTENDED EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Metzger, B. D.; Butler, N. R.; Bloom, J. S.; Miller, A. A.; Filippenko, A. V.; Li, W.; Granot, J.; Sakamoto, T.; Gehrels, N.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Bunker, A.; Chen, H.-W.; Glazebrook, K.; Hall, P. B.; Hurley, K. C.; Kocevski, D.; Norris, J.

    2009-05-10

    We report on observations of GRB 080503, a short gamma-ray burst (GRB) with very bright extended emission (about 30 times the gamma-ray fluence of the initial spike) in conjunction with a thorough comparison to other short Swift events. In spite of the prompt-emission brightness, however, the optical counterpart is extraordinarily faint, never exceeding 25 mag in deep observations starting at {approx}1 hr after the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) trigger. The optical brightness peaks at {approx}1 day and then falls sharply in a manner similar to the predictions of Li and Paczynski (1998) for supernova-like emission following compact binary mergers. However, a shallow spectral index and similar evolution in X-rays inferred from Chandra observations are more consistent with an afterglow interpretation. The extreme faintness of this probable afterglow relative to the bright gamma-ray emission argues for a very low density medium surrounding the burst (a 'naked' GRB), consistent with the lack of a coincident host galaxy down to 28.5 mag in deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging. The late optical and X-ray peak could be explained by a slightly off-axis jet or by a refreshed shock. Our observations reinforce the notion that short GRBs generally occur outside regions of active star formation, but demonstrate that in some cases the luminosity of the extended prompt emission can greatly exceed that of the short spike, which may constrain theoretical interpretation of this class of events. This extended emission is not the onset of an afterglow, and its relative brightness is probably either a viewing-angle effect or intrinsic to the central engine itself. Because most previous BAT short bursts without observed extended emission are too faint for this signature to have been detectable even if it were present at typical level, conclusions based solely on the observed presence or absence of extended emission in the existing Swift sample are premature.

  9. Optical emissions associated with terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor P.

    2015-02-01

    Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts produced by high-energy electrons originating in the Earth's atmosphere through bremsstrahlung processes. In this paper, we present modeling studies on optical emissions resulting from the excitation of air molecules produced by the large population of electrons involved in TGF events based on two possible production mechanisms: relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) and acceleration of thermal runaway electrons produced by high-potential intracloud lightning leaders. Numerical models developed in this study are first validated through the calculation of fluorescence emissions from air excited by energetic electrons and comparison with available laboratory observations. Detailed discussion of the role of excitation and ionization collisions on the formation of the electron energy distribution is presented. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that electron energy distributions established from the two TGF production mechanisms considered here are inherently different over the full energy range. The strong energy dependence of the capability of electrons to generate excited states responsible for optical emissions from neutral and ionized nitrogen molecules leads to intrinsic differences in optical emissions produced by different mechanisms of TGF production. We also show that TGFs are most likely accompanied by detectable levels of optical emissions and that the distinct optical features are of significant interest for constraining and validating current TGF production models.

  10. Fermi Large Area Telescope Measurements of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A.A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; /more authors..

    2012-04-11

    The diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indicated excess {gamma}-ray emission {ge}1 GeV relative to diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission models consistent with directly measured CR spectra (the so-called 'EGRET GeV excess'). The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has measured the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission with improved sensitivity and resolution compared to EGRET. We report on LAT measurements for energies 100 MeV to 10 GeV and galactic latitudes 10{sup o} {le} |b| {le} 20{sup o}. The LAT spectrum for this region of the sky is well reproduced by a diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission model that is consistent with local CR spectra and inconsistent with the EGRET GeV excess.

  11. The Use of the BAT Instrument on SWIFT for the Detection of Prompt Gamma-Ray Emission from Novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Gerry; Senziani, Fabio; Jean, Pierre; Hernanz, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-rays are expected to be emitted during and immediately following a nova explosion due to the annihilation of positrons emitted by freshly produced short-lived radioactive isotopes. The expected gammaray emission is relatively short-lived and as nova explosions are unpredictable, the best chance of detecting the gamma-rays is with n wide field instrument. At the time when the flux is expected to rcach its peak, most of the gamma-ray production is at depths such that the photons suffer several Compton scatterings before escaping, degrading their energy down to the hard X-ray band (10s of keV). SWIFT/BAT is a very wide field coded mask instrument working in the energy band 14-190 keV and so is very well suited to the search for such gamma-rays. A retrospective search is being made in the BAT data for evidence for gamma-ray emission from the direction of novae at around the time of their explosion. So far the only positive detection is of RS Ophiuchi and in this case the emission is probably due to shock heating.

  12. THRESHOLD FOR EXTENDED EMISSION IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels, Neil

    2010-07-01

    The initial pulse complex (IPC) in short gamma-ray bursts is sometimes accompanied by a softer, low-intensity extended emission (EE) component. In cases where such a component is not observed, it is not clear if it is present but below the detection threshold. Using Bayesian Block (BB) methods, we measure the EE component and show that it is present in one-quarter of a Swift/BAT sample of 51 short bursts, as was found for the Compton/BATSE sample. We simulate bursts with EE to calibrate the BAT threshold for EE detection and show that this component would have been detected in nearly half of BAT short bursts if it were present, to intensities {approx}10{sup -2} counts cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, a factor of 5 lower than actually observed in short bursts. In the BAT sample, the ratio of average EE intensity to IPC peak intensity, R{sub int}, ranges over a factor of 25, R{sub int} {approx} 3 x 10{sup -3} to 8 x 10{sup -2}. In comparison, for the average of the 39 bursts without an EE component, the 2{sigma} upper limit is R{sub int} < 8 x 10{sup -4}. These results suggest that a physical threshold effect operates near R{sub int} {approx} few x 10{sup -3} below which the EE component is not manifest.

  13. Periodic Emission from the Gamma-Ray Binary 1FGL J1018.6-5856

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray binaries are stellar systems containing a neutron star or black hole, with gamma-ray emission produced by an interaction between the components. These systems are rare, even though binary evolution models predict dozens in our Galaxy, A search for gamma-ray binaries with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) shows that 1FGL ]1018.6-5856 exhibits intensity and spectral modulation with a 16.6 day period. We identified a variable x-ray counterpart, which shows a sharp maximum coinciding with maximum gamma-ray emission, as well as an O6V((f)) star optical counterpart and a radio counterpart that is also apparently modulated on the orbital period. 1FGL ]1018.6-5856 is thus a gamma-ray binary, and its detection suggests the presence of other fainter binaries in the Galaxy.

  14. Periodic Emission from the Gamma-ray Binary 1FGL J1018.6-5856

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celic, O.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Donato, D.; Ferrara, E. C.; Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray binaries are stellar systems containing a neutron star or black hole with gamma-ray emission produced by an interaction between the components. These systems are rare, even though binary evolution models predict dozens in our Galaxy. A search for gamma-ray binaries with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) shows that IFGL JI018.6-5856 exhibits intensity and spectral modulation with a 16.6 day period. We identified a variable X-ray counterpart, which shows a sharp maximum coinciding with maximum gamma-ray emission, as well as an 06V f) star optical counterpart and a radio counterpart that is also apparently modulated on the orbital period. IFGL J1018.6-5856 is thus a gamma-ray binary, and its detection suggests the presence of other fainter binaries in the Galaxy.

  15. Polarized Gamma-Ray Emission from the Galactic Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent, P.; Rodriquez, J.; Wilms, J.; Bel, M. Cadolle; Pottschmidt, K.; Grinberg, V.

    2011-01-01

    Because of their inherently high flux allowing the detection of clear signals, black hole X-ray binaries are interesting candidates for polarization studies, even if no polarization signals have been observed from them before. Such measurements would provide further detailed insight into these sources' emission mechanisms. We measured the polarization of the gamma-ray emission from the black hole binary system Cygnus X-I with the INTEGRAL/IBIS telescope. Spectral modeling ofthe data reveals two emission mechanisms: The 250-400 keY data are consistent with emission dominated by Compton scattering on thermal electrons and are weakly polarized. The second spectral component seen in the 400keV-2MeV band is by contrast strongly polarized, revealing that the MeV emission is probably related to the jet first detected in the radio band.

  16. The Diffuse Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Model for GLAST LAT

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, T.A.; Digel, S.W.; Grenier, I.A.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Strong, A.W.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE

    2007-06-13

    Diffuse emission from the Milky Way dominates the gamma-ray sky. About 80% of the high-energy luminosity of the Milky Way comes from processes in the interstellar medium. The Galactic diffuse emission traces interactions of energetic particles, primarily protons and electrons, with the interstellar gas and radiation field, thus delivering information about cosmic-ray spectra and interstellar mass in distant locations. Additionally, the Galactic diffuse emission is the celestial foreground for the study of gamma-ray point sources and the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission. We will report on the latest developments in the modeling of the Galactic diffuse emission, which will be used for the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) investigations.

  17. Gamma-Ray Emission from the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Robert C.; Kadler, M.; Tueller, Jack

    2008-01-01

    The broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 has been suggested as the counterpart of the y-ray source 3EG J0416+3650. While 3C 111 meets most of the criteria for a high-probability identification, like a bright flat-spectrum radio core and a blazar-like broadband SED, in the Third EGRET Catalog, the large positional offset of about 1.5' put 3C 111 outside the 99% probability region for 3EG J0416+3650, making this association questionable. We present a re-analysis of all available archival data for 3C 111 from the EGRET archives, resulting in detection of variable hard-spectrum high-energy gamma-ray emission above 1000 MeV from a position close to the nominal position of 3C 111, in three separate viewing periods (VPs), at a 3sigma level in each. A second variable hard-spectrum source is present nearby. At >100 MeV, one variable soft-spectrum source seems to account for most of the EGRET-detected emission of 3EG J0416+3650. A follow-up Swift UVOT/XRT observation reveals one moderately bright X-ray source in the error box of 3EG J0416+3650, but because of the large EGRET position uncertainty, it is not certain that the X-ray and gamma-ray sources are associated. Another Swift observation near the second (unidentified) hard gamma-ray source detected no X-ray source nearby.

  18. Low energy gamma ray emission from the Cygnus OB2 association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wan; White, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    According to our newly developed model of gamma-ray emission from chaotic early-type stellar winds, we predict the combined gamma-ray flux from the circumstellar winds of many very luminous early-type stars in the Cyg OB2 association can be detectable by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) (and maybe also by OSSE) on CGRO. Due to different radiation mechanisms, the gamma-ray spectrum from stellar winds can be quite different from that of CYG X-3; this spectral difference and the time-variation of Cyg X-3 flux will help to distinguish the gamma-ray components from different sources in this small region, which is spatially unresolvable by CGRO.

  19. Using gamma-ray emission to measure areal density of ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Nelson M; Wilson, Douglas C; Hermann, Hans W; Young, Carlton S

    2010-01-01

    Fusion neutrons streaming from a burning ICF capsule generate gamma rays via nuclear inelastic scattering in the ablator of the capsule. The intensity of gamma-ray emission is proportional to the product of the ablator areal density ('{rho}R') and the yield of fusion neutrons, so by detecting the gamma rays we can infer the ablator areal density, provided we also have a measurement of the capsule's total neutron yield. In plastic-shell capsules, for example, {sup 12}C nuclei emit gamma rays at 4.44 MeV after excitation by 14.1-MeV neutrons from D+T fusion. These gamma rays can be measured by the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) experiment being built at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A linear error analysis indicates the chief sources of uncertainty in inferred areal density.

  20. Polarized gamma-ray emission from the crab.

    PubMed

    Dean, A J; Clark, D J; Stephen, J B; McBride, V A; Bassani, L; Bazzano, A; Bird, A J; Hill, A B; Shaw, S E; Ubertini, P

    2008-08-29

    Pulsar systems accelerate particles to immense energies. The detailed functioning of these engines is still poorly understood, but polarization measurements of high-energy radiation may allow us to locate where the particles are accelerated. We have detected polarized gamma rays from the vicinity of the Crab pulsar using data from the spectrometer on the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory satellite. Our results show polarization with an electric vector aligned with the spin axis of the neutron star, demonstrating that a substantial fraction of the high-energy electrons responsible for the polarized photons are produced in a highly ordered structure close to the pulsar.

  1. MODELING THE MULTIWAVELENGTH EMISSION FROM G73.9+0.9: GAMMA RAYS FROM AN SNR–MC INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    G73.9+0.9 has been classified as a probable shell-type supernova remnant, though it has also been suggested that it could have a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Here, a broadband model of the non-thermal emission of G73.9+0.9 from radio to gamma rays is presented. The model includes a new gamma-ray observation obtained by the analysis of seven years of data from the Fermi/LAT telescope. Above 200 MeV, the source is detected with a significance of 13σ and the spectrum of the radiation is best described by a power law with an index of ∼2.5. The leptonic mechanisms are hard to reconcile with the measured radio and gamma-ray spectral energy distribution. A PWN origin for the high-energy emission is also not very likely, due to the lack of detection of pulsars and of X-ray emission in the region, as well as from the shape of the gamma-ray spectrum. Given the possibility that the object is interacting with molecular clouds, a hadronic origin of the high-energy emission is more likely, and the spectral properties of the cosmic rays responsible for this radiation are derived.

  2. THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SHOCKED STELLAR WIND OF PULSAR GAMMA-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zabalza, V.; Paredes, J. M.; Bosch-Ramon, V.

    2011-12-10

    Gamma-ray-loud X-ray binaries are binary systems that show non-thermal broadband emission from radio to gamma rays. If the system comprises a massive star and a young non-accreting pulsar, their winds will collide producing broadband non-thermal emission, most likely originated in the shocked pulsar wind. Thermal X-ray emission is expected from the shocked stellar wind, but until now it has neither been detected nor studied in the context of gamma-ray binaries. We present a semi-analytic model of the thermal X-ray emission from the shocked stellar wind in pulsar gamma-ray binaries, and find that the thermal X-ray emission increases monotonically with the pulsar spin-down luminosity, reaching luminosities of the order of 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}. The lack of thermal features in the X-ray spectrum of gamma-ray binaries can then be used to constrain the properties of the pulsar and stellar winds. By fitting the observed X-ray spectra of gamma-ray binaries with a source model composed of an absorbed non-thermal power law and the computed thermal X-ray emission, we are able to derive upper limits on the spin-down luminosity of the putative pulsar. We applied this method to LS 5039, the only gamma-ray binary with a radial, powerful wind, and obtain an upper limit on the pulsar spin-down luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Given the energetic constraints from its high-energy gamma-ray emission, a non-thermal to spin-down luminosity ratio very close to unity may be required.

  3. A Giant Radio Flare from Cygnus X-3 with Associated Gamma-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbel, S.; Dubus, G.; Tomsick, J. A.; Szostek, A.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Richards, J. L.; Pooley, G.; Trushkin, S.; Dubois, R.; Hill, A. B.; Kerr, M.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Bodaghee, A.; Tudose, V.; Parent, D.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.

    2012-01-01

    With frequent flaring activity of its relativistic jets, Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is one of the most active microquasars and is the only Galactic black hole candidate with confirmed high energy gamma-ray emission, thanks to detections by Fermi/LAT and AGILE. In 2011, Cyg X-3 was observed to transit to a soft X-ray state, which is known to be associated with high-energy gamma-ray emission. We present the results of a multiwavelength campaign covering a quenched state, when radio emission from Cyg X-3 is at its weakest and the X-ray spectrum is very soft. A giant (approx 20 Jy) optically thin radio flare marks the end of the quenched state, accompanied by rising non-thermal hard X-rays. Fermi/LAT observations (E greater than or equal 100 MeV) reveal renewed gamma-ray activity associated with this giant radio flare, suggesting a common origin for all non-thermal components. In addition, current observations unambiguously show that the gamma-ray emission is not exclusively related to the rare giant radio flares. A 3-week period of gamma-ray emission is also detected when Cyg X-3 was weakly flaring in radio, right before transition to the radio quenched state. No gamma rays are observed during the one-month long quenched state, when the radio flux is weakest. Our results suggest transitions into and out of the ultrasoft X-ray (radio quenched) state trigger gamma-ray emission, implying a connection to the accretion process, and also that the gamma-ray activity is related to the level of radio flux (and possibly shock formation), strengthening the connection to the relativistic jets.

  4. Gamma-ray Emission from the Surface of Martian Satellites as a Function of Elemental Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Kouhei; Naito, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Kusano, Hiroki; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Ishii, Junya; Aoki, Daisuke

    Mars has two satellites, Phobos and Deimos. The Martian satellites have never been explored from the aspect of elemental composition. Their origins are still mysterious. Gamma-ray spectroscopy from the orbit of spacecraft is a powerful method to investigate elemental distribution and abundance of planets with no or thin atmosphere. In this work, gamma-ray emission from the Martian satellites was calculated as a function of elemental composition. Both chondritic and Martian compositions, which represent captured origin and giant impact origin, respectively, were assumed as elemental composition of Martian satellites. The gamma-ray fluxes induced by galactic cosmic rays at their surface were calculated for both of them. It was found that the elemental compositions of Martian satellites are clearly distinguished between chondritic or Martian by the gamma-ray emission rate ratios of Si/Fe and Ca/Fe and enable us to give strong constraint to the idea for the origin of the Martian satellites.

  5. Detection of gamma-ray emission from the quasar PKS 0208-512

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    High-energy gamma-ray emission has been detected from the quasar PKS 0208-512 in the energy range above 30 MeV by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. This region of sky was observed in five different viewing periods, and evidence of time variability in the gamma-ray emission by more than a factor of 3 was found. At the maximum intensity between 1991 September 19 and October 3, the flux density above 100 MeV was (9.1 +/- 0.4) x 10 exp -7 gamma/sq cm per sec. The photon spectrum during this period may be expressed as a power law with an exponent of - 1.69 +/- 0.05 between 30 MeV and 4 GeV. This is the hardest quasar spectrum observed by EGRET up to the present time.

  6. Internal Energy Dissipation of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed with Swift: Precursors, Prompt Gamma-Rays, Extended Emission, and Late X-Ray Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, You-Dong; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Peng, Fang-Kun; Lu, Rui-Jing; Lü, Lian-Zhong; Zhang, Bing

    2014-07-01

    We jointly analyze the gamma-ray burst (GRB) data observed with Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and X-ray Telescope on board the Swift mission to present a global view on the internal energy dissipation processes in GRBs, including precursors, prompt gamma-ray emission, extended soft gamma-ray emission, and late X-ray flares. The Bayesian block method is utilized to analyze the BAT light curves to identify various emission episodes. Our results suggest that these emission components likely share the same physical origin, which is the repeated activation of the GRB central engine. What we observe in the gamma-ray band may be a small part of more extended underlying activities. The precursor emission, which is detected in about 10% of Swift GRBs, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a massive star core-collapse origin. The soft extended emission tail, on the other hand, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a compact star merger origin. Bright X-ray emission is detected during the BAT quiescent phases prior to subsequent gamma-ray peaks, implying that X-ray emission may be detectable prior the BAT trigger time. Future GRB alert instruments with soft X-ray capability are essential for revealing the early stages of GRB central engine activities, and shedding light on jet composition and the jet launching mechanism in GRBs.

  7. Internal energy dissipation of gamma-ray bursts observed with Swift: Precursors, prompt gamma-rays, extended emission, and late X-ray flares

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, You-Dong; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Peng, Fang-Kun; Lu, Rui-Jing; Lü, Lian-Zhong; Zhang, Bing E-mail: Zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-07-10

    We jointly analyze the gamma-ray burst (GRB) data observed with Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and X-ray Telescope on board the Swift mission to present a global view on the internal energy dissipation processes in GRBs, including precursors, prompt gamma-ray emission, extended soft gamma-ray emission, and late X-ray flares. The Bayesian block method is utilized to analyze the BAT light curves to identify various emission episodes. Our results suggest that these emission components likely share the same physical origin, which is the repeated activation of the GRB central engine. What we observe in the gamma-ray band may be a small part of more extended underlying activities. The precursor emission, which is detected in about 10% of Swift GRBs, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a massive star core-collapse origin. The soft extended emission tail, on the other hand, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a compact star merger origin. Bright X-ray emission is detected during the BAT quiescent phases prior to subsequent gamma-ray peaks, implying that X-ray emission may be detectable prior the BAT trigger time. Future GRB alert instruments with soft X-ray capability are essential for revealing the early stages of GRB central engine activities, and shedding light on jet composition and the jet launching mechanism in GRBs.

  8. GRB 090727 and Gamma-Ray Bursts with Early-time Optical Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopač, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Gomboc, A.; Japelj, J.; Mundell, C. G.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.; Bersier, D.; Cano, Z.; Smith, R. J.; Steele, I. A.; Virgili, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of Swift gamma-ray burst GRB 090727, for which optical emission was detected during the prompt gamma-ray emission by the 2 m autonomous robotic Liverpool Telescope and subsequently monitored for a further two days with the Liverpool and Faulkes Telescopes. Within the context of the standard fireball model, we rule out a reverse shock origin for the early-time optical emission in GRB 090727 and instead conclude that the early-time optical flash likely corresponds to emission from an internal dissipation process. Putting GRB 090727 into a broader observational and theoretical context, we build a sample of 36 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with contemporaneous early-time optical and gamma-ray detections. From these GRBs, we extract a sub-sample of 18 GRBs, which show optical peaks during prompt gamma-ray emission, and perform detailed temporal and spectral analysis in gamma-ray, X-ray, and optical bands. We find that in most cases early-time optical emission shows sharp and steep behavior, and notice a rich diversity of spectral properties. Using a simple internal shock dissipation model, we show that the emission during prompt GRB phase can occur at very different frequencies via synchrotron radiation. Based on the results obtained from observations and simulation, we conclude that the standard external shock interpretation for early-time optical emission is disfavored in most cases due to sharp peaks (Δt/t < 1) and steep rise/decay indices, and that internal dissipation can explain the properties of GRBs with optical peaks during gamma-ray emission.

  9. Enhanced Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3 Detected by AGILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piano, G.; Tavani, M.; Verrecchia, F.; Vercellone, S.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Bulgarelli, A.; Donnarumma, I.; Minervini, G.; Fioretti, V.; Pittori, C.; Lucarelli, F.; Striani, E.; Ursi, A.; Cardillo, M.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Parmiggiani, N.; Ferrari, A.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2017-03-01

    The AGILE-GRID detector is revealing gamma ray emission above 100 MeV from the microquasar Cygnus X-3. Integrating from 2017-03-15 UT 00:00:00 to 2017-03-16 UT 00:00:00, a preliminary multi-source likelihood analysis finds a gamma-ray flux F( > 100 MeV) = (4.2 +/- 1.7) x 10^-6 photons/cm^2/s with a detection significance near 4 sigma.

  10. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae with Fermi.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chaty, S; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dormody, M; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Sgrò, C; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Wang, P; Webb, N; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-08-14

    We report the detection of gamma-ray emissions above 200 megaelectron volts at a significance level of 17sigma from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Globular clusters are expected to emit gamma rays because of the large populations of millisecond pulsars that they contain. The spectral shape of 47 Tucanae is consistent with gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars. The observed gamma-ray luminosity implies an upper limit of 60 millisecond pulsars present in 47 Tucanae.

  11. Gamma-ray emission from Cataclysmic variables. 1: The Compton EGRET survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Barrett, Paul E.; De Jager, O. C.; Chanmugam, G.; Hunter, S.; Mattox, J.

    1995-01-01

    We report the results of the first gamma-ray survey of cataclysmic variables (CVs) using observations obtained with the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Observatory. We briefly describe the theoretical models that are applicable to gamma-ray emission from CVs. These models are particularly relevant to magnetic CVs containing asynchronously rotating white dwarfs. No magnetic CV was detected with an upper limit on the flux at 1 GeV of approximately 2 x 10(exp -8)/sq cm/sec, which corresponds to an upper limit on the gamma-ray luminosity of approximately 10(exp 31) ergs/sec, assuming a typical CV distance of 100 pc.

  12. Variable very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar LS I +61 303.

    PubMed

    Albert, J; Aliu, E; Anderhub, H; Antoranz, P; Armada, A; Asensio, M; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartelt, M; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Bavikadi, S R; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Bisesi, E; Bock, R K; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Ciprini, S; Coarasa, J A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Curtef, V; Danielyan, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; de Los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; Domingo-Santamaría, E; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Flix, J; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fuchs, M; Galante, N; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giller, M; Goebel, F; Hakobyan, D; Hayashida, M; Hengstebeck, T; Höhne, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Isar, P G; Jacon, P; Kalekin, O; Kosyra, R; Kranich, D; Laatiaoui, M; Laille, A; Lenisa, T; Liebing, P; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, J; López, M; Lorenz, E; Lucarelli, F; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Mansutti, O; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mase, K; Mazin, D; Merck, C; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moralejo, A; Nilsson, K; Oña-Wilhelmi, E; Orduña, R; Otte, N; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pavel, N; Pegna, R; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Poller, M; Pooley, G; Prandini, E; Raymers, A; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Riegel, B; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Romero, G E; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Sánchez, A; Sartori, P; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sillanpää, A; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tonello, N; Torres, A; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wibig, T; Wittek, W; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2006-06-23

    Microquasars are binary star systems with relativistic radio-emitting jets. They are potential sources of cosmic rays and can be used to elucidate the physics of relativistic jets. We report the detection of variable gamma-ray emission above 100 gigaelectron volts from the microquasar LS I 61 + 303. Six orbital cycles were recorded. Several detections occur at a similar orbital phase, which suggests that the emission is periodic. The strongest gamma-ray emission is not observed when the two stars are closest to one another, implying a strong orbital modulation of the emission or absorption processes.

  13. High-energy gamma-ray emission from pion decay in a solar flare magnetic loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandzhavidze, Natalie; Ramaty, Reuven

    1992-01-01

    The production of high-energy gamma rays resulting from pion decay in a solar flare magnetic loop is investigated. Magnetic mirroring, MHD pitch-angle scattering, and all of the relevant loss processes and photon production mechanisms are taken into account. The transport of both the primary ions and the secondary positrons resulting from the decay of the positive pions, as well as the transport of the produced gamma-ray emission are considered. The distributions of the gamma rays as a function of atmospheric depth, time, emission angle, and photon energy are calculated and the dependence of these distributions on the model parameters are studied. The obtained angular distributions are not sufficiently anisotropic to account for the observed limb brightening of the greater than 10 MeV flare emission, indicating that the bulk of this emission is bremsstrahlung from primary electrons.

  14. CONSTRAINTS ON THE EMISSION GEOMETRIES AND SPIN EVOLUTION OF GAMMA-RAY MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T. J.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Çelik, Ö.; Ferrara, E. C.; Guillemot, L.; Smith, D. A.; Hou, X.; Den Hartog, P. R.; Lande, J.; Ray, P. S. E-mail: Christo.Venter@nwu.ac.za

    2014-07-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are a growing class of gamma-ray emitters. Pulsed gamma-ray signals have been detected from more than 40 MSPs with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The wider radio beams and more compact magnetospheres of MSPs enable studies of emission geometries over a broader range of phase space than non-recycled radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. We have modeled the gamma-ray light curves of 40 LAT-detected MSPs using geometric emission models assuming a vacuum retarded-dipole magnetic field. We modeled the radio profiles using a single-altitude hollow-cone beam, with a core component when indicated by polarimetry; however, for MSPs with gamma-ray and radio light curve peaks occurring at nearly the same rotational phase, we assume that the radio emission is co-located with the gamma rays and caustic in nature. The best-fit parameters and confidence intervals are determined using a maximum likelihood technique. We divide the light curves into three model classes, with gamma-ray peaks trailing (Class I), aligned (Class II), or leading (Class III) the radio peaks. Outer gap and slot gap (two-pole caustic) models best fit roughly equal numbers of Class I and II, while Class III are exclusively fit with pair-starved polar cap models. Distinguishing between the model classes based on typical derived parameters is difficult. We explore the evolution of the magnetic inclination angle with period and spin-down power, finding possible correlations. While the presence of significant off-peak emission can often be used as a discriminator between outer gap and slot gap models, a hybrid model may be needed.

  15. Constraints On the Emission Geometries and Spin Evolution Of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. J.; Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.; Guillemot, L.; Smith, D. A.; Kramer, M.; Celik, O.; den Hartog, P. R.; Ferrara, E. C.; Hou, X.; Lande, J.; Ray, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are a growing class of gamma-ray emitters. Pulsed gamma-ray signals have been detected from more than 40 MSPs with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The wider radio beams and more compact magnetospheres of MSPs enable studies of emission geometries over a broader range of phase space than non-recycled radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars. We have modeled the gamma-ray light curves of 40 LAT-detected MSPs using geometric emission models assuming a vacuum retarded-dipole magnetic field. We modeled the radio profiles using a single-altitude hollow-cone beam, with a core component when indicated by polarimetry; however, for MSPs with gamma-ray and radio light curve peaks occurring at nearly the same rotational phase, we assume that the radio emission is co-located with the gamma rays and caustic in nature. The best-fit parameters and confidence intervals are determined using amaximum likelihood technique.We divide the light curves into three model classes, with gamma-ray peaks trailing (Class I), aligned (Class II), or leading (Class III) the radio peaks. Outer gap and slot gap (two-pole caustic) models best fit roughly equal numbers of Class I and II, while Class III are exclusively fit with pair-starved polar cap models. Distinguishing between the model classes based on typical derived parameters is difficult. We explore the evolution of the magnetic inclination angle with period and spin-down power, finding possible correlations. While the presence of significant off-peak emission can often be used as a discriminator between outer gap and slot gap models, a hybrid model may be needed.

  16. Search for gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies with Fermi LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Bravo, César; Araya, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have found a positive correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies and their gamma-ray luminosity. Galaxies with a high SFR are expected to produce a large amount of high-energy cosmic rays, which emit gamma-rays when interacting with the interstellar medium and radiation fields. We search for gamma-ray emission from a sample of galaxies within and beyond the Local Group with data from the LAT instrument onboard the Fermi satellite. We exclude recently detected galaxies (NGC 253, M82, NGC 4945, NGC 1068, NGC 2146, Arp 220) and use seven years of cumulative `Pass 8' data from the LAT in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. No new detections are seen in the data and upper limits for the gamma-ray fluxes are calculated. The correlation between gamma-ray luminosity and infrared luminosity for galaxies obtained using our new upper limits is in agreement with a previously published correlation, but the new upper limits imply that some galaxies are not as efficient gamma-ray emitters as previously thought.

  17. COS-B observations of gamma-ray emission from local galactic features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bignami, G. F.; Barbareschi, L.; Caraveo, P. A.; Bloemen, J. B. G. M.; Hermsen, W.; Buccheri, R.; Kanbach, G.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.; Lebrun, F.; Paul, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence for large scale correlations between the high-energy photon sky and the known local distribution of diffuse interstellar matter is discussed. Evidence is presented of correlations with the Gould's Belt and the Dolidze Belt. The correlations indicate that the emission of gamma rays at medium latitudes can be explained by the distribution of interstellar matter, and the interaction of CR with interstellar matter can explain the mechanism of the gamma-ray emission by regarding the emissivity as a global average of the two systems since they contain most of the local dense cloud.

  18. QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS IN THE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF A SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Nakariakov, V. M.; Foullon, C.; Inglis, A. R.; Myagkova, I. N.

    2010-01-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) of gamma-ray emission with a period of about 40 s are found in a single loop X-class solar flare on 2005 January 1 at photon energies up to 2-6 MeV with the SOlar Neutrons and Gamma-rays (SONG) experiment aboard the CORONAS-F mission. The oscillations are also found to be present in the microwave emission detected with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and in the hard X-ray and low energy gamma-ray channels of RHESSI. Periodogram and correlation analysis shows that the 40 s QPPs of microwave, hard X-ray, and gamma-ray emission are almost synchronous in all observation bands. Analysis of the spatial structure of hard X-ray and low energy (80-225 keV) gamma-ray QPP with RHESSI reveals synchronous while asymmetric QPP at both footpoints of the flaring loop. The difference between the averaged hard X-ray fluxes coming from the two footpoint sources is found to oscillate with a period of about 13 s for five cycles in the highest emission stage of the flare. The proposed mechanism generating the 40 s QPP is a triggering of magnetic reconnection by a kink oscillation in a nearby loop. The 13 s periodicity could be produced by the second harmonics of the sausage mode of the flaring loop.

  19. AN ATTEMPT AT A UNIFIED MODEL FOR THE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Qiang; Bi Xiaojun; Liu Siming

    2012-12-20

    Shocks of supernova remnants (SNRs) are important (and perhaps the dominant) agents for the production of the Galactic cosmic rays. Recent {gamma}-ray observations of several SNRs have made this case more compelling. However, these broadband high-energy measurements also reveal a variety of spectral shapes demanding more comprehensive modeling of emissions from SNRs. According to the locally observed fluxes of cosmic-ray protons and electrons, the electron-to-proton number ratio is known to be about 1%. Assuming such a ratio is universal for all SNRs and identical spectral shape for all kinds of accelerated particles, we propose a unified model that ascribes the distinct {gamma}-ray spectra of different SNRs to variations of the medium density and the spectral difference between cosmic-ray electrons and protons observed from Earth to transport effects. For low-density environments, the {gamma}-ray emission is inverse-Compton dominated. For high-density environments like systems of high-energy particles interacting with molecular clouds, the {gamma}-ray emission is {pi}{sup 0}-decay dominated. The model predicts a hadronic origin of {gamma}-ray emission from very old remnants interacting mostly with molecular clouds and a leptonic origin for intermediate-age remnants whose shocks propagate in a low-density environment created by their progenitors via, e.g., strong stellar winds. These results can be regarded as evidence in support of the SNR origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

  20. Soft gamma-ray galactic ridge emission as unveiled by SPI aboard INTEGRAL

    SciTech Connect

    Knoedlseder, J.; Weidenspointner, G.; Jean, P.; Strong, A.; Diehl, R.; Cordier, B.; Schanne, S.

    2007-07-12

    The origin of the soft gamma-ray (200 keV - 1 MeV) galactic ridge emission is one of the long-standing mysteries in the field of high-energy astrophysics. Population studies at lower energies have shown that emission from accreting compact objects gradually recedes in this domain, leaving place to another source of gamma-ray emission that is characterised by a hard power-law spectrum extending from 100 keV up to 100 MeV The nature of this hard component has remained so far elusive, partly due to the lack of sufficiently sensitive imaging telescopes that would be able to unveil the spatial distribution of the emission. The SPI telescope aboard INTEGRAL allows now for the first time the simultaneous imaging of diffuse and point-like emission in the soft gamma-ray regime. We present here all-sky images of the soft gamma-ray continuum emission that clearly reveal the morphology of the different emission components. We discuss the implications of our results on the nature of underlying emission processes and we put our results in perspective of GLAST studies of diffuse galactic continuum emission.

  1. Detection of gamma-ray emission from the Vela pulsar wind nebula with AGILE.

    PubMed

    Pellizzoni, A; Trois, A; Tavani, M; Pilia, M; Giuliani, A; Pucella, G; Esposito, P; Sabatini, S; Piano, G; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Bulgarelli, A; Burgay, M; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A W; Cocco, V; Contessi, T; Costa, E; D'Ammando, F; Del Monte, E; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Di Persio, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fiorini, M; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Hotan, A; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Longo, F; Marisaldi, M; Mastropietro, M; Mereghetti, S; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Palfreyman, J; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Pittori, C; Possenti, A; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rossi, E; Rubini, A; Santolamazza, P; Scalise, E; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Trifoglio, M; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Verrecchia, F; Vittorini, V; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Giommi, P; Colafrancesco, S; Antonelli, A; Salotti, L; D'Amico, N; Bignami, G F

    2010-02-05

    Pulsars are known to power winds of relativistic particles that can produce bright nebulae by interacting with the surrounding medium. These pulsar wind nebulae are observed by their radio, optical, and x-ray emissions, and in some cases also at TeV (teraelectron volt) energies, but the lack of information in the gamma-ray band precludes drawing a comprehensive multiwavelength picture of their phenomenology and emission mechanisms. Using data from the AGILE satellite, we detected the Vela pulsar wind nebula in the energy range from 100 MeV to 3 GeV. This result constrains the particle population responsible for the GeV emission and establishes a class of gamma-ray emitters that could account for a fraction of the unidentified galactic gamma-ray sources.

  2. A method to analyze the diffuse gamma-ray emission with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, Markus; Johannesson, Gueolaugur; Digel, Seth; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Reimer, Olaf; Porter, Troy; Strong, Andrew

    2008-12-24

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope with its main instrument the LAT is the most sensitive {gamma}-ray telescope in the energy region between 30 MeV and 100 GeV. One of the prime scientific goals of this mission is the measurement and interpretation of the diffuse Galactic and extragalactic {gamma}-ray emission. While not limited by photon statistics, this analysis presents several challenges: Instrumental response functions, residual background from cosmic rays as well as resolved and unresolved foreground {gamma}-ray sources have to be taken carefully into account in the interpretation of the data. Detailed modeling of the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission is being performed and will form the basis of the investigations. We present the analysis approach to be applied to the Fermi LAT data, namely the modeling of the diffuse emission components and the background contributions, followed by an all-sky maximum-likelihood fitting procedure. We also report on the performance of this method evaluated in tests on simulated Fermi LAT and real EGRET data.

  3. Variable VHE gamma-ray emission from Markarian 501

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Jordi

    2007-02-06

    The blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) was observed at energies above 100 GeV with the MAGIC telescope from May through July 2005. The high sensitivity of the instrument enabled the determination of the flux and spectrum of the source on a night-by-night basis. Throughout our observational campaign, the flux from Mrk 501 was found to vary by an order of magnitude, and to be correlated with spectral changes. Intra-night flux variability with flux-doubling times down to 2 minutes was also observed. The strength of variability increased with the energy of the {gamma}-ray photons. The energy spectra were found to harden significantly with increasing flux, and a spectral peak clearly showed up during very active states. The position of the spectral peak seems to be correlated with the source luminosity.

  4. Gamma ray emission from middle aged supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaping; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2016-06-01

    Gamma ray emission from several middle aged supernova remnants (SNRs) has been detected in space-based GeV observations and ground-based TeV observations. The characteristic pion-decay signature identified in spectra of the remnants IC443 and W44 provides strong evidence for cosmic ray (CR) proton acceleration in SNRs. Multi-wavelength observations further reveal a spatial correlation between the molecular cloud (MC) interaction region and the gamma ray emitting region. Radio emission, however, was found not to be well-correlated with the high energy emission. Based on observed MC associations, two scenarios have been proposed to explain the observed gamma ray emission from these middle aged SNRs. In one, accelerated CR particles escape from the SNR and then illuminate nearby MCs, producing gamma ray emission, while the other involves direct interaction between the SNR and molecular clumps. Here I present a new model of the direct interaction type that involves the collision between MC clumps and a radiative SNR. The model can explain the discrepancy between radio and gamma ray emission morphology. The gamma ray spectra from these middle aged SNRs show steeping from GeV to TeV energies that is believed to be due to the limited acceleration time of CR particles. However, the spectral shape cannot be fitted by a simple exponential profile. We derive a time dependent solution for diffusive shock acceleration in the test particle limit and show that it is capable of explaining the observed spectral steepening at high energy.

  5. Gamma-ray Emission in the Universe - A Possible Explanation by the Wave Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2016-10-01

    The gamma-ray emission and other short wave emissions in the universe can be produced by a wave modulation of high orbiting frequencies (planets, satellites) by low orbiting frequencies (galaxies and so on) as cosmic bodies move in several orbits.

  6. Search for Hard X-Ray Emission from Aquila X-1: High Energy Emission from Gamma-ray Radio Star 2CG 135+1/LSI 61 305

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1998-01-01

    Several investigations supported by these CCRO grant were completed or are close to completion. The study of EGRET data for the unidentified source 2CG 135+01 was very fruitful. We discovered transient gamma-ray emission by combining several data obtained since 1994 through 1997. It is the first time that time variable emission is established for this enigmatic source, and clearly an interpretation in terms of an isolated radio pulsar (Geminga-like) is disfavored now. Our preferred model is a Galactic source, probably an energetic pulsar (such as PSR129-63) in a binary system producing gamma-rays because of pulsar wind/mass outflow interaction. We also accumulated may data concerning the radio source LSI 61 303, the possible counterpart of 2CG 135+01. We show that a possible anti-correlation between radio and gamma-ray emission exists. This anticorrelation is evident only in the energy range above 100 MeV, as demonstrated by the lack of it obtained from OSSE data. If confirmed, this anti-correlation would prove to be very important for the interpretation of the hundreds of unidentified gamma-ray sources currently discovered by EGRET near the Galactic plane, and would point to a new class of sources in addition to AGNs and isolated pulsars. We also completed the analysis of several time variable gamma-ray sources near the Galactic plane, with the discussion of evidence for transient emission from 2EG J1813-12 and 2EG J1828+01. We completed several investigations regarding gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), including the study of the brightness distribution for different spectral/duration GRB sub-classes, an investigation of acceleration processes and their consequences for GRB afterglow emission [61, the application of the synchrotron shock model of GRBs to X-ray energies.

  7. Gamma-ray emission from young supernova remnants: Hadronic or leptonic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabici, Stefano; Aharonian, Felix

    2016-07-01

    The debate on the nature of the gamma-ray emission from young supernova remnants is still open. Ascribing such emission to hadronic rather than leptonic processes would provide an evidence for the acceleration of protons and nuclei, and this fact would fit with the very popular (but not proven) paradigm that supernova remnants are the sources of Galactic cosmic rays. Here, we discuss this issue with a particular focus on the best studied gamma-ray-bright supernova remnant: RX J1713.7-3946.

  8. Compact sources as the origin of the soft gamma-ray emission of the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, F; Terrier, R; Bazzano, A; Bélanger, G; Bird, A; Bouchet, L; Dean, A; Del Santo, M; Goldwurm, A; Lund, N; Morand, H; Parmar, A; Paul, J; Roques, J-P; Schönfelder, V; Strong, A W; Ubertini, P; Walter, R; Winkler, C

    2004-03-18

    The Milky Way is known to be an abundant source of gamma-ray photons, now determined to be mainly diffuse in nature and resulting from interstellar processes. In the soft gamma-ray domain, point sources are expected to dominate, but the lack of sensitive high-resolution observations did not allow for a clear estimate of the contribution from such sources. Even the best imaging experiment revealed only a few point sources, accounting for about 50% of the total Galactic flux. Theoretical studies were unable to explain the remaining intense diffuse emission. Investigating the origin of the soft gamma-rays is therefore necessary to determine the dominant particle acceleration processes and to gain insights into the physical and chemical equilibrium of the interstellar medium. Here we report observations in the soft gamma-ray domain that reveal numerous compact sources. We show that these sources account for the entirety of the Milky Way's emission in soft gamma-rays, leaving at most a minor role for diffuse processes.

  9. Young gamma-ray pulsar: from modeling the gamma-ray emission to the particle-in-cell simulations of the global magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, Gabriele; Kalapotharakos, Constantions; Timokhin, Andrey; Kust Harding, Alice; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2016-04-01

    Accelerated charged particles flowing in the magnetosphere produce pulsar gamma-ray emission. Pair creation processes produce an electron-positron plasma that populates the magnetosphere, in which the plasma is very close to force-free. However, it is unknown how and where the plasma departs from the ideal force-free condition, which consequently inhibits the understanding of the emission generation. We found that a dissipative magnetosphere outside the light cylinder effectively reproduces many aspects of the young gamma-ray pulsar emission as seen by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, and through particle-in-cell simulations (PIC), we started explaining this configuration self-consistently. These findings show that, together, a magnetic field structure close to force-free and the assumption of gamma-ray curvature radiation as the emission mechanism are strongly compatible with the observations. Two main issues from the previously used models that our work addresses are the inability to explain luminosity, spectra, and light curve features at the same time and the inconsistency of the electrodynamics. Moreover, using the PIC simulations, we explore the effects of different pair multiplicities on the magnetosphere configurations and the locations of the accelerating regions. Our work aims for a self-consistent modeling of the magnetosphere, connecting the microphysics of the pair-plasma to the global magnetosphere macroscopic quantities. This direction will lead to a greater understanding of pulsar emission at all wavelengths, as well as to concrete insights into the physics of the magnetosphere.

  10. Origin of X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Emission from the Galactic Central Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, D. O.; Cheng, K.-S.; Dogiel, V. A.; Ko, C. M.

    2017-02-01

    We study a possible connection between different non-thermal emissions from the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy. We analyze the origin of the gamma-ray source 2FGL J1745.6‑2858 (or 3FGL J1745.6‑2859c) in the Galactic Center (GC) and the diffuse hard X-ray component recently found by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, as well as the radio emission and processes of hydrogen ionization from this area. We assume that a source in the GC injected energetic particles with power-law spectrum into the surrounding medium in the past or continues to inject until now. The energetic particles may be protons, electrons, or a combination of both. These particles diffuse to the surrounding medium and interact with gas, magnetic field, and background photons to produce non-thermal emissions. We study the spectral and spatial features of the hard X-ray emission and gamma-ray emission by the particles from the central source. Our goal is to examine whether the hard X-ray and gamma-ray emissions have a common origin. Our estimations show that, in the case of pure hadronic models, the expected flux of hard X-ray emission is too low. Despite the fact that protons can produce a non-zero contribution in gamma-ray emission, it is unlikely that they and their secondary electrons can make a significant contribution in hard X-ray flux. In the case of pure leptonic models, it is possible to reproduce both X-ray and gamma-ray emissions for both transient and continuous supply models. However, in the case of the continuous supply model, the ionization rate of molecular hydrogen may significantly exceed the observed value.

  11. Very high energy gamma-ray emission from Tycho's supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxon, Dana Boltuch

    Supernova remnant (SNR) G120.1+1.4 (also known as Tycho's SNR) is the remnant of one of only five confirmed historical supernovae. As such, it has been well studied across the electromagnetic spectrum. This thesis describes the first statistically significant detection of very high energy (VHE) (˜ 100 GeV to 100 TeV) gamma rays from Tycho's SNR, reported in 2011 by the VERITAS collaboration. The analysis that led to that detection was performed by this author, and this dissertation will discuss the process in detail. Subsequently, a statistically significant detection in high energy (HE) (˜ 30 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma rays was reported by other authors using data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Comparison of models to the spectral energy distribution of the photon flux from this remnant in HE and VHE gamma rays favors a hadronic origin for the emission, particularly when combined with current X-ray data, although a leptonic origin cannot be ruled out at this time. This is significant because a confirmed hadronic origin for the gamma-ray emission would identify this SNR as a site of cosmic ray acceleration, providing observational evidence for the idea that SNRs are the source of the Galactic cosmic ray population. Chapter 1 of this dissertation will provide historical background on Tycho's SNR, along with a summary of modern observations of the remnant across the electromagnetic spectrum. Chapter 2 is a discussion of the role played by SNRs in the process of cosmic ray acceleration, including both theoretical underpinnings and observational evidence. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the field of VHE gamma-ray astronomy, with discussions of gamma-ray production mechanisms and gamma-ray source classes. Chapter 4 describes the instruments used to observe HE and VHE gamma rays. Chapter 5 is a discussion of general analysis methods and techniques for data from Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). Chapter 6 provides details about the specific

  12. Short and long gamma-ray bursts: same emission mechanism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Nava, L.

    2011-11-01

    We study the spectral evolution on second and subsecond time-scales in 11 long and 12 short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with peak flux >8.5 × 10-6 erg cm-2 s (8 keV-35 MeV) detected by the Fermi satellite. The peak flux correlates with the time-averaged peak energy in both classes of bursts. The peak energy evolution, as a function of time, tracks the evolution of the flux on short time-scales in both short and long GRBs. We do not find evidence of a hard-to-soft spectral evolution. While short GRBs have observed peak energies larger than few MeV during most of their evolution, long GRBs can start with a softer peak energy (of few hundreds keV) and become as hard as short ones (i.e. with Eobspeak larger than few MeV) at the peak of their light curve. Six GRBs in our sample have a measured redshift. In these few cases we find that their correlations between the rest frame Epeak and the luminosity Liso are less scattered than their correlations in the observer frame between the peak energy Eobspeak and the flux P. We find that the rest frame Epeak of long bursts can be as high or even larger than that of short GRBs and that short and long GRBs follow the same Epeak(t)-Liso(t) correlation, despite the fact that they likely have different progenitors.

  13. COS-B gamma ray sources beyond the predicted diffuse emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.; Simpson, G.

    1990-01-01

    COS-B data were reanalyzed using for background subtraction the modeled galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission based on HI- and CO-line surveys and the gamma-ray data itself. A methodology was developed for this purpose with the following three features: automatic generation of source catalogs using correlation analysis, simulation of trials to derive significance thresholds for source detection, and bootstrap sampling to drive error boxes and confidence intervals for source parameters. The analysis shows that about half of the 2CG sources are explained by concentrations in the distribution of molecular hydrogen. Indication for a few weak new sources is also obtained.

  14. High energy (gamma)-ray emission from the starburst nucleus of NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo-Santamaria, E; Torres, D F

    2005-06-15

    The high density medium that characterizes the central regions of starburst galaxies and its power to accelerate particles up to relativistic energies make these objects good candidates as {gamma}-rays sources. In this paper, a self-consistent model of the multifrequency emission of the starburst galaxy NGC 253, from radio to gamma-rays, is presented. The model is in agreement with all current measurements and provides predictions for the high energy behavior of the NGC 253 central region. Prospects for observations with the HESS array and GLAST satellite are especially discussed.

  15. AGILE Detection of Enhanced Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piano, G.; Tavani, M.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Bulgarelli, A.; Verrecchia, F.; Donnarumma, I.; Minervini, G.; Fioretti, V.; Pittori, C.; Lucarelli, F.; Vercellone, S.; Striani, E.; Ursi, A.; Cardillo, M.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Parmiggiani, N.; Ferrari, A.; Paoletti, F.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2017-03-01

    The AGILE-GRID detector is revealing gamma ray emission above 100 MeV from a source positionally consistent with the microquasar Cygnus X-3. Integrating from 2017-02-27 UT 03:00:00 to 2017-03-01 UT 03:00:00 (MJD 57811.125 - 57813.125), a preliminary multi-source likelihood analysis detects a gamma-ray flux F( > 100 MeV) = (3 +/- 1) x 10^-6 photons/cm^2/s with a detection significance near 4 sigma.

  16. The attenuation of gamma-ray emission in strongly-magnetized pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Harding, Alice K.; Gonthier, Peter L.

    1997-01-01

    Gamma rays from pulsars can be efficiently attenuated in their magnetospheres via the mechanism of single photon pair production and the exotic quantum electrodynamics (QED) process of photon splitting. The modeling of strongly magnetized gamma ray pulsars focusing on the escape or attenuation of photons emitted near the pole at the neutron star surface in dipole fields in a Schwarzschild metric is considered. It was found that pair production and splitting totally inhibit emission above a value of between 10 and 30 MeV in PSR 1509-58 whose surface field is inferred as being high. The principle predictions of the attenuation analysis are reviewed and the observational diagnostic capabilities of the model are considered. The diagnostics include the energy of the gamma ray turnover and the spectral polarization, which constrain the estimated polar cap size and field strength and can determine the relative strength of splitting and pair creation.

  17. Diffuse gamma-ray emission from pulsars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Schnepf, Neil

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the contribution of pulsars to the diffuse gamma-ray emission from the LMC. The pulsar birth rate in the LMC is a factor of about 10 lower than that of the Galaxy and the distance to pulsars in the LMC is about 5-10 times larger than to Galactic pulsars. The resulting total integrated photon flux from LMC pulsars is thus reduced by a factor of about 100 to 1000. However, the surface brightness is not reduced by the same amount because of the much smaller angular extent of the LMC in comparison to the diffuse glow from the Galactic plane. We show that gamma-ray emission due to pulsars born in the LMC could produce gamma-ray fluxes that are larger than the inverse Compton component from relativistic cosmic-ray electrons and a significant fraction of the extragalactic isotropic background or the diffuse Galactic background in that direction. The diffuse pulsar glow above 100 MeV should therefore be included in models of high-energy emission from the LMC. For a gamma-ray beaming fraction of order unity the detected emissions from the LMC constrain the pulsar birth rate to less than one per 50 yr. This limit is about one order of magnitude above the supernova rate inferred from the historic record or from the star-formation rate.

  18. FERMI LAT DISCOVERY OF EXTENDED GAMMA-RAY EMISSIONS IN THE VICINITY OF THE HB 3 SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, H.; Yoshida, K.; Ballet, J.; Hewitt, J. W.; Kubo, H. E-mail: 13nm169s@gmail.com

    2016-02-20

    We report the discovery of extended gamma-ray emission measured by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) HB 3 (G132.7+1.3) and the W3 II complex adjacent to the southeast of the remnant. W3 is spatially associated with bright {sup 12}CO (J = 1–0) emission. The gamma-ray emission is spatially correlated with this gas and the SNR. We discuss the possibility that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon–nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray emission. The emission from W3 is consistent with irradiation of the CO clouds by the cosmic rays accelerated in HB 3.

  19. A LEPTONIC MODEL OF STEADY HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM Sgr A*

    SciTech Connect

    Kusunose, Masaaki; Takahara, Fumio E-mail: takahara@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2012-03-20

    Recent observations of Sgr A* by Fermi and HESS have detected steady {gamma}-ray emission in the GeV and TeV bands. We present a new model to explain the GeV {gamma}-ray emission by inverse Compton scattering by nonthermal electrons supplied by the NIR/X-ray flares of Sgr A*. The escaping electrons from the flare regions accumulate in a region with a size of {approx}10{sup 18} cm and magnetic fields of {approx}< 10{sup -4} G. Those electrons produce {gamma}-rays by inverse Compton scattering off soft photons emitted by stars and dust around the central black hole. By fitting the GeV spectrum, we find constraints on the magnetic field and the energy density of optical-UV radiation in the central 1 pc region around the supermassive black hole. While the GeV spectrum is well fitted by our model, the TeV {gamma}-rays, whose spectral index is different from that of the GeV emission, may be from different sources such as pulsar wind nebulae.

  20. Energy input and response from prompt and early optical afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Wozniak, P R; Aptekar, R; Golentskii, S; Pal'shin, V; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Evans, S; Casperson, D; Fenimore, E

    2006-07-13

    The taxonomy of optical emission detected during the critical first few minutes after the onset of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) defines two broad classes: prompt optical emission correlated with prompt gamma-ray emission, and early optical afterglow emission uncorrelated with the gamma-ray emission. The standard theoretical interpretation attributes prompt emission to internal shocks in the ultra-relativistic outflow generated by the internal engine; early afterglow emission is attributed to shocks generated by interaction with the surrounding medium. Here we report on observations of a bright GRB that, for the first time, clearly show the temporal relationship and relative strength of the two optical components. The observations indicate that early afterglow emission can be understood as reverberation of the energy input measured by prompt emission. Measurements of the early afterglow reverberations therefore probe the structure of the environment around the burst, whereas the subsequent response to late-time impulsive energy releases reveals how earlier flaring episodes have altered the jet and environment parameters. Many GRBs are generated by the death of massive stars that were born and died before the Universe was ten per cent of its current age, so GRB afterglow reverberations provide clues about the environments around some of the first stars.

  1. The High-energy Continuum Emission of the Gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0528+134

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Urry, C. Megan; Maraschi, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Mukherjee, R.; Pesce, Joseph E.; Wagner, S. J.; Wehrle, A. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Lin, Y. C.; VonMintigny, C.

