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Sample records for gamma-thionin-like soybean se60

  1. Antimicrobial activity of {gamma}-thionin-like soybean SE60 in E. coli and tobacco plants

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yeonhee Choi, Yang Do; Lee, Jong Seob

    2008-10-17

    The SE60, a low molecular weight, sulfur-rich protein in soybean, is known to be homologous to wheat {gamma}-purothionin. To elucidate the functional role of SE60, we expressed SE60 cDNA in Escherichia coli and in tobacco plants. A single protein band was detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after anti-FLAG affinity purification of the protein from transformed E. coli. While the control E. coli cells harboring pFLAG-1 showed standard growth with Isopropyl {beta}-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, E. coli cells expressing the SE60 fusion protein did not grow at all, suggesting that SE60 has toxic effects on E. coli growth. Genomic integration and the expression of transgene in the transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analysis, respectively. The transgenic plants demonstrated enhanced resistance against the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that SE60 has antimicrobial activity and play a role in the defense mechanism in soybean plants.

  2. Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary vulnerability of soybean production to climate change is likely to be from the effects of drought, which may be exacerbated by high temperature events. Technological adaptation can likely take advantage of warming in some production areas and rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon ...

  3. Determination and analysis of optical constants for Ge15Se60Bi25 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyia, H. E.; Hegab, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Thin films of Ge15Se60Bi25 were deposited, at room temperature, on glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The optical reflectance and transmittance of amorphous Ge15Se60Bi25 films were measured at normal incident in the wavelength range (500-2500 nm). The optical constants, the refractive index n and the absorption index k, were determined and analyzed according to different approximate methods using the transmittance measurements only and accurate method using the transmittance and reflectance measurements. Analysis of the absorption index k data reveal the values of the optical band gap Egopt, the width of tails Ee and the type of transitions. Some optical parameters such as, high frequency dielectric constant ε∞, dispersion parameters (oscillation energy Es and the dispersion energy Ed), real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric constant (ε1 and ε2) and dielectric parameters (dissipation factor tan δ, dielectric relaxation time τ, the volume and surface energy loss functions) were estimated by analyzing the refractive index n data.The relative errors for all optical parameters depending on different approximate methods were identified and discussed.

  4. Preparation and characterization of the As40Se60 and As38.8Se61.2 glasses with high quality for the single mode IR glass fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Min-Suk; Seo, Inseok

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, high quality chalcogenide infrared-transmitting As40Se60 and As38.8Se61.2 glasses were prepared and characterized for single mode glass fibers. In order to obtain high purity glasses, the starting materials, As and Se (99.9999%), were purified using a distillation method, which required heat treatment under vacuum using silica tubes and a liquid N2 trap system. As40Se60 and As38.8Se61.2 glasses are chosen as core and cladding, respectively. From the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the As40Se60 and As38.8Se61.2 glasses was 183 °C and 173 °C, respectively. Infrared transmission of the two glasses shows good transmittance over the range of 1-12 μm. There is a slight absorption in both glasses at ∼4.4 μm which is related to Se-H bonds. In order to measure the refractive index over the range of ∼2 -12 μm, prisms of 40 mm × 40 mm × 15 mm with 20° angles were made and were carefully polished. It was found that the refractive indices of As40Se60 were slightly higher than those of the As38.8Se61.2.

  5. Utilizing soybean milk to culture soybean pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid and semi-solid culture media are used to maintain and proliferate bacteria, fungi, and Oomycetes for research in microbiology and plant pathology. In this study, a comparison was made between soybean milk medium, also referred to as soymilk, and media traditionally used for culturing soybean ...

  6. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  7. Soybean irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is an important crop and a major component of the agricultural economy in the Missouri Bootheel and throughout Missouri. USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported that in 2012, 960 thousand acres of soybeans were harvested in Southeast Missouri (Butler, Cape Girardeau, ...

  8. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  9. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  10. Protein profile of mature soybean seeds and prepared soybean milk.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-10-08

    The soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is economically the most important bean in the world, providing a wide range of vegetable proteins. Soybean milk is a colloidal solution obtained as water extract from swelled and ground soybean seeds. Soybean proteins represent about 35-40% on a dry weight basis and they are receiving increasing attention with respect to their health effects. However, the soybean is a well-recognized allergenic food, and therefore, it is urgent to define its protein components responsible for the allergenicity in order to develop hypoallergenic soybean products for sensitive people. The main aim of this work was the characterization of seed and milk soybean proteome and their comparison in terms of protein content and specific proteins. Using a shotgun proteomics approach, 243 nonredundant proteins were identified in mature soybean seeds.

  11. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Stacey, Gary

    2016-07-12

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  12. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, Gary

    2010-03-24

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  13. Soybean seed proteome rebalancing

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Eliot M.

    2014-01-01

    The soybean seed’s protein content and composition are regulated by both genetics and physiology. Overt seed protein content is specified by the genotype’s genetic framework and is selectable as a breeding trait. Within the genotype-specified protein content phenotype soybeans have the capacity to rebalance protein composition to create differing proteomes. Soybeans possess a relatively standardized proteome, but mutation or targeted engineering can induce large-scale proteome rebalancing. Proteome rebalancing shows that the output traits of seed content and composition result from two major types of regulation: genotype and post-transcriptional control of the proteome composition. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that specifies the seed proteome can enable engineering new phenotypes for the production of a high-quality plant protein source for food, feed, and industrial proteins. PMID:25232359

  14. Sunflowers versus soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.D.C.

    1980-10-01

    While both soybeans and sunflowers provide oil and protein, sunflowers offer the higher potential yield of oil per hectare. Research to modify vegetable oils to improve their fuel properties is suggested, particularly on improving the characteristics of the oil as a fuel for diesel engines.

  15. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  16. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust

    PubMed Central

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F.; Mueller, André N.; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR. PMID:27375652

  17. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust.

    PubMed

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F; Mueller, André N; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  18. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  19. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  20. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to Soybean Rust in Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is a severe foliar disease of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] that occurs throughout most soybean producing regions of the world. Soybean rust may be managed with fungicides, but the utilization of soybean cultivars that are resistant to the path...

  1. Soybean aphids making their summer appearance early

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two small, soft-bodied insects have begun showing up in South Dakota soybean. One is the soybean aphid, and the other is a mealybug. Soybean aphids are yellow to yellow/green and are usually found feeding on the underside of leaves. Incidence of soybean aphid has been a bit higher than typical fo...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  12. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  17. CRYSTALLINE SOYBEAN TRYPSIN INHIBITOR

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, M.

    1947-01-01

    A study has been made of the general properties of crystalline soybean trypsin inhibitor. The soy inhibitor is a stable protein of the globulin type of a molecular weight of about 24,000. Its isoelectric point is at pH 4.5. It inhibits the proteolytic action approximately of an equal weight of crystalline trypsin by combining with trypsin to form a stable compound. Chymotrypsin is only slightly inhibited by soy inhibitor. The reaction between chymotrypsin and the soy inhibitor consists in the formation of a reversibly dissociable compound. The inhibitor has no effect on pepsin. The inhibiting action of the soybean inhibitor is associated with the native state of the protein molecule. Denaturation of the soy protein by heat or acid or alkali brings about a proportional decrease in its inhibiting action on trypsin. Reversal of denaturation results in a proportional gain in the inhibiting activity. Crystalline soy protein when denatured is readily digestible by pepsin, and less readily by chymotrypsin and by trypsin. Methods are given for measuring trypsin and inhibitor activity and also protein concentration with the aid of spectrophotometric density measurements at 280 mµ. PMID:19873496

  18. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil.

  19. Registration of three soybean germplasm lines resistant to Phakopsora pachyrhizi (soybean rust)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is one of the most important foliar diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.)Merr.]. Development of rust resistant lines is one objective of many soybean breeding programs. Three soybean germplasm lines esignated as TGx 1987-76F (Reg. No. xxx, PI 6577...

  20. Organic foliar Milstop shows efficacy against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) on soybean (Glycine max)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been produced in the United States since 1765. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) were first detected on soybean in the United States in 2000 and now cause an estimated yield loss of up to US$4.9 billion annually. Organic soybean producers have few insecti...

  1. Soybean, a promising health source.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Aparicio, I; Redondo Cuenca, A; Villanueva-Suárez, M J; Zapata-Revilla, M A

    2008-01-01

    Health properties and uses of soybean, as well as the different chemical and botanical characteristics of this legume are shown in this review. Soybean represents an excellent source of high quality protein, it has a low content in saturated fat, it contains a great amount of dietary fibre and its isoflavone content makes it singular among other legumes. Many researches have been carried out into the benefits of legumes: chickpeas, beans, lentils and soy, among others, but characterization and positive health effects of soybeans have been recently studied. The interest in this legume has increased because of its functional components. Most of the studies have been focused on soybean protein as a possible source of prevention against cardiovascular disease. This positive effect may be due to a decrease in serum cholesterol concentrations. In addition, there are many studies on isoflavones, non-nutritive substances, associated with prevention and treatment of different chronic diseases. Moreover, some studies have shown the health properties of soy dietary fibre. Therefore, it would be interesting to consider the replacement of animal based foods for soybean foods in order to obtain some nutritional benefits.

  2. Diseases of Soybean and Their Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is the sole domesticated member of the approximately 20 known Glycine spp. It is the most important oilseed crop worldwide. FAO has estimated that 180.4 x 106 t soybeans were produced on 79.7 x 106 ha worldwide in 2001-2003. An average loss of global soybean production due to disease has bee...

  3. Tilling to detect induced mutations in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is an important nitrogen-fixing crop that provides much of the world’s protein and oil. However, the available tools for investigation of soybean gene function are limited. Nevertheless, chemical mutagenesis can be applied to soybean followed by screening for mutations...

  4. Effects of selective genetic introgression from wild soybean to soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] breeding in the U.S. currently relies on a narrow genetic base in which more than half of the genetic contribution, calculated by pedigree analysis, comes from only 5 ancestral lines. For decades, but more intensely in recent years, efforts have been made ...

  5. Archaeophytopathology of Global Soybean Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae are two rust species that infect soybean (Glycine max). A number of other hosts support the uredinial growth of these Phakopsora, including Pachyrhizus erosus, Pueraria lobata, and Vigna unguiculata, but no aecial host is known. Traditionally, these two species...

  6. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  7. Separation of soybean saponins from soybean meal by a technology of foam fractionation and resin adsorption.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianxing; Wu, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wei; Gao, Yanfei; Guo, Shenghao; Kang, Shufang

    2016-05-18

    Foam fractionation and resin adsorption were used to recover soybean saponins from the industrial residue of soybean meal. First, a two-stage foam fractionation technology was studied for concentrating soybean saponins from the leaching liquor. Subsequently, resin adsorption was used to purify soybean saponins from the foamate in foam fractionation. The results showed that the enrichment ratio, the recovery percentage, and the purity of soybean saponins by using the two-stage foam fractionation technology could reach 4.45, 74%, and 67%, respectively. After resin adsorption and desorption, the purity of soybean saponins in the freeze-dried powder from the desorption solution was 88.4%.

  8. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05) high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01) and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01). Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively) higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01) higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score) of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  9. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  10. Artificial Selection for Determinate Growth Habit in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, while Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1) and determina...

  11. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...

  12. First report of soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Ohio soybean fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus (SVNaV), a newly discovered tospovirus that infects soybean, was first described as widespread in a number of southern and midwestern states, but so far has not been reported in Ohio. Here we describe its occurrence in six different soybean leaf samples collect...

  13. Identification and molecular mapping of two soybean aphid resistance genes in soybean PI 587732

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] continues to be plagued by the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura: SA) in North America. New soybean resistance sources are needed to combat the four identified SA biotypes. The objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance of SA resistance in PI 58...

  14. Gene expression profiling of resistant and susceptible soybean lines infected with soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most devastating pathogen of soybean. Information about the molecular basis of soybean–SCN interactions is needed to assist future development of effective management tools against this pathogen. Toward this end, soybean transcript abundance was measured using th...

  15. Potential Overwintering Locations of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Colonizing Soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Michael S; Hogg, David B

    2015-04-01

    Soybean aphids, Aphis glycines Matsumura, depend on long-distance, wind-aided dispersal to complete their life cycle. Despite our general understanding of soybean aphid biology, little is explicitly known about dispersal of soybean aphids between winter and summer hosts in North America. This study compared genotypic diversity of soybean aphids sampled from several overwintering locations in the Midwest and soybean fields in Ohio and Wisconsin to test the hypothesis that these overwintering locations are sources of the soybean colonists. In addition, air parcel trajectory analyses were used to demonstrate the potential for long-distance dispersal events to occur to or from these overwintering locations. Results suggest that soybean aphids from overwintering locations along the Illinois-Iowa border and northern Indiana-Ohio are potential colonists of soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin, but that Ohio is also colonized by soybean aphids from other unknown overwintering locations. Soybean aphids in Ohio and Wisconsin exhibit a small degree of population structure that is not associated with the locations of soybean fields in which they occur, but that may be related to specific overwintering environments, multiple introductions to North America, or spatial variation in aphid phenology. There may be a limited range of suitable habitat for soybean aphid overwintering, in which case management of soybean aphids may be more effective at their overwintering sites. Further research efforts should focus on discovering more overwintering locations of soybean aphid in North America, and the relative impact of short- and long-distance dispersal events on soybean aphid population dynamics.

  16. Occurrance in Korea of three major soybean viruses, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) revealed by a nationwide survey of soybean fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) were recently isolated in Korea, and it hasn’t been reported how these two viruses were dispersed in Korea. In 2012, we performed a nationwide survey of subsistence soybean farms in Korea. Leaves that appeared ...

  17. Soybeans Ameliolate Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Eun; Ahn, Soo Kyung; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Jong Eun; Park, Seung Hwa; Yoon, Bang Bu

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most frequent and serious complications of diabetes mellitus. Soybeans have been shown to reduce urinary albumin excretion and total cholesterol in non-diabetic patients with nephrotic syndrome. However, reports focusing specifically on diabetic nephropathy are scarce and the available results are inconsistent. It was reported that soybean consumption reduced urinary protein excretion in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy, whereas it was found to elicit an increase in urinary protein excretion when soybeans were consumed by type 2 diabetic patients. This study aims to investigate the effects of soybean in diabetic nephropathy, particularly the effects of consuming soybeans on the histopathology of diabetic nephropathy, using aquaporin (AQP) and osteopontin (OPN) expression as diagnostic markers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of three groups: control, diabetic with red chow diet and diabetic with soybean diet. For histological examination, the expression of OPN and AQP, renal function and hemoglobin A1c were evaluated at the end of the study. Improvements in glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were demonstrated in the diabetic rat group given a soybean diet. OPN and AQP expression were suppressed in the kidney specimens of diabetic rats with the soybean diet. In conclusion, soybeans may prevent the weight loss and morphological disruption of the kidney associated with diabetes mellitus. Soybeans also may improve glycemic control. It seems likely that long-term control of blood glucose levels using a soybean diet could prevent the progression of diabetes mellitus, and therefore, nephropathy could be prevented. PMID:18955330

  18. Genetics, Genomics and Breeding in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean (Glycine max) genome sequencing project began as an interagency project with the DOE’s Joint Genome Institute providing the production sequencing throughput with the NSF and USDA funded groups providing genomic resources and soybean expertise to the project (Jackson et al, 2006). The go...

  19. Quantitative genetics in soybean: Is dominance important?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In soybeans, dominance is generally considered to be non-existent or of little importance. Because genetic variation due to dominance dissipates rapidly with inbreeding, dominance would presumably not be useful in breeding soybean cultivars which are highly inbred. Yet, there is evidence for hetero...

  20. Response of soybean pathogens to glyceollin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to recognize pathogens and respond biochemically to prevent or inhibit pathogen invasion and colonization in plant cells is an active disease resistance response in plants. The involvement of soybean phytoalexin glyceollin in defense responses to the soybean pathogens Diaporthe phaseolor...

  1. Elevated Ozone Alters Soybean-Virus Interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examine the effects of elevated O3 and elevated CO2, two major components of global change, on the interaction between soybean and Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV) by measuring molecular, cellular, and physiological processes, in natural field conditions and in controlled environment. In natural field ...

  2. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  3. Efficacy of inorganic compounds against soybean aphid, laboratory tests 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations by soybean aphids can reduce the yield of soybeans, and the efficacies of various compounds need evaluation for soybean aphid control. Efficacy of various inorganic compounds was compared to that of a water check and conventional insecticides in two growth-chamber tests. Soybean test ...

  4. Pathogenic Variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi Infecting Soybean in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust is an important disease in Nigeria and many other soybean-producing countries world-wide. To determine the geographical distribution of soybean rust in Nigeria, soybean fields were surveyed in the Derived Savanna, Northern Guinea Savanna, and Southern Guinea Savanna agroecological zones...

  5. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  6. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the...

  7. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  10. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723....723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is prepared by reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  12. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  13. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the...

  14. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  15. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State...

  18. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the...

  19. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the...

  20. Genome-wide association mapping of soybean aphid resistance traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean aphid is the most damaging insect pest of soybean in the Upper Midwest and is primarily controlled by insecticides. Soybean aphid resistance (i.e., Rag genes) has been documented in some soybean lines at chromosomes 6, 7, 13, and 16, but more sources of resistance are needed. Genome-wide ass...

  1. Soybean aphid intrabiotype variability based on colonization of specific soybean genotypes.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Michelle; Hill, Curtis B; Voegtlin, David J; Hartman, Glen L

    2015-12-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is one of the most destructive insect pests on soybeans in the United States. One method for managing this pest is through host plant resistance. Since its arrival in 2000, 4 aphid biotypes have been identified that are able to overcome soybean aphid resistance (Rag) genes. A soybean aphid isolate collected from Moline, Illinois readily colonized soybean plants with the soybean aphid resistance gene Rag2, unlike biotypes 1 and 2, but similar to soybean aphid biotype 3. Two no-choice experiments compared the virulence of the Moline isolate with biotype 3. In both experiments, differences in aphid population counts were not significant (P > 0.05) on soybean genotypes LD08-12957a (Rag2) and LD11-5413a (Rag2), but the aphid counts for the Moline isolate were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the aphid counts for the biotype 3 isolate on the soybean genotypes Dowling (Rag1), LD05-16611 (Rag1), LD11-4576a (Rag1), and PI 567598B (rag1b and rag3). The Moline isolate was a variant of aphid biotype 3, which is the first report showing that soybean aphid isolates classified as the same biotype, based on virulence against specific Rag genes, can differ in aggressiveness or ability to colonize specific host genotypes.

  2. Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Clemente; Jon Van Gerpen

    2007-11-30

    The goal of this program was to generate information on the utility of soybean germplasm that produces oil, high in oleic acid and low in saturated fatty acids, for its use as a biodiesel. Moreover, data was ascertained on the quality of the derived soybean meal (protein component), and the agronomic performance of this novel soybean germplasm. Gathering data on these later two areas is critical, with respect to the first, soybean meal (protein) component is a major driver for commodity soybean, which is utilized as feed supplements in cattle, swine, poultry and more recently aquaculture production. Hence, it is imperative that the resultant modulation in the fatty acid profile of the oil does not compromise the quality of the derived meal, for if it does, the net value of the novel soybean will be drastically reduced. Similarly, if the improved oil trait negative impacts the agronomics (i.e. yield) of the soybean, this in turn will reduce the value of the trait. Over the course of this program oil was extruded from approximately 350 bushels of soybean designated 335-13, which produces oil high in oleic acid (>85%) and low in saturated fatty acid (<6%). As predicted improvement in cold flow parameters were observed as compared to standard commodity soybean oil. Moreover, engine tests revealed that biodiesel derived from this novel oil mitigated NOx emissions. Seed quality of this soybean was not compromised with respect to total oil and protein, nor was the amino acid profile of the derived meal as compared to the respective control soybean cultivar with a conventional fatty acid profile. Importantly, the high oleic acid/low saturated fatty acids oil trait was not impacted by environment and yield was not compromised. Improving the genetic potential of soybean by exploiting the tools of biotechnology to improve upon the lipid quality of the seed for use in industrial applications such as biodiesel will aid in expanding the market for the crop. This in turn, may

  3. A Standard Greenhouse Method for Assessing Soybean Cyst Nematode Resistance in Soybean: SCE08 (Standardized Cyst Evaluation 2008)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is distributed throughout the soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production areas of the United States and Canada. SCN remains the most economically important pathogen of soybean in North America; the most recent estimate of soybean yield...

  4. Soybean canopy reflectance modeling data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Biehl, L. L.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    Numerous mathematical models of the interaction of radiation with vegetation canopies have been developed over the last two decades. However, data with which to exercise and validate these models are scarce. During three days in the summer of 1980, experiments are conducted with the objective of gaining insight about the effects of solar illumination and view angles on soybean canopy reflectance. In concert with these experiment, extensive measurements of the soybean canopies are obtained. This document is a compilation of the bidirectional reflectance factors, agronomic, characteristics, canopy geometry, and leaf, stem, and pod optical properties of the soybean canopies. These data sets should be suitable for use with most vegetation canopy reflectance models.

  5. Soybean meal from roundup ready or conventional soybeans in diets for growing-finishing swine.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Randolph, J H; Parker, G R; Coffey, R D; Laurent, K M; Armstrong, C L; Mikel, W B; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2002-03-01

    Dehulled soybean meal prepared from genetically modified, herbicide (glyphosate)-tolerant Roundup Ready soybeans containing the CP4 EPSPS protein and near-isogenic conventional soybeans were assessed in an experiment with growing-finishing pigs. The soybeans were grown in the yr 2000 under similar agronomic conditions except that the Roundup Ready soybeans were sprayed with Roundup herbicide. Both were processed at the same plant. The composition of the two types of soybeans and the processed soybean meal were similar. Corn-soybean meal diets containing conventional or Roundup Ready soybean meal and fortified with minerals and vitamins were fed to 100 cross-bred pigs from 24 to 111 kg BW. Diets contained approximately 0.95% lysine initially and were reduced to 0.80 and 0.65% lysine when pigs reached 55 and 87 kg BW, respectively. There were 10 pens (five pens of barrows and five pens of gilts) per treatment with five pigs per pen. All pigs were scanned at 107 kg mean BW and all barrows were killed at the end of the test for carcass measurements and tissue collection. Rate and efficiency of weight gain, scanned backfat and longissimus area, and calculated carcass lean percentage were not different (P > 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing conventional or Roundup Ready soybean meal. Gilts gained slower, but they were more efficient and leaner (P < 0.05) than barrows. Responses to the type of soybean meal were similar for the two sexes with no evidence of a diet x sex interaction for any of the traits. In most instances, carcass traits of barrows were similar for the two types of soybean meal. Longissimus muscle samples from barrows fed conventional soybean meal tended (P = 0.06) to have less fat than those fed Roundup Ready soybean meal, but water, protein, and ash were similar. Sensory scores of cooked longissimus muscles were not influenced (P > 0.05) by diet. The results indicate that Roundup Ready soybean meal is essentially equivalent in composition and

  6. Risk assessment of soybean-based phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Hyung Sik; Yoon, Kyung Sil; Lee, Byung Mu

    2009-01-01

    Koreans generally consume high quantities of soybean-based foods that contain a variety of phytoestrogens, such as, daidzein, zenistein, and biochalin A. However, phytoestrogens are considered to be potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), which interfere with the normal function of the hormonal and reproductive systems. Therefore, dietary exposure to soybean-based phytoestrogens is of concern for Koreans, and comparative dietary risk assessments are required between Japanese (high consumers) versus Americans (low consumers). In this study, a relative risk assessment was conducted based upon daily intake levels of soybean-based foods and phytoestrogens in a Korean cohort, and the risks of photoestrogens were compared with those posed by estradiol and other EDC. Koreans approximately 30-49 yr of age consume on average a total of 135.2 g/d of soy-based foods including soybean, soybean sauce, soybean paste, and soybean oil, and 0.51 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d of phytoestrogens such as daidzein and genistein. Using estimated daily intakes (EDI) and estrogenic potencies (EP), margins of safety (MOS) were calculated where 0.05 is for estradiol (MOS value <1, considered to exert a positive estrogenic effect); thus, MOS values of 1.89 for Japanese, 1.96 for Koreans, and 5.55 for Americans indicate that consumption of soybean-based foods exerted no apparent estrogenic effects, as all MOS values were all higher than 1. For other synthetic EDC used as reference values, MOS values were dieldrin 27, nonylphenol 250, butyl benzyl phthalate 321, bisphenol A 1000, biochanin A 2203, and coumesterol 2898. These results suggest that dietary exposure to phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and genistein, poses a relatively higher health risk for humans than synthetic EDC, although MOS values were all greater than 1.

  7. Control of virus diseases in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Soybean, one of the world's most important sources of animal feed and vegetable oil, can be infected by numerous viruses. However, only a small number of the viruses that can potentially infect soybean are considered as major economic problems to soybean production. Therefore, we consider management options available to control diseases caused by eight viruses that cause, or have the potential to cause, significant economic loss to producers. We summarize management tactics in use and suggest direction for the future. Clearly, the most important tactic is disease resistance. Several resistance genes are available for three of the eight viruses discussed. Other options include use of virus-free seed and avoidance of alternative virus hosts when planting. Attempts at arthropod vector control have generally not provided consistent disease management. In the future, disease management will be considerably enhanced by knowledge of the interaction between soybean and viral proteins. Identification of genes required for soybean defense may represent key regulatory hubs that will enhance or broaden the spectrum of basal resistance to viruses. It may be possible to create new recessive or dominant negative alleles of host proteins that do not support viral functions but perform normal cellular function. The future approach to virus control based on gene editing or exploiting allelic diversity points to necessary research into soybean-virus interactions. This will help to generate the knowledge needed for rational design of durable resistance that will maximize global production.

  8. Approaches for Increasing Soybean Use by Low-Income Brazilian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an educational/distributional campaign to increase use of soybeans by low-income Brazilian families. Initially, no families surveyed used soybeans but, after participating in a program on nutrition and soybeans, and free distribution of soybeans for one month, soybean usage by participants increased even when free soybeans were replaced…

  9. Transcriptional responses of tolerant and susceptible soybeans to soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, was introduced in 2000 to North America and has become one of the most significant pests to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, production. Possible solutions to this problem are the use of resistant plants and the understanding of the genes involved in pl...

  10. Assessment of the effects of Hirsutella minnesotensis on Soybean Cyst Nematode and growth of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hirsutella minnesotensis is a fungal endoparasite of nematodes juvenile and parasitizes soybean cyst nematodes (SCN) with high frequency. In this study, the effects of two H. minnesotensis isolates on population and distribution of SCN and growth of soybean were evaluated. Experiments were conducted...

  11. Interaction of soybean and Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the cause of soybean rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow, is a major disease limiting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production in many areas of the world. Yield losses of up to 80% were reported in experimental plots in Taiwan. Although the disease is not always yield limiting, it has the p...

  12. Dynamics of soybean rust epidemics in sequential plantings of soybean cultivars in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is an important foliar disease of soybean. The disease intensity is dependent on environmental factors, although the precise conditions of most of these factors is not known. To help understand what environmental factors favor disease develop...

  13. The composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybean seeds is equivalent to that of conventional soybeans.

    PubMed

    Padgette, S R; Taylor, N B; Nida, D L; Bailey, M R; MacDonald, J; Holden, L R; Fuchs, R L

    1996-03-01

    One important aspect of the safety assessment of genetically engineered crops destined for food and feed uses is the characterization of the consumed portion of the crop. One crop currently under development, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS), was modified by the addition of a glyphosate-tolerance gene to a commercial soybean cultivar. The composition of seeds and selected processing fractions from two GTS lines, designated 40-3-2 and 61-67-1, was compared with that of the parental soybean cultivar, A5403. Nutrients measured in the soybean seeds included macronutrients by proximate analyses (protein, fat, fiber, ash, carbohydrates), amino acids and fatty acids. Antinutrients measured in either the seed or toasted meal were trypsin inhibitor, lectins, isoflavones, stachyose, raffinose and phytate. Proximate analyses were also performed on batches of defatted toasted meal, defatted nontoasted meal, protein isolate, and protein concentrate prepared from GTS and control soybean seeds. In addition, refined, bleached, deodorized oil was made, along with crude soybean lecithin, from GTS and control soybeans. The analytical results demonstrated the GTS lines are equivalent to the parental, conventional soybean cultivar.

  14. Effect of γ irradiation on the fatty acid composition of soybean and soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Minami, Ikuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Todoriki, Setsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a form of food processing to extend the shelf life and reduce spoilage of food. We examined the effects of γ radiation on the fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidative activity of soybean and soybean oil which both contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Irradiation at 10 to 80 kGy under aerobic conditions did not markedly change the fatty acid composition of soybean. While 10-kGy irradiation did not markedly affect the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 40-kGy irradiation considerably altered the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, 40-kGy irradiation produced a significant amount of trans fatty acids under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Irradiating soybean oil induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the radical scavenging activity under aerobic conditions, but had no effect under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition of soybean was not markedly affected by radiation at 10 kGy, and that anaerobic conditions reduced the degradation of soybean oil that occurred with high doses of γ radiation.

  15. Validation of a hairy roots system to study soybean-soybean aphid interactions

    PubMed Central

    Morriss, Stephanie C.; Studham, Matthew E.; Tylka, Gregory L.

    2017-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) is one of the main insect pests of soybean (Glycine max) worldwide. Genomics approaches have provided important data on transcriptome changes, both in the insect and in the plant, in response to the plant-aphid interaction. However, the difficulties to transform soybean and to rear soybean aphid on artificial media have hindered our ability to systematically test the function of genes identified by those analyses as mediators of plant resistance to the insect. An efficient approach to produce transgenic soybean material is the production of transformed hairy roots using Agrobacterium rhizogenes; however, soybean aphids colonize leaves or stems and thus this approach has not been utilized. Here, we developed a hairy root system that allowed effective aphid feeding. We show that this system supports aphid performance similar to that observed in leaves. The use of hairy roots to study plant resistance is validated by experiments showing that roots generated from cotyledons of resistant lines carrying the Rag1 or Rag2 resistance genes are also resistant to aphid feeding, while related susceptible lines are not. Our results demonstrate that hairy roots are a good system to study soybean aphid-soybean interactions, providing a quick and effective method that could be used for functional analysis of the resistance response to this insect. PMID:28358854

  16. Comparison of 'Fayette' Soybean, Aldicarb, and Experimental Nematicides for Management of Heterodera glycines on Soybean.

    PubMed

    Noel, G R

    1987-10-01

    The efficacies of Heterodera glycines-resistant 'Fayene' soybean and aldicarb for managing H. glycines were compared to the experimental nematicides DS-47187 10F, DS-47357 10F, DS-48145 10F, DS-48165 10F, DS-46995 10F and 5G, and DS-38697 5G during 1981-83. Yield of Fayette was greater than yield of the H. glycines-susceptible cultivar treated with nematicide in 1981 and 1983. Yield of aldicarb-treated soybean was greater than yield of soybean treated with experimental nematicides in 1983. There were no yield differences in 1982. Fewer white females were recovered from Fayette 5 weeks after planting than from soybean treated with nematicides in 1981 and 1982, but not in 1983. Fewer white females were recovered from aldicarb-treated soybean than from experimental nematicide-treated soybean in 1983 but not in 1981 and 1982. In 1983 numbers of first generation white females at 5 weeks and the ratio of those white females to gravid cysts at planting were negatively correlated with soybean yield when soybean was severely damaged by the nematode, but the ratio of final eggs and second-stage juveniles to initial eggs and second-stage juveniles was not correlated with yield.

  17. Registration of ‘Wyandot-14’ soybean with resistance to soybean aphid and powdery mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Wyandot-14’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] with resistance to soybean aphid biotypes 1 and 2 and resistance to powdery mildew was jointly released by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service and The Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC) as a late maturity group (MG) II (2.9) foo...

  18. Developing host-plant resistance for hemipteran soybean pests: lessons from soybean aphid and stink bugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is one of the world’s leading agricultural crops with multiple uses, including human food, animal feed, edible oil, biofuel, industrial products, cosmetics, etc. In soybean production, United States is the leading country with 33% of world’s total production of 251.5 million Metric tons. How...

  19. Identification of a second Asian soybean rust resistance gene in Hyuuga soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian soybean rust (ASR) is an economically significant disease caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi. The soybean genes Rpp3 and Rpp?(Hyuuga) confer resistance to specific isolates of the pathogen. Both genes map to chromosome 6 (Gm06)(linkage group (LG) C2). We recently identified 12 additi...

  20. Soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) response to soybean plant defense: stress levels, tradeoffs, and cross-virulence.

    PubMed

    Enders, Laramy; Bickel, Ryan; Brisson, Jennifer; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Siegfried, Blair; Zera, Anthony; Miller, Nick

    2014-02-01

    A variety of management methods to control the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) have been investigated since its invasion into North America in 2000, among them plant resistance has emerged as a viable option for reducing aphid damage to soybeans and preventing outbreaks. Plant resistance methods often use natural soybean plant defenses that impose stress on aphids by reducing fitness and altering behavior. Research efforts have heavily focused on identification and development of aphid resistant soybean varieties, leaving much unknown about soybean aphid response to stressful host plant defenses. In this study, we aimed to 1) evaluate lifetime fitness consequences and phenotypic variation in response to host plant-induced stress and 2) investigate whether trade-offs involving fitness costs and/or cross-virulence to multiple antibiotic soybean varieties exists. We compared aphid survival and reproduction during and after a short period of exposure to soybeans with the Rag2 resistance gene and measured aphid clonal variation in response to Rag2 soybeans. In addition, we measured the performance of Rag2 virulent and avirulent aphids on five soybean varieties with various forms of antibiotic resistance. Our results indicate that plant defenses impose high levels of stress and have long-term fitness consequences, even after aphids are removed from resistant plants. We identified one aphid clone that was able to colonize Rag2 among the seven clones tested, suggesting that virulent genotypes may be prevalent in natural populations. Finally, although we did not find evidence of cross-virulence to multiple antibiotic soybean varieties, our results suggest independent mechanisms of aphid virulence to Rag1 and Rag2 that may involve fitness costs.

  1. Benefits of Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments to Soybean Production

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read about EPA’s analysis of use of the neonicotinoid seed treatments for insect control in U.S. soybean production. EPA concludes that these seed treatments provide little or no overall benefits to soybean production in most situations.

  2. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean ( Glycine max)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pednekar, Mrinal; Das, Amit K.; Rajalakshmi, V.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-04-01

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  3. Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology.

    PubMed

    Hilaire, E; Guikema, J A; Brown, C S

    1995-01-01

    Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and -02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiment with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-03) flown on STS-63 (Feb. 3-11, 1995).

  4. Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, Emmanuel; Guikema, James A.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1995-01-01

    Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight, and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat, and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and 02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiments with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of the assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and the morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the Biological Research In Canister (BRIC) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-3) flown on STS-63 (February 3-11, 1995).

  5. Genome Sequence of the Palaeopolyploid soybean

    SciTech Connect

    Schmutz, Jeremy; Cannon, Steven B.; Schlueter, Jessica; Ma, Jianxin; Mitros, Therese; Nelson, William; Hyten, David L.; Song, Qijian; Thelen, Jay J.; Cheng, Jianlin; Xu, Dong; Hellsten, Uffe; May, Gregory D.; Yu, Yeisoo; Sakura, Tetsuya; Umezawa, Taishi; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Sandhu, Devinder; Valliyodan, Babu; Lindquist, Erika; Peto, Myron; Grant, David; Shu, Shengqiang; Goodstein, David; Barry, Kerrie; Futrell-Griggs, Montona; Abernathy, Brian; Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Zhu, Liucun; Gill, Navdeep; Joshi, Trupti; Libault, Marc; Sethuraman, Anand; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Nguyen, Henry T.; Wing, Rod A.; Cregan, Perry; Specht, James; Grimwood, Jane; Rokhsar, Dan; Stacey, Gary; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2009-08-03

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for seed protein and oil content, and for its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms. We sequenced the 1.1-gigabase genome by a whole-genome shotgun approach and integrated it with physical and high-density genetic maps to create a chromosome-scale draft sequence assembly. We predict 46,430 protein-coding genes, 70percent more than Arabidopsis and similar to the poplar genome which, like soybean, is an ancient polyploid (palaeopolyploid). About 78percent of the predicted genes occur in chromosome ends, which comprise less than one-half of the genome but account for nearly all of the genetic recombination. Genome duplications occurred at approximately 59 and 13 million years ago, resulting in a highly duplicated genome with nearly 75percent of the genes present in multiple copies. The two duplication events were followed by gene diversification and loss, and numerous chromosome rearrangements. An accurate soybean genome sequence will facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of many soybean traits, and accelerate the creation of improved soybean varieties.

  6. Glyphosate-tolerant soybeans remain compositionally equivalent to conventional soybeans (Glycine max L.) during three years of field testing.

    PubMed

    McCann, Melinda C; Liu, Keshun; Trujillo, William A; Dobert, Raymond C

    2005-06-29

    Previous studies have shown that the composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS) and selected processed fractions was substantially equivalent to that of conventional soybeans over a wide range of analytes. This study was designed to determine if the composition of GTS remains substantially equivalent to conventional soybeans over the course of several years and when introduced into multiple genetic backgrounds. Soybean seed samples of both GTS and conventional varieties were harvested during 2000, 2001, and 2002 and analyzed for the levels of proximates, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, and isoflavones. The measured analytes are representative of the basic nutritional and biologically active components in soybeans. Results show a similar range of natural variability for the GTS soybeans as well as conventional soybeans. It was concluded that the composition of commercial GTS over the three years of breeding into multiple varieties remains equivalent to that of conventional soybeans.

  7. The Current Status of the Soybean-Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV) Pathosystem

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Zhong; Fang, Yuan; Pang, Hongxi

    2016-01-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most devastating pathogens that cost huge economic losses in soybean production worldwide. Due to the duplicated genome, clustered and highly homologous nature of R genes, as well as recalcitrant to transformation, soybean disease resistance studies is largely lagging compared with other diploid crops. In this review, we focus on the major advances that have been made in identifying both the virulence/avirulence factors of SMV and mapping of SMV resistant genes in soybean. In addition, we review the progress in dissecting the SMV resistant signaling pathways in soybean, with a special focus on the studies using virus-induced gene silencing. The soybean genome has been fully sequenced, and the increasingly saturated SNP markers have been identified. With these resources available together with the newly developed genome editing tools, and more efficient soybean transformation system, cloning SMV resistant genes, and ultimately generating cultivars with a broader spectrum resistance to SMV are becoming more realistic than ever. PMID:27965641

  8. Suitability of Soybean Meal from Insect-Resistant Soybeans for Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Ortega, María A; Davis, Adam J; Boerma, H Roger; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-03-23

    Benning(M) and Benning(MGH) are near-isogenic lines (NILs) of the soybean cultivar Benning, which contain insect-resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from the soybean accession PI 229358. Benning(M) contains QTL-M, which confers antibiosis and antixenosis. In addition to QTL-M, Benning(MGH) contains QTL-G, which confers antibiosis, and QTL-H, which confers antixenosis. Soybean meal was produced from Benning and the NILs. Nutritional composition, digestible amino acid content, and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEN) were equivalent among soybean meals. A 21-day broiler feeding trial was carried out to determine if the QTLs affect soybean meal quality. Weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio were evaluated. No biologically significant differences were detected for broilers fed Benning, Benning(M), and Benning(MGH). This demonstrates that soybean meal produced from the insect-resistant NILs is equivalent to soybean meal produced from their non-insect-resistant parent cultivar for broiler weight gain.

  9. Bean Pod Mottle Virus Spread in Insect Feeding Resistant Soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) reduces yield and seed quality in soybeans. No qualitative resistance to this virus has been found in soybean, although some tolerance is known. To test the hypothesis that virus incidence and movement would be reduced in soybeans with resistance to feeding by the viru...

  10. Phenomorphological characterization of vegetable soybean germplasm lines for commercial production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing demand for vegetable soybean has renewed interest in producing the crop in the U.S., a significant importer of vegetable soybean despite being the world’s largest producer and exporter of grain-type soybean. Field studies were conducted over three years to1) compare phenomorphological traits...

  11. Urediniospore Release and Escape from Rust-Infected Soybean Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, soybean rust, has infected soybeans in the continental United States from 2004-2006. This study monitored release, dispersal, and germination rates of soybean rust spores produced from epidemics at various stages of development using rotorods, passive traps, and water agar pl...

  12. New Plant Introductions with Resistance to the Soybean Aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (SA) was first found in the northern soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., growing regions of the USA in 2000. By 2005, the aphid had spread to 23 soybean growing states reaching as far south as Mississippi and Georgia and also north into Ontario, Canada. Th...

  13. A novel flavivirus in the soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a subterranean root pathogen that causes the most damaging disease of soybean in the United States. A novel nematode virus genome, soybean cyst nematode virus 5 (SbCNV5), was identified in RNASeq data from SCN eggs and second-stage juveniles. T...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.228 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.228 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.122 - Qualified State Soybean Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.122 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.122 - Qualified State Soybean Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.122 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.228 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.228 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.228 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.228 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.122 - Qualified State Soybean Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.122 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

  20. 7 CFR 1220.122 - Qualified State Soybean Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.122 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

  1. 7 CFR 407.16 - Group risk plan for soybean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for soybean. 407.16 Section 407.16..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.16 Group risk plan for soybean. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Soybeans for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  2. 7 CFR 407.16 - Group risk plan for soybean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for soybean. 407.16 Section 407.16..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.16 Group risk plan for soybean. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Soybeans for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  3. 7 CFR 407.16 - Group risk plan for soybean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for soybean. 407.16 Section 407.16..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.16 Group risk plan for soybean. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Soybeans for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  4. 7 CFR 407.16 - Group risk plan for soybean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for soybean. 407.16 Section 407.16..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.16 Group risk plan for soybean. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Soybeans for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.122 - Qualified State Soybean Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.122 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.228 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.228 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.228 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.228 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and...

  8. Putatively novel sources of resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) remains to be the most economically devastating endo-root parasite of soybean [Glycine max L. (Merrill)], in the USA and worldwide. Currently, two resistance loci, rhg1 and Rhg4 have been the main sources of resistance to SCN. Over 95% of soybean cultivars with SCN resist...

  9. Pathogenic variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi infecting soybean in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a major disease in many soybean-producing areas in Nigeria. To determine the virulence and the genetic structure of Nigerian field populations of the soybean rust pathogen, a total of 116 purified isolates established from infected leaves randomly co...

  10. Vegetable soybean tolerance to bentazon, fomesafen, imazamox, linuron, and sulfentrazone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor weed control, resulting from limited herbicide availability and undeveloped integrated weed management systems, is a major hurdle to production of vegetable soybean in the U.S. Vegetable soybean, the same species as grain-type soybean, has few registered herbicides due to unknown crop tolerance...

  11. An update of research on Phomopsis Seed Decay in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) is one of the most important soybean diseases that causes poor seed quality and further poor germination/vigor in most soybean production areas, especially in southern states. Very few soybean cultivars currently available for planting have resistance to PSD. To identify n...

  12. Soybean seedlings tolerate abrasion from air-propelled grit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New tools for controlling weeds would be useful for soybean production in organic systems. Air-propelled abrasive grit is one such tool that performs well for in-row weed control in corn, but crop safety in soybean is unknown. We examined responses to abrasion by corn-cob grit of soybean seedlings a...

  13. Accelerating yield potential in soybean: potential targets for biotechnological improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world’s most widely grown legume and provides an important source of protein and oil. More efficient agricultural practices and breeding of improved soybean cultivars suited to many latitudes have resulted in steady increases in soybean yields over the past century...

  14. Assessment Of Product In Corn And Soybean Intercropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Mohammad Mehdi; Yadegari, Mehrab

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in research station of Fars in 2004, in a piece of Land with a clay texture. In order to evaluate the different ratios of CORN and SOYBEAN intercropping, in comparison to pure culture, a randomized complete block design with 4 replications was adapted. Treatments consist of: p1 = pure corn, p2 = pure soybean, p3 = 50% corn+50% soybean, p4 = %75 corn+%25 soybean, p5 = %75 soybean+%25 corn. This Experiment was conducted by using replacement system. Evaluated factors are as the following Soybean and corn seed yield in pure culture and intercropping, Land Equivalent Ratio, Relative corn yield, Relative soybean yield, aggressively. Results showed that the treatment with %75 SOYBEAN+%25 CORN with LER = 1.19 and also the treatment with %50 soybean+%50 corn with LER—1.11 have preference %19 and %11 respectively higher yield compared to pure culture. Also in relation to the aggressively in treatment with %50corn+%50 soybean and also with %75corn+%25soybean, corn was dominant. Finally the best treatment was %75 soybean+%25corn with %19 efficiency compared to pure culture.

  15. Effect of Ultrasound in Soybean Protein Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukase, Hirokazu; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    Application of ultrasound for accelerating the extraction of nutriments in food processing has been attempted. However, conditions of exposure to ultrasound were not clear in previous studies. This paper reports on the relationship between the ultrasonic pressure and the amount of extracted protein from soybeans. Experiments were conducted using a beaker, in which the ultrasonic fields were precisely measured. Soybean flakes suspended in water were put in the beaker and placed in a water tank. The amount of extracted protein in water upon ultrasonic exposure was calculated by the Kjeldahl method. It was found that the amount of extracted protein increased in proportion to ultrasonic pressure up to the total amount of soybean protein soluble in water. Furthermore, this paper describes the denaturation of the protein produced by the ultrasonic cavitation.

  16. Heterosis and combining ability estimates in isoflavone content using different parental soybean accessions: wild soybean, a valuable germplasm for soybean breeding.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yingdong; Li, Wei; Xiao, Jialei; Lin, Hong; Liu, Ming; Liu, Miao; Luan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Bixian; Xie, Xuejun; Guo, Donglin; Lai, Yongcai

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone, a group of secondary metabolites in soybean, is beneficial to human health. Improving isoflavone content in soybean seeds has become one of the most important breeding objectives. However, the narrow genetic base of soybean cultivars hampered crop improvement. Wild soybean is an extraordinarily important gene pool for soybean breeding. In order to select an optimal germplasm for breeding programs to increase isoflavone concentration, 36 F1 soybean progenies from different parental accessions (cultivars, wild, Semi-wild and Interspecific) with various total isoflavone (TIF) concentration (High, Middle, Low) were analyzed for their isoflavone content. Results showed that male parents, except for Cultivars, showed positive GCA effects. In particular, wild soybean had higher positive GCA effects for TIF concentration. Both MP and BP heterosis value declined in the hybrid in which male parents were wild soybean, semi-wild soybean, interspecific offspring and cultivar in turn. In general, combining ability and heterosis in hybrids which had relative higher TIF concentration level parents showed better performance than those which had lower TIF concentration level parents. These results indicated characteristics of isoflavone content were mainly governed by additive type of gene action, and wild relatives could be utilized for breeding of soybean cultivars with this trait. A promising combination was found as the best potential hybrid for isoflavone content improvement.

  17. Soybean aphid feeding on resistant soybean leads to induction of xenobiotic stress response and suppression of salivary effector genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, poses serious challenges to soybean production in Asia, where it is native, and North-America, where it is invasive. To date, 6 major soybean genes for host plant resistance (HPR) to A. glycines have been identified, including Rag1, which is available in commercial...

  18. Nutritional assessment and fate of DNA of soybean meal from roundup ready or conventional soybeans using rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuanzhao; Li, Defa; Wang, Fenglai; Yin, Jingdong; Jin, Hong

    2004-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the safety of soybean meal prepared from genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup Ready; RR) soybeans and conventional soybeans. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats (40 males and 40 females) were randomly allotted to one of four groups according to sex and body weight for a 13-week feeding experiment. The rats were fed corn-based diets containing 60% conventional soybean meal, a mixture of 30% conventional and 30% RR soybean meal, 60% or 90% RR soybean meal. All diets were adjusted to an identical nutrient level except the 90% RR diet. The two soybean meals were similar in chemical analysis and amino acid composition. During the 13-week growth trial, body weight (P < 0.05) and feed intake (P < 0.05) decreased only in rats fed with 90% RR soybean meal at the first week. No treatment-related deaths occurred during the experiment. Gross necropsy findings, haematological or urinalysis values and clinical serum parameters showed no meaningful differences between rats fed the control and RR soybean meals. A 145 bp of cp4 epsps gene specific for the GM constructs from RR soybean meal or a 407 bp of lec gene from endogenous soybean DNA could not be detected in investigated masseter muscle samples. No adverse effects of glyphosate-tolerant soybean meal on rats were seen even at levels as high as 90% of the diet.