    1997-01-01

    We present Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observations of the gamma-ray blazar PKS 0528 + 134, obtained at two separate epochs in 1994 August and 1995 March. These data represent the first measurement of the X-ray continuum emission of this source in the medium-hard X-ray band. Both ASCA spectra are consistent with a single power law with photon index GAMMA approx. = 1.7-1.8 and column density N(sub H) approx. = 5 x 10(exp 21)/ sq cm, higher than Galactic. The X-ray flux increased by a factor of 4 in approx. 7 months without appreciable change of the spectral shape. During the lower state of 1994 August, PKS 0528 + 134 was observed simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and at gamma-ray energies with Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). The gamma-ray intensity is the faintest detected thus far in the source, with a steep spectrum (GAMMA approx. = 2.7). The extrapolation of the X-ray continuum to the gamma-ray range requires a sharp spectral break at approx. 10(exp 22) Hz. We discuss the radio through gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of PKS 0528 + 134, comparing the low state of 1994 August with the flare state of 1993 March. We show that in PKS 0528 + 134, a non-negligible contribution from the external radiation field is present and that, although synchrotron self-Compton scenarios cannot be ruled out, inverse Compton upscattering of thermal seed photons may be the dominant cooling process for the production of the high-energy continuum in this blazar.

  2. Time evolution of the probability density function of a gamma-ray burst: a possible indication of the turbulent origin of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Nilay; Bhattacharyya, Subir

    2012-02-01

    The time series of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) is a non-stationary time series and all of its statistical properties vary with time. Considering that each GRB is a different manifestation of the same stochastic process, we have studied the time-dependent and time-averaged probability density functions (pdfs), which characterize the underlying stochastic process. The pdfs are fitted with a Gaussian distribution function. It has been argued that the Gaussian pdfs possibly indicate the turbulent origin of GRBs. The spectral and temporal evolutions of GRBs are also studied using the evolution of spectral forms, colour-colour diagrams and hysteresis loops. The results do not contradict the interpretation of the turbulence of GRBs.

  3. Gamma-ray Emission from the Sun: A Study with EGRET Data and Perspectives for GLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Elena; Strong, A. W.

    2008-03-01

    The Sun has recently been predicted to be an extended source of gamma-ray emission, produced by inverse-Compton (IC) scattering of cosmic-ray electrons on the solar radiation field. The emission was predicted to be extended and a confusing foreground for the diffuse extragalactic background even at large angular distances from the Sun. The solar disk is also expected to be a steady gamma-ray source. Analyzing the EGRET database, we find evidence of emission from the solar disk and its halo (Orlando and Strong 2008,arXiv:0801.2178). The observations are compared with our model for the extended emission. The spectrum of the solar disk emission and the spectrum of the extended emission have been obtained. The spectrum of the moon is also given. The observed intensity distribution and the flux are consistent with the predicted model of IC gamma-rays from the halo around the Sun. This emission is expected to be readily detectable in the future by GLAST, and we describe the perspectives for what can be learned from this upcoming mission.

  4. PHASE-AVERAGED SPECTRA AND LUMINOSITIES OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSIONS FROM YOUNG ISOLATED PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Jiang, Z. J.; Zhang, L.

    2013-03-10

    We study the phase-averaged spectra and luminosities of {gamma}-ray emissions from young, isolated pulsars within a revised outer gap model. In the revised version of the outer gap, there are two possible cases for the outer gaps: the fractional size of the outer gap is estimated through the photon-photon pair process in the first case (Case I), and is limited by the critical field lines in the second case (Case II). The fractional size is described by Case I if the fractional size at the null charge surface in Case I is smaller than that in Case II, and vice versa. Such an outer gap can extend from the inner boundary, whose radial distance to the neutron star is less than that of the null charge surface to the light cylinder for a {gamma}-ray pulsar with a given magnetic inclination. When the shape of the outer gap is determined, assuming that high-energy emission at an averaged radius of the field line in the center of the outer gap, with a Gaussian distribution of the parallel electric field along the gap height, represents typical emission, the phase-averaged {gamma}-ray spectrum for a given pulsar can be estimated in the revised model with three model parameters. We apply the model to explain the phase-averaged spectra of the Vela (Case I) and Geminga (Case II) pulsars. We also use the model to fit the phase-averaged spectra of 54 young, isolated {gamma}-ray pulsars, and then calculate the {gamma}-ray luminosities and compare them with the observed data from Fermi-LAT.

  5. Proton-induced X-ray and gamma ray emission analysis of biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Gene S.; Navon, Eliahu

    1986-04-01

    A 4.1 MeV external proton beam was employed to simultaneously induce X-ray emission (PIXE) and gamma ray emission (PIGE) in biological samples that included human colostrum, spermatozoa, teeth, tree-rings, and follicular fluids. The analytical method was developed to simultaneously determine the elements lithium (Z = 3) through uranium (Z = 92) in the samples. PIXE-PIGE experimental design is described as well as applications in environmental and medical fields.

  6. Search for Very High Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts using Milagro

    SciTech Connect

    Saz Parkinson, P. M.

    2007-07-12

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) have been detected at GeV energies by EGRET and models predict emission at > 100 GeV. Milagro is a wide field (2 sr) high duty cycle (> 90%) ground based water Cherenkov detector that records extensive air showers in the energy range 100 GeV to 100 TeV. We have searched for very high energy emission from a sample of 106 gamma-ray bursts (GRB) detected since the beginning of 2000 by BATSE, BeppoSax, HETE-2, INTEGRAL, Swift or the IPN. No evidence for emission from any of the bursts has been found and we present upper limits from these bursts.

  7. COSMIC-RAY STREAMING FROM SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AND GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Huirong; Lazarian, A.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2012-02-01

    High-energy gamma-ray emission has been detected recently from supernova remnants (SNRs) and their surroundings. The existence of molecular clouds near some of the SNRs suggests that the gamma rays originate predominantly from p-p interactions with cosmic rays (CRs) accelerated at a closeby SNR shock wave. Here we investigate the acceleration of CRs and the gamma-ray production in the cloud self-consistently by taking into account the interactions of the streaming instability and the background turbulence both at the shock front and in the ensuing propagation to the clouds. We focus on the later evolution of SNRs, when the conventional treatment of the streaming instability is valid but the magnetic field is enhanced due to Bell's current instability and/or the dynamo generation of magnetic field in the precursor region. We calculate the time dependence of the maximum energy of the accelerated particles. This result is then used to determine the diffusive flux of the runaway particles escaping the shock region, from which we obtain the gamma spectrum consistent with observations. Finally, we check the self-consistency of our results by comparing the required level of diffusion with the level of the streaming instability attainable in the presence of turbulence damping. The energy range of CRs subject to the streaming instability is able to produce the observed energy spectrum of gamma rays.

  8. Binary Orbits as the Driver of Gamma-Ray Emission and Mass Ejection in Classical Novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chomiuk, Laura; Linford, Justin D.; Yang, Jun; O'Brien, T. J.; Paragi, Zsolt; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Beswick, R. J.; Cheung, C. C.; Mukai, Koji; Nelson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Classical novae are the most common astrophysical thermonuclear explosions, occurring on the surfaces of white dwarf stars accreting gas from companions in binary star systems. Novae typically expel about 10 (sup -4) solar masses of material at velocities exceeding 1,000 kilometers per second.However, the mechanism of mass ejection in novae is poorly understood, and could be dominated by the impulsive flash of thermonuclear energy, prolonged optically thick winds or binary interaction with the nova envelope. Classical novae are now routinely detected at giga-electronvolt gamma-ray wavelengths, suggesting that relativistic particles are accelerated by strong shocks in the ejecta. Here we report high-resolution radio imaging of the gamma-ray-emitting nova V959 Mon. We find that its ejecta were shaped by the motion of the binary system: some gas was expelled rapidly along the poles as a wind from the white dwarf, while denser material drifted out along the equatorial plane, propelled by orbital motion..At the interface between the equatorial and polar regions, we observe synchrotron emission indicative of shocks and relativistic particle acceleration, thereby pinpointing the location of gamma-ray production. Binary shaping of the nova ejecta and associated internal shocks are expected to be widespread among novae, explaining why many novae are gamma-ray emitters.

  9. On The gamma-ray emission from Reticulum II and other dwarf galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim E-mail: trlinden@uchicago.edu

    2015-09-01

    The recent discovery of ten new dwarf galaxy candidates by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) could increase the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope's sensitivity to annihilating dark matter particles, potentially enabling a definitive test of the dark matter interpretation of the long-standing Galactic Center gamma-ray excess. In this paper, we compare the previous analyses of Fermi data from the directions of the new dwarf candidates (including the relatively nearby Reticulum II) and perform our own analysis, with the goal of establishing the statistical significance of any gamma-ray signal from these sources. We confirm the presence of an excess from Reticulum II, with a spectral shape that is compatible with the Galactic Center signal. The significance of this emission is greater than that observed from 99.84% of randomly chosen high-latitude blank-sky locations, corresponding to a local detection significance of 3.2σ. We caution that any dark matter interpretation of this excess must be validated through observations of additional dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and improved calculations of the relative J-factor of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We improve upon the standard blank-sky calibration approach through the use of multi-wavelength catalogs, which allow us to avoid regions that are likely to contain unresolved gamma-ray sources.

  10. Pair Production and Gamma-Ray Emission in the Outer Magnetospheres of Rapidly Spinning Young Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, Malvin; Chen, Kaiyou

    1997-01-01

    Electron-positron pair production and acceleration in the outer magnetosphere may be crucial for a young rapidly spinning canonical pulsar to be a strong Gamma-ray emitter. Collision between curvature radiated GeV photons and soft X-ray photons seems to be the only efficient pair production mechanism. For Crib-like pulsars, the magnetic field near the light cylinder is so strong, such that the synchrotron radiation of secondary pairs will be in the needed X-ray range. However, for majority of the known Gamma-ray pulsars, surface emitted X-rays seem to work as the matches and fuels for a gamma-ray generation fireball in the outer magnetosphere. The needed X-rays could come from thermal emission of a cooling neutron star or could be the heat generated by bombardment of the polar cap by energetic particles generated in the outer magnetosphere. With detection of more Gamma-ray pulsars, it is becoming evident that the neutron star's intrisic geometry (the inclination angle between the rotation and magnetic axes) and observational geometry (the viewing angle with respect to the rotation axis) are crucial to the understanding of varieties of observational properties exhibited by these pulsars. Inclination angles for many known high energy Gamma-ray pulsars appear to be large and the distribution seems to be consistent with random orientation. However, all of them except Geminga are pre-selected from known radio pulsars. The viewing angles are thus limited to be around the respective inclination angles for beamed radio emission, which may induce strong selection effect. The viewing angles as well as the inclination angles of PSR 1509-58 and PSB 0656+14 may be small such that most of the high energy Gamma-rays produced in the outer accelerators may not reach the observer's direction. The observed Gamma-rays below 5 MeV from this pulsar may be synchrotron radiation of secondary electron-positron pairs produced outside the accelerating regions.

  11. Very Large Array Detects Radio Emission from Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    Astronomers have used the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to make the first detection of radio emission from a cosmic gamma-ray burst. This sheds the first light on longstanding questions about the actual physics of these mysterious, tremendously energetic events. "The mere discovery of radio emission from this gamma-ray burst rules out some theoretical models," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. "We are still observing it and each additional observation will help further discriminate among competing models." "This detection may finally tell us what these mysterious gamma-ray bursts are, helping to resolve one of the biggest mysteries in astrophysics," said Hugh Van Horn, Director of the NSF's Division of Astronomical Sciences. The VLA detection was made by some of the same scientists who announced yesterday that optical observations showed that gamma-ray bursts come from great distances. In addition to Frail, the VLA astronomers are: Shri Kulkarni of Caltech and the BeppoSAX Gamma-Ray Burst Team, consisting of Luciano Nicastro, Eliana Palazi, Enrico Costa, Marco Feroci, Luigi Piro, Fillipo Frontera, and John Heise. The burst of gamma rays was detected May 8 by the Italian-Dutch satellite BeppoSAX. Hundreds of such bursts have been recorded by satellites in the past 30 years, but last week's event already has become the most scientifically significant of them all. For years, the difficulty of precisely locating the bursts' position in the sky made it nearly impossible to study them with optical and radio instruments. In late 1996, this situation improved with the launch of BeppoSAX, which can pinpoint the bursts' location much more accurately than previous spacecraft. Following BeppoSAX discoveries, optical and radio astronomers have been able to make quick observations of the burst locations. The largest unanswered question about gamma-ray bursts has been their

  12. New Limits on Gamma-Ray Emission from Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S.

    2014-11-01

    Galaxy clusters are predicted to produce γ-rays through cosmic ray interactions and/or dark matter annihilation, potentially detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). We present a new, independent stacking analysis of Fermi-LAT photon count maps using the 78 richest nearby clusters (z < 0.12) from the Two Micron All Sky Survey cluster catalog. We obtain the lowest limit on the photon flux to date, 2.3 × 10-11 photons cm-2 s-1 (95% confidence) per cluster in the 0.8-100 GeV band, which corresponds to a luminosity limit of 3.5 × 1044 photons s-1. We also constrain the emission limits in a range of narrower energy bands. Scaling to recent cosmic ray acceleration and γ-ray emission models, we find that cosmic rays represent a negligible contribution to the intra-cluster energy density and gas pressure.

  13. EGRET Observations of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission in Orion: Analysis Through Cycle 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digel, S. W.; Aprile, E.; Hunter, S. D.; Mukherjee, R.; Xu, F.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of the high-energy diffuse emission observed toward Orion by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The total exposure by EGRET in this region has increased by more than a factor of two since a previous study. A simple model for the diffuse emission adequately fits the data; no significant point sources are detected in the region studied (1 = 195 deg to 220 deg and b = -25 deg to -10 deg) in either the composite dataset or in two separate groups of EGRET viewing periods considered. The gamma-ray emissivity in Orion is found to be (1.65 +/- 0.11) x 10(exp -26)/s.sr for E > 100 MeV, and the differential emissivity is well-described as a combination of contributions from cosmic-ray electrons and protons with approximately the local density. The molecular mass calibrating ratio is N(H2)/W(sub CO) = (1.35 +/- 0.15) x 10(exp 20)/sq cm.(K.km/s).

  14. Fast Radio Bursts with Extended Gamma-Ray Emission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter; Fox, Derek B.

    2017-02-01

    We consider some general implications of bright γ-ray counterparts to fast radio bursts (FRBs). We show that even if these manifest in only a fraction of FRBs, γ-ray detections with current satellites (including Swift) can provide stringent constraints on cosmological FRB models. If the energy is drawn from the magnetic energy of a compact object such as a magnetized neutron star, the sources should be nearby and be very rare. If the intergalactic medium is responsible for the observed dispersion measure, the required γ-ray energy is comparable to that of the early afterglow or extended emission of short γ-ray bursts. While this can be reconciled with the rotation energy of compact objects, as expected in many merger scenarios, the prompt outflow that yields the γ-rays is too dense for radio waves to escape. Highly relativistic winds launched in a precursor phase, and forming a wind bubble, may avoid the scattering and absorption limits and could yield FRB emission. Largely independent of source models, we show that detectable radio afterglow emission from γ-ray bright FRBs can reasonably be anticipated. Gravitational wave searches can also be expected to provide useful tests.

  15. The High-Energy Continuum Emission of the Gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0528+134

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Urry, C. Megan; Maraschi, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Mukherjee, R.; Pesce, Joseph E.; Wagner, S. J.; Wehrle, A. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Lin, Y. C.

    1997-01-01

    We present Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observations of the gamma-ray blazar PKS 0528 + 134, obtained at two separate epochs in 1994 August and 1995 March. These data represent the first measurement of the X-ray continuum emission of this source in the medium-hard X-ray band. Both ASCA spectra are consistent with a single power law with photon index GAMMA approximate 1.7-1.8 and column density N(sub H) approximately 5 x 10(exp 21) /sq cm, higher than Galactic. The X-ray flux increased by a factor of 4 in approximately 7 months without appreciable change of the spectral shape. During the lower state of 1994 August, PKS 0528 + 134 was observed simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and at gamma-ray energies with EGRET. The gamma-ray intensity is the faintest detected thus far in the source, with a steep spectrum (GAMMA approximately 2.7). The extrapolation of the X-ray continuum to the gamma-ray range requires a sharp spectral break at approximately 10(exp 22) Hz. We discuss the radio through gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of PKS 0528 + 134, comparing the low state of 1994 August with the flare state of 1993 March. We show that in PKS 0528 + 134, a non-negligible contribution from the external radiation field is present and that, although synchrotron self-Compton scenarios cannot be ruled out, inverse Compton upscattering of thermal seed photons may be the dominant cooling process for the production of the high-energy continuum in this blazar.

  16. Gamma-ray Spectral Characteristics of Thermal and Non-thermal Emission from Three Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, James C.; Wheaton, William A.

    2004-01-01

    Cygnus X-1 and the gamma-ray transients GROJ0422+32 and GROJ1719-24 displayed similar spectral properties when they underwent transitions between the high and low gamma-ray (30 keV to few MeV) intensity states. When these sources were in the high (gamma)-ray intensity state ((gamma)2, for Cygnus X-l), their spectra featured two components: a Comptonized shape below 200-300 keV with a soft power-law tail (photon index >= 3) that extended to 1 MeV or beyond. When the sources were in the low-intensity state ((gamma)0, for Cygnus X-l), the Comptonized spectral shape below 200 keV typically vanished and the entire spectrum from 30 keV to 1 MeV can be characterized by a single power law with a relatively harder photon index 2-2.7. Consequently the high- and low-intensity gamma-ray spectra intersect, generally in the 400 KeV - 1 MeV range, in contrast to the spectral pivoting seen previously at lower (10 keV) energies. The presence of the power-law component in both the high- and low-intensity gammaray spectra strongly suggests that the non-thermal process is likely to be at work in both the high and the low-intensity situations. We have suggested a possible scenario (Ling & Wheaton, 2003), by combining the ADAF model of Esin et al. (1998) with a separate jet region that produces the non-thermal gamma-ray emission, and which explains the state transitions. Such a scenario will be discussed in the context of the observational evidence, summarized above, from the database produced by EBOP, JPL's BATSE earth occultation analysis system.

  17. Observations of medium energy gamma ray emission from the galactic center region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, D. A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Morris, D. J.; Palmeira, R. A. R.; Rao, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the gamma-ray emission in the medium energy range between 15 and 100 MeV, obtained during two ballon flights from Brazil are presented. The importance of this energy region in determining whether pi deg - decay of electron bremsstrahlung is the most likely dominant source mechanism is discussed along with the implications of such observations. Specifically, the data from this experiment suggest that emission from the galactic plane is similar to theoretical spectrum calculations including both sources mechanisms, but with the bremsstrahlung component enhanced by a factor of about 2. A spectral distribution of gamma-rays produced in the residual atmosphere above the instrument is also presented and compared with other data. A rather smooth spectral variation from high to low energies is found for the atmospheric spectrum.

  18. DAMPE detection of variable GeV gamma-ray emission from blazar CTA 102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zun-Lei; Caragiulo, Micaela; Chang, Jin; Duan, Kai-Kai; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Gargano, Fabio; Lei, Shi-Jun; Li, Xiang; Liang, Yun-Feng; Mazziotta, M. Nicola; Shen, Zhao-Qiang; Su, Meng; Tykhonov, Andrii; Yuan, Qiang; Zimmer, Stephan; Dampe Collaboration; Li, Bin; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Cneost Group

    2016-12-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), has detected variable gamma-ray emission from a source positionally coincident with the flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 (also known as 4C +11.69) with redshift of z=1.037 (Schmidt 1965, ApJ, 141, 1295) and coordinates (J2000.0, from VLBI) of R.A.: 338.151704 deg, Dec.: 11.730807 deg (Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880).

  19. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Constraining the accelerated proton spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David; Dunphy, Philip P.; Mackinnon, Alexander L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a multi-component model to describe the gamma-ray emission, we investigate the flares of December 16, 1988 and March 6, 1989 which exhibited unambiguous evidence of neutral pion decay. The observations are then combined with theoretical calculations of pion production to constrain the accelerated proton spectra. The detection of pi(sup 0) emission alone can indicate much about the energy distribution and spectral variation of the protons accelerated to pion producing energies. Here both the intensity and detailed spectral shape of the Doppler-broadened pi(sup 0) decay feature are used to determine the spectral form of the accelerated proton energy distribution. The Doppler width of this gamma-ray emission provides a unique diagnostic of the spectral shape at high energies, independent of any normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this diagnostic has been used to constrain the proton spectra. The form of the energetic proton distribution is found to be severely limited by the observed intensity and Doppler width of the pi(sup 0) decay emission, demonstrating effectively the diagnostic capabilities of the pi(sup 0) decay gamma-rays. The spectral index derived from the gamma-ray intensity is found to be much harder than that derived from the Doppler width. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy we investigate the effects of introducing a high-energy cut-off in the accelerated proton distribution. With cut-off energies of around 0.5-0.8 GeV and relatively hard spectra, the observed intensities and broadening can be reproduced with a single energetic proton distribution above the pion production threshold.

  20. NEUTRINO CONSTRAINTS TO THE DIFFUSE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM ACCRETION SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Dobardžić, A.; Prodanović, T. E-mail: prodanvc@df.uns.ac.rs

    2015-06-20

    Accretion of gas during the large-scale structure formation has been thought to give rise to shocks that can accelerate cosmic rays. This process then results in an isotropic extragalactic gamma-ray emission contributing to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB) observed by Fermi-LAT. Unfortunately, this emission has been difficult to constrain and thus presents an uncertain foreground to any attempts to extract a potential dark matter signal. Recently, IceCube has detected high-energy isotropic neutrino flux that could be of an extragalactic origin. In general, neutrinos can be linked to gamma rays since cosmic-ray interactions produce neutral and charged pions where neutral pions decay into gamma rays, while charged pions decay to give neutrinos. By assuming that isotropic high-energy IceCube neutrinos are entirely produced by cosmic rays accelerated in accretion shocks during the process of structure formation, we obtain the strongest constraint to the gamma-ray emission from large-scale structure formation (strong) shocks and find that they can make at best ∼20% of the EGRB, corresponding to neutrino flux with spectral index α{sub ν} = 2, or ∼10% for spectral index α{sub ν} = 2.46. Since typical objects where cosmic rays are accelerated in accretion shocks are galaxy clusters, observed high-energy neutrino fluxes can then be used to determine the gamma-ray emission of a dominant cluster type and constrain acceleration efficiency, and thus probe the process of large-scale structure formation.

  1. NEW LIMITS ON GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S. E-mail: xdai@ou.edu

    2014-11-01

    Galaxy clusters are predicted to produce γ-rays through cosmic ray interactions and/or dark matter annihilation, potentially detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). We present a new, independent stacking analysis of Fermi-LAT photon count maps using the 78 richest nearby clusters (z < 0.12) from the Two Micron All Sky Survey cluster catalog. We obtain the lowest limit on the photon flux to date, 2.3 × 10{sup –11} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} (95% confidence) per cluster in the 0.8-100 GeV band, which corresponds to a luminosity limit of 3.5 × 10{sup 44} photons s{sup –1}. We also constrain the emission limits in a range of narrower energy bands. Scaling to recent cosmic ray acceleration and γ-ray emission models, we find that cosmic rays represent a negligible contribution to the intra-cluster energy density and gas pressure.

  2. High-energy gamma rays from the intense 1993 January 31 gamma-ray burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommer, M.; Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fishman, G. J.; Harding, A. K.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Hurley, K.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    The intense gamma-ray burst of 1993 January 31 was detected by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Observatory. Sixteen gamma rays above 30 MeV were imaged in the telescope when only 0.04 gamma rays were expected by chance. Two of these gamma rays have energies of approximately 1 GeV, and the five bin spectrum of the 16 events is fitted by a power law of photon spectral index -2.0 +/- 0.4. The high-energy emission extends for at least 25 s. The most probable direction for this burst is determined from the directions of the 16 gamma rays observed by Egret and also by requiring the position to lie on annulus derived by the Interplanetary Network.

  3. Search for VHE gamma-ray emission from Geminga pulsar and nebula with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Buson, S.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.

    2016-06-01

    The Geminga pulsar, one of the brighest gamma-ray sources, is a promising candidate for emission of very-high-energy (VHE > 100 GeV) pulsed gamma rays. Also, detection of a large nebula has been claimed by water Cherenkov instruments. We performed deep observations of Geminga with the MAGIC telescopes, yielding 63 h of good-quality data, and searched for emission from the pulsar and pulsar wind nebula. We did not find any significant detection, and derived 95% confidence level upper limits. The resulting upper limits of 5.3 × 10-13 TeV cm-2 s-1 for the Geminga pulsar and 3.5 × 10-12 TeV cm-2 s-1 for the surrounding nebula at 50 GeV are the mostconstraining ones obtained so far at VHE. To complement the VHE observations, we also analyzed 5 yr of Fermi-LAT data from Geminga, finding that the sub-exponential cut-off is preferred over the exponential cut-off that has been typically used in the literature. We also find that, above 10 GeV, the gamma-ray spectra from Geminga can be described with a power law with index softer than 5. The extrapolation of the power-law Fermi-LAT pulsed spectra to VHE goes well below the MAGIC upper limits, indicating that the detection of pulsed emission from Geminga with the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes is very difficult.

  4. DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Finnegan, G. E-mail: wakely@uchicago.edu

    2011-04-01

    We report the discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) G120.1+1.4, known as Tycho's SNR. Observations performed in the period 2008-2010 with the VERITAS ground-based gamma-ray observatory reveal weak emission coming from the direction of the remnant, compatible with a point source located at 00{sup h}25{sup m}27.{sup s}0, + 64{sup 0}10'50'' (J2000). The TeV photon spectrum measured by VERITAS can be described with a power law dN/dE = C(E/3.42 TeV){sup -}{Gamma} with {Gamma} = 1.95 {+-} 0.51{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub sys} and C = (1.55 {+-} 0.43{sub stat} {+-} 0.47{sub sys}) x 10{sup -14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}. The integral flux above 1 TeV corresponds to {approx}0.9% of the steady Crab Nebula emission above the same energy, making it one of the weakest sources yet detected in TeV gamma rays. We present both leptonic and hadronic models that can describe the data. The lowest magnetic field allowed in these models is {approx}80 {mu}G, which may be interpreted as evidence for magnetic field amplification.

  5. DETECTION OF GAMMA-RAY POLARIZATION IN PROMPT EMISSION OF GRB 100826A

    SciTech Connect

    Yonetoku, Daisuke; Murakami, Toshio; Sakashita, Tomonori; Morihara, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Takuya; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kodama, Yoshiki; Gunji, Shuichi; Toukairin, Noriyuki; Mihara, Tatehiro; Toma, Kenji; Kubo, Shin

    2011-12-20

    We report the polarization measurement in prompt {gamma}-ray emission of GRB 100826A with the Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter on board the small solar-power-sail demonstrator IKAROS. We detected the firm change of polarization angle (PA) during the prompt emission with 99.9% (3.5{sigma}) confidence level, and the average polarization degree ({Pi}) of 27% {+-} 11% with 99.4% (2.9{sigma}) confidence level. Here the quoted errors are given at 1{sigma} confidence level for the two parameters of interest. The systematic errors have been carefully included in this analysis, unlike other previous reports. Such a high {Pi} can be obtained in several emission models of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), including synchrotron and photospheric models. However, it is difficult to explain the observed significant change of PA within the framework of axisymmetric jet as considered in many theoretical works. The non-axisymmetric (e.g., patchy) structures of the magnetic fields and/or brightness inside the relativistic jet are therefore required within the observable angular scale of {approx}{Gamma}{sup -1}. Our observation strongly indicates that the polarization measurement is a powerful tool to constrain the GRB production mechanism, and more theoretical works are needed to discuss the data in more detail.

  6. Search for Cosmic-Ray-Induced Gamma-Ray Emission in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Kuss, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Tinivella, M.

    2014-01-01

    Current theories predict relativistic hadronic particle populations in clusters of galaxies in addition to the already observed relativistic leptons. In these scenarios hadronic interactions give rise to neutral pions which decay into gamma rays that are potentially observable with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi space telescope. We present a joint likelihood analysis searching for spatially extended gamma-ray emission at the locations of 50 galaxy clusters in four years of Fermi-LAT data under the assumption of the universal cosmic-ray (CR) model proposed by Pinzke & Pfrommer. We find an excess at a significance of 2.7 delta, which upon closer inspection, however, is correlated to individual excess emission toward three galaxy clusters: A400, A1367, and A3112. We discuss these cases in detail and conservatively attribute the emission to unmodeled background systems (for example, radio galaxies within the clusters).Through the combined analysis of 50 clusters, we exclude hadronic injection efficiencies in simple hadronic models above 21% and establish limits on the CR to thermal pressure ratio within the virial radius, R(sub 200), to be below 1.25%-1.4% depending on the morphological classification. In addition, we derive new limits on the gamma-ray flux from individual clusters in our sample.

  7. Study of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission from the Galactic Plane with ARGO-YBJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Camarri, P.; Cao, Z.; Cardarelli, R.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Creti, P.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liguori, G.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Panareo, M.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Ruggieri, F.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; Zizzi, G.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The events recorded by ARGO-YBJ in more than five years of data collection have been analyzed to determine the diffuse gamma-ray emission in the Galactic plane at Galactic longitudes 25° < l < 100° and Galactic latitudes |b|\\lt 5{}^\\circ . The energy range covered by this analysis, from ˜350 GeV to ˜2 TeV, allows the connection of the region explored by Fermi with the multi-TeV measurements carried out by Milagro. Our analysis has been focused on two selected regions of the Galactic plane, i.e., 40° < l < 100° and 65° < l < 85° (the Cygnus region), where Milagro observed an excess with respect to the predictions of current models. Great care has been taken in order to mask the most intense gamma-ray sources, including the TeV counterpart of the Cygnus cocoon recently identified by ARGO-YBJ, and to remove residual contributions. The ARGO-YBJ results do not show any excess at sub-TeV energies corresponding to the excess found by Milagro, and are consistent with the predictions of the Fermi model for the diffuse Galactic emission. From the measured energy distribution we derive spectral indices and the differential flux at 1 TeV of the diffuse gamma-ray emission in the sky regions investigated.

  8. High energy neutron and pion-decay gamma-ray emissions from solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Edward L.; Ryan, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Solar flare gamma-ray emissions from energetic ions and electrons have been detected and measured to GeV energies since 1980. In addition, neutrons produced in solar flares with 100 MeV to GeV energies have been observed at the Earth. These emissions are produced by the highest energy ions and electrons accelerated at the Sun and they provide our only direct (albeit secondary) knowledge about the properties of the accelerator(s) acting in a solar flare. The solar flares, which have direct evidence for pion-decay gamma-rays, are unique and are the focus of this paper. We review our current knowledge of the highest energy solar emissions, and how the characteristics of the acceleration process are deduced from the observations. Results from the RHESSI, INTEGRAL and CORONAS missions will also be covered. The review will also cover the solar flare capabilities of the new mission, FERMI GAMMA RAY SPACE TELESCOPE, launched on 2008 June 11. Finally, we discuss the requirements for future missions to advance this vital area of solar flare physics.

  9. GRIS observations of Al-26 gamma-ray line emission from two points in the Galactic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Tueller, J.; Leventhal, M.

    1991-01-01

    Both of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) experiment's two observations of the Galactic center region, at l = zero and 335 deg respectively, detected Al-26 gamma-ray line emission. While these observations are consistent with the assumed high-energy gamma-ray distribution, they are consistent with other distributions as well. The data suggest that the Al-26 emission is distributed over Galactic longitude rather than being confined to a point source. The GRIS data also indicate that the 1809 keV line is broadened.

  10. Upper limits to pulsed gamma ray emission from PSR 0833-45, 1747-46, and 1818-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Dunphy, P. P.; Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Ryan, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Pulsed gamma ray emission from three pulsars (PSR 0833-45, 1747-46, and 1818-04) have been sought on a balloon flight of the University of New Hampshire Large Gamma Ray Telescope, which incorporates a shielded sodium iodide scintillator array, and was launched from Alice Springs, Australia. Over the energy range 0.1 - 10 MeV, no evidence is found for pulsed gamma rays, and upper limits are set for Vela which are comparable to, or below, the extrapolation to lower energies of the pulsed emission reported by SAS-2 and COS-B.

  11. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OPTICAL EMISSION. I. FLARES AND EARLY SHALLOW-DECAY COMPONENT

    SciTech Connect

    Li Liang; Liang Enwei; Tang Qingwen; Chen Jiemin; Xi Shaoqiang; Zhang Bing; Lu Ruijing; Lue Lianzhong; Lue Houjun; Gao He; Zhang Jin; Wei Jianyan; Yi Shuangxi E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2012-10-10

    Well-sampled optical light curves of 146 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are compiled from the literature. By empirical fitting, we identify eight possible emission components and summarize the results in a 'synthetic' light curve. Both optical flare and early shallow-decay components are likely related to long-term central engine activities. We focus on their statistical properties in this paper. Twenty-four optical flares are obtained from 19 GRBs. The isotropic R-band energy is smaller than 1% of E{sub {gamma},iso}. The relation between the isotropic luminosities of the flares and gamma rays follows L{sup F}{sub R,iso}{proportional_to}L {sup 1.11{+-}0.27}{sub {gamma},iso}. Later flares tend to be wider and dimmer, i.e., w{sup F} {approx} t{sup F}{sub p}/2 and L{sup F}{sub R,iso}{proportional_to}[t{sup F}{sub p}/(1 + z)]{sup -1.15{+-}0.15}. The detection probability of the optical flares is much smaller than that of X-ray flares. An optical shallow-decay segment is observed in 39 GRBs. The relation between the break time and break luminosity is a power law, with an index of -0.78 {+-} 0.08, similar to that derived from X-ray flares. The X-ray and optical breaks are usually chromatic, but a tentative correlation is found. We suggest that similar to the prompt optical emission that tracks {gamma}-rays, the optical flares are also related to the erratic behavior of the central engine. The shallow-decay component is likely related to a long-lasting spinning-down central engine or piling up of flare materials onto the blast wave. Mixing of different emission components may be the reason for the diverse chromatic afterglow behaviors.

  12. The Probable Connection Between Relativistic Shock Acceleration and Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieu, R.

    1998-01-01

    The recent detection of delayed Gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglows at longer wavelengths (van Paradijs et al 1997, Piro et al 1997, Bond 1997, Frail and Kulkarni 1997, Halpern et al 1997) supports strongly the notion that GRBs are produced at relativistic cosmological shocks (Pacynski 1986, Goodman 1986, Rees and Meszaros 1992). The current understanding is that these shocks are ultra-relativistic, with an upstream Lorentz factor Gamma ~300, and radiate the gamma rays as the shock accelerated electrons emit by the synchrotron or inverse-Compton process (Waxman 1997).

  13. The Spectrum of the Isotropic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission Derived From First-Year Fermi Large Area Telescope Data

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.

    2011-08-19

    We report on the first Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) measurements of the so-called 'extra-galactic' diffuse {gamma}-ray emission (EGB). This component of the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission is generally considered to have an isotropic or nearly isotropic distribution on the sky with diverse contributions discussed in the literature. The derivation of the EGB is based on detailed modelling of the bright foreground diffuse Galactic {gamma}-ray emission (DGE), the detected LAT sources and the solar {gamma}-ray emission. We find the spectrum of the EGB is consistent with a power law with differential spectral index {gamma} = 2.41 {+-} 0.05 and intensity, I(> 100 MeV) = (1.03 {+-} 0.17) x 10{sup -5} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}, where the error is systematics dominated. Our EGB spectrum is featureless, less intense, and softer than that derived from EGRET data.

  14. Focusing of Alfvenic wave power in the context of gamma-ray burst emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatuzzo, Marco; Melia, Fulvio

    1993-01-01

    Highly dynamic magnetospheric perturbations in neutron star environments can naturally account for the features observed in gamma-ray burst spectra. The source distribution, however, appears to be extragalactic. Although noncatastrophic isotropic emission mechanisms may be ruled out on energetic and timing arguments, MHD processes can produce strongly anisotropic gamma rays with an observable flux out to distances of about 1-2 Gpc. Here we show that sheared Alfven waves propagating along open magnetospheric field lines at the poles of magnetized neutron stars transfer their energy dissipationally to the current sustaining the field misalignment and thereby focus their power into a spatial region about 1000 times smaller than that of the crustal disturbance. This produces a strong (observable) flux enhancement along certain directions. We apply this model to a source population of 'turned-off' pulsars that have nonetheless retained their strong magnetic fields and have achieved alignment at a period of approximately greater than 5 sec.

  15. High-energy emissions from the gamma-ray binary LS 5039

    SciTech Connect

    Takata, J.; Leung, Gene C. K.; Cheng, K. S.; Tam, P. H. T.; Kong, A. K. H.; Hui, C. Y. E-mail: gene930@connect.hku.hk

    2014-07-20

    We study mechanisms of multi-wavelength emissions (X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-rays) from the gamma-ray binary LS 5039. This paper is composed of two parts. In the first part, we report on results of observational analysis using 4 yr data of the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Due to the improvement of instrumental response function and increase of the statistics, the observational uncertainties of the spectrum in the ∼100-300 MeV bands and >10 GeV bands are significantly improved. The present data analysis suggests that the 0.1-100 GeV emissions from LS 5039 contain three different components: (1) the first component contributes to <1 GeV emissions around superior conjunction, (2) the second component dominates in the 1-10 GeV energy bands, and (3) the third component is compatible with the lower-energy tail of the TeV emissions. In the second part, we develop an emission model to explain the properties of the phase-resolved emissions in multi-wavelength observations. Assuming that LS 5039 includes a pulsar, we argue that emissions from both the magnetospheric outer gap and the inverse-Compton scattering process of cold-relativistic pulsar wind contribute to the observed GeV emissions. We assume that the pulsar is wrapped by two kinds of termination shock: Shock-I due to the interaction between the pulsar wind and the stellar wind and Shock-II due to the effect of the orbital motion. We propose that the X-rays are produced by the synchrotron radiation at the Shock-I region and the TeV gamma-rays are produced by the inverse-Compton scattering process at the Shock-II region.

  16. Fermi/LAT Study of Gamma-Ray Emission in the Direction of the Monoceros Loop Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, H.; Sugiyama, S.; Ackermann, M.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J. M.; Hanabata, Y.; Hewitt, J. W.; Kerr, M.; Kubo, H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Ray, P. S.

    2016-11-01

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Monoceros Loop (G205.5+0.5). The brightest gamma-ray peak is spatially correlated with the Rosette Nebula, which is a molecular cloud complex adjacent to the southeast edge of the SNR. After subtraction of this emission by spatial modeling, the gamma-ray emission from the SNR emerges, which is extended and fit by a Gaussian spatial template. The gamma-ray spectra are significantly better reproduced by a curved shape than a simple power law. The luminosities between 0.2 and 300 GeV are ˜ 4× {10}34 erg s-1 for the SNR and ˜ 3× {10}34 erg s-1 for the Rosette Nebula, respectively. We argue that the gamma-rays likely originate from the interactions of particles accelerated in the SNR. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions of accelerated hadrons with interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray emission of both the Rosette Nebula and the Monoceros SNR.

  17. Enhanced high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-3 detected by Fermi/LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane

    2017-02-01

    Following the recent decrease of the hard X-ray emission from the high-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 as seen by the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (https://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov/results/transients/CygX-3/), the Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed significant gamma-ray emission originating from the microquasar.

  18. Evidence of Pre-Equilibrium {gamma}-Ray Emission in Heavy Ion Collisions at Intermediate Incident Energies

    SciTech Connect

    S. Tudisco; F. Amorini; G. Cardella; A. Di Pietro; P. Figuera; G. Lanzalone; A. Musumarra; M. Papa; G. Pappalardo; S. Pirrone; F. Rizzo

    1999-12-31

    The experimental results of {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca,{sup 40}Ca,{sup 46}Ti reactions are reported. The comparison between {gamma}-ray spectra measured in coincidence with fusion evaporation residues for the three colliding systems shows a clear evidence of pre-equilibrium {gamma}-rays emission in the region around 10 MeV. BNV simulations also predict this emission. The saturation of GDR strength with temperature has been found with some dependence on the colliding system.

  19. Cosmic-ray induced gamma-ray emission from the starburst galaxy NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D.

    2014-05-09

    Cosmic rays in galaxies interact with the interstellar medium and give us a direct view of nuclear and particle interactions in the cosmos. For example, cosmic-ray proton interactions with interstellar hydrogen produce gamma rays via PcrPism→π{sup 0}→γγ. For a 'normal' star-forming galaxy like the Milky Way, most cosmic rays escape the Galaxy before such collisions, but in starburst galaxies with dense gas and huge star formation rate, most cosmic rays do suffer these interactions [1,2]. We construct a 'thick-target' model for starburst galaxies, in which cosmic rays are accelerated by supernovae, and escape is neglected. This model gives an upper limit to the gamma-ray emission. Only two free parameters are involved in the model: cosmic-ray proton acceleration energy rate from supernova and the proton injection spectral index. The pionic gamma-radiation is calculated from 10 MeV to 10 TeV for the starburst galaxy NGC 253, and compared to Fermi and HESS data. Our model fits NGC 253 well, suggesting that cosmic rays in this starburst are in the thick target limit, and that this galaxy is a gamma-ray calorimeter.

  20. Expected Sensitivity of the Nuclear Compton Telescope to Gamma-Ray Line Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Bandstra, M. E.; Boggs, S. E.; NCT Collaboration

    2008-03-01

    The Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT) is a balloon-borne soft gamma-ray (0.2-10 MeV) telescope designed to study astrophysical sources of nuclear line emission and gamma-ray polarization. NCT consists of twelve 3D position-sensitive germanium strip detectors. The ultra-compact design and new technologies allow NCT to achieve high efficiency with excellent spectral resolution and background reduction. We are currently preparing for a conventional balloon flight ( 36 hr) of the NCT instrument from New Mexico in September 2008 and a long-duration balloon flight (LDBF) ( 20 days) from Australia in December 2009. Here we focus on the LDBF in 2009. Our source and background simulations are performed using the Monte Carlo simulation package MGGPOD, and events are reconstructed using the Medium Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy library (MEGAlib). We use the same tools that were successfully used for background simulations of the 2005 prototype flight (see J. Bowen, this conference). Sensitivity is optimized using standard cuts such as photon energy, angular resolution measure (ARM), and event quality factor. In this work, we present realistic line sensitivities for NCT for the LDBF in 2009.

  1. COS-B observations of localized sources of gamma-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    In October 1975, the high-energy gamma-ray flux from the Vela pulsar measured by COS-B was found to be 1.6 to 2.1 times higher than the flux measured by SAS-2 in 1973. This factor is too large to be accounted for by error in the COS-B calibration or analysis. This is supported by a comparison of the COS-B measurement of the narrow-line component from the galactic center region with the flux derived from the measurements of SAS-2; the COS-B flux comes out about 15 percent lower than the SAS-2 figure. It is interesting to note that a glitch in the pulsar period took place about 1 month prior to the COS-B observation; the previous glitch occurred about 1.5 years before the SAS-2 observation. The increased rotational energy loss after the glitch cannot simply explain the increased gamma-ray luminosity. If the two phenomena are related, the gamma-ray emission, absorption, or beaming process must be extremely sensitive to changes in rotational parameters. The existence is confirmed of a second region of enhanced radiation in the galactic anticenter in addition to that from the Crab pulsar.

  2. Discovery of TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from the Cygnus Region

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A.A.; Allen, B.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Casanova, S.; Chen, C.; Coyne, D.G.; Delay, R.S.; Dingus, B.L.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Fleysher, L.; Fleysher, R.; Gonzalez, M.M.; Goodman, J.A.; Hays, E.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kolterman, B.E.; Kelley, L.A.; Lansdell, C.P.; Linnemann, J.T.; McEnery, J.E.

    2006-11-28

    The diffuse gamma radiation arising from the interaction of cosmic ray particles with matter and radiation in the Galaxy is one of the few probes available to study the origin of the cosmic rays. Milagro is a water Cherenkov detector that continuously views the entire overhead sky. The large field-of-view combined with the long observation time makes Milagro the most sensitive instrument available for the study of large, low surface brightness sources such as the diffuse gamma radiation arising from interactions of cosmic radiation with interstellar matter. In this paper we present spatial and flux measurements of TeV gamma-ray emission from the Cygnus Region. The TeV image shows at least one new source MGRO J2019+37 as well as correlations with the matter density in the region as would be expected from cosmic-ray proton interactions. However, the TeV gamma-ray flux as measured at {approx}12 TeV from the Cygnus region (after excluding MGRO J2019+37) exceeds that predicted from a conventional model of cosmic ray production and propagation. This observation indicates the existence of either hard-spectrum cosmic-ray sources and/or other sources of TeV gamma rays in the region.

  3. An upper limit on the high-energy gamma-ray emission of Vela X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, J. R.; Oegelman, H.; Kanbach, G.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the X-ray binary Vela X-1 was investigated by analyzing the COS-B satellite observations, using the COS-B X-ray detector for a phase coherent analysis in the search of rotational periodicity. The rotational upper limit is compared to the X-ray, TeV, and PeV fluxes reported by Chodil et al. (1967), North et al. (1984), and Protheroe et al. (1984), respectively. It was found that, under certain conditions, the upper limit determined here is not inconsistent with the reports of TeV and PeV emission.

  4. DETECTION OF EXTENDED VHE GAMMA RAY EMISSION FROM G106.3+2.7 WITH VERITAS

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Chow, Y. C.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Butt, Y.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W. E-mail: wakely@uchicago.ed

    2009-09-20

    We report the detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from supernova remnant (SNR) G106.3+2.7. Observations performed in 2008 with the VERITAS atmospheric Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope resolve extended emission overlapping the elongated radio SNR. The 7.3sigma (pre-trials) detection has a full angular extent of roughly 0.{sup 0}6 by 0.{sup 0}4. Most notably, the centroid of the VHE emission is centered near the peak of the coincident {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0) emission, 0.{sup 0}4 away from the pulsar PSR J2229+6114, situated at the northern end of the SNR. Evidently the current-epoch particles from the pulsar wind nebula are not participating in the gamma-ray production. The VHE energy spectrum measured with VERITAS is well characterized by a power law dN/dE = N {sub 0}(E/3 TeV){sup -G}AMMA with a differential index of GAMMA = 2.29 +- 0.33{sub stat} +- 0.30{sub sys} and a flux of N{sub 0} = (1.15 +- 0.27{sub stat} +- 0.35{sub sys}) x 10{sup -13} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}. The integral flux above 1 TeV corresponds to {approx}5 percent of the steady Crab Nebula emission above the same energy. We describe the observations and analysis of the object and briefly discuss the implications of the detection in a multiwavelength context.

  5. The Spectrum of Isotropic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission Between 100 Mev and 820 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Brandt, T. J.; Hays, E.; Perkins, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The gamma-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission, and a longer data accumulation of 50 months, allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature, and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 plus or minus 0.02 and a break energy of (279 plus or minus 52) GeV using our baseline diffuse Galactic emission model. The total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 plus or minus 0.6) x 10(exp -6) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) sr(exp -1) above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/-30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.

  6. X-Raying Extended Emission and Rapid Decay of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Yasuaki; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya; Toyanago, Asuka; Nakamura, Takashi; Takahashi, Keitaro; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Ioka, Kunihito

    2015-09-01

    Extended emission in short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) is a mystery. By conducting time-resolved spectral analyses of the nine brightest events observed by the Swift-XRT, we classify the early X-ray emission of SGRBs into two types. One is the extended emission with exponentially rapid decay, which shows significant spectral softening for hundreds of seconds after the SGRB trigger and is also detected by the Swift-BAT. The other is a dim afterglow that only shows power-law decay over 104 s. The correlations between the temporal decay and spectral indices of the extended emissions are inconsistent with the α-β correlation expected for the high-latitude curvature emission from a uniform jet. The observed too-rapid decay suggests that the emission is from a photosphere or a patchy surface, and manifests the stopping via a central engine such as magnetic reconnection at the black hole.

  7. X-RAYING EXTENDED EMISSION AND RAPID DECAY OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kagawa, Yasuaki; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya; Toyanago, Asuka; Nakamura, Takashi; Takahashi, Keitaro; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Ioka, Kunihito E-mail: yonetoku@astro.s.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2015-09-20

    Extended emission in short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) is a mystery. By conducting time-resolved spectral analyses of the nine brightest events observed by the Swift-XRT, we classify the early X-ray emission of SGRBs into two types. One is the extended emission with exponentially rapid decay, which shows significant spectral softening for  hundreds of seconds after the SGRB trigger and is also detected by the Swift-BAT. The other is a dim afterglow that only shows power-law decay over 10{sup 4} s. The correlations between the temporal decay and spectral indices of the extended emissions are inconsistent with the α–β correlation expected for the high-latitude curvature emission from a uniform jet. The observed too-rapid decay suggests that the emission is from a photosphere or a patchy surface, and manifests the stopping via a central engine such as magnetic reconnection at the black hole.

  8. Spectacular variability of gamma-ray emission in blazar 3C279 during the large outburst in June 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madejski, Grzegorz; Hayashida, Masaaki; Asano, Katsuaki; Thompson, David; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Sikora, Marek; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The most luminous celestial extragalactic sources of persistent gamma-ray emission are active galaxies with relativistic jets pointing towards the observer. Those are commonly called blazars, and Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar 3C 279 has been one of the brightest gamma-ray blazars in the sky. In Dec. 2013, April 2014, and June 2015 it showed powerful outbursts with the gamma-ray flux at E > 100 MeV higher than 1e-5 ph/cm2/s, measured by the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray detector. The Dec. 2013 outburst showed an unusually hard power-law gamma-ray spectrum (photon index ~1.7), and an asymmetric light curve profile with a few-hour time scale variability. The June 2015 outburst was extreme, with a record-breaking E > 100 MeV flux of 4e-5 ph/cm2/s, more than 10 × higher than the average gamma-ray flux of the Crab Nebula. The high flux prompted a Fermi-LAT Target of Opportunity pointing observation. The increase of exposure and the very high flux state of the source allowed us to resolve the gamma-ray flux on a sub-orbital time scales, revealing variability on time scales of tens of minutes. Here, we present the observational results of those outbursts from 3C279 with a focus on detailed analysis of the 2015 June outburst.

  9. GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVA REMNANT INTERACTION WITH MOLECULAR CLUMPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaping; Chevalier, R.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the middle-aged supernova remnants IC 443, W28, and W51C indicate that the brightnesses at GeV and TeV energies are correlated with each other and with regions of molecular clump interaction, but not with the radio synchrotron brightness. We suggest that the radio emission is primarily associated with a radiative shell in the interclump medium of a molecular cloud, while the Gamma-ray emission is primarily associated with the interaction of the radiative shell with molecular clumps. The shell interaction produces a high pressure region, so that the Gamma-ray luminosity can be approximately reproduced even if shock acceleration of particles is not efficient, provided that energetic particles are trapped in the cooling shell. In addition, the GeV through TeV emission can be produced in the interaction region if the trapping occurs to sufficiently high energies. Alternatively, diffusive acceleration may be efficient; in this case the observed GeV emission can be approximately reproduced, but not the TeV emission.

  10. MAGIC CONSTRAINTS ON {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM CYGNUS X-3

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Bock, R. K.; Tridon, D. Borla; Bordas, P.; Bosch-Ramon, V. E-mail: tysaito@mpp.mpg.d

    2010-09-20

    Cygnus X-3 is a microquasar consisting of an accreting compact object orbiting around a Wolf-Rayet star. It has been detected at radio frequencies and up to high-energy {gamma} rays (above 100 MeV). However, many models also predict a very high energy (VHE) emission (above hundreds of GeV) when the source displays relativistic persistent jets or transient ejections. Therefore, detecting such emission would improve the understanding of the jet physics. The imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope MAGIC observed Cygnus X-3 for about 70 hr between 2006 March and 2009 August in different X-ray/radio spectral states and also during a period of enhanced {gamma}-ray emission. MAGIC found no evidence for a VHE signal from the direction of the microquasar. An upper limit to the integral flux for energies higher than 250 GeV has been set to 2.2 x 10{sup -12} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (95% confidence level). This is the best limit so far to the VHE emission from this source. The non-detection of a VHE signal during the period of activity in the high-energy band sheds light on the location of the possible VHE radiation favoring the emission from the innermost region of the jets, where absorption is significant. The current and future generations of Cherenkov telescopes may detect a signal under precise spectral conditions.

  11. Constraints on the Location of the Gamma-Ray Emission Region for the Gamma-Ray-loud Radio Source GB 1310+487

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Shi-Ju

    2017-03-01

    We employ a single-zone leptonic jet model, with synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton, and external Compton (EC) processes, to reproduce the quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions in active and quiescent states of the narrow-line gamma-ray-loud radio source GB 1310+487. In the case of the EC process, the external seed photons from both the broad line region (BLR) and the dust torus are considered by assuming that the gamma-ray emission region is located at the outside boundary of the BLR and inside the dust torus. Comparing the energy density of external photon fields {U}{BLR} obtained by model fitting with that constrained from the BLR observations. We find that the location of the gamma-ray-emitting region of GB 1310+487 can be tightly constrained at the outer edge of the BLR (the dissipation distance of the γ-ray emission region from central black hole {r}{diss}∼ {{a}} {few} {times} {of} {R}{BLR}). The ratio of magnetic energy and emitting-electron energy in the radiation blob ({ε }B={L}B/{L}{{e}}) is gradually increased from Flare 1, to Flare 2, to Post-flare, where the magnetic energy increases and the matter energy decreases. These results suggest that the conversion of the magnetic field and the matter (radiation electrons) energy and the location of the γ-ray emission region (or ambient photon field) may play an important role in different radiation states of GB 1310+487.

  12. DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM CTA 1 BY VERITAS

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bouvier, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Benbow, W.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Dwarkadas, V. V.; Falcone, A. E-mail: smcarthur@ulysses.uchicago.edu; and others

    2013-02-10

    We report the discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission coincident with the shell-type radio supernova remnant (SNR) CTA 1 using the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory. The source, VER J0006+729, was detected as a 6.5 standard deviation excess over background and shows an extended morphology, approximated by a two-dimensional Gaussian of semimajor (semiminor) axis 0. Degree-Sign 30 (0. Degree-Sign 24) and a centroid 5' from the Fermi gamma-ray pulsar PSR J0007+7303 and its X-ray pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The photon spectrum is well described by a power-law dN/dE = N {sub 0}(E/3 TeV){sup -{Gamma}}, with a differential spectral index of {Gamma} = 2.2 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub sys}, and normalization N {sub 0} = (9.1 {+-} 1.3{sub stat} {+-} 1.7{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}. The integral flux, F {sub {gamma}} = 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 1 TeV, corresponds to 0.2% of the pulsar spin-down power at 1.4 kpc. The energetics, colocation with the SNR, and the relatively small extent of the TeV emission strongly argue for the PWN origin of the TeV photons. We consider the origin of the TeV emission in CTA 1.