  19. 77 FR 40529 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1220 Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... the United Soybean Board (Board) to reflect changes in production levels that have occurred since...

  20. 78 FR 1 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1220 Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule adjusts the number of members on the United Soybean Board (Board) to...

  1. Weather variability, climatic change, and soybean production

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    A crop/weather model was used to determine the effect of changing climate and weather variability on soybean production in the Corn Belt. A cooling trend from the 1930s to the 1970s was accompanied by an upward trend in July plus August rainfall. There was decreased weather variability from the 1930s to 1973 and greatly increased weather variability after 1973. Improved weather from 1930 to 1972 increased soybean yields 3 bushels/acre. Higher intensity rainfalls increased in Illinois and Iowa after 1970.

  2. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    PubMed Central

    Marengo, Mauro; Akoto, Hannah F.; Zanoletti, Miriam; Carpen, Aristodemo; Buratti, Simona; Benedetti, Simona; Barbiroli, Alberto; Johnson, Paa-Nii T.; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther O.; Saalia, Firibu K.; Bonomi, Francesco; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Manful, John; Iametti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. PMID:28231133

  3. Influence of Herbicide Application to Soybeans on Soybean Cyst Nematode Egg Hatching

    PubMed Central

    Levene, Brian C.; Owen, Micheal D. K; Tylka, Gregory L.

    1998-01-01

    The hatching of Heterodera glycines eggs in soybean root exudates collected after postemergence application of three herbicides, and the hatching potential of H. glycines eggs from females feeding on herbicide-treated plants, were measured in vitro. Hatching in all root exudate solutions (RES) was greater than in deionized water but less than in 0.003 M ZnSO₄ solution. Filtering RES with a 0.22-μm-filter increased H. glycines hatching in RES. Application of acifluorfen, bentazon, and lactofen to foliage of soybean plants inhibited hatching of H. glycines eggs from the same plants. Hatching in RES from the different herbicide-treated soybeans was similar. Application of crop oil concentrate and non-ionic surfactant adjuvant to foliage did not affect hatching of H. glycines eggs from soybean plants. PMID:19274227

  4. Phytophthora Resistance of Soybean Germplasm with High Potential for Asian Soybean Rust Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple disease resistance is an important component of production agriculture. Major challenges include resistance to Phytophthora root rot caused by evolving Phytophthora sojae races and the recently introduced invasive Asian soybean rust (ASBR) caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi. The diseases cause...

  5. Stability of isoflavone isomers in steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji stored under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ru-Yue; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2009-03-11

    Steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji, a potentially functional food additive, were stored at 4 or 25 degrees C with or without deoxidant and desiccant for 120 days. After storage, steamed black soybeans and koji showed various extents of reduction in isoflavone contents dependent on storage temperature, packaging condition, and the kind of isoflavone isomer. Generally, black soybeans and koji showed the highest residual of isoflavone when they were stored at 4 degrees C with deoxidant and desiccant. Under this storage condition, beta-glucosides (daidzin, glycitin, and genistein), acetyl glucosides (acetyldaidzin, acetylglycitin, and acetylgenistin), manlonyl glucosides (malonyldaidzin, malonglycitin, and malonylgenistin), and aglycones (daidzein, glycitein, and genistin) in steamed black soybeans exhibited residuals of 100.1-100.9, 92.0-99.4, 90.0-94.0, and 77.2-78.8%, respectively, of their original contents after 120 days of storage. Meanwhile, the residuals found in black soybean koji were 77.8-90.0, 13.1-88.9, 66.7-85.5, and 76.4-80.6%, respectively.

  6. Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, T; Cuhra, M; Traavik, T; Sanden, M; Fagan, J; Primicerio, R

    2014-06-15

    This article describes the nutrient and elemental composition, including residues of herbicides and pesticides, of 31 soybean batches from Iowa, USA. The soy samples were grouped into three different categories: (i) genetically modified, glyphosate-tolerant soy (GM-soy); (ii) unmodified soy cultivated using a conventional "chemical" cultivation regime; and (iii) unmodified soy cultivated using an organic cultivation regime. Organic soybeans showed the healthiest nutritional profile with more sugars, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, significantly more total protein, zinc and less fibre than both conventional and GM-soy. Organic soybeans also contained less total saturated fat and total omega-6 fatty acids than both conventional and GM-soy. GM-soy contained high residues of glyphosate and AMPA (mean 3.3 and 5.7 mg/kg, respectively). Conventional and organic soybean batches contained none of these agrochemicals. Using 35 different nutritional and elemental variables to characterise each soy sample, we were able to discriminate GM, conventional and organic soybeans without exception, demonstrating "substantial non-equivalence" in compositional characteristics for 'ready-to-market' soybeans.

  7. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  8. Organogel formation of soybean oil with waxes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, petroleum waxes and commercial non-edible gelling agents to understand factors affecting the gelation ability of a gelator. Sunflower wax...

  9. Barium toxicity effects in soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Ryuichi; Jayachandran, Krish; Nguyen, Nguyen Tran; Boulenouar, Abdellah; Fujita, Kounosuke; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2008-10-01

    Barium (Ba)-induced phytotoxicity at 100, 1000, or 5000 microM Ba in soybean plants (Glycine max) was investigated under hydroponic culture conditions. Soybean growth and leaf photosynthetic activity were significantly inhibited by all three levels of Ba treatments. In the case of photosynthetic activity, 5000 microM Ba treatment shutdown stomatal opening and perturbed carbon fixation metabolism and translocation. However, 100 and 1000 microM Ba treatments shut down stomatal opening and inhibited carbon fixation, but without perturbation of leaf carbon fixation-related metabolism. Potassium (K) absorption by soybean roots was also reduced in all three Ba treatments. This decreased K absorption reduced K localization at guard cells. Barium accumulation in guard cells also inhibited K transport from epidermal cells to guard cells. This lack of K in guard cells resulted in stomatal closure. As a result of inhibition of K transport into guard cells and stomatal shutdown, photosynthetic activity and plant productivity were inhibited. Our experiment indicates that Ba has phytotoxic effects on soybean plants by inhibiting photosynthesis.

  10. Hydrolysis of soybean protein improves iron bioavailability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is an important trace metal element in human body. Iron deficiency affects human health, especially pregnant women and children. Soybean protein is a popular food in Asia and can contain a high amount of iron (145.70±0.74 ug/g); however, it is usually reported as an inhibitor of iron absorption...

  11. Elevated ozone alters soybean-virus interaction.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Damla D; Aldea, Mihai; O'Neill, Bridget F; Benitez, Marisol; Li, Min; Clough, Steven J; DeLucia, Evan H

    2008-10-01

    Increasing concentrations of ozone (O(3)) in the troposphere affect many organisms and their interactions with each other. To analyze the changes in a plant-pathogen interaction, soybean plants were infected with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) while they were fumigated with O(3). In otherwise natural field conditions, elevated O(3) treatment slowed systemic infection and disease development by inducing a nonspecific resistance against SMV for a period of 3 weeks. During this period, the negative effect of virus infection on light-saturated carbon assimilation rate was prevented by elevated O(3) exposure. To identify the molecular basis of a soybean nonspecific defense response, high-throughput gene expression analysis was performed in a controlled environment. Transcripts of fungal, bacterial, and viral defense-related genes, including PR-1, PR-5, PR-10, and EDS1, as well as genes of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathways (and concentrations of their end products, quercetin and kaempherol derivatives) increased in response to elevated O(3). The drastic changes in soybean basal defense response under altered atmospheric conditions suggest that one of the elements of global change may alter the ecological consequences and, eventually, coevolutionary relationship of plant-pathogen interactions in the future.

  12. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  13. US corn and soybeans exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The results from the U.S. corn/soybeans exploratory experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are summarized. The experiment consisted of two parts: the classification procedures verification test and the simulated aggregation test. Evaluations of labeling, proportion estimation, and aggregation procedures are presented.

  14. Radar backscatter properties of milo and soybeans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.; Metzler, T.

    1975-01-01

    The radar backscatter from fields of milo and soybeans was measured with a ground based radar as a function of frequency (8-18 GHz), polarization (HH and VV) and angle of incidence (0 deg-70 deg) during the summer of 1974. Supporting ground truth was gathered contemporaneously with the backscatter data. At nadir sigma deg of milo correlated highly, r = 0.96, with soil moisture in the milo field at 8.6 GHz but decreased to a value of r = 0.78 at a frequency of 17.0 GHz. Correlation studies of the variations of sigma deg with soil moisture in the soybean fields were not possible due to a lack of a meaningful soil moisture dynamic range. At the larger angles of incidence, however, sigma deg of soybeans did appear to be dependent on precipitation. It is suggested this phenomenon was caused by the rain altering plant geometry. In general sigma deg of both milo and soybeans had a relatively small dynamic range at the higher angles of incidence and showed no significant dependence on the measured crop parameters.

  15. Tolerance of Soybean Crops to Soil Waterlogging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monoculture of irrigated paddy rice, common in the Mississippi delta of the United States and in Asia, diminishes soil nutrients, compacts soils, contaminates water supplies, and increases pest and diseases. While the addition of soybean crops to this cropping ecosystem can attenuate many of these p...

  16. Development of Soybean Aphid Genomic and EST-SSR Markers using Next Generation Sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) has become the most damaging insect pest of soybean in most of North American soybean growing regions. Biotypes of soybean aphid capable of breaking down the resistance of newly developed aphid resistant soybean cultivars were discovered recently. But gen...

  17. Geographic distribution of soybean aphid biotypes in USA and Canada during 2008 - 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a native pest of soybean in eastern Asia and was detected on soybeans in North America in 2000. In 2004, the soybean variety ‘“Dowling”’ was described to be resistant to soybean aphids with the Rag1 gene for resistance. In 2006, a virulent biotype of s...

  18. The U.S. Soybean Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 588.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, James; And Others

    This report describes the U.S. soybean industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on soybeans. Highlights are as follows: U.S. soybean production has increased sevenfold since 1950, making soybeans the second highest valued crop after corn. Soybean production has risen in response to…

  19. Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust resistance by virus-induced gene silencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust is a fungus that causes disease on soybeans. The discovery of soybean genes and proteins that are important for disease resistance to soybean rust may help improve soybean cultivars through breeding or transgenic technology. Proteins previously discovered in the cell nucleus of soybea...

  20. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingyu; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Junwei J; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Wusheng; Pantalone, Vincent R; Arelli, Prakash R; Stewart, Charles N; Chen, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in soybean defence against soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN). GmSAMT1 was identified as a candidate SCN defence-related gene in our previous analysis of soybean defence against SCN using GeneChip microarray experiments. The current study started with the isolation of the full-length cDNAs of GmSAMT1 from a SCN-resistant soybean line and from a SCN-susceptible soybean line. The two cDNAs encode proteins of identical sequences. The GmSAMT1 cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. Using in vitro enzyme assays, E. coli-expressed GmSAMT1 was confirmed to function as salicylic acid methyltransferase. The apparent Km value of GmSAMT1 for salicylic acid was approximately 46 μM. To determine the role of GmSAMT1 in soybean defence against SCN, transgenic hairy roots overexpressing GmSAMT1 were produced and tested for SCN resistance. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in SCN-susceptible backgrounds significantly reduced the development of SCN, indicating that overexpression of GmSAMT1 in the transgenic hairy root system could confer resistance to SCN. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in transgenic hairy roots was also found to affect the expression of selected genes involved in salicylic acid biosynthesis and salicylic acid signal transduction.

  1. Heating affects the content and distribution profile of isoflavones in steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ru-Yue; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2008-09-24

    Steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji, a potentially functional food additive, were subjected to heating at 40-100 degrees C for 30 min. It was found that steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji after heating at 80 degrees C or higher generally showed reduced contents of malonylglucoside, acetylglucoside, and aglycone isoflavone and an increased content of beta-glucoside. A lower reduction in malonylglucoside and acetylglucoside isoflavone but greater reduction in aglycone content was noted in steamed black soybeans compared to black soybean koji after a similar heat treatment. After 30 min of heating at 100 degrees C, steamed black soybean retained ca. 90.3 and 83.8%, respectively, of its original malonylglucoside and acetylglucoside isoflavone, compared to lower residuals of 80.9 and 78.8%, respectively, for black soybean koji. In contrast, the heated black soybeans showed an aglycone residual of 68.0%, which is less than the 80.0% noted with the heated black soybean koji.

  2. Whole cottonseeds or a combination of soybeans and soybeans hulls in the diets of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Abel-Caines, S F; Grant, R J; Haddad, S G

    1997-07-01

    Whole raw soybeans and soybean hulls were evaluated as a dietary replacement for whole cottonseed as determined by rumination and total chewing activity, milk fat percentage, and efficiency of 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production. Twenty-six Holstein dairy cows (14 multiparous; 35 +/- 12 d of lactation) were assigned randomly to one of two total mixed rations (TMR) for 15 wk. The whole cottonseed TMR and the soybean plus soybean hull TMR contained 40% of a 45:55 mixture of alfalfa and corn silages (dry matter basis) and either 15% cottonseed or 15% soybeans, 8% soybean hulls, and 0.7% sodium bicarbonate. Both TMR provided 60% of dietary neutral detergent fiber from forage. The TMR, fed twice daily, were isonitrogenous (17.5% crude protein) and equal in neutral detergent fiber (30%). The TMR had no effect on dry matter intake (24.8 kg/d). The cottonseed TMR stimulated greater rumination and total chewing activity. Although milk production was greater for cows fed the cottonseed TMR (35.7 vs. 34.1 kg/d), milk fat production was unaffected by TMR (3.72%). The efficiency of 4% FCM production was similar for cows fed the cottonseed and soybean plus soybean hull TMR (1.33), and both TMR resulted in a positive net energy balance (10.9 Mcal/d). A combination of soybeans, soybean hulls, and sodium bicarbonate was an effective alternative to whole cottonseed as measured by the efficiency of FCM production.

  3. Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison.

    PubMed

    Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Sohn, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    Most traits introduced into genetically engineered crops result from the expression of new proteins. As the first step toward assessing the allergenic potential of genetically modified organism (GMO) food, immunologic and physicochemical characterizations are needed. We prepared crude extract from GMO soybeans, wild soybeans, curd, and soy milk and then performed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After acidification with HCl, the samples were separated to globulin and whey. To evaluate changes in protein composition, either the samples were heated or pepsin was added. Polymerase chain reaction with primer encoding the 35S-promotor and the 3-enol-pyruvyl-shikimat-5-phosphat-synthase gene were performed, respectively, to detect the GMO component. SDS-PAGE results showed definite protein bands at 80 kDa in GMO soybean, 50 kDa in wild soybean, and a similar distribution of protein bands was noticed below 40 kDa. It was difficult to observe protein distribution because of modifications that occurred during processing in soybean-processed products. After heating, proteins of GMO and wild soybeans showed similar distributions and no distinct bands were detected at 50 and 80 kDa. Although SDS-PAGE analyses of raw GMO and wild soybeans differed, the same protein bands of 68, 37, and 20 kDa were observed in the globulin fraction after acidification. After adding pepsin, 20- and 68-kDa bands were found preserved in GMO and wild soybeans. The polymerase chain reaction procedures with primers specific to GMO soybeans showed that GMO soybeans and some curd samples included a GMO component. The skin test results of 49 patients showed 13 positive results to wild soybeans and 8 positive results to GMO soybeans. One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Sera from nine patients with positive skin tests to the crude extract and a positive capsulated allergen product test to the soybean antigen were used for the immunoblotting

  4. Rapid Release of Protease Inhibitors from Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, David L.; Yang, Wen-Kuang; Foard, Donald E.; Lin, K.-T. -Davis

    1978-01-01

    Specific antisera were prepared against the Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor and four other trypsin inhibitors of low molecular weight isolated from soybeans (Glycine max L. cv. Tracy). These antisera were used to detect the presence and amount of the inhibitors in: (a) seeds and protein extracts of soybean meal; (b) seedlings; and (c) the water surrounding the seeds and roots of seedlings. Lectin activities in seeds, seedlings, and water were also determined at the same time as the protease inhibitor activities. By competitive inhibition of immunoprecipitation, the combined five low molecular weight protease inhibitors were found to constitute the following percentages of proteins (w/w): 6.3% in defatted soybean meal; 8.1% of the protein extracted from the meal by a buffer of pH 8.6; 8.3, 14.7, 15.2, 16.1, 17.2, and 18.9% of the protein in a lyophilisate of water in which seeds were incubated for 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours, respectively; 8.2% in a lyophilisate of water in which roots of seedlings grew for 20 days; 1.5% in cotyledons; and less than 0.1% in epicotyls, hypocotyls, and roots of 12-day-old seedlings. Hemagglutination activities, expressed as the lowest amount of protein required to give a positive agglutination of 0.2 ml of 2% rabbit red blood cells, were as follows: purified soybean lectin, 0.08 μg; lyophilisate of water in which seeds were incubated for 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours, 10, 2.5, 5, 5, and 2.5 μg, respectively; lyophilisate of water in which roots grew for 20 days, 5 μg; 12-day-old cotyledons, roots, epicotyls, and hypocotyls, 12.5, 100, >1,000, and >500 μg, respectively. The results indicate that a large amount of protease inhibitors as well as lectins are released from seeds during the first 8 hours of imbibition. Neither lima bean trypsin inhibitor (mol wt, 10,000) nor Kunitz soybean trypsin inhibitor (mol wt, 21,500) showed competitive inhibition in tests with antisera against low molecular weight soybean protease inhibitors

  5. Beta-conglycinins among sources of bioactives in soybean hydrolysates that inhibited leukemia cells in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a complex matrix containing several potentially bioactive components. The objective was to build a statistical model to predict the anticancer potential of soybean based on the composition of bioactive components in soybean hydrolysates produced by simulated gastrointestinal digestion. ...

  6. Preparation and characterization of fine powdered whole soybean curd

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficacy and comparative characteristics of fine powdered whole soybean curd. [Methods] Ground dried soybean to a fine powder (700 mesh) containing bean components in its entirety, and then produced whole soybean curd. Analysed its nutritive components, bioactive substances, antioxidant activities and texture compared with pressed soybean curd. [Results] Compared with pressed soybean curd, the nutrients and isoflavone in whole soybean curd were slightly decreased, but antioxidant activities, dietary fibers and moisture content were increased. Also, the yield rate of the total process was improved 1.9 times. [Conclusion] Fine powdered whole bean curd has antioxidant effects, contains dietary fiber and possesses soft characteristics, hence has development potential in the diet market and as food for patients. PMID:27274462

  7. Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun; Ji, Xiangming; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-14

    Three extraction strategies including Soxhlet extraction, conventional solid-liquid extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared for their efficiency to extract phenolic antioxidants from Virginia-grown soybean seeds. Five extraction solvents were evaluated in UAE and the conventional extraction. The soybean extracts were compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities. The results showed that UAE improved the extraction of soybean phenolic compounds by >54% compared to the conventional and Soxhlet extractions. Among the tested solvents, 50% acetone was the most efficient for extracting soybean phenolic compounds. There was no significant correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts. The extracts prepared by 70% ethanol had the highest ORAC values. Overall, UAE with 50% acetone or 70% ethanol is recommended for extracting soybean antioxidants on the basis of the TPC and ORAC results.

  8. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity. PMID:26635848

  9. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  10. Rag1 aphid resistant soybeans alter the movement and distribution of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Whalen, Rebecca; Harmon, Jason P

    2012-12-01

    Herbivorous insects often move and distribute according to the quality of the plant they are on, and this behavior could influence interactions with plants bred for herbivore resistance. However, when an insect is normally considered sedentary, less is known about the potential importance of movement. We performed experiments to determine if a resistant soybean variety alters the movement and distribution, both within and between plants, of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura. We did this by counting apterous aphids on leaves of resistant and susceptible soybean plants across several days. In individual plant tests aphid distribution was different between susceptible and resistant soybeans. Most notably aphids on resistant plants were quickly found off the original leaf on which they were placed and were ultimately distributed throughout the resistant soybean. Aphids on susceptible plants, however, tended to stay on their initial leaf of placement. Follow up experiments indicated this was primarily because of the movement of individuals and not differential demography on various plant parts. In experiments where aphids were able to walk to an adjacent plant there appeared to be a net movement of aphids off resistant plants and on to susceptible plants. Aphid populations on susceptible plants were higher when the plant was adjacent to a resistant plant than when adjacent to another susceptible plant. The effect of resistant plants on aphid movement and distribution could lead to unintended side-effects such as greater spread of plant viruses or altered effectiveness of biological control agents.

  11. Soybean Knowledge Base (SoyKB): a Web Resource for Soybean Translational Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Trupti; Patil, Kapil; Fitzpatrick, Michael R.; Franklin, Levi D.; Yao, Qiuming; Cook, Jeffrey R.; Wang, Zhem; Libault, Marc; Brechenmacher, Laurent; Valliyodan, Babu; Wu, Xiaolei; Cheng, Jianlin; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T.; Xu, Dong

    2012-01-17

    Background: Soybean Knowledge Base (SoyKB) is a comprehensive all-inclusive web resource for soybean translational genomics. SoyKB is designed to handle the management and integration of soybean genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data along with annotation of gene function and biological pathway. It contains information on four entities, namely genes, microRNAs, metabolites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods: SoyKB has many useful tools such as Affymetrix probe ID search, gene family search, multiple gene/ metabolite search supporting co-expression analysis, and protein 3D structure viewer as well as download and upload capacity for experimental data and annotations. It has four tiers of registration, which control different levels of access to public and private data. It allows users of certain levels to share their expertise by adding comments to the data. It has a user-friendly web interface together with genome browser and pathway viewer, which display data in an intuitive manner to the soybean researchers, producers and consumers. Conclusions: SoyKB addresses the increasing need of the soybean research community to have a one-stop-shop functional and translational omics web resource for information retrieval and analysis in a user-friendly way. SoyKB can be publicly accessed at http://soykb.org/.

  12. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kanobe, Charles; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.; Tylka, Gregory L.; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.

    2015-01-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of “metabolic hijacking” by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor. PMID:26684003

  13. Overexpression of four Arabidopsis thaliana NHLgenes in soybean (Glycine max) roots and their effect over resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the US, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean. Currently grown soybean varieties are not resistant to all field populations of SCN. We genetically engineered soybean roots so they expressed genes from the model plant, Arabidopsis. When the Arabidopsis genes, ...

  14. Bioactive Proteins and Peptides from Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Agyei, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Dietary proteins from soybeans have been shown to offer health benefits in vivo and/or in vitro either as intact proteins or in partially digested forms also called bioactive peptides. Upon oral administration and absorption, soy-derived bioactive peptides may induce several physiological responses such as antioxidative, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anticancer and immunomodulatory effects. There has therefore been a mounting research interest in the therapeutic potential of soy protein hydrolysates and their subsequent incorporation in functional foods and 'Food for Specified Health Uses' (FOSHU) related products where their biological activities may assist in the promotion of good health or in the control and prevention of diseases. This mini review discusses relevant patents and gives an overview on bioactive proteins and peptides obtainable from soybeans. Processes for the production and formulation of these peptides are given, together with specific examples of their therapeutic potential and possible areas of application.

  15. Microwave backscattering from an anisotropic soybean canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. H.; Saatchi, S.; Levine, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic backscattering from a soybean canopy is modeled in the L band region of the spectrum. Mature soybean plants are taken as an ensemble of leaves and stems which are represented by lossy dielectric disks and rods respectively. Field data indicated that leaves and stems are not distributed uniformly in the azimuth coordinate. The plant has a tendency to grow out into the area between the rows. The effects on backscattered radar waves was computed by the distorted Born approximation. Results for look directions along the rows and perpendicular to the rows show that only a modest difference occurs in the L band frequency range. The use of another nonuniform distribution, different from those observed experimentally, results in a significant effect due to vegetation asymmetry.