  13. ORBITAL-PHASE-DEPENDENT {gamma}-RAY EMISSIONS FROM THE BLACK WIDOW PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, E. M. H.; Takata, J.; Cheng, K. S.; Huang, R. H. H.; Kong, A. K. H.; Tam, P. H. T.; Wu, J. H. K.; Hui, C. Y. E-mail: takata@hku.hk

    2012-12-20

    We report on evidence for orbital phase dependence of the {gamma}-ray emission from the PSR B1957+20 black widow system using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We divide an orbital cycle into two regions: one containing the inferior conjunction and the other containing the rest of the orbital cycle. We show that the observed spectra for the different orbital regions are fitted by different functional forms. The spectrum of the orbital region containing the inferior conjunction can be described by a power law with an exponential cutoff (PLE) model, which also gives the best-fit model for the orbital phase without the inferior conjunction, plus an extra component above {approx}2.7 GeV. The emission above 3 GeV in this region is detected with a {approx}7{sigma} confidence level. The {gamma}-ray data above {approx}2.7 GeV are observed to be modulated at the orbital period at the {approx}2.3{sigma} level. We anticipate that the PLE component dominant below {approx}2.7 GeV originates from the pulsar magnetosphere. We also show that inverse Compton scattering of the thermal radiation of the companion star off a ''cold'' ultrarelativistic pulsar wind can explain the extra component above {approx}2.7 GeV. The black widow pulsar PSR B1957+20 may be a member of a new class of object, in the sense that the system is showing {gamma}-ray emission with both magnetospheric and pulsar wind origins.

  14. FAINT HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY PHOTON EMISSION OF GRB 081006A FROM FERMI OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Weikang; Akerlof, Carl W.; Pandey, Shashi B.; McKay, Timothy A.; Zhang Binbin; Zhang Bing

    2012-01-20

    Since the launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope on 2008 June 11, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument has firmly detected more than 20 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV. Using the matched filter technique, three more GRBs have also shown evidence of correlation with high-energy photon emission as demonstrated by Akerlof et al. In this paper, we present another GRB, GRB 081006A, unambiguously detected by the matched filter technique. This event is associated with more than 13 high-energy photons above 100 MeV. The likelihood analysis code provided by the Fermi Science Support Center generated an independent verification of this detection using a comparison of the test statistics value with similar calculations for random LAT data fields. We have performed detailed temporal and spectral analysis of photons from 8 keV up to 0.8 GeV from the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the LAT. The properties of GRB 081006A can be compared to those of the other two long-duration GRBs detected at similar significance, GRB 080825C and GRB 090217A. We find that GRB 081006A is more similar to GRB 080825C with comparable appearances of late high-energy photon emission. As demonstrated previously, there appears to be a surprising dearth of faint LAT GRBs, with only one additional GRB identified in a sample of 74. In this unique period when both Swift and Fermi are operational, there is some urgency to explore this aspect of GRBs as fully as possible.

  15. Predictions of Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Cluster Millisecond Pulsars Above 100 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venter, C.; de Jaker, O.C.; Clapson, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The recent Fermi detection of the globular cluster (GC) 47 Tucanae highlighted the importance of modeling collective gamma-ray emission of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in GCs. Steady flux from such populations is also expected in the very high energy (VHE) domain covered by ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. We present pulsed curvature radiation (CR) as well as unpulsed inverse Compton (IC) calculations for an ensemble of MSPs in the GCs 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. We demonstrate that the CR from these GCs should be easily detectable for Fermi, while constraints on the total number of MSps and the nebular B-field may be derived using the IC flux components.

  16. SEARCH FOR PROMPT NEUTRINO EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH ICECUBE

    SciTech Connect

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; BenZvi, S.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; and others

    2015-05-20

    We present constraints derived from a search of four years of IceCube data for a prompt neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). A single low-significance neutrino, compatible with the atmospheric neutrino background, was found in coincidence with one of the 506 observed bursts. Although GRBs have been proposed as candidate sources for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, our limits on the neutrino flux disfavor much of the parameter space for the latest models. We also find that no more than ∼1% of the recently observed astrophysical neutrino flux consists of prompt emission from GRBs that are potentially observable by existing satellites.

  17. VARIABLE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE CRAB NEBULA: SHORT FLARES AND LONG 'WAVES'

    SciTech Connect

    Striani, E.; Tavani, M.; Vittorini, V.; Donnarumma, I.; Argan, A.; Cardillo, M.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Pacciani, L.; Piano, G.; Sabatini, S.; Bulgarelli, A.; Ferrari, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pittori, C.; and others

    2013-03-01

    Gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula has been recently shown to be unsteady. In this paper, we study the flux and spectral variability of the Crab above 100 MeV on different timescales ranging from days to weeks. In addition to the four main intense and day-long flares detected by AGILE and Fermi-LAT between 2007 September and 2012 September, we find evidence for week-long and less intense episodes of enhanced gamma-ray emission that we call 'waves'. Statistically significant 'waves' show timescales of 1-2 weeks, and can occur by themselves or in association with shorter flares. We present a refined flux and spectral analysis of the 2007 September-October gamma-ray enhancement episode detected by AGILE that shows both 'wave' and flaring behavior. We extend our analysis to the publicly available Fermi-LAT data set and show that several additional 'wave' episodes can be identified. We discuss the spectral properties of the 2007 September 'wave'/flare event and show that the physical properties of the 'waves' are intermediate between steady and flaring states. Plasma instabilities inducing 'waves' appear to involve spatial distances l {approx} 10{sup 16} cm and enhanced magnetic fields B {approx} (0.5-1) mG. Day-long flares are characterized by smaller distances and larger local magnetic fields. Typically, the deduced total energy associated with the 'wave' phenomenon (E{sub w} {approx} 10{sup 42} erg, where E{sub w} is the kinetic energy of the emitting particles) is comparable with that associated to the flares, and can reach a few percent of the total available pulsar spin-down energy. Most likely, flares and waves are the product of the same class of plasma instabilities that we show acting on different timescales and radiation intensities.

  18. Diffuse emission of high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Tamborra, Irene; Ando, Shin'ichiro E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl

    2015-09-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been suggested as possible sources of the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by the IceCube telescope. We revisit the fireball emission model and elaborate an analytical prescription to estimate the high-energy neutrino prompt emission from pion and kaon decays, assuming that the leading mechanism for the neutrino production is lepto-hadronic. To this purpose, we include hadronic, radiative and adiabatic cooling effects and discuss their relevance for long- (including high- and low-luminosity) and short-duration GRBs. The expected diffuse neutrino background is derived, by requiring that the GRB high-energy neutrino counterparts follow up-to-date gamma-ray luminosity functions and redshift evolutions of the long and short GRBs. Although dedicated stacking searches have been unsuccessful up to now, we find that GRBs could contribute up to a few % to the observed IceCube high-energy neutrino flux for sub-PeV energies, assuming that the latter has a diffuse origin. Gamma-ray bursts, especially low-luminosity ones, could however be the main sources of the IceCube high-energy neutrino flux in the PeV range. While high-luminosity and low-luminosity GRBs have comparable intensities, the contribution from the short-duration component is significantly smaller. Our findings confirm the most-recent IceCube results on the GRB searches and suggest that larger exposure is mandatory to detect high-energy neutrinos from high-luminosity GRBs in the near future.

  19. Pulsed emission of TeV gamma rays from Vela pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, P. N.; Gupta, S. K.; Ramanamurthy, P. V.; Sreekantan, B. V.; Vishwanath, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Ooty atmospheric Cerenkov array, consisting of 10 parabolic mirrors of 0.9 m diameter and 8 of 1.5 m diameter, was used for observations on the Vela pulsar to see if it emits gamma rays in the TeV energy range. During the winter of 1984-85, the array was split into two parts: (1) consisting wholly of the smaller mirrors, and (2) wholly of the bigger mirrors. The two arrays were operated at two different sites to distinguish a marginally significant genuine pulsar signal from spurious signals produced trivially by chance fluctuations in the background rates. All the mirrors were pointed at the celestial object to track it for durations of the order of 1 to 6 hours during clear moonless nights. The event time data is analyzed to detect a possible pulsed emission of TeV gamma rays using the contemporaneous pulsar elements on the basis of their radio observations on the Vela pulsar. Results from the analyses of observations made during the winters of 1982-83 and 1984-85 on steady pulsed emission and on possible transient emission is presented.

  20. Polarized synchrotron emission from the equatorial current sheet in gamma-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Benoît; Mortier, Jérémy; Philippov, Alexander A.

    2016-11-01

    Polarization is a powerful diagnostic tool to constrain the site of the high-energy pulsed emission and particle acceleration in gamma-ray pulsars. Recent particle-in-cell simulations of pulsar magnetosphere suggest that high-energy emission results from particles accelerated in the equatorial current sheet emitting synchrotron radiation. In this study, we re-examine the simulation data to compute the phase-resolved polarization properties. We find that the emission is mildly polarized and that there is an anti-correlation between the flux and the degree of linear polarization (on-pulse: ˜15 per cent, off-pulse: ˜30 per cent). The decrease of polarization during pulses is mainly attributed to the formation of caustics in the current sheet. Each pulse of light is systematically accompanied by a rapid swing of the polarization angle due to the change of the magnetic polarity when the line of sight passes through the current sheet. The optical polarization pattern observed in the Crab can be well-reproduced for a pulsar inclination angle ˜60° and an observer viewing angle ˜130°. The predicted high-energy polarization is a robust feature of the current sheet emitting scenario which can be tested by future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimetry instruments.

  1. Contribution of Point Sources to the Soft Gamma-Ray Galactic Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrier, R.; Lebrun, F.; Bélanger, G.; Goldwurm, A.; Strong, A. W.; Schoenfelder, V.; Bouchet, L.; Roques, J. P.; Parmar, A.

    2004-10-01

    The nature of the soft gamma-ray (20-200 keV) Galactic emission has been a matter of debate for a long time. Previous experiments have tried to sep- arate the point source contribution from the real in- terstellar emission, but with a rather poor spatial res- olution, they concluded that the interstellar emission could be a large fraction of the total Galactic emis- sion. INTEGRAL, having both high resolution and high sensitivity, is well suited to reassess more pre- cisely this problem. Using the INTEGRAL core pro- gram Galactic Center Deep Exposure (GCDE), we estimate the contribution of detected point sources to the total Galactic flux. Key words: Interstellar emission; INTEGRAL; IBIS/ISGRI.

  2. EARLY THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2013-02-10

    We performed a series of hydrodynamical calculations of an ultrarelativistic jet propagating through a massive star and the circumstellar matter (CSM) to investigate the interaction between the ejecta and the CSM. We succeed in distinguishing two qualitatively different cases in which the ejecta are shocked and adiabatically cool. To examine whether the cocoon expanding at subrelativistic speeds emits any observable signal, we calculate the expected photospheric emission from the cocoon. It is found that the emission can explain early thermal X-ray emission recently found in some long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The result implies that the difference of the circumstellar environment of long GRBs can be probed by observing their early thermal X-ray emission.

  3. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from AE Aquarii with Seven Years of Fermi-LAT Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F.; Rea, Nanda; de Oña Wilhelmi, Emma; Papitto, Alessandro; Hou, Xian; Mauche, Christopher W.

    2016-11-01

    AE Aquarii (AE Aqr) is a cataclysmic binary hosting one of the fastest rotating ({P}{spin} = 33.08 s) white dwarfs (WDs) known. Based on seven years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 data, we report on a deep search for gamma-ray emission from AE Aqr. Using X-ray observations from ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, Swift, Suzaku, and NuSTAR, spanning 20 years, we substantially extend and improve the spin ephemeris of AE Aqr. Using this ephemeris, we searched for gamma-ray pulsations at the spin period of the WD. No gamma-ray pulsations were detected above 3σ significance. Neither phase-averaged gamma-ray emission nor gamma-ray variability of AE Aqr is detected by Fermi LAT. We impose the most restrictive upper limit to the gamma-ray flux from AE Aqr to date: 1.3× {10}-12 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 100 MeV-300 GeV energy range, providing constraints on models.

  4. Modeling the Gamma-Ray Emission in the GALACTIC CENTER with a Fading Cosmic-ray Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Prosekin, Anton; Chang, Xiao-Chuan

    2016-12-01

    Recent HESS observations of the ∼200 pc scale diffuse gamma-ray emission from the central molecular zone (CMZ) suggest the presence of a PeV cosmic-ray accelerator (PeVatron) located in the inner 10 pc region of the Galactic center. Interestingly, the gamma-ray spectrum of the point-like source (HESS J1745-290) in the Galactic center shows a cutoff at ∼10 TeV, implying a cutoff around 100 TeV in the cosmic-ray proton spectrum. Here we propose that the gamma-ray emission from the inner and the outer regions may be explained self-consistently by run-away protons from a single yet fading accelerator. In this model, gamma-rays from the CMZ region are produced by protons injected in the past, while gamma-rays from the inner region are produced by protons injected more recently. We suggest that the blast wave formed in a tidal disruption event (TDE) caused by the supermassive black hole (Sgr A*) could serve as such a fading accelerator. With typical parameters of the TDE blast wave, gamma-ray spectra of both the CMZ region and HESS J1745-290 can be reproduced simultaneously. Meanwhile, we find that the cosmic-ray energy density profile in the CMZ region may also be reproduced in the fading accelerator model when appropriate combinations of the particle injection history and the diffusion coefficient of cosmic rays are adopted.

  5. Inverse Compton Origin of the Hard X-ray and Soft gamma-ray Emission from the Galactic Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Troy A.; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Orlando, Elena; Bouchet, Laurent

    2008-09-30

    A recent re-determination of the non-thermal component of the hard X-ray to soft {gamma}-ray emission from the Galactic ridge, using the SPI instrument on the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) Observatory, is shown to be well reproduced as inverse-Compton emission from the interstellar medium. Both cosmic-ray primary electrons and secondary electrons and positrons contribute to the emission. The prediction uses the GALPROP model and includes a new calculation of the interstellar radiation field. This may solve a long-standing mystery of the origin of this emission, and potentially opens a new window on Galactic cosmic rays.

  6. Cosmic Rays, Magnetic Fields and Diffuse Emissions: Combining Observations from Radio to Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelson, Peter

    With the advent of WMAP, Planck, and Fermi-LAT telescopes the diffuse emission from the Milky Way has received renewed attention. Observations of the different components of the diffuse emission reveal information on Cosmic Rays (CRs), magnetic fields (B-fields) and the interstellar medium. CRs interact with the interstellar medium and the B-fields in the Milky Way, producing diffuse emission from radio to gamma rays. The fundamental problem is that CRs, B-fields, and the interstellar medium are not precisely known. In fact, despite intensive studies, the B-field intensity and topology, and CR spectra and distribution throughout the Galaxy are still uncertain. As a consequence unequivocally disentangling and describing the diffuse components simultaneously using a single wavelength domain is impossible. Our approach to disentangling and describing the diffuse emission components is to simultaneously consider the diffuse emission in multiple frequency domains. We propose to exploit the entire database of the present radio surveys, microwave observations (WMAP and Planck), X-ray observations (INTEGRAL) and gamma-ray observations (COMPTEL and Fermi-LAT) in order to analyze their diffuse emission in a combined multi-wavelength approach. We will jointly infer information on the spectra and distribution of CRs in the Galaxy, and on Galactic B-fields, with unprecedented accuracy. Finally we will be able to describe the baseline Galactic diffuse emissions and characterize Milky Way structures and their emission mechanisms, which have attracted the attention of the scientific community recently. This project is innovative and essential for maximizing the scientific return from the presently available data in a multidisciplinary view and uses novel approaches. The results will benefit NASA-related science generally and the return from the named missions specifically.

  7. Gamma-ray emission from Cassiopeia A produced by accelerated cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhko, E. G.; Pühlhofer, G.; Völk, H. J.

    2003-03-01

    The nonlinear kinetic model of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) is used to describe the relevant properties of Cassiopeia A (Cas A). In order to reproduce the SNR's observed size, expansion rate and thermal X-ray emission we employ a piecewise homogeneous model for the progenitor's circumstellar medium developed by Borkowski et al. (\\cite{Borkowski_ApJ_1996_466}). It consists of a tenuous inner wind bubble, a dense shell of swept-up red supergiant wind material, and a subsequent red supergiant wind region. A quite large SNR interior magnetic field Bd~ 1 mG is required to give a good fit for the radio and X-ray synchrotron emission. The steep radio spectrum is consistent with efficient proton acceleration which produces a significant shock modification and leads to a steep electron spectrum at energies epsilon e<1 GeV. The calculated integral gamma -ray flux from Cas A, Fgamma ~ epsilon gamma -1, is dominated by pi 0-decay gamma -rays due to relativistic protons. It extends up to roughly 30 TeV if CR diffusion is as strong as the Bohm limit. At TeV energies it satisfactorily agrees with the value 5.8x 10-13 cm-2 s-1 detected by the HEGRA collaboration.

  8. Ultra-High Rate Measurements of Spent Fuel Gamma-Ray Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Douglas; Vandevender, Brent; Wood, Lynn; Glasgow, Brian; Taubman, Matthew; Wright, Michael; Dion, Michael; Pitts, Karl; Runkle, Robert; Campbell, Luke; Fast, James

    2014-03-01

    Presently there are over 200,000 irradiated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in the world, each containing a concerning amount of weapons-usable material. Both facility operators and safeguards inspectors want to improve composition determination. Current measurements are expensive and difficult so new methods are developed through models. Passive measurements are limited since a few specific decay products and the associated down-scatter overwhelm the gamma rays of interest. Active interrogation methods produce gamma rays beyond 3 MeV, minimizing the impact of the passive emissions that drop off sharply above this energy. New devices like the Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) detector are being developed to advance these novel measurement methods. Designed for reasonable resolution at 106 s-1 output rates (compared to ~ 1 - 10 e 3 s-1 standards), SNF samples were directly measured using UHRGe and compared to models. Model verification further enables using Los Alamos National Laboratory SNF assembly models, developed under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, to determine emission and signal expectations. Measurement results and future application requirements for UHRGe will be discussed.

  9. DETECTION OF PERSISTENT GAMMA-RAY EMISSION TOWARD SS433/W50

    SciTech Connect

    Bordas, P.; Yang, R.; Kafexhiu, E.; Aharonian, F. E-mail: ryang@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2015-07-01

    The microquasar SS433 features the most energetic jets known in our Galaxy. A large fraction of the jet kinetic power is delivered to the surrounding W50 nebula at the jet termination shock, from which high-energy emission and cosmic-ray production have been anticipated. Here, we report on the detection of a persistent gamma-ray signal obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope from an unidentified source that we tentatively associate, given its 99.9% confidence level position accuracy and the lack of any other high-energy emitter counterpart in the studied region, with SS433. The obtained spectral energy distribution displays a distinct maximum at ∼250 MeV and only extends up to ∼800 MeV. We discuss the possibility that the observed gamma-ray emission is produced through proton–proton collisions at the SS433/W50 interaction regions. If the same mechanism is operating in other baryon-loaded microquasar jets, their collective contribution could represent a significant fraction of the total galactic cosmic-ray flux at GeV energies.

  10. Milagro Search for Very High Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Swift Era

    SciTech Connect

    Saz Parkinson, P. M.

    2006-05-19

    The recently launched Swift satellite is providing an unprecedented number of rapid and accurate Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) localizations, facilitating a flurry of follow-up observations by a large number of telescopes at many different wavelengths. The Very High Energy (VHE, >100 GeV) regime has so far been relatively unexplored. Milagro is a wide field of view (2 sr) and high duty cycle (> 90%) ground-based gamma-ray telescope which employs a water Cherenkov detector to monitor the northern sky almost continuously in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range. We have searched the Milagro data for emission from the most recent GRBs identified within our field of view. These include three Swift bursts which also display late-time X-ray flares. We have searched for emission coincident with these flares. No significant detection was made. A 99% confidence upper limit is provided for each of the GRBs, as well as the flares.

  11. Probing gamma-ray emissions of Fermi-LAT pulsars with a non-stationary outer gap model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, J.; Ng, C. W.; Cheng, K. S.

    2016-02-01

    We explore a non-stationary outer gap scenario for gamma-ray emission process in pulsar magnetosphere. Electrons/positrons that migrate along the magnetic field line and enter the outer gap from the outer/inner boundaries activate the pair-creation cascade and high-energy emission process. In our model, the rate of the particle injection at the gap boundaries is key physical quantity to control the gap structure and properties of the gamma-ray spectrum. Our model assumes that the injection rate is time variable and the observed gamma-ray spectrum are superposition of the emissions from different gap structures with different injection rates at the gap boundaries. The calculated spectrum superposed by assuming power law distribution of the particle injection rate can reproduce sub-exponential cut-off feature in the gamma-ray spectrum observed by Fermi-LAT. We fit the phase-averaged spectra for 43 young/middle-age pulsars and 14 millisecond pulsars with the model. Our results imply that (1) a larger particle injection at the gap boundaries is more frequent for the pulsar with a larger spin-down power and (2) outer gap with an injection rate much smaller than the Goldreich-Julian value produces observed >10 GeV emissions. Fermi-LAT gamma-ray pulsars show that (i) the observed gamma-ray spectrum below cut-off energy tends to be softer for the pulsar with a higher spin-down rate and (ii) the second peak is more prominent in higher energy bands. Based on the results of the fitting, we describe possible theoretical interpretations for these observational properties. We also briefly discuss Crab-like millisecond pulsars that show phase-aligned radio and gamma-ray pulses.

  12. X-ray and gamma ray emission from petawatt laser-driven nanostructured metal targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Matthew; Allan, Peter; Brown, Colin; Hoarty, David; Hobbs, Lauren; James, Steven; Bargsten, Clayton; Hollinger, Reed; Rocca, Jorge; Park, Jaebum; Chen, Hui; London, Richard; Shepherd, Ronnie; Tommasini, Riccardo; Vinko, Sam; Wark, Justin; Marjoribanks, Robin; Neely, David; Spindloe, Chris

    2016-10-01

    Nano-wire arrays of nickel and gold have been fired at the Orion laser facility using high contrast 1 ω and 2 ω short pulse beams (0.7 ps pulse length, >1020 W cm-2 intensity). Time-resolved and time-integrated K-shell and M-shell emission have been characterized and compared to those of flat foils, investigating the capability of these metamaterial coatings to enhance laser-target coupling and X-ray emission. Bremsstrahlung emission of gamma rays and associated pair production via the Bethe-Heitler process have also been investigated by use of 1 mm-thick gold substrates attached to the gold nanowires. We present our latest experimental data and outline some potential future applications.

  13. Neutrino and cosmic-ray emission from multiple internal shocks in gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Baerwald, Philipp; Murase, Kohta; Winter, Walter

    2015-04-10

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short-lived, luminous explosions at cosmological distances, thought to originate from relativistic jets launched at the deaths of massive stars. They are among the prime candidates to produce the observed cosmic rays at the highest energies. Recent neutrino data have, however, started to constrain this possibility in the simplest models with only one emission zone. In the classical theory of GRBs, it is expected that particles are accelerated at mildly relativistic shocks generated by the collisions of material ejected from a central engine. Here we consider neutrino and cosmic-ray emission from multiple emission regions since these internal collisions must occur at very different radii, from below the photosphere all the way out to the circumburst medium, as a consequence of the efficient dissipation of kinetic energy. We demonstrate that the different messengers originate from different collision radii, which means that multi-messenger observations open windows for revealing the evolving GRB outflows.

  14. THE ORBIT AND COMPANION OF PROBABLE {gamma}-RAY PULSAR J2339-0533

    SciTech Connect

    Romani, Roger W.; Shaw, Michael S.

    2011-12-20

    We have measured dramatic flux and spectral variations through the 0.193 day orbit of the optical counterpart of the unidentified {gamma}-ray source 0FGL J2339.8-0530. This compact object companion is strongly heated, with T{sub eff} varying from {approx}6900 K (superior conjunction) to <3000 K at minimum. A combined fit to the light curve and radial velocity amplitudes imply M{sub 1} Almost-Equal-To 0.075 M{sub Sun }, M{sub 2} Almost-Equal-To 1.4M{sub Sun }, and inclination i Almost-Equal-To 57 Degree-Sign . Thus, this is a likely 'black widow' system with a E-dot {approx}10{sup 34-34.5} erg s{sup -1} pulsar driving companion mass loss. This wind, also suggested by the X-ray light curve, may prevent radio pulse detection. Our measurements constrain the pulsar's reflex motion, increasing the possibility of a pulse detection in the {gamma}-ray signal.

  15. GeV emission from gamma-ray bursts: a radiative fireball?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Nava, L.; Celotti, A.

    2010-04-01

    We study the emission observed at energies >100 MeV of 11 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) until 2009 October. The GeV emission has three main properties: (i) its duration is often longer than the duration of the softer emission detected by the Gamma Burst Monitor onboard Fermi (this confirms earlier results from the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope); (ii) its spectrum is consistent with Fν ~ ν-1 and does not show strong spectral evolution; and (iii) for the brightest bursts the flux detected by the LAT decays as a power law with a typical slope t-1.5. We argue that the observed >0.1 GeV flux can be interpreted as afterglow emission shortly following the start of the prompt phase emission as seen at smaller frequencies. The decay slope is what is expected if the fireball emission is produced in the radiative regime, i.e. all dissipated energy is radiated away. We also argue that the detectability in the GeV energy range depends on the bulk Lorentz factor Γ of the bursts, being strongly favoured in the case of large Γ. This implies that the fraction of bursts detected at high energies corresponds to the fraction of bursts having the largest Γ. The radiative interpretation can help to explain why the observed X-ray and optical afterglow energetics are much smaller than the energetics emitted during the prompt phase, despite the fact that the collision with the external medium should be more efficient than internal shocks in producing the radiation that we see.

  16. DISCOVERY OF HIGH-ENERGY AND VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BLAZAR RBS 0413

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bouvier, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Boettcher, M.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Decerprit, G.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Coppi, P.; Cui, W. E-mail: fortin@llr.in2p3.fr; and others

    2012-05-10

    We report on the discovery of high-energy (HE; E > 0.1 GeV) and very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object RBS 0413. VERITAS, a ground-based {gamma}-ray observatory, detected VHE {gamma} rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations ({sigma}) and a {gamma}-ray flux of (1.5 {+-} 0.6{sub stat} {+-} 0.7{sub syst}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1} ({approx}1% of the Crab Nebula flux) above 250 GeV. The observed spectrum can be described by a power law with a photon index of 3.18 {+-} 0.68{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub syst}. Contemporaneous observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected HE {gamma} rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of more than 9{sigma}, a power-law photon index of 1.57 {+-} 0.12{sub stat}+{sup 0.11}{sub -0.12sys}, and a {gamma}-ray flux between 300 MeV and 300 GeV of (1.64 {+-} 0.43{sub stat}{sup +0.31}{sub -0.22sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. We present the results from Fermi-LAT and VERITAS, including a spectral energy distribution modeling of the {gamma}-ray, quasi-simultaneous X-ray (Swift-XRT), ultraviolet (Swift-UVOT), and R-band optical (MDM) data. We find that, if conditions close to equipartition are required, both the combined synchrotron self-Compton/external-Compton and the lepto-hadronic models are preferred over a pure synchrotron self-Compton model.

  17. Modelling the high-energy emission from gamma-ray binaries using numerical relativistic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubus, G.; Lamberts, A.; Fromang, S.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Detailed modelling of the high-energy emission from gamma-ray binaries has been propounded as a path to pulsar wind physics. Aims: Fulfilling this ambition requires a coherent model of the flow and its emission in the region where the pulsar wind interacts with the stellar wind of its companion. Methods: We have developed a code that follows the evolution and emission of electrons in the shocked pulsar wind based on inputs from a relativistic hydrodynamical simulation. The code is used to model the well-documented spectral energy distribution and orbital modulations from LS 5039. Results: The pulsar wind is fully confined by a bow shock and a back shock. The particles are distributed into a narrow Maxwellian, emitting mostly GeV photons, and a power law radiating very efficiently over a broad energy range from X-rays to TeV gamma rays. Most of the emission arises from the apex of the bow shock. Doppler boosting shapes the X-ray and very high energy (VHE) lightcurves, constraining the system inclination to i ≈ 35°. There is tension between the hard VHE spectrum and the level of X-ray to MeV emission, which requires differing magnetic field intensities that are hard to achieve with constant magnetisation σ and Lorentz factor Γp of the pulsar wind. Our best compromise implies σ ≈ 1 and Γp ≈ 5 × 103, so respectively higher and lower than the typical values in pulsar wind nebulae. Conclusions: The high value of σ derived here, where the wind is confined close to the pulsar, supports the classical picture that has pulsar winds highly magnetised at launch. However, such magnetisations will require that further investigations are based on relativistic MHD simulations. Movies associated to Figs. A.1-A.4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Search for VHE {gamma}-ray emission in the vicinity of selected pulsars of the Northern Sky with VERITAS

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, Ester

    2008-12-24

    It is generally believed that pulsars dissipate their rotational energy through powerful winds of relativistic particles. Confinement of these winds leads to the formation of luminous pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) seen across the electromagnetic spectrum in synchrotron and inverse Compton emission. Recently, many new detections have been produced at the highest energies by Very High Energy (VHE){gamma}-ray observations, identifying PWNe as among the most common sources of galactic VHE {gamma}-ray emission. We report here on the preliminary results of a search for VHE {gamma}-ray emission towards a selection of energetic and/or close pulsars in the Northern hemisphere in the first year of operations of the full VERITAS array.

  19. Limits on neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts with the 40 string IceCube detector.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Bazo Alba, J L; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K-H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Geisler, M; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülss, J-P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K-H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kemming, N; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lehmann, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pérez de los Heros, C; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schoenwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Turčan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Voigt, B; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Weaver, C; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P

    2011-04-08

    IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if gamma-ray bursts are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above 10(18)  eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search for neutrinos from pγ interactions in the prompt phase of the gamma-ray burst fireball and the other a generic search for any neutrino emission from these sources over a wide range of energies and emission times, produced no evidence for neutrino emission, excluding prevailing models at 90% confidence.

  20. Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has revolutionized the study of pulsar physics with the detection of over 80 gamma-ray pulsars. Several new populations have been discovered, including 24 radio quiet pulsars found through gamma-ray pulsations alone and about 20 millisecond gamma-ray pulsars. The gamma-ray pulsations from millisecond pulsars were discovered by both folding at periods of known radio millisecond pulsars or by detecting them as gamma-ray sources that are followed up by radio pulsar searches. The second method has resulted in a phenomenally successful synergy, with -35 new radio MSPs (to date) having been discovered at Fermi unidentified source locations and the gamma-ray pulsations having then been detected in a number of these using the radio timing solutions. The higher sensitivity and larger energy range of the Fermi Large Area Telescope has produced detailed energy-dependent light curves and phase-resolved spectroscopy on brighter pulsars, that have ruled out polar cap models as the major source of the emission in favor of outer magnetosphere accelerators. The large number of gamma-ray pulsars now allows for the first time meaningful population and sub-population studies that are revealing surprising properties of these fascinating sources.

  1. TeV Gamma Ray Emission from Nearby Pulsar Wind Nebulae with HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao; Salesa Greus, Francisco; López-Coto, Rubén; Benzvi, Segev; Casanova, Sabrina; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae are considered efficient electron/positron accelerators in our Galaxy. It has been suggested that particles accelerated by nearby pulsar wind nebulae, such as Geminga, would possibly account for the observed multi-GeV positron excess. The Geminga pulsar is one of the closest middle-aged pulsars and its pulsations were first discovered in X-rays. Milagro reported an extended TeV source spatially coincident with the Geminga pulsar, but IACT observations using standard analysis techniques have only provided upper limits. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located in central Mexico at 4100 m above sea level, is sensitive to gamma rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. With a field of view of 2 steradians, HAWC has a good sensitivity to extended sources such as pulsar wind nebulae. Early data collected with HAWC reveals an extended source coincident with the Geminga pulsar, similar to what Milagro has reported. We will present results of spectral and morphological analyses on extended TeV gamma-ray emission from Geminga and other nearby pulsar wind nebulae with HAWC data. The interpretation of whether positrons from nearby pulsar wind nebulae can explain the observed positron excess will be discussed as well.

  2. AN OBSERVED CORRELATION BETWEEN THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL EMISSION IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Burgess, J.; Preece, Robert D.; Ryde, Felix; Axelsson, Magnus; Veres, Peter; Mészáros, Peter; Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael; Bhat, P. N.; Pelassa, Veronique; Pe'er, Asaf; Iyyani, Shabnam; Goldstein, Adam; Byrne, David; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Foley, Suzanne; Kocevski, Daniel; Omodei, Nicola; Paciesas, William S. E-mail: rob.preece@nasa.gov E-mail: veres@gwu.edu; and others

    2014-04-01

    Recent observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have confirmed the existence of thermal and non-thermal components in the prompt photon spectra of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Through an analysis of six bright Fermi GRBs, we have discovered a correlation between the observed photospheric and non-thermal γ-ray emission components of several GRBs using a physical model that has previously been shown to be a good fit to the Fermi data. From the spectral parameters of these fits we find that the characteristic energies, E {sub p} and kT, of these two components are correlated via the relation E {sub p}∝T {sup α} which varies from GRB to GRB. We present an interpretation in which the value of the index α indicates whether the jet is dominated by kinetic or magnetic energy. To date, this jet composition parameter has been assumed in the modeling of GRB outflows rather than derived from the data.

  3. Gamma-ray burst prompt emission light curves and power density spectra in the ICMART model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-02-20

    In this paper, we simulate the prompt emission light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) within the framework of the Internal-Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection and Turbulence (ICMART) model. This model applies to GRBs with a moderately high magnetization parameter σ in the emission region. We show that this model can produce highly variable light curves with both fast and slow components. The rapid variability is caused by many locally Doppler-boosted mini-emitters due to turbulent magnetic reconnection in a moderately high σ flow. The runaway growth and subsequent depletion of these mini-emitters as a function of time define a broad slow component for each ICMART event. A GRB light curve is usually composed of multiple ICMART events that are fundamentally driven by the erratic GRB central engine activity. Allowing variations of the model parameters, one is able to reproduce a variety of light curves and the power density spectra as observed.

  4. Development of marijuana and tobacco detectors using potassium-40 gamma ray emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.; Lindquist, R.P.

    1994-06-01

    Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, Ca. border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992 to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.

  5. Development of marijuana and tobacco detectors using potassium-40 gamma-ray emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, John A.; Lindquist, Roy P.

    1994-10-01

    Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, CA, border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992, to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.

  6. THE {gamma}-RAY SPECTRUM OF GEMINGA AND THE INVERSE COMPTON MODEL OF PULSAR HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2012-09-20

    We reanalyze the Fermi spectra of the Geminga and Vela pulsars. We find that the spectrum of Geminga above the break is well approximated by a simple power law without the exponential cutoff, making Geminga's spectrum similar to that of Crab. Vela's broadband {gamma}-ray spectrum is equally well fit with both the exponential cutoff and the double power-law shapes. In the broadband double power-law fits, for a typical Fermi spectrum of a bright {gamma}-ray pulsar, most of the errors accumulate due to the arbitrary parameterization of the spectral roll-off. In addition, a power law with an exponential cutoff gives an acceptable fit for the underlying double power-law spectrum for a very broad range of parameters, making such fitting procedures insensitive to the underlying Fermi photon spectrum. Our results have important implications for the mechanism of pulsar high-energy emission. A number of observed properties of {gamma}-ray pulsars-i.e., the broken power-law spectra without exponential cutoffs and stretching in the case of Crab beyond the maximal curvature limit, spectral breaks close to or exceeding the maximal breaks due to curvature emission, patterns of the relative intensities of the leading and trailing pulses in the Crab repeated in the X-ray and {gamma}-ray regions, presence of profile peaks at lower energies aligned with {gamma}-ray peaks-all point to the inverse Compton origin of the high-energy emission from majority of pulsars.

  7. A Measurement of the Spatial Distribution of Diffuse TeV Gamma Ray Emission from the Galactic Plane with Milagro

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A.A.; Allen, B.; Aune, T.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Casanova, S.; Chen, C.; Dingus, B.L.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Fleysher, L.; Fleysher, R.; Gonzalez, M.M.; Goodman, J.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; H'untemeyer, P.H.; Kolterman, B.E.; Lansdell, C.P.; Linnemann, J.T.; McEnery, J.E.; Mincer, A.I.; Nemethy, I.V.Moskalenko P.

    2008-05-14

    Diffuse {gamma}-ray emission produced by the interaction of cosmic-ray particles with matter and radiation in the Galaxy can be used to probe the distribution of cosmic rays and their sources in different regions of the Galaxy. With its large field of view and long observation time, the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory is an ideal instrument for surveying large regions of the Northern Hemisphere sky and for detecting diffuse {gamma}-ray emission at very high energies. Here, the spatial distribution and the flux of the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission in the TeV energy range with a median energy of 15 TeV for Galactic longitudes between 30{sup o} and 110{sup o} and between 136{sup o} and 216{sup o} and for Galactic latitudes between -10{sup o} and 10{sup o} are determined. The measured fluxes are consistent with predictions of the GALPROP model everywhere except for the Cygnus region (l {element_of} [65{sup o}, 85{sup o}]). For the Cygnus region, the flux is twice the predicted value. This excess can be explained by the presence of active cosmic ray sources accelerating hadrons which interact with the local dense interstellar medium and produce gamma rays through pion decay.

  8. Predictions on Optical Emissions Associated with Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celestin, Sebastien; Xu, Wei; Pasko, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts originating from the Earth's atmosphere. After their discovery in 1994 by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) detector aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory [Fishman et al., Science, 264, 1313, 1994], this phenomenon has been further observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) [Smith et al., Science, 307, 1085, 2005], the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope [Briggs et al., JGR, 115, A07323, 2010] and the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite [Marisaldi et al., JGR, 115, A00E13, 2010]. Measurements have correlated TGFs with initial development stages of normal polarity intracloud lightning that transports negative charge upward (+IC) [e.g., Lu et al., GRL, 37, L11806, 2010; JGR, 116, A03316, 2011]. Recently, Østgaard et al. [GRL, 40, 2423, 2013] have reported for the first time space-based observations of optical emissions from TGF-associated IC lightning flashes. The purpose of the present work is to predict the intensities of optical emissions resulting from the excitation of air molecules by the large amount of low- and high-energy electrons involved in TGF events based on two production mechanisms: relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) [Dwyer and Smith, GRL, 32, L22804, 2005] and production of runaway electrons by high-potential +IC lightning leaders [e.g., Celestin and Pasko, JGR, 116, A03315, 2011; Xu et al., GRL, 39, L08801, 2012]. We use a Monte Carlo model to simulate the propagation of electrons in either large-scale homogeneous electric fields sustaining RREAs or highly inhomogeneous electric fields produced around the lightning leaders tips region. A model similar to that described in [Liu and Pasko, JGR, 109, A04301, 2004] is used to estimate intensities from the first and second positive band systems of N2 and the first negative band system of N2+. The optical emissions produced by RREAs are compared to

  9. Prompt Emission of GRB 121217A from Gamma-Rays to the Near-Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, J.; Yu, H.-F.; Schmidl, S.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Oates, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Zhang, B.; Cummings, J. R.; Filgas, R.; Gehrels, N.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism that causes the prompt-emission episode of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still widely debated despite there being thousands of prompt detections. The favoured internal shock model relates this emission to synchrotron radiation. However, it does not always explain the spectral indices of the shape of the spectrum, which is often fit with empirical functions, such as the Band function. Multi-wavelength observations are therefore required to help investigate the possible underlying mechanisms that causes the prompt emission. We present GRB 121217A, for which we were able to observe its near-infrared (NIR) emission during a secondary prompt-emission episode with the Gamma-Ray burst Optical Near-infrared Detector (GROND) in combination with the Swift and Fermi satellites, which cover an energy range of 5 orders of magnitude (10(exp -3) keV to 100 keV). We determine a photometric redshift of z = 3.1 +/- 0.1 with a line-of-sight with little or no extinction (AV approx. 0 mag) utilising the optical/NIR SED. From the afterglow, we determine a bulk Lorentz factor of Gamma(sub 0) approx. 250 and an emission radius of R < 1018 cm. The prompt-emission broadband spectral energy distribution is well fit with a broken power law with beta1 = -0.3 +/- 0.1 and beta2 = 0.6 +/- 0.1 that has a break at E = 6.6 +/- 0.9 keV, which can be interpreted as the maximum injection frequency. Self-absorption by the electron population below energies of Ea < 6 keV suggest a magnetic field strength of B approx. 10(exp 5) G. However, all the best fit models underpredict the flux observed in the NIR wavelengths, which also only rebrightens by a factor of approx. 2 during the second prompt emission episode, in stark contrast to the X-ray emission, which rebrightens by a factor of approx. 100. This suggests an afterglow component is dominating the emission. We present GRB 121217A, one of the few GRBs that has multi-wavelength observations of the prompt-emission period and shows that it can

  10. A Model for Axions Producing Extended gamma-ray Emission from Neutron Star J0108-1431

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenji, Bijan; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Axions are hypothetical particles proposed to solve the strong CP problem in QCD and may constitute a significant fraction of the dark matter in the Universe. Axions are expected to be produced in neutron stars and subsequently decay, producing gamma-rays detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). Considering that light axions may travel a long range before they decay into gamma rays, neutron stars may appear as a spatially-extended source of gamma rays. We extend our previous search for gamma rays from axions, based on a point source model, to consider the neutron star as an extended source of gamma rays.We investigate the spatial emission of gamma rays using phenomenological models. We present models including the fundamental astrophysics and relativistic, extended gamma-ray emission from axions around neutron stars. A Monte Carlo simulation of the LAT gives us an expectation for the extended angular profile and spectrum. We predict a mean angular spread of 0.8 degrees with energies in the range 30-200 MeV. We consider projected sensitivities for mass limits on axions from J0108-1431, a neutron star at a distance of 240 pc. We demonstrate the feasibility of setting more stringent limits for axions in this mass range, excluding a range not probed by observations before. Based on the extended angular profile of the source, the expected sensitivity of the 95% CL upper limit on the axion mass from J0108-1431 is >10 meV. We also consider observational strategies in the search for axions from J0108-1431 with the Fermi-LAT.

  11. Current Sheets in Pulsar Magnetospheres and Winds: Particle Acceleration and Pulsed Gamma Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arons, Jonathan

    The research proposed addresses understanding of the origin of non-thermal energy in the Universe, a subject beginning with the discovery of Cosmic Rays and continues, including the study of relativistic compact objects - neutron stars and black holes. Observed Rotation Powered Pulsars (RPPs) have rotational energy loss implying they have TeraGauss magnetic fields and electric potentials as large as 40 PetaVolts. The rotational energy lost is reprocessed into particles which manifest themselves in high energy gamma ray photon emission (GeV to TeV). Observations of pulsars from the FERMI Gamma Ray Observatory, launched into orbit in 2008, have revealed 130 of these stars (and still counting), thus demonstrating the presence of efficient cosmic accelerators within the strongly magnetized regions surrounding the rotating neutron stars. Understanding the physics of these and other Cosmic Accelerators is a major goal of astrophysical research. A new model for particle acceleration in the current sheets separating the closed and open field line regions of pulsars' magnetospheres, and separating regions of opposite magnetization in the relativistic winds emerging from those magnetopsheres, will be developed. The currents established in recent global models of the magnetosphere will be used as input to a magnetic field aligned acceleration model that takes account of the current carrying particles' inertia, generalizing models of the terrestrial aurora to the relativistic regime. The results will be applied to the spectacular new results from the FERMI gamma ray observatory on gamma ray pulsars, to probe the physics of the generation of the relativistic wind that carries rotational energy away from the compact stars, illuminating the whole problem of how compact objects can energize their surroundings. The work to be performed if this proposal is funded involves extending and developing concepts from plasma physics on dissipation of magnetic energy in thin sheets of

  12. Evidence of pre-equilibrium {gamma}-ray emission in heavy ion collisions at intermediate incident energies

    SciTech Connect

    Tudisco, S.; Di Pietro, A.; Pappalardo, G.; Rizzo, F.; Amorini, F.; Cardella, G.; Papa, M.; Figuera, P.; Musumarra, A.; Lanzalone, G.; Pirrone, S.

    1999-11-16

    The experimental results of {sup 40}Ca+{sup 48}Ca,{sup 40}Ca,{sup 46}Ti reactions are reported. The comparison between {gamma}-ray spectra measured in coincidence with fusion evaporation residues for the three colliding systems shows a clear evidence of pre-equilibrium {gamma}-rays emission in the region around 10 MeV. BNV simulations also predict this emission. The saturation of GDR strength with temperature has been found with some dependence on the colliding system.

  13. Constraining the High-Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with Fermi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Racusin, J. L.; Sonbas, E.; Stamatikos, M.; Guirec, S.

    2012-01-01

    We examine 288 GRBs detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field-of-view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fits presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the nuF(sub v) spectra (E(sub pk)). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E(sub pk) than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for a cut-off in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to gamma gamma attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. All of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.

  14. Search for VHE gamma-ray emission from the globular cluster M13 with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCutcheon, Michael Warren

    2012-06-01

    Globular clusters, such as M13, are very dense star clusters and are known to contain many more millisecond pulsars per unit mass than the galaxy as a whole. These pulsars are concentrated in the core regions of globulars and are expected to generate relativistic winds of electrons. Such energetic electrons may then interact with the intense field of optical photons, which is supported by the numerous normal stars of the cluster, to generate Very High-Energy (VHE) gamma rays. Herein, this emission model, as implemented by Bednarek & Sitarek (2007), is described and justified in more detail and data from observations of M13, undertaken to confront this model, are analysed. No evidence for VHE gamma-ray emission from M13 is found. A decorrelated, integral upper limit of 0.306 × 10-12 cm -2 s-1 above 0.8 TeV, at a confidence level of 95%, is determined. Spectral upper limits are also determined and compared to emission curves presented in Bednarek & Sitarek (2007). A detailed examination of the parameters of the model is performed and it is found that the predicted curves were based upon over-optimistic estimations of several of these. Nonetheless, the model can be related to existing theories of pulsar winds and, thereby, it is found that the acceleration of electrons in millisecond pulsar winds (outside pulsar light-cylinders) to TeV energies is excluded by these observations, under self-consistent assumptions of the properties of this population of millisecond pulsars.

  15. FERMI-LAT DISCOVERY OF GeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANT CASSIOPEIA A

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M. E-mail: uchiyama@slac.stanford.edu

    2010-02-10

    We report on the first detection of GeV high-energy gamma-ray emission from a young supernova remnant (SNR) with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. These observations reveal a source with no discernible spatial extension detected at a significance level of 12.2{sigma} above 500 MeV at a location that is consistent with the position of the remnant of the supernova explosion that occurred around 1680 in the Cassiopeia constellation-Cassiopeia A (Cas A). The gamma-ray flux and spectral shape of the source are consistent with a scenario in which the gamma-ray emission originates from relativistic particles accelerated in the shell of this remnant. The total content of cosmic rays (electrons and protons) accelerated in Cas A can be estimated as W {sub CR} {approx_equal} (1-4) x 10{sup 49} erg thanks to the well-known density in the remnant assuming that the observed gamma ray originates in the SNR shell(s). The magnetic field in the radio-emitting plasma can be robustly constrained as B {>=} 0.1 mG, providing new evidence of the magnetic field amplification at the forward shock and the strong field in the shocked ejecta.0.

  16. Fermi-LAT Discovery of GeV Gamma-ray Emission from the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A.A.

    2011-08-19

    We report on the first detection of GeV high-energy gamma-ray emission from a young supernova remnant with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. These observations reveal a source with no discernible spatial extension detected at a significance level of 12.2{sigma} above 500 MeV at a location that is consistent with the position of the remnant of the supernova explosion that occurred around 1680 in the Cassiopeia constellation - Cassiopeia A. The gamma-ray flux and spectral shape of the source are consistent with a scenario in which the gamma-ray emission originates from relativistic particles accelerated in the shell of this remnant. The total content of cosmic rays (electrons and protons) accelerated in Cas A can be estimated as W{sub CR} {approx_equal} (1-4) x 10{sup 49} erg thanks to the well-known density in the remnant assuming that the observed gamma-ray originates in the SNR shell(s). The magnetic field in the radio-emitting plasma can be robustly constrained as B {ge} 0.1 mG, providing new evidence of the magnetic field amplification at the forward shock and the strong field in the shocked ejecta.

  17. FERMI DETECTION OF {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM THE M2 SOFT X-RAY FLARE ON 2010 JUNE 12

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Burgess, J. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P. E-mail: francesco.longo@trieste.infn.it E-mail: dgruber@mpe.mpg.de [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS and others

    2012-02-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) M2-class solar flare, SOL2010-06-12T00:57, was modest in many respects yet exhibited remarkable acceleration of energetic particles. The flare produced an {approx}50 s impulsive burst of hard X- and {gamma}-ray emission up to at least 400 MeV observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope experiments. The remarkably similar hard X-ray and high-energy {gamma}-ray time profiles suggest that most of the particles were accelerated to energies {approx}>300 MeV with a delay of {approx}10 s from mildly relativistic electrons, but some reached these energies in as little as {approx}3 s. The {gamma}-ray line fluence from this flare was about 10 times higher than that typically observed from this modest GOES class of X-ray flare. There is no evidence for time-extended >100 MeV emission as has been found for other flares with high-energy {gamma}-rays.

  18. Fermi-LAT Discovery of Extended Gamma-Ray Emission in the Direction of Supernova Remnant W51C

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A.A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M.G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; /more authors..

    2012-03-30

    The discovery of bright gamma-ray emission coincident with supernova remnant (SNR) W51C is reported using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. W51C is a middle-aged remnant ({approx}10{sup 4} yr) with intense radio synchrotron emission in its shell and known to be interacting with a molecular cloud. The gamma-ray emission is spatially extended, broadly consistent with the radio and X-ray extent of SNR W51C. The energy spectrum in the 0.2-50 GeV band exhibits steepening toward high energies. The luminosity is greater than 1 x 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1} given the distance constraint of D > 5.5 kpc, which makes this object one of the most luminous gamma-ray sources in our Galaxy. The observed gamma-rays can be explained reasonably by a combination of efficient acceleration of nuclear cosmic rays at supernova shocks and shock-cloud interactions. The decay of neutral p mesons produced in hadronic collisions provides a plausible explanation for the gamma-ray emission. The product of the average gas density and the total energy content of the accelerated protons amounts to {bar n}{sub H} W{sub p} {approx_equal} 5 x 10{sup 51} (D/6 kpc){sup 2} erg cm{sup -3}. Electron density constraints from the radio and X-ray bands render it difficult to explain the LAT signal as due to inverse Compton scattering. The Fermi LAT source coincident with SNR W51C sheds new light on the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

  19. Broad Line Radio Galaxies Observed with Fermi-LAT: The Origin of the GeV Gamma-Ray Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, J.; Stawarz, L.; Takahashi, Y.; Cheung, C.C.; Hayashida, M.; Grandi, P.; Burnett, T.H.; Celotti, A.; Fegan, S.J.; Fortin, P.; Maeda, K.; Nakamori, T.; Taylor, G.B.; Tosti, G.; Digel, S.W.; McConville, W.; Finke, J.; D'Ammando, F.; /IASF, Palermo /INAF, Rome

    2012-06-07

    We report on a detailed investigation of the {gamma}-ray emission from 18 broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) based on two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. We confirm the previously reported detections of 3C 120 and 3C 111 in the GeV photon energy range; a detailed look at the temporal characteristics of the observed {gamma}-ray emission reveals in addition possible flux variability in both sources. No statistically significant {gamma}-ray detection of the other BLRGs was however found in the considered dataset. Though the sample size studied is small, what appears to differentiate 3C 111 and 3C 120 from the BLRGs not yet detected in {gamma}-rays is the particularly strong nuclear radio flux. This finding, together with the indications of the {gamma}-ray flux variability and a number of other arguments presented, indicate that the GeV emission of BLRGs is most likely dominated by the beamed radiation of relativistic jets observed at intermediate viewing angles. In this paper we also analyzed a comparison sample of high accretion-rate Seyfert 1 galaxies, which can be considered radio-quiet counterparts of BLRGs, and found none were detected in {gamma}-rays. A simple phenomenological hybrid model applied for the broad-band emission of the discussed radio-loud and radio-quiet type 1 active galaxies suggests that the relative contribution of the nuclear jets to the accreting matter is {ge} 1% on average for BLRGs, while {le} 0.1% for Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  20. Pulsed Gamma Rays from the Original Millisecond and Black Widow Pulsars: A Case for Caustic Radio Emission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemot, L.; Johnson, T. J.; Venter, C.; Kerr, M.; Pancrazi, B.; Livingstone, M.; Janssen, G. H.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Kramer, M.; Cognard, I.; Stappers, B. W.; Harding, A. K.; Camilo, F.; Espinoza, C. M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Gargano, F.; Grove, J. E.; Johnston, S.; Michelson, P. F.; Noutsos, A.; Parent, D.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Shannon, R.; Smith, D. A.; Theureau, G.; Thorsett, S. E.; Webb, N.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-ray emission from the fast millisecond pulsars (MSPs) B1937+21 (also known as J1939+2134) and B1957+20 (J1959+2048) using 18 months of survey data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and timing solutions based on radio observations conducted at the Westerbork and Nançay radio telescopes. In addition, we analyzed archival Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and XMM-Newton X-ray data for the two MSPs, confirming the X-ray emission properties of PSR B1937+21 and finding evidence (~4σ) for pulsed emission from PSR B1957+20 for the first time. In both cases the gamma-ray emission profile is characterized by two peaks separated by half a rotation and are in close alignment with components observed in radio and X-rays. These two pulsars join PSRs J0034-0534 and J2214+3000 to form an emerging class of gamma-ray MSPs with phase-aligned peaks in different energy bands. The modeling of the radio and gamma-ray emission profiles suggests co-located emission regions in the outer magnetosphere.

  1. PULSED GAMMA RAYS FROM THE ORIGINAL MILLISECOND AND BLACK WIDOW PULSARS: A CASE FOR CAUSTIC RADIO EMISSION?

    SciTech Connect

    Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Noutsos, A.; Johnson, T. J.; Harding, A. K.; Venter, C.; Kerr, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Pancrazi, B.; Livingstone, M.; Janssen, G. H.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Espinoza, C. M.; Cognard, I.; Camilo, F.; Gargano, F.; Grove, J. E.; Johnston, S. E-mail: tyrel.j.johnson@gmail.com E-mail: kerrm@stanford.edu; and others

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-ray emission from the fast millisecond pulsars (MSPs) B1937+21 (also known as J1939+2134) and B1957+20 (J1959+2048) using 18 months of survey data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and timing solutions based on radio observations conducted at the Westerbork and Nancay radio telescopes. In addition, we analyzed archival Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and XMM-Newton X-ray data for the two MSPs, confirming the X-ray emission properties of PSR B1937+21 and finding evidence ({approx}4{sigma}) for pulsed emission from PSR B1957+20 for the first time. In both cases the gamma-ray emission profile is characterized by two peaks separated by half a rotation and are in close alignment with components observed in radio and X-rays. These two pulsars join PSRs J0034-0534 and J2214+3000 to form an emerging class of gamma-ray MSPs with phase-aligned peaks in different energy bands. The modeling of the radio and gamma-ray emission profiles suggests co-located emission regions in the outer magnetosphere.