  16. Natural variability in abundance of prevalent soybean proteins.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Savithiry S

    2010-12-01

    Soybean is an inexpensive source of protein for humans and animals. Genetic modifications (GMO) to soybean have become inevitable on two fronts, both quality and yield will need to improve to meet increasing global demand. To ensure the safety of the crop for consumers it is important to determine the natural variation in seed protein constituents as well as any unintended changes that may occur in the GMO as a result of genetic modification. Understanding the natural variation of seed proteins in wild and cultivated soybeans that have been used in conventional soybean breeding programs is critical for determining unintended protein expression in GMO soybeans. In recent years, proteomic technologies have been used as an effective analytical tool for examining modifications of protein profiles. We have standardized and applied these technologies to determine and quantify the spectrum of proteins present in soybean seed. We used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the separation, quantification, and identification of different classes of soybean seed proteins. We have observed significant variations in different classes of proteins, including storage, allergen and anti-nutritional protein profiles, between non-GMO cultivated and wild soybean varieties. This information is useful for scientists and regulatory agencies to determine whether the unintended expression of proteins found in transgenic soybean is within the range of natural variation.

  17. Arthropod abundance and diversity in transgenic Bt soybean.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huilin; Li, Yunhe; Li, Xiangju; Wu, Kongming

    2014-08-01

    Before the commercialization of any insect-resistant genetically modified crop, it must be subjected to a rigorous premarket risk assessment. Here, possible effects of growing of transgenic Cry1Ac soybean on arthropod communities under field conditions were assessed for 2 yr and quantified in terms of arthropod community indices including the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, richness index, and dominance index. Our results showed no significant differences of diversity, richness, or dominant indices for Bt soybean compared with the recipient cultivar, conventional soybean, or sprayed conventional soybean. Conventional soybean treatment with insecticide had an adverse effect on the arthropod community after spraying, but arthropod community diversity recovered quickly. Bt soybean had no negative effect on the dominant distribution of subcommunities, including sucking pests, other pests, predators, parasitoids, and others except for lepidopteran pests. The dominance distribution of lepidopteran pests decreased significantly in Bt soybean because of the significant decrease in the numbers of Spodoptera litura (F.) and Ascotis selenaria Schiffermüller et Denis compared with the recipient cultivar. Our results showed that there were no negative effects of Cry1Ac soybean on the arthropod community in soybean field plots in the short term.

  18. Engineering of soybean mosaic virus as a versatile tool for studying protein–protein interactions in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Transient gene expression approaches are valuable tools for rapid introduction of genes of interest and characterization of their functions in plants. Although agroinfiltration is the most effectively and routinely used method for transient expression of multiple genes in various plant species, this approach has been largely unsuccessful in soybean. In this study, we engineered soybean mosaic virus (SMV) as a dual-gene delivery vector to simultaneously deliver and express two genes in soybean cells. We further show the application of the SMV-based dual vector for a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay to visualize in vivo protein–protein interactions in soybean and for a co-immunoprecipitation assay to identify cellular proteins interacting with SMV helper component protease. This approach provides a rapid and cost-effective tool for transient introduction of multiple traits into soybean and for in vivo characterization of the soybean cellular protein interaction network. PMID:26926710

  19. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented.

  20. Reniform Nematode Resistance in Selected Soybean Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, R. T.; Rakes, L.; Jackson, L. E.; Dombek, D. G.

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-two soybean cultivars from the variety testing programs of Arkansas and Mississippi were tested in greenhouse pot experiments during summer 1998 to identify soybean cultivars with resistance to the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis. Also included in the tests were the resistant cultivars Forrest and Hartwig, the susceptible control Braxton, and fallow infested soil, which were used as controls. Numbers of reniform nematode extracted from the soil and roots and the ratio of the numbers reproducing on each cultivar compared to the number reproducing on Forrest are reported. Cultivars with reproduction not significantly different from Forrest were classified resistant, whereas those with greater reproductive indices were considered susceptible. One of the 18 cultivars of relative maturity group (RMG) ≤4.4 was classified as resistant. For the 86 cultivars of RMG 4.5-4.9, 18 were found to be resistant. Of the 43 cultivars of RMG 5.0-5.4, 16 were resistant, while 43 of the 91 cultivars of RMG 5.5-5.9 were resistant. Fifteen of the cultivars with an RMG of ≥6.0 were classed as resistant. These data will be useful in the selection of soybean cultivars to use in rotation with cotton to help control the reniform nematode. PMID:19270934

  1. Astronaut Whitson Displays Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crewmember and flight engineer Peggy Whitson displays the progress of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  2. Early-season soybean as a trap crop for stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Arkansas' changing system of soybean production.

    PubMed

    Smith, J F; Luttrell, R G; Greene, J K; Tingle, C

    2009-04-01

    Early-season soybean, Glycine max L. Merrill, was evaluated in Arkansas soybean fields as a trap crop for a complex of stink bug species that included Nezara viridula L., Acrosternum hilare (Say), and Euschistus servus (Say). Early-season soybean production systems (ESPSs) are composed of indeterminate soybean cultivars planted in April. In the first year of a 2-yr study, field-scale trap crops ( approximately 0.5-1.0 ha) of maturity group (MG) III and IV soybean were planted adjacent to production fields of MG V soybean. Stink bugs were attracted first to the ESPS trap crops and were twice treated with insecticide, yet damaging populations developed later in the MG V soybean adjacent to the trap crops. General sampling and observations of low stink bug densities in commercial fields of soybean and corn across the study area suggested that stink bugs were widely distributed across the agricultural landscape. These observations and the subsequent discovery of additional ESPS fields outside the study area suggested that developing populations in the adjacent MG V soybean probably did not originate from the trap crops. However the source of the populations colonizing MG V soybean could not be determined, and we concluded that the scale of future experiments should be increased to better control stink bugs dispersing from other ESPSs outside the study area. In the second year of the study, the experiment was expanded in size to a farm- or community-scale project where entire fields of ESPSs (8-32 ha) were used as trap crops. Insecticide was applied to the trap-crop fields and other fields of ESPSs within a 0.8-km radius of targeted response fields, yet again there was no apparent effect on subsequent populations of stink bugs in the MG V response fields. With the recent expansion of ESPSs in Arkansas, it may be difficult to use ESPSs as a trap crop to lower stink bug populations across large enough areas to suppress populations in late-season soybean. Also, multiple

  3. Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean.

  4. Fluorescence imaging of soybean flavonol isolines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Edward H.; Mulchi, Charles L.; McMurtrey, James E., III; Chappelle, Emmett W.; Rowland, Randy A.

    1998-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize the fluorescence emission of leaves from four soybean ('Harosoy') plants containing different concentrations of flavonols (kaempferol glycosides). The investigation utilized genetically mutated soybean flavonol isolines grown in a constant environment, thus limiting factors known to affect fluorescence emission characteristics other than different kaempferol glycosides concentrations. Flavonol isolines included OX922, OX941, OX942, OX944. The first two isolines contain kaempferol (K) glycosides; K3, K6, and K9, and the latter two did not have K3, K6, and K9. A fluorescence imaging system (FIS) was used to characterize steady state florescence images of the sample leaves measured at wavelengths centered at 450, 550, 680, and 740 nm with an excitation at 360 nm. Images taken with FIS greatly complement non-imaging fluorescence measurements by characterizing the spatial variation of fluorescence within leaves. We also acquired fluorescence emission spectra to characterize spectral features of the soybean flavonol isolines. The emission spectral shape of the fluorescence emission characteristics were not significantly different between the soybeans that contain kaempferol glycosides and the ones that do not contain kaempferol glycosides. Typical emission maxima of green vegetation in the blue, green, red, and far-red bands were noticed in all four soybean isolines. However, plants containing kaempferol glycosides, OX922 and OX941 had significantly lower intensities throughout the wavelength regions. These results imply that fluorescence emission intensities in the fluorescence emission bands studied are significantly affected by the presence and absence of kaempferol glycosides concentrations (UV radiation screening compounds). Pure kaempferol glycoside dissolved in solution show minimal fluorescence emission when excited with the absorption maximum radiation at 365 nm. However, a broad band emission can be seen in the green

  5. Bacillus paralicheniformis sp. nov., isolated from fermented soybean paste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An isolate of a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium was recovered from soybean-based fermented paste. It was isolated from cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soybean food product. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the strain ...

  6. Fingerprinting Soybean Germplasm and Its Utility in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L.; Jia, Gaofeng; Quigley, Charles V.; Fickus, Edward W.; Nelson, Randall L.; Cregan, Perry B.

    2015-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture, Soybean Germplasm Collection includes 18,480 domesticated soybean and 1168 wild soybean accessions introduced from 84 countries or developed in the United States. This collection was genotyped with the SoySNP50K BeadChip containing greater than 50K single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Redundant accessions were identified in the collection, and distinct genetic backgrounds of soybean from different geographic origins were observed that could be a unique resource for soybean genetic improvement. We detected a dramatic reduction of genetic diversity based on linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure analyses of the wild, landrace, and North American cultivar populations and identified candidate regions associated with domestication and selection imposed by North American breeding. We constructed the first soybean haplotype block maps in the wild, landrace, and North American cultivar populations and observed that most recombination events occurred in the regions between haplotype blocks. These haplotype maps are crucial for association mapping aimed at the identification of genes controlling traits of economic importance. A case-control association test delimited potential genomic regions along seven chromosomes that most likely contain genes controlling seed weight in domesticated soybean. The resulting dataset will facilitate germplasm utilization, identification of genes controlling important traits, and will accelerate the creation of soybean varieties with improved seed yield and quality. PMID:26224783

  7. Enzymatic Products from Modified Soybean Oil Containing Hydrazinoester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We use soybean oil to produce new, non-petroleum based products. The starting material is the ene reaction product of soybean oil and diethyl azodicarboxylate (DEAD), which can then be hydrolyzed chemically and enzymatically. Chemical hydrolysis gives hydrazino-fatty acids, whereas enzymatic hydro...

  8. Confirmation of a seed yield QTL in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic germplasm can be an important source of genetic diversity for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] improvement. Previously, four yield quantitative trait loci (QTL) had been identified in a cross between the exotic soybean plant introduction (PI) 68658 and the U.S. cultivar Lawrence. The confirma...

  9. Evaluating Natural Variability of Soybean proteins by Proteomic Tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is an inexpensive source of protein for humans and animals. Genetic modifications (GMO) to soybean have become inevitable on two fronts, both quality and yield will need to improve to meet increasing global demand. To ensure the safety of the crop for consumers it is important to determine...

  10. Dynamics of water droplet impact and spread on soybean leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans are often sprayed to prevent significant yield loss from damage by insect pests and plant diseases. Understanding interactions of spray droplet reactions on soybean plant surfaces can lead to development of improved application strategies to enhance efficacy of pesticides. In this research,...

  11. Predicting potential ecological impact of soybean aphid biological control introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, APHIS GLYCINES, was first reported in the US in 2000; since then, it has spread to 22 states, putting >24 million hectares of soybean at risk. In China, APHIS GLYCINES rarely reaches damaging levels and has a diverse complex of predators and parasitoids. In the US, parasitoids are...

  12. Mammalian cell cytotoxicity analysis of soybean rust fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, in the United States has increased the concerns of the impact of the pathogen on U.S. soybean production. The rapid spread of P. pachyrhizi and its potential to cause severe yield losses makes this among the most destructive folia...

  13. Nuclear proteomic changes linked to soybean rust resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 4,975 proteins from nuclear preparations of soybean leaves were detected using a high-throughput liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Statistics of summed spectral counts revealed sets of proteins with differential accumulation changes between isogenic soybeans susceptible ...

  14. Genetic Diversity and Soybean Yield: Finding the Balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on national production statistics since 1924, average soybean yield in the U.S. has increased at a nearly steady rate of 22 kg ha-1 year-1. It is possible to show some changes in this rate depending on how these past 85 years are divided, but two conclusions seem evident. Soybean yield has not...

  15. A roadmap for functional structural variants in the soybean genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene structural variation (SV) has recently emerged as a key genetic mechanism underlying several important phenotypic traits in crop species. We screened a panel of 41 soybean accessions serving as parents in a soybean nested association mapping population for deletions and duplications in over 53...

  16. A new virus of soybean confirmed in Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This week our laboratory confirmed the presence of Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus (SVNaV) in soybeans sampled in Wisconsin. Samples were taken at several times during September and processed in our laboratory. Symptoms of the disease caused by the virus include yellowing (chlorosis) of the ...

  17. Association of green stem disorder with agronomic traits in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green stem disorder of soybean (GSD) is the occurrence of non-senescent, fleshy green stems of plants with normal, fully mature pods and seeds. Data on GSD incidence based on a percentage of plants in plots showing symptoms were collected for soybean cultivars in 86 trials from 2009 to 2012 at seven...

  18. Evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance to charcoal rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina causes more yield loss in soybean than most other diseases in the southern U.S.A. There are no commercial genotypes marketed as resistant to charcoal rot of soybean. Reactions of 27 maturity group (MG) III, 29 Early MG IV, 34 Late MG IV, and 59 MG V gen...

  19. Mapping Eight Male-Sterile, Female-Sterile Soybean Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In soybean, mutations in genes involved in meiosis can lead to altered chromosome pairing and result in non-functional gametes.Mutability of the w4 flower color locus in soybean is due to an unstable allele designated w4-m (mutable). Several germinal revertant studies using the w4-m system resulted ...

  20. [Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].

    PubMed

    Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended.

  1. Ozone's suffocating effect on soybean physiology, growth and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is damaging air pollutant that is currently costing U.S. farmers hundreds of millions of dollars in yield losses each year. The detrimental effect of O3 on soybean production has been recognized over the past 30 to 40 years, yet there has been little effort to improve soybean...

  2. Synthesis of lubrication fluids and surfactant precursors from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting with soybean oil or soybean oil derived methyl oleate, a variety of compounds have been synthesized. The epoxidation of oleochemicals is a simple way to use the unsaturation naturally available in the vegetable oil and convert it into a variety of other useful chemicals. Epoxidized methyl...

  3. Adhesion Properties of Plywood Glue Containing Soybean Meal as Extender

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of soybean meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive intended for sprayline coaters. Ground soybean meal, with 51.5% (dry basis, db) crude protein and 1.5% (db) residual oil, replaced the current industry extender, wheat flour, in the standard ...

  4. Starch Metabolism in Space-Grown Soybean Seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guikema, James A.; Leach, Jan E.; Brown, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    The research conducted during this grant is described. There were three major areas of study: These were: (1) the interaction of gravity and sugar metabolism in soybean; (2) the effects of gravity on the photosynthetic activity of Brassica rapa; (3) investigation as to the effects of microgravity on the interaction of a fungal root pathogen with soybean.

  5. Polymercaptanized soybean oil – properties and tribological characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymercaptanized vegetable oils are produced in industrial scale by the addition of hydrogen sulfide across double bonds or epoxides of vegetable oils, in the presence of UV-light. To date, soybean oil, epoxidized soybean oil, and castor oil has been mercaptanized using such a procedure. Depending ...

  6. Functionality of soybean CBF/DREB1 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yuji; Randall, Stephen K

    2016-05-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is considered to be cold intolerant and is not able to significantly acclimate to cold/freezing stress. In most cold tolerant plants, the C-repeat/DRE Binding Factors (CBF/DREBs) are critical contributors to successful cold-responses; rapidly increasing following cold treatment and regulating the induction of many cold responsive genes. In soybean vegetative tissue, we found strong, transient accumulation of CBF transcripts in response to cold stress; however, the soybean transcripts of typical cold responsive genes (homologues to Arabidopsis genes such as dehydrins, ADH1, RAP2.1, and LEA14) were not significantly altered. Soybean CBFs were found to be functional, as when expressed constitutively in Arabidopsis they increased the levels of AtCOR47 and AtRD29a transcripts and increased freezing tolerance as measured by a decrease in leaf freezing damage and ion leakage. Furthermore the constitutive expression of GmDREB1A;2 and GmDREB1B;1 in Arabidopsis led to stronger up-regulation of downstream genes and more freezing tolerance than GmDREB1A;1, the gene whose transcript is the major contributor to total CBF/DREB1 transcripts in soybean. The inability for the soybean CBFs to significantly up regulate the soybean genes that contribute to cold tolerance is consistent with poor acclimation capability and the cold intolerance of soybean.

  7. [Mapping and cloning of low phosphorus tolerance genes in soybeans].

    PubMed

    Dan, Zhang; Haina, Song; Hao, Cheng; Deyue, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Soybean is a major source of edible oil and phytoprotein. Low phosphorus available in soil is an important factor limiting the current soybean production. Effective ways to solve the problem include identification of germplasms and genes tolerant to low-phosphorus stress, and cultivation of soybean varieties with high phosphorus efficiency. Recently many researches have been carrying out investigations to map and clone genes related to phosphorus efficiency in soybeans. However, due to the complexity of the soybean genome and little knowledge of functional genes, it has been difficult to understand the mechanism of soybean tolerance to low phosphorus. Although quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping related to low phosphorus tolerance has made some progress, it remains elusive to obtain accurate candidate genes for molecular breeding applications, due to the limited accuracy of QTL. Even for the cloned soybean low phosphorus tolerance genes, the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown, further limiting the application to breeding. In this review, we summarize the progresses on mapping, cloning and functional characterization of soybean low phosphorus tolerance genes.

  8. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  9. Management Practices of Soybean Producers in Marion County, Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William A.; And Others

    The purposes of the study were to: (1) determine some major characteristics of Marion County soybean producers and their farms; (2) more accurately determine which recommended production practices soybean producers were using in 1968 and 1969; (3) study the relation between use of recommended production practices and yield levels; and (4) identify…

  10. Application Technology Research for Asian Soybean Rust Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungicides are currently the only means for managing potentially devastating Asian Soybean Rust (ASR) infection in the U.S. ASR is likely to first infection those portions of the soybean canopy closer to the ground. Infection is most likely to occur once the canopy is nearly fully developed and mo...

  11. Utilization of Molecular Detection Techniques to Find Soybean Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans continue to rise in prominence as a source of feed, food, oil, and renewable energy. Of many factors impacting yield, microbial pathogens alone can cause significant losses in production. Management of soybean diseases and pests involves many approaches including cultural aspects like crop ...

  12. Bacillus glycinifermentans sp. nov., isolated from fermented soybean paste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two independent isolates of a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium were recovered from soybean-based fermented foodstuffs. Two were isolated from cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soybean food product. Multilocus sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and 5 protein coding genes indi...

  13. Phytophthora root rot resistance in soybean E00003

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a devastating disease in soybean production. Using resistant cultivars has been suggested as the best solution for disease management. Michigan elite soybean E00003 is resistant to P. sojae and has been used as a PRR resist...

  14. Fingerprinting soybean germplasm and its utility in genomic research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The annual accessions in the United States Department of Agriculture, Soybean Germplasm Collection including 18,480 domesticated and 1,168 wild soybeans introduced from 84 countries or developed in the U.S. were genotyped with the SoySNP50K BeadChip containing >50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SN...

  15. Biological Networks Underlying Soybean Seed Oil Composition and Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is the most important oil crop in the United States. Production of soybean seed oil requires coordinated expression of many biological components and pathways, which is further regulated by seed development and phyto-hormones. A new research project is initiated in my laboratory to delineat...

  16. Effects of antidepressants and soybean association in depressive menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Rose E Nina; Landa, Adriana I; Lafuente, José Vicente; Gargiulo, Pascual A

    2014-01-01

    Depression in menopausal women has been widely described for many years ago and is related to hormonal decrease, mainly estrogens. The use of soy has been proposed as a possible coadjutant alternative to treat menopausal depressive disorder. In the present pilot clinical trial the effect of soybean, antidepressants and the association of soybean with antidepressants was studied in 40 depressive menopausal women for three months. Patients were divided in four groups of 10 women: fluoxetine (10 mg), soybean (100 mg), sertraline (50 mg), and sertraline (50 mg) plus soybean (100 mg). The Hamilton and Zung Depression Scales were used to measure the treatment effects. Values at the beginning and at the end of the study were compared. In all cases a significant difference was observed when the treated groups were compared vs. their untreated situation in both scales (p < 0.001). When a comparison between pre- minus post-treatment Zung scale scores was done, the effect induced by the association of sertraline and soybean was significantly higher than the other groups (p < 0.05). These effects were also seen using the Hamilton scale scores, showing significant differences between the association vs. soybean (p < 0.05) and setraline (p < 0.05) groups, but not vs. fluoxetine group. We conclude that soybean has an antidepressant effect per se, and the association of soybean and antidepressants increases their effects.

  17. Resistance to charcoal rot identified in ancestral soybean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot, caused by the fungal pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina, is an economically important disease on soybean and other crops including maize, sorghum, and sunflowers. Without effective cultural or chemical options to control charcoal rot in soybean, finding sources of genetic resistance is o...

  18. Management of Hoplolaimus columbus with Tolerant Soybean and Nematicides.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D P; Imbriani, J L

    1987-10-01

    Two experiments, one site per year, were conducted in Scotland County, North Carolina, to determine the usefulness of selected cultivars and nematicides for limiting soybean losses due to Hoplolaimus columbus. Coker 317 was relatively tolerant to this nematode, and Coker 156, Centennial, Dehapine 105, and Gordon were generally intolerant. Most nematicides significantly increased soybean yields, and many gave an economic return.

  19. Soybean Cyst Nematode in North America - 55 Years Later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was first discovered in North America in 1954 in Hanover County, North Carolina, USA, when it was found on soybean in a field that had been planted to Easter lilies obtained from Japan prior to World War II. The nematode is now distributed throughout soybe...

  20. Delivering More Nutritious Soybeans After Molecular Genetic Detective Work

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is an important, but hidden, component of the American diet. Both positive and negative impacts from the fatty acid components of oils have been demonstrated for human nutrition needs. The objective of this research was to identify soybean genes that underlie important oil quality trai...

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Pararetrovirus Isolated from Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Han, Junping; Domier, Leslie L.; Dorrance, Anne

    2012-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of soybean Putnam virus (SPuV), a new pararetrovirus isolated from a soybean field in Putnam County, OH. Comparison of SPuV with other plant-infecting pararetroviruses places it in the genus Caulimovirus of the family Caulimoviridae. PMID:22879623

  2. Framing the issues of resistance management in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean insect-pest complex consists of both long-established and new invasive pests. Management of these pests has been achieved by various means, but often relies heavily on the application of insecticides and the development of insect-resistant soybean varieties. Pest management practitione...

  3. New soybean accessions evaluated for reaction to Heterodera glycines populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in the USA are estimated to be over $1 billion. These losses have remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over time nematode...

  4. New soybean accessions identified with resistance to Heterodera glycines populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious root-parasite of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], in USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in USA are estimated to be nearly $1 billion. These losses have remained stable at current levels with the use of resistant cultivars bu...

  5. Population genetic structure of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is an invasive pest of cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.)] in North America. After the initial invasion in 2000, the aphid has quickly spread across most of the U.S. and Canada, suggesting large scale dispersals and rapid adaptations to new environment...

  6. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

  7. Comparison of Ground Raw Soybean and Soybean Meal Diets on Carcass Traits of Gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of an ongoing reproductive efficiency study with gilts fed a raw soybean (RSB) diet, an assessment of carcass traits was performed to measure the effect of antinutritional factors present in RSB. Yorkshire × Landrace crossbred gilts (n = 20) were assigned to balanced isonitrogenous (crude pr...

  8. Direct Effects of Soybean Varietal Selection and Aphis Glycines-Resistant Soybeans on Natural Enemies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The direct effects of three soybean base genetics, each represented by an Aphis glycines-resistant and susceptible variety, on the fitness and performance of two key predators (Orius insidiosus and Harmonia axyridis) were evaluated in the laboratory. Predators were reared from hatch through adulthoo...

  9. Shifts in Buchnera aphidicola density in soybean aphids (Aphis glycines) feeding on virus-infected soybean.

    PubMed

    Cassone, Bryan J; Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Dorrance, Anne E; Michel, Andrew P

    2015-08-01

    Vertically transmitted bacterial symbionts are common in arthropods. Aphids undergo an obligate symbiosis with Buchnera aphidicola, which provides essential amino acids to its host and contributes directly to nymph growth and reproduction. We previously found that newly adult Aphis glycines feeding on soybean infected with the beetle-transmitted Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) had significantly reduced fecundity. We hypothesized that the reduced fecundity was attributable to detrimental impacts of the virus on the aphid microbiome, namely Buchnera. To test this, mRNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR were used to assay Buchnera transcript abundance and titre in A. glycines feeding on Soybean mosaic virus-infected, BPMV-infected, and healthy soybean for up to 14 days. Our results indicated that Buchnera density was lower and ultimately suppressed in aphids feeding on virus-infected soybean. While the decreased Buchnera titre may be associated with reduced aphid fecundity, additional mechanisms are probably involved. The present report begins to describe how interactions among insects, plants, and plant pathogens influence endosymbiont population dynamics.

  10. Evaluation of late vegetative and reproductive stage soybeans for resistance to soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Prochaska, T J; Pierson, L M; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Heng-Moss, T M; Reese, J C

    2013-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, has become the most significant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] insect pest in the north central soybean production region of North America. The objectives of this research were to measure selected genotypes for resistance to the soybean aphid in the later vegetative and reproductive stages under field conditions, and confirm the presence of tolerance in KS4202. The results from 2007 to 2011 indicate that KS4202 can support aphid populations with minimal yield loss at levels where significant yield loss would be expected in most other genotypes. The common Nebraska cultivar, 'Asgrow 2703', appears to show signs of tolerance as well. None of the yield parameters were significantly different between the aphid infested and noninfested treatments. Based on our results, genotypes may compensate for aphid feeding in different ways. Asgrow 2703 appears to produce a similar number of seeds as its noninfested counterpart, although the seeds produced are slightly smaller. Field evaluation of tolerance in KS4202 indicated a yield loss of only 13% at 34,585-53,508 cumulative aphid-days, when 24-36% yield loss would have been expected.

  11. The soybean GmSNAP18 gene underlies two types of resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiming; Kandoth, Pramod K.; Lakhssassi, Naoufal; Kang, Jingwen; Colantonio, Vincent; Heinz, Robert; Yeckel, Greg; Zhou, Zhou; Bekal, Sadia; Dapprich, Johannes; Rotter, Bjorn; Cianzio, Silvia; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Meksem, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Two types of resistant soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) sources are widely used against soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe). These include Peking-type soybean, whose resistance requires both the rhg1-a and Rhg4 alleles, and PI 88788-type soybean, whose resistance requires only the rhg1-b allele. Multiple copy number of PI 88788-type GmSNAP18, GmAAT, and GmWI12 in one genomic segment simultaneously contribute to rhg1-b resistance. Using an integrated set of genetic and genomic approaches, we demonstrate that the rhg1-a Peking-type GmSNAP18 is sufficient for resistance to SCN in combination with Rhg4. The two SNAPs (soluble NSF attachment proteins) differ by only five amino acids. Our findings suggest that Peking-type GmSNAP18 is performing a different role in SCN resistance than PI 88788-type GmSNAP18. As such, this is an example of a pathogen resistance gene that has evolved to underlie two types of resistance, yet ensure the same function within a single plant species. PMID:28345654

  12. Ecology and management of the soybean aphid in North America.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, David W; Landis, Douglas A; Brodeur, Jacques; Heimpel, George E; Desneux, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, has become the single most important arthropod pest of soybeans in North America. Native to Asia, this invasive species was first discovered in North America in July 2000 and has rapidly spread throughout the northcentral United States, much of southeastern Canada, and the northeastern United States. In response, important elements of the ecology of the soybean aphid in North America have been elucidated, with economic thresholds, sampling plans, and chemical control recommendations widely adopted. Aphid-resistant soybean varieties were available to growers in 2010. The preexisting community of aphid natural enemies has been highly effective in suppressing aphid populations in many situations, and classical biological control efforts have focused on the addition of parasitoids of Asian origin. The keys to sustainable management of this pest include understanding linkages between the soybean aphid and other introduced and native species in a landscape context along with continued development of aphid-resistant varieties.

  13. Identification and Analyses of Candidate Genes for Rpp4 Mediated Resistance to Asian Soybean Rust in Soybean (Glycine max)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Soybean Rust (ASR) is a formidable threat to soybean production in many areas of the world including the United States. Only five sources of resistance have been identified (Rpp1, Rpp2, Rpp3, Rpp4, and Rpp5). Rpp4 was previously identified in the resistant genotype PI459025B and it was mappe...

  14. Registration of G07-6012 and G07-6029 soybean germplasm which derive 50% pedigree from wild soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two soybean germplasm lines, G07-6012 and G07-6029 were developed and released by the Univ. of Georgia Agricultural Experiment Stations. Both G07-6012 and G07-6029 are agronomic F4-derived lines from the hybridization of cultivar ‘N7103’ x Plant Introduction (PI) 366122, a wild soybean accession [G....

  15. Feeding and maturation by soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on soybean affected by weed, fungus, and nematode pests.

    PubMed

    Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Russin, John S; Boethel, David J; Griffin, James L; McGawley, Eduward C

    2004-02-01

    Feeding and maturation by the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were investigated in a 2-yr study on 'Davis' soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., grown alone and combined with the weed hemp sesbania, Sesbania exaltata (Raf.) Rybd. ex. A. W. Hill, the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, and the charcoal rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Of the three pests, hemp sesbania had the greatest effects on plant growth and insect feeding and maturation. When fed foliage from soybean stressed by hemp sesbania, soybean looper larvae remained longer in feeding stages, consumed more foliage, and showed altered weight gain compared with larvae fed control foliage. Results suggest that nutrient (s) critical for proper development of larvae may have been limited in weed-stressed soybean foliage. Less dramatic results were observed when larvae fed on foliage from soybean with roots colonized by the charcoal rot fungus. Such larvae consumed more foliage, weighed more, and showed a slight increase in larval feeding period, but only in 1 yr of the study. Colonization of soybean roots by the root-knot nematode had no consistent effects on either the soybean host or insect.

  16. Impact of Rag1 aphid resistant soybeans on Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ghising, Kiran; Harmon, Jason P; Beauzay, Patrick B; Prischmann-Voldseth, Deirdre A; Helms, Ted C; Ode, Paul J; Knodel, Janet J

    2012-04-01

    Multiple strategies are being developed for pest management of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura; however, there has been little published research thus far to determine how such strategies may influence each other, thereby complicating their potential effectiveness. A susceptible soybean (Glycine max L.) variety without the Rag1 gene and a near isogenic resistant soybean variety with the Rag1 gene were evaluated in the laboratory for their effects on the fitness of the soybean aphid parasitoid, Binodoxys communis (Gahan). The presence or absence of the Rag1 gene was verified by quantifying soybean aphid growth. To test for fitness effects, parasitoids were allowed to attack soybean aphids on either a susceptible or resistant plant for 24 h and then aphids were kept on the same plant throughout parasitoid development. Parasitoid fitness was measured by mummy and adult parasitoid production, adult parasitoid emergence, development time, and adult size. Parasitoids that attacked soybean aphids on susceptible plants produced more mummies, more adult parasitoids, and had a higher emergence rate compared with those on resistant plants. Adult parasitoids that emerged from resistant plants took 1 d longer and were smaller compared with those from susceptible plants. This study suggests that biological control by B. communis may be compromised when host plant resistance is widely used for pest management of soybean aphids.

  17. Comparing biofuels obtained from pyrolysis, of soybean oil or soapstock, with traditional soybean biodiesel: Density, kinematic viscosity, and surface tensions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A product with diesel like properties was synthesized by a pyrolysis method, from either edible soybean oil, or an inedible soybean soapstock starting material (PD and SD, respectively). Some physical properties of the material were studied, neat, and in blends; with both high sulfur and low sulfur...

  18. Proposal for a Standard Greenhouse Method for Assessing Soybean Cyst Nematode Resistance in Soybean: SCE08 (Standardized Cyst Evaluation 2008)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) remains the most economically important pathogen of soybean in North America. Most farmers do not sample for SCN believing instead that the use of SCN-resistant varieties is sufficient to avoid yield losses due to the nematode according to surveys conducted in Illino...

  19. Molecular characterization of resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & Syd.) in soybean cultivar DT 2000 (PI 635999)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.& Syd., has been identified in many soybean germplasm accessions and is conferred by either dominant or recessive genes that have been mapped to six independent loci (Rpp1 – Rpp6), but No U.S. cultivars are resistant to SBR. The c...

  20. Controlled environments alter nutrient content of soybeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurgonski, L. J.; Smart, D. J.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    Information about compositional changes in plants grown in controlled environments is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Information now is available for some CELSS candidate crops, but detailed information has been lacking for soybeans. To determine the effect of environment on macronutrient and mineral composition of soybeans, plants were grown both in the field and in a controlled environment where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic flux (PPF), and CO_2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at seed maturity, separated into discrete parts, and oven dried prior to chemical analysis. Plant material was analyzed for proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nonprotein N (NPN), nitrate, minerals, amino acid composition, and total dietary fiber. The effect of environment on composition varied by cultivar and plant part. Chamber-grown plants generally exhibited the following characteristics compared with field-grown plants: 1) increased total N and protein N for all plant parts, 2) increased nitrate in leaves and stems but not in seeds, 3) increased lipids in seeds, and 4) decreased Ca:P ratio for stems, pods, and leaves. These trends are consistent with data for other CELSS crops. Total N, protein N, and amino acid contents for 350 ppm CO_2 and 1000 ppm CO_2 were similar for seeds, but protein N and amino acid contents for leaves were higher at 350 ppm CO_2 than at 1000 ppm CO_2. Total dietary fiber content of soybean leaves was higher with 350 ppm CO_2 than with 1000 ppm CO_2. Such data will help in selecting of crop species, cultivars, and growing conditions to ensure safe, nutritious diets for CELSS.

  1. Controlled environments alter nutrient content of soybeans.

    PubMed

    Jurgonski, L J; Smart, D J; Bugbee, B; Nielsen, S S

    1997-01-01

    Information about compositional changes in plants grown in controlled environments is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet for a Controlled Ecomological Life-Support System (CELSS). Information now is available for some CELSS candidate crops, but detailed information has been lacking for soybeans. To determine the effect of environment on macronutrient and mineral composition of soybeans, plants were grown both in the field and in a controlled environment where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic flux (PPF), and CO2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at seed maturity, separated into discrete parts, and oven dried prior to chemical analysis. Plant material was analyzed for proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nonprotein N (NPN), nitrate, minerals, amino acid composition, and total dietary fiber. The effect of environment on composition varied by cultivar and plant part. Chamber-grown plants generally exhibited the following characteristics compared with field-grown plants: 1) increased total N and protein N for all plant parts, 2) increased nitrate in leaves and stems but not in seeds, 3) increased lipids in seeds, and 4) decreased Ca:P ratio for stems, pods, and leaves. These trends are consistent with data for other CELSS crops. Total N, protein N, and amino acid contents for 350 ppm CO2 and 1000 ppm CO2 were similar for seeds, but protein N and amino acid contents for leaves were higher at 350 ppm CO2 than at 1000 ppm CO2. Total dietary fiber content of soybean leaves was higher with 350 ppm CO2 than with 1000 ppm CO2. Such data will help in selecting of crop species, cultivars, and growing conditions to ensure safe, nutritious diets for CELSS.

  2. Protein and quality analyses of accessions from the USDA soybean germplasm collection for tofu production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food-grade soybeans with large seed size, uniformity, clear hilum, and high 11S/7S ratio are favored by the food industry for making tofu. In order to search for soybean lines with desirable characteristics for making foods, twenty-two soybean lines were selected from the USDA-Soybean Germplasm Coll...

  3. From climate change to molecular response: redox proteomics of ozone-induced responses in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone (O3) causes significant agricultural losses with soybean being highly sensitive to this oxidant. Here we assess the effect of elevated seasonal O3 exposure on the total and redox proteomes of soybean. To understand the molecular responses to O3 exposure, soybean grown at the Soybean Free Air C...

  4. 7 CFR 407.16 - Area risk protection insurance for soybean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for soybean. 407.16... protection insurance for soybean. The soybean crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Soybean Crop Insurance Provisions...

  5. The Utilization of Soybean Wild Relatives: How Can It Be Effective?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. & Zucc.) is the progenitor of soybean and is native to China, Taiwan, Japan, eastern Russia and the Korean peninsula. Research has repeatedly demonstrated that wild soybean is more genetically diverse than the cultivated soybean. There are 26 perennial Glycine species tha...

  6. Evaluation of a novel soybean oil-based surfactant for fine emulsion preparation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is currently the world’s second largest source of vegetable oil. The growth in soybean oil production and the concerns over petrochemical surfactants have promoted the development of soybean oil-based surfactants. In this paper, we briefly describe the synthesis and properties of soybean...

  7. Performance and prospects of Rag genes for management of soybean aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is an invasive insect pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in North America, and it has led to extensive insecticide use in northern soybean-growing regions there. Host-plant resistance is one potential alternative strategy for managing soybean aphid...

  8. Dynamic proteome analysis of roots of soybean compatible and incompatible to Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain new insights into the mechanism of soybean (Glycine max) interaction with the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines), we compared protein expression profiles of soybean roots infected by the soybean cyst nematode. Proteins were extracted from roots of 3 and 8 days post-inoculation (dpi)...

  9. Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

    2011-01-01

    The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

  10. The induction of proteinases in corn and soybean by anoxia

    SciTech Connect

    VanToai, T.; Hwang, Shihying )

    1989-04-01

    This study characterized the anaerobic changes in proteinase activities in corn and soybean roots and to investigate the possibility that these changes might contribute to the differential anaerobiosis tolerance of the two species. After 24 h of anoxia, crude protein extracts from H60 corn and Keller soybean root tips (10cm) were assayed for proteinase activities at pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. Turnover of aberrant proteins was studied in seedlings labelled with {sup 3}H-leucine for 12 h under: (a) puromycin (0.64 mM) in air, (b) ethanol (1%) in air, (c) nitrogen and (d) air. After the treatment, the labelled proteins remaining in roots were determined every 2 h for 6 h. In both corn and soybean, activities of alkali proteinases increased, and activities of acid proteinases declined under anoxia. Neutral proteinases increase in anoxic corn roots, but decline in anoxic soybean roots. The protein turnover rate in corn treated with puromycin, ethanol and nitrogen was much higher than in control roots. The protein turnover rate in soybean roots treated with puromycin, ethanol was similar to the rate of the control. The results indicated that: (a) anoxic corn can degrade aberrant proteins, but anoxic soybean cannot, (b) the degradation of aberrant proteins in anoxic corn is accomplished by neutral proteinases, and (c) the accumulation of aberrant proteins in soybean might contribute to the susceptibility of this species to anoxia.

  11. Compositional analysis of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans treated with glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Taylor, N B; Fuchs, R L; MacDonald, J; Shariff, A R; Padgette, S R

    1999-10-01

    The compositional analyses and safety assessment of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS) were previously described. These analyses were extensive and included addressing the potential effects on seed composition from the genetic modification. Detailed compositional analyses established that GTS, which had not been treated with glyphosate, were comparable to the parental soybean line and to other conventional soybeans. In this study, two GTS lines, 40-3-2 and 61-67-1, were treated with commercial levels of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup herbicide. The composition of the seed from soybeans sprayed with glyphosate was compared to that of a nonsprayed parental control cultivar, A5403. The nutrients measured in the seed included protein, oil, ash, fiber, carbohydrates, and amino acids. The concentration of isoflavones (also referred to as phytoestrogens) was also measured as these compounds are derived from the same biochemical pathway that was engineered for glyphosate tolerance. The analytical results from these studies demonstrate that the GTS soybeans treated with glyphosate were comparable to the parental soybean cultivar, A5403, and other conventional soybean varieties.

  12. Novel and conserved microRNAs in soybean floral whorls.

    PubMed

    Kulcheski, F R; Molina, L G; da Fonseca, G C; de Morais, G L; de Oliveira, L F V; Margis, R

    2016-01-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) correspond to a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs (19-24 nt) that regulates the gene expression, through mRNA target cleavage or translation inhibition. In plants, miRNAs have been shown to play pivotal roles in a wide variety of metabolic and biological processes like plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stress. Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide, due to the production of oil and its high protein content. The reproductive phase is considered the most important for soybean yield, which is mainly intended to produce the grains. The identification of miRNAs is not yet saturated in soybean, and there are no studies linking them to the different floral organs. In this study, three different mature soybean floral whorls were used in the construction of sRNA libraries. The sequencing of petal, carpel and stamen libraries generated a total of 10,165,661 sequences. Subsequent analyses identified 200 miRNAs sequences, among which, 41 were novel miRNAs, 80 were conserved soybean miRNAs, 31 were new antisense conserved soybean miRNAs and 46 were soybean miRNAs isoforms. We also found a new miRNA conserved in other plant species, and finally one miRNA-sibling of a soybean conserved miRNA. Conserved and novel miRNAs were evaluated by RT-qPCR. We observed a differential expression across the three whorls for six miRNAs. Computational predicted targets for miRNAs analyzed by RT-qPCR were identified and present functions related to reproductive process in plants. In summary, the increased accumulation of specific and novel miRNAs in different whorls indicates that miRNAs are an important part of the regulatory network in soybean flower.

  13. 7 CFR 1220.312 - Remittance of assessments and submission of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.312 Section 1220.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. (a) Each first purchaser...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.312 - Remittance of assessments and submission of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.312 Section 1220.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. (a) Each first purchaser...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.312 - Remittance of assessments and submission of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.312 Section 1220.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. (a) Each first purchaser...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.312 - Remittance of assessments and submission of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.312 Section 1220.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. (a) Each first purchaser...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.312 - Remittance of assessments and submission of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.312 Section 1220.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... of reports to United Soybean Board or Qualified State Soybean Board. (a) Each first purchaser...

  18. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina: Myths and realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semino, S.; Paul, H.; Tomei, J.; Joensen, L.; Monti, M.; Jelsøe, E.

    2009-11-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel alternatives. To ensure that the production of biofuels is 'sustainable', EU institutions and national governments are designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. In this paper, we question the validity of these proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. We highlight the negative environmental and social impacts of intensive soybean production, and conclude that certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address the detrimental impacts of increased biofuel production and trade.

  19. Activity of rubidium and cesium in soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): insect feeding on cotton and soybean measured by elemental markers.

    PubMed

    Jost, Douglas J; Pitre, Henry N

    2002-04-01

    Uptake and translocation of the elemental markers rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs) within adult soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the laboratory in various feeding and mating treatments. Neonates were tested to determine marker transfer from male and female adults fed rubidium chloride (RbCl)-treated artificial nectar, cesium chloride (CsCI)-treated artificial nectar, or both. All females contained detectable levels of Rb, Cs, or both, which were obtained either through direct feeding or via spermatophores. Rubidium was present in females at significantly greater levels than Cs. No significant differences in Rb levels were observed between feeding or spermatophore acquisitions. Most neonates had significantly higher levels of Rb than Cs. In a field cage study to evaluate adult feeding and oviposition behavior on blooming cotton and blooming soybean treated with RbCl and CsCl, respectively, more eggs contained Rb than Cs, indicating greater feeding on cotton nectar than soybean nectar, regardless of the host plant upon which eggs were laid. Females laid more eggs on blooming soybean than on blooming cotton. Higher levels of Rb in cotton than Cs in soybean were recorded and may be attributed to initial elemental marker quantities available to the insects. This study provides the support for the generalized observations that soybean looper infestations in soybean can be related to feeding activities by adults in cotton.

  20. Comparison of soybean cultivars for enhancement of the polyamine contents in the fermented soybean natto using Bacillus subtilis (natto).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Horii, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kubo, Yuji; Koguchi, Kumiko; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Soda, Kuniyasu

    2017-03-01

    Polyamines have beneficial properties to prevent aging-associated diseases. Raw soybean has relatively high polyamine contents; and the fermented soybean natto is a good source of polyamines. However, detailed information of diversity of polyamine content in raw soybean is lacking. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of polyamines among raw soybeans and select the high polyamine-containing cultivar for natto production. Polyamine contents were measured chromatographically in 16 samples of soybean, which showed high variation among soybeans as follows: 93-861 nmol/g putrescine, 1055-2306 nmol/g spermidine, and 177-578 nmol/g spermine. We then confirmed the high correlations of polyamine contents between raw soybean and natto (r = 0.96, 0.95, and 0.94 for putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively). Furthermore, comparison of the polyamine contents among 9 Japanese cultivars showed that 'Nakasen-nari' has the highest polyamine contents, suggesting its suitability for enhancement of polyamine contents of natto.

  1. Genetics and Adaptation of Soybean Cyst Nematode to Broad Spectrum Soybean Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Michael; Heinz, Robert; Wang, Jianying; Mitchum, Melissa G.

    2017-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines is a major threat to soybean production, made more challenging by the current limitations of natural resistance for managing this pathogen. The use of resistant host cultivars is effective, but, over time, results in the generation of virulent nematode populations able to robustly parasitize the resistant host. In order to understand how virulence develops in SCN, we utilized a single backcross BC1F2 strategy to mate a highly virulent inbred population (TN20), capable of reproducing on all current sources of resistance, with an avirulent one (PA3), unable to reproduce on any of the resistant soybean lines. The offspring were then investigated to determine how virulence is inherited on the main sources of SCN resistance, derived from soybean lines Peking, PI 88788, PI 90763, and the broad spectrum resistance source PI 437654. Significantly, our results suggest virulence on PI 437654 is a multigenic recessive trait that allows the nematode to reproduce on all current sources of resistance. In addition, we examined how virulence on different sources of resistance interact by placing virulent SCN populations under secondary selection, and identified a strong counter-selection between virulence on PI 88788- and PI 90763-derived resistances, while no such counter-selection existed between virulence on Peking and PI 88788 resistance sources. Our results suggest that the genes responsible for virulence on PI 88788 and PI 90763 may be different alleles at a common locus. If so, rotation of cultivars with resistance from these two sources may be an effective management protocol. PMID:28064187

  2. Genetics and Adaptation of Soybean Cyst Nematode to Broad Spectrum Soybean Resistance.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Michael; Heinz, Robert; Wang, Jianying; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2017-03-10

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines is a major threat to soybean production, made more challenging by the current limitations of natural resistance for managing this pathogen. The use of resistant host cultivars is effective, but, over time, results in the generation of virulent nematode populations able to robustly parasitize the resistant host. In order to understand how virulence develops in SCN, we utilized a single backcross BC1F2 strategy to mate a highly virulent inbred population (TN20), capable of reproducing on all current sources of resistance, with an avirulent one (PA3), unable to reproduce on any of the resistant soybean lines. The offspring were then investigated to determine how virulence is inherited on the main sources of SCN resistance, derived from soybean lines Peking, PI 88788, PI 90763, and the broad spectrum resistance source PI 437654. Significantly, our results suggest virulence on PI 437654 is a multigenic recessive trait that allows the nematode to reproduce on all current sources of resistance. In addition, we examined how virulence on different sources of resistance interact by placing virulent SCN populations under secondary selection, and identified a strong counter-selection between virulence on PI 88788- and PI 90763-derived resistances, while no such counter-selection existed between virulence on Peking and PI 88788 resistance sources. Our results suggest that the genes responsible for virulence on PI 88788 and PI 90763 may be different alleles at a common locus. If so, rotation of cultivars with resistance from these two sources may be an effective management protocol.