  2. Pulsed Gamma Rays from the Original Millisecond and Black Widow Pulsars: A Case for Caustic Radio Emission?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillemot, L.; Johnson, T. J.; Venter, C.; Kerr, M.; Pancrazi, B.; Livingstone, M.; Janssen, G. H.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Kramer, M.; Cognard, I.; Stappers, B. W.; Harding, A. K.; Camilo, F.; Espinoza, C. M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Gargano, F.; Grove, J. E.; Johnston, S.; Michelson, P. F.; Noutsos, A.; Parent, D.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Shannon, R.; Smith, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-ray emission from the fast millisecond pulsars (MSPs) B1937+21 (also known as J1939+2134) and B1957+20 (J1959+2048) using 18 months of survey data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and timing solutions based on radio observations conducted at the Westerbork and Nancay radio telescopes. In addition, we analyzed archival RXTE and XMM-Newton X-ray data for the two MSPs, confirming the X-ray emission properties of PSR B1937+21 and finding evidence (approx. 4(sigma)) for pulsed emission from PSR B1957+20 for the first time. In both cases the gamma-ray emission profile is characterized by two peaks separated by half a rotation and are in close alignment with components observed in radio and X-rays. These two pulsars join PSRs J0034..0534 and J2214+3000 to form an emerging class of gamma-ray MSPs with phase-aligned peaks in different energy bands. The modeling of the radio and gamma-ray emission pro les suggests co-located emission regions in the outer magnetosphere.

  3. Boron analysis for neutron capture therapy using particle-induced gamma-ray emission.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Kei; Yamamoto, Yohei; Okamoto, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Fumiyo; Matsumura, Akira; Yamada, Naoto; Kitamura, Akane; Koka, Masashi; Satoh, Takahiro

    2015-12-01

    The neutron source of BNCT is currently changing from reactor to accelerator, but peripheral facilities such as a dose-planning system and blood boron analysis have still not been established. To evaluate the potential application of particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) for boron measurement in clinical boron neutron capture therapy, boronophenylalanine dissolved within a cell culture medium was measured using PIGE. PIGE detected 18 μgB/mL f-BPA in the culture medium, and all measurements of any given sample were taken within 20 min. Two hours of f-BPA exposure was required to create a boron distribution image. However, even though boron remained in the cells, the boron on the cell membrane could not be distinguished from the boron in the cytoplasm.

  4. VERY HIGH EFFICIENCY PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION IN LONG-DURATION {gamma}-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2009-07-20

    We numerically analyze the evolution of a long-duration gamma-ray burst jet as it leaves the progenitor star and propagates to the photospheric radius, where radiation can be released. We find that the interaction of the relativistic material with the progenitor star has influences well beyond the stellar surface. Tangential collimation shocks are observed throughout the jet evolution, out to about 100 stellar radii, which is the whole range of our simulation. We find that the jet is internally hot at the photospheric radius and we compute the photospheric emission. The photosphere is a very efficient radiator, capable of converting more than half of the total energy of the jet into radiation. We show that bright photospheres are a common feature of jets born inside massive progenitor stars and that this effect can explain the high radiative efficiency observed in long-duration bursts.

  5. Development of a Reference Database for Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, P.; Becker, H.-W.; Bogdanović-Radović, I.; Chiari, M.; Goncharov, A.; Jesus, A. P.; Kakuee, O.; Kiss, A. Z.; Lagoyannis, A.; Räisänen, J.; Strivay, D.; Zucchiatti, A.

    2016-03-01

    Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) is a powerful analytical technique that exploits the interactions of rapid charged particles with nuclei located near a sample surface to determine the composition and structure of the surface regions of solids by measurement of characteristic prompt γ rays. The potential for depth profiling of this technique has long been recognized, however, the implementation has been limited owing to insufficient knowledge of the physical data and lack of suitable user-friendly computer codes for the applications. Although a considerable body of published data exists in the nuclear physics literature for nuclear reaction cross sections with γ rays in the exit channel, there is no up-to-date, comprehensive compilation specifically dedicated to IBA applications. A number of PIGE cross-section data had already been uploaded to the Ion Beam Analysis Nuclear Data Library (IBANDL)

  6. Search for Doppler-shifted gamma-ray emission from SS 433 using the SMM spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geldzahler, B. J.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.; Magura, J.; Chupp, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    Data accumulated from 1980 to 1983 with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were searched for evidence of red and blue Doppler-shifted 1.37 MeV Mg-24 nuclear lines from SS 433. The SMM data base covers 270 days when SS 433 was in the field of view and includes periods of radio flaring and quiescence. No evidence was found for Doppler-shifted line emission in any of the spectra. The range of 3-sigma upper limits for individual 9 day integration periods was 0.0008-0.0023 photons/sq cm per sec for the blue beam, encompassing the reported about 1.5 MeV line, and 0.0008-0.002 photons/sq cm per sec for the red beam, encompassing the reported about 1.2 MeV line; the average 3-sigma upper limit in each beam for shifted about 1.37 MeV lines is 0.0015 photons/sq cm per sec for single 9 day integrations. The 3-sigma upper limit on 1.37 MeV gamma-ray emission over 23 9-day integration intervals for the red beam and 28 intervals for the blue beam is 0.0002 photons/sq cm per sec. These new limits from SMM can be reconciled with the HEAO 3 results only if SS 433 emits gamma radiation at or above the SMM sensitivity limit on rare occasions due to variable physical conditions in the system.

  7. Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Cosmic gamma rays, the physical processes responsible for their production and the astrophysical sites from which they were seen are reported. The bulk of the observed gamma ray emission is in the photon energy range from about 0.1 MeV to 1 GeV, where observations are carried out above the atmosphere. There are also, however, gamma ray observations at higher energies obtained by detecting the Cerenkov light produced by the high energy photons in the atmosphere. Gamma ray emission was observed from sources as close as the Sun and the Moon and as distant as the quasar 3C273, as well as from various other galactic and extragalactic sites. The radiation processes also range from the well understood, e.g. energetic particle interactions with matter, to the still incompletely researched, such as radiation transfer in optically thick electron positron plasmas in intense neutron star magnetic fields.

  8. Modeling the Delayed Emission in the 2005 Mkn 501 Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Flare

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarek, Wlodek; Wagner, Robert

    2008-12-24

    Recently, the MAGIC collaboration reported evidence for a delay in the arrival times of photons of different energies during a {gamma}-ray flare from the blazar Markarian 501 on 2005 July 9. We describe the observed delayed high-energy emission by applying a homogeneous synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model under the assumption that the blob, containing relativistic electrons, was observed in its acceleration phase. This modified SSC model predicts the appearance of a {gamma}-ray flare first at lower energies and subsequently at higher energies. Based on the reported time delay, we predict a delay on the order of 1 h if observed between 10 GeV and 100 GeV, which can be tested in the future by simultaneous flare observations using, e.g., the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope and Cerenkov telescopes.

  9. LYNX: An unattended sensor system for detection of gamma-ray and neutron emissions from special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Kiff, Scott D.; Sidor, Daniel E.; Morris, Scott J.; Rohrer, John S.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Pfund, David M.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Bowler, Ryan S.; Mullen, Crystal A.

    2009-01-21

    This manuscript profiles an unattended and fully autonomous detection system sensitive to gamma-ray and neutron emissions from special nuclear material. The LYNX design specifically targets applications that require radiation detection capabilities but possess little or no infrastructure. In these settings, users need the capability to deploy sensors for extended periods of time that analyze whatever signal-starved data can be captured, since little or no control may be exerted over measurement conditions. The fundamental sensing elements of the LYNX system are traditional NaI(Tl) and 3He detectors. The new developments reported here center on two themes: low-power electronics and computationally simple analysis algorithms capable of discriminating gamma-ray signatures indicative of special nuclear materials from those of naturally occurring radioactive material. Incorporating tripwire-detection algorithms based on gamma-ray spectral signatures into a low-power electronics package significantly improves performance in environments where sensors encounter nuisance sources.

  10. INTEGRAL Observations of the Galactic 511 keV Emission and MeV Gamma-ray Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Although there are a number of interesting phenomena, such as Nucleosynthesis in stars, in the MeV energy region, the observations have been difficult due to a small signal to noise (background) ratio (less than 1%). While NASA's Compton Gamma-ray Observatory (CGRO) enabled us to explore the Gamma-ray universe, ESA's INTEGRAL mission, launched in 2002, is providing us more detailed information with its superior energy and angular resolution. We will briefly discuss some of the current issues in MeV Gamma-ray Astrophysics. Then, we will focus on the Galactic 511 keV emission with the latest INTEGRAL observations, and talk about challenges we currently have.

  11. Scattered emission from a relativistic outflow and its application to gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, R.-F.; Barniol Duran, R.; Kumar, P.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate a scenario of photon scattering by electrons within a relativistic outflow. The outflow is composed of discrete shells with different speeds. One shell emits radiation for a short duration. Some of this radiation is scattered by the shell(s) behind. We calculate in a simple two-shell model the observed scattered flux density as a function of the observed primary flux density, the normalized arrival time delay between the two emission components, the Lorentz factor ratio of the two shells and the scattering shell's optical depth. Thomson scattering in a cold shell and inverse Compton scattering in a hot shell are both considered. The results of our calculations are applied to the gamma-ray bursts and the afterglows. We find that the scattered flux from a cold slower shell is small and likely to be detected only for those bursts with very weak afterglows. A hot scattering shell could give rise to a scattered emission as bright as the X-ray shallow decay component detected in many bursts, on a condition that the isotropically equivalent total energy carried by the hot electrons is large, ~1052-1056 erg. The scattered emission from a faster shell could appear as a late short γ-ray/MeV flash or become part of the prompt emission depending on the delay of the ejection of the shell.

  12. Multi-epoch study of the gamma-ray emission within the M87 magnetosphere model

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, S.

    2015-05-01

    M87 is a nearby radio galaxy that has been detected at energies ranging from radio to very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays. Its proximity and its jet, misaligned from the line of sight allow detailed morphological studies. The imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique (from 100 GeV to 10 TeV) provides insufficient angular resolution (few arc-minutes) to resolve the M87 emission region. However, the short time scale variability observed by MAGIC, HESS and VERITAS suggests the TeV emission is coming from a very small region, most likely close to the core. We propose that the variable TeV emission may be produced in a pair-starved region of the central black hole (BH) magnetosphere, i.e. a region where the density of the electron-positron plasma is not sufficient to completely screen the accelerating electric field. The funnel, a low density and magnetically dominated region around the poles, appears as a favourable site of low-density where a Blandford-Znajek process may explain the main properties of the TeV γ-ray emission from M87. We produce a broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of the resulting radiation and compare the model with the observed fluxes from the nucleus of M87, for both low and high γ-ray activities. We finish with a brief discussion on the connection between the accretion rate and the intermittence in the formation of gaps in the magnetosphere.

  13. A NOVEL PARADIGM FOR SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH EXTENDED X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Rezzolla, Luciano; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-04-01

    The merger of a binary of neutron stars provides natural explanations for many of the features of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs), such as the generation of a hot torus orbiting a rapidly rotating black hole, which can then build a magnetic jet and provide the energy reservoir to launch a relativistic outflow. However, this scenario has problems explaining the recently discovered long-term and sustained X-ray emission associated with the afterglows of a subclass of SGRBs. We propose a new model that explains how an X-ray afterglow can be sustained by the product of the merger and how the X-ray emission is produced before the corresponding emission in the gamma-band, though it is observed to follow it. Overall, our paradigm combines in a novel manner a number of well-established features of the emission in SGRBs and results from simulations. Because it involves the propagation of an ultra-relativistic outflow and its interaction with a confining medium, the paradigm also highlights a unifying phenomenology between short and long GRBs.

  14. Gamma-ray Burst Reverse Shock Emission in Early Radio Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resmi, Lekshmi; Zhang, Bing

    2016-07-01

    Reverse shock (RS) emission from gamma-ray bursts is an important tool in investigating the nature of the ejecta from the central engine. If the magnetization of the ejecta is not high enough to suppress the RS, a strong RS emission component, usually peaking in the optical/IR band early on, would provide an important contribution to early afterglow light curve. In the radio band, synchrotron self-absorption may suppress early RS emission and also delay the RS peak time. In this paper, we calculate the self-absorbed RS emission in the radio band under different dynamical conditions. In particular, we stress that the RS radio emission is subject to self-absorption in both RSs and forward shocks (FSs). We calculate the ratio between the RS to FS flux at the RS peak time for different frequencies, which is a measure of the detectability of the RS emission component. We then constrain the range of physical parameters for a detectable RS, in particular the role of magnetization. We notice that unlike optical RS emission which is enhanced by moderate magnetization, moderately magnetized ejecta do not necessarily produce a brighter radio RS due to the self-absorption effect. For typical parameters, the RS emission component would not be detectable below 1 GHz unless the medium density is very low (e.g., n < 10-3 cm-3 for the interstellar medium and A * < 5 × 10-4 for wind). These predictions can be tested using the afterglow observations from current and upcoming radio facilities such as the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, the Low-Frequency Array, the Five Hundred Meter Aperture Spherical Telescope, and the Square Kilometer Array.

  15. EGRET upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars in nearby globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, P. F.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K.; Chiang, J.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a number of globular clusters. The observations were done as part of an all-sky survey by the energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during Phase I of the CGRO mission (1991 June to 1992 November). Several theoretical models suggest that MSPs may be sources of high-energy gamma radiation emitted either as primary radiation from the pulsar magnetosphere or as secondary radiation generated by conversion into photons of a substantial part of the relativistic e(+/-) pair wind expected to flow from the pulsar. To date, no high-energy emission has been detected from an individual MSP. However, a large number of MSPs are expected in globular cluster cores where the formation rate of accreting binary systems is high. Model predictions of the total number of pulsars range in the hundreds for some clusters. These expectations have been reinforced by recent discoveries of a substantial number of radio MSPs in several clusters; for example, 11 have been found in 47 Tucanae (Manchester et al.). The EGRET observations have been used to obtain upper limits for the efficiency eta of conversion of MSP spin-down power into hard gamma rays. The upper limits are also compared with the gamma-ray fluxes predicted from theoretical models of pulsar wind emission (Tavani). The EGRET limits put significant constraints on either the emission models or the number of pulsars in the globular clusters.

  16. Studies of Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Emission with RHESSI and NCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellm, Eric Christopher

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous objects in the universe. They herald a catastrophic energy release which manifests itself in tenths to hundreds of seconds of irregular gamma-ray emission. This initial "prompt" emission is followed by "afterglow" emission at other wavelengths that fades smoothly over hours to years. GRB prompt emission has been observed with ever-increasing sophistication for more than four decades, but many details of its origin remain unknown. While GRBs are under-stood to result from relativistic jets produced by violent reconfigurations of compact objects, the composition of the outflow, the means of energy dissipation, and the radiative processes underlying the observed emission are all uncertain. I review the present understanding of all facets of GRB science in Chapter 1. Gamma-ray spectroscopy and polarimetry provide two channels for testing models of GRB prompt emission with observed data. In Chapters 2--4, I employ the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to conduct broad-band time-resolved spectroscopy of bright GRBs. RHESSI is a solar observatory that uses nine coaxial germanium detectors for imaging and spectroscopy of solar flares. Because the detectors are unshielded, RHESSI also records counts from off-axis sources like GRBs. In Chapter 2, I detail the methods I use for analyzing RHESSI GRB data. In Chapter 3, I conduct joint spectral analysis of bursts co-observed by RHESSI and Swift-BAT, enabling spectral modeling over a wide 15 keV--17 MeV band. These results reveal the difficulty of predicting the peak spectral energy of a burst from BAT observations alone. While GRB spectra commonly have been assumed to be non-thermal and have been fit by purely phenomenological models, some authors have proposed that thermal emission from the GRB photosphere may be the source of the GRB spectral peak. In Chapter 4, I perform time-resolved spectroscopy of bright GRBs observed by RHESSI and compare the fit

  17. DISCOVERY OF VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SNR G54.1+0.3

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Butt, Y.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Finnegan, G. E-mail: wakely@uchicago.ed

    2010-08-10

    We report the discovery of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from the direction of the SNR G54.1+0.3 using the VERITAS ground-based gamma-ray observatory. The TeV signal has an overall significance of 6.8{sigma} and appears pointlike given the resolution of the instrument. The integral flux above 1 TeV is 2.5% of the Crab Nebula flux and significant emission is measured between 250 GeV and 4 TeV, well described by a power-law energy spectrum dN/dE {approx} E {sup -{Gamma}} with a photon index {Gamma} = 2.39 {+-} 0.23{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub sys}. We find no evidence of time variability among observations spanning almost two years. Based on the location, the morphology, the measured spectrum, the lack of variability, and a comparison with similar systems previously detected in the TeV band, the most likely counterpart of this new VHE gamma-ray source is the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the SNR G54.1+0.3. The measured X-ray to VHE gamma-ray luminosity ratio is the lowest among all the nebulae supposedly driven by young rotation-powered pulsars, which could indicate a particle-dominated PWN.

  18. Fermi Detection of Gamma-Ray Emission from the M2 Soft X-Ray Flare on 2010 June 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhat, P. N.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Briggs, M. S.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgess, J. M.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Gruber, D.; Troja, E.; Casandjian, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The GOES M2-class solar flare, SOL2010-06-12T00:57, was modest in many respects yet exhibited remarkable acceleration of energetic particles. The flare produced an approximately 50 s impulsive burst of hard X- and gamma-ray emission up to at least 400 MeV observed by the Fermi GBM and LAT experiments. The remarkably similar hard X-ray and high-energy gamma-ray time profiles suggest that most of the particles were accelerated to energies greater than or equal to 300 MeV with a delay of approximately 10 s from mildly relativistic electrons, but some reached these energies in as little as approximately 3 s. The gamma-ray line fluence from this flare was about ten times higher than that typically observed from this modest GOES class of X-ray flare. There is no evidence for time-extended greater than 100 MeV emission as has been found for other flares with high-energy gamma rays.

  19. Constraining Gamma-Ray Emission from Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Fermi-LAT; Tentative Detection of Arp 220

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Thompson, Todd A.

    2016-05-01

    Star-forming galaxies produce gamma-rays primarily via pion production, resulting from inelastic collisions between cosmic-ray protons and the interstellar medium (ISM). The dense ISM and high star formation rates of luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) imply that they should be strong gamma-ray emitters, but so far only two LIRGs have been detected. Theoretical models for their emission depend on the unknown fraction of cosmic-ray protons that escape these galaxies before interacting. We analyze Fermi-LAT data for 82 of the brightest Infrared Astronomical Satellite LIRGs and ULIRGs. We examine each system individually and carry out a stacking analysis to constrain their gamma-ray fluxes. We report the detection of the nearest ULIRG Arp 220 (˜4.6σ). We observe a gamma-ray flux (0.8-100 GeV) of 2.4 × 10-10 phot cm-2 s-1 with a photon index of 2.23 (8.2 × 1041 erg s-1 at 77 Mpc). We also derive upper limits (ULs) for the stacked LIRGs and ULIRGs. The gamma-ray luminosity of Arp 220 and the stacked ULs agree with calorimetric predictions for dense star-forming galaxies. With the detection of Arp 220, we extend the gamma-ray-IR luminosity correlation to the high-luminosity regime with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.25× {log}{L}8-1000μ {{m}}+26.7 as well as the gamma-ray-radio continuum luminosity correlation with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.22× {log}{L}1.4{GHz}+13.3. The current survey of Fermi-LAT is on the verge of detecting more LIRGs/ULIRGs in the local universe, and we expect even more detections with deeper Fermi-LAT observations or the next generation of gamma-ray detectors.

  20. Meson Synchrotron Emission from Central Engines of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Strong Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Tokuhisa; Kajino

    1999-11-10

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are presumed to be powered by the still unknown central engines with timescales in the range from 1 ms to approximately a few seconds. We propose that the GRB central engines would be a viable site for strong meson synchrotron emission if they were compact astrophysical objects, such as neutron stars or rotating black holes with extremely strong magnetic fields (H approximately 1012-1017 G), and if protons or heavy nuclei were accelerated to ultrarelativistic energies on the order of approximately 1012-1022 eV. We show that the charged scalar mesons like pi+/- and heavy vector mesons like rho, which have several decay modes onto pi+/-, could be emitted, with a high intensity that is a thousand times larger than photons, through strong couplings to ultrarelativistic nucleons. These meson synchrotron emission processes eventually produce a burst of very high energy cosmic neutrinos with 1012 eV

  1. Magnetically insulated diode for generating pulsed neutron and gamma ray emissions

    DOEpatents

    Kuswa, G.W.; Leeper, R.J.

    1984-08-16

    A magnetically insulated diode employs a permanent magnet to generate a magnetic insulating field between a spaced anode and cathode in a vacuum. An ion source is provided in the vicinity of the anode and used to liberate ions for acceleration toward the cathode. The ions are virtually unaffected by the magnetic field and are accelerated into a target for generating a nuclear reaction. The ions and target material may be selected to generate either neutrons or gamma ray emissions from the reaction of the accelerated ions and the target. In another aspect of the invention, a field coil is employed as part of one of the electrodes. A plasma prefill is provided between the electrodes prior to the application of a pulsating potential to one of the electrodes. The field coil multiplies the applied voltage for high diode voltage applications. The diode may be used to generate a /sup 7/Li(p,..gamma..)/sup 8/Be reaction to produce 16.5 MeV gamma emission.

  2. Magnetically insulated diode for generating pulsed neutron and gamma ray emissions

    DOEpatents

    Kuswa, Glenn W.; Leeper, Ramon J.

    1987-01-01

    A magnetically insulated diode employs a permanent magnet to generate a magnetic insulating field between a spaced anode and cathode in a vacuum. An ion source is provided in the vicinity of the anode and used to liberate ions for acceleration toward the cathode. The ions are virtually unaffected by the magnetic field and are accelerated into a target for generating an nuclear reaction. The ions and target material may be selected to generate either neutrons or gamma ray emissions from the reaction of the accelerated ions and the target. In another aspect of the invention, a field coil is employed as part of one of the electrodes. A plasma prefill is provided between the electrodes prior to the application of a pulsating potential to one of the electrodes. The field coil multiplies the applied voltage for high diode voltage applications. The diode may be used to generate a .sup.7 Li(p,.gamma.).sup.8 Be reaction to produce 16.5 MeV gamma emission.

  3. TeV range detection prospects of short gamma-ray bursts with extended emission episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Peter; Mészáros, Peter

    I will discuss GeV to TeV emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) within the refreshed shock and the continuous injection scenarios, motivated by the observation of extended emission in a substantial fraction of short GRBs. In the first model we assume that the central engine emits promptly material with a range of Lorentz factors. When the fastest shell starts to decelerate, it drives a forward shock into the ambient medium and a reverse shock in the ejecta. These shocks are reenergized by the slower and later arriving material. In the second model we assume that there is a continued ejection of material over an extended time, and the continuously arriving new material keeps reenergizing the shocks formed by the preceding shells of ejecta. I calculated the synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton radiation components for the forward and reverse shocks and find that prospective and current GeV to TeV range instruments such as CTA, HAWC, VERITAS, MAGIC and HESS have a good chance to detect afterglows of the bursts, assuming a reasonable response time.

  4. Evidence of the Exponential Decay Emission in the Swift Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Sato, G.; Hill, J.E.; Krimm, H.A.; Yamazaki, R.; Takami, K.; Swindell, S.; Osborne, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the steep decay emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT). In contrast to the analysis in recent literature, instead of extrapolating the data of Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) down into the XRT energy range, we extrapolated the XRT data up to the BAT energy range, 15-25 keV, to produce the BAT and XRT composite light curve. Based on our composite light curve fitting, we have confirmed the existence of an exponential decay component which smoothly connects the BAT prompt data to the XRT steep decay for several GRBs. We also find that the XRT steep decay for some of the bursts can be well fitted by a combination of a power-law with an exponential decay model. We discuss that this exponential component may be the emission from an external shock and a sign of the deceleration of the outflow during the prompt phase.

  5. POTENTIAL GAMMA-RAY EMISSIONS FROM LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian-Fu; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Tong; Xue, Li; Lu, Ju-Fu E-mail: guwm@xmu.edu.cn

    2015-06-20

    By proposing a pure leptonic radiation model, we study the potential gamma-ray emissions from the jets of low-mass X-ray binaries. In this model, the relativistic electrons that are accelerated in the jets are responsible for radiative outputs. Nevertheless, jet dynamics are dominated by magnetic and proton–matter kinetic energies. The model involves all kinds of related radiative processes and considers the evolution of relativistic electrons along the jet by numerically solving the kinetic equation. Numerical results show that the spectral energy distributions can extend up to TeV bands, in which synchrotron radiation and synchrotron self-Compton scattering are dominant components. As an example, we apply the model to the low-mass X-ray binary GX 339–4. The results not only can reproduce the currently available observations from GX 339–4, but also predict detectable radiation at GeV and TeV bands by the Fermi and CTA telescopes. Future observations with Fermi and CTA can be used to test our model, which could be employed to distinguish the origin of X-ray emissions.

  6. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SYNCHROTRON EMISSION MECHANISM IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Beniamini, Paz; Piran, Tsvi E-mail: tsvi.piran@mail.huji.ac.il

    2013-05-20

    We reexamine the general synchrotron model for gamma-ray bursts' (GRBs') prompt emission and determine the regime in the parameter phase space in which it is viable. We characterize a typical GRB pulse in terms of its peak energy, peak flux, and duration and use the latest Fermi observations to constrain the high-energy part of the spectrum. We solve for the intrinsic parameters at the emission region and find the possible parameter phase space for synchrotron emission. Our approach is general and it does not depend on a specific energy dissipation mechanism. Reasonable synchrotron solutions are found with energy ratios of 10{sup -4} < {epsilon}{sub B}/{epsilon}{sub e} < 10, bulk Lorentz factor values of 300 < {Gamma} < 3000, typical electrons' Lorentz factor values of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} < {gamma}{sub e} < 10{sup 5}, and emission radii of the order 10{sup 15} cm < R < 10{sup 17} cm. Most remarkable among those are the rather large values of the emission radius and the electron's Lorentz factor. We find that soft (with peak energy less than 100 keV) but luminous (isotropic luminosity of 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 53}) pulses are inefficient. This may explain the lack of strong soft bursts. In cases when most of the energy is carried out by the kinetic energy of the flow, such as in the internal shocks, the synchrotron solution requires that only a small fraction of the electrons are accelerated to relativistic velocities by the shocks. We show that future observations of very high energy photons from GRBs by CTA could possibly determine all parameters of the synchrotron model or rule it out altogether.

  7. Gamma-ray emission from globular clusters. Shock high energy emission from the Be-Star/Pulsar System PSR 1259-63. Echoes in x-ray novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    1995-01-01

    This grant covers work on the Compton phase 3 investigation, 'Shock High Energy Emission from the Be- Star/Pulsar System PSR 1259-63' and cycle 4 investigations 'Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at High Latitudes' and 'Echoes in X-Ray Novae'. Work under the investigation 'Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at High Latitudes' has lead to the publication of a paper (attached), describing gamma-ray emissivity variations in the northern galactic hemisphere. Using archival EGRET data, we have found a large irregular region of enhanced gamma-ray emissivity at energies greater 100 MeV. This is the first observation of local structure in the gamma-ray emissivity. Work under the investigation 'Echoes in X-Ray Novae' is proceeding with analysis of data from OSSE from the transient source GRO J1655-40. The outburst of this source last fall triggered this Target of Opportunity investigation. Preliminary spectral analysis shows emission out to 600 keV and a pure power low spectrum with no evidence of an exponential cutoff. Work is complete on the analysis of BATSE data from the Be-Star/Pulsar Sustem PSR 1259-63.

  8. A search for pre- and post-burst emission from well-localized gamma-ray burst locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emslie, A. Gordon

    1994-01-01

    We present the results from the first long-term search for nonburst gamma-ray emission from the positions of 70 intense, well-localized bursts. Using the BATSE occultation technique, designed for monitoring of discrete sources, these burst positions were measured in the energy range of approximately 15 keV to 1.8 MeV over a 112 day interval during 1991. None of these 70 locations exhibited detectable emission at or above the level of approximately 5 x 10(exp -9) ergs cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) during the 112 day interval. This level is approximately 1000 times less than the typical intensity of the burst associated with the given location. In addition, 35 intense gamma-ray bursts detected by BATSE were examined in a five day interval centered on the time of detection. We find no compelling evidence that these bursts emit preburst emission or display prompt postburst emission at a level of approximately 5 x 10(exp -9) ergs cm(exp 2) s(exp -1) on timescales of approximately 1 hr or longer. The lack of detectable long-term emission or preburst and postburst emission from the positions of gamma-ray bursts has important consequences for a variety of burst production models.

  9. Phenomenology of reverse-shock emission in the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Japelj, J.; Kopač, D.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Harrison, R.; Virgili, F. J.; Mundell, C. G.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A. E-mail: andreja.gomboc@fmf.uni-lj.si

    2014-04-20

    We use a parent sample of 118 gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, with known redshift and host galaxy extinction, to separate afterglows with and without signatures of dominant reverse-shock (RS) emission and to determine which physical conditions lead to a prominent reverse-shock emission. We identify 10 GRBs with reverse-shock signatures: 990123, 021004, 021211, 060908, 061126, 080319B, 081007, 090102, 090424, and 130427A. By modeling their optical afterglows with reverse- and forward-shock analytic light curves and using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate the parameter space of the physical quantities describing the ejecta and circumburst medium. We find that physical properties cover a wide parameter space and do not seem to cluster around any preferential values. Comparing the rest-frame optical, X-ray, and high-energy properties of the larger sample of non-RS-dominated GRBs, we show that the early-time (<1 ks) optical spectral luminosity, X-ray afterglow luminosity, and γ-ray energy output of our reverse-shock dominated sample do not differ significantly from the general population at early times. However, the GRBs with dominant reverse-shock emission have fainter than average optical forward-shock emission at late times (>10 ks). We find that GRBs with an identifiable reverse-shock component show a high magnetization parameter R {sub B} = ε{sub B,r}/ε{sub B,f} ∼ 2-10{sup 4}. Our results are in agreement with the mildly magnetized baryonic jet model of GRBs.

  10. DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION TOWARD SUPERNOVA REMNANT SNR G78.2+2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; and others

    2013-06-20

    We report the discovery of an unidentified, extended source of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission, VER J2019+407, within the radio shell of the supernova remnant SNR G78.2+2.1, using 21.4 hr of data taken by the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory in 2009. These data confirm the preliminary indications of gamma-ray emission previously seen in a two-year (2007-2009) blind survey of the Cygnus region by VERITAS. VER J2019+407, which is detected at a post-trials significance of 7.5 standard deviations in the 2009 data, is localized to the northwestern rim of the remnant in a region of enhanced radio and X-ray emission. It has an intrinsic extent of 0.23 Degree-Sign .23 {+-} 0. Degree-Sign 03{sub stat-0 Degree-Sign .02sys}{sup +0 Degree-Sign .04} and its spectrum is well-characterized by a differential power law (dN/dE = N{sub 0} Multiplication-Sign (E/TeV){sup -{Gamma}}) with a photon index of {Gamma} = 2.37 {+-} 0.14{sub stat} {+-} 0.20{sub sys} and a flux normalization of N{sub 0} = 1.5 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.4{sub sys} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} photon TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. This yields an integral flux of 5.2 {+-} 0.8{sub stat} {+-} 1.4{sub sys} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} photon cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 320 GeV, corresponding to 3.7% of the Crab Nebula flux. We consider the relationship of the TeV gamma-ray emission with the GeV gamma-ray emission seen from SNR G78.2+2.1 as well as that seen from a nearby cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays. Multiple scenarios are considered as possible origins for the TeV gamma-ray emission, including hadronic particle acceleration at the SNR shock.

  11. Impulsive and long duration high-energy gamma-ray emission from the very bright 2012 March 7 solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Charles, E.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Cecchi, C.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Caraveo, P. A. E-mail: vahep@stanford.edu; and others

    2014-07-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detected gamma-rays up to 4 GeV from two bright X-class solar flares on 2012 March 7, showing both an impulsive and temporally extended emission phases. The gamma-rays appear to originate from the same active region as the X-rays associated with these flares. The >100 MeV gamma-ray flux decreases monotonically during the first hour (impulsive phase) followed by a slower decrease for the next 20 hr. A power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff can adequately describe the photon spectrum. Assuming that the gamma rays result from the decay of pions produced by accelerated protons and ions with a power-law spectrum, we find that the index of that spectrum is ∼3, with minor variations during the impulsive phase. During the extended phase the photon spectrum softens monotonically, requiring the proton index varying from ∼4 to >5. The >30 MeV proton flux observed by the GOES satellites also shows a flux decrease and spectral softening, but with a harder spectrum (index ∼2-3). Based on these observations, we explore the relative merits of prompt or continuous acceleration scenarios, hadronic or leptonic emission processes, and acceleration at the solar corona or by the fast coronal mass ejections. We conclude that the most likely scenario is continuous acceleration of protons in the solar corona that penetrate the lower solar atmosphere and produce pions that decay into gamma rays. However, acceleration in the downstream of the shock cannot be definitely ruled out.

  12. Search for Polarization from the Prompt Gamma-Ray Emission of GRB 041219 with SPI on INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalemci, E.; Boggs, S. E.; Kouvelitou, C.; Finger, M.

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the polarization of the prompt gamma-ray emission from GRBs can significantly improve our understanding of both the GRB emission mechanisms, as well as the underlying engine driving the explosion. We searched for polarization in the prompt gamma-ray emission of GRB 041219 with the SPI instrument on INTEGRAL. Using multiple-detector coincidence events in the 100-500 keV energy band, our analysis yields a polarization fraction from this GRB of 66 f 21%. While statistically this measurement suggests a non-zero polarization, we cannot strongly rule out the possibility that the measured modulation is dominated by instrumental systematics. Therefore, SPI observations of GRB 041219 do not significantly constrain GRB models. However, this measurement demonstrates the capability of SPI to measure polarization, and the techniques developed for this analysis.

  13. Detecting the Attenuation of Blazar Gamma-ray Emission by Extragalactic Background Light with GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Andrew; Ritz, Steven

    1999-01-01

    Gamma rays with energy above 10 GeV interact with optical-UV photons resulting in pair production. Therefore, a large sample of high redshift sources of these gamma rays can be used to probe the extragalactic background starlight (EBL) by examining the redshift dependence of the attenuation of the flux above 10 GeV. GLAST, the next generation high-energy gamma-ray telescope, will for the first time have the unique capability to detect thousands of gamma-ray blazars up to redshifts of at least z = 4, with enough angular resolution to allow identification of a large fraction of their optical counterparts. By combining recent determinations of the gamma-ray blazar luminosity function, recent calculations of the high energy gamma-ray opacity due to EBL absorption, and the expected GLAST instrument performance to produce simulated samples of blazars that GLAST would detect, including their redshifts and fluxes, we demonstrate that these blazars have the potential to be a highly effective probe of the EBL.

  14. EMISSION PATTERNS AND LIGHT CURVES OF GAMMA RAYS IN THE PULSAR MAGNETOSPHERE WITH A CURRENT-INDUCED MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Zhang, L.

    2011-12-20

    We study the emission patterns and light curves of gamma rays in the pulsar magnetosphere with a current-induced magnetic field perturbation. Based on the solution of a static dipole with the magnetic field induced by some currents (perturbation field), we derive the solutions of a static as well as a retarded dipole with the perturbation field in the Cartesian coordinates. The static (retarded) magnetic field can be expressed as the sum of the pure static (retarded) dipolar magnetic field and the static (retarded) perturbation field. We use the solution of the retarded magnetic field to investigate the influence of the perturbation field on the emission patterns and light curves, and apply the perturbed solutions to calculate the gamma-ray light curves for the case of the Vela pulsar. We find that the perturbation field induced by the currents will change the emission patterns and then the light curves of gamma rays, especially for a larger perturbation field. Our results indicate that the perturbation field created by the outward-flowing (inward-flowing) electrons (positrons) can decrease the rotation effect on the magnetosphere and makes emission pattern appear to be smoother relative to that of the pure retarded dipole, but the perturbation field created by the outward-flowing (inward-flowing) positrons (electrons) can make the emission pattern less smooth.

  15. Detailed Investigation of the Gamma-Ray Emission in the Vicinity of SNR W28 with FERMI-LAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanabata, Y.; Katagiri, H.; Hewitt, John William; Ballet, J.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Strong, A. W.; Torres, D. F.; Yamazaki, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the Gamma-ray emission in the vicinity of the supernova remnant (SNR) W28 (G6.4-0.1) observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We detected significant ? -ray emission spatially coincident with TeV sources HESS J1800-240A, B, and C, located outside the radio boundary of the SNR. Their spectra in the 2-100 GeV band are consistent with the extrapolation of the power-law spectra of the TeV sources. We also identified a new source of GeV emission, dubbed Source W, which lies outside the boundary of TeV sources and coincides with radio emission from the western part of W28. All of the GeV Gamma-ray sources overlap with molecular clouds in the velocity range from 0 to 20 km s (exp-1). Under the assumption that the Gamma-ray emission toward HESS J1800-240A, B, and C comes from 3.14(exp0) decay due to the interaction between the molecular clouds and cosmic rays (CRs) escaping from W28, they can be naturally explained by a single model in which the CR diffusion coefficient is smaller than the theoretical expectation in the interstellar space. The total energy of the CRs escaping from W28 is constrained through the same modeling to be larger than is approximately 2 × 10(exp49) erg. The emission from Source W can also be explained with the same CR escape scenario.

  16. Searching for Hard X-Ray Emission from Radio-Loud Gamma-Ray Quiet Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Katelyn R.; Macomb, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    While the Swift BAT AGN source catalog is dominated by radio-quiet Seyfert AGN, around 15% of the sample are radio galaxies or blazars (Ajello et al., 2009). There is an overlap of about 40 sources between the Fermi LAT and Swift BAT detected AGN populations, only a few percent of the Fermi total. These small numbers are presumably a result of selection bias as the SSC peak often falls squarely within the Fermi LAT bandpass while the Swift BAT sensitivity is highest in the spectral region straddling the synchrotron and SSC components.Recently however, a significant sample of bright (F 15GHz >1.5 Jy), radio selected AGN was found, surprisingly, to overlap with Fermi at only the ~80% level (Lister et. al., 2015). This could be a result of selection bias as well as the gamma-ray quiet objects of that survey having synchrotron peak frequencies of 10^13.4 Hz or less. On the other hand it could be due to deficient Doppler boosting among that ~20%. One can, in principle, test the former possibility by assessing emission from the low-energy wings of putative sub-GeV peaked SSC components. We describe our ongoing joint Swift BAT analysis project that attempts to address this possibility. Initial results, comparisons with INTEGRAL observations, and conclusions are presented.

  17. Prompt and Afterglow Emission Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts with Spectroscopically Identified Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Yuki; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Granot, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Woosley, S.E.; Patel, S.K.; Rol, E.; Zand, J.J.M.in't; a; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Strom, R.; /USRA, Huntsville /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NASA, Marshall /Leicester U. /SRON, Utrecht /Utrecht, Astron. Inst. /Amsterdam U., Astron. Inst. /NFRA, Dwingeloo

    2006-07-12

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the prompt and afterglow emission of four nearby long-soft gamma-ray bursts (GRBs 980425, 030329, 031203, and 060218) that were spectroscopically found to be associated with type Ic supernovae, and compare them to the general GRB population. For each event, we investigate the spectral and luminosity evolution, and estimate the total energy budget based upon broadband observations. The observational inventory for these events has become rich enough to allow estimates of their energy content in relativistic and sub-relativistic form. The result is a global portrait of the effects of the physical processes responsible for producing long-soft GRBs. In particular, we find that the values of the energy released in mildly relativistic outflows appears to have a significantly smaller scatter than those found in highly relativistic ejecta. This is consistent with a picture in which the energy released inside the progenitor star is roughly standard, while the fraction of that energy that ends up in highly relativistic ejecta outside the star can vary dramatically between different events.

  18. DISCOVERY OF PULSED gamma-RAYS FROM PSR J0034-0534 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE: A CASE FOR CO-LOCATED RADIO AND gamma-RAY EMISSION REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P. E-mail: Tyrel.J.Johnson@nasa.go E-mail: Christo.Venter@nwu.ac.z

    2010-04-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have been firmly established as a class of gamma-ray emitters via the detection of pulsations above 0.1 GeV from eight MSPs by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Using 13 months of LAT data, significant gamma-ray pulsations at the radio period have been detected from the MSP PSR J0034-0534, making it the ninth clear MSP detection by the LAT. The gamma-ray light curve shows two peaks separated by 0.274 +- 0.015 in phase which are very nearly aligned with the radio peaks, a phenomenon seen only in the Crab pulsar until now. The >=0.1 GeV spectrum of this pulsar is well fit by an exponentially cutoff power law with a cutoff energy of 1.8 +- 0.6 +- 0.1 GeV and a photon index of 1.5 +- 0.2 +- 0.1, first errors are statistical and second are systematic. The near-alignment of the radio and gamma-ray peaks strongly suggests that the radio and gamma-ray emission regions are co-located and both are the result of caustic formation.

  19. Studies on High Energy Radiation Mechanisms and Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.

    2014-07-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most violent high-energy explosion in the universe. They are randomly happened, pulse-like phenomena with short durations. Since its discovery in 1960's by Vela satellite, GRBs have become a hot topic for astrophysical research. In 1997 the BeppoSAX satellite discovered afterglows of GRBs, and then helped to measure GRB redshifts. Thus it was found that GRBs are the events occurred at cosmological distances. Now it is widely accepted that the long bursts with durations longer than 2 s are from the collapsing massive stars, while the short bursts with durations less than 2 s are results of the merging compact binaries. By studying GRBs, the physical processes in ultrarelativistic and very high energy conditions can be investigated, and the researches on other fields, including constraining the cosmological models, can also get helped. The goal of this thesis is to present some discussions on possible radiation mechanisms and prompt light curves of GRBs. Since radiation mechanisms and prompt emissions are related to GRB central engines directly, studying these topics can help us to get a better understanding of some properties of the central engine. In Chapter 1, we review the discovery and observations of GRBs, presenting major achievements from major GRB-monitoring satellites including Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, BeppoSAX satellite, Swift satellite, as well as the latest Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The multi-wavelength properties of prompt emission as well as afterglows of GRBs are also summarized in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 the current GRB standard model is presented. According to standard model, a fireball is ejected by the central engine. The internal shock is produced by collisions between various shells with different velocities inside the fireball. The directional kinetic energy of the fireball is then converted to internal energy, and finally the non-thermal radiation (the prompt emission) is produced by internal shocks

  20. Observations of the radio emission field around the gamma -ray source 2EG J1834-2138

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, J. A.; Romero, G. E.

    1998-03-01

    We present results of a study of the radio emission field around the best estimate position of the low-latitude EGRET source 2EG J1834-2138. The identification of this gamma -ray source with the gravitational lensed AGN PKS 1830-211 has been recently proposed by \\cite[Mattox et al. (1997)]{ma97}. Additional support for this identification is provided here. Contamination produced by the diffuse disk emission has been removed from new radio images of the surrounding region of 2EG J1834-2138 allowing a determination of the fine radio structure. Several previously unnoticed supernova remnants have been found within a few degrees from the gamma -ray source. However, the only strong radio source within the 95% source location confidence contour of 2EG J1834-2138 is PKS 1830-211. In addition, both spectrum and variability analysis of the EGRET data support the identification of both sources.

  1. On the Origin of GeV Emission in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Hascoët, Romain; Vurm, Indrek

    2014-06-01

    The most common progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are massive stars with strong stellar winds. We show that the GRB blast wave in the wind should emit a bright GeV flash. It is produced by inverse-Compton cooling of the thermal plasma behind the forward shock. The main part of the flash is shaped by scattering of the prompt MeV radiation (emitted at smaller radii) which streams through the external blast wave. The inverse-Compton flash is bright due to the huge e ± enrichment of the external medium by the prompt radiation ahead of the blast wave. At late times, the blast wave switches to normal synchrotron-self-Compton cooling. The mechanism is demonstrated by a detailed transfer simulation. The observed prompt MeV radiation is taken as an input of the simulation; we use GRB 080916C as an example. The result reproduces the GeV flash observed by the Fermi telescope. It explains the delayed onset, the steep rise, the peak flux, the time of the peak, the long smooth decline, and the spectral slope of GeV emission. The wind density required to reproduce all these features is typical of Wolf-Rayet stars. Our simulation predicts strong TeV emission 1 minute after the burst trigger; then a cutoff in the observed high-energy spectrum is expected from absorption by extragalactic background light. In addition, a bright optical counterpart of the GeV flash is predicted for plausible values of the magnetic field; such a double (optical+GeV) flash has been observed in GRB 130427A.

  2. On the origin of GeV emission in gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Hascoët, Romain; Vurm, Indrek

    2014-06-10

    The most common progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are massive stars with strong stellar winds. We show that the GRB blast wave in the wind should emit a bright GeV flash. It is produced by inverse-Compton cooling of the thermal plasma behind the forward shock. The main part of the flash is shaped by scattering of the prompt MeV radiation (emitted at smaller radii) which streams through the external blast wave. The inverse-Compton flash is bright due to the huge e {sup ±} enrichment of the external medium by the prompt radiation ahead of the blast wave. At late times, the blast wave switches to normal synchrotron-self-Compton cooling. The mechanism is demonstrated by a detailed transfer simulation. The observed prompt MeV radiation is taken as an input of the simulation; we use GRB 080916C as an example. The result reproduces the GeV flash observed by the Fermi telescope. It explains the delayed onset, the steep rise, the peak flux, the time of the peak, the long smooth decline, and the spectral slope of GeV emission. The wind density required to reproduce all these features is typical of Wolf-Rayet stars. Our simulation predicts strong TeV emission 1 minute after the burst trigger; then a cutoff in the observed high-energy spectrum is expected from absorption by extragalactic background light. In addition, a bright optical counterpart of the GeV flash is predicted for plausible values of the magnetic field; such a double (optical+GeV) flash has been observed in GRB 130427A.

  3. Broad band simulation of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) prompt emission in presence of an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaeepour, Houri; Gardner, Brian

    2011-12-01

    The origin of prompt emission in GRBs is not yet well understood. The simplest and most popular model is Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) emission produced by internal shocks inside an ultra-relativistic jet. However, recent observations of a delayed high energy component by the Fermi-LAT instrument have encouraged alternative models. Here we use a recently developed formulation of relativistic shocks for GRBs to simulate light curves and spectra of synchrotron and self-Compton emissions in the framework of internal shock model. This model takes into account the evolution of quantities such as densities of colliding shells, and fraction of kinetic energy transferred to electrons and to induced magnetic field. We also extend this formulation by considering the presence of a precessing external magnetic field. These simulations are very realistic and present significant improvement with respect to previous phenomenological GRB simulations. They reproduce light curves of separate peaks of real GRBs and variety of spectral slopes at E > Epeak observed by the Fermi-LAT instrument. The high energy emission can be explained by synchrotron emission and a subdominant contribution from inverse Compton. We also suggest an explanation for extended tail emission and relate it to the screening of the magnetic field and/or trapping of accelerated electrons in the electromagnetic energy structure of the plasma in the shock front. Spectral slopes of simulated bursts at E << Epeak are consistent with theoretical prediction and at E < Epeak can be flatter if the spectrum of electrons is roughly flat or has a shallow slope at low energies. The observed flat spectra at soft gamma-ray and hard x-ray bands is the evidence that there is a significant contribution at E < Epeak from lower Lorentz factor wing of electron distribution which have a roughly random acceleration rather than being thermal. This means that the state of matter in the jet at the time of ejection is most probably

  4. DISCOVERY OF {gamma}-RAY PULSATION AND X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BLACK WIDOW PULSAR PSR J2051-0827

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J. H. K.; Kong, A. K. H.; Huang, R. H. H.; Tam, P. H. T.; Takata, J.; Wu, E. M. H.; Cheng, K. S. E-mail: akong@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2012-04-01

    We report the discovery of pulsed {gamma}-ray emission and X-ray emission from the black widow millisecond pulsar PSR J2051-0827 by using the data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer array on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Using three years of LAT data, PSR J2051-0827 is clearly detected in {gamma}-rays with a significance of {approx}8{sigma} in the 0.2-20 GeV band. The 200 MeV-20 GeV {gamma}-ray spectrum of PSR J2051-0827 can be modeled by a simple power law with a photon index of 2.46 {+-} 0.15. Significant ({approx}5{sigma}) {gamma}-ray pulsations at the radio period were detected. PSR J2051-0827 was also detected in soft (0.3-7 keV) X-ray with Chandra. By comparing the observed {gamma}-rays and X-rays with theoretical models, we suggest that the {gamma}-ray emission is from the outer gap while the X-rays can be from intra-binary shock and pulsar magnetospheric synchrotron emissions.

  5. Thick target yields of proton induced gamma-ray emission from Al, Si and P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokar, A.; Kakuee, O.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Fathollahi, V.

    2017-03-01

    Thick target excitation yield curves of gamma-rays from the reactions 27Al(p,p‧γ)27Al (Eγ = 844 and 1014 keV), 27Al(p,αγ)27Al (Eγ = 1369 keV), 28Si(p,p‧γ)28Si (Eγ = 1779 keV), 29Si(p,p‧γ)29Si (Eγ = 1273 keV) and 31P(p,p‧γ)31P (Eγ = 1266 keV) were measured by bombarding pure-element targets with protons at energies below 3 MeV. Gamma-rays were detected with a High Purity Ge detector placed at an angle of 90° with respect to the beam direction. The obtained thick target gamma-ray yields were compared with the previously published data. The overall systematic uncertainty of the thick target yield values was estimated to be better than ±9%.

  6. Possible Quasi-Periodic Gamma-ray Emission from Blazar PG 1553+113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, David; Cutini, Sara; Ciprini, Stefano; Larsson, Stefan; Stamerra, Antonio; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We report an update on a possible gamma-ray and multiwavelength nearly periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus. Data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope exhibit an apparent quasi-periodicity in the gamma-ray flux (E > 100 MeV) from the GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The indication of a 2.18 +/- 0.08 year period gamma-ray cycle is strengthened by correlated oscillations observed in radio and optical fluxes, through data collected in the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Tuorla, Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope, and Catalina Sky Survey monitoring programs and Swift-UVOT. Further long-term multiwavelength monitoring of this blazar may discriminate among the possible explanations for this quasi-periodicity.

  7. Diffuse gamma-ray emission from the Galactic center and implications of its past activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Kimura, Shigeo S.; Murase, Kohta

    2017-01-01

    It has been indicated that low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) are accelerating high-energy cosmic-ray (CR) protons in their radiatively inefficient accretion flows (RIAFs). If this is the case, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) should also be generating CR protons, because Sgr A* is a LLAGN. Based on this scenario, we calculate a production rate of CR protons in Sgr A* and their diffusion in the central molecular zone (CMZ) around Sgr A*. The CR protons diffusing in the CMZ create gamma-rays through pp interaction. We show that the gamma-ray luminosity and spectrum are consistent with observations if Sgr A* was active in the past.

  8. THE DISCOVERY OF {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BLAZAR RGB J0710+591

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boettcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A. E-mail: fortin@llr.in2p3.f

    2010-05-20

    The high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object RGB J0710+591 was observed in the very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) wave band by the VERITAS array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The observations, taken between 2008 December and 2009 March and totaling 22.1 hr, yield the discovery of VHE gamma rays from the source. RGB J0710+591 is detected at a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations (5.5{sigma}) above the background, corresponding to an integral flux of (3.9 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup -12} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (3% of the Crab Nebula's flux) above 300 GeV. The observed spectrum can be fit by a power law from 0.31 to 4.6 TeV with a photon spectral index of 2.69 {+-} 0.26{sub stat} {+-} 0.20{sub sys}. These data are complemented by contemporaneous multiwavelength data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, the Swift X-ray Telescope, the Swift Ultra-Violet and Optical Telescope, and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT observatory. Modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) with an equilibrium synchrotron self-Compton model yields a good statistical fit to the data. The addition of an external-Compton component to the model does not improve the fit nor brings the system closer to equipartition. The combined Fermi and VERITAS data constrain the properties of the high-energy emission component of the source over 4 orders of magnitude and give measurements of the rising and falling sections of the SED.

  9. Limits on gamma-ray burst prompt radio emission using the LWA1

    SciTech Connect

    Obenberger, K. S.; Taylor, G. B.; Craig, J.; Dowell, J.; Henning, P. A.; Schinzel, F. K.; Hartman, J. M.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Wilson, T. L.

    2014-04-10

    As a backend to the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1), the Prototype All Sky Imager has been imaging the sky > –26° declination during 34 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) between 2012 January and 2013 May. Using this data, we were able to put the most stringent limits to date on prompt low-frequency emission from GRBs. While our limits depend on the zenith angle of the observed GRB, we estimate a 1σ rms sensitivity of 68, 65, and 70 Jy for 5 s integrations at 37.9, 52.0, and 74.0 MHz at zenith. These limits are relevant for pulses ≥5 s and are limited by dispersion smearing. For 5 s pulses, we are limited to dispersion measures (DMs) ≤ 220, 570, and 1600 pc cm{sup –3} for the frequencies above. For pulses lasting longer than 5 s, the DM limits increase linearly with the duration of the pulse. We also report two interesting transients, which are, as of yet, of unknown origin and are not coincident with any known GRBs. For general transients, we give rate density limits of ≤7.5 × 10{sup –3}, 2.9 × 10{sup –2}, and 1.4 × 10{sup –2} yr{sup –1} deg{sup –2} with pulse energy densities >1.3 × 10{sup –22}, 1.1 × 10{sup –22}, and 1.4 × 10{sup –22} J m{sup –2} Hz{sup –1} and pulse widths of 5 s at the frequencies given above.

  10. HEAO 3 upper limits to pulsed gamma-ray emission from PSR 1509 - 58 and PSR 0833 - 45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulmer, M. P.; Purcell, W. R.; Wheaton, W. A.; Mahoney, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports upper limits to the 50 keV-10 MeV gamma-ray pulsations from PSR 1509 - 58 and PSR 0833 - 45 (Vela) made with the HEAO 3 gamma-ray spectrometer. The 2 sigam upper limit to the 50 - 300 keV flux from PSR 1509 - 58 is 6.9 x 10 to the -6th photons/sq cm per sec per keV. Combined with the best-fit X-ray spectrum, this limit suggests there is a break in the spectrum below about 100 keV. This upper limit is not stringent enough, however, to distinguish between thermal and nonthermal models for the source of the X-ray emission. The 2 sigma upper limit to the 3.2 - 10 MeV flux from PSR 0833 - 45 is 4.9 x 10 to the -8th photons/sq cm per sec per keV.

  11. Stacking Searches for Greater Than 100 MeV Gamma Ray Emission from Radio Galaxies and Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cillis, A. N.; Hartman, R. C.; Bertsch, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    The EGRET telescope on CGRO detected more than sixty sources of high-energy gamma radiation associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN). All but one of those belong to the blazar subclass; the only exception is the nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A. Since there is no obvious reason other than proximity to expect Cen A to be the only non-blazar AGN emitting in high-energy gamma rays, we have utilized the "stacking" technique to search for $>100$-MeV emission from two non-blazar AGN subclasses, radio galaxies and Seyfert galaxies. Maps of gamma-ray counts, exposure, and diffuse background have been created, then co-added in varying numbers based on sorts by redshift, 5-GHZ flux density, and optical brightness, and finally tested for gamma-ray emission. No detection significance greater than $2\\sigma$ has been found for any subclass, sorting parameter, or number of objects co-added. Monte Carlo simulations have also been performed, to validate the technique and estimate the significance of the results.

  12. Broad-Band Continuum and Line Emission of the gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0537-441

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, E.; Falomo, R.; Hartman, R. C.; Maraschi, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Tornikoski, M.; Treves, A.; Urry, C. M.; Ballo, L.; Mukherjee, R.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    PKS 0537-441, a bright gamma ray emitting blazar was observed at radio, optical, UV and X-ray frequencies during various EGRET paintings, often quasi-simultaneously. In 1995 the object was found in an intense emission state at all wavelengths. BeppoSAX observations made in 1998, non-simultaneously with exposures at other frequencies, allow us to characterize precisely the spectral shape of the high energy blazer component, which we attribute to inverse Compton scatter in The optical-to-gamma-ray spectral energy distributions at the different epochs show that the gamma-ray luminosity dominates the barometric output. This, together with the presence of optical and UV line emission, suggests that, besides the synchrotron self-Compton mechanism, the Compton upscattering of photons external to the jet (e.g., in the broad line region) may have a significant role for high energy radiation. The multiwavelength variability can be reproduced by changes of the plasma bulk Lorentz factor. The spectrum secured by ICE in 1995 appears to be partially absorbed shortward of approximately 1700 Angstroms. However, this signature is not detected in the HST spectrum taker during a lower state of the source. The presence of intervening absorbers is not supported by optical imaging and spectroscopy of the field.

  13. Radio to Gamma-Ray Emission from Shell-Type Supernova Remnants: Predictions from Non-Linear Shock Acceleration Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Ellison, Donald C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Grenier, Isabelle A.; Goret, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are widely believed to be the principal source of galactic cosmic rays, produced by diffusive shock acceleration in the environs of the remnant's expanding blast wave. Such energetic particles can produce gamma-rays and lower energy photons via interactions with the ambient plasma. The recently reported observation of TeV gamma-rays from SN1006 by the CANGAROO Collaboration, combined with the fact that several unidentified EGRET sources have been associated with known radio/optical/X-ray-emitting remnants, provides powerful motivation for studying gamma-ray emission from SNRs. In this paper, we present results from a Monte Carlo simulation of non-linear shock structure and acceleration coupled with photon emission in shell-like SNRs. These non-linearities are a by-product of the dynamical influence of the accelerated cosmic rays on the shocked plasma and result in distributions of cosmic rays which deviate from pure power-laws. Such deviations are crucial to acceleration efficiency considerations and impact photon intensities and spectral shapes at all energies, producing GeV/TeV intensity ratios that are quite different from test particle predictions.

  14. Discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the pulsar wind nebula 3C 58 by MAGIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    The pulsar wind nebula (PWN) 3C 58 is one of the historical very-high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray source candidates. It has been compared to the Crab Nebula due to their morphological similarities. This object was detected by Fermi-LAT with a spectrum extending beyond 100 GeV. We analyzed 81 hours of 3C 58 data taken with the MAGIC telescopes and we detected VHE gamma-ray emission for the first time at TeV energies with a significance of 5.7 sigma and an integral flux of 0.65% C.U. above 1 TeV. According to our results 3C 58 is the least luminous PWN ever detected at VHE and the one with the lowest flux at VHE to date. We compare our results with the expectations of time-dependent models in which electrons up-scatter photon fields. The best representation favors a distance to the PWN of 2 kpc and Far Infrared (FIR) comparable to CMB photon fields. Hadronic contribution from the hosting supernova remnant (SNR) requires unrealistic energy budget given the density of the medium, disfavoring cosmic ray acceleration in the SNR as origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission.

  15. Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  16. Discovery of a tight correlation among the prompt emission properties of long gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmani, C.; Ghisellini, G.; Avila-Reese, V.; Ghirlanda, G.

    2006-07-01

    We report the discovery of a correlation among three prompt emission properties of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). These are the isotropic peak luminosity Liso, the peak energy (in νLν) of the time-integrated prompt emission spectrum Epk, and the `high signal' time-scale T0.45, previously used to characterize the variability behaviour of bursts. In the rest frame of the source, the discovered correlation reads Liso ~ E1.62pkT-0.490.45. We find other strong correlations, but at the cost of increasing the number of variables, involving the variability and the isotropic energy of the prompt emission. With respect to the other tight correlations found in GRBs (i.e. between the collimation corrected energy Eγ and Epk, the so-called Ghirlanda correlation, and the phenomenological correlation among the isotropic emitted energy Eiso,Epk and the jet break time tbreak), the newly found correlation does not require any information from the afterglow phase of the bursts, nor any model-dependent assumption. In the popular scenario in which we are receiving beamed radiation originating in a fireball pointing at us, the discovered correlation preserves its form in the comoving frame. This helps to explain the small scatter of the correlation and underlines the role of the local brightness (i.e. the brightness of the visible fraction of the fireball surface). This correlation has been found with a relatively small number of objects and it is hard to establish if any selection bias affects it. Its connection with the prompt local brightness is promising, but a solid physical understanding is still to be found. Despite all that, we find that some properties of the correlation, which we discuss, support its true existence, and this has important implications for the GRB physics. Furthermore, it is possible to use such correlation as an accurate redshift estimator, and, more importantly, its tightness will allow us to use it as a tool to constrain the cosmological parameters.

  17. Acceleration of cosmic rays and gamma-ray emission from supernova remnant/molecular cloud associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabici, Stefano; Krause, Julian; Morlino, Giovanni; Nava, Lara

    2015-12-01

    The gamma-ray observations of molecular clouds associated with supernova remnants are considered one of the most promising ways to search for a solution of the problem of cosmic ray origin. Here we briefly review the status of the field, with particular emphasis on the theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the problem.

  18. COS-B observations of localised sources of gamma-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer-Hasselwander, H.

    1976-01-01

    In October 1975 the high energy gamma ray flux from the Vela pulsar was measured by COS-B to be 1.6 to 2.1 times higher than the flux measured by SAS-2 in 1973. The existence is confirmed of a second region of enhanced radiation in the galactic anticenter in addition to that from the Crab pulsar.

  19. WIDE RADIO BEAMS FROM {gamma}-RAY PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, V.; Manchester, R. N.; Hobbs, G.

    2010-06-10

    We investigate the radio and {gamma}-ray beaming properties of normal and millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by selecting two samples from the known populations. The first, Sample G, contains pulsars which are detectable in blind searches of {gamma}-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The second, Sample R, contains pulsars detectable in blind radio searches which have spin-down luminosities E>10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}. We analyze the fraction of the {gamma}-ray-selected Sample G which have detectable radio pulses and the fraction of the radio-selected Sample R which have detectable {gamma}-ray pulses. Twenty of our 35 Sample G pulsars have already observed radio pulses. This rules out low-altitude polar-cap beaming models if, as is currently believed, {gamma}-ray beams are generated in the outer magnetosphere and are very wide. We further find that, for the highest-E pulsars, the radio and {gamma}-ray beams have comparable beaming factors, i.e., the beams cover similar regions of the sky as the star rotates. For lower-E {gamma}-ray emitting pulsars, the radio beams have about half of the {gamma}-ray sky coverage. These results suggest that, for high-E young and MSPs, the radio emission originates in wide beams from regions high in the pulsar magnetosphere, probably close to the null-charge surface and to the {gamma}-ray emitting regions. Furthermore, it suggests that for these high-E pulsars, as in the {gamma}-ray case, features in the radio profile represent caustics in the emission beam pattern.

  20. Interpretations and implications of gamma ray lines from solar flares, the galactic center in gamma ray transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Observations and theories of astrophysical gamma ray line emission are reviewed and prospects for future observations by the spectroscopy experiments on the planned Gamma Ray Observatory are discussed.

  1. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Brucker, J.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Brun, F.; Bolmont, J.; Brun, P.; Collaboration: H.E.S.S. Collaboration; and others

    2012-10-01

    Very high energy (VHE; E {>=} 100 GeV) and high-energy (HE; 100 MeV {<=} E {<=} 100 GeV) data from {gamma}-ray observations performed with the H.E.S.S. telescope array and the Fermi-LAT instrument, respectively, are analyzed in order to investigate the non-thermal processes in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The VHE {gamma}-ray data can be described by a power law in energy with differential photon index {Gamma} = 2.14 {+-} 0.18{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub sys} and differential flux normalization at 1 TeV of F{sub 0} = (9.6 {+-} 1.5{sub stat}(+ 5.7, -2.9){sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A power-law fit to the differential HE {gamma}-ray spectrum reveals a photon index of {Gamma} 2.24 {+-} 0.14{sub stat} {+-} 0.03{sub sys} and an integral flux between 200 MeV and 200 GeV of F(0.2-200 GeV) = (4.9 {+-} 1.0{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. No evidence for a spectral break or turnover is found over the dynamic range of both the LAT instrument and the H.E.S.S. experiment: a combined fit of a power law to the HE and VHE {gamma}-ray data results in a differential photon index {Gamma} = 2.34 {+-} 0.03 with a p-value of 30%. The {gamma}-ray observations indicate that at least about 20% of the energy of the cosmic rays (CRs) capable of producing hadronic interactions is channeled into pion production. The smooth alignment between the spectra in the HE and VHE {gamma}-ray domain suggests that the same transport processes dominate in the entire energy range. Advection is most likely responsible for charged particle removal from the starburst nucleus from GeV to multiple TeV energies. In a hadronic scenario for the {gamma}-ray production, the single overall power-law spectrum observed would therefore correspond to the mean energy spectrum produced by the ensemble of CR sources in the starburst region.

  2. VERITAS SEARCH FOR VHE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Furniss, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Finnegan, G.

    2010-09-10

    Indirect dark matter searches with ground-based gamma-ray observatories provide an alternative for identifying the particle nature of dark matter that is complementary to that of direct search or accelerator production experiments. We present the results of observations of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies Draco, Ursa Minor, Booetes 1, and Willman 1 conducted by the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). These galaxies are nearby dark matter dominated objects located at a typical distance of several tens of kiloparsecs for which there are good measurements of the dark matter density profile from stellar velocity measurements. Since the conventional astrophysical background of very high energy gamma rays from these objects appears to be negligible, they are good targets to search for the secondary gamma-ray photons produced by interacting or decaying dark matter particles. No significant gamma-ray flux above 200 GeV was detected from these four dwarf galaxies for a typical exposure of {approx}20 hr. The 95% confidence upper limits on the integral gamma-ray flux are in the range (0.4-2.2) x 10{sup -12}photonscm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. We interpret this limiting flux in the context of pair annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and derive constraints on the thermally averaged product of the total self-annihilation cross section and the relative velocity of the WIMPs (({sigma}v) {approx}< 10{sup -23} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} for m {sub {chi} {approx}}> 300 GeV c {sup -2}). This limit is obtained under conservative assumptions regarding the dark matter distribution in dwarf galaxies and is approximately 3 orders of magnitude above the generic theoretical prediction for WIMPs in the minimal supersymmetric standard model framework. However, significant uncertainty exists in the dark matter distribution as well as the neutralino cross sections which under favorable assumptions could further lower this limit.

  3. VERITAS Search for VHE Gamma-ray Emission from Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. Demet; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R. G.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration

    2010-09-01

    Indirect dark matter searches with ground-based gamma-ray observatories provide an alternative for identifying the particle nature of dark matter that is complementary to that of direct search or accelerator production experiments. We present the results of observations of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies Draco, Ursa Minor, Boötes 1, and Willman 1 conducted by the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). These galaxies are nearby dark matter dominated objects located at a typical distance of several tens of kiloparsecs for which there are good measurements of the dark matter density profile from stellar velocity measurements. Since the conventional astrophysical background of very high energy gamma rays from these objects appears to be negligible, they are good targets to search for the secondary gamma-ray photons produced by interacting or decaying dark matter particles. No significant gamma-ray flux above 200 GeV was detected from these four dwarf galaxies for a typical exposure of ~20 hr. The 95% confidence upper limits on the integral gamma-ray flux are in the range (0.4-2.2) × 10-12photonscm-2 s-1. We interpret this limiting flux in the context of pair annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and derive constraints on the thermally averaged product of the total self-annihilation cross section and the relative velocity of the WIMPs (langσvrang <~ 10-23 cm3 s-1 for m χ >~ 300 GeV c -2). This limit is obtained under conservative assumptions regarding the dark matter distribution in dwarf galaxies and is approximately 3 orders of magnitude above the generic theoretical prediction for WIMPs in the minimal supersymmetric standard model framework. However, significant uncertainty exists in the dark matter distribution as well as the neutralino cross sections which under favorable assumptions could further lower this limit.

  4. THE CRAB NEBULA SUPER-FLARE IN 2011 APRIL: EXTREMELY FAST PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND GAMMA-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Striani, E.; Tavani, M.; Cardillo, M; Piano, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Vittorini, V.; Trois, A.; Costa, E.; Argan, A.; De Paris, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Weisskopf, M.; Tennant, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Caraveo, P.; Chen, A. W.

    2011-11-01

    We report on the extremely intense and fast gamma-ray flare above 100 MeV detected by AGILE from the Crab Nebula in mid-April 2011. This event is the fourth of a sequence of reported major gamma-ray flares produced by the Crab Nebula in the period 2007/mid-2011. These events are attributed to strong radiative and plasma instabilities in the inner Crab Nebula, and their properties are crucial for theoretical studies of fast and efficient particle acceleration up to 10{sup 15} eV. Here we study the very rapid flux and spectral evolution of the event that on 2011 April 16 reached the record-high peak flux of F = (26 {+-} 5) x 10{sup -6} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with a rise-time timescale that we determine to be in the range 6-10 hr. The peak flaring gamma-ray spectrum reaches a distinct maximum near 500 MeV with no substantial emission above 1 GeV. The very rapid rise time and overall evolution of the Crab Nebula flare strongly constrain the acceleration mechanisms and challenge MHD models. We briefly discuss the theoretical implications of our observations.

  5. The anatomy of a long gamma-ray burst: a simple classification scheme for the emission mechanism(s).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégué, Damien; Burgess, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Ultra-relativistic motion and efficient conversion of kinetic energy to radiation are required by gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations, yet they are difficult to simultaneously achieve. Three leading mechanisms have been proposed to explain the observed emission emanating from GRB outflows: radiation from either relativistic internal or external shocks, or thermal emission from a photosphere. Previous works were mechanisms and arguing for a sole, unique origin of the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts. In contrast, herein, we first explain why all three models are valid mechanisms and that a contribution from each of them is expected in the prompt phase. Additionally, we show that a single parameter, the dimensionless entropy of the GRB outflow, determines which mechanism contributes the most to the emission. More specifically, internal shocks dominate for low values of the dimensionless entropy, external shocks for intermediate values and finally, photospheric emission for large values. We present a unified framework for the emission mechanisms of GRBs with easily testable predictions for each process.

  6. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  7. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-06-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  8. INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERING MODEL FOR X-RAY EMISSION OF THE GAMMA-RAY BINARY LS 5039

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, M. S.; Takahara, F.

    2012-12-20

    We propose a model for the gamma-ray binary LS 5039 in which the X-ray emission is due to the inverse Compton (IC) process instead of the synchrotron radiation. Although the synchrotron model has been discussed in previous studies, it requires a strong magnetic field which leads to a severe suppression of the TeV gamma-ray flux in conflict with H.E.S.S. observations. In this paper, we calculate the IC emission by low energy electrons ({gamma}{sub e} {approx}< 10{sup 3}) in the Thomson regime. We find that IC emission of the low energy electrons can explain the X-ray flux and spectrum observed with Suzaku if the minimum Lorentz factor of injected electrons {gamma}{sub min} is around 10{sup 3}. In addition, we show that the Suzaku light curve is well reproduced if {gamma}{sub min} varies in proportion to the Fermi flux when the distribution function of injected electrons at higher energies is fixed. We conclude that the emission from LS 5039 is well explained by the model with the IC emission from electrons whose injection properties are dependent on the orbital phase. Since the X-ray flux is primarily determined by the total number of cooling electrons, this conclusion is rather robust, although some mismatches between the model and observations at the GeV band remain in the present formulation.

  9. Celestial diffuse gamma-ray emission observed by SAS-2 and its interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Hartman, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Gelman, H.; Ozel, M.; Tumer, T.

    1977-01-01

    A clearly established diffuse celestial gamma-ray component was seen by SAS-2 above 35 MeV, after examining several regions of the sky at different latitudes, including the north celestial pole. For energies above 100 MeV the gamma ray results are consistent with an equation of the form I(b)=C1+C2/sin b with the second term being dominant, suggesting that the radiation above 100 MeV comes largely from the local regions of the galactic disk. Between 35 and 100 MeV, a similar equation is also a reasonable representation of the data, but here the two terms are comparable, with the first, or isotropic term, actually being the larger one. In addition to indicating that the diffuse radiation is partially galactic, these results imply a steepness for the energy spectrum of the diffuse isotropic component which places significant constraints on possible theoretical models of this radiation.

  10. Time variability in the gamma-ray emission of 3C 279

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, D. A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hatman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Following the initial detection of 3C 279 as an intense high-energy gamma-ray emitter during a 1991, June 16-28 observation, the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory made a second observation during 1991, October 3-17. Low-sensitivity observations were also made during 1991, October 12-31 and 1992 April. The relatively intense June fluxes allowed the time structure to be determined down to the level of half-days. During this period a flux enhancement of about a factor of 4 is seen, lasting several days. The October exposures show fluxes somewhat below the minimum June flux, with no significant evidence of time variability. The 1992 April fluxes are well off the main instrument axis, and so the statistics are less compelling, but the evidence appears to show additional time variability. The observations are consistent with a model in which the gamma rays result from Compton scattering of low-energy photons by relativistic electrons in a jet.

  11. The Decay of Optical Emission from the gamma-Ray Burst GRB970228

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galama, T.; Groot, P. J.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Robinson, C. R.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Sahu, K. C.; Livio, M.; Petro, L.; Macchetto, F. D.; Heise, J.; Int Zand, J.; Strom, R. G.; Telting, J.; Rutten, R. G. M.; Pettini, M.; Tanvir, N.; Bloom, J.

    1997-01-01

    The origin of gamma-ray bursts has been one of the great unsolved mysteries in high-energy astrophysics for almost 30 years. The recent discovery of fading sources at X-ray and optical wavelengths coincident with the location of the gamma-ray burst GRB970228 therefore provides an unprecedented opportunity to probe the nature of these high-energy events. The optical counterpart appears to be a transient point source embedded in a region of extended nebulosity, the latter having been tentatively identified as a high-redshift galaxy. This would seem to favour models that place gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances, although a range of mechanisms for producing the bursts is still allowed. A crucial piece of information for distinguishing between such models is how the brightness of the optical counterpart evolves with time. Here we re-evaluate the existing photometry of the optical counterpart of GRB970228 to construct an optical light curve for the transient event. We find that between 21 hours and six days after the burst, the R-band brightness decreased by a factor of approximately 40, with any subsequent decrease in brightness occurring at a much slower rate. As the point source faded, it also became redder. The initial behaviour of the source appears to be consistent with the 'fireball' model, but the subsequent decrease in the rate of fading may prove harder to explain.

  12. FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS OF THE DIFFUSE {gamma}-RAY EMISSION: IMPLICATIONS FOR COSMIC RAYS AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P. E-mail: gudlaugu@glast2.stanford.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS and others

    2012-05-01

    The {gamma}-ray sky >100 MeV is dominated by the diffuse emissions from interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar gas and radiation fields of the Milky Way. Observations of these diffuse emissions provide a tool to study cosmic-ray origin and propagation, and the interstellar medium. We present measurements from the first 21 months of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) mission and compare with models of the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission generated using the GALPROP code. The models are fitted to cosmic-ray data and incorporate astrophysical input for the distribution of cosmic-ray sources, interstellar gas, and radiation fields. To assess uncertainties associated with the astrophysical input, a grid of models is created by varying within observational limits the distribution of cosmic-ray sources, the size of the cosmic-ray confinement volume (halo), and the distribution of interstellar gas. An all-sky maximum-likelihood fit is used to determine the X{sub CO} factor, the ratio between integrated CO-line intensity and H{sub 2} column density, the fluxes and spectra of the {gamma}-ray point sources from the first Fermi-LAT catalog, and the intensity and spectrum of the isotropic background including residual cosmic rays that were misclassified as {gamma}-rays, all of which have some dependency on the assumed diffuse emission model. The models are compared on the basis of their maximum-likelihood ratios as well as spectra, longitude, and latitude profiles. We also provide residual maps for the data following subtraction of the diffuse emission models. The models are consistent with the data at high and intermediate latitudes but underpredict the data in the inner Galaxy for energies above a few GeV. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are discussed, including the contribution by undetected point-source populations and spectral variations of cosmic rays throughout the Galaxy. In the outer Galaxy, we find that the data prefer models with a flatter

  13. Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

  14. X-RAY INVESTIGATION OF THE DIFFUSE EMISSION AROUND PLAUSIBLE {gamma}-RAY EMITTING PULSAR WIND NEBULAE IN KOOKABURRA REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Bamba, Aya; Uchiyama, Yasunobu

    2012-05-10

    We report on the results from Suzaku X-ray observations of the radio complex region called Kookaburra, which includes two adjacent TeV {gamma}-ray sources HESS J1418-609 and HESS J1420-607. The Suzaku observation revealed X-ray diffuse emission around a middle-aged pulsar PSR J1420-6048 and a plausible pulsar wind nebula (PWN) Rabbit with elongated sizes of {sigma}{sub X} = 1.'66 and {sigma}{sub X} = 1.'49, respectively. The peaks of the diffuse X-ray emission are located within the {gamma}-ray excess maps obtained by H.E.S.S. and the offsets from the {gamma}-ray peaks are 2.'8 for PSR J1420-6048 and 4.'5 for Rabbit. The X-ray spectra of the two sources were well reproduced by absorbed power-law models with {Gamma} = 1.7-2.3. The spectral shapes tend to become softer according to the distance from the X-ray peaks. Assuming the one-zone electron emission model as the first-order approximation, the ambient magnetic field strengths of HESS J1420-607 and HESS J1418-609 can be estimated as 3 {mu}G and 2.5 {mu}G, respectively. The X-ray spectral and spatial properties strongly support that both TeV sources are PWNe, in which electrons and positrons accelerated at termination shocks of the pulsar winds are losing their energies via the synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering as they are transported outward.

  15. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of High-Energy Gamma-ray Emission From Behind-the-limb Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omodei, Nicola; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Petrosian, Vahe; Liu, Wei; Rubio da Costa, Fatima; Golenetskii, Sergei; Kashapova, Larisa; Krucker, Sam; Palshin, Valentin; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Fermi LAT >30 MeV observations of the active Sun have increased the number of detected solar flares by almost a factor of 10 with respect to previous space observations. Of particular interest are the recent detections of three solar flares whose position behind the limb was confirmed by the STEREO-B spacecraft. These observations sample flares from active regions originating from behind both the eastern and western limbs and include an event associated with the second ground level enhancement event (GLE) of the 24th Solar Cycle. While gamma-ray emission up to tens of MeV resulting from proton interactions has been detected before from occulted solar flares, the significance of these particular events lies in the fact that these are the first detections of >100 MeV gamma-ray emission from footpoint-occulted flares. These detections present an unique opportunity to diagnose the mechanisms of high-energy emission and particle acceleration and transport in solar flares. We will present the Fermi-LAT, RHESSI and STEREO observations of these flares and discuss the various emission scenarios for these sources.

  16. The Decay of Optical Emission Form the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 970228

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galama, T.; Groot, P. J.; vanParadijs, J.; Kouvellotou, C.; Robinson, C. R.; Fishmans, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Sahu, K. C.; Livio, M.; Petro, L.

    1997-01-01

    The origin of gamma-ray bursts has been one of the great unsolved mysteries in high-energy astrophysics for almost 30 years. The recent discovery of fading sources at X-ray and optical wave-lengths coincident with the location of the gamma-ray burst GRB970228 therefore provides an unprecedented opportunity to probe the nature of these high-energy events. The optical counterpart appears to be a transient point source embedded in a region of extended nebulosity, the latter having been tentatively identified as a high-redshift galaxy. This would seem to favour models that place gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances, although a range of mechanisms for producing the bursts is still allowed. A crucial piece of information for distinguishing between such models is how the brightness of the optical counterpart evolves with time. Here we re-evaluate the existing photometry of the optical counterpart of GRB970228 to construct an optical light curve for the transient event. We find that between 21 hours and six days after the burst, the R-band brightness decreased by a factor of approx. 50, with any subsequent decrease in brightness occurring at a much slower rate. As the point source faded, it also became redder. The initial behaviour of the source appears to be consistent with the 'fireball' model, in which the burst results from the merger of two neutron stars, but the subsequent decrease in the rate of fading may prove harder to explain. The gamma-ray burst of 28 February 1997, detected with the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor on board the BeppoSAX satellite, and located with an approx. 3 feet radius position with the Wide Field Camera on the same satellite, was the first for which a fading X-ray and optical counterpart were discovered. The optical Counterpart was discovered from a comparison of V- and I-band images taken with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) on February 28.99 UT, and the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT; V band) and the WHT (I band) on March 8.8 uT.

  17. Gamma Ray Pulsars: Multiwavelength Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy gamma rays are a valuable tool for studying particle acceleration and radiation in the magnetospheres of energetic pulsars. The seven or more pulsars seen by instruments on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) show that: the light curves usually have double-peak structures (suggesting a broad cone of emission); gamma rays are frequently the dominant component of the radiated power; and all the spectra show evidence of a high-energy turnover. For all the known gamma-ray pulsars, multiwavelength observations and theoretical models based on such observations offer the prospect of gaining a broad understanding of these rotating neutron stars. The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), now in planning for a launch in 2006, will provide a major advance in sensitivity, energy range, and sky coverage.

  18. The solar gamma ray and neutron capabilities of COMPTEL on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James M.; Lockwood, John A.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging Compton telescope COMPTEL on the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) has unusual spectroscopic capabilities for measuring solar gamma-ray and neutron emission. The launch of the GRO is scheduled for June 1990 near the peak of the sunspot cycle. With a 30 to 40 percent probability for the Sun being in the COMPTEL field-of-view during the sunlit part of an orbit, a large number of flares will be observed above the 800 keV gamma-ray threshold of the telescope. The telescope energy range extends to 30 MeV with high time resolution burst spectra available from 0.1 to 10 MeV. Strong Compton tail suppression of instrumental gamma-ray interactions will facilitate improved spectral analysis of solar flare emissions. In addition, the high signal to noise ratio for neutron detection and measurement will provide new neutron spectroscopic capabilities. Specifically, a flare similar to that of 3 June 1982 will provide spectroscopic data on greater than 1500 individual neutrons, enough to construct an unambiguous spectrum in the energy range of 20 to 200 MeV. Details of the instrument and its response to solar gamma-rays and neutrons will be presented.

  19. Scission gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Danilyan, G. V.; Klenke, J.; Krakhotin, V. A.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Novitsky, V. V.; Pavlov, V. S.; Shatalov, P. B.

    2009-11-15

    Gamma rays probably emitted by the fissioning nucleus {sup 236}U* at the instant of the break of the neck or within the time of about 10{sup -21} s after or before this were discovered in the experiment devoted to searches for the effect of rotation of the fissioning nucleus in the process {sup 235}U(n,{gamma}f) and performed in a polarized beam of cold neutrons from the MEPHISTO Guideline at the FRM II Munich reactor. Detailed investigations revealed that the angular distribution of these gamma rays is compatible with the assumption of the dipole character of the radiation and that their energy spectrum differs substantially from the spectrum of prompt fission gamma rays. In the measured interval 250-600 keV, this spectrum can be described by an exponential function at the exponent value of {alpha} = -5 x 10{sup -3} keV{sup -1}. The mechanism of radiation of such gamma rays is not known at the present time. Theoretical models based on the phenomenon of the electric giant dipole resonance in a strongly deformed fissioning nucleus or in a fission fragment predict harder radiation whose spectrum differs substantially from the spectrum measured in the present study.

  20. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a final report for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program from 06/01/91-07/31/97. The topics include: 1) Solar Flare Neutron Spectra and Accelerated Ions; 2) Gamma Ray Lines From The Orion Complex; 3) Implications of Nuclear Line Emission From The Orion Complex; 4) Possible Sites of Nuclear Line Emission From Massive OB Associations; 5) Gamma-Ray Burst Repitition and BATSE Position Uncertainties; 6) Effects of Compton Scattering on BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst Spectra; and 7) Selection Biases on the Spectral and Temporal Distribution of Gamma Ray Bursts.

  1. Search for gamma ray burst quasi simultaneous optical emission with BOOTES-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Cerón, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Soldán, J.; Hudec, R.; Bernas, M.; Páta, P.; Mateo Sanguino, T. J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Berná, J. Á; Nekola, M.; Gorosabel, J.; de la Morena, B. A.; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Giménez, Á.; Torres Riera, J.

    The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System experiment (BOOTES) has been designed to provide an automatic real time observing response to the detection of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). It achieves such response by using wide field cameras attached to small robotic telescopes and imaging in the B,I and R bands. To date we have obtained images for about 50 events with the Wide Field Camera (WFC), starting, in several ocasions, 3 minutes after the burst commenced. One of the last searches resulted in the detection of an optical transient, candidate to be the optical counterpart of the GRB 000313, although such relation has not been established to absolute certainty yet.

  2. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from DES Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Candidates with Fermi-LAT Data

    SciTech Connect

    Drlica-Wagner, A.; et al.

    2015-08-04

    Due to their proximity, high dark-matter (DM) content, and apparent absence of non-thermal processes, Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) are excellent targets for the indirect detection of DM. Recently, eight new dSph candidates were discovered using the first year of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We searched for gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of these new objects in six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We found no significant excesses of gamma-ray emission. Under the assumption that the DES candidates are dSphs with DM halo properties similar to the known dSphs, we computed individual and combined limits on the velocity-averaged DM annihilation cross section for these new targets. If the estimated DM content of these dSph candidates is confirmed, they will constrain the annihilation cross section to lie below the thermal relic cross section for DM particles with masses $\\lesssim 20\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$ annihilating via the $b\\bar{b}$ or τ(+)τ(-) channels.

  3. High-energy emission from the pulsar striped wind: a synchrotron model for gamma-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétri, Jérôme

    2012-08-01

    Gamma-ray pulsars constitute a class of high and very high energy emitters for which the known population is steadily increasing thanks to the Fermi/Large Area Telescope. More than a hundred such pulsars have been detected, offering a reasonable sample on to which to apply statistical techniques in order to outline relevant trends in the averaged properties of this (maybe not so) special class of pulsars. In this paper, their gamma-ray luminosity and spectral features are explained in the framework of synchrotron radiation from particles located in the stripe of the pulsar wind. Apart from radiative losses, particles are also subject to a constant re-acceleration and reheating for instance by a magnetic-reconnection-induced electric field. The high-energy luminosity scales as Lγ ≈ 2 × 1026 W (Lsd/1028 W)1/2 (P/1 s)-1/2, where Lsd is the pulsar spin-down luminosity and P its period. From this relation, we derive important parameters of pulsar magnetosphere and wind theories. Indeed, we find the bulk Lorentz factor of the wind scaling as Γv≈10 τrec1/5(Lsd/1028 W)1/2, pair multiplicity κ related to the magnetization parameter σ by κ σ τrec1/5≈108 and efficiency η of spin-down luminosity conversion into particle kinetic energy according to the relation η σ ≈ 1. A good guess for the associated reconnection rate is then τrec ≈ 0.5 (Lsd/1028 W)-5/12. Finally, pulses in gamma-rays are visible only if Lsd/P ≳ 1027 W s-1. This model differs from other high-energy emission mechanisms because it makes allowance not only for rotational kinetic energy release but also for an additional reservoir of energy anchored to the magnetic field of the stripe and released for instance by some magnetic reconnection processes.

  4. Gamma-ray emission from the shell of supernova remnant W44 revealed by the Fermi LAT.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cognard, I; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Espinoza, C; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Katsuta, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kramer, M; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Lyne, A G; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Noutsos, A; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stappers, B W; Stecker, F W; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Theureau, G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Venter, C; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2010-02-26

    Recent observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) hint that they accelerate cosmic rays to energies close to ~10(15) electron volts. However, the nature of the particles that produce the emission remains ambiguous. We report observations of SNR W44 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope at energies between 2 x 10(8) electron volts and 3 x10(11) electron volts. The detection of a source with a morphology corresponding to the SNR shell implies that the emission is produced by particles accelerated there. The gamma-ray spectrum is well modeled with emission from protons and nuclei. Its steepening above approximately 10(9) electron volts provides a probe with which to study how particle acceleration responds to environmental effects such as shock propagation in dense clouds and how accelerated particles are released into interstellar space.

  5. Hadronic Scenarios for Gamma-Ray Emission from Three Supernova Remnants Interacting with Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huan; Fang, Jun; Zhang, Li

    2014-04-01

    GeV γ-rays detected with the large area telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray space telescope in the direction of HB21, MSH 17-39 and G337.0-0.1 have been recently reported. The three supernova remnants (SNRs) show interactions with molecular clouds, and they are effective gamma-ray emitters as the relativistic protons accelerated by the SNR shocks inelastically colliding with the dense gas in the clouds. The origin of the observed γ-rays for the three remnants is investigated in the scenario of the diffusive shock acceleration. In the model, a part of the SNR shock transmits into the nearby molecular clouds, and the shock velocity is greatly reduced. As a result, a shock with a relatively low Alfvén Mach number is generated, and the spectra of the accelerated protons and the γ-ray photons produced via proton-proton interaction can be obtained. The results show that the observed γ-ray spectra for the three SNRs interacting with the molecular clouds can be reproduced. It can be concluded that the hadronic origin of the γ-rays for the three SNRs is approved, and the ability of SNR shocks to accelerate protons is also supported.

  6. Search for neutrino emission from gamma-ray flaring blazars with the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, N.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-08-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. Radio-loud active galactic nuclei with jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, the so-called blazars, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources. The all-sky monitor LAT on board the Fermi satellite probes the variability of any given gamma-ray bright blazar in the sky on time scales of hours to months. Assuming hadronic models, a strong correlation between the gamma-ray and the neutrino fluxes is expected. Selecting a narrow time window on the assumed neutrino production period can significantly reduce the background. An unbinned method based on the minimization of a likelihood ratio was applied to a subsample of data collected in 2008 (61 days live time). By searching for neutrinos during the high state periods of the AGN light curve, the sensitivity to these sources was improved by about a factor of two with respect to a standard time-integrated point source search. First results on the search for neutrinos associated with ten bright and variable Fermi sources are presented.

  7. Gamma-ray-selected AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giommi, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    The gamma-ray band is the most energetic part of the electromagnetic spectrum. As such it is also where selection effects are most severe, as it can only be reached by the most extreme non-thermal AGN. Blazars, with their emission dominated by non-thermal blue-shifted radiation arising in a relativistic jet pointed in the direction of the observer, naturally satisfy this though requirement. For this reason, albeit these sources are intrisically very rare (orders of magnitude less abundant than radio quiet AGN of the same optical magnitude) they almost completely dominate the extragalactic gamma-ray and very high energy sky. I will discuss the emission of different types of blazars and the selection effects that are at play in the gamma-ray band based on recent results from the current generation of gamma-ray astronomy satellites, ground-based Cherenkov telescopes, and Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. A Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Resulting from Cosmic-Ray Interactions with the Interstellar Gas and Radiation Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodroski, Thomas J.; Dwek, Eli

    2000-01-01

    The primary task objective is to construct a 3-D model for the distribution of high-energy (20 MeV - 30 GeV) gamma-ray emission in the Galactic disk. Under this task the contractor will utilize data from the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, H I and CO surveys, radio-continuum surveys at 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, 5 GHz, and 19 GHz, the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) all-sky maps from 1 to 240 microns, and ground-based B, V, J, H, and K photometry. The respective contributions to the gamma-ray emission from cosmic ray/matter interactions, inverse Compton scattering, and extragalactic emission will be determined.

  9. A 3-Dimensional Analysis of the Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Resulting from Cosmic-Ray Interactions with the Interstellar Gas and Radiation Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodroski, Thomas J.; Dwek, Eli (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The contractor will provide support for the analysis of data under ADP (NRA 96-ADP- 09; Proposal No . 167-96adp). The primary task objective is to construct a 3-D model for the distribution of high-energy (20 MeV - 30 GeV) gamma-ray emission in the Galactic disk. Under this task the contractor will utilize data from the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, H I and CO surveys, radio-continuum surveys at 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, 5 GHz, and 19 GHz, the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIME) all-sky maps from 1 to 240 p, and ground-based B, V, J, H, and K photometry. The respective contributions to the gamma-ray emission from cosmic ray/matter interactions, inverse Compton scattering, and extragalactic emission will be determined.

  10. A Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission Resulting from Cosmic-Ray Interaction with the Interstellar Gas and Radiation Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodraski, Thomas J.; Dwek, Eli

    1998-01-01

    This final report outlines the progress of the contractor's support for the analysis of data under ADP (NRA 96-ADP-08; Proposal No. 167-96 adp). The primary task object was to construct a 3-D model for the distribution of high-energy (20 MeV-30 GeV) gamma-ray emission in the Galactic disk. Under this task the contractor was to utilize data from the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, HI and CO surveys, radio-continuum surveys at 408 MHz, 1420 MHz, 5 GHz, and 19 GHz, the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) all-sky maps from I to 240 um, and ground-based B,V, J, H and K photometry. The respective contributions to the high-latitude gamma-ray emission from cosmic ray-matter interactions, inverse Compton scattering, and extra-galactic emission were to be determined.

  11. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from 1FGL J2001.1 4351 by MAGIC

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Karsten; Paneque, David; Giavitto, Gianluca; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2012-05-07

    We report the discovery of Very High Energy (VHE; >100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from the source 1FGL J2001.1+4351, (RA 20 01 13.5, dec 43 53 02.8, J2000), which is positionally consistent with the location of the flat spectrum radio source MG4 J200112+4352 (RA 20 01 12.9, dec 43 52 52.8, J2000). The VHE detection is based on a 1.5 hour-long observation performed on July 16th in stereoscopic mode with the two 17m diameter imaging Cherenkov telescopes on La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. The preliminary analysis of the MAGIC data using the standard cuts optimized for soft energy spectra sources yields a detection of 125 gamma-rays above 90 GeV, corresponding to a pre-trail statistical significance of 7.6 standard deviations. The observed flux is estimated to be {approx}20% of the Crab nebula flux above 100 GeV. Earlier MAGIC observations indicated a substantially lower flux; hence indicating that the source is variable on a few days timescale.

  12. Prompt gamma-ray emission for future imaging applications in proton-boron fusion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petringa, G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Caliri, C.; Cuttone, G.; Giuffrida, L.; La Rosa, G.; Manna, R.; Manti, L.; Marchese, V.; Marchetta, C.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Picciotto, A.; Romano, F.; Romano, F. P.; Russo, A. D.; Russo, G.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, V.

    2017-03-01

    Recently, an approach exploiting the proton therapy biological enhancement by using Boron atoms injected inside a tumor, has been proposed [1-3]. Here, the 11B(p,α)2α nuclear fusion reaction channel, where three alpha particles are produced with an average energy around 4 MeV, is considered [4]. These alphas are able to penetrate the cells nucleus and strongly damage their DNA. In addition, gamma prompts emitted by the proton Boron nuclear reactions can be used for on-line proton beam imaging purposes. In this work an experimental study of the gamma prompt emissions from the proton Boron nuclear reactions has been carried out with the main aim to understand and quantify the most probable emission for future clinical applications.

  13. HIGH-EFFICIENCY PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION OF LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURST JETS: THE EFFECT OF THE VIEWING ANGLE

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2011-05-01

    We present the results of a numerical investigation of the spectra and light curves of the emission from the photospheres of long-duration gamma-ray burst jets. We confirm that the photospheric emission has high efficiency and show that the efficiency increases slightly with the off-axis angle. We show that the peak frequency of the observed spectrum is proportional to the square root of the photosphere's luminosity, in agreement with the Amati relation. However, a quantitative comparison reveals that the thermal peak frequency is too small for the corresponding total luminosity. As a consequence, the radiation must be out of thermal equilibrium with the baryons in order to reproduce the observations. Finally, we show that the spectrum integrated over the emitting surface is virtually indistinguishable from a Planck law, and therefore an additional mechanism has to be identified to explain the non-thermal behavior of the observed spectra at both high and low frequencies.

  14. The use of the bulk properties of gamma-ray burst prompt emission spectra for the study of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Adam

    The study of bulk spectral properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) is important to understanding the physics behind these powerful explosions and may even be an aide in studying cosmology. The prompt emission spectral properties have long been studied by a growing community of researchers, and many theories have been developed since the discovery of GRBs. Even though the exact physics of these phenomena is not completely understood, GRBs have been proposed to give insight on other astrophysical phenomena from dark matter to the expansion of the universe. Obviously, using GRBs to study cosmology requires a large sample size to adequately constrain results and provide confident conjectures. For this reason, BATSE and GBM results are paramount to the study of the prompt emission of GRBs. Using results from both instruments, I study the bulk spectral properties of GRBs and describe analysis techniques that can be used to study cosmology.

  15. First limits on the very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission of a fast radio burst. H.E.S.S. observations of FRB 150418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Coffaro, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; Dewilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'c.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Richter, S.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.; Superb Collaboration; Jankowski, F.; Keane, E. F.; Petroff, E.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Following the detection of the fast radio burst FRB150418 by the SUPERB project at the Parkes radio telescope, we aim to search for very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission. Methods: Follow-up observations in the very-high energy gamma-ray domain were obtained with the H.E.S.S. imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope system within 14.5 h of the radio burst. Results: The obtained 1.4 h of gamma-ray observations are presented and discussed. At the 99% C.L. we obtained an integral upper limit on the gamma-ray flux of Φγ(E > 350 GeV) < 1.33 × 10-8 m-2 s-1. Differential flux upper limits as function of the photon energy were derived and used to constrain the intrinsic high-energy afterglow emission of FRB 150418. Conclusions: No hints for high-energy afterglow emission of FRB 150418 were found. Taking absorption on the extragalactic background light into account and assuming a distance of z = 0.492 based on radio and optical counterpart studies and consistent with the FRB dispersion, we constrain the gamma-ray luminosity at 1 TeV to L < 5.1 × 1047 erg/s at 99% C.L.

  16. PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION AS THE DOMINANT RADIATION MECHANISM IN LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J.; Margutti, Raffaella; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2013-03-10

    We present the results of a set of numerical simulations of long-duration gamma-ray burst jets associated with massive, compact stellar progenitors. The simulations extend to large radii and allow us to locate the region in which the peak frequency of the advected radiation is set before the radiation is released at the photosphere. Light curves and spectra are calculated for different viewing angles as well as different progenitor structures and jet properties. We find that the radiation released at the photosphere of matter-dominated jets is able to reproduce the observed Amati and energy-Lorentz factor correlations. Our simulations also predict a correlation between the burst energy and the radiative efficiency of the prompt phase, consistent with observations.

  17. Gamma-ray emission from SEP interactions with solar wind ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Ragot, B. R.

    A population of dust grains produced by asteroids and comets is continually orbiting the Sun to within several Rsun. The grains scatter sunlight and make up the solar F corona, which shows only slow variations with time. Grain dynamics are due primarily to interactions with solar photons and the solar wind, but they are also bombarded by the E > 1 MeV energetic particles propagating antisunward after acceleration in CME-driven shocks during SEP events. We consider the effects of the interaction of high energy protons on dust grains during such events. To calculate the maximum expected effects, we calculate the proton energy spectrum of the 20 January 2005 ground level event (GLE) and consider the gamma ray fluxes produced in such an event. The size distribution of the grains in the circumsolar environment is poorly known, so we use several popular models in our calculations.

  18. VARIABILITY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM BLAZARS ON BLACK HOLE TIMESCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Vovk, Ie.; Neronov, A.

    2013-04-20

    We investigate the variability properties of blazars in the GeV band using data from the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) telescope. We find that blazars exhibit variability down to the minimum timescale resolvable by Fermi; this variability is a function of the peak photon count rate in the LAT. This implies that the real minimum variability timescales for the majority of blazars are typically shorter than those resolvable by the LAT. We find that for several blazars these minimum variability timescales reach those associated with the blazar central engine, the supermassive black hole. At the same time, none of the blazars exhibits variability on a timescale shorter than the black hole horizon light-crossing time and/or the period of rotation around the last stable circular orbit. Based on this fact, we argue that the timing properties of the {gamma}-ray signal could be determined by the processes in the direct vicinity of the supermassive black hole.

  19. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OPTICAL EMISSION. III. BRIGHTNESS DISTRIBUTIONS AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF OPTICAL AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xianggao; Liang Enwei; Li Liang; Lu Ruijing; Wei Jianyan; Zhang Bing

    2013-09-10

    We continue our systematic statistical study on optical afterglow data of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the apparent magnitude distributions of early optical afterglows at different epochs (t = 10{sup 2} s, 10{sup 3} s, and 1 hr) for the optical light curves of a sample of 93 GRBs (the global sample) and for sub-samples with an afterglow onset bump or a shallow decay segment. For the onset sample and shallow decay sample we also present the brightness distribution at the peak time t{sub p} and break time t{sub b}, respectively. All the distributions can be fit with Gaussian functions. We further perform Monte Carlo simulations to infer the luminosity function of GRB optical emission at the rest-frame time 10{sup 3} s, t{sub p}, and t{sub b}. Our results show that a single power-law luminosity function is adequate to model the data with indices -1.40 {+-} 0.10, -1.06 {+-} 0.16, and -1.54 {+-} 0.22. Based on the derived rest-frame 10{sup 3} s luminosity function, we generate the intrinsic distribution of the R-band apparent magnitude M{sub R} at the observed time 10{sup 3} s post-trigger, which peaks at M{sub R} = 22.5 mag. The fraction of GRBs whose R-band magnitude is fainter than 22 mag and 25 mag and at the observer time 10{sup 3} s are {approx}63% and {approx}25%, respectively. The detection probabilities of the optical afterglows with ground-based robotic telescopes and the UV-Optical Telescope on board Swift are roughly consistent with that inferred from this intrinsic M{sub R} distribution, indicating that the variations of the dark GRB fraction among the samples with different telescopes may be due to the observational selection effect, although the existence of an intrinsically dark GRB population cannot be ruled out.

  20. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1994-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) is one of four instruments on the Compton observatory which was launched by the space shuttle Atlantis on April 5, 1991. As of mid-March, 1994, BATSE detected more than 925 cosmic gamma-ray bursts and more than 725 solar flares. Pulsed gamma rays have been detected from at least 16 sources and emission from at least 28 sources (including most of the pulsed sources) has been detected by the earth occultation technique. UAH participation in BATSE is extensive but can be divided into two main areas, operations and data analysis. The daily BATSE operations tasks represent a substantial level of effort and involve a large team composed of MSFC personnel as well as contractors such as UAH. The scientific data reduction and analysis of BATSE data is also a substantial level of effort in which UAH personnel have made significant contributions.

  1. Photosphere emission in the X-ray flares of swift gamma-ray bursts and implications for the fireball properties

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Lu, Rui-Jing; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Hou, Shu-Jin; Zhang, Jin E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn

    2014-11-10

    X-ray flares of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are usually observed in the soft X-ray range and the spectral coverage is limited. In this paper, we present an analysis of 32 GRB X-ray flares that are simultaneously observed by both Burst Alert Telescope and X-Ray Telescope on board the Swift mission, so that a joint spectral analysis with a wider spectral coverage is possible. Our results show that the joint spectra of 19 flares are fitted with the absorbed single power law or the Band function models. More interestingly, the joint spectra of the other 13 X-ray flares are fitted with the absorbed single power-law model plus a blackbody component. Phenomenally, the observed spectra of these 13 flares are analogous to several GRBs with a thermal component, but only with a much lower temperature of kT = 1 ∼ 3 keV. Assuming that the thermal emission is the photosphere emission of the GRB fireball, we derive the fireball properties of the 13 flares that have redshift measurements, such as the bulk Lorentz factor Γ{sub ph} of the outflow. The derived Γ{sub ph} range from 50 to 150 and a relation of Γ{sub ph} to the thermal emission luminosity is found. It is consistent with the Γ{sub 0} – L {sub iso} relations that are derived for the prompt gamma-ray emission. We discuss the physical implications of these results within the content of jet composition and the radiation mechanism of GRBs and X-ray flares.

  2. Gamma ray generator

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  3. Gamma-ray Emission from PSR J0007+7303 Using Seven Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F.; de Oña Wilhelmi, Emma; Rea, Nanda; Martin, Jonatan

    2016-11-01

    Based on more than seven years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Pass 8 data, we report on a detailed analysis of the bright gamma-ray pulsar (PSR) J0007+7303. We confirm that PSR J0007+7303 is significantly detected as a point source also during the off-peak phases with a test statistic value of 262 (˜16σ). In the description of the off-peak spectrum of PSR J0007+7303, a power law with an exponential cutoff at 2.7 ± 1.2 ± 1.3 GeV (the first/second uncertainties correspond to statistical/systematic errors) is preferred over a single power law at a level of 3.5σ. The possible existence of a cutoff hints at a magnetospheric origin of the emission. In addition, no extended gamma-ray emission is detected that is compatible with either the supernova remnant (CTA 1) or the very high-energy (>100 GeV) pulsar wind nebula. A flux upper limit of 6.5 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 in the energy range 10-300 GeV is reported, for an extended source assuming the morphology of the VERITAS detection. During on-peak phases, a sub-exponential cutoff is significantly preferred (˜11σ) for representing the spectral energy distribution, in both the phase-averaged and phase-resolved spectra. Three glitches are detected during the observation period and we found no flux variability at the time of the glitches or in the long-term behavior. We also report the discovery of a previously unknown gamma-ray source in the vicinity of PSR J0007+7303, Fermi J0020+7328, which we associate with the z = 1.781 quasar S5 0016+73. A concurrent analysis of this source is needed to correctly characterize the behavior of CTA 1 and it is also presented in the paper.

  4. EDGE: Explorer of diffuse emission and gamma-ray burst explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, L.; den Herder, J. W.; Ohashi, T.; Amati, L.; Atteia, J. L.; Barthelmy, S.; Barbera, M.; Barret, D.; Basso, S.; Boer, M.; Borgani, S.; Boyarskiy, O.; Branchini, E.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Briggs, M.; Brunetti, G.; Budtz-Jorgensen, C.; Burrows, D.; Campana, S.; Caroli, E.; Chincarini, G.; Christensen, F.; Cocchi, M.; Comastri, A.; Corsi, A.; Cotroneo, V.; Conconi, P.; Colasanti, L.; Cusumano, G.; de Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ettori, S.; Ezoe, Y.; Ferrari, L.; Feroci, M.; Finger, M.; Fishman, G.; Fujimoto, R.; Galeazzi, M.; Galli, A.; Gatti, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gendre, B.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Giommi, P.; Girardi, M.; Guzzo, L.; Haardt, F.; Hepburn, I.; Hermsen, W.; Hoevers, H.; Holland, A.; in't Zand, J.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kawahara, H.; Kawai, N.; Kaastra, J.; Kippen, M.; de Korte, P. A. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kusenko, A.; Labanti, C.; Lieu, R.; Macculi, C.; Makishima, K.; Matt, G.; Mazzotta, P.; McCammon, D.; Méndez, M.; Mineo, T.; Mitchell, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Molendi, S.; Moscardini, L.; Mushotzky, R.; Natalucci, L.; Nicastro, F.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J.; Paerels, F.; Page, M.; Paltani, S.; Pareschi, G.; Perinati, E.; Perola, C.; Ponman, T.; Rasmussen, A.; Roncarelli, M.; Rosati, P.; Ruchayskiy, O.; Quadrini, E.; Sakurai, I.; Salvaterra, R.; Sasaki, S.; Sato, G.; Schaye, J.; Schmitt, J.; Sciortino, S.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Shinozaki, K.; Spiga, D.; Suto, Y.; Tagliaferri, G.; Takahashi, T.; Takei, Y.; Tawara, Y.; Tozzi, P.; Tsunemi, H.; Tsuru, T.; Ubertini, P.; Ursino, E.; Viel, M.; Vink, J.; White, N.; Willingale, R.; Wijers, R.; Yoshikawa, K.; Yamasaki, N.

    2009-03-01

    How structures of various scales formed and evolved from the early Universe up to present time is a fundamental question of astrophysical cosmology. EDGE (Piro et al., 2007) will trace the cosmic history of the baryons from the early generations of massive stars by Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) explosions, through the period of galaxy cluster formation, down to the very low redshift Universe, when between a third and one half of the baryons are expected to reside in cosmic filaments undergoing gravitational collapse by dark matter (the so-called warm hot intragalactic medium). In addition EDGE, with its unprecedented capabilities, will provide key results in many important fields. These scientific goals are feasible with a medium class mission using existing technology combined with innovative instrumental and observational capabilities by: (a) observing with fast reaction Gamma-Ray Bursts with a high spectral resolution. This enables the study of their star-forming and host galaxy environments and the use of GRBs as back lights of large scale cosmological structures; (b) observing and surveying extended sources (galaxy clusters, WHIM) with high sensitivity using two wide field of view X-ray telescopes (one with a high angular resolution and the other with a high spectral resolution). The mission concept includes four main instruments: a Wide-field Spectrometer (0.1-2.2 eV) with excellent energy resolution (3 eV at 0.6 keV), a Wide-Field Imager (0.3-6 keV) with high angular resolution (HPD = 15”) constant over the full 1.4 degree field of view, and a Wide Field Monitor (8-200 keV) with a FOV of ¼ of the sky, which will trigger the fast repointing to the GRB. Extension of its energy response up to 1 MeV will be achieved with a GRB detector with no imaging capability. This mission is proposed to ESA as part of the Cosmic Vision call. We will outline the science drivers and describe in more detail the payload of this mission.

  5. The Utilization of the RCT Telescope for Studies of Blazar Continuum Emission during the GLAST Gamma-Ray Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.; Cominsky, L.; Spear, G.; Carinni, M.; Gelderman, R.; McGruder, C. H.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; Davis, D. R.; Everett, M.; Walter, D. K.

    2003-05-01

    The RCT Consortium successfully proposed to refurbish and automate the Kitt Peak 1.3-m telescope, and to operate it as the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT). Refurbishment is nearing completion, and observations have begun. The capabilities of the RCT for broad-band optical photometry will be described. A program for systematic optical monitoring of blazars with the RCT is planned. We anticipate that an important utilization of the RCT will be in conjunction with multi-wavelength studies of blazar continuum emission during the operation of NASA's Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) satellite, now scheduled for launch in 2006. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG58762.

  6. Chandra And HST Observations of Gamma-Ray Blazars: Comparing Jet Emission at Small And Large Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Maraschi, L.; Wolter, A.; Cheung, C.C.; Sambruna, R.M.; Urry, C.M.; /Yale U., Dept. Astron.

    2007-03-20

    We present new Chandra and HST data for four gamma-ray blazars selected on the basis of radio morphology with the aim of revealing X-ray and optical emission from their jets at large scales. All the sources have been detected. Spectral Energy Distributions of the large scale jets are obtained as well as new X-ray spectra for the blazar cores. Modeling for each object the core (sub-pc scale) and large-scale ({approx}> 100 kpc) jet SEDs, we derive the properties of the same jet at the two scales. The comparison of speeds and powers at different scales supports a simple scenario for the dynamics and propagation of high power relativistic jets.