  3. Identification of a major QTL allele from wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) for increasing alkaline salt tolerance in soybean.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, D D; Lal, S K; Xu, D H

    2010-07-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories, sodic (alkaline) and saline. Our previous studies showed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 (Glycine soja) from the Kinki area of Japan was tolerant to NaCl salt, and the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for NaCl salt tolerance was located on soybean linkage group N (chromosome 3). Further investigation revealed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 also had a higher tolerance to alkaline salt stress. In the present study, an F(6) recombinant inbred line mapping population (n = 112) and an F(2) population (n = 149) derived from crosses between a cultivated soybean cultivar Jackson and JWS156-1 were used to identify QTL for alkaline salt tolerance in soybean. Evaluation of soybean alkaline salt tolerance was carried out based on salt tolerance rating (STR) and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) after treatment with 180 mM NaHCO(3) for about 3 weeks under greenhouse conditions. In both populations, a significant QTL for alkaline salt tolerance was detected on the molecular linkage group D2 (chromosome 17), which accounted for 50.2 and 13.0% of the total variation for STR in the F(6) and the F(2) populations, respectively. The wild soybean contributed to the tolerance allele in the progenies. Our results suggest that QTL for alkaline salt tolerance is different from the QTL for NaCl salt tolerance found previously in this wild soybean genotype. The DNA markers closely associated with the QTLs might be useful for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both alkaline and saline stresses.

  4. Has photosynthetic capacity increased with 80 years of soybean breeding? An examination of historical soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Koester, Robert P; Nohl, Brittany M; Diers, Brian W; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Crop biomass production is a function of the efficiencies with which sunlight can be intercepted by the canopy and then converted into biomass. Conversion efficiency has been identified as a target for improvement to enhance crop biomass and yield. Greater conversion efficiency in modern soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars was documented in recent field trials, and this study explored the physiological basis for this observation. In replicated field trials conducted over three successive years, diurnal leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic CO2 response curves were measured in 24 soybean cultivars with year of release dates (YOR) from 1923 to 2007. Maximum photosynthetic capacity, mesophyll conductance and nighttime respiration have not changed consistently with cultivar release date. However, daily carbon gain was periodically greater in more recently released cultivars compared with older cultivars. Our analysis suggests that this difference in daily carbon gain primarily occurred when stomatal conductance and soil water content were high. There was also evidence for greater chlorophyll content and greater sink capacity late in the growing season in more recently released soybean varieties. Better understanding of the mechanisms that have improved conversion efficiency in the past may help identify new, promising targets for the future.

  5. Transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSamT1 exhibits resistance to multiple-HG types of soybean cysts nematode heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) salicylic acid methyl transferase (GmSAMT1) catalyzes the conversion of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Prior results showed that when GmSAMT1 was overexpressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots, resistance is conferred against soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heter...

  6. Identification of a new soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor mutation and its effect on Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor content in soybean seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seeds possess anti-nutritional compounds which inactivate digestive proteases, principally corresponding to two families: Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitors (KTi) and Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBI). High levels of raw soybeans/soybean meal in feed mixtures can cause poor weight gain and pancreatic abno...

  7. Differential reactions of soybean isolines with combinations of aphid resistance genes Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 to four soybean aphid biotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the discovery of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) as a devastating insect pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in the United States, host resistance was recognized as an important management option. However, the identification of soybean aphid isolates exhibiting strong virulenc...

  8. Relationship between asparagine metabolism and protein concentration in soybean seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between asparagine metabolism and protein concentration was investigated in soybean seed. Phenotyping of a population of recombinant inbred lines adapted to Illinois confirmed a positive correlation between free asparagine levels in developing seeds and protein concentration at matu...

  9. VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF A BIOLOGICAL HYDROGEL PRODUCED FROM SOYBEAN OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrogels formed from biopolymers or natural sources have special advantages because of their biodegradable and biocompatible properties. The viscoelastic properties of a newly developed biological hydrogel made from modified vegetable oil, epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were investigated. The mater...

  10. Lignans as antioxidants for soybean oil at frying temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignans including nordihydroguaiaretic acid, (+)-pinoresinol, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, enterodiol, two sesame lignans (sesamol, sesamin), and four model compounds were investigated for their antipolymerization activities for soybean oil at frying temperature (180 °C). GPC (gel permeation chromatogr...

  11. Obligatory Reduction of Ferric Chelates in Iron Uptake by Soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Rufus L.; Brown, John C.; Tiffin, Lee O.

    1972-01-01

    The contrasting Fe2+ and Fe3+ chelating properties of the synthetic chelators ethylenediaminedi (o-hydroxyphenylacetate) (EDDHA) and 4,7-di(4-phenylsulfonate)-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate) (BPDS) were used to determine the valence form of Fe absorbed by soybean roots supplied with Fe3+-chelates. EDDHA binds Fe3+ strongly, but Fe2+ weakly; BPDS binds Fe2+ strongly but Fe3+ weakly. Addition of an excess of BPDS to nutrient solutions containing Fe3+-chelates inhibited soybean Fe uptake-translocation by 99+%; [Fe(II) (BPDS)3]4− accumulated in the nutrient solution. The addition of EDDHA caused little or no inhibition. These results were observed with topped and intact soybeans. Thus, separation and absorption of Fe from Fe3+-chelates appear to require reduction of Fe3+-chelate to Fe2+-chelate at the root, with Fe2+ being the principal form of Fe absorbed by soybean. PMID:16658143

  12. Nonhost Root Penetration by Soybean Cyst Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 66 plants in 50 species were inoculated with eggs and juveniles of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. Roots were stained and observed for penetration and development of the nematode. Twenty-six plants were not penetrated; twenty-three were penetrated, but there was no development of the nematode; eight were penetrated with some nematode development; two were penetrated and had considerable nematode development, but few nematodes, if any, matured; and seven were penetrated with many nematodes maturing. The penetration of nonhosts may imply some susceptibility and that populations eventually would build up on the penetrated plants. Plants not penetrated may be useful as rotation plants because no reproduction would occur. PMID:19290137

  13. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, G. A.; Fuertes, A. B.; Sevilla, M.

    2015-11-01

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-effective protein-rich biomass, as precursor followed by a chemical activation step. When tested as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes (i.e. H2SO4 and Li2SO4), they demonstrate excellent capacitive performance and robustness, with high values of specific capacitance in both gravimetric (250-260 and 176 F g-1 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) and volumetric (150-210 and 102 F cm-3 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) units, and remarkable rate capability (>60% capacitance retention at 20 A g-1 in both media). Interestingly, when Li2SO4 is used, the voltage window is extended up to 1.7 V (in contrast to 1.1 V in H2SO4). Thus, the amount of energy stored is increased by 50% compared to H2SO4 electrolyte, enabling this environmentally sound Li2SO4-based supercapacitor to deliver ~12 Wh kg-1 at a high power density of ~2 kW kg-1.

  14. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, G. A.; Fuertes, A. B.; Sevilla, M.

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-effective protein-rich biomass, as precursor followed by a chemical activation step. When tested as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes (i.e. H2SO4 and Li2SO4), they demonstrate excellent capacitive performance and robustness, with high values of specific capacitance in both gravimetric (250–260 and 176 F g−1 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) and volumetric (150–210 and 102 F cm−3 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) units, and remarkable rate capability (>60% capacitance retention at 20 A g−1 in both media). Interestingly, when Li2SO4 is used, the voltage window is extended up to 1.7 V (in contrast to 1.1 V in H2SO4). Thus, the amount of energy stored is increased by 50% compared to H2SO4 electrolyte, enabling this environmentally sound Li2SO4-based supercapacitor to deliver ~12 Wh kg−1 at a high power density of ~2 kW kg−1. PMID:26568473

  15. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  16. Kinetics of catalytic transfer hydrogenation of soybean lecithin

    SciTech Connect

    Naglic, M.; Smidovnik, A.; Koloini, T.

    1997-12-01

    Catalytic transfer hydrogenation of soybean lecithin has been studied using aqueous sodium formate solution as hydrogen donor and palladium on carbon as catalyst. Kinetic constants and selectivity have been determined at intensive stirring. Hydrogenation reactions followed the first-order kinetics with respect to fatty acids. In addition to short reaction time, this method offers safe and easy handling. Hydrogenated soybean lecithin provides products with increased stability with respect to oxidation.

  17. An evaluation of corn earworm damage and thresholds in soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Brian Patrick

    Interactions between corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and soybean, Glycine max L. (Merrill), were investigated in the Mid-South to evaluate thresholds and damage levels. Field studies were conducted in both indeterminate and determinate modern cultivars to evaluate damage, critical injury levels, and soybean response to simulated corn earworm injury. Field studies were also conducted to evaluate the response of indeterminate cultivars to infestations of corn earworm. Field studies were also conducted to investigate the relationship between pyrethroid insecticide application and corn earworm oviposition in soybean. Results of field studies involving simulated corn earworm damage indicated the need for a dynamic threshold that becomes more conservative as soybean phenology progressed through the reproductive growth stages. This suggested that soybean was more tolerant to fruit loss during the earlier reproductive stages and was able to compensate for fruit loss better during this time than at later growth stages. Results of field studies involving infestations of corn earworm indicated that current thresholds are likely too liberal. This resulted in economic injury level tables being constructed based upon a range of crop values and control costs, however, a general action threshold was also recommended for indeterminate soybean in the Mid-South. Field study results investigating the relationship of pyrethroid application and corn earworm oviposition indicated that even in the presence of an insecticide, corn earworm prefers to oviposit in the upper portion of the canopy, as well as on the leaves as opposed to all other plant parts, consistent with all previous literature.

  18. From sulfur to homoglutathione: thiol metabolism in soybean.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hankuil; Ravilious, Geoffrey E; Galant, Ashley; Krishnan, Hari B; Jez, Joseph M

    2010-10-01

    Sulfur is an essential plant nutrient and is metabolized into the sulfur-containing amino acids (cysteine and methionine) and into molecules that protect plants against oxidative and environmental stresses. Although studies of thiol metabolism in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) have expanded our understanding of these dynamic processes, our knowledge of how sulfur is assimilated and metabolized in crop plants, such as soybean (Glycine max), remains limited in comparison. Soybean is a major crop used worldwide for food and animal feed. Although soybeans are protein-rich, they do not contain high levels of the sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Ultimately, unraveling the fundamental steps and regulation of thiol metabolism in soybean is important for optimizing crop yield and quality. Here we review the pathways from sulfur uptake to glutathione and homoglutathione synthesis in soybean, the potential biotechnology benefits of understanding and modifying these pathways, and how information from the soybean genome may guide the next steps in exploring this biochemical system.

  19. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  20. Domestication footprints anchor genomic regions of agronomic importance in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingpeng; Zhao, Xue; Liu, Dongyuan; Li, Yinghui; Lightfoot, David A; Yang, Zhijiang; Zhao, Lin; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Zhikun; Huang, Long; Zhang, Zhiwu; Qiu, Lijuan; Zheng, Hongkun; Li, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Present-day soybeans consist of elite cultivars and landraces (Glycine max, fully domesticated (FD)), annual wild type (Glycine soja, nondomesticated (ND)), and semi-wild type (semi-domesticated (SD)). FD soybean originated in China, although the details of its domestication history remain obscure. More than 500 diverse soybean accessions were sequenced using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) to address fundamental questions regarding soybean domestication. In total, 64,141 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) > 0.05 were found among the 512 tested accessions. The results indicated that the SD group is not a hybrid between the FD and ND groups. The initial domestication region was pinpointed to central China (demarcated by the Great Wall to the north and the Qinling Mountains to the south). A total of 800 highly differentiated genetic regions and > 140 selective sweeps were identified, and these were three- and twofold more likely, respectively, to encompass a known quantitative trait locus (QTL) than the rest of the soybean genome. Forty-three potential quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs; including 15 distinct traits) were identified by genome-wide association mapping. The results of the present study should be beneficial for soybean improvement and provide insight into the genetic architecture of traits of agronomic importance.

  1. Using genomic information to improve soybean adaptability to climate change.

    PubMed

    Li, Man-Wah; Xin, Dawei; Gao, Yishu; Li, Kwan-Pok; Fan, Kejing; Muñoz, Nacira Belen; Yung, Wai-Shing; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2016-09-22

    Climate change has brought severe challenges to agriculture. It is anticipated that there will be a drop in crop yield - including that of soybean - due to climatic stress factors that include drastic fluctuations in temperature, drought, flooding and high salinity. Genomic information on soybean has been accumulating rapidly since initial publication of its reference genome, providing a valuable tool for the improvement of cultivated soybean. Not only are many molecular markers that are associated with important quantitative trait loci now identified, but we also have a more detailed picture of the genomic variations among soybean germplasms, enabling us to utilize these as tools to assist crop breeding. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the currently available soybean genomic approaches, including whole-genome sequencing, sequencing-based genotyping, functional genomics, proteomics, and epigenomics. The information uncovered through these techniques will help further pinpoint important gene candidates and genomic loci associated with adaptive traits, as well as achieving a better understanding of how soybeans cope with the changing climate.

  2. Drought Stress Responses in Soybean Roots and Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Kunert, Karl J.; Vorster, Barend J.; Fenta, Berhanu A.; Kibido, Tsholofelo; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Foyer, Christine H.

    2016-01-01

    Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean. PMID:27462339

  3. Diurnal oscillations of soybean circadian clock and drought responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Marcolino-Gomes, Juliana; Rodrigues, Fabiana Aparecida; Fuganti-Pagliarini, Renata; Bendix, Claire; Nakayama, Thiago Jonas; Celaya, Brandon; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Neves; Harmon, Frank G; Nepomuceno, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system in crop species like soybean. This study examines how drought impacts diurnal oscillation of both drought responsive and circadian clock genes in soybean. Drought stress induced marked changes in gene expression of several circadian clock-like components, such as LCL1-, GmELF4- and PRR-like genes, which had reduced expression in stressed plants. The same conditions produced a phase advance of expression for the GmTOC1-like, GmLUX-like and GmPRR7-like genes. Similarly, the rhythmic expression pattern of the soybean drought-responsive genes DREB-, bZIP-, GOLS-, RAB18- and Remorin-like changed significantly after plant exposure to drought. In silico analysis of promoter regions of these genes revealed the presence of cis-elements associated both with stress and circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, some soybean genes with upstream ABRE elements were responsive to abscisic acid treatment. Our results indicate that some connection between the drought response and the circadian clock may exist in soybean since (i) drought stress affects gene expression of circadian clock components and (ii) several stress responsive genes display diurnal oscillation in soybeans.

  4. Complete nucleotide sequences of seven soybean mosaic viruses (SMV), isolated from wild soybeans (Glycine soja) in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Xia; Wu, Mian; Ma, Fang-Fang; Chen, Jian-Qun; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a devastating plant virus classified in the family Potyviridae, and known to infect cultivated soybeans (Glycine max). In this study, seven new SMVs were isolated from wild soybean samples and analyzed by whole-genome sequencing. An updated SMV phylogeny was built with the seven new and 83 known SMV genomic sequences. Results showed that three northeastern SMV isolates were distributed in clade III and IV, while four southern SMVs were grouped together in clade II and all contained a recombinant BCMV fragment (~900 bp) in the upstream part of the genome. This work revealed that wild soybeans in China also act as important SMV hosts and play a role in the transmission and diversity of SMVs.

  5. Comparative Feeding and Development of Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera Noctuidae) on Kudzu and Soybean Foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, K.A.; Orr, D.B.

    2000-04-10

    Kudzu is a close relative of soybean and is a widely distributed exotic weed in the southern U.S. The biology of the soybean looper was studied to better understand the foraging behavior of this species on kudzu. Insects feeding on kudzu had higher mortality, longer development and lower pupal weights than those fed on soybean. Foliage consumption did not differ between treatments and nutritional quality between soybean and kudzu did not differ. In an oviposition test, females readily used kudzu if it was the only species available, but when soybean was provided more eggs were deposited on soybean.

  6. Transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSAMT1 exhibits resistance to multiple-HG types of soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingyu; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhao, Nan; Hatcher, Catherine N; Wuddineh, Wegi A; Rudis, Mary; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Pantalone, Vincent R; Arelli, Prakash R; Hewezi, Tarek; Chen, Feng; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2016-11-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) salicylic acid methyl transferase (GmSAMT1) catalyses the conversion of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Prior results showed that when GmSAMT1 was overexpressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots, resistance is conferred against soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe. In this study, we produced transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSAMT1 and characterized their response to various SCN races. Transgenic plants conferred a significant reduction in the development of SCN HG type 1.2.5.7 (race 2), HG type 0 (race 3) and HG type 2.5.7 (race 5). Among transgenic lines, GmSAMT1 expression in roots was positively associated with SCN resistance. In some transgenic lines, there was a significant decrease in salicylic acid titer relative to control plants. No significant seed yield differences were observed between transgenics and control soybean plants grown in one greenhouse with 22 °C day/night temperature, whereas transgenic soybean had higher yield than controls grown a warmer greenhouse (27 °C day/23 °C night) temperature. In a 1-year field experiment in Knoxville, TN, there was no significant difference in seed yield between the transgenic and nontransgenic soybean under conditions with negligible SCN infection. We hypothesize that GmSAMT1 expression affects salicylic acid biosynthesis, which, in turn, attenuates SCN development, without negative consequences to soybean yield or other morphological traits. Thus, we conclude that GmSAMT1 overexpression confers broad resistance to multiple SCN races, which would be potentially applicable to commercial production.

  7. Transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSAMT1 exhibits resistance to multiple-HG types of soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Jingyu; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhao, Nan; ...

    2016-05-23

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) salicylic acid methyl transferase (GmSAMT1) catalyses the conversion of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Prior results showed that when GmSAMT1 was overexpressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots, resistance is conferred against soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe. In this study, we produced transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSAMT1 and characterized their response to various SCN races. Transgenic plants conferred a significant reduction in the development of SCN HG type 1.2.5.7 (race 2), HG type 0 (race 3) and HG type 2.5.7 (race 5). Among transgenic lines, GmSAMT1 expression in roots was positively associated with SCN resistance.more » In some transgenic lines, there was a significant decrease in salicylic acid titer relative to control plants. No significant seed yield differences were observed between transgenics and control soybean plants grown in one greenhouse with 22 °C day/night temperature, whereas transgenic soybean had higher yield than controls grown a warmer greenhouse (27 °C day/23 °C night) temperature. In a 1-year field experiment in Knoxville, TN, there was no significant difference in seed yield between the transgenic and nontransgenic soybean under conditions with negligible SCN infection. We hypothesize that GmSAMT1 expression affects salicylic acid biosynthesis, which, in turn, attenuates SCN development, without negative consequences to soybean yield or other morphological traits. Furthermore, we conclude that GmSAMT1 overexpression confers broad resistance to multiple SCN races, which would be potentially applicable to commercial production.« less

  8. Influence of the application of three different elicitors on soybean plants on the concentrations of several isoflavones in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Chen, Pengyin; Horax, Ronny; Cornelious, Brian; Zhu, Danhua

    2006-07-26

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a rich source of isoflavones that are often affected by biotic and abiotic factors. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of various concentrations of three natural elicitors applied at different soybean growth stages on isoflavone content and to compare the efficiency of several solvent systems in isoflavone extraction and quantification. The isoflavones extracted from R96-3444 soybean using eight solvent systems were separated, identified, and quantified by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure. The soybean plants were sprayed with salicylic acid, methyl salicylate, or ethyl acetate at 0, 10(-6), 10(-3), and 10(-1) M at R1 (blooming) or R4 (full pods) growth stage. Results showed that 10(-3) M ethyl acetate sprayed at the R1 stage significantly increased total isoflavone content and the levels of some individual isoflavones in soybean seeds. With all the elicitors that were tested, concentration was a more important factor than application time with respect to isoflavone content with lower concentrations being more effective on most isoflavones. A 53% acetonitrile solvent system was the best solvent system for extracting total isoflavone, malonyl glucosides, genistein, glycitin, genistin, acetyl-daidzin, and acetyl-genistin. The results of this study will be useful for increasing the isoflavone content in desirable soybean varieties and improving isoflavone concentration during extraction.

  9. Aboveground Feeding by Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines, Affects Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, Reproduction Belowground

    PubMed Central

    McCarville, Michael T.; Soh, David H.; Tylka, Gregory L.; O’Neal, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27–52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females) and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity. PMID:24466080

  10. Genomic expression profiling of mature soybean (Glycine max) pollen

    PubMed Central

    Haerizadeh, Farzad; Wong, Chui E; Bhalla, Prem L; Gresshoff, Peter M; Singh, Mohan B

    2009-01-01

    Background Pollen, the male partner in the reproduction of flowering plants, comprises either two or three cells at maturity. The current knowledge of the pollen transcriptome is limited to the model plant systems Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa which have tri-cellular pollen grains at maturity. Comparative studies on pollen of other genera, particularly crop plants, are needed to understand the pollen gene networks that are subject to functional and evolutionary conservation. In this study, we used the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip® to perform transcriptional profiling on mature bi-cellular soybean pollen. Results Compared to the sporophyte transcriptome, the soybean pollen transcriptome revealed a restricted and unique repertoire of genes, with a significantly greater proportion of specifically expressed genes than is found in the sporophyte tissue. Comparative analysis shows that, among the 37,500 soybean transcripts addressed in this study, 10,299 transcripts (27.46%) are expressed in pollen. Of the pollen-expressed sequences, about 9,489 (92.13%) are also expressed in sporophytic tissues, and 810 (7.87%) are selectively expressed in pollen. Overall, the soybean pollen transcriptome shows an enrichment of transcription factors (mostly zinc finger family proteins), signal recognition receptors, transporters, heat shock-related proteins and members of the ubiquitin proteasome proteolytic pathway. Conclusion This is the first report of a soybean pollen transcriptional profile. These data extend our current knowledge regarding regulatory pathways that govern the gene regulation and development of pollen. A comparison between transcription factors up-regulated in soybean and those in Arabidopsis revealed some divergence in the numbers and kinds of regulatory proteins expressed in both species. PMID:19265555

  11. Association mapping of soybean seed germination under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Kan, Guizhen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wenming; Ma, Deyuan; Zhang, Dan; Hao, Derong; Hu, Zhenbin; Yu, Deyue

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Seed germination is a critical phase that ensures the successful establishment and productivity of soybeans in saline soils. However, little information is available regarding soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic mechanisms of soybean seed germination under salt stress. One natural population consisting of 191 soybean landraces was used in this study. Soybean seeds produced in four environments were used to evaluate the salt tolerance at their germination stage. Using 1142 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the molecular markers associated with salt tolerance were detected by genome-wide association analysis. Eight SNP-trait associations and 13 suggestive SNP-trait associations were identified using a mixed linear model and the TASSEL 4.0 software. Eight SNPs or suggestive SNPs were co-associated with two salt tolerance indices, namely (1) the ratio of the germination index under salt conditions to the germination index under no-salt conditions (ST-GI) and (2) the ratio of the germination rate under salt conditions to the germination rate under no-salt conditions (ST-GR). One SNP (BARC-021347-04042) was significantly associated with these two traits (ST-GI and ST-GR). In addition, nine possible candidate genes were located in or near the genetic region where the above markers were mapped. Of these, five genes, Glyma08g12400.1, Glyma08g09730.1, Glyma18g47140.1, Glyma09g00460.1, and Glyma09g00490.3, were verified in response to salt stress at the germination stage. The SNPs detected could facilitate a better understanding of the genetic basis of soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage, and the marker BARC-021347-04042 could contribute to future breeding for soybean salt tolerance by marker-assisted selection.

  12. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for canopy wilting trait in soybean (Glycine max L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress adversely affects [Glycine max (L.) Merr] soybean at most developmental stages, which collectively results in yield reduction. Little information is available on relative contribution and chromosomal locations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning drought tolerance in soybean...

  13. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  14. High performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis in the analysis of soybean proteins and peptides in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Saz, José María; Marina, María Luisa

    2007-03-01

    The increasing interest in functional and healthy food products has promoted the use of soybean in the manufacture of foods for human consumption. Soybean basic products (soybeans, textured soybean, soybean flour, soybean protein concentrate and soybean protein isolate) as well as soybean derivatives (soybean dairy-like products, soybean drinks with fruits, meat analogues, etc.) are commercially available. In addition, due to the interesting nutritional and functional properties of soybean proteins, they are usually employed as ingredient in the elaboration of a large number of food products such as bakery or meat products among others. In spite of the good characteristics of soybean proteins, their addition to some products is forbidden or allowed up to a certain limit. Therefore, analytical methodologies to achieve the determination of soybean proteins in foods are necessary in order to make possible adequate quality control and to prove that legal regulations controlling their addition are accomplished. However, this is not an easy task due to the diversity and complexity of the food matrices and the technological treatments to which some of these foods are submitted during their elaboration. This article presents for the first time a comprehensive review on the analytical methodologies developed using HPLC and CE to characterize soybeans and to analyse soybean proteins in meals. Moreover, the use of HPLC and CE in the characterization of soybean protein fractions and their hydrolyzates, and a study of their relationships to nutritional, functional and biomedical properties are included. Finally, the application of proteomic methodologies in soybean food technology is also reviewed.