  7. Fluorine concentrations in bone biopsy samples determined by proton-induced gamma-ray emission and cyclic neutron activation.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, N M; Altaf, W J; Gill, B S; Jeynes, C; Nicolaou, G; Pietra, R; Sabbioni, E; Surian, M

    1990-01-01

    Fluorine concentrations in bone biopsy samples taken from the iliac crest of subjects, divided into four groups depending on the length of dialysis treatment, and aluminium levels in blood and bone pathology, in terms of osteoporosis, were determined by two instrumental methods. Proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), making use of the resonance reaction of 19F(p, alpha gamma)16O at 872 keV, and cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), using the 19F(n, gamma)20F reaction in a reactor irradiation facility, were employed. Rutherford backscattering (RBS) was used to calculate the volume, and, hence, mass of the sample excited in PIGE by determining the major element composition of the samples in order to express results in terms of concentration. From this preliminary investigation, a relationship is suggested between fluorine concentrations in bone and aluminium levels in the system.

  8. Determination of total fluorine in five coal reference materials by proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roelandts, I; Robaye, G; Delbrouck-Habaru, J M; Weber, G

    1996-03-01

    The direct non-destructive proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) technique with a germanium detector was applied to the determination of total fluorine concentration in five coal reference materials (BCR 40, NIST 1632b, NIST 1635, SARM 20 and USGS CLB-1). Duplicate analyses were made from five randomly selected bottles of each coal. Individual data are presented and some problems (calibration, proton stopping power, effects of sample heating by the proton beam, background estimation) which were encountered during this study are discussed. Sensitivity and reproducibility of the determinations, and homogeneity of the coal samples with respect to fluorine contents by analysis of variance were investigated. The present data are also compared with the few published values for these reference samples, including other PIGE data. The use of synthetic standards and spiked samples in the present study suggested that the PIGE method was more accurate than other techniques.

  9. The Anatomy of a Long Gamma-Ray Burst: A Simple Classification Scheme for the Emission Mechanism(s).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégué, D.; Burgess, J. Michael

    2016-03-01

    Ultra-relativistic motion and efficient conversion of kinetic energy to radiation are required by gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations, yet they are difficult to simultaneously achieve. Three leading mechanisms have been proposed to explain the observed emission emanating from GRB outflows: radiation from either relativistic internal or external shocks, or thermal emission from a photosphere. Previous works were dedicated to independently treating these three mechanisms and arguing for a sole, unique origin of the prompt emission of GRBs. In contrast, herein, we first explain why all three models are valid mechanisms and that a contribution from each of them is expected in the prompt phase. Additionally, we show that a single parameter, the dimensionless entropy of the GRB outflow, determines which mechanism contributes the most to the emission. More specifically, internal shocks dominate for low values of the dimensionless entropy, external shocks for intermediate values, and finally, photospheric emission for large values. We present a unified framework for the emission mechanisms of GRBs with easily testable predictions for each process.

  10. THE ANATOMY OF A LONG GAMMA-RAY BURST: A SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR THE EMISSION MECHANISM(S)

    SciTech Connect

    Bégué, D.; Burgess, J. Michael E-mail: damienb@kth.se

    2016-03-20

    Ultra-relativistic motion and efficient conversion of kinetic energy to radiation are required by gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations, yet they are difficult to simultaneously achieve. Three leading mechanisms have been proposed to explain the observed emission emanating from GRB outflows: radiation from either relativistic internal or external shocks, or thermal emission from a photosphere. Previous works were dedicated to independently treating these three mechanisms and arguing for a sole, unique origin of the prompt emission of GRBs. In contrast, herein, we first explain why all three models are valid mechanisms and that a contribution from each of them is expected in the prompt phase. Additionally, we show that a single parameter, the dimensionless entropy of the GRB outflow, determines which mechanism contributes the most to the emission. More specifically, internal shocks dominate for low values of the dimensionless entropy, external shocks for intermediate values, and finally, photospheric emission for large values. We present a unified framework for the emission mechanisms of GRBs with easily testable predictions for each process.

  11. RE-EXAMINATION OF THE EXPECTED GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT SN 1987A

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T.; Völk, H. J.

    2015-09-01

    A nonlinear kinetic theory, combining cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) with their gas dynamics, is used to re-examine the nonthermal properties of the remnant of SN 1987A for an extended evolutionary period of 5–50 year. This spherically symmetric model is approximately applied to the different features of the SNR, consisting of (i) a blue supergiant wind and bubble, and (ii) of the swept-up red supergiant (RSG) wind structures in the form of an H ii region, an equatorial ring (ER), and an hourglass region. The RSG wind involves a mass loss rate that decreases significantly with elevation above and below the equatorial plane. The model adapts recent three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations by Potter et al. in 2014 that use a significantlysmaller ionized mass of the ER than assumed in the earlier studies by the present authors. The SNR shock recently swept up the ER, which is the densest region in the immediate circumstellar environment. Therefore, the expected gamma-ray energy flux density at TeV energies in the current epoch has already reached its maximal value of ∼10{sup −13} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. This flux should decrease by a factor of about two over the next 10 years.

  12. Re-examination of the Expected Gamma-Ray Emission of Supernova Remnant SN 1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T.; Völk, H. J.

    2015-09-01

    A nonlinear kinetic theory, combining cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) with their gas dynamics, is used to re-examine the nonthermal properties of the remnant of SN 1987A for an extended evolutionary period of 5-50 year. This spherically symmetric model is approximately applied to the different features of the SNR, consisting of (i) a blue supergiant wind and bubble, and (ii) of the swept-up red supergiant (RSG) wind structures in the form of an H ii region, an equatorial ring (ER), and an hourglass region. The RSG wind involves a mass loss rate that decreases significantly with elevation above and below the equatorial plane. The model adapts recent three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations by Potter et al. in 2014 that use a significantlysmaller ionized mass of the ER than assumed in the earlier studies by the present authors. The SNR shock recently swept up the ER, which is the densest region in the immediate circumstellar environment. Therefore, the expected gamma-ray energy flux density at TeV energies in the current epoch has already reached its maximal value of ˜10-13 erg cm-2 s-1. This flux should decrease by a factor of about two over the next 10 years.

  13. PROMPT X-RAY AND OPTICAL EXCESS EMISSION DUE TO HADRONIC CASCADES IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, Katsuaki; Inoue, Susumu; Meszaros, Peter E-mail: inoue@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.j

    2010-12-20

    A fraction of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibit distinct spectral features in their prompt emission below few tens of keV that exceed simple extrapolations of the low-energy power-law portion of the Band spectral model. This is also true for the prompt optical emission observed in several bursts. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we model such low-energy spectral excess components as hadronic cascade emission initiated by photomeson interactions of ultra-high-energy protons accelerated within GRB outflows. Synchrotron radiation from the cascading, secondary electron-positron pairs can naturally reproduce the observed soft spectra in the X-ray band, and in some cases the optical spectra as well. These components can be directly related to the higher energy radiation at GeV energies due to the hadronic cascades. Depending on the spectral shape, the total energy in protons is required to be comparable to or appreciably larger than the observed total photon energy. In particular, we apply our model to the excess X-ray and GeV emission of GRB 090902B, and the bright optical emission of the 'naked-eye' GRB 080319B. Besides the hard GeV components detected by Fermi, such X-ray or optical spectral excesses are further potential signatures of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray production in GRBs.

  14. Gamma-ray emission from Cygnus X-3 detected by Fermi/LAT at the onset of a major radio flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane

    2017-04-01

    The high-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) remained in an ultra-soft state since the transition from the soft state associated with gamma-ray emission detected by both Fermi and AGILE satellites (ATel#10109 and #10138).

  15. Brilliant gamma-ray emission from near-critical plasma interaction with ultraintense laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Bin

    2016-10-01

    γ -ray is the electromagnetic radiation having the highest photon energy and smallest wavelength, which has a broad range of applications in material science, nuclear physics, astrophysics and so on. In this talk, I shall report recent progresses on theoretical and numerical studies of laser-driven brilliant gamma-ray radiation in near critical plasmas at Peking University (PKU), where an intense circularly polarized (CP) lasers. A novel resonant acceleration scheme can be achieved for generating dense relativistic electron bunches and emitting brilliant γ-ray pulses, where the laser frequency matches with that of electron betatron oscillation under quasistatic electromagnetic fields and radiation reaction in plasma. 3D PIC simulations show that brilliant γ-ray radiation with energy of 3J and brightness of 1024photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1%BW (at 3MeV) can be produced by using CP lasers at intensity 1022W/cm2. It is found that the total number of radiated photons scales as a2 /S 1 / 2 and the conversion efficiency scales as a3 / S , where S =(ne /nc) a and a is the laser normalized amplitude. Further studies show that if the laser intensity is increased to 1023W/cm2, the quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects are in favor of trapping and achieving resonance acceleration of electrons, resulting in production of brilliant γ-ray pulses with unprecedented power of 6.7PW and brightness of 1025photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1%BW (at 15MeV). To the best of our knowledge, this is the γ-ray source with the highest peak brightness in tens-MeV regime ever reported in the literature. supported by the NSF, Nos. 11575298 and 1000-Talents Program of China.

  16. Investigating the peculiar emission from the new VHE gamma-ray source H1722+119

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Buson, S.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.; D'Ammando, F.; Berdyugin, A.; Hovatta, T.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Raiteri, C. M.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reinthal, R.; Richards, J. L.; Verrecchia, F.; Villata, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes observed the BL Lac object H1722+119 (redshift unknown) for six consecutive nights between 2013 May 17 and 22, for a total of 12.5 h. The observations were triggered by high activity in the optical band measured by the KVA (Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien) telescope. The source was for the first time detected in the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray band with a statistical significance of 5.9σ. The integral flux above 150 GeV is estimated to be (2.0 ± 0.5) per cent of the Crab nebula flux. We used contemporaneous high energy (HE, 100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray observations from Fermi-Large Area Telescope to estimate the redshift of the source. Within the framework of the current extragalactic background light models, we estimate the redshift to be z = 0.34 ± 0.15. Additionally, we used contemporaneous X-ray to radio data collected by the instruments on board the Swift satellite, the KVA, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory telescope to study multifrequency characteristics of the source. We found no significant temporal variability of the flux in the HE and VHE bands. The flux in the optical and radio wavebands, on the other hand, did vary with different patterns. The spectral energy distribution of H1722+119 shows surprising behaviour in the ˜3 × 1014-1018 Hz frequency range. It can be modelled using an inhomogeneous helical jet synchrotron self-Compton model.

  17. The "Far Site" Scenario for Gamma-ray Emission in Blazars. A View from the VLBI Observing Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudo, Iván

    2013-12-01

    Since the birth of γ-ray astronomy, locating the origin of γ-ray emission has been a fundamental problem for the knowledge of the emission processes involved. Densely time sampled monitoring programs with very long baseline interferometry and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, together with several other facilities at most of the available spectral ranges (including polarization measurements if possible) are starting to shed new light for the case of blazars. A successful observing technique consists on analyzing the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in ultra-high resolution VLBI images to associate the particularly bright events at different wavebands. Such association can be robustly demonstrated by probing the statistical significance of the correlation among spectral ranges through Monte Carlo simulations. The location of the high energy emission region is inferred through its relative location with regard to the associated low energy event observed in the VLBI images. In this paper, I present some of the latest results using this method that locate the GeV emission within the jets of blazars AO 0235+164 and OJ287 at > 12 pc from the central AGN engine, hence supporting the "far site" scenario.

  18. Clustering of LAT light curves: a clue to the origin of high-energy emission in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, L.; Vianello, G.; Omodei, N.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Celotti, A.; Longo, F.; Desiante, R.; Barniol Duran, R.

    2014-10-01

    The physical origin of the >0.1 GeV emission detected from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by the Fermi satellite has not yet been completely understood. In this work, we consider the GeV light curves of 10 GRBs with measured redshift detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). These light curves are characterized by a long-lived (≳102 seconds) emission, whose luminosity decays in time as a power law. While the decay rate is similar for all GRBs (i.e. LLAT ∝ t-1.2), the normalization spans about two orders of magnitude in luminosity. However, after re-normalizing the luminosities to the prompt energetics Eprompt the light curves overlap. We consider the scenario in which the temporally extended LAT emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated at the forward external shock. According to this model, at high energies (i.e. above the typical synchrotron frequencies) a small dispersion of the Eprompt-normalized light curves is expected. The fact that the LAT temporally extended emission follows this behaviour reinforces its interpretation in terms of afterglow radiation from external shocks. Assuming this scenario, we argue that the parameters ɛe and ηγ (i.e. the fraction of shock-dissipated energy gained by the electrons, and the efficiency of the mechanism producing the prompt radiation, respectively) must be narrowly distributed.

  19. Study of gamma-ray emission by proton beam interaction with injected Boron atoms for future medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petringa, G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Caliri, C.; Cuttone, G.; Giuffrida, L.; Larosa, G.; Manna, R.; Manti, L.; Marchese, V.; Marchetta, C.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Picciotto, A.; Romano, F.; Romano, F. P.; Russo, A. D.; Russo, G.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, V.

    2017-03-01

    In this work an experimental and theoretical study of gamma-prompt emission has been carried out with the main aim being to understand to what extent this approach can be used during a treatment based on proton-boron fusion therapy. An experimental campaign, carried out with a high purity Germanium detector, has been performed to evaluate the gamma emission from two pure 11B and 10B targets. Furthermore, a set of analytical simulations, using the Talys nuclear reaction code has been performed and the calculated spectra compared with the experimental results. These comparisons allowed us to successfully validate Talys which was then used to estimate the gamma emission when a realistic Boron concentration was considered. Both simulations and experimental results suggest that the gamma emission is low at certain proton energies, thus in order to improve the imaging capabilities, while still maintaining the Boron therapeutic role, we propose the addition of natural Copper bound by a dipyrromethene, BodiPy, to boron atoms. Analytical simulations with Talys suggest that the characteristic spectrum of the copper prompt gamma-rays has several peaks in the energetic regions where the background is negligible.

  20. CORONAS-F detection of gamma-ray emission from the solar flare on 29 October 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurt, Victoria; Kashapova, Larisa; Yushkov, Boris; Kudela, Karel; Galkin, Vladimir

    Appreciable HXR/gamma-ray emissions in the 0.015-150 MeV energy range associated with the solar flare on 29 October 2003 (X10/3B) were observed at 20:41-20:58 with the SPR-N and SONG instruments onboard the CORONAS-F mission. Two time intervals were identified which showed major changes in the intensity of these emissions. To specify the details of the spectral changes with time, we fitted the SONG energy loss spectra with a three-component model of incident gamma-ray spectrum: (1) a power law in energy, assumed to be due to electron bremsstrahlung; (2) a broad continuum produced by nuclear de-excitation gamma-lines; and (3) a broad gamma-line generated from pion decay. We study the relationship between non-imaging observations, particularly between time of pion-decay emission onset and motions in this solar flare, using HXR foot points (FP) separation and flare shear temporal behavior presented by (Ji et al., 2008). In this work it was shown that significant FP converging and unshearing motion occurred during the first flare interval. During this interval the primary bremsstrahlung extended to tens of MeV and de-excitation gamma-lines dominated. During the second interval after 20:45 the FPs began to move apart. We found out that starting from 20:46, the gamma-emission spectrum revealed a feature attributed to pion-decay. It means that the effective acceleration of protons to energies above 300 MeV (pion-production threshold) occurred coincidently with a change of the flare magnetic structure. The maximum intensity of the pion-decay gamma emission was observed at 20:49 and proved to be 2.0•10-4 photons cm-2 s-1 MeV-1 at 100 MeV. This flare was accompanied by GLE-66. Using the data of the world neutron monitor network, we found its onset as 20:59 which corresponds to a reasonable propagation time of protons with ~ 0.5-2 GeV energy on the assumption that proton acceleration began at 20:46.

  1. A Search for Gamma-ray Emission from Wind-Wind Interactions in Black Widow and Redback Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Tyrel J.; Ray, Paul S.; Camilo, Fernando M.; Roberts, Mallory S. E.; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Recent radio surveys, particularly those targeting unassociated Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources with pulsar-like characteristics, have greatly increased the number of known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in binary systems with short orbital periods (less than a day) and low-mass companions (of order 0.2 Solar masses for redbacks and less than 0.08 Solar masses for black widows). These systems are likely laboratories for studying wind-wind interactions, and we here describe a search for unpulsed gamma-ray emission, possibly arising from these interactions, in the off-peak intervals. We will also search the off-peak and phase-averaged data for evidence of modulation at the orbital periods, correcting for exposure variations, and stack the off-peak intervals in the event that the emission is below threshold in any given source. Studying this emission will allow us to better understand the pulsar wind and how these systems evolve. Portions of this research performed at the US Naval Research Laboratory are sponsored by NASA DPR S-15633-Y and Fermi GO proposal 061103.

  2. Searching for narrow absorption and emission lines in XMM-Newton spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, S.; Braito, V.; D'Avanzo, P.; Ghirlanda, G.; Melandri, A.; Pescalli, A.; Salafia, O. S.; Salvaterra, R.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic search for narrow emission and absorption features in the X-ray spectra of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. Using XMM-Newton data, both EPIC and RGS spectra, of six bright (fluence > 10-7 erg cm-2) and relatively nearby (z = 0.54-1.41) GRBs, we performed a blind search for emission or absorption lines that could be related to a high cloud density or metal-rich gas in the environ close to the GRBs. We detected five emission features in four of the six GRBs with an overall statistical significance, assessed through Monte Carlo simulations, of ≲ 3.0σ. Most of the lines are detected around the observed energy of the oxygen edge at ~ 0.5 keV, suggesting that they are not related to the GRB environment but are most likely of Galactic origin. No significant absorption features were detected. A spectral fitting with a free Galactic column density (NH) testing different models for the Galactic absorption confirms this origin because we found an indication of an excess of Galactic NH in these four GRBs with respect to the tabulated values.

  3. A Search for Prompt Microwave Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts Using Archival COBE and WMAP Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbonye, M.; Stacy, J. G.; Jackson, P. D.; Winkler, C.

    2004-08-01

    We report on an extension of earlier work to search the archival database of the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) aboard the COBE satellite, and the more recent public time-ordered datasets acquired with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), for transient signals associated with cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Over the course of its 4-year mission the COBE/DMR serendipitously observed a number of GRBs and we previously established the first limits on prompt microwave emission from GRBs using a 9-month sample of data from the COBE/DMR instrument. We have been remotivated to extend our earlier search following the detection in recent years of a small number of bright optical and radio flares from GRBs. The prompt multiwavelength burst emission, presumed to arise from reverse shocks in the burst ejecta, provides insight into burst physics and the physical environments in which bursts occur. We present here the status of our extended search. We also describe how the increased sensitivity and angular resolution of the WMAP radiometers compared to the COBE/DMR lead to a factor of 10,000 improvement in overall point-source sensitivity. Such limits approach the signal levels predicted in the microwave band for the peak prompt emission arising from reverse shocks in GRBs. We acknowledge partial support for this work through NASA grant NAG5-10253.

  4. Very high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Paula M

    2007-05-15

    Very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy has undergone a transformation in the last few years, with telescopes of unprecedented sensitivity having greatly expanded the source catalogue. Such progress makes the detection of a gamma-ray burst at the highest energies much more likely than previously. This paper describes the facilities currently operating and their chances for detecting gamma-ray bursts, and reviews predictions for VHE gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts. Results to date are summarized.

  5. X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Emission from Middle-aged Supernova Remnants in Cavities. I. Spherical Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang竹唐, Zhu; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ressler, Sean M.

    2016-12-01

    We present analytical and numerical studies of models of supernova-remnant (SNR) blast waves in one spatial dimension expanding into uniform media and interacting with a denser cavity wall. We predict the nonthermal emission from such blast waves: synchrotron emission at radio and X-ray energies, and bremsstrahlung, inverse-Compton emission (from cosmic-microwave-background seed photons; ICCMB), and emission from the decay of {π }0 mesons produced in inelastic collisions between accelerated ions and thermal gas, at GeV and TeV energies. Accelerated-particle spectra are assumed to be power laws with exponential cutoffs at energies limited by the remnant age or (for electrons, if lower) by radiative losses. We compare the results with those from homogeneous (“one-zone”) models. Such models give fair representations of the 1D results for uniform media, but cavity-wall interactions produce effects for which one-zone models are inadequate. We study the time evolution of SNR morphology and emission with time. Strong morphological differences exist between ICCMB and {π }0-decay emission; at some stages, the TeV emission can be dominated by the former and the GeV by the latter, resulting in strong energy dependence of morphology. Integrated gamma-ray spectra show apparent power laws of slopes that vary with time, but do not indicate the energy distribution of a single population of particles. As observational capabilities at GeV and TeV energies improve, spatial inhomogeneity in SNRs will need to be accounted for.

  6. Radio emission from supernovae and gamma-ray bursters and the need for the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Kurt W.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Sramek, Richard A.; Panagia, Nino

    2004-12-01

    Study of radio supernovae (SNe) over the past 25 years includes two dozen detected objects and more than 100 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. It is also possible to detect ionized hydrogen along the line of sight, to demonstrate binary properties of the stellar system, and to show clumpiness of the circumstellar material. Since 1997 the afterglow of γ-ray bursting sources (GRBs) has occasionally been detected in the radio, as well in other wavelength bands. In particular, the interesting and unusual γ-ray burst GRB 980425, almost certainly related to the radio supernova SN 1998bw, and the more recent SN 2003dh/GRB 030329 are links between the two classes of objects. Analyzing the extensive radio emission data available for SN 1998bw, one can describe its time evolution within the well established framework available for the analysis of radio emission from supernovae. This then allows relatively detailed description of a number of physical properties of the object. The radio emission can best be explained as the interaction of a mildly relativistic ( Γ ˜ 1.6) shock with a dense pre-explosion stellar wind-established circumstellar medium that is highly structured both azimuthally, in clumps or filaments, and radially, with observed density enhancements. From this we can support the conclusion that at least some members of the slow-soft class of GRBs are related to type Ib/c SNe and can be attributed to the explosion of a massive star in a dense, highly structured CSM that was presumably established by the pre-explosion stellar system. However, due to the lack of sensitivity of current radio telescopes, most supernovae cannot be studied if they are more

  7. Gamma-ray astronomy: Nuclear transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1976-01-01

    This monograph reviews the major theoretical and experimental efforts made during the past 12 years in gamma-ray astronomy over the energy range from 10 keV to about 100 MeV, where nuclear-transition lines are expected. Early attempts to detect celestial gamma rays are recounted, mechanisms of gamma-ray line and continuum production are examined, and formulas giving the various possible differential gamma-ray spectral shapes are provided. Predicted fluxes are discussed for solar gamma rays as well as for gamma emission from supernova remnants, supernovae, neutron stars, flare stars, the galactic core and disk, black holes, and diffuse sources. Gamma-ray interactions with matter are analyzed, particularly the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering from free electrons, and pair production in nuclear fields. Significant results are summarized for observations of gamma rays from the sun as well as from point and extended sources within and beyond the Galaxy, including diffuse fluxes and transient gamma-ray bursts. Factors pertaining to the design of gamma-ray astronomy experiments are considered, especially detector background limitations, gamma-ray production within instruments, and present-day detection methods.

  8. Detailed investigation of the gamma-ray emission in the vicinity of SNR W28 with Fermi-LAT

    SciTech Connect

    Hanabata, Y.; Katagiri, H.; Hewitt, J.W.; Ballet, J.; Fukui, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Strong, A. W.; Yamazaki, R. E-mail: katagiri@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp

    2014-05-10

    We present a detailed investigation of the γ-ray emission in the vicinity of the supernova remnant (SNR) W28 (G6.4–0.1) observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We detected significant γ-ray emission spatially coincident with TeV sources HESS J1800–240A, B, and C, located outside the radio boundary of the SNR. Their spectra in the 2-100 GeV band are consistent with the extrapolation of the power-law spectra of the TeV sources. We also identified a new source of GeV emission, dubbed Source W, which lies outside the boundary of TeV sources and coincides with radio emission from the western part of W28. All of the GeV γ-ray sources overlap with molecular clouds in the velocity range from 0 to 20 km s{sup –1}. Under the assumption that the γ-ray emission toward HESS J1800–240A, B, and C comes from π{sup 0} decay due to the interaction between the molecular clouds and cosmic rays (CRs) escaping from W28, they can be naturally explained by a single model in which the CR diffusion coefficient is smaller than the theoretical expectation in the interstellar space. The total energy of the CRs escaping from W28 is constrained through the same modeling to be larger than ∼2 × 10{sup 49} erg. The emission from Source W can also be explained with the same CR escape scenario.

  9. High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission From Solar Flares: Summary of Fermi LAT Detections and Analysis of Two M-Class Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Guiriec, S.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Nemmen, R.; Perkins, J. S.; Thompson, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the detections of 19 solar flares detected in high-energy gamma rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its rst four years of operation. Interestingly, all ares are associated with fairly fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and are not all powerful X-ray ares. We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial and spectral characteristics of the rst two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 are, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive are followed by slowly varying gamma-ray emission over 13 hours, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 are, which was followed by gamma-ray emission lasting for 2 hours. We compare the Fermi-LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that a hadronic origin of the gamma rays is more likely than a leptonic origin and nd that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens after the 2011 March 7 are, favoring a scenario with continuous acceleration at the are site. This work suggests that proton acceleration in solar ares is more common than previously thought, occurring for even modest X-ray ares, and for longer durations.

  10. DISCOVERY OF VARIABILITY IN THE VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMISSION OF 1ES 1218+304 WITH VERITAS

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Beilicke, M.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boltuch, D.; Boettcher, M.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Fortson, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Finnegan, G.; Furniss, A.

    2010-02-01

    We present results from an intensive VERITAS monitoring campaign of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1218+304 in 2008/2009. Although 1ES 1218+304 was detected previously by MAGIC and VERITAS at a persistent level of {approx}6% of the Crab Nebula flux, the new VERITAS data reveal a prominent flare reaching {approx}20% of the Crab. While very high energy (VHE) flares are quite common in many nearby blazars, the case of 1ES 1218+304 (redshift z = 0.182) is particularly interesting since it belongs to a group of blazars that exhibit unusually hard VHE spectra considering their redshifts. When correcting the measured spectra for absorption by the extragalactic background light, 1ES 1218+304 and a number of other blazars are found to have differential photon indices {gamma}{<=} 1.5. The difficulty in modeling these hard spectral energy distributions in blazar jets has led to a range of theoretical {gamma}-ray emission scenarios, one of which is strongly constrained by these new VERITAS observations. We consider the implications of the observed light curve of 1ES 1218+304, which shows day scale flux variations, for shock acceleration scenarios in relativistic jets, and in particular for the viability of kiloparsec-scale jet emission scenarios.

  11. Afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts - I. Pair-enriched ambient medium and radiative blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, L.; Sironi, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Celotti, A.; Ghirlanda, G.

    2013-08-01

    Forward shocks caused by the interaction between a relativistic blast wave and the circumburst medium are thought to be responsible for the afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We consider the hydrodynamics of a spherical relativistic blast wave expanding into the surrounding medium and we generalize the standard theory in order to account for several effects that are generally ignored. In particular, we consider the role of adiabatic and radiative losses in the hydrodynamical evolution of the shock, under the assumption that the cooling losses are fast. Our model can describe adiabatic, fully radiative and semiradiative blast waves, and can describe the effects of a time-varying radiative efficiency. The equations we present are valid for arbitrary density profiles, and also for a circumburst medium enriched with electron-positron pairs. The presence of pairs enhances the fraction of shock energy gained by the leptons, thus increasing the importance of radiative losses. Our model allows us to study whether the high-energy (>0.1 GeV) emission in GRBs may originate from afterglow radiation. In particular, it is suitable to test whether the fast decay of the high-energy light curve observed in several Fermi Large Area Telescope GRBs can be ascribed to an initial radiative phase, followed by the standard adiabatic evolution.

  12. Using gamma-ray emission to measure ablator areal density of imploded capsules at the Omega laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, N.; Rubery, M.; Herrmann, H.; Kim, Y.; Young, C.; Mack, J.; Wilson, D.; McEvoy, A.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C.; Glebov, V.

    2010-11-01

    We have measured the ablator areal density of plastic-shell implosions at the Omega laser, using gamma-ray emission from the capsules detected by the prototype Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic. The intensity of 4.44-MeV gamma emission from ^12C nuclei in the ablator is proportional to the product of ablator areal density and yield of fusion neutrons, so by detecting the gammas we can infer the ablator areal density, provided we also have a measurement of total neutron yield. Neutron yield is determined from the nTOF experiment at Omega in our approach; alternatively one could use 16.7-MeV gammas from DT fusion. Inferred values of time-averaged carbon areal density are in the range 10-30 mg/cm^2, for a range of implosions. These values are smaller than predicted values based on 1D simulations, which are typically in the range 30-40 mg/cm^2. We discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy, primarily related to mixing.

  13. Diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Fukui, Y.; H. E. S. S. Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    Diffuse γ -ray emission is the most prominent observable signature of celestial cosmic-ray interactions at high energies. While already being investigated at GeV energies over several decades, assessments of diffuse γ -ray emission at TeV energies remain sparse. After completion of the systematic survey of the inner Galaxy, the H.E.S.S. experiment is in a prime position to observe large-scale diffuse emission at TeV energies. Data of the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey are investigated in regions off known γ -ray sources. Corresponding γ -ray flux measurements were made over an extensive grid of celestial locations. Longitudinal and latitudinal profiles of the observed γ -ray fluxes show characteristic excess emission not attributable to known γ -ray sources. For the first time large-scale γ -ray emission along the Galactic plane using imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes has been observed. While the background subtraction technique limits the ability to recover modest variation on the scale of the H.E.S.S. field of view or larger, which is characteristic of the inverse Compton scatter-induced Galactic diffuse emission, contributions of neutral pion decay as well as emission from unresolved γ -ray sources can be recovered in the observed signal to a large fraction. Calculations show that the minimum γ -ray emission from π0 decay represents a significant contribution to the total signal. This detection is interpreted as a mix of diffuse Galactic γ -ray emission and unresolved sources.

  14. The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts remain one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Observations of gamma-ray bursts made by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory will be described. Most workers in the field now believe that they originate from cosmological distances. This view has been reinforced by observations this year of several optical afterglow counterparts to gamma-ray bursts. A summary of these recent discoveries will be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism and the energy source of the bursts.

  15. Investigating the Precursor and Prompt Emission of Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, B.; Stamatikos, M.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze the spectral lag, i.e. the arrival offset of high and low energy photons, for both the precursor and prompt emission of Swift-BAT GRBs, to probe if the precursor emission is an early activation of the progenitor's central engine activity.

  16. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  17. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than that of previous observations. The 16,000 kilogram observatory contains four instruments on a stabilized platform. The mission began normal operations on 16 May 1991 and is now over half-way through a full-sky survey. The mission duration is expected to be from six to ten years. A Science Support Center has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the purpose of supporting a vigorous Guest Investigator Program. New scientific results to date include: (1) the establishment of the isotropy, combined with spatial inhomogeneity, of the distribution of gamma-ray bursts in the sky; (2) the discovery of intense high energy (100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 3C 279 and other quasars and BL Lac objects, making these the most distant and luminous gamma-ray sources ever detected; (3) one of the first images of a gamma-ray burst; (4) the observation of intense nuclear and position-annihilation gamma-ray lines and neutrons from several large solar flares; and (5) the detection of a third gamma-ray pulsar, plus several other transient and pulsing hard X-ray sources.

  18. Gamma-ray line emission from 7Li and 7Be production by cosmic-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatischeff, V.; Thibaud, J.-P.; Kiener, J.; Cassé, M.; Vangioni-Flam, E.

    2001-09-01

    We calculate the total γ-ray line emission at ~450 keV that accompanies 7Li and 7Be production by cosmic-ray interactions, including the delayed line emission at 0.478 MeV from 7Be radioactive decay. We present a new γ-ray spectroscopic test which has the potential to give direct information on the nature of the interstellar regions into which 7Be ions propagate and decay. Finally, we evaluate the intensity of the predicted diffuse emission from the central radian of the Galaxy.

  19. Evaluation of errors due to Compton scattering in gamma-ray emission imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, M.F.

    1983-12-01

    A set of computer simulation programs were developed to aid in the design of new instrumentation and in the design and evaluation of algorithms for scatter correction in positron emission computed tomography. 14 references, 15 figures, 3 tables. (ACR)

  20. The Spectrum of Isotropic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission between 100 MeV and 820 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cuoco, A.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashi, K.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J. W.; Ippoliti, P.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Manfreda, A.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schaal, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vianello, G.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.

    2015-01-01

    The γ-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse γ-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission (DGE), and a longer data accumulation of 50 months allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 ± 0.02 and a break energy of (279 ± 52) GeV using our baseline DGE model. The total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 ± 0.6) × 10-6 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/-30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.

  1. A Lingering Non-thermal Component in the Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Emission: Predicting GeV Emission from the MeV Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Rupal; Rao, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    The high-energy GeV emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by Fermi/LAT has a significantly different morphology compared to the lower energy MeV emission detected by Fermi/GBM. Though the late-time GeV emission is believed to be synchrotron radiation produced via an external shock, this emission as early as the prompt phase is puzzling. A meaningful connection between these two emissions can be drawn only by an accurate description of the prompt MeV spectrum. We perform a time-resolved spectroscopy of the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) data of long GRBs with significant GeV emission, using a model consisting of two blackbodies and a power law. We examine in detail the evolution of the spectral components and find that GRBs with high GeV emission (GRB 090902B and GRB 090926A) have a delayed onset of the power-law component in the GBM spectrum, which lingers at the later part of the prompt emission. This behavior mimics the flux evolution in the Large Area Telescope (LAT). In contrast, bright GBM GRBs with an order of magnitude lower GeV emission (GRB 100724B and GRB 091003) show a coupled variability of the total and the power-law flux. Further, by analyzing the data for a set of 17 GRBs, we find a strong correlation between the power-law fluence in the MeV and the LAT fluence (Pearson correlation: r = 0.88 and Spearman correlation: ρ = 0.81). We demonstrate that this correlation is not influenced by the correlation between the total and the power-law fluences at a confidence level of 2.3σ. We speculate the possible radiation mechanisms responsible for the correlation.

  2. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE ACTIVE GALAXY 4C +55.17: STEADY, HARD GAMMA-RAY EMISSION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Ostorero, L.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Cheung, C. C.; Ajello, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Donato, D.; Finke, J.; Furniss, A.; Williams, D. A.; Orienti, M.; Reyes, L. C.; Rossetti, A. E-mail: stawarz@astro.isas.jaxa.jp

    2011-09-10

    We report Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations and broadband spectral modeling of the radio-loud active galaxy 4C +55.17 (z = 0.896), formally classified as a flat-spectrum radio quasar. Using 19 months of all-sky survey Fermi-LAT data, we detect a {gamma}-ray continuum extending up to an observed energy of 145 GeV, and furthermore we find no evidence of {gamma}-ray variability in the source over its observed history. We illustrate the implications of these results in two different domains. First, we investigate the origin of the steady {gamma}-ray emission, where we re-examine the common classification of 4C +55.17 as a quasar-hosted blazar and consider instead its possible nature as a young radio source. We analyze and compare constraints on the source physical parameters in both blazar and young radio source scenarios by means of a detailed multiwavelength analysis and theoretical modeling of its broadband spectrum. Second, we show that the {gamma}-ray spectrum may be formally extrapolated into the very high energy (VHE, {>=}100 GeV) range at a flux level detectable by the current generation of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. This enables us to place constraints on models of extragalactic background light within LAT energies and features the source as a promising candidate for VHE studies of the universe at an unprecedented redshift of z = 0.896.

  3. THE NEWLY BORN MAGNETARS POWERING GAMMA-RAY BURST INTERNAL-PLATEAU EMISSION: ARE THERE STRANGE STARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yunwei; Cao Xiaofeng; Zheng Xiaoping

    2009-12-01

    The internal-plateau X-ray emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) indicates that a newly born magnetar could be the central object of some GRBs. The observed luminosity and duration of the plateaus suggest that, for such a magnetar, a rapid spin with a sub- or millisecond period is sometimes able to last thousands of seconds. In this case, the conventional neutron star (NS) model for the magnetar may be challenged, since the rapid spin of nascent NSs would be remarkably decelerated within hundreds of seconds due to r-mode instability. In contrast, the r-modes can be effectively suppressed in nascent strange stars (SSs). In other words, to a certain extent, only SSs can keep nearly constant extremely rapid spin for a long period of time during the early ages of the stars. We thus propose that the sample of the GRB rapidly spinning magnetars can be used to test the SS hypothesis based on the distinct spin limits of NSs and SSs.

  4. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234 , 236 , 238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Krticka, M.; Kawano, T.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.

    2015-10-01

    Calculations of the neutron-capture cross section at low neutron energies (10 eV through 100's of keV) are very sensitive to the nuclear level density and radiative strength function. These quantities are often poorly known, especially for radioactive targets, and actual measurements of the capture cross section are usually required. An additional constraint on the calculation of the capture cross section is provided by measurements of the cascade gamma spectrum following neutron capture. Recent measurements of 234 , 236 , 238U(n, γ) emission spectra made using the DANCE 4 π BaF2 array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will be presented. Calculations of gamma-ray spectra made using the DICEBOX code and of the capture cross section made using the CoH3 code will also be presented. These techniques may be also useful for calculations of more unstable nuclides. This work was performed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396) and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734).

  5. Fermi-LAT Observation of Increased Gamma-ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane; Dubus, Guillaume; Corbet, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the hard X-ray emission from the high-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 has drastically dropped since 2016 Jan 11 (MJD 57398, as observed by Swift/BAT http://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov/results/transients/CygX-3/, Krimm et al. 2013, ApJS 209, 14) indicating a possible transition to the soft state.

  6. STUDY OF THE SPECTRAL AND TEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF X-RAY EMISSION OF THE GAMMA-RAY BINARY LS 5039 WITH SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Khangulyan, Dmitry; Aharonian, Felix A.; Bosch-Ramon, Valenti; Hinton, Jim A.

    2009-05-20

    We report on the results from Suzaku broadband X-ray observations of the galactic binary source LS 5039. The Suzaku data, which have continuous coverage of more than one orbital period, show strong modulation of the X-ray emission at the orbital period of this TeV gamma-ray emitting system. The X-ray emission shows a minimum at orbital phase {approx}0.1, close to the so-called superior conjunction of the compact object, and a maximum at phase {approx}0.7, very close to the inferior conjunction of the compact object. The X-ray spectral data up to 70 keV are described by a hard power law with a phase-dependent photon index which varies within {gamma} {approx_equal} 1.45- 1.61. The amplitude of the flux variation is a factor of 2.5, but is significantly less than that of the factor {approx}8 variation in the TeV flux. Otherwise the two light curves are similar, but not identical. Although periodic X-ray emission has been found from many galactic binary systems, the Suzaku result implies a phenomenon different from the 'standard' origin of X-rays related to the emission of the hot accretion plasma formed around the compact companion object. The X-ray radiation of LS 5039 is likely to be linked to very high energy electrons which are also responsible for the TeV gamma-ray emission. While the gamma rays are the result of inverse Compton (IC) scattering by electrons on optical stellar photons, X-rays are produced via synchrotron radiation. Yet, while the modulation of the TeV gamma-ray signal can be naturally explained by the photon-photon pair production and anisotropic IC scattering, the observed modulation of synchrotron X-rays requires an additional process, the most natural one being adiabatic expansion in the radiation production region.

  7. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from Solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesce Rollins, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the active Sun provide the largest sample of detected solar flares with emission greater than 30 MeV to date. These include detections of impulsive and sustained emission, extending up to 20 hours in the case of the 2012 March 7 X-class flares. These high-energy flares are coincident with GOES X-ray flares of X, M and C classes as well as very fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CME). We will present results from the First Fermi-LAT solar flare catalog covering the majority of Solar Cycle 24 including correlation studies with the associated Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) and CMEs.

  8. Simulation and experimental verification of prompt gamma-ray emissions during proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Schumann, A; Petzoldt, J; Dendooven, P; Enghardt, W; Golnik, C; Hueso-González, F; Kormoll, T; Pausch, G; Roemer, K; Fiedler, F

    2015-05-21

    Irradiation with protons and light ions offers new possibilities for tumor therapy but has a strong need for novel imaging modalities for treatment verification. The development of new detector systems, which can provide an in vivo range assessment or dosimetry, requires an accurate knowledge of the secondary radiation field and reliable Monte Carlo simulations. This paper presents multiple measurements to characterize the prompt γ-ray emissions during proton irradiation and benchmarks the latest Geant4 code against the experimental findings. Within the scope of this work, the total photon yield for different target materials, the energy spectra as well as the γ-ray depth profile were assessed. Experiments were performed at the superconducting AGOR cyclotron at KVI-CART, University of Groningen. Properties of the γ-ray emissions were experimentally determined. The prompt γ-ray emissions were measured utilizing a conventional HPGe detector system (Clover) and quantitatively compared to simulations. With the selected physics list QGSP_BIC_HP, Geant4 strongly overestimates the photon yield in most cases, sometimes up to 50%. The shape of the spectrum and qualitative occurrence of discrete γ lines is reproduced accurately. A sliced phantom was designed to determine the depth profile of the photons. The position of the distal fall-off in the simulations agrees with the measurements, albeit the peak height is also overestimated. Hence, Geant4 simulations of prompt γ-ray emissions from irradiation with protons are currently far less reliable as compared to simulations of the electromagnetic processes. Deviations from experimental findings were observed and quantified. Although there has been a constant improvement of Geant4 in the hadronic sector, there is still a gap to close.

  9. Simulation and experimental verification of prompt gamma-ray emissions during proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, A.; Petzoldt, J.; Dendooven, P.; Enghardt, W.; Golnik, C.; Hueso-González, F.; Kormoll, T.; Pausch, G.; Roemer, K.; Fiedler, F.

    2015-05-01

    Irradiation with protons and light ions offers new possibilities for tumor therapy but has a strong need for novel imaging modalities for treatment verification. The development of new detector systems, which can provide an in vivo range assessment or dosimetry, requires an accurate knowledge of the secondary radiation field and reliable Monte Carlo simulations. This paper presents multiple measurements to characterize the prompt γ-ray emissions during proton irradiation and benchmarks the latest Geant4 code against the experimental findings. Within the scope of this work, the total photon yield for different target materials, the energy spectra as well as the γ-ray depth profile were assessed. Experiments were performed at the superconducting AGOR cyclotron at KVI-CART, University of Groningen. Properties of the γ-ray emissions were experimentally determined. The prompt γ-ray emissions were measured utilizing a conventional HPGe detector system (Clover) and quantitatively compared to simulations. With the selected physics list QGSP_BIC_HP, Geant4 strongly overestimates the photon yield in most cases, sometimes up to 50%. The shape of the spectrum and qualitative occurrence of discrete γ lines is reproduced accurately. A sliced phantom was designed to determine the depth profile of the photons. The position of the distal fall-off in the simulations agrees with the measurements, albeit the peak height is also overestimated. Hence, Geant4 simulations of prompt γ-ray emissions from irradiation with protons are currently far less reliable as compared to simulations of the electromagnetic processes. Deviations from experimental findings were observed and quantified. Although there has been a constant improvement of Geant4 in the hadronic sector, there is still a gap to close.

  10. Masses, Dimensionless Kerr Parameters, and Emission Regions in GeV Gamma-Ray-loud Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, G.-Z.; Ma, L.; Liang, E.-W.; Zhou, S.-B.; Xie, Z.-H.

    2003-11-01

    We have compiled sample of 17 GeV γ-ray-loud blazars, for which rapid optical variability and γ-ray fluxes are well observed, from the literature. We derive estimates of the masses, the minimum Kerr parameters amin, and the size of the emission regions of the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) for the blazars in the sample from their minimum optical variability timescales and γ-ray fluxes. The results show that (1) the masses derived from the optical variability timescale (MH) are significantly correlated with the masses from the γ-ray luminosity (MKNH); (2) the values of amin of the SMBHs with masses MH>=108.3 Msolar (three out of 17 objects) range from ~0.5 to ~1.0, suggesting that these SMBHs are likely to be Kerr black holes. For the SMBHs with MH<108.3 Msolar, however, amin=0, suggesting that a nonrotating black hole model cannot be ruled out for these objects. In addition, the values of the size of the emission region, r*, for the two kinds of SMBHs are significantly different. For the SMBHs with amin>0, the sizes of the emission regions are almost within the horizon (2rG) and marginally bound orbit (4rG), while for those with amin=0 they are in the range (4.3-66.4)rG, extending beyond the marginally stable orbit (6rG). These results may imply that (1) the rotational state, the radiating regions, and the physical processes in the inner regions for the two kinds of SMBH are significantly different and (2) the emission mechanisms of GeV γ-ray blazars are related to the SMBHs in their centers but are not related to the two different kinds of SMBH.

  11. GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVA REMNANT INTERACTIONS WITH MOLECULAR CLUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiaping; Chevalier, Roger A. E-mail: rac5x@virginia.edu

    2014-04-01

    Observations of the middle-aged supernova remnants IC 443, W28, and W51C indicate that the brightnesses at GeV and TeV energies are correlated with each other and with regions of molecular clump interaction, but not with the radio synchrotron brightness. We suggest that the radio emission is primarily associated with a radiative shell in the interclump medium of a molecular cloud, while the γ-ray emission is primarily associated with the interaction of the radiative shell with molecular clumps. The shell interaction produces a high pressure region, so that the γ-ray luminosity can be approximately reproduced even if shock acceleration of particles is not efficient, provided that energetic particles are trapped in the cooling region. In this model, the spectral shape ≳ 2 GeV is determined by the spectrum of cosmic ray protons. Models in which diffusive shock acceleration determines the spectrum tend to underproduce TeV emission because of the limiting particle energy that is attained.

  12. Search for cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission in galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P. E-mail: zimmer@fysik.su.se E-mail: apinzke@fysik.su.se [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS Collaboration: Fermi-LAT Collaboration; and others

    2014-05-20

    Current theories predict relativistic hadronic particle populations in clusters of galaxies in addition to the already observed relativistic leptons. In these scenarios hadronic interactions give rise to neutral pions which decay into γ rays that are potentially observable with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi space telescope. We present a joint likelihood analysis searching for spatially extended γ-ray emission at the locations of 50 galaxy clusters in four years of Fermi-LAT data under the assumption of the universal cosmic-ray (CR) model proposed by Pinzke and Pfrommer. We find an excess at a significance of 2.7σ, which upon closer inspection, however, is correlated to individual excess emission toward three galaxy clusters: A400, A1367, and A3112. We discuss these cases in detail and conservatively attribute the emission to unmodeled background systems (for example, radio galaxies within the clusters).Through the combined analysis of 50 clusters, we exclude hadronic injection efficiencies in simple hadronic models above 21% and establish limits on the CR to thermal pressure ratio within the virial radius, R {sub 200}, to be below 1.25%-1.4% depending on the morphological classification. In addition, we derive new limits on the γ-ray flux from individual clusters in our sample.

  13. Jet Emission in Young Radio Sources: A Fermi Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, G.; Siemiginowska, A.; Kelly, B. C.; Stawarz, Ł.; Celotti, A.; Begelman, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the contribution of the beamed jet component to the high-energy emission in young and compact extragalactic radio sources, focusing for the first time on the γ-ray band. We derive predictions on the γ-ray luminosities associated with the relativistic jet assuming a leptonic radiative model. The high-energy emission is produced via Compton scattering by the relativistic electrons in a spherical region at the considered scales (lsim10 kpc). Simulations show a wide range of γ-ray luminosities, with intensities up to ~1046-1048 erg s-1 depending on the assumed jet parameters. We find a highly linear relation between the simulated X-ray and γ-ray luminosities that can be used to select candidates for γ-ray detection. We compare the simulated luminosity distributions in the radio, X-ray, and γ-ray regimes with observations for the largest sample of X-ray-detected young radio quasars. Our analysis of ~4-yr Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data does not yield any statistically significant detections. However, the majority of the model-predicted γ-ray fluxes for the sample are near or below the current Fermi-LAT flux threshold and compatible with the derived upper limits. Our study gives constraints on the minimum jet power (L jet, kin/L disk > 0.01) of a potential jet contribution to the X-ray emission in the most compact sources (lsim 1 kpc) and on the particle-to-magnetic field energy density ratio that are in broad agreement with equipartition assumptions.

  14. Gamma-ray emission in dissipative pulsar magnetospheres: from theory to Fermi observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Harding, Alice K.; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-10-01

    We compute the patterns of γ-ray emission due to curvature radiation in dissipative pulsar magnetospheres. Our ultimate goal is to construct macrophysical models that are able to reproduce the observed γ-ray light curve phenomenology recently published in the Second Fermi Pulsar Catalog. We apply specific forms of Ohm's law on the open field lines using a broad range for the macroscopic conductivity values that result in solutions ranging, from near-vacuum to near-force-free. Using these solutions, we generate model γ-ray light curves by calculating realistic trajectories and Lorentz factors of radiating particles under the influence of both the accelerating electric fields and curvature radiation reaction. We further constrain our models using the observed dependence of the phase lags between the radio and γ-ray emission on the γ-ray peak separation. We perform a statistical comparison of our model radio-lag versus peak-separation diagram and the one obtained for the Fermi standard pulsars. We find that for models of uniform conductivity over the entire open magnetic field line region, agreement with observations favors higher values of this parameter. We find, however, significant improvement in fitting the data with models that employ a hybrid form of conductivity, specifically, infinite conductivity interior to the light cylinder and high but finite conductivity on the outside. In these models the γ-ray emission is produced in regions near the equatorial current sheet but modulated by the local physical properties. These models have radio lags near the observed values and statistically best reproduce the observed light curve phenomenology. Additionally, they also produce GeV photon cut-off energies.

  15. On the Fermi Large Area Telescope Surplus of Diffuse Galactic Gamma-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völk, H. J.; Berezhko, E. G.

    2013-11-01

    Recent observations of diffuse Galactic γ-ray emission (DGE) by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) have shown significant deviations, above a few GeV to about 100 GeV, from DGE models that use the GALPROP code for the propagation of cosmic ray (CR) particles outside their sources in the Galaxy and their interaction with the target distributions of the interstellar gas and radiation fields. The surplus of radiation observed is most pronounced in the inner Galaxy, where the concentration of CR sources is strongest. The present study investigates this "Fermi-LAT Galactic Plane Surplus" by estimating the γ-ray emission from the sources themselves, which is disregarded in the above DGE models. It is shown that the expected hard spectrum of CRs, still confined in their sources (source cosmic rays, SCRs), can indeed explain this surplus. The method is based on earlier studies regarding the so-called EGRET GeV excess, which by now is generally interpreted as an instrumental effect. The contribution from SCRs is also predicted to increasingly exceed the DGE models above 100 GeV, up to γ-ray energies of about 10 TeV, where the corresponding surplus exceeds the hadronic part of the DGE by about one order of magnitude. Above such energies, the emission surplus should decrease again with energy due to the finite lifetime of the assumed supernova remnant sources. Observations of the DGE in the inner Galaxy at 15 TeV with the ground-based Milagro γ-ray detector and, at TeV energies, with the ARGO-YBJ detector are interpreted to provide confirmation of a significant SCR contribution to the DGE.

  16. Ti-44 Gamma-Ray Emission Lines from SN1987A Reveal an Asymmetric Explosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, S. E.; Harrison, F. A.; Miyasaka, H.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Zoglauer, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Reynolds, S. P.; Alexander, D. M.; An, H.; Barret, D.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Forster, K.; Giommi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Hornstrup, A.; Kitaguchi, T.; Koglin, J. E.; Madsen, K. K.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    In core-collapse supernovae, titanium-44 (Ti-44) is produced in the innermost ejecta, in the layer of material directly on top of the newly formed compact object. As such, it provides a direct probe of the supernova engine. Observations of supernova 1987A (SN1987A) have resolved the 67.87- and 78.32-kilo-electron volt emission lines from decay of Ti-44 produced in the supernova explosion. These lines are narrow and redshifted with a Doppler velocity of 700 kilometers per second, direct evidence of large-scale asymmetry in the explosion.

  17. Gamma-ray and neutrino diffuse emissions of the Galaxy above the TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaggero, D.; Grasso, D.; Marinelli, A.; Urbano, A.; Valli, M.

    2016-05-01

    Conventional cosmic ray propagation models face problems reproducing the diffuse 7-ray spectrum measured by Fermi-LAT over the entire sky. Those models also fail to smoothly connect Fermi-LAT results with data above the TeV as those taken by Milagro in the inner Galactic plane. In this contribution we show that a representative model adopting a spatial dependent rigidity scaling of the diffusion coefficient can reproduce all those experimental results without spoiling the consistency with local cosmic-ray measurements. We use the same model to compute the diffuse neutrino emission of the Galaxy and compare it with IceCube and ANTARES results.

  18. Evaluation of cross-sections for particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurbich, A. F.

    2014-07-01

    The extension of the cross-section evaluation procedure to PIGE data was investigated and the first results are reported. Two different cases were studied: the gamma emission accompanying inelastic scattering of protons, and the (p,γ)-reaction. The corresponding theoretical calculations were performed in the framework of R-matrix and DWBA for the (p,p‧γ) reaction on 23Na, and using statistical model for the proton radiative capture by 52Cr. The possibility of achieving a close fit to the experimental data is demonstrated.

  19. Hard X-Ray Emission from Sh 2-104: A NuSTAR Search for Gamma-Ray Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Mori, K.; Aliu, E.; Paredes, J. M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hong, J. S.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-07-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of Sh 2-104, a compact H ii region containing several young massive stellar clusters (YMSCs). We have detected distinct hard X-ray sources coincident with localized VERITAS TeV emission recently resolved from the giant gamma-ray complex MGRO J2019+37 in the Cygnus region. Fainter, diffuse X-rays coincident with the eastern YMSC in Sh2-104 likely result from the colliding winds of a component star. Just outside the radio shell of Sh 2-104 lies 3XMM J201744.7+365045 and a nearby nebula, NuSTAR J201744.3+364812, whose properties are most consistent with extragalactic objects. The combined XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum of 3XMM J201744.7+365045 is well-fit to an absorbed power-law model with {N}{{H}}=(3.1+/- 1.0)× {10}22 cm-2 and a photon index {{Γ }}=2.1+/- 0.1. Based on possible long-term flux variation and the lack of detected pulsations (≤43% modulation), this object is likely a background active galactic nucleus rather than a Galactic pulsar. The spectrum of the NuSTAR nebula shows evidence of an emission line at E = 5.6 keV, suggesting an optically obscured galaxy cluster at z = 0.19 ± 0.02 (d = 800 Mpc) and L X = 1.2 × 1044 erg s-1. Follow-up Chandra observations of Sh 2-104 will help identify the nature of the X-ray sources and their relation to MGRO J2019+37. We also show that the putative VERITAS excess south of Sh 2-104, is most likely associated with the newly discovered Fermi pulsar PSR J2017+3625 and not the H ii region.

  20. GAMMA-RAY AND HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM PULSAR-AIDED SUPERNOVAE AS A PROBE OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN EMBRYONIC PULSAR WIND NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Kiuchi, Kenta; Bartos, Imre

    2015-05-20

    It has been suggested that some classes of luminous supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are driven by newborn magnetars. Fast-rotating proto-neutron stars have also been of interest as potential sources of gravitational waves (GWs). We show that for a range of rotation periods and magnetic fields, hard X-rays and GeV gamma rays provide us with a promising probe of pulsar-aided SNe. It is observationally known that young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) in the Milky Way are very efficient lepton accelerators. We argue that, if embryonic PWNe satisfy similar conditions at early stages of SNe (in ∼1–10 months after the explosion), external inverse-Compton emission via upscatterings of SN photons is naturally expected in the GeV range as well as broadband synchrotron emission. To fully take into account the Klein–Nishina effect and two-photon annihilation process that are important at early times, we perform detailed calculations including electromagnetic cascades. Our results suggest that hard X-ray telescopes such as NuSTAR can observe such early PWN emission by follow-up observations in months to years. GeV gamma-rays may also be detected by Fermi for nearby SNe, which serve as counterparts of these GW sources. Detecting the signals will give us an interesting probe of particle acceleration at early times of PWNe, as well as clues to driving mechanisms of luminous SNe and GRBs. Since the Bethe–Heitler cross section is lower than the Thomson cross section, gamma rays would allow us to study subphotospheric dissipation. We encourage searches for high-energy emission from nearby SNe, especially SNe Ibc including super-luminous objects.

  1. Gamma-ray emission from Cassiopeia-A produced by accelerated cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhko, E. G.; Puehlhofer, G.; Voelk, H. J.

    2001-08-01

    The kinetic nonlinear model of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) is used to describe the relevant properties of the Cas A remnant. We use the model of a locally smooth circumstellar medium developed by Borkowski et al. (1996) which consists of a tenuous inner bubble, a dense shell of swept-up slow red supergiant wind material, and a subsequent red supergiant wind region, in order to reproduce the SNR's observed size, expansion rate and thermal X-ray emission. The values of other physical parameters which influence the CR acceleration are taken to fit the observed synchrotron emission of Cas A in the radio and X-ray range. The calculated integral γ-ray flux from Cas A is dominated by π0 -decay γ-rays produced by relativistic protons. It extends up to almost 100 TeV and at TeV-energies considerably exceeds the value 5.8 × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 detected by the HEGRA collaboration (Aharonian et al., 2001). Possible explanations of this discrepancy are proposed which correspond either to leakage of the highest energy CRs from the remnant already at the current stage, to a lower gas density, or to an unusually high electron to proton ratio for the accelerated CRs.

  2. Gamma-ray emission in ultra-intense laser interaction with solid targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimo, Ondrej; Vyskocil, Jiri; Kumar, Deepak; Limpouch, Jiri; Weber, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Electrons moving in ultra-intense laser fields emit hard radiation due to radiation reaction and non-linear Compton scattering. Multi-MeV γ-rays were measured by scattering of electrons generated from laser wakefield with a focused laser of intensity a0 1 . However, non-linear Compton scattering and radiation reaction is also an efficient mechanism for generating copious amount of γ-rays in laser interaction with solids at intensities approaching 1022 W/cm2. Emission of γ-rays due to radiation reaction and bremsstrahlung are investigated here in the high intensity regime of laser-solid target interaction by using a combination of Particle-in-Cell and Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. The relative contribution of these processes is analyzed as a function of the target parameters. We concentrate on the influence of the target thickness, material, preplasma conditions or a surface structure on the generation of high energy photons and study separately their energy and angular distributions. It is demonstrated that the presence of preplasma or a special surface structure may significantly enhance emission of hard γ photons and their cut-off energy and change their angular distribution. Supported by Czech Science Foundation project 15-02964S.

  3. Indication of Gamma-Ray Emission from the Newly Discovered Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum II.

    PubMed

    Geringer-Sameth, Alex; Walker, Matthew G; Koushiappas, Savvas M; Koposov, Sergey E; Belokurov, Vasily; Torrealba, Gabriel; Evans, N Wyn

    2015-08-21

    We present a search for γ-ray emission from the direction of the newly discovered dwarf galaxy Reticulum II. Using Fermi-LAT Collaboration data, we detect a signal that exceeds expected backgrounds between ∼2-10  GeV and is consistent with annihilation of dark matter for particle masses less than a few ×10^{2}  GeV. Modeling the background as a Poisson process based on Fermi-LAT diffuse models, and taking into account trial factors, we detect emission with p value less than 9.8×10^{-5} (>3.7σ). An alternative, model-independent treatment of the background reduces the significance, raising the p value to 9.7×10^{-3} (2.3σ). Even in this case, however, Reticulum II has the most significant γ-ray signal of any known dwarf galaxy. If Reticulum II has a dark-matter halo that is similar to those inferred for other nearby dwarfs, the signal is consistent with the s-wave relic abundance cross section for annihilation.

  4. Gamma-ray Line Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, R.

    2005-07-01

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive isotopes, ejected into interstellar space by cosmic nucleosynthesis events, are observed with new space telescopes. The Compton Observatory had provided a sky survey for the isotopes 56Co, 22Na, 44Ti, and 26Al, detecting supernova radioactivity and the diffuse glow of long-lived radioactivity from massive stars in the Galaxy. High-resolution spectroscopy is now being exploited with Ge detectors: Since 2002, with ESA's INTEGRAL satellite and the RHESSI solar imager two space-based Ge-gamma-ray telescopes are in operation, measuring Doppler broadenings and line shape details of cosmic gamma-ray lines. First year's results include a detection and line shape measurement of annihilation emission, and 26Al emission from the inner Galaxy and from the Cygnus region. 60Fe gamma-ray intensity is surprisingly low; it may have been detected by RHESSI at 10% of the 26Al brightness, yet is not seen by INTEGRAL. 44Ti emission from Cas A and SN1987A is being studied; no other candidate young supernova remnants have been found through 44Ti. 22Na from novae still is not seen.

  5. Spectacular variability of gamma-ray emission in blazar 3C279 during the large outburst in June 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madejski, Grzegorz Maria; Hayashida, Masaaki; Asano, Katsuaki; Thompson, David John; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Sikora, Marek; Fermi-LAT Team

    2016-01-01

    The Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar 3C 279 has been one of the brightest gamma-ray blazars in the sky. In Dec. 2013, April 2014, and June 2015 it showed powerful outbursts with the gamma-ray flux higher than 1x10^{-5} ph/cm^2/s (above 100 MeV). The December 2013 outburst showed an unusually hard power-law gamma-ray spectrum (index~1.7), and an asymmetric light curve profile with a few-hour time scale variability. The outburst in June 2015 was extreme, revealing a record-breaking integral flux above 100 MeV of 4x10^{-5} ph/cm^2/s, more than an order of magnitude higher than the average gamma-ray flux of the Crab. At the same time, the X-ray flux also showed the highest level of soft X-ray flux ever measured by Swift-XRT. The high flux prompted a Fermi-LAT ToO pointing observation. The increase of exposure and the very high flux state of the source allowed us to resolve the gamma-ray flux on a sub-orbital time scales. Our analysis of the LAT data revealed variability on time scales of tens of minutes. In this contribution, we will present the observational results of those outbursts from 3C279 together with multi-wavelength observations, with a focus on detailed analysis of the 2015 June outburst.

  6. Power-law X-ray and gamma-ray emission from relativistic thermal plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    A common characteristic of cosmic sources is power-law X-ray emission. Extragalactic sources of this type include compact components of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The present study is concerned with a theoretical model of such sources, taking into account the assumption that the power-law spectra are produced by repeated Compton scatterings of soft photons by relativistic thermal electrons. This is one of several possible physical mechanisms leading to the formation of a power-law spectrum. Attention is given to the Comptonization of soft photon sources, the rates of pair processes, the solution of the pair equilibrium equation, and the constraints on a soft photon source and an energy source. It is concluded that the compactness parameters L/R of most of the cosmic sources observed to date lie below the maximum luminosity curves considered.

  7. Gamma-Ray Strength Function Method:. Away from Photoneutron Emission to Radiative Neutron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Iwamoto, C.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Iwamoto, N.; Lui, Y. W.; Arteaga, D. P.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2013-03-01

    Radiative neutron capture cross sections are of direct relevance for the synthesis of heavy elements referred to as the s-process and the r-process in nuclear astrophysics and constitute basic data in the field of nuclear engineering. The surrogate reaction technique is in active use to indirectly determine radiative neutron capture cross sections for unstable nuclei. We have devised an indirect method alternative to the surrogate reaction technique on the basis of the γ-ray strength function (γSF), a nuclear statistical quantity that interconnects photoneutron emission and radiative neutron capture in the Hauser-Feshbach model calculation. We outline the γSF method and show applications of the method to tin, palladium, and zirconium isotopes. In the application of the γSF method, it is important to use γSF's that incorporate extra strengths of PDR and/or M1 resonance emerging around neutron threshold.

  8. Detection of gamma-ray emission in the region of the supernova remnants G296.5+10.0 and G166.0+4.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    52 months of accumulated observations by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnants G296.5+10.0 (PKS 1209-51/52) and G166.0+4.3 (VRO 42.05.01) are analysed. GeV emission is detected coincident with the position of the sources at the ≃5σ and 11σ levels above the background, respectively, for the best-fitting spectral and spatial scenarios. The gamma-ray spectrum of the sources can be described with a power law in energy. G166.0+4.3 shows a soft GeV spectrum while that of G296.5+10.0 is flat (in the νFν representation). The origin of the gamma-ray emission from the sources is explored. Both leptonic and hadronic mechanisms can account for the high-energy emission from G296.5+10.0, while a leptonic scenario is preferred for G166.0+4.3.

  9. Measurement of areal density in the ablators of inertial-confinement-fusion capsules via detection of ablator (n, n'γ) gamma-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, N. M.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Hsu, H. H.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Miller, E. K.; Grafil, E.; Stoeffl, W.; Church, J. A.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Duffy, T.

    2013-04-01

    We report the first gamma-ray-based measurements of the areal density of ablators in inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions. The measurements, made at the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], used observations of gamma rays arising from inelastic scattering of 14.1-MeV deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons on 12C nuclei in the compressed plastic ablators. The emission of 12C(n,n'γ) gamma rays from the capsules is detected using the Gamma Reaction History instrument [H. W. Herrmann et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 244, 032047 (2010)] operating at OMEGA. From the ratio of a capsule's 12C(n,n'γ) emission to the emission from the same processes in an in situ reference graphite "puck" of known mass and geometry [N. M. Hoffman et al., in IFSA 2011 proceedings (submitted)], we determine the time-averaged areal density of 12C in the capsule's compressed ablator. Measured values of total ablator areal density for thirteen imploded capsules, in the range 23 ± 10 to 58 ± 14 mg/cm2, are comparable to values calculated in 1D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, and measured by charged-particle techniques.

  10. GRB 110709A, 111117A, AND 120107A: FAINT HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY PHOTON EMISSION FROM FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS AND DEMOGRAPHIC IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Weikang; Akerlof, Carl W.; McKay, Timothy A.; Pandey, Shashi B.; Zhang Binbin; Zhang Bing; Sakamoto, Takanori

    2012-09-01

    Launched on 2008 June 11, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided a rare opportunity to study high-energy photon emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although the majority of such events (27) have been identified by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration, four were uncovered by using more sensitive statistical techniques. In this paper, we continue our earlier work by finding three more GRBs associated with high-energy photon emission, GRB 110709A, 111117A, and 120107A. To systematize our matched filter approach, a pipeline has been developed to identify these objects in nearly real time. GRB 120107A is the first product of this analysis procedure. Despite the reduced threshold for identification, the number of GRB events has not increased significantly. This relative dearth of events with low photon number prompted a study of the apparent photon number distribution. We find an extremely good fit to a simple power law with an exponent of -1.8 {+-} 0.3 for the differential distribution. As might be expected, there is a substantial correlation between the number of lower energy photons detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and the number observed by LAT. Thus, high-energy photon emission is associated with some but not all of the brighter GBM events. Deeper studies of the properties of the small population of high-energy emitting bursts may eventually yield a better understanding of these entire phenomena.

  11. Two Active States of the Narrow-Line Gamma-Ray-Loud AGN GB 1310 + 487

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Schinzel, F. K.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Abolmasov, P. K.; Angelakis, E.; Bulgarelli, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cenko, S. B.; Cheung, C. C.; Clubb, K. I.; D'Ammando, F.; Escande, L.; Fegan, S. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Finke, J. D.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Ikejiri, Y.; Itoh, R.; Kawabata, K. S.; Komatsu, T.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krichbaum, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Previously unremarkable, the extragalactic radio source GB1310 487 showed gamma-ray flare on 2009 November 18, reaching a daily flux of approximately 10(exp -6) photons cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) at energies E greater than 100MeV and became one of the brightest GeV sources for about two weeks. Its optical spectrum shows strong forbidden-line emission while lacking broad permitted lines, which is not typical for a blazar. Instead, the spectrum resembles those of narrow emission-line galaxies. Aims. We investigate changes in the object's radio-to-GeV spectral energy distribution (SED) during and after the prominent gamma-ray flare with the aim of determining the nature of the object and of constraining the origin of the variable high-energy emission. Methods. The data collected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites at gamma-ray energies; Swift at X-ray and ultraviolet (UV); the Kanata, NOT, and Keck telescopes at optical; OAGH and WISE at infrared (IR); and IRAM30m, OVRO 40m, Effelsberg 100m, RATAN-600, and VLBA at radio are analyzed together to trace the SED evolution on timescales of months. Results. The gamma-ray radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) is located at redshift z = 0.638. It shines through an unrelated foreground galaxy at z = 0.500. The AGN light is probably amplified by gravitational lensing. The AGN SED shows a two-humped structure typical of blazars and gamma-ray-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, with the high-energy (inverse-Compton) emission dominating by more than an order of magnitude over the low-energy (synchrotron) emission during gamma-ray flares. The difference between the two SED humps is smaller during the low-activity state. Fermi observations reveal a strong correlation between the gamma-ray flux and spectral index, with the hardest spectrum observed during the brightest gamma-ray state. The gamma-ray flares occurred before and during a slow rising trend in the radio, but no direct association between gamma-ray and

  12. Detection of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Arcaro, C.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Buson, S.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.; Desiante, R.

    2016-11-01

    Context. QSO B0218+357 is a gravitationally lensed blazar located at a redshift of 0.944. The gravitational lensing splits the emitted radiation into two components that are spatially indistinguishable by gamma-ray instruments, but separated by a 10-12 day delay. In July 2014, QSO B0218+357 experienced a violent flare observed by the Fermi-LAT and followed by the MAGIC telescopes. Aims: The spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 can give information on the energetics of z 1 very high energy gamma-ray sources. Moreover the gamma-ray emission can also be used as a probe of the extragalactic background light at z 1. Methods: MAGIC performed observations of QSO B0218+357 during the expected arrival time of the delayed component of the emission. The MAGIC and Fermi-LAT observations were accompanied by quasi-simultaneous optical data from the KVA telescope and X-ray observations by Swift-XRT. We construct a multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 and use it to model the source. The GeV and sub-TeV data obtained by Fermi-LAT and MAGIC are used to set constraints on the extragalactic background light. Results: Very high energy gamma-ray emission was detected from the direction of QSO B0218+357 by the MAGIC telescopes during the expected time of arrival of the trailing component of the flare, making it the farthest very high energy gamma-ray source detected to date. The observed emission spans the energy range from 65 to 175 GeV. The combined MAGIC and Fermi-LAT spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 is consistent with current extragalactic background light models. The broadband emission can be modeled in the framework of a two-zone external Compton scenario, where the GeV emission comes from an emission region in the jet, located outside the broad line region.

  13. Cosmic gamma-ray lines - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Ramaty, R.

    1980-01-01

    The various processes that lead to gamma-ray line emission and the possible astrophysical sources of such emission are reviewed. The processes of nuclear excitation, radiative capture, positron annihilation, and cyclotron radiation, which may produce gamma-ray line emission from such diverse sources as the interstellar medium, novas, supernovas, pulsars, accreting compact objects, the galactic nucleus and the nuclei of active galaxies are considered. The significance of the relative intensities, widths, and frequency shifts of the lines are also discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding those gamma-ray lines that have already been observed from astrophysical sources.

  14. Gamma ray transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic gamma ray bursts was made with systems designed at Los Alamos Laboratory for the detection of nuclear explosions beyond the atmosphere. HELIOS-2 was the first gamma ray burst instrument launched; its initial results in 1976, seemed to deepen the mystery around gamma ray transients. Interplanetary spacecraft data were reviewed in terms of explaining the behavior and source of the transients.

  15. Analytical computation of prompt gamma ray emission and detection for proton range verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterpin, E.; Janssens, G.; Smeets, J.; Vander Stappen, François; Prieels, D.; Priegnitz, Marlen; Perali, Irene; Vynckier, S.

    2015-06-01

    A prompt gamma (PG) slit camera prototype recently demonstrated that Bragg Peak position in a clinical proton scanned beam could be measured with 1-2 mm accuracy by comparing an expected PG detection profile to a measured one. The computation of the expected PG detection profile in the context of a clinical framework is challenging but must be solved before clinical implementation. Obviously, Monte Carlo methods (MC) can simulate the expected PG profile but at prohibitively long calculation times. We implemented a much faster method that is based on analytical processing of precomputed MC data that would allow practical evaluation of this range monitoring approach in clinical conditions. Reference PG emission profiles were generated with MC simulations (PENH) in targets consisting of either 12C, 14N, 16O, 31P or 40Ca, with 10% of 1H. In a given geometry, the local PG emission can then be derived by adding the contribution of each element, according to the local energy of the proton obtained by continuous slowing down approximation and the local composition. The actual incident spot size is taken into account using an optical model fitted to measurements and by super sampling the spot with several rays (up to 113). PG transport in the patient/camera geometries and the detector response are modelled by convolving the PG production profile with a transfer function. The latter is interpolated from a database of transfer functions fitted to MC data (PENELOPE) generated for a photon source in a cylindrical phantom with various radiuses and a camera placed at various positions. As a benchmark, the analytical model was compared to MC and experiments in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. Comparisons with MC were also performed in a thoracic CT. For all cases, the analytical model reproduced the prediction of the position of the Bragg peak computed with MC within 1 mm for the camera in nominal configuration. When compared to measurements, the shape of the profiles

  16. Long-Duration Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies in Emission and Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Daniel A.; Niino, Yuu; Tanvir, Nial R.; Vergani, Susanna D.; Fynbo, Johan P. U.

    2016-12-01

    The galaxy population hosting long-duration GRBs provides a means to constrain the progenitor and an opportunity to use these violent explosions to characterize the nature of the high-redshift universe. Studies of GRB host galaxies in emission reveal a population of star-forming galaxies with great diversity, spanning a wide range of masses, metallicities, and redshifts. However, as a population GRB hosts are significantly less massive and poorer in metals than the hosts of other core-collapse transients, suggesting that GRB production is only efficient at metallicities significantly below Solar. GRBs may also prefer compact galaxies, and dense and/or central regions of galaxies, more than other types of core-collapse explosion. Meanwhile, studies of hosts in absorption against the luminous GRB optical afterglow provide a unique means of unveiling properties of the ISM in even the faintest and most distant galaxies; these observations are helping to constrain the chemical evolution of galaxies and the properties of interstellar dust out to very high redshifts. New ground- and space-based instrumentation, and the accumulation of larger and more carefully-selected samples, are continually enhancing our view of the GRB host population.

  17. Gamma ray astronomy from satellites and balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of gamma ray astronomy topics presented at the Cosmic Ray Conference. The major conclusions at the Cosmic Ray Conference in the field of gamma ray astronomy are given. (1) MeV-emission of gamma-ray bursts is a common feature. Variations in duration and energy spectra from burst to burst may explain the discrepancy between the measured log N - log S dependence and the observed isotropy of bursts. (2) The gamma-ray line at 1.809 MeV from Al(26) is the first detected line from a radioactive nucleosynthesis product. In order to understand its origin it will be necessary to measure its longitude distribution in the Milky Way. (3) The indications of a gamma-ray excess found from the direction of Loop I is consistent with the picture that the bulk of cosmic rays below 100 GeV is produced in galactic supernova remnants. (4) The interpretation of the large scale distribution of gamma rays in the Milky Way is controversial. At present an extragalactic origin of the cosmic ray nuclei in the GeV-range cannot be excluded from the gamma ray data. (5) The detection of MeV-emission from Cen A is a promising step towards the interesting field of extragalactic gamma ray astronomy.

  18. SAS-2 gamma-ray observations of PSR 1747-46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Oegelman, H. B.

    1976-01-01

    Observations with the SAS-2 high energy ( 35 MeV) gamma-ray telescope show evidence of gamma-ray emission from the radio pulsar PSR 1747-46. When the arrival times of gamma-rays from the region of the pulsar were converted to pulsar phases using the radio period and period derivative, a single peak was found in the phase plot, with a Poisson probability of occurring by chance of .00008. Independently, the time-averaged data for the PSR 1747-46 region show an enhancement over the surrounding region of the sky at the same galactic latitude, with a Poisson probability of chance occurrence of less than .008. The probability that these results are chance is the product of these two probabilities times the number of radio pulsars examined (73). This overall probability is sufficiently small (.00005) to suggest an identification of a new gamma-ray pulsar. In the gamma-ray pulsar plot, the peak falls 0.16 + or - 0.03 period after the radio pulsar peak. This phase shift is, within uncertainties, the same as that observed between the single radio peak and the first of the two gamma-ray peaks seen in the phase plot for PSR-0833-45 (the Vela pulsar).

  19. Fermi LAT detection of increasing gamma-ray emission from the radio-loud NLSy1 PKS 1502+036

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, Filippo; Ciprini, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed gamma-ray flaring activity from a source positionally consistent with the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 PKS 1502+036 (also known as 3FGL J1505.1+0326, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS, 218, 23), with radio coordinates (J2000.0), R.A.: 226.2769879 deg, Dec.: 3.4418922 deg (Fey et al. 2004, AJ, 127, 3587) at redshift z = 0.4078 (Hewett & Wild 2010, MNRAS, 405, 2302).

  20. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 by the Egret telescope on the Compton Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chiang, J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Mattox, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma radiation in the energy range from 50 MeV to well over 1 GeV has been observed from the direction of the BL Lac object Markarian 421 by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope on the Compton Observatory during the period 1991 June 27-July 11. The source flux is weak, but still statistically significant at the level of 10 exp -5; the integrated photon flux above 100 MeV is (1.4 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -7/sq cm s. The differential photon energy spectrum can be represented by a power law with exponent 1.96 +/- 0.14. This is the first detection of gamma-ray emission from a BL Lac object.

  1. Modeling gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxham, Amanda

    Discovered serendipitously in the late 1960s, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are huge explosions of energy that happen at cosmological distances. They provide a grand physical playground to those who study them, from relativistic effects such as beaming, jets, shocks and blastwaves to radiation mechanisms such as synchrotron radiation to galatic and stellar populations and history. Through the Swift and Fermi space telescopes dedicated to observing GRBs over a wide range of energies (from keV to GeV), combined with accurate pinpointing that allows ground based follow-up observations in the optical, infrared and radio, a rich tapestry of GRB observations has emerged. The general picture is of a mysterious central engine (CE) probably composed of a black hole or neutron star that ejects relativistic shells of matter into intense magnetic fields. These shells collide and combine, releasing energy in "internal shocks" accounting for the prompt emission and flaring we see and the "external shock" or plowing of the first blastwave into the ambient surrounding medium has well-explained the afterglow radiation. We have developed a shell model code to address the question of how X-ray flares are produced within the framework of the internal shock model. The shell model creates randomized GRB explosions from a central engine with multiple shells and follows those shells as they collide, merge and spread, producing prompt emission and X-ray flares. We have also included a blastwave model, which can constrain X-ray flares and explain the origin of high energy (GeV) emission seen by the Fermi telescope. Evidence suggests that gamma-ray prompt emission and X-ray flares share a common origin and that at least some flares can only be explained by long-lasting central engine activity. We pay special attention to the time history of central engine activity, internal shocks, and observed flares. We calculate the gamma-ray (Swift/BAT band) and X-ray (Swift/XRT band) lightcurves for arbitrary

  2. Radon concentration monitoring using xenon gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, A.; Ulin, S.; Dmitrenko, V.; Chernysheva, I.; Grachev, V.; Vlasik, K.; Uteshev, Z.; Shustov, A.; Petrenko, D.; Bychkova, O.

    2017-01-01

    A method for 222Rn concentration monitoring by means of intensity measurement of its daughter nuclei (214Pb and 214Bi) gamma-ray emission using xenon gamma-ray spectrometer is presented. Testing and calibration results for a gamma-spectrometric complex based on xenon gamma-ray detector are described.

  3. Gamma ray constraints on the Galactic supernova rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, D.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, Donald D.; Leising, M.; Mathews, G.; Woosley, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected gamma ray signatures of Galactic supernovae of all types to estimate the significance of the lack of a gamma ray signal due to supernovae occurring during the last millenium. Using recent estimates of the nuclear yields, we determine mean Galactic supernova rates consistent with the historic supernova record and the gamma ray limits. Another objective of these calculations of Galactic supernova histories is their application to surveys of diffuse Galactic gamma ray line emission.

  4. Future Missions for Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy has made great advances in recent years, due largely to the recently completed 9-year mission of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. In this talk I will give an overview of what advances we may expect in the near future, with particular emphasis on earth-orbiting missions scheduled for flight within the next 5 years. Two missions, the High Energy Transient Explorer and Swift, will provide important new information on the sources of gamma-ray bursts. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope will investigate high energy emission from a wide variety of sources, including active galaxies and gamma-ray pulsars. The contributions of ground-based and multiwavelength observations will also be addressed.

  5. Gamma-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W. (Editor); Trombka, J. I. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Conference papers on gamma ray astrophysics are summarized. Data cover the energy region from about 0.3 MeV to a few hundred GeV and theoretical models of production mechanisms that give rise to both galactic and extragalactic gamma rays.

  6. High Energy Emission from Quasar Jets: HST polarimetry, X-ray and Gamma-ray Emission and the IC/CMB hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Meyer, Eileen T.; Cara, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    One of the unique legacies of the Chandra X-ray Observatory is the discovery of X-ray emission from a large number of extragalactic jets (over 100 are now known). In less powerful, FR I radio jets this emission is generally understood to be synchrotron emission from the highest energy electrons, requiring in situ particle acceleration, but the nature of the high-energy emission from the more powerful quasar jets is less well constrained. In quasar jets, the emission extends for tens to hundreds of kiloparsecs, and the observed X-rays are harder and at a higher flux than expected from an extrapolation of the radio to optical spectrum. Over the last 15 years, a persistent debate has arisen as to the nature of this emission, with the leading model being inverse-Comptonization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. This explanation requires the jet to be relativistic out to hundreds of kiloparsecs from the nucleus, and requires an electron spectrum that extends to very low Lorentz factors. The combination of these two results in a very high kinetic power, very close to or over the Eddington limit if the electron spectrum continues to gamma ~ 1. We discuss recent work with HST polarimetry and the X-ray to gamma-ray spectrum that we believe makes it necessary to re-examine the IC/CMB hypothesis. In many quasar jets, the optical and X-ray emission is joined by a single spectral component, and HST polarimetry in that high-energy component is detecting high polarizations, making it difficult to explain the high-energy emission via the IC/CMB hypothesis. So far, this has been found in 2 jets (PKS 1136-135, Cara et al. 2013, and 1150+497), with observations of a third (3C 273) scheduled for January. In addition, IC/CMB of the highest energy synchrotron photons predicts that we should be detecting GeV gamma-ray emission from the extended jets (Georganopoulos et al. 2006, Meyer & Georganopoulos 2014). These lines of evidence have made the IC/CMB hypothesis very unlikely

  7. Observations of the gamma-ray emission from the Quiescent Sun with Fermi Large Area Telescope during the first 7 years in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainó, S.; Giglietto, N.; Moskalenko, I.; Orlando, E.; Strong, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    The high energy gamma-ray emission from the quiescent Sun is due to the interactions of cosmic ray (CR) protons and electrons with matter and photons in the solar environment. Such interactions lead to two component gamma-ray emission: a disk-like emission due to the nuclear interactions of CR protons and nuclei in the solar atmosphere and a space extended emission due to the inverse Compton (IC) scattering of CR electrons off solar photons in the whole heliosphere. The observation of these two solar emission components may give useful information about the evolution of the solar cycle by probing two different CR components (proton and electrons) in regions not directly accessible by direct observations. We present the results of the observations of the Sun with Fermi-LAT in the first 7 years on orbit, with the exception of the flaring periods. Significantly large photon statistics and improved processing performance with respect to previous analysis allow us to explore both components of the emission in greater details and perform better comparisons of data with current models of the IC component. This allows us to probe CR electrons in the inner heliosphere which is not possible by other methods. Moreover, the longer period of observations allows us to study the variations of the emission between the maximum and the minimum of the solar cycle.

  8. THERMAL EMISSION IN THE EARLY X-RAY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: FOLLOWING THE PROMPT PHASE TO LATE TIMES

    SciTech Connect

    Friis, Mette; Watson, Darach E-mail: darach@dark-cosmology.dk

    2013-07-01

    Thermal radiation, peaking in soft X-rays, has now been detected in a handful of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows and has to date been interpreted as shock break-out of the GRB's progenitor star. We present a search for thermal emission in the early X-ray afterglows of a sample of Swift bursts selected by their brightness in X-rays at early times. We identify a clear thermal component in eight GRBs and track the evolution. We show that at least some of the emission must come from highly relativistic material since two show an apparent super-luminal expansion of the thermal component. Furthermore, we determine very large luminosities and high temperatures for many of the components-too high to originate in a supernova shock break-out. Instead, we suggest that the component may be modeled as late photospheric emission from the jet, linking it to the apparently thermal component observed in the prompt emission of some GRBs at gamma-ray and hard X-ray energies. By comparing the parameters from the prompt emission and the early afterglow emission, we find that the results are compatible with the interpretation that we are observing the prompt quasi-thermal emission component in soft X-rays at a later point in its evolution.

  9. THE ROLE OF FAST MAGNETIC RECONNECTION ON THE RADIO AND GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE NUCLEAR REGIONS OF MICROQUASARS AND LOW LUMINOSITY AGNs

    SciTech Connect

    Kadowaki, L. H. S.; Pino, E. M. de Gouveia Dal; Singh, C. B. E-mail: dalpino@iag.usp.br

    2015-04-01

    Fast magnetic reconnection events can be a very powerful mechanism operating in the core region of microquasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In earlier work, it has been suggested that the power released by fast reconnection events between the magnetic field lines lifting from the inner accretion disk region and the lines anchored into the central black hole could accelerate relativistic particles and produce the observed radio emission from microquasars and low luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs). Moreover, it has been proposed that the observed correlation between the radio emission and the mass of these sources, spanning 10{sup 10} orders of magnitude in mass, might be related to this process. In the present work, we revisit this model comparing two different fast magnetic reconnection mechanisms, namely, fast reconnection driven by anomalous resistivity (AR) and by turbulence. We apply the scenario above to a much larger sample of sources (including also blazars, and gamma-ray bursts—GRBs), and find that LLAGNs and microquasars do confirm the trend above. Furthermore, when driven by turbulence, not only their radio but also their gamma-ray emission can be due to magnetic power released by fast reconnection, which may accelerate particles to relativistic velocities in the core region of these sources. Thus the turbulent-driven fast reconnection model is able to reproduce verywell the observed emission. On the other hand, the emission from blazars and GRBs does not follow the same trend as that of the LLAGNs and microquasars, indicating that the radio and gamma-ray emission in these cases is produced beyond the core, along the jet, by another population of relativistic particles, as expected.

  10. The Role of Fast Magnetic Reconnection on the Radio and Gamma-ray Emission from the Nuclear Regions of Microquasars and Low Luminosity AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadowaki, L. H. S.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Singh, C. B.

    2015-04-01

    Fast magnetic reconnection events can be a very powerful mechanism operating in the core region of microquasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In earlier work, it has been suggested that the power released by fast reconnection events between the magnetic field lines lifting from the inner accretion disk region and the lines anchored into the central black hole could accelerate relativistic particles and produce the observed radio emission from microquasars and low luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs). Moreover, it has been proposed that the observed correlation between the radio emission and the mass of these sources, spanning 1010 orders of magnitude in mass, might be related to this process. In the present work, we revisit this model comparing two different fast magnetic reconnection mechanisms, namely, fast reconnection driven by anomalous resistivity (AR) and by turbulence. We apply the scenario above to a much larger sample of sources (including also blazars, and gamma-ray bursts—GRBs), and find that LLAGNs and microquasars do confirm the trend above. Furthermore, when driven by turbulence, not only their radio but also their gamma-ray emission can be due to magnetic power released by fast reconnection, which may accelerate particles to relativistic velocities in the core region of these sources. Thus the turbulent-driven fast reconnection model is able to reproduce verywell the observed emission. On the other hand, the emission from blazars and GRBs does not follow the same trend as that of the LLAGNs and microquasars, indicating that the radio and gamma-ray emission in these cases is produced beyond the core, along the jet, by another population of relativistic particles, as expected.

  11. Hard X-Ray Emission from SH 2-104: A NuSTAR Search for Gamma-Ray Counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Mori, K.; Aliu, E.; Paredes, J. M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of Sh 2-104, a compact H II region containing several young massive stellar clusters (YMSCs). We have detected distinct hard X-ray sources coincident with localized VERITAS TeV emission recently resolved from the giant gamma-ray complex MGRO J2019+37 in the Cygnus region. Fainter, diffuse X-rays coincident with the eastern YMSC in Sh2-104 likely result from the colliding winds of a component star. Just outside the radio shell of Sh 2-104 lies 3XMM J201744.7+365045 and a nearby nebula, NuSTAR J201744.3+364812, whose properties are most consistent with extragalactic objects. The combined XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum of 3XMM J201744.7+365045 is well-fit to an absorbed power-law model with N(sub H) = (3.1 +/- 1.0) x 10(exp 22) cm(exp -2) and a photon index gamma = 2.1 +/- 0.1. Based on possible long-term flux variation and the lack of detected pulsations (less than or equal to 43% modulation), this object is likely a background active galactic nucleus rather than a Galactic pulsar. The spectrum of the NuSTAR nebula shows evidence of an emission line at E = 5.6 keV, suggesting an optically obscured galaxy cluster at z = 0.19 +/- 0.02 (d = 800 Mpc) and L(sub X) = 1.2 x 10(exp 44) erg s(exp -1). Follow-up Chandra observations of Sh 2-104 will help identify the nature of the X-ray sources and their relation to MGRO J2019+37. We also show that the putative VERITAS excess south of Sh 2-104, is most likely associated with the newly discovered Fermi pulsar PSR J2017+3625 and not the H II region.

  12. Measurement of deuteron induced gamma-ray emission differential cross sections on natCl from 1.0 to 2.0 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokar, A.; Kakuee, O.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this research work, measured differential cross sections for gamma-ray emission from the nuclear reactions 35Cl(d,pγ1-0)36Cl (Eγ = 788 keV), 35Cl(d,pγ2-0)36Cl (Eγ = 1165 keV), 37Cl(d,pγ1-0)38Cl (Eγ = 671 keV) and 37Cl(d,pγ2-0)38Cl (Eγ = 755 keV) are presented. For these measurements a thin natural BaCl2 target evaporated onto a 50 μm-thick Mo foil was used. The gamma-rays and backscattered deuterons were detected simultaneously. An HPGe detector placed at an angle of 90° with respect to the beam direction was employed to collect gamma-rays while an ion implanted Si detector placed at a scattering angle of 165° was used to detect backscattered deuterons. The validity of the obtained differential cross sections was verified through a thick target benchmarking experiment. The overall systematic uncertainty of cross section values was estimated to be ±10%.

  13. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234,236,238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, John Leonard; Kawano, Toshihiko; Bredeweg, Todd Allen; Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh; Couture, Aaron Joseph; Haight, Robert Cameron; Jandel, Marian; Mosby, Shea Morgan; O'Donnell, John M.; Rundberg, Robert S.; Vieira, David J.; Wilhelmy, Jerry B.; Becker, John A.; Wu, Ching-Yen; Krticka, Milan

    2015-05-28

    Neutron capture cross sections in the “continuum” region (>≈1 keV) and gamma-emission spectra are of importance to basic science and many applied fields. Careful measurements have been made on most common stable nuclides, but physicists must rely on calculations (or “surrogate” reactions) for rare or unstable nuclides. Calculations must be benchmarked against measurements (cross sections, gamma-ray spectra, and <Γγ>). Gamma-ray spectrum measurements from resolved resonances were made with 1 - 2 mg/cm2 thick targets; cross sections at >1 keV were measured using thicker targets. The results show that the shape of capture cross section vs neutron energy is not sensitive to the form of the strength function (although the magnitude is); the generalized Lorentzian E1 strength function is not sufficient to describe the shape of observed gamma-ray spectra; MGLO + “Oslo M1” parameters produces quantitative agreement with the measured 238U(n,γ) cross section; additional strength at low energies (~ 3 MeV) -- likely M1-- is required; and careful study of complementary results on low-lying giant resonance strength is needed to consistently describe observations.

  14. Simultaneous determination of Si, Al and Na concentrations by particle induced gamma-ray emission and applications to reference materials and ceramic archaeological artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasari, K. B.; Chhillar, S.; Acharya, R.; Ray, D. K.; Behera, A.; Lakshmana Das, N.; Pujari, P. K.

    2014-11-01

    A particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) method using 4 MeV proton beam was standardized for simultaneous determination of Si, Al and Na concentrations and has been applied for non-destructive analysis of several reference materials and archaeological clay pottery samples. Current normalized count rates of gamma-rays for the three elements listed above were obtained by an in situ method using Li as internal standard. The paper presents application of the in situ current normalized PIGE method for grouping study of 39 clay potteries, obtained from Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh states of India. Grouping of artifacts was carried out using the ratios of SiO2 to Al2O3 concentrations, due to their non volatile nature. Powder samples and elemental standards in pellet forms (cellulose matrix) were irradiated using the 4 MeV proton beam (∼10 nA) from the 3 MV tandem accelerator at IOP Bhubaneswar, and assay of prompt gamma rays was carried out using a 60% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to MCA. The concentration ratio values of SiO2/Al2O3 indicated that pottery samples fell into two major groups, which are in good agreement with their collection areas. Reference materials from IAEA and NIST were analyzed for quantification of Si, Al and Na concentrations as a part of validation as well as application of PIGE method.

  15. Gamma-Ray Burst Physics with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Omodei, N.; /INFN, Pisa

    2006-10-06

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an international space mission that will study the cosmos in the energy range 10 keV-300 GeV, the upper end of which is one of the last poorly observed region of the celestial electromagnetic spectrum. The ancestor of the GLAST/LAT was the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector, which flew onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). The amount of information and the step forward that the high energy astrophysics made thanks to its 9 years of observations are impressive. Nevertheless, EGRET uncovered the tip of the iceberg, raising many questions, and it is in the light of EGRET's results that the great potential of the next generation gamma-ray telescope can be appreciated. GLAST will have an imaging gamma-ray telescope, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) vastly more capable than instruments own previously, as well as a secondary instrument, the GLAST Bursts Monitor, or GBM, to augment the study of gamma-ray bursts. Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) science is one of the most exciting challenges for the GLAST mission, exploring the high energy emission of one of the most intense phenomena in the sky, shading light on various problems: from the acceleration of particles to the emission processes, to more exotic physics like Quantum Gravity effect. In this paper we report the work done so far in the simulation development as well as the study of the LAT sensitivity to GRB.

  16. On the Location of the gamma-Ray Outburst Emission in the BL Lacertae Object AO 0235 + 164 Through Observations Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agudo, Ivan; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gomez, Jose L.; Laehteenmaeki, Anne; Smith, Paul S.; Nilsson, Kari; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Aller, Margo F.; Heidt, Jochien; Gurwell, Mark; Thum, Clemens; Wehrle, Ann E.; Nikolashvili, Maria G.; Aller, Hugh D.; Benitez, Erika; Blinov, Dmitriy A.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A.; Hiriart, David; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Joshi, Manasvita; Kimeridze, Givi N.; Kurtanidze, Omar M.; Kurtanidze, Sofia O.

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array images at A = 7 mm with approx.0.15 milliarcsec resolution. The association of the events at different wavebands is confirmed at high statistical significance by probability arguments and Monte Carlo simulations. A series of sharp peaks in optical linear polarization, as well as a pronounced maximum in the 7 mm polarization of a superluminal jet knot, indicate rapid fluctuations in the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. These results lead us to conclude that the outburst occurred in the jet both in the quasi-stationary "core" and in the superluminal knot, both parsecs downstream of the supermassive black hole. We interpret the outburst as a consequence of the propagation of a disturbance, elongated along the line of sight by light-travel time delays, that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the core and propagates down the jet to create the superluminal knot. The multi-wavelength light curves vary together on long timescales (months/ years), but the correspondence is poorer on shorter timescales. This, as well as the variability of the polarization and the dual location of the outburst, agrees with the expectations of a multi-zone emission model in which turbulence plays a major role in modulating the synchrotron and inverse Compton fluxes.

  17. A Search for Early Optical Emission at Gamma-Ray Burst Locations by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Buffington, Andrew; Jackson, Bernard V.; Hick, P. Paul; Smith, Aaron C.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) views nearly every point on the sky once every 102 minutes and can detect point sources as faint as R approx. 10th magnitude. Therefore, SMEI can detect or provide upper limits for the optical afterglow from gamma-ray bursts in the tens of minutes after the burst when different shocked regions may emit optically. Here we provide upper limits for 58 bursts between 2003 February and 2005 April.

  18. A Global view on the Emission of Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts: From Precursors to Extended Emission Tails and Late X-ray Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Bing; Hu, You-Dong

    We present a joint analysis of the GRB data observed with the BAT and XRT on board Swift mission. Our results show that a precursor is observed in about 10 percents of the BAT GRBs, and most of them are of long-type GRBs. About half of the precursors triggers BAT to alert the GRBs. The triggered precursors are usually composed of some sharp pulses and non-triggered precursors are preferred to be some continuous flickers with almost a constant amplitude. There is no statistical difference of the photon indices between the triggered and non-triggered precursors, and their photon indices are also roughly consistent with that of the main bursts. The extended emision tails in the BAT band are usually observed in those GRBs that their main bursts are shorter than 2 seconds. These GRBs may be classified into the short-type GRBs. The EE tails are statistically softer than the emission in the main bursts and the corresponding X-ray flares are shown up in the XRT band. Taking the EE tails and late flares as evidence for late GRB central engine activity, we find that the lifetime of the GRB central engines of about 2/3 GRBs are much longer than T90. Our results indicate that the prompt gamma-ray phase may be only a short episode of the life times of the GRB central engines and what we have seen in the gamma-ray band may be only the tip of an iceberg of the GRB phenomenon. Future GRB alert instruments in the soft X-ray band may imporve our understanding on the activity of the GRB central engine in the early stage and the jet shock break-out as well as photosphere radaition.

  19. New Constraints on Simultaneous Optical Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts Measured by the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H. S. (Editor); Williams, G. G. (Editor); Ables, E. (Editor); Band, D. L. (Editor); Barthelmy, S. D. (Editor); Bionta, R. M. (Editor); Butterworth, P. S. (Editor); Cline, T. S. (Editor); Ferguson, D. H. (Editor); Fishman, G. J. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    LOTIS is a gamma-ray burst optical counterpart search experiment located near Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. Since operations began in 1996 October, LOTIS has responded to five triggers as of 1997 July 30, which occurred during good weather conditions. GR-B 970223 (BATSE trigger 6100) was an exceptionally strong burst, lasting approx. 30 s with a peak at approx. 8 s. LOTIS began imaging the error box approx. 11 s after the burst began and achieved simultaneous optical coverage of 100% of the region enclosed by the BATSE 3 sigma error circle and the interplanetary network annulus. No optical transients were observed brighter than the m{}_{V} approx.11 completeness limit of the resulting images, providing a new upper limit on the ratio of simultaneous optical to gamma-ray fluence of R-{L) less than 1.1 x 10 logical and {-4} and on the ratio of simultaneous optical (at 700 mn) to gamma-ray (at 100 keV) flux density of R-{F} less than 305 for a B-type spectrum and R-{F} less than 475 for an M-type spectrum.

  20. Search for TeV Gamma-ray Emission from GRB 100621A, an extremely bright GRB in X-rays, with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H. T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-05-01

    The long gamma-ray burst (GRB) 100621A, at the time the brightest X-ray transient ever detected by Swift-XRT in the 0.3-10 keV range, has been observed with the H.E.S.S. imaging air Cherenkov telescope array, sensitive to gamma radiation in the very-high-energy (VHE, >100 GeV) regime. Due to its relatively small redshift of z ~ 0.5, the favourable position in the southern sky and the relatively short follow-up time (<700 s after the satellite trigger) of the H.E.S.S. observations, this GRB could be within the sensitivity reach of the H.E.S.S. instrument. The analysis of the H.E.S.S. data shows no indication of emission and yields an integral flux upper limit above ~380 GeV of 4.2 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 (95% confidence level), assuming a simple Band function extension model. A comparison to a spectral-temporal model, normalised to the prompt flux at sub-MeV energies, constraints the existence of a temporally extended and strong additional hard power law, as has been observed in the other bright X-ray GRB 130427A. A comparison between the H.E.S.S. upper limit and the contemporaneous energy output in X-rays constrains the ratio between the X-ray and VHE gamma-ray fluxes to be greater than 0.4. This value is an important quantity for modelling the afterglow and can constrain leptonic emission scenarios, where leptons are responsible for the X-ray emission and might produce VHE gamma rays.

  1. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1991-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the development of the Bursts and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory and to analysis of archival data from balloon flight experiments were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  2. Gamma-ray Astronomy and GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2007-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray (30 MeV to 100 GeV) sky has been relatively poorly studied. Most of our current knowledge comes from observations made by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), which revealed that the GeV gamma-ray sky is rich and vibrant. Studies of astrophysical objects at GeV energies are interesting for several reasons: The high energy gamma-rays are often produced by a different physical process than the better studied X-ray and optical emission, thus providing a unique information for understanding these sources. Production of such high-energy photons requires that charged particles are accelerated to equally high energies, or much greater. Thus gamma-ray astronomy is the study of extreme environments, with natural and fundamental connections to cosmic-ray and neutrino astrophysics. The launch of GLAST in 2008 will herald a watershed in our understanding of the high energy gamma-ray sky, providing dramatic improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution and energy range. GLAST will open a new avenue to study our Universe as well as to answer scientific questions EGRET observations have raised. In this talk, I will describe the GLAST instruments and capabilities and highlight some of the science we expect to address.

  3. Gamma-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weekes, T.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Gamma-rays are the highest-energy photons in the ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM and their detection presents unique challenges. On one hand it is easy to detect γ-rays. The interaction cross-sections are large and above a few MeV the pair production interaction, the dominant γ-ray interaction with matter, is easily recognized. Gamma-ray detectors were far advanced when the concept of `γ-ray astronomy' ...

  4. Gamma ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Jentschel, M.; Guenther, M. M.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-09

    Via refractive or diffractive scattering one can shape {gamma} ray beams in terms of beam divergence, spot size and monochromaticity. These concepts might be particular important in combination with future highly brilliant gamma ray sources and might push the sensibility of planned experiments by several orders of magnitude. We will demonstrate the experimental feasibility of gamma ray monochromatization on a ppm level and the creation of a gamma ray beam with nanoradian divergence. The results are obtained using the inpile target position of the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble and the crystal spectrometer GAMS. Since the refractive index is believed to vanish to zero with 1/E{sup 2}, the concept of refractive optics has never been considered for gamma rays. The combination of refractive optics with monochromator crystals is proposed to be a promising design. Using the crystal spectrometer GAMS, we have measured for the first time the refractive index at energies in the energy range of 180 - 2000 keV. The results indicate a deviation from simple 1/E{sup 2} extrapolation of X-ray results towards higher energies. A first interpretation of these new results will be presented. We will discuss the consequences of these results on the construction of refractive optics such as lenses or refracting prisms for gamma rays and their combination with single crystal monochromators.

  5. Long-Term Monitoring of the High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from LS I +61 deg 303 and LS 5039

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadasch, D.; Torres, D. F.; Tanaka, T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Hill, A. B.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Glanzman, T.; Corbel, S.; Li, J.; Chen, Y. P.; Zhang, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Kerr, M.; Richards, J. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A.; Pooley, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) reported the first definitive gigaelectron volts detections of the binaries LS I +61 deg 303 and LS 5039 in the first year after its launch in 2008 June. These detections were unambiguous as a consequence of the reduced positional uncertainty and the detection of modulated gamma-ray emission on the corresponding orbital periods. An analysis of new data from the LAT, comprising 30 months of observations, identifies a change in the gamma-ray behavior of LS I +61 deg 303. An increase in flux is detected in 2009 March and a steady decline in the orbital flux modulation is observed. Significant emission up to 30 gigaelectron volts is detected by the LAT; prior data sets led to upper limits only. Contemporaneous terraelectron volt observations no longer detected the source, or found it-in one orbit-close to periastron, far from the phases at which the source previously appeared at terraelectron volt energies. The detailed numerical simulations and models that exist within the literature do not predict or explain many of these features now observed at gigaelectron volt and terraelectron volt energies. New ideas and models are needed to fully explain and understand this behavior. A detailed phase-resolved analysis of the spectral characterization of LS I +61 deg 303 in the gigaelectron volt regime ascribes a power law with an exponential cutoff spectrum along each analyzed portion of the system's orbit. The on-source exposure of LS 5039 is also substantially increased with respect to our prior publication. In this case, whereas the general gamma-ray properties remain consistent, the increased statistics of the current data set allows for a deeper investigation of its orbital and spectral evolution.

  6. LONG-TERM MONITORING OF THE HIGH-ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 AND LS 5039

    SciTech Connect

    Hadasch, D.; Torres, D. F.; Caliandro, G. A.; Tanaka, T.; Hill, A. B.; Dubois, R.; Glanzman, T.; Kerr, M.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Dubus, G.; Li, J.; Chen, Y. P.; Zhang, S.; Richards, J. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A.; Pooley, G.

    2012-04-10

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) reported the first definitive GeV detections of the binaries LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 and LS 5039 in the first year after its launch in 2008 June. These detections were unambiguous as a consequence of the reduced positional uncertainty and the detection of modulated {gamma}-ray emission on the corresponding orbital periods. An analysis of new data from the LAT, comprising 30 months of observations, identifies a change in the {gamma}-ray behavior of LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303. An increase in flux is detected in 2009 March and a steady decline in the orbital flux modulation is observed. Significant emission up to 30 GeV is detected by the LAT; prior data sets led to upper limits only. Contemporaneous TeV observations no longer detected the source, or found it-in one orbit-close to periastron, far from the phases at which the source previously appeared at TeV energies. The detailed numerical simulations and models that exist within the literature do not predict or explain many of these features now observed at GeV and TeV energies. New ideas and models are needed to fully explain and understand this behavior. A detailed phase-resolved analysis of the spectral characterization of LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 in the GeV regime ascribes a power law with an exponential cutoff spectrum along each analyzed portion of the system's orbit. The on-source exposure of LS 5039 is also substantially increased with respect to our prior publication. In this case, whereas the general {gamma}-ray properties remain consistent, the increased statistics of the current data set allows for a deeper investigation of its orbital and spectral evolution.

  7. The gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission. Detection of gamma rays and gamma ray sources, operations using the Space Shuttle, and instruments aboard the GRO, including the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) are among the topics surveyed.

  8. Determination of Fluorine in Fourteen Microanalytical Geologic Reference Materials using SIMS, EPMA, and Proton Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggino, S. N.; Hervig, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    -DING) = 101 ± 1; ML3B-G (MPI-DING) = 49 ± 17. These values are lower than published values for BCR-2 and BHVO-2 (unmelted powders) and the “information values” for the MPI-DING glass standards. Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) was tested for the high silica samples. PIGE analyses (1.7 MeV Tandem Accelerator; reaction type: 19F(p, αγ)16O; primary current = 20-30 nA; incident beam voltage = 1.5 MeV) were calibrated with a crystal of fluor-topaz (F = 20.3 wt%) and gave F values of: NIST 610 = 266 ± 14 ppm; NIST 620 = 54 ± 5 ppm; and UTR-2 = 1432 ± 32 ppm. SIMS calibration defined by the PIGE analyses shows an excellent linear trend with low background similar to the basaltic calibration. The F concentrations of intermediate MPI-DING glasses were determined based on SIMS calibration generated from the PIGE analysis above. The F concentrations and 2σ errors (ppm) are: T1G = 219.9 ± 6.8; StHs/680-G = 278.0 ± 2.0 ppm. This study revealed a large matrix effect between the high-silica and basaltic glasses, thus requiring the use of appropriate standards and separate SIMS calibrations when analyzing samples of different compositions.

  9. Upper limit on the radio emission from the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1833-0832

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Esposito, P.; Israel, G. L.; Rea, N.; Sarkissian, J.; Tiengo, A.; Turolla, R.; Zane, S.; Gotz, D.; Stella, L.; Mereghetti, S.

    2010-03-01

    The soft gamma-ray repeater J1833-0832 has been discovered on 2010 March 19 thanks to the detection of a short burst by Swift (GCN #10526). Prompted by the detection of a radio outburst following the X-ray transient activity of two other magnetars, the anomalous X-ray pulsars XTE J1810-197 and 1E 1547.0-5408 (Camilo et al. 2006, Nature, 442, 892; 2007, ApJ, 666, L93), we observed the source with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope.

  10. THE ROLE OF NEWLY BORN MAGNETARS IN GAMMA-RAY BURST X-RAY AFTERGLOW EMISSION: ENERGY INJECTION AND INTERNAL EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yunwei; Cheng, K. S.; Cao Xiaofeng E-mail: hrspksc@hkucc.hku.h

    2010-05-20

    Swift observations suggest that the central compact objects of some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) could be newly born millisecond magnetars. Therefore, considering the spin evolution of the magnetars against r-mode instability, we investigate the role of magnetars in GRB X-ray afterglow emission. Besides modifying the conventional energy injection model, we pay particular attention to the internal X-ray afterglow emission, whose luminosity is assumed to track the magnetic dipole luminosity of the magnetars with a certain fraction. Following a comparison between the model and some selected observational samples, we suggest that some so-called canonical X-ray afterglows including the shallow decay, normal decay, and steeper-than-normal decay phases could be internally produced by the magnetars (possibly through some internal dissipations of the magnetar winds), while the (energized) external shocks are associated with another type of X-ray afterglows. If this is true, then from those internal X-ray afterglows we can further determine the magnetic field strengths and the initial spin periods of the corresponding magnetars.

  11. Upper limit on the steady emission of the 2.223 MeV neutron capture gamma-ray line from the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, M. J.; Share, G. H.; Beall, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    A search for steady emission of the 2.223 MeV gamma-ray line arising from the direct capture reaction 1H(n, gamma)2H is presented on the basis of an analysis of SMM data. The upper limits for continuous 2.223 MeV gamma-ray line emission from the active and inactive sun, as established in the present work, are about two orders of magnitude less than previously published results. These findings for inactive periods also suggest that small flares (or a continuous acceleration mechanism) are unlikely to be the source of the heating of the quiet solar corona. It is concluded that the power in accelerated nuclei during inactive periods falls short of the coronal heating requirement by about four orders of magnitude unless there is a large and as yet unobserved population of nuclei at energies below 1 MeV. The energy release in other forms associated with the acceleration process falls short of the heating requirement by about two orders of magnitude if this energy release is in the same proportion to the power in accelerated nuclei as is estimated from observed flares.