  15. Soybean hulls as a dietary fiber source for dogs.

    PubMed

    Cole, J T; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Patil, A R; Murray, S M; Hussein, H S; Brent, J L

    1999-04-01

    In Exp. 1, soybean hull samples were obtained from nine sources across the United States and analyzed for nutrient content to determine their suitability for inclusion in dog diets. Compositional data revealed variation in both the amount of total dietary fiber (TDF; 63.8 to 81.2%) in the soybean hulls and the ratio of insoluble:soluble fiber (5.0:1 to 15.4:1). Crude protein content varied widely among sources, ranging from 9.2 to 18.7%. An in vivo trial (Exp. 2) was conducted using a premium dog diet containing 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis). There was a negative linear effect (P < .05) of soybean hull inclusion in the diet on DM, OM, TDF, and GE total-tract digestibilities, as well as on calculated ME. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. Based on these results, ileally cannulated dogs were fed diets containing 6.0, 7.5, or 9.0% soybean hulls (DM basis) in addition to diets containing either 0% supplemental fiber or 7.5% beet pulp (Exp. 3). Nutrient digestion at the ileum was unaffected by inclusion of supplemental fiber. Total tract digestion of DM, OM, and GE was lower ( P < .05) for diets containing supplemental fiber when compared with the diet containing 0% fiber. Crude protein and fat digestibilities were unaffected by treatment. There was no difference in nutrient digestibility between those diets containing soybean hulls and a diet containing beet pulp. Soybean hull inclusion in the diet resulted in a negative linear effect (P < .05) on calculated ME, in addition to lowering ME (P < .05) when compared with the 0% fiber control diet. Calculated ME for dogs fed a 7.5% beet pulp-containing diet was lower (P < .05) than that for dogs fed the soybean hull-containing diets. Results indicate that soybean hulls can be an effective dietary fiber source in dog diets.

  16. Phoma-like fungi on soybeans.

    PubMed

    Kövics, György János; Sándor, Erzsébet; Rai, Mahendra K; Irinyi, László

    2014-02-01

    Numerous coelomycetous fungi classified in Ascochyta, Phoma and Phyllosticta, and lately established and/or re-classified genera and species, namely Boeremia and Peyronellaea have been recorded from spots on leaves and pods of soybeans. These rarely observed pathogens are cosmopolitan, ubiquitous species on diseased and dead plant materials, and define frequently as weak or opportunistic parasites. Based on the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition, the authors summarize the re-evaluation of the taxonomic status of Phoma sojicola (syn. Ascochyta sojicola) and Phyllosticta sojicola. Inspite of the former delimitation of Ph. sojicola based on small differences in morphological features, it has proved to be identical to Peyronellaea pinodella (syn. Phoma pinodella). Similarly, it was also confirmed that Ph. sojicola was identical to Boeremia exigua var. exigua (syn. Phoma exigua var. exigua). The authors and co-workers contributed to the identification of Phoma-like fungi by combined conventional and molecular methods. Protein-encoding genes (TEF1 and β-tubulin) were successfully applied within the Phoma genus to infer phylogenetic relationships.

  17. Chemiluminescence of adzuki bean and soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Iida, T; Kawane, M; Ashikaga, K; Yoshiki, Y; Okubo, K

    2000-01-01

    The chemiluminescence of extracts from leguminous seedlings (adzuki bean and soybean) was investigated. In an H(2)O(2)/gallic acid/water extract system, the photon intensities of adzuki bean seedlings were increased after germination and in the hypocotyls it reached a maximum level during the first 4 days of germination. On day 4 after germination, chemiluminescence in the primary leaf part exhibited the strongest intensity. Emission spectra showed a main peak at 510 nm, with shoulders at 660 nm. Mechanical injuries to the stems and cotyledons resulted in about a 1.5- and 6.8-fold increase of chemiluminescence, respectively. In an H(2)O(2)/70% EtOH extract/HRP system, photon intensities increased after germination and reached a maximum level during the first 2 days of germination. On day 4 after germination, chemiluminescence in the root and leaf area was stronger than in any other area. Emission spectra showed a main peak at around 570 nm, with shoulders at around 660 nm. The photon intensities of stems and cotyledons after mechanical injuries resulted in about an 0.72-fold decrease and an 8.8-fold increase in the presence of H(2)O(2) and acetaldehyde (MeCHO), respectively.

  18. Selenium in soybeans: bioavailability and form

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments are presented which evaluate the bioavailability of different forms of selenium from intrinsically and extrinsically labeled isolated soy protein and soy flour. The bioavailability of selenium from soy and egg is compared and some characteristics of selenium are described as it exists in soybeans. The metabolism of selenium was measured by whole-body and tissue radioactivity retention and selenium excretion. Selenium-75 was well absorbed from an isolated soy protein diet by rats. Selenium-75 from isolated soy protein labeled intrinsically and extrinsically with /sup 75/Se selenate was better absorbed than from protein labeled extrinsically with /sup 75/Se selenite or /sup 75/Se selenomethionine. Bioavailability of selenium from soy flour and egg was measured by whole-body and tissue radioactivity retention and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity regeneration. Selenium-75 from soy flour intrinsically labeled with selenite was better absorbed than /sup 75/Se from flour intrinsically labeled with selenate. GSH-Px levels in the liver, kidney, platelets and heart fell when rats were fed a selenium deficient diet, but were not significantly raised on 0.0825 ppm Se repletion diets.

  19. Transgenic Soybean Production of Bioactive Human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonghua; Schmidt, Monica A.; Erwin, Christopher; Guo, Jun; Sun, Raphael; Pendarvis, Ken; Warner, Brad W.; Herman, Eliot M.

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating condition of premature infants that results from the gut microbiome invading immature intestinal tissues. This results in a life-threatening disease that is frequently treated with the surgical removal of diseased and dead tissues. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), typically found in bodily fluids, such as amniotic fluid, salvia and mother’s breast milk, is an intestinotrophic growth factor and may reduce the onset of NEC in premature infants. We have produced human EGF in soybean seeds to levels biologically relevant and demonstrated its comparable activity to commercially available EGF. Transgenic soybean seeds expressing a seed-specific codon optimized gene encoding of the human EGF protein with an added ER signal tag at the N’ terminal were produced. Seven independent lines were grown to homozygous and found to accumulate a range of 6.7 +/- 3.1 to 129.0 +/- 36.7 μg EGF/g of dry soybean seed. Proteomic and immunoblot analysis indicates that the inserted EGF is the same as the human EGF protein. Phosphorylation and immunohistochemical assays on the EGF receptor in HeLa cells indicate the EGF protein produced in soybean seed is bioactive and comparable to commercially available human EGF. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using soybean seeds as a biofactory to produce therapeutic agents in a soymilk delivery platform. PMID:27314851

  20. Alfalfa living mulch advances biological control of soybean aphid.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Nicholas P; O'neal, Matthew E; Singer, Jeremy W

    2007-04-01

    Despite evidence for biological control in North America, outbreaks of the invasive soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), continue to occur on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). Our objectives were to determine whether natural enemies delay aphid establishment and limit subsequent population growth and whether biological control can be improved by altering the within-field habitat. We hypothesized that a living mulch would increase the abundance of the aphidophagous community in soybean and suppress A. glycines establishment and population growth. We measured natural enemy and A. glycines abundance in soybean grown with and without an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) living mulch. Soybean grown with an alfalfa living mulch had 45% more natural enemies and experienced a delay in A. glycines establishment that resulted in lower peak populations. From our experiments, we concluded that the current natural enemy community in Iowa can delay A. glycines establishment, and an increase in aphidophagous predator abundance lowered the rate of A. glycines population growth preventing economic populations (i.e., below the current economic threshold) from occurring. Incorporation of a living mulch had an unexpected impact on A. glycines population growth, lowering the aphids' intrinsic rate of growth, thus providing a bottom-up suppression of A. glycines. We suggest future studies of living mulches or cover crops for A. glycines management should address both potential sources of suppression. Furthermore, our experience suggests that more consistent biological control of A. glycines may be possible with even partial resistance that slows but does not prevent reproduction.

  1. Monitoring glyphosate residues in transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    PubMed

    Arregui, María C; Lenardón, Argelia; Sanchez, Daniel; Maitre, María I; Scotta, Roberto; Enrique, Susana

    2004-02-01

    The availability of Roundup Ready (RR) varieties of soybean has increased the use of glyphosate for weed control in Argentina. Glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine] is employed for the eradication of previous crop vegetation and for weed control during the soybean growing cycle. Its action is effective, and low environmental impact has been reported so far. No residues have been observed in soil or water, either of glyphosate or its metabolite, AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid). The objective of this work was to monitor glyphosate and AMPA residues in soybean plants and grains in field crops in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Five sites were monitored in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Individual soybean plants were sampled from emergence to harvest, dried and ground. Analysis consisted in residue extraction with organic solvents and buffers, agitation, centrifugation, clean-up and HPLC with UV detection. In soybean leaves and stems, glyphosate residues ranged from 1.9 to 4.4 mg kg(-1) and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg kg(-1) in grains. Higher concentrations were detected when glyphosate was sprayed several times during the crop cycle, and when treatments approached the flowering stage. AMPA residues were also detected in leaves and in grains, indicating metabolism of the herbicide.

  2. Soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Faria, Rogério Teixeira; Junior, Ruy Casão; Werner, Simone Silmara; Junior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2016-07-01

    Crops close to small water bodies may exhibit changes in yield if the water mass causes significant changes in the microclimate of areas near the reservoir shoreline. The scientific literature describes this effect as occurring gradually, with higher intensity in the sites near the shoreline and decreasing intensity with distance from the reservoir. Experiments with two soybean cultivars were conducted during four crop seasons to evaluate soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir and determine the effect of air temperature and water availability on soybean crop yield. Fifteen experimental sites were distributed in three transects perpendicular to the Itaipu reservoir, covering an area at approximately 10 km from the shoreline. The yield gradient between the site closest to the reservoir and the sites farther away in each transect did not show a consistent trend, but varied as a function of distance, crop season, and cultivar. This finding indicates that the Itaipu reservoir does not affect the yield of soybean plants grown within approximately 10 km from the shoreline. In addition, the variation in yield among the experimental sites was not attributed to thermal conditions because the temperature was similar within transects. However, the crop water availability was responsible for higher differences in yield among the neighboring experimental sites related to water stress caused by spatial variability in rainfall, especially during the soybean reproductive period in January and February.

  3. Soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Rogério Teixeira; Junior, Ruy Casão; Werner, Simone Silmara; Junior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2016-07-01

    Crops close to small water bodies may exhibit changes in yield if the water mass causes significant changes in the microclimate of areas near the reservoir shoreline. The scientific literature describes this effect as occurring gradually, with higher intensity in the sites near the shoreline and decreasing intensity with distance from the reservoir. Experiments with two soybean cultivars were conducted during four crop seasons to evaluate soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir and determine the effect of air temperature and water availability on soybean crop yield. Fifteen experimental sites were distributed in three transects perpendicular to the Itaipu reservoir, covering an area at approximately 10 km from the shoreline. The yield gradient between the site closest to the reservoir and the sites farther away in each transect did not show a consistent trend, but varied as a function of distance, crop season, and cultivar. This finding indicates that the Itaipu reservoir does not affect the yield of soybean plants grown within approximately 10 km from the shoreline. In addition, the variation in yield among the experimental sites was not attributed to thermal conditions because the temperature was similar within transects. However, the crop water availability was responsible for higher differences in yield among the neighboring experimental sites related to water stress caused by spatial variability in rainfall, especially during the soybean reproductive period in January and February.

  4. Soyfoods and soybean products: from traditional use to modern applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-I; Erh, Mei-Hui; Su, Nan-Wei; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Chou, Cheng-Chun; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2012-10-01

    Soybean products (soyfoods), reported as potential functional foods, are implicated in several health-enhancing properties, such as easing the symptoms of postmenopausal women, reducing the risk of osteoporosis, preventing cardiovascular disease, and antimutagenic effects. Isoflavone, for example, is one of the most important compounds abundantly found in soybean, mainly accounting for the health-enhancing properties as mentioned earlier. However, most biological activities of isoflavones are mainly attributed to their aglycone forms. It has also been demonstrated that isoflavone aglycones are absorbed faster and in greater amount than their glycosides in human intestines. Fortunately, deglycosylation of isoflavones can be achieved during fermentation process by several strains such as lactic acid bacteria, basidiomycetes, filamentous fungus, and Bacillus subtilis with their β-glucosidase activity. This article presents an overview of soybean's chemistry, application, state-of-the-art advances in soybean fermentation processing and products as well as their applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Different compounds, such as isoflavone, dietary fibers, and proteins which exhibit significant bioactivities, are summarized. The roles of different microorganisms in bioconversion and enhancement of bioactivities of fermented soybean are also discussed.

  5. Soybean proteome database: a data resource for plant differential omics.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Katsumi; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Nobori, Hiroya; Nakamura, Takuji; Hashiguchi, Akiko; Nanjo, Yohei; Mikami, Yoji; Yunokawa, Harunobu; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2009-07-01

    The Soybean Proteome Database aims to be a data repository for functional analyses of soybean responses to flooding injury, recognized as a major constraint for establishment and production of this plant. The current release contains 21 reference maps of soybean (Glycine max cv. Enrei) proteins electrophoresed on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels of which the samples were collected from several organs, tissues and organelles. These reference maps include 7311 detected proteins and 532 identified proteins, or proteins for which a sequence or peptide peak has been determined. The database is searchable by protein properties such as accession number, description and isoelectric point and molecular weight range. The Soybean Proteome Database also integrates multiple "omes". An omics table reveals relationships among 106 mRNAs, 51 proteins and 89 metabolites that vary over time under flooding stress. The tabulated metabolites are anchored to a metabolome network. A unified temporal-profile tag attached to the mRNAs, proteins and metabolites facilitates retrieval of the data based on the temporal expression profiles. A graphical user interface based on dynamic HTML facilitates viewing the metabolome network as well as the profiles of multiple omes in a uniform manner. The entire database is available at http://proteome.dc.affrc.go.jp/Soybean/.

  6. The Methylome of Soybean Roots during the Compatible Interaction with the Soybean Cyst Nematode1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rambani, Aditi; Liu, Jinyi; Ranjan, Priya; Mazarei, Mitra; Pantalone, Vince; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) induces the formation of a multinucleated feeding site, or syncytium, whose etiology includes massive gene expression changes. Nevertheless, the genetic networks underlying gene expression control in the syncytium are poorly understood. DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic mark that plays a key role in regulating gene expression. To determine the extent to which DNA methylation is altered in soybean (Glycine max) roots during the susceptible interaction with SCN, we generated whole-genome cytosine methylation maps at single-nucleotide resolution. The methylome analysis revealed that SCN induces hypomethylation to a much higher extent than hypermethylation. We identified 2,465 differentially hypermethylated regions and 4,692 hypomethylated regions in the infected roots compared with the noninfected control. In addition, 703 and 1,346 unique genes were identified as overlapping with hyper- or hypomethylated regions, respectively. The differential methylation in genes apparently occurs independently of gene size and GC content but exhibits strong preference for recently duplicated paralogs. Furthermore, a set of 278 genes was identified as specifically syncytium differentially methylated genes. Of these, we found genes associated with epigenetic regulation, phytohormone signaling, cell wall architecture, signal transduction, and ubiquitination. This study provides, to our knowledge, new evidence that differential methylation is part of the regulatory mechanisms controlling gene expression changes in the nematode-induced syncytium. PMID:26099268

  7. Chemical composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybean 40-3-2 grown in Europe remains equivalent with that of conventional soybean (Glycine max L.).

    PubMed

    Harrigan, George G; Ridley, William P; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Sorbet, Roy; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Schneider, Ronald W

    2007-07-25

    The composition of glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup Ready) soybean 40-3-2 was compared with that of conventional soybean grown in Romania in 2005 as part of a comparative safety assessment program. Samples were collected from replicated field trials, and compositional analyses were performed to measure proximates (moisture, fat, ash, protein, and carbohydrates by calculation), fiber, amino acids, fatty acids, isoflavones, raffinose, stachyose, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor, and lectin in grain as well as proximates and fiber in forage. The mean values for all biochemical components assessed for Roundup Ready soybean 40-30-2 were similar to those of the conventional control and were within the published range observed for commercial soybean. The compositional profile of Roundup Ready soybean 40-3-2 was also compared to that of conventional soybean varieties grown in Romania by calculating a 99% tolerance interval to describe compositional variability in the population of traditional soybean varieties already on the marketplace. These comparisons, together with the history of the safe use of soybean as a common component of animal feed and human food, lead to the conclusion that Roundup Ready soybean 40-3-2 is compositionally equivalent to and as safe and nutritious as conventional soybean varieties grown commercially.

  8. Microsatellite Diversity of Soybean Genotypes Differing in Bean Pod Mottle Virus Leaf Symptom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr, is the most important source of vegetable oil and protein meal in the world. Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a threat to soybean yield and productivity in most soybean growing states of the USA. In the absence of complete resistance to BPMV, partial resistance of so...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Bradyrhizobium japonicum J5, Isolated from a Soybean Nodule in Hokkaido, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanehara, Kazuma

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soybean bradyrhizobia form root nodules on soybean plants and symbiotically fix N2. Strain J5 is phylogenetically far from well-known representatives within the Bradyrhizobium japonicum linage. The complete genome showed the largest single chromosomal (10.1 Mb) and symbiosis island (998 kb) among complete genomes of soybean bradyrhizobia. PMID:28183772

  10. Genome-wide association mapping of flowering time and maturity dates in early mature soybean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is a photoperiod-sensitive and short-day major crop grown worldwide. Days to flowering (DTF) and maturity (DTM) are two traits affecting soybean adaptability and yield. Some genes conditioning soybean flowering and maturity have been recently characterized. However, ...

  11. Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, there is a lack of information regarding steam-flaked soybeans. This research evaluated various inclusion rates of steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB) in lactating dairy cattle diets. Twelve multiparous Holstein cow...

  12. Colletotrichum incanum sp. nov., a curved-conidial species causing soybean anthracnose in USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean anthracnose is caused by a number of species of Colletotrichum that as a group represent an important disease that results in significant economic losses. In the present study, Colletotrichum species were isolated from soybean petioles and stems with anthracnose symptoms from soybean fields ...

  13. Low-Cost Soybean Protein Products as Extenders in Plywood Adhesives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean flour and meal were evaluated as alternate protein extenders in plywood adhesives. This research is part of our laboratory’s efforts to develop new uses for the proteinaceous co-products from soybean and cereal processing. Ground soybean meal was tested as replacement for wheat flour in gl...

  14. Low-cost Soybean Protein Products as Extenders in Plywood Adhesives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean flour and meal were evaluated as alternate protein extenders in plywood adhesives. This research is part of our laboratory’s efforts to develop new uses for the proteinaceous co-products from soybean and cereal processing. Ground soybean meal was tested as replacement for wheat flour in glu...

  15. Organically grown soybean production in the USA: Constraints and management of pathogens and insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is the most produced and consumed oil seed crop worldwide. In 2013, 226 million metric tons were produced in over 70 countries. Organically produced soybean represented less than 0.1% of total world production. In the USA in 2011, the soybean crop was grown on about 32 million ha with 53 tho...

  16. Metabolic profiles of soybean roots during early stages of Fusarium tucumaniae infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean germplasm exhibits various levels of resistance to Fusarium tucumaniae, the main causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean in Argentina. In this study, two soybean genotypes, one susceptible (NA 4613) and one partially resistant (DM 4670) to SDS infection, were inoculated with F...

  17. Corn and soybean rotation under reduced tillage management: impacts on soil properties, yield, and net return

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 4-yr field study was conducted from 2007 to 2010 at Stoneville, MS to examine the effects of rotating corn and soybean under reduced tillage conditions on soil properties, yields, and net return. The six rotation systems were continuous corn (CCCC), continuous soybean (SSSS), corn-soybean (CSCS),...

  18. Establishment of a soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) transposon-based mutagenesis repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a major crop species providing valuable feedstock for food, feed and biofuel. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in developing genomic resources for soybean, including on-going efforts to sequence the genome. These efforts have identified a large number of soybean genes...

  19. Evaluating soybean cultivars for resistance to Phomopsis seed decay in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) of soybean reduces seed quality, germination and seedling vigor. PSD has been problematic in most soybean production areas including Mississippi (MS). Planting resistant cultivars is one of the most effective means to control PSD. However, very few soybean cultivars resis...

  20. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower... (STCC) number are: 01 Farm products, with the exception of grain (STCC No. 0113), soybeans (STCC...

  1. Isolation and characterization of a male fertility gene (Ms4) in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying a stable male-sterility system is crucial for the development of hybrid soybean. In soybean, eleven male-sterile, female-fertile mutants (ms1, ms2, ms3, ms4, ms5, ms6, ms7, ms8, ms9, msMOS, and msp) have been identified and some of which have been mapped to soybean chromosomes. The objec...

  2. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower... (STCC) number are: 01 Farm products, with the exception of grain (STCC No. 0113), soybeans (STCC...

  3. An analysis of spectral discrimination between corn and soybeans using a row crop reflectance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Reflectance calculations of soybeans and corn crops at two times during the growing season indicate that the high sensitivity of the thematic mapper mid-infrared band to exposed bare soil between soybean rows is most likely responsible for early season spectral discrimination of corn and soybean crops by this band.

  4. 77 FR 41356 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered for Herbicide Tolerance AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... determination of nonregulated status of soybean designated as MON 87708, which has been genetically engineered... of soybean (Glycine max) designated as event MON 87708, which has been genetically engineered...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  6. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  7. 77 FR 41350 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered To Produce...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public of our determination that a soybean line developed by... stearidonic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid not found in conventional soybean, is no longer considered a...

  8. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower... (STCC) number are: 01 Farm products, with the exception of grain (STCC No. 0113), soybeans (STCC...

  9. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  10. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  11. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower... (STCC) number are: 01 Farm products, with the exception of grain (STCC No. 0113), soybeans (STCC...

  12. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  13. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  16. 77 FR 41354 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered for Increased Yield AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... determination of nonregulated status of soybean designated as MON 87712, which has been genetically engineered.... Louis, MO, seeking a determination of nonregulated status of soybean (Glycine max) designated as...

  17. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., soybeans, and sunflower seeds. 1039.10 Section 1039.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower... (STCC) number are: 01 Farm products, with the exception of grain (STCC No. 0113), soybeans (STCC...

  18. An analysis of spectral discrimination between corn and soybeans using a row crop reflectance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Reflectance calculations of soybeans and corn crops at two times during the growing season indicate that the high sensitivity of the thematic mapper mid-infrared band to exposed bare soil between soybean rows is most likely responsible for early season spectral discrimination of corn and soybean crops by this band.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10210 - Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10210 Soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products... chemical substance identified as soybean oil, epoxidized, reaction products with diethanolamine (PMN...

  20. 76 FR 78232 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered To Have a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean... public of our determination that a soybean line developed by the Monsanto Co., designated as event MON..., seeking a determination of nonregulated status for soybean (Glycine max) designated as event MON...

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of Korean and Chinese soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Korean and Chinese cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] populations are major soybean gene pools. Information has been reported comparing genetic diversity between soybeans from the two countries using an unequal number of accessions and only 6 to 35 genetic markers. This study compares diffe...

  2. Pathogenicity of diaporthe spp. isolates recovered from soybean (glycine max) seeds in Paraguay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) caused by Diaporthe longicolla (Hobbs) J.M. Santos, Vrandecic & A.J.L. Phillips has been documented as part of a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fungal disease complex that affects the quality of soybean seed. In 2006, 16 isolates of Diaporthe were recovered from soybean...