  12. HESPERIA studies on the nature of high-energy solar gamma-ray events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucca, Pietro; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Share, Gerry; Vilmer, Nicole; Malandraki, Olga; Miteva, Rositsa; Heber, Bernd; Hamadache, Clarisse; Kiener, Juergen; Tatischeff, Vincent; Vainio, Rami

    2016-04-01

    The FERMI/LAT gamma-ray experiment, thanks to its large effective are, observed about 25 solar events with gamma-ray emission above photon energies of 100 MeV. The emission is attributed to pion-decay photons. This implies that the acceleration of protons in the solar corona to energies above 300 MeV is a frequent phenomenon, probably more so than previously thought. In some cases the emission persists over several hours. In the frame of the HESPERIA project, funded by the Horizon 2020 programme of the European Union, we conduct an extensive study on the relationship between these gamma-ray emissions and electromagnetic signatures of accelerated electrons in the corona on the one hand, solar energetic particles (SEPs) detected in space on the other hand. This contribution is to present first results on the sample of 25 gamma-ray events, mainly addressing two subjects: (1) We compare the durations of the gamma-ray emission with the durations of hard X-ray and microwave signatures of electrons in the solar atmosphere, in the attempt to see if long-duration gamma-ray events are accompanied by signatures of long-duration electron acceleration. (2) We show that in each gamma-ray event electrons had rapid access to interplanetary space since the impulsive flare phase. This suggests that particles accelerated during the flare could escape to interplanetary space. We compare the hardness of the proton spectra detected in interplanetary space with the prediction using the properties of the solar microwave bursts. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324.

  13. X-ray and gamma-ray emission of Sagittarius A* as a wind-accreting black hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastichiadis, A.; Ozernoy, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    If, as many believe, Sgr A* is a massive black hole at the Galactic center, one should expect it to be a source of X-ray and gamma-ray activity, behaving basically as a scaled-down active galactic nucleus. An unavoidable source of accretion is the wind from IRS 16, a nearby group of hot, massive stars. Since the density and velocity of the accreting matter are known from observations, the accretion rate is basically a function of the putative black hole mass, M(sub h), only; this value represents a reliable lower limit to a real rate, given the other possible sources of accreting matter. Based on this and on the theories about shock acceleration in active galactic nuclei, we have estimated the expected production of relativistic particles and their hard radiation. These values turn out to be a function of M(sub h) as well. Comparing our results with available X-ray and gamma-ray observations which show Sgr A* to have a relatively low activity level, we conclude tentatively that the putative black hole in the Galactic center cannot have a mass greater than approximately 6 x 10(exp 3) solar mass. This conclusion is consistent with the upper limits to the black hole mass found by different methods earlier, although much more work is needed to make calculations of shock acceleration around black holes more reliable.

  14. Gamma ray emission from spheres pulsed with D-T neutrons: Results of May 1987 experiments at RTNS-1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, E.; Hansen, L.F.; Howerton, R.J.; Komoto, T.T.; Pohl, B.A.

    1987-11-01

    Subsequent to the analysis of the June 1986 series of experiments at RTNS-1, we thought it sensible to repeat some of the experiments with greater care given to the high energy portions of the effluent gamma ray spectra. In addition, some new materials were recommended for study, such as silicon. And since among our earlier experiments we observed data which was not highly reproducible, repeated runs would provide a quantitative assessment of the precision of the experiments. Accordingly, we followed the procedure outlined in UCID-20884. First, we calibrated the NE-213 detector with standard gamma ray sources and checked for linearity of pulse height with energy deposited by electrons. We then conducted experiments at RTNS-1, using spherical configurations of C, Si, Al, H/sub 2/O, N/sub 2/,Ti, Fe, and C/sub 2/F/sub 4/. The H/sub 2/O was contained in a modified glass flask, while the liquid nitrogen was held in a double-walled steel dewar. 25 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. High-energy particle production in solar flares (SEP, gamma-ray and neutron emissions). [solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Electrons and ions, over a wide range of energies, are produced in association with solar flares. Solar energetic particles (SEPs), observed in space and near earth, consist of electrons and ions that range in energy from 10 keV to about 100 MeV and from 1 MeV to 20 GeV, respectively. SEPs are directly recorded by charged particle detectors, while X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron detectors indicate the properties of the accelerated particles (electrons and ions) which have interacted in the solar atmosphere. A major problem of solar physics is to understand the relationship between these two groups of charged particles; in particular whether they are accelerated by the same mechanism. The paper reviews the physics of gamma-rays and neutron production in the solar atmosphere and the method by which properties of the primary charged particles produced in the solar flare can be deduced. Recent observations of energetic photons and neutrons in space and at the earth are used to present a current picture of the properties of impulsively flare accelerated electrons and ions. Some important properties discussed are time scale of production, composition, energy spectra, accelerator geometry. Particular attention is given to energetic particle production in the large flare on June 3, 1982.

  16. The width of gamma-ray burst spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, Magnus; Borgonovo, Luis

    2015-03-01

    The emission processes active in the highly relativistic jets of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remain unknown. In this paper, we propose a new measure to describe spectra: the width of the EFE spectrum, a quantity dependent only on finding a good fit to the data. We apply this to the full sample of GRBs observed by Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Compton Gamma-ray Observatory/Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The results from the two instruments are fully consistent. We find that the median widths of spectra from long and short GRBs are significantly different (chance probability <10-6). The width does not correlate with either duration or hardness, and this is thus a new, independent distinction between the two classes. Comparing the measured spectra with widths of spectra from fundamental emission processes - synchrotron and blackbody radiation - the results indicate that a large fraction of GRB spectra are too narrow to be explained by synchrotron radiation from a distribution of electron energies: for example, 78 per cent of long GRBs and 85 per cent of short GRBs are incompatible with the minimum width of standard slow cooling synchrotron emission from a Maxwellian distribution of electrons, with fast cooling spectra predicting even wider spectra. Photospheric emission can explain the spectra if mechanisms are invoked to give a spectrum much broader than a blackbody.

  17. Theoretical Modelling of the Diffuse Emission of (gamma)-rays From Extreme Regions of Star Formation: The Case of Arp 220

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, D F

    2004-07-09

    Our current understanding of ultraluminous infrared galaxies suggest that they are recent galaxy mergers in which much of the gas in the former spiral disks, particularly that located at distances less than 5 kpc from each of the pre-merger nuclei, has fallen into a common center, triggering a huge starburst phenomenon. This large nuclear concentration of molecular gas has been detected by many groups, and estimates of molecular mass and density have been made. Not surprisingly, these estimates were found to be orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding values found in our Galaxy. In this paper, a self-consistent model of the high energy emission of the super-starburst galaxy Arp 220 is presented. The model also provides an estimate of the radio emission from each of the components of the central region of the galaxy (western and eastern extreme starbursts, and molecular disk). The predicted radio spectrum is found as a result of the synchrotron and free-free emission, and absorption, of the primary and secondary steady population of electrons and positrons. The latter is output of charged pion decay and knock-on leptonic production, subject to a full set of losses in the interstellar medium. The resulting radio spectrum is in agreement with sub-arcsec radio observations, what allows to estimate the magnetic field. In addition, the FIR emission is modeled with dust emissivity, and the computed FIR photon density is used as a target for inverse Compton process as well as to give account of losses in the {gamma}-ray scape. Bremsstrahlung emission and neutral pion decay are also computed, and the {gamma}-ray spectrum is finally predicted. Future possible observations with GLAST, and the ground based Cherenkov telescopes are discussed.

  18. Gamma-ray constraints on supernova nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual supernova explosions via short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring current global Galactic supernova nucleosynthesis with longer-lived radioactivity. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both Co-56 and Co-57 were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions and nucleosynthesis. Live Al-26 in the Galaxy might come from Type II supernovae, and if it is eventually shown to be so, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, and the Galactic Type II supernova rate. Type Ia supernovae, thought to be thermonuclear explosions, have not yet been detected in gamma-rays. This is somewhat surprising given current models and recent Co-56 detection attempts. Ultimately, gamma-ray measurements can confirm their thermonuclear nature, probe the nuclear burning conditions, and help evaluate their contributions to Galactic nucleosynthesis. Type Ib/c supernovae are poorly understood. Whether they are core collapse or thermonuclear events might be ultimately settled by gamma-ray observations. Depending on details of the nuclear processing, any of these supernova types might contribute to a detectable diffuse glow of Fe-60 gamma-ray lines. Previous attempts at detection have come very close to expected emission levels. Remnants of any type of age less that a few centuries might be detectable as individual spots of Ti-44 gamma-ray line emission. It is in fact quite surprising that previous surveys have not discovered such spots, and the constraints on the combination of nucleosynthesis yields and supernova rates are very interesting. All of these interesting limits and possibilities mean that the next mission, International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), if it has sufficient sensitivity, is very likely to lead to the realization of much of the great potential

  19. Gamma ray camera

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1997-01-21

    A gamma ray camera is disclosed for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array. 6 figs.

  20. Gamma ray camera

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1997-01-01

    A gamma ray camera for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array.

  1. Comparative effects of 60Co gamma-rays and neon and helium ions on cycle duration and division probability of EMT 6 cells. A time-lapse cinematography study.

    PubMed

    Collyn-d'Hooghe, M; Hemon, D; Gilet, R; Curtis, S B; Valleron, A J; Malaise, E P

    1981-03-01

    Exponentially growing cultures of EMT 6 cells were irradiated in vitro with neon ions, helium ions or 60Co gamma-rays. Time-lapse cinematography allowed the determination, for individual cells, of cycle duration, success of the mitotic division and the age of the cell at the moment of irradiation. Irradiation induced a significant mitotic delay increasing proportionally with the delivered dose. Using mitotic delay as an endpoint, the r.b.e. for neon ions with respect to 60Co gamma-rays was 3.3 +/- 0.2 while for helium ions it was 1.2 +/- 0.1. Mitotic delay was greatest in those cells that had progressed furthest in their cycle at the time of irradiation. No significant mitotic delay was observed in the post-irradiation generation. Division probability was significantly reduced by irradiation both in the irradiated and in the post-irradiated generation. The reduction in division probability obtained with 3 Gy of neon ions was similar to that obtained after irradiation with 6 Gy of helium ions or 60Co gamma-rays.

  2. The Structure and Emission Model of the Relativistic Jet in the Quasar 3C 279 Inferred From Radio To High-Energy Gamma-Ray Observations in 2008-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    We present time-resolved broad-band observations of the quasar 3C 279 obtained from multiwavelength campaigns conducted during the first two years of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. While investigating the previously reported gamma-ray/optical flare accompanied by a change in optical polarization, we found that the optical emission appears delayed with respect to the gamma-ray emission by about 10 days. X-ray observations reveal a pair of 'isolated' flares separated. by approx. 90 days, with only weak gamma-ray/optical counterparts. The spectral structure measured by Spitzer reveals a synchrotron component peaking in the mid-infrared band with a sharp break at the far-infrared band during the gamma-ray flare, while the peak appears in the mm/sub-mm band in the low state. Selected spectral energy distributions are fitted with leptonic models including Comptonization of external radiation produced in a dusty torus or the broad-line region. Adopting the interpretation of the polarization swing involving propagation of the emitting region along a curved trajectory, we can explain the evolution of the broad-band spectra during the gamma-ray flaring event by a shift of its location from approx. 1 pc to approx. 4 pc from the central black hole. On the other hand, if the gamma-ray flare is generated instead at sub-pc distance from the central black hole, the far-infrared break can be explained by synchrotron self-absorption. We also model the low spectral state, dominated by the mm/sub-mm peaking synchrotron component, and suggest that the corresponding inverse-Compton component explains the steady X-ray emission.

  3. THE STRUCTURE AND EMISSION MODEL OF THE RELATIVISTIC JET IN THE QUASAR 3C 279 INFERRED FROM RADIO TO HIGH-ENERGY {gamma}-RAY OBSERVATIONS IN 2008-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, M.; Madejski, G. M.; Chiang, J.; Blandford, R. D.; Buehler, R.; Sikora, M.; Wehrle, A. E.; Ogle, P.; Collmar, W.; Larsson, S.; Fukazawa, Y.; Itoh, R.; Stawarz, L.; Richards, J. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ciprini, S.; Gehrels, N. E-mail: madejski@slac.stanford.edu E-mail: sikora@camk.edu.pl; and others

    2012-08-01

    We present time-resolved broadband observations of the quasar 3C 279 obtained from multi-wavelength campaigns conducted during the first two years of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. While investigating the previously reported {gamma}-ray/optical flare accompanied by a change in optical polarization, we found that the optical emission appears to be delayed with respect to the {gamma}-ray emission by about 10 days. X-ray observations reveal a pair of 'isolated' flares separated by {approx}90 days, with only weak {gamma}-ray/optical counterparts. The spectral structure measured by Spitzer reveals a synchrotron component peaking in the mid-infrared band with a sharp break at the far-infrared band during the {gamma}-ray flare, while the peak appears in the millimeter (mm)/submillimeter (sub-mm) band in the low state. Selected spectral energy distributions are fitted with leptonic models including Comptonization of external radiation produced in a dusty torus or the broad-line region. Adopting the interpretation of the polarization swing involving propagation of the emitting region along a curved trajectory, we can explain the evolution of the broadband spectra during the {gamma}-ray flaring event by a shift of its location from {approx}1 pc to {approx}4 pc from the central black hole. On the other hand, if the {gamma}-ray flare is generated instead at sub-pc distance from the central black hole, the far-infrared break can be explained by synchrotron self-absorption. We also model the low spectral state, dominated by the mm/sub-mm peaking synchrotron component, and suggest that the corresponding inverse-Compton component explains the steady X-ray emission.

  4. The second fermi large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgay, M.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hessels, J.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Janssen, G. H.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Pletsch, H. J.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renault, N.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Roy, J.; Ruan, J.; Sartori, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2013-09-19

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  5. The Second Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgay, M.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hessels, J.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Janssen, G. H.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Pletsch, H. J.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renault, N.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Roy, J.; Ruan, J.; Sartori, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2013-10-01

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence >=0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  6. THE SECOND FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CATALOG OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; and others

    2013-10-01

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  7. The second FERMI large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgay, M.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hessels, J.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Janssen, G. H.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Pletsch, H. J.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renault, N.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Roy, J.; Ruan, J.; Sartori, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2013-09-19

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  8. Development of particle induced gamma-ray emission methods for nondestructive determination of isotopic composition of boron and its total concentration in natural and enriched samples.

    PubMed

    Chhillar, Sumit; Acharya, Raghunath; Sodaye, Suparna; Pujari, Pradeep K

    2014-11-18

    We report simple particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) methods using a 4 MeV proton beam for simultaneous and nondestructive determination of the isotopic composition of boron ((10)B/(11)B atom ratio) and total boron concentrations in various solid samples with natural isotopic composition and enriched with (10)B. It involves measurement of prompt gamma-rays at 429, 718, and 2125 keV from (10)B(p,αγ)(7)Be, (10)B(p, p'γ)(10)B, and (11)B(p, p'γ)(11)B reactions, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in natural and enriched samples was determined by comparing peak area ratios corresponding to (10)B and (11)B of samples to natural boric acid standard. An in situ current normalized PIGE method, using F or Al, was standardized for total B concentration determination. The methods were validated by analyzing stoichiometric boron compounds and applied to samples such as boron carbide, boric acid, carborane, and borosilicate glass. Isotopic compositions of boron in the range of 0.247-2.0 corresponding to (10)B in the range of 19.8-67.0 atom % and total B concentrations in the range of 5-78 wt % were determined. It has been demonstrated that PIGE offers a simple and alternate method for total boron as well as isotopic composition determination in boron based solid samples, including neutron absorbers that are important in nuclear technology.

  9. High-precision gamma-ray spectroscopy of 82Rb and 72As, two important medical isotopes used in positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nino, Michael; McCutchan, E.; Smith, S.; Sonzogni, A.; Muench, L.; Greene, J.; Carpenter, M.; Zhu, S.; Lister, C.

    2015-10-01

    Both 82Rb and 72As are very important medical isotopes used in imaging procedures, yet their full decay schemes were last studied decades ago using low-sensitivity detection systems; high quality decay data is necessary to determine the total dose received by the patient, the background in imaging technologies, and shielding requirements in production facilities. To improve the decay data of these two isotopes, sources were produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) and then the Gammasphere array, consisting of 89 Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors, at Argonne National Laboratory was used to analyze the gamma-ray emissions from the daughter nuclei 82 Kr and 72 Ge. Gamma-ray singles and coincidence information were recorded and analyzed using Radware Gf3m software. Significant revisions were made to the level schemes including the observation of many new transitions and levels as well as a reduction in uncertainty on measured γ-ray intensities and deduced β-feedings. The new decay schemes as well as their impact on dose calculations will be presented. DOE Isotope Program is acknowledged for funding ST5001030. Work supported by the U.S. DOE under Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contract Nos. DE-AC02-98CH10946 and DE-AC02-06CH11357 and by the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  10. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission in the W 28 (G6.4-0.1) Region and Multiwavelength Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Rowell, G.; Brion, E.; Reimer, O.; Moriguchi, Y.; Fukui, Yasuo; Djannati-Atai, A.; Funk, S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-10-29

    H.E.S.S. observations of the old-age (>10{sup 4} yr; {approx} 0.5 degree diameter) composite supernova remnant (SNR)W28 reveal very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray emission situated at its northeastern and southern boundaries. The northeastern VHE source (HESS J1801-233) is in an area where W 28 is interacting with a dense molecular cloud, containing OH masers, local radio and X-ray peaks. The southern VHE sources (HESS J1800-240 with components labeled A, B and C) are found in a region occupied by several HII regions, including the ultracompact HII region W 28A2. Our analysis of NANTEN CO data reveals a dense molecular cloud enveloping this southern region, and our reanalysis of EGRET data reveals MeV/GeV emission centered on HESS J1801-233 and the northeastern interaction region.

  11. Radio and gamma ray evidence for a molecular-arm feature at 5 kpc from the galactic centre. [observing galactic longitude of CO emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, P. M.; Stecker, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    Recent measurements of the galactic CO distribution as evidenced from 2.6 mm radio observations of the CO emission line intensity are correlated with the SAS-2 measurements of galactic gamma ray emission. Both distributions are indicative of a ring-shaped distribution or arm consisting of cool clouds of molecular hydrogen at a galactocentric distance of approximately 5 kpc. The mean density of H2 in this region is estimated to be between 1 and 5 cu cm. Both a galactic and extra-galactic origin of cosmic rays are consistent with the observations, although the presence of dynamical effects and increased star formation at 5 kpc in the dense molecular clouds may be connected with an increase in cosmic-ray production.

  12. Search for gamma-ray emission from dark matter annihilation in the large magellanic cloud with the fermi large area telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Charles, Eric; Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Martin, Pierrick; Zhao, Geng

    2015-05-01

    At a distance of 50 kpc and with a dark matter mass of ˜1 010 M⊙ , the large magellanic cloud (LMC) is a natural target for indirect dark matter searches. We use five years of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and updated models of the gamma-ray emission from standard astrophysical components to search for a dark matter annihilation signal from the LMC. We perform a rotation curve analysis to determine the dark matter distribution, setting a robust minimum on the amount of dark matter in the LMC, which we use to set conservative bounds on the annihilation cross section. The LMC emission is generally very well described by the standard astrophysical sources, with at most a 1 - 2 σ excess identified near the kinematic center of the LMC once systematic uncertainties are taken into account. We place competitive bounds on the dark matter annihilation cross section as a function of dark matter particle mass and annihilation channel.

  13. Performance of A Compact Multi-crystal High-purity Germanium Detector Array for Measuring Coincident Gamma-ray Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Chris; Daigle, Stephen; Buckner, Matt; Erikson, Luke E.; Runkle, Robert C.; Stave, Sean C.; Champagne, Art; Cooper, Andrew; Downen, Lori; Glasgow, Brian D.; Kelly, Keegan; Sallaska, Anne

    2015-02-18

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a 14-crystal array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in a single cryostat. The array was used to measure the astrophysical S-factor for the 14N(p,γ)15O* reaction for several transition energies at an effective center of mass energy of 163 keV. Owing to the segmented nature of the MARS detector, the effect of gamma-ray summing was greatly reduced in comparison to past experiments which utilized large, single-crystal detectors. The new S-factor values agree within the uncertainties with the past measurements. Details of the analysis and detector performance will be presented.

  14. A SEARCH FOR ENHANCED VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE 2013 MARCH CRAB NEBULA FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S. E-mail: gtrichards@gatech.edu; and others

    2014-01-20

    In 2013 March, a flaring episode from the Crab Nebula lasting ∼2 weeks was detected by Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope). The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) provides simultaneous observations throughout this period. During the flare, Fermi-LAT detected a 20 fold increase in flux above the average synchrotron flux >100 MeV seen from the Crab Nebula. Simultaneous measurements with VERITAS are consistent with the non-variable long-term average Crab Nebula flux at TeV energies. Assuming a linear correlation between the very high energy flux change >1 TeV and the flux change seen in the Fermi-LAT band >100 MeV during the period of simultaneous observations, the linear correlation factor can be constrained to be at most 8.6 × 10{sup –3} with 95% confidence.

  15. Did A Galactic Gamma-Ray Burst Kill the Dinosaurs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    1997-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts now appear to be primarily of extragalactic origin. Statistically, assuming isotropic emission, the observed event rates and fluxes imply that one event occurs per 10(4) \\ - 10(6) \\ years per galaxy, with about 10(51) \\ - 10(53) \\ ergs in gamma-rays emitted per event. Unless the Milky Way is unusual, a gamma-ray burst should occur within 10(2) \\ - 10(3) \\ pc of the Sun in a time span of order 10(8) \\ years. Independent of the underlying cause of the event, it would irradiate the solar system with a brief flash of MeV gamma-rays with a fluence as large as 10(9) - 10(11) \\ erg cm(-2) . What is the effect of such an event on the Earth and objects nearby? Ruderman (\\underbar{Science}, 184, 1079, 1974) and subsequent authors have considered a number of effects of a flash of gamma-rays from a nearby supernova explosion on the Earth's atmosphere, and on its biota. However, with regard to the demise of the dinosaurs, it appears that there was a marked increase in the deposition rate of the rare earth iridium coincident with their extinction. For this reason, an asteroid-Earth impact has been considered the leading contender for the death of the dinosaurs. Here we consider a new mechanism for mass biological extinctions, caused by small comets nudged into the inner solar system by nearby gamma-ray bursts. If comets populate the Oort cloud with a wide distribution of masses, radii and orbital eccentricities, we find that small (< 1 km), low density (10(-2) \\ gm cm(-3) ) objects in highly eccentric orbits can be injected into the inner solar system by a nearby gamma-ray burst. For a relatively brief period of time, the near Earth comet population would increase dramatically. The consequent increased probability of comet-Earth impacts of appropriate energy and material content could account for many of the characteristics of the Cretaceous-Tertiary or other terrestrial mass biological extinctions.

  16. Relativistic feedback models of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and gamma-ray glows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Relativistic feedback discharges, also known as dark lightning, are capable of explaining many of the observed properties of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) and gamma-ray glows, both created within thunderstorms. During relativistic feedback discharges, the generation of energetic electrons is self-sustained via the production of backward propagating positrons and back-scattered x-rays, resulting in very larges fluxes of energetic radiation. In addition, ionization produces large electric currents that generate LF/VLF radio emissions and eventually discharge the electric field, terminating the gamma-ray production. In this presentation, new relativistic feedback model results will be presented and compared to recent observations.

  17. Fermi gamma-ray imaging of a radio galaxy.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colafrancesco, S; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Davis, D S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Finke, J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Georganopoulos, M; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sambruna, R; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Stawarz, Ł; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wallace, E; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M; Hardcastle, M J; Kazanas, D

    2010-05-07

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected the gamma-ray glow emanating from the giant radio lobes of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The resolved gamma-ray image shows the lobes clearly separated from the central active source. In contrast to all other active galaxies detected so far in high-energy gamma-rays, the lobe flux constitutes a considerable portion (greater than one-half) of the total source emission. The gamma-ray emission from the lobes is interpreted as inverse Compton-scattered relic radiation from the cosmic microwave background, with additional contribution at higher energies from the infrared-to-optical extragalactic background light. These measurements provide gamma-ray constraints on the magnetic field and particle energy content in radio galaxy lobes, as well as a promising method to probe the cosmic relic photon fields.

  18. SAS-2 galactic gamma ray results. 2. Localized sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma-ray emission was detected from the radio pulsars PSR1818-04 and PSR1747-46, in addition to the previously reported gamma-ray emission from the Crab and Vela pulsars. Since the Crab pulsar is the only one observed in the optical and X-ray bands, these gamma-ray observations suggest a uniquely gamma-ray phenomenon occurring in a fraction of the radio pulsars. Using distance estimates it is found that PSR1818-04 has a gamma-ray luminosity comparable to that of the Crab pulsar, while the luminosities of PSR1747-46 and the Vela pulsar are approximately an order of magnitude lower. This survey of SAS-2 data for pulsar correlations has also yielded upper limits to gamma-ray luminosity for 71 other radio pulsars.

  19. Celestial gamma ray study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the research activities performed by Stanford University investigators as part of the data reduction effort and overall support of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Observatory. This report is arranged chronologically, with each subsection detailing activities during roughly a one year period of time, beginning in June 1991.

  20. Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The project has progressed successfully during this period of performance. The highlights of the Gamma Ray Astronomy teams efforts are: (1) Support daily BATSE data operations, including receipt, archival and dissemination of data, quick-look science analysis, rapid gamma-ray burst and transient monitoring and response efforts, instrument state-of-health monitoring, and instrument commanding and configuration; (2) On-going scientific analysis, including production and maintenance of gamma-ray burst, pulsed source and occultation source catalogs, gamma-ray burst spectroscopy, studies of the properties of pulsars and black holes, and long-term monitoring of hard x-ray sources; (3) Maintenance and continuous improvement of BATSE instrument response and calibration data bases; (4) Investigation of the use of solid state detectors for eventual application and instrument to perform all sky monitoring of X-Ray and Gamma sources with high sensitivity; and (5) Support of BATSE outreach activities, including seminars, colloquia and World Wide Web pages. The highlights of this efforts can be summarized in the publications and presentation list.

  1. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1991-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the development of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory and to collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from the MSFC Very Low Frequency transient monitoring program were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  2. Gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1992-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to mission operations and data analysis for the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Gamma Ray Observatory, to collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from the Marshall Space Flight Center Very Low Frequency transient monitoring program, and to compilation and analysis of induced radioactivity data were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  3. Observational Signatures of High-Energy Emission during the Shallow Decay Phase of Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. W.; Liu, X. W.; Dai, Z. G.

    2007-12-01

    The widely existing shallow decay phase of the X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is generally accepted to be due to long-lasting energy injection. The outflows carrying the injecting energy, based on the component that is dominant in energy, fall into two possible types: baryon-dominated and lepton-dominated ones. The former type of outflow could be ejecta that is ejected during the prompt phase of a GRB and consists of a series of baryonic shells with a distribution of Lorentz factors, and the latter type could be an electron-positron pair wind that is driven by the postburst central engine. We here provide a unified description for the dynamics of fireballs based on these two types of energy injection and calculate the corresponding high-energy photon emission by considering synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering (including synchrotron self-Compton and combined inverse Compton) of electrons. We find that, in the two energy-injection models, there is a plateau (even a hump) in high-energy light curves during the X-ray shallow decay phase. In particular, a considerable fraction of the injecting energy in the lepton-dominated model can be shared by the long-lasting reverse shock since it is relativistic. Furthermore, almost all of the energy of the reverse shock is carried by leptons, and thus, the inverse Compton emission is enhanced dramatically. Therefore, this model predicts more significant high-energy afterglow emission than the baryon-dominated model. We argue that these observational signatures would be used to discriminate between different energy-injection models in the upcoming Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) era.

  4. A review of recent results in gamma-ray astronomy obtained from high-altitude balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews recent results in gamma-ray astronomy obtained from experiments flown on high-altitude balloons. New generation balloon-borne imaging experiments have produced the first gamma-ray maps of the Galactic center (GC) region. Balloon flights of new gamma-ray spectrometers with improved sensitivity have provided important new information on the GC annihilation line. For the first time, the narrow 511 keV line as been resolved (FWHM approx. = 3 keV). A very interesting spectral feature at approximately 170 keV has been attributed to backscattered annihilation, probably from the vicinity of a compact object. New results from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO)/OSSE and Granat/SIGMA experiments on the annihilation line, when considered together with the recent balloon results, have added greatly to our knowledge and understanding of the origin and distribution of this emission. Balloon-borne instruments have made important measurements of gamma-ray continuum and line emission from SN 1987A. The GRIS spectrometer unambiguously resolved the 847 and 1238 keV line emission from radioactive Co-56 synthesized during the explosion. This data indicated that simple spherically symmetric and homogeneous models did not provide an adequate description of the expanding SN shell.

  5. Terrestrial gamma ray flashes from electron avalanches in thunderstorms - the detailed structure and time evolution of electron, photon, optical and radio emission - results from a new simulation software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    To design the MXGS coded mask imager of the ASIM mission to the ISS, to detect and locate TGF gamma-rays, a first order software package was written at UV to simulate the vertical expansion of gamma-ray photons from 15-20 km altitudes up to 300-600 km orbital altitudes, to make some estimate of the probable TGF spectra and diffuse beam structure that might be observed by MXGS. A new software package includes the simulation of the Runaway Electron Avalanche (REA) origin of TGFs by electron ionization and Bremsstrahlung scattering and photon emission. It uses the standard KeV-MeV scattering physics of electron and photon interactions, close range Moller electron ionization, Binary-Electron-Bethe models of electron scattering, positron Bhabha scattering and annihilation, electron excitation and photon emission. It also uses a super particle spatial mesh system to control particle-momentum flux densities, electric field evolution and exponential avalanche growth and falloff. The package takes care of all high energy scattering physics, leaving the user free to concentrate on defining the three components of scattering medium, electric-magnetic field geometry, and free electron flux field geometry whose details are the main unknown in TGF research. Results will be presented from TGF simulations using realistic electric fields expected within and above storm clouds, and will include video displays showing the evolving ionization structure of electron trajectories, the time evolution of photon flux fields, electron-positron flux fields, their important circular feedback movement in the local earth magnetic field, local molecular ion densities, and the dielectric effect of induced local electric fields. The second aim of the package is as a step in creating open source software which could evolve into a standard research software package approved by the REA-TGF research community to correctly simulate all the relevant physical processes involved in the complex phenomenon

  6. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash

    2001-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Gamma-ray burst-supernova relation B. Paczynski; Observations of gamma-ray bursts G. Fishman; Fireballs T. Piran; Gamma-ray mechanisms M. Rees; Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts R. Kehoe, C. Akerlof, R. Balsano, S. Barthelmy, J. Bloch, P. Butterworth, D. Casperson, T. Cline, S. Fletcher, F. Frontera, G. Gisler, J. Heise, J. Hills, K. Hurley, B. Lee, S. Marshall, T. McKay, A. Pawl, L. Piro, B. Priedhorsky, J. Szymanski and J. Wren; X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts L. Piro; The first year of optical-IR observations of SN1998bw I. Danziger, T. Augusteijn, J. Brewer, E. Cappellaro, V. Doublier, T. Galama, J. Gonzalez, O. Hainaut, B. Leibundgut, C. Lidman, P. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, J. Spyromilio, M. Turatto, J. Van Paradijs, P. Vreeswijk and J. Walsh; X-ray emission of Supernova 1998bw in the error box of GRB980425 E. Pian; Direct analysis of spectra of type Ic supernovae D. Branch; The interaction of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with their surroundings R. Chevalier; Magnetars, soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts A. Harding; Super-luminous supernova remnants Y. -H. Chu, C. -H. Chen and S. -P. Lai; The properties of hypernovae: SNe Ic 1998bw, 1997ef, and SN IIn 1997cy K. Nomoto, P. Mazzali, T. Nakamura, K. Iwanmoto, K. Maeda, T. Suzuki, M. Turatto, I. Danziger and F. Patat; Collapsars, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernovae S. Woosley, A. MacFadyen and A. Heger; Pre-supernova evolution of massive stars N. Panagia and G. Bono; Radio supernovae and GRB 980425 K. Weiler, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, S. Van Dyk, M. Montes and C. Lacey; Models for Ia supernovae and evolutionary effects P. Hoflich and I. Dominguez; Deflagration to detonation A. Khokhlov; Universality in SN Iae and the Phillips relation D. Arnett; Abundances from supernovae F. -K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, K. Iwamoto, T. Nakamura, K. Nomoto, H. Umeda, K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo, D. Dean, W. Hix and M. Strayer; Sne, GRBs, and the

  7. Cosmic rays, gamma rays and synchrotron radiation from the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, Elena

    2012-07-30

    Galactic cosmic rays (CR), interstellar gamma-ray emission and synchrotron radiation are related topics. CR electrons propagate in the Galaxy and interact with the interstellar medium, producing inverse-Compton emission measured in gamma rays and synchrotron emission measured in radio. I present an overview of the latest results with Fermi/LAT on the gamma-ray diffuse emission induced by CR nuclei and electrons. Then I focus on the recent complementary studies of the synchrotron emission in the light of the latest gamma-ray results. Relevant observables include spectral indices and their variations, using surveys over a wide range of radio frequencies. As a result, this paper emphasizes the importance of using the parallel study of gamma rays and synchrotron radiation in order to constrain the low-energy interstellar CR electron spectrum, models of propagation of CRs, and magnetic fields.

  8. Cosmic rays, gamma rays and synchrotron radiation from the Galaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Orlando, Elena

    2012-07-30

    Galactic cosmic rays (CR), interstellar gamma-ray emission and synchrotron radiation are related topics. CR electrons propagate in the Galaxy and interact with the interstellar medium, producing inverse-Compton emission measured in gamma rays and synchrotron emission measured in radio. I present an overview of the latest results with Fermi/LAT on the gamma-ray diffuse emission induced by CR nuclei and electrons. Then I focus on the recent complementary studies of the synchrotron emission in the light of the latest gamma-ray results. Relevant observables include spectral indices and their variations, using surveys over a wide range of radio frequencies. As a result, thismore » paper emphasizes the importance of using the parallel study of gamma rays and synchrotron radiation in order to constrain the low-energy interstellar CR electron spectrum, models of propagation of CRs, and magnetic fields.« less

  9. Gamma ray line observations with OSSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurfess, J. D.; Grove, J. E.; Johnson, W. N.; Murphy, R. J.; Share, G. H.; Purcell, W. R.; Leising, M. D.; Harris, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    Observations from the oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment of the gamma ray lines originating from a variety of Galactic center sources are reviewed. Extensive observations were acquired of the Galactic center region, including the 0.511 MeV positron annihilation line and associated positronium continuum and Al-26 emission. The results reviewed include: Co-57 from SN 1987A; limits on Co-56 from SN 1991T; gamma ray lines from solar flares; searches for Ti-44 emission from Cas A, and searches for C-12 and O-16 lines from the Orion region.

  10. Toward a Unified Model for the Broadband Prompt Emission of Gamma Ray Bursts & a New Luminosity-Hardness Relation for Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiriec, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    We suggest here to replace the historical spectral model (Band function) for the Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) prompt emission (keV-MeV energy regime) with a new one. We show that the complex GRB spectral shapes are well described with a combination of three separate components: (i) a thermal-like component that we interpret as emission from a non-dissipative GRB jet photosphere, (ii) a non-thermal component that we interpret either as synchrotron radiation from charged particles propagating and accelerated within the GRB jet or as a dissipative photosphere, and (iii) a second non-thermal component that is not always present or detectable and which extends from optical up to hard gamma-rays. The smooth evolution of all three components during the burst duration reinforces the validity of this new model. Detailed studies of the evolution of these components provide insights on the nature and composition of GRB jets as well as on their magnetic fields. Moreover, this new model enables a new luminosity-hardness relation based on the first non-thermal component that may establish GRBs as standard candles. If statistically confirmed, this relation will be used to (i) constrain the mechanisms powering GRB jets, (ii) estimate GRB distances, (iii) probe the early Universe, and (iv) constrain the cosmological parameters in complement to the Type Ia SNe sample. I will present this new model using analysis of GRBs detected with various observatories and instruments such as Fermi, CGRO/BATSE and more recently Swift. I will discuss here the striking similarities of GRB spectral shapes as well as the possible universality of the proposed luminosity-hardness relation in the context of the new model.

  11. Gamma-ray Pulsars: Models and Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding Alice K.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed emission from gamma-ray pulsars originates inside the magnetosphere, from radiation by charged particles accelerated near the magnetic poles or in the outer gaps. In polar cap models, the high energy spectrum is cut off by magnetic pair production above an energy that is, dependent on the local magnetic field strength. While most young pulsars with surface fields in the range B = 10(exp 12) - 10(exp 13) G are expected to have high energy cutoffs around several GeV, the gamma-ray spectra of old pulsars having lower surface fields may extend to 50 GeV. Although the gamma-ray emission of older pulsars is weaker, detecting pulsed emission at high energies from nearby sources would be an important confirmation of polar cap models. Outer gap models predict more gradual high-energy turnovers of the primary curvature emission around 10 GeV, but also predict an inverse Compton component extending to TeV energies. Detection of pulsed TeV emission, which would not survive attenuation at the polar caps, is thus an important test of outer gap models. Next-generation gamma-ray telescopes sensitive to GeV-TeV emission will provide critical tests of pulsar acceleration and emission mechanisms.

  12. STEPWISE FILTER CORRELATION METHOD AND EVIDENCE OF SUPERPOSED VARIABILITY COMPONENTS IN GAMMA-RAY BURST PROMPT EMISSION LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Gao He; Zhang Binbin; Zhang Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.univ.edu

    2012-04-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have variable light curves. Although most models attribute the observed variability to one physical origin (e.g., central engine activity, clumpy circumburst medium, or relativistic turbulence), some models invoke two physically distinct variability components. We develop a method, namely, the stepwise filter correlation method, to decompose the variability components in a GRB light curve. Based on a low-pass filter technique, we progressively filter the high-frequency signals from the light curve, and then perform a correlation analysis between each adjunct pair of filtered light curves. Our simulations suggest that if a mock light curve contains a 'slow' variability component superposed on a rapidly varying time sequence, the correlation coefficient as a function of the filter frequency would display a prominent 'dip' feature around the frequency of the slow component. Through simulations, we demonstrate that this method can identify significant clustering structures of a light curve in the frequency domain, and we prove that it can catch superposed signals that are otherwise not easy to retrieve based on other methods (e.g., the power density spectrum analysis method). We apply this method to 266 Burst and Transient Source Experiment bright GRBs. We find that the majority of the bursts have clear evidence of such a superposition effect. We perform a statistical analysis of the identified variability components and discuss the implications for GRB physics.

  13. THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE RADIO JET AND THE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION IN THE RADIO GALAXY 3C 120

    SciTech Connect

    Casadio, Carolina; Gómez, José L.; Grandi, Paola; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Lister, Matthew L.; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Pushkarev, Alexander B.

    2015-08-01

    We present the analysis of the radio jet evolution of the radio galaxy 3C 120 during a period of prolonged γ-ray activity detected by the Fermi satellite between 2012 December and 2014 October. We find a clear connection between the γ-ray and radio emission, such that every period of γ-ray activity is accompanied by the flaring of the millimeter very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) core and subsequent ejection of a new superluminal component. However, not all ejections of components are associated with γ-ray events detectable by Fermi. Clear γ-ray detections are obtained only when components are moving in a direction closer to our line of sight. This suggests that the observed γ-ray emission depends not only on the interaction of moving components with the millimeter VLBI core, but also on their orientation with respect to the observer. Timing of the γ-ray detections and ejection of superluminal components locate the γ-ray production to within ∼0.13 pc from the millimeter VLBI core, which was previously estimated to lie about 0.24 pc from the central black hole. This corresponds to about twice the estimated extension of the broad line region, limiting the external photon field and therefore suggesting synchrotron self Compton as the most probable mechanism for the production of the γ-ray emission. Alternatively, the interaction of components with the jet sheath can provide the necessary photon field to produced the observed γ-rays by Compton scattering.

  14. 209Tl half-life and gamma-ray measurements of radionuclides belonging to the (4 n + 1) decay chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardisson, G.; Barci, V.; El Samad, O.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectra of radiochemically separated 221Fr, 213Bi and 209Tl sources were measured using coaxial and planar HPGe detectors. The energies and emission probabilities of eight new gamma-ray transitions were observed in the decay of 209Tl; a half-life of (2.161±0.007) min was measured. Twenty-two gamma-rays have been attributed to the β-decay of 213Bi, of which 17 are new with respect to previous studies. The 213Po level scheme was determined using γ-γ coincidence measurements: eight excited states are proposed of which six are new. Preliminary measurements of the α-decay of 221Fr revealed the existence of 18 gamma-ray transitions of which eight are reported for the first time.

  15. LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hirotani, Kouichi

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the electrodynamic structure of a pulsar outer-magnetospheric particle accelerator and the resulting gamma-ray emission. By considering the condition for the accelerator to be self-sustained, we derive how the trans-magnetic-field thickness of the accelerator evolves with the pulsar age. It is found that the thickness is small but increases steadily if the neutron-star envelope is contaminated by sufficient light elements. For such a light element envelope, the gamma-ray luminosity of the accelerator is kept approximately constant as a function of age in the initial 10,000 yr, forming the lower bound of the observed distribution of the gamma-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars. If the envelope consists of only heavy elements, on the other hand, the thickness is greater, but it increases less rapidly than a light element envelope. For such a heavy element envelope, the gamma-ray luminosity decreases relatively rapidly, forming the upper bound of the observed distribution. The gamma-ray luminosity of a general pulsar resides between these two extreme cases, reflecting the envelope composition and the magnetic inclination angle with respect to the rotation axis. The cutoff energy of the primary curvature emission is regulated below several GeV even for young pulsars because the gap thickness, and hence the acceleration electric field, is suppressed by the polarization of the produced pairs.

  16. Using Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations to Constrain the Emission and Field Geometries of Young Gamma-ray Pulsars and to Guide Millisecond Pulsar Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCesar, Megan Elizabeth

    This thesis has two parts, the first focusing on analysis and modeling of high-energy pulsar emission and the second on pulsar observations. In part 1, I constrain the magnetospheric emission geometry (magnetic inclination alpha, emission width w, maximum emission radius r, and observer colatitude zeta) by modeling >100 MeV light curves of four bright gamma-ray pulsars with geometrical representations of the slot gap and outer gap emission models. I also model the >100 MeV phase resolved spectra, measuring the power law cutoff energy Ec with phase. Assuming curvature radiation reaction (CRR) is the dominant emission process, I use Ec to compute the accelerating electric field strength, E||. The original contributions of this thesis to astrophysical research are the use of the force-free magnetic field solution in light curve modeling, the inclusion of an offset polar cap in the slot gap geometry, and the calculation of E|| from observationally determined quantities (i.e., Ec). The simulations reproduce observed light curve features and accurately match multi-wavelength zeta measurements, but the specific combination of best-fit emission and field geometry varies between pulsars. Perhaps pulsar magnetospheres contain some combination of slot gap and outer gap geometries, whose contributions to the light curve depend on viewing angle. The requirement that, locally, E||/B < 1 rules out the vacuum field as a valid approximation to the true pulsar field under the CRR assumption. The E|| values imply that the youngest, most energetic pulsar has a near-force-free field, and that CRR and/or narrow acceleration gaps may not be applicable to older pulsars. In part 2, I present discoveries of two radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) from LAT-guided pulsar searches. I timed the first MSP, resulting in the detection of gamma-ray pulsations. The second MSP is in a globular cluster. My initial timing efforts show that it is in a highly eccentric ( e ~ 0.95) binary orbit with a

  17. Highlights of GeV Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays are primarily produced by high-energy particle interactions, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of sites of cosmic ray production and interactions. Gamma-ray bursts, pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, binary sources, and Active Galactic Nuclei are all phenomena that reveal particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. Diffuse Galactic gamma radiation, Solar System gamma-ray sources, and energetic radiation from supernova remnants are likely tracers of high-energy particle interactions with matter and photon fields. This paper will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi spacecraft.

  18. FLARE-LIKE VARIABILITY OF THE Mg II {lambda}2800 EMISSION LINE IN THE {gamma}-RAY BLAZAR 3C 454.3

    SciTech Connect

    Leon-Tavares, J.; Chavushyan, V.; Patino-Alvarez, V.; Carraminana, A.; Carrasco, L.; Valtaoja, E.; Arshakian, T. G.; Popovic, L. C.; Tornikoski, M.; Laehteenmaeki, A.; Lobanov, A.

    2013-02-01

    We report the detection of a statistically significant flare-like event in the Mg II {lambda}2800 emission line of 3C 454.3 during the outburst of autumn 2010. The highest levels of emission line flux recorded over the monitoring period (2008-2011) coincide with a superluminal jet component traversing through the radio core. This finding crucially links the broad emission line fluctuations to the non-thermal continuum emission produced by relativistically moving material in the jet and hence to the presence of broad-line region clouds surrounding the radio core. If the radio core were located at several parsecs from the central black hole, then our results would suggest the presence of broad-line region material outside the inner parsec where the canonical broad-line region is envisaged to be located. We briefly discuss the implications of broad emission line material ionized by non-thermal continuum in the context of virial black hole mass estimates and gamma-ray production mechanisms.

  19. Gamma ray constraints on the galactic supernova rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, D.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, D. D.; Leising, M.; Mathews, G.; Woosley, S. E.

    1992-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the expected gamma-ray signatures of galactic supernovae of all types are performed in order to estimate the significance of the lack of a gamma-ray signal due to supernovae occurring during the last millenium. Using recent estimates of nuclear yields, we determine galactic supernova rates consistent with the historic supernova record and the gamma-ray limits. Another objective of these calculations of galactic supernova histories is their application to surveys of diffuse galactic gamma-ray line emission.

  20. Fermi Bubbles: an elephant in the gamma-ray sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, Dmitry

    2017-03-01

    The Fermi bubbles are one of the most remarkable features in the gamma-ray sky revealed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The nature of the gamma-ray emission and the origin of the bubbles are still open questions. In this note, we will review some basic features of leptonic and hadronic modes of gamma-ray production. At the moment, gamma rays are our best method to study the bubbles, but in order to resolve the origin of the bubbles multi-wavelength and multi-messenger observations will be crucial.

  1. Soft gamma rays from black holes versus neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1992-01-01

    The recent launches of GRANAT and GRO provide unprecedented opportunities to study compact collapsed objects from their hard x ray and gamma ray emissions. The spectral range above 100 keV can now be explored with much higher sensitivity and time resolution than before. The soft gamma ray spectral data is reviewed of black holes and neutron stars, radiation, and particle energization mechanisms and potentially distinguishing gamma ray signatures. These may include soft x ray excesses versus deficiencies, thermal versus nonthermal processes, transient gamma ray bumps versus power law tails, lines, and periodicities. Some of the highest priority future observations are outlines which will shed much light on such systems.

  2. Gamma ray lines from the Galactic Center and gamma ray transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Leiter, D.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The observations and interpretations of cosmic (nonsolar) gamma ray lines are discussed. The most prominent of these lines is the e(+)e(-) annihilation line which was observed from the Galactic Center and from several gamma ray transients. At the Galactic Center the e(+)e(-) pairs are probably produced by an accreting massive black hole (solar mass of approximately one million) and annihilate within the central light year to produce a line at almost exactly 0.511 MeV. In gamma ray transients the annihilation line is redshifted by factors consistent with neutron star surface redshifts. Other observed transient gamma ray lines appear to be due to cyclotron absorption in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars, and nuclear deexcitations and neutron capture, which could also occur on or around these objects.

  3. Topics in gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of gamma rays from solar flares, gamma ray bursts, the Galactic center, galactic nucleosynthesis, SS433, and Cygnus X-3, and their effects on astrophysical problems are discussed. It is observed that gamma ray spectra from solar flares are applicable to the study of particle acceleration and confinement and the determination of chemical abundances in the solar atmosphere. The gamma ray lines from the compact galactic object SS433 are utilized to examine the acceleration of jets, and analysis of the gamma ray lines of Cygnus X-3 reveal that particles can be accelerated in compact sources to ultrahigh energies.

  4. Observation of gamma ray bursts and flares by the EGRET telescope on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneid, E. J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kwok, P. W.; Mattox, J. R.; Sreekumar, P.; Thompson, D. J.; Kanbach, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory has observed energetic gamma ray bursts and flares. On May 3, 1991, EGRET detected a gamma ray burst both in the energy measuring NaI (Tl) scintillator and independently in the spark chamber imaging assembly. The NaI spectra were accumulated by a special BURST mode of EGRET. The spectra were measured over a range from 1 to 200 MeV, in three sequential spectra of 1,2, and 4 seconds. During the peak of the burst, six individual gamma rays were detected in the spark chamber, allowing a determination of the burst arrival direction. The intense flares of June were also detected. A solar flare on June 4 was observed to last for several minutes and for a brief time, less than a minute, had significant emission of gamma rays exceeding 150 MeV.

  5. A Snapshot of the Continuous Emission of the Active Galactic Nucleus in NGC 3783 from Gamma-Ray to Radio Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alloin, D.; Santos-Lleo, M.; Peterson, B. M.; Wamsteker, W.; Altieri, B.; Brinkmann, W.; Clavel, J.; Crenshaw, D. M.; George, I. M.; Glass, I. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kriss, G. A.; Malkan, M. A.; Polidan, R. S.; Reichert, G. A.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P. M.; Romanishin, W.; Starr, C. H.; Stirpe, G. M.; Taylor, M.; Turner, T. J.; Vega, H.; Winge, C.; Wood, D.O.S.

    1995-01-01

    To better understand the physical processes that produce the continuous emission in active galactic nuclei (AGN), a snapshot of the overall continuous energy distribution of NGC 3783, from gamma ray to radio wavelengths, has been obtained within the framework of the World Astronomy Days. The data collected in this campaign are from GRO, ROSAT, Voyager 2, IUE, HST, CTIO, SAAO, and the VLA. Great care has been taken in disentangling the genuine AGN continusous emission from other contributions; depending on the waveband, the latter might be (1) unrelated contaminating sources in cases where the instrument field of view is large (2) components within which the AGN is embedded, such as the stellar bulge population which accounts for a significant fraction of the optical continuum, and free-bound and FE2 blends wich contribute to the ultraviolet flux. After correction for these other contributins, the continuous emission of the isolated AGN appears to be rather flat (i.e., approximately equal energy per unit logarithmic frequency) from soft gamma ray to infrared wavelengths. At high energies (0.1 MeV to 0.1 keV), the AGN continuum can be fitted by a power law F nu approaches Nu(exp -a) with a spectral index of alpha approximately 1. At longer wavelengths, two excesses above this power law ('bumps') appear: in the ultraviolet, the classical big blue bump, which can be interpreted as thermal emission from the accretion disc surrounding a massive black hole, and in the infrared, a second bump which can be ascribed to thermal emission from dust in the vicinity of the AGN, heated by ultraviolet radiation from the central source. By fitting accretion-disk models to the observed AGN spectral energy distribution, we find values for the accretion disk innermost temperature, accretion rate, and black hole mass, with some differences that depend on whether or not we extrapolate the high energy power law up to infrared wavelengths. A fit to the IR bump above the extended alpha

  6. Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources: Hunting Gamma-Ray Blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.; Ajello, M.; Gasparrini, A.Paggi.D.

    2012-04-02

    One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of the unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the large improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated to low energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of Active Galactic Nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated to the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated to {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

  7. Gamma ray bursts: Current status of observations and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Gamma ray bursts display a wide range of temporal and spectral characteristics, but typically last several seconds and emit most of their energy in a low energy, gamma ray region. The burst sources appear to be isotropically distributed on the sky. Several lines of evidence suggest magnetic neutron stars as sources for bursts. A variety of energy sources and emission mechanisms are proposed.

  8. Enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, R.; Ciprini, S.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary LAT analysis indicates enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula. The daily-averaged gamma-ray emission (E > 100 MeV) from the direction of the Crab Nebula has surpassed 4.0 x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 five times in the last 12 days.

  9. A convenient method for discriminating between natural and depleted uranium by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shoji, M; Hamajima, Y; Takatsuka, K; Honoki, H; Nakajima, T; Kondo, T; Nakanishi, T

    2001-08-01

    A convenient method for discriminating between natural and depleted uranium reagent was developed by measuring and analyzing the gamma-ray spectra of some reagents with no standard source. The counting rates (R) of photoelectric peaks of gamma-rays from nuclides with the same radioactivity divided by their emission probability (B) are expressed as a function of gamma-ray energy. The radioactivities of 234Th and 234mPa and 21.72 times that of 235U are equal to the radioactivity of 235U in natural uranium. Therefore, the plot of 21.72-fold R/B for 235U should be on a curve fitted to the points for 234Th and 234mPa in natural uranium. Depleted uranium with a 235U isotopic composition of less than 0.68% could be discriminated from natural uranium in the case of a reagent containing 4.0 g of uranium.

  10. Gamma ray astronomy and black hole astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1990-01-01

    The study of soft gamma emissions from black-hole candidates is identified as an important element in understanding black-hole phenomena ranging from stellar-mass black holes to AGNs. The spectra of Cyg X-1 and observations of the Galactic Center are emphasized, since thermal origins and MeV gamma-ray bumps are evident and suggest a thermal-pair cloud picture. MeV gamma-ray observations are suggested for studying black hole astrophysics such as the theorized escaping pair wind, the anticorrelation between the MeV gamma bump and the soft continuum, and the relationship between source compactness and temperature.

  11. X ray and gamma ray standards for detector calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    The IAEA established a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on the measurements and evaluation of x- and gamma-ray standards for detector efficiency calibration in 1986 with the aim of alleviating the generation of such discrepancies. Within the framework of this CRP, representatives of nine research groups from six member states and one international organization performed a number of precise measurements and systematic in-depth evaluations of the required decay data. They have also contributed to the development of evaluation methodology and measurement techniques, and stimulated a number of such studies at laboratories not directly involved in the IAEA project. The results of the work of the CRP, which was finished in 1990, are presented in this report. Recommended values of half-lives and photon emission probabilities are given for a carefully selected set of radionuclides that are suitable for detector efficiency calibration (x-rays from 5 to 90 keV and gamma-rays from 30 to about 3000 keV). Detector efficiency calibration for higher gamma-ray energies (up to 14 MeV) is also considered. The evaluation procedures used to obtain the recommended values and their estimated uncertainties are reported, and a summary of the remaining discrepancies is given.

  12. Gamma ray pulsars. [electron-photon cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegelman, H.; Ayasli, S.; Hacinliyan, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data from the SAS-2 high-energy gamma-ray experiment reveal the existence of four pulsars emitting photons above 35 MeV. An attempt is made to explain the gamma-ray emission from these pulsars in terms of an electron-photon cascade that develops in the magnetosphere of the pulsar. Although there is very little material above the surface of the pulsar, the very intense magnetic fields (10 to the 12th power gauss) correspond to many radiation lengths which cause electrons to emit photons by magnetic bremsstrahlung and which cause these photons to pair-produce. The cascade develops until the mean photon energy drops below the pair-production threshold which is in the