  3. Pathogenic diversity of Phytophthora sojae and breeding strategies to develop Phytophthora-resistant soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora stem and root rot disease, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and has been increasing in several soybean-producing areas around the world. This disease induces serious limitations on soybean production, with yield l...

  4. Identification of soybean accessions resistant to macrophomina phaseolina by field screening and laboratory validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot of soybean, caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goidanich, has been a problem for soybean farmers in the U. S. A. for many years. There are no strategies for managing the population density of this pathogen in the soil, and no commercial resistant soybean variety is available for...

  5. Corn and soybean grain yields in a long-term tillage and cropping systems study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports on the long-term effects of tillage and cropping systems on corn and soybean yields are limited. Yields have been measured in a long-term experiment (30+ years) with three cropping systems [continuous corn (CC), continuous soybean (CSB), and soybean-corn (SB-C)] in six primary tillage system...

  6. Velvetbean and Bahiagrass as Rotation Crops for Management of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, D. B.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Carden, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) yield often is limited by the phytoparasitic nematodes Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in the southeastern United States. We studied the effects of rotation with bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), velvetbean (Mucuna pruiens), or continuous soybean, aldicarb, and soybean cultivar on yield and population densities in two fields infested with a mixture of Meloidogyne spp. and H. glycines. Velvetbean and bahiagrass reduced population levels of both nematode species to near zero prior to planting soybean. At harvest, both nematode populations were equal in soybean following bahiagrass and continuous soybean but were lower following velvetbean. Both bahiagrass and velvetbean as previous crops were equal in producing significantly (P < 0.003) higher yield than continuous soybean. Velvetbean increased subsequent soybean yield by 98% and bahiagrass increased subsequent soybean yield by 85% as previous crops compared to continuous soybean. The major differences between the two rotation crops were yield response of the nematode-susceptible cultivars and at-harvest nematode populations. Velvetbean tended to mask genetic differences among cultivars more so than bahiagrass. Velvetbean also produced a more long-term effect on nematode populations, with numbers of both Meloidogyne spp. and H. glycines lower in soybean following velvethean than following bahiagrass or continuous soybean. PMID:19274247

  7. From George Washington Carver to the genome: leveraging genetics and molecular biology to improve soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1904, George Washington Carver studying the composition of soybeans concluded that they are a valuable source of protein and oil. He proposed that rotating soybeans with other crops would replenish the soil with nitrogen and minerals for 2 years. His findings brought soybeans into the mainstream ...

  8. Evaluation of Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean Cultivars for Resistance to Bacterial Pustule

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines causes bacterial pustule of soybean, which is a common disease in many soybean-growing areas of the world and is controlled by a single recessive gene that was commonly found in many conventional glyphosate-sensitive soybean cultivars. Since glyphosate-resistant c...

  9. Evaluation of soybean breeding lines for resistance to phomopsis seed decay in stoneville mississippi 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) of soybean is a major cause of poor seed quality in most soybean production areas, especially in the mid-southern region of the United States. Breeding for PSD-resistance is the most effective long-term strategy to control this disease. To breed soybean lines with resistan...

  10. Genome-wide association mapping of quantitative resistance to sudden death syndrome in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is a serious threat to soybean production that can be controlled by host plant resistance. To dissect the genetic architecture of quantitative resistance to the disease in soybean, two independent association panels of soybean elite cultivar, consisting of 392 and 300 uni...

  11. Host-Derived Artificial MicroRNA as an Alternative Method to Improve Soybean Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Li, Jiarui; Oakley, Thomas R.; Todd, Timothy C.; Trick, Harold N.

    2016-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is one of the most important pests limiting soybean production worldwide. Novel approaches to managing this pest have focused on gene silencing of target nematode sequences using RNA interference (RNAi). With the discovery of endogenous microRNAs as a mode of gene regulation in plants, artificial microRNA (amiRNA) methods have become an alternative method for gene silencing, with the advantage that they can lead to more specific silencing of target genes than traditional RNAi vectors. To explore the application of amiRNAs for improving soybean resistance to SCN, three nematode genes (designated as J15, J20, and J23) were targeted using amiRNA vectors. The transgenic soybean hairy roots, transformed independently with these three amiRNA vectors, showed significant reductions in SCN population densities in bioassays. Expression of the targeted genes within SCN eggs were downregulated in populations feeding on transgenic hairy roots. Our results provide evidence that host-derived amiRNA methods have great potential to improve soybean resistance to SCN. This approach should also limit undesirable phenotypes associated with off-target effects, which is an important consideration for commercialization of transgenic crops. PMID:27941644

  12. Effect of substitution of high stearic low linolenic acid soybean oil for hydrogenated soybean oil on fatty acid intake.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Maureen A; Lemke, Shawna L; Petersen, Barbara J; Smith, Kim M

    2008-05-01

    High stearic, low alpha-linolenic acid soybean oil (HSLL) has been developed via traditional breeding to serve as a substitute for partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in food manufacturing. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on fatty acid intake in the United States if HSLL were substituted for partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in several food categories, including baked goods, shortenings, fried foods, and margarines. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (1999-2002), baseline intakes of five fatty acids and trans fatty acids (TFA) were determined at the mean and 90th percentile of fat consumption. Then intakes of these fatty acids were determined after HSLL was substituted for 100% of the partially hydrogenated soybean oils used in these four food categories. The results show that baseline intake of stearic acid is 3.0% energy at the mean and 3.3% energy at the 90th percentile. Use of HSLL could increase stearic acid intake to about 4-5% energy. Mean intakes of TFA could decrease from 2.5 to 0.9% energy, and intake of palmitic acid would remain unchanged. Use of HSLL as a substitute for partially hydrogenated soybean oils would result in changes in the fatty acid composition of the US diet consistent with current dietary recommendations.

  13. Ectopic expression of AtPAD4 broadens resistance of soybean to soybean cyst and root-knot nematodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The gene encoding PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4) is required in Arabidopsis for expression of several genes involved in the defense response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. AtPAD4 (Arabidopsis thaliana PAD4) encodes a lipase-like protein that plays a regulatory role mediating salicylic acid signaling. Results We expressed the gene encoding AtPAD4 in soybean roots of composite plants to test the ability of AtPAD4 to deter plant parasitic nematode development. The transformed roots were challenged with two different plant parasitic nematode genera represented by soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) and root-knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne incognita). Expression of AtPAD4 in soybean roots decreased the number of mature SCN females 35 days after inoculation by 68 percent. Similarly, soybean roots expressing AtPAD4 exhibited 77 percent fewer galls when challenged with RKN. Conclusions Our experiments show that AtPAD4 can be used in an economically important crop, soybean, to provide a measure of resistance to two different genera of nematodes. PMID:23617694

  14. Hydrolysis of soybean isoflavonoid glycosides by Dalbergia beta-glucosidases.

    PubMed

    Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Rimlumduan, Thipwarin; Svasti, Jisnuson; Cairns, James R Ketudat

    2007-03-21

    Two beta-glucosidases from the legumes Dalbergia cochinchinensis and Dalbergia nigrescens were compared for their ability to hydrolyze isoflavonoid glycosides from soybean. Both D. nigrescens and D. cochinchinensis beta-glucosidases could hydrolyze conjugated soybean glycosides, but D. nigrescens beta-glucosidase hydrolyzed both conjugated and nonconjugated glycosides in crude soybean extract more rapidly. The kinetic properties Km, kcat, and kcat/Km of the Dalbergia beta-glucosidases toward conjugated isoflavonoid glycosides, determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, confirmed the higher efficiency of the D. nigrescens beta-glucosidase in hydrolyzing these substrates. The D. nigrescens beta-glucosidase could also efficiently hydrolyze isoflavone glycosides in soy flour suspensions, suggesting its application to increase free isoflavones in soy products.

  15. Functional significance of bioactive peptides derived from soybean.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brij Pal; Vij, Shilpa; Hati, Subrota

    2014-04-01

    Biologically active peptides play an important role in metabolic regulation and modulation. Several studies have shown that during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing and microbial proteolysis of various animals and plant proteins, small peptides can be released which possess biofunctional properties. These peptides are to prove potential health-enhancing nutraceutical for food and pharmaceutical applications. The beneficial health effects of bioactive peptides may be several like antihypertensive, antioxidative, antiobesity, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and anticancer. Soybeans, one of the most abundant plant sources of dietary protein, contain 36-56% of protein. Recent studies showed that soy milk, an aqueous extract of soybean, and its fermented product have great biological properties and are a good source of bioactive peptides. This review focuses on bioactive peptides derived from soybean; we illustrate their production and biofunctional attributes.

  16. Top note compounds of Chinese traditional bacteria-fermented soybean.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai-Nong; Sun, Bao-Guo; Hu, Wei-Bing

    2008-01-01

    Top note compounds of Chinese traditional bacteria-fermented soybean were analysed by using headspace sampler, GC and GC-MS. Thirty-three note compounds were identified in Chinese traditional bacteria-fermented soybean. Among them, 28 compounds are responsible for the Chinese traditional bacteria-fermented soybean top note. 3-Methylbutanal (6.690%), amyl nitrite (12.976%), 2-methylpropanoic acid (4.014%), 2,3-butanediol (2.171%), 3-methylbutanoic acid (14.273%), 2-methylbutanoic acid (11.866%), benzeneacetaldehyde (1.422%), nonadecane (3.195%), eicosane (5.331%), heneicosane (23.418%) and docosane (5.011%) were all found in concentrations higher than 1.0% (calculated as % peak area of GC analysis using a DB-5 column).

  17. Integrating omic approaches for abiotic stress tolerance in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Rupesh; Sonah, Humira; Patil, Gunvant; Chen, Wei; Prince, Silvas; Mutava, Raymond; Vuong, Tri; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean production is greatly influenced by abiotic stresses imposed by environmental factors such as drought, water submergence, salt, and heavy metals. A thorough understanding of plant response to abiotic stress at the molecular level is a prerequisite for its effective management. The molecular mechanism of stress tolerance is complex and requires information at the omic level to understand it effectively. In this regard, enormous progress has been made in the omics field in the areas of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. The emerging field of ionomics is also being employed for investigating abiotic stress tolerance in soybean. Omic approaches generate a huge amount of data, and adequate advancements in computational tools have been achieved for effective analysis. However, the integration of omic-scale information to address complex genetics and physiological questions is still a challenge. In this review, we have described advances in omic tools in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to dissect abiotic stress tolerance in soybean. Emphasis was given to approaches such as quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection (GS). Comparative genomics and candidate gene approaches are also discussed considering identification of potential genomic loci, genes, and biochemical pathways involved in stress tolerance mechanism in soybean. This review also provides a comprehensive catalog of available online omic resources for soybean and its effective utilization. We have also addressed the significance of phenomics in the integrated approaches and recognized high-throughput multi-dimensional phenotyping as a major limiting factor for the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in soybean. PMID:24917870

  18. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Emily C.; LaFayette, Peter R.; Ortega, María A.; Joyce, Blake L.; Kopsell, Dean A.; Parrott, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis) to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds. PMID:26376481

  19. Amino acid quantification in bulk soybeans by transmission Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schulmerich, Matthew V; Gelber, Matthew K; Azam, Hossain M; Harrison, Sandra K; McKinney, John; Thompson, Dennis; Owen, Bridget; Kull, Linda S; Bhargava, Rohit

    2013-12-03

    Soybeans are a commodity crop of significant economic and nutritional interest. As an important source of protein, buyers of soybeans are interested in not only the total protein content but also in the specific amino acids that comprise the total protein content. Raman spectroscopy has the chemical specificity to measure the twenty common amino acids as pure substances. An unsolved challenge, however, is to quantify varying levels of amino acids mixed together and bound in soybeans at relatively low concentrations. Here we report the use of transmission Raman spectroscopy as a secondary analytical approach to nondestructively measure specific amino acids in intact soybeans. With the employment of a transmission-based Raman instrument, built specifically for nondestructive measurements from bulk soybeans, spectra were collected from twenty-four samples to develop a calibration model using a partial least-squares approach with a random-subset cross validation. The calibration model was validated on an independent set of twenty-five samples for oil, protein, and amino acid predictions. After Raman measurements, the samples were reduced to a fine powder and conventional wet chemistry methods were used for quantifying reference values of protein, oil, and 18 amino acids. We found that the greater the concentrations (% by weight component of interest), the better the calibration model and prediction capabilities. Of the 18 amino acids analyzed, 13 had R(2) values greater than 0.75 with a standard error of prediction c.a. 3-4% by weight. Serine, histidine, cystine, tryptophan, and methionine showed poor predictions (R(2) < 0.75), which were likely a result of the small sampling range and the low concentration of these components. It is clear from the correlation plots and root-mean-square error of prediction that Raman spectroscopy has sufficient chemical contrast to nondestructively quantify protein, oil, and specific amino acids in intact soybeans.

  20. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Emily C; LaFayette, Peter R; Ortega, María A; Joyce, Blake L; Kopsell, Dean A; Parrott, Wayne A

    2015-01-01

    The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis) to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds.

  1. [A 104-week feeding study of genetically modified soybeans in F344 rats].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Tada, Yukie; Fukumori, Nobutaka; Tayama, Kuniaki; Ando, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Nagasawa, Akemichi; Yano, Norio; Yuzawa, Katsuhiro; Ogata, Akio

    2008-08-01

    A chronic feeding study to evaluate the safety of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GM soybeans) was conducted using F344 DuCrj rats. The rats were fed diet containing GM soybeans or Non-GM soybeans at the concentration of 30% in basal diet. Non-GM soybeans were a closely related strain to the GM soybeans. These two diets were adjusted to an identical nutrient level. In this study, the influence of GM soybeans in rats was compared with that of the Non-GM soybeans, and furthermore, to assess the effect of soybeans themselves, the groups of rats fed GM and Non-GM soybeans were compared with a group fed commercial diet (CE-2). General conditions were observed daily and body weight and food consumption were recorded. At the termination (104 weeks), animals were subjected to hematology, serum biochemistry, and pathological examinations. There were several differences in animal growth, food intake, organ weights and histological findings between the rats fed the GM and/or Non-GM soybeans and the rats fed CE-2. However, body weight and food intake were similar for the rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. Gross necropsy findings, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, and organ weights showed no meaningful difference between rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. In pathological observation, there was neither an increase in incidence nor any specific type of nonneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in the GM soybeans group in each sex. These results indicate that long-term intake of GM soybeans at the level of 30% in diet has no apparent adverse effect in rats.

  2. Evaluation of disease and pest damage on soybean cultivars released from 1923 through 2008 under field conditions in Central Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases and pests of soybean often reduce soybean yields. Targeted breeding that incorporates known genes for resistance and non-targeted breeding that eliminates susceptible plants in breeding populations reduces the impact of soybean pathogens and pests. Maturity group III soybean cultivars relea...

  3. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  4. Assessment of common soybean-infecting viruses in Ohio, USA, through multisite sampling and high-throughput sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the scope of virus disease problems of soybean in Ohio, USA, a survey was conducted during 2011 and 2012 soybean growing seasons. A total of 259 samples were collected from 80 soybean fields distributed in 42 Ohio counties, accounting for more than 90% of major soybean-growing counties in ...

  5. Proteases of Stored Product Insects and Their Inhibition by Specific Protease Inhibitors from Soybeans and Wheat Grain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-16

    Tenebria molitor MIDGUT PROTEASES; LOCUST CAECAL PROTEASES; BOWMAN-BIRK TRYPSIN-CHMOTRYPSIN INHIBITOR (SOYBEANS) CHICKPEAS TRYPSIN-CHYMOTRYPSIN...and Kunitz (STI) from soybeans, CI from chickpeas , chicken ovomucoid and turkey ovomucoid. It was Jnactivated by phenylemthvsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF...soybeans and Cl from chickpeas , by chicken ovomucoid and turkey overmucoid, as well as by the Kunitz (STI) soybean trypsin inhibitor that hardly

  6. Cultural strategies for managing weeds and soil moisture in cover crop based no-till soybean production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A four site-year study was conducted in North Carolina to evaluate the effects of soybean planting timing and row spacing on soil moisture, weed density, soybean lodging, and yield in a cover crop-based no-till organic soybean production system. Soybean planting timing included roll-kill/planting a...

  7. Arginine metabolism in developing soybean cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Micallef, B.J.; Shelp, B.J. )

    1989-09-01

    Tracerkinetic experiments were performed using L-(guanidino-{sup 14}C)arginine, L-(U-{sup 14}C)arginine, L-(ureido-{sup 14}C)citrulline, and L-(1-{sup 14}C)ornithine to investigate arginine utilization in developing cotyledons of Gycine max (L.) Merrill. Excised cotyledons were injected with carrier-free {sup 14}C compounds and incubated in sealed vials containing a CO{sub 2} trap. The free and protein amino acids were analyzed using higher performance liquid chromatography and arginine-specific enzyme-linked assays. After 4 hours, 75% and 90% of the {sup 14}C metabolized from (guanidino-{sup 14}C)arginine and (U-{sup 14}C)arginine, respectively, was in protein arginine. The net protein arginine accumulation rate, calculated from the depletion of nitrogenous solutes in the cotyledon during incubation, was 17 nanomoles per cotyledon per hour. The data indicated that arginine was also catabolized by the arginase-urease reactions at a rate of 5.5 nanomoles per cotyledon per hour. Between 2 and 4 hours {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was also evolved from carbons other than C-6 of arginine at a rate of 11.0 nanomoles per cotyledon per hour. It is suggested that this extra {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was evolved during the catabolism of ornithine-derived glutamate; {sup 14}C-ornithine was a product of the arginase reaction. A model for the estimated fluxes associated with arginine utilization in developing soybean cotyledons is presented.

  8. Starch Metabolism in Space-Grown Soybean Seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guikema, James A.; Leach, Jan E.; Brown, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this research was the study of sugar metabolism in soybean plants that had been in a clinorotation condition. The scope of activities was broadened greatly after the onset of the award. This broadening added two major research foci: 1) B-PAC: Photosynthetic activity of Brassica rapa; and 2) SOYPAT: The effects of microgravity on the interaction of a fungal root pathogen with soybean. Substantial investment and activity was also focused on the training of the astronaut team to conduct these experiments during orbital spaceflight.

  9. Soybeans Growing inside the Advanced Astroculture Plant Growth Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This composite image shows soybean plants growing in the Advanced Astroculture experiment aboard the International Space Station during June 11-July 2, 2002. DuPont is partnering with NASA and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to grow soybeans aboard the Space Station to find out if they have improved oil, protein, carbohydrates or secondary metabolites that could benefit farmers and consumers. Principal Investigators: Dr. Tom Corbin, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., a Dupont Company, with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa, and Dr. Weijia Zhou, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  10. Two new 'legumoviruses' (genus Begomovirus) naturally infecting soybean in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Kumar, P Lava; Mgbechi-Ezeri, J U; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2010-05-01

    Two new 'legumoviruses' (genus Begomovirus; family Geminiviridae) naturally infecting soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in Nigeria were molecularly characterized. Based on characteristic symptoms in soybean, the two viruses are provisionally designated as Soybean mild mottle virus (SbMMV) and Soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV). SbCBV has a bipartite genome, whereas SbMMV has only a DNA A component. The DNA A component of SbMMV is 2,768 nucleotides (nt) long and the DNA A and DNA B components of SbCBV are 2,708 and 2,647 nt long, respectively. In pairwise comparisons, the DNA A component of SbMMV and SbCBV showed 62% nt sequence identity, indicating that these two viruses are distinct. Whereas the DNA A of SbMMV contains two virion- and four complementary-sense open reading frames, that of SbCBV lacks the virus-sense AV2, a signature gene present in 'Old World' begomoviruses. A pairwise comparison with the corresponding nucleotide sequence of other begomoviruses in the databases indicated that SbCBV had a maximum of 74% identity with cowpea golden mosaic virus and SbMMV had a maximum of 65% identity with mungbean yellow mosaic India virus and kudzu mosaic virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA A component of SbCBV and SbMMV together with those of other begomoviruses available in the databases showed clustering of the two viruses within the 'legumovirus' clade of the begomovirus phylogenetic tree. In addition, the DNA A and B components of SbCBV from Centrosema pubescens Benth were found to be identical to those from soybean, indicating that leguminous wild species are a potential alternative host for the virus. Since soybean is an introduced crop, the identification of two distinct begomoviruses naturally infecting soybean in Nigeria suggests the occurrence of 'legumoviruses' in plant species indigenous to Africa and underscores their potential threat to sustainable cultivation of soybean on the African continent.

  11. Water Stress Modulates Soybean Aphid Performance, Feeding Behavior, and Virus Transmission in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Nachappa, Punya; Culkin, Christopher T.; Saya, Peter M.; Han, Jinlong; Nalam, Vamsi J.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how water stress including drought and flooding modifies the ability of plants to resist simultaneous attack by insect feeding and transmission of insect-vectored pathogen. We analyzed insect population growth, feeding behaviors, virus transmission, and plant amino acid profiles and defense gene expression to characterize mechanisms underlying the interaction between water stress, soybean aphid and aphid-transmitted, Soybean mosaic virus, on soybean plants. Population growth of non-viruliferous aphids was reduced under drought stress and saturation, likely because the aphids spent less time feeding from the sieve element on these plants compared to well-watered plants. Water stress did not impact population growth of viruliferous aphids. However, virus incidence and transmission rate was lowest under drought stress and highest under saturated conditions since viruliferous aphids took the greatest amount time to puncture cells and transmit the virus under saturated conditions and lowest time under drought stress. Petiole exudates from drought-stressed plants had the highest level of total free amino acids including asparagine and valine that are critical for aphid performance. Aphids did not benefit from improved phloem sap quality as indicated by their lower densities on drought-stressed plants. Saturation, on the other hand, resulted in low amino acid content compared to all of the other treatments. Drought and saturation had significant and opposing effects on expression of marker genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Drought alone significantly increased expression of ABA marker genes, which likely led to suppression of salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-related genes. In contrast, ABA marker genes were down-regulated under saturation, while expression of SA- and JA-related genes was up-regulated. We propose that the apparent antagonism between ABA and SA/JA signaling pathways contributed to an increase in aphid

  12. Identification of a new soybean kunitz trypsin inhibitor mutation and its effect on bowman-birk protease inhibitor content in soybean seed.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Jason D; Kim, Won-Seok; Krishnan, Hari B

    2015-02-11

    Soybean seed contains antinutritional compounds that inactivate digestive proteases, principally corresponding to two families: Kunitz trypsin inhibitors (KTi) and Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI). High levels of raw soybean/soybean meal in feed mixtures can cause poor weight gain and pancreatic abnormalities via inactivation of trypsin/chymotrypsin enzymes. Soybean protein meal is routinely heat-treated to inactivate inhibitors, a practice that is energy-intensive and costly and can degrade certain essential amino acids. In this work, we screened seed from 520 soybean accessions, using a combination of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblots with anti-Kunitz trypsin inhibitor antibodies. A soybean germplasm accession was identified with a mutation affecting an isoform annotated as nonfunctional (KTi1), which was determined to be synergistic with a previously identified mutation (KTi3-). We observed significant proteome rebalancing in all KTi mutant lines, resulting in dramatically increased BBI protein levels.

  13. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression in Soybean Roots Susceptible to the Soybean Cyst Nematode Two Days Post Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Khan, R.; Alkharouf, N.; Beard, H.; MacDonald, M.; Chouikha, I.; Meyer, S.; Grefenstette, J.; Knap, H.; Matthews, B.

    2004-01-01

    Soybean root cells undergo dramatic morphological and biochemical changes during the establishment of a feeding site in a compatible interaction with the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). We constructed a cDNA microarray with approximately 1,300 cDNA inserts targeted to identify differentially expressed genes during the compatible interaction of SCN with soybean roots 2 days after infection. Three independent biological replicates were grown and inoculated with SCN, and 2 days later RNA was extracted for hybridization to microarrays and compared to noninoculated controls. Statistical analysis indicated that approximately 8% of the genes monitored were induced and more than 50% of these were genes of unknown function. Notable genes that were more highly expressed 2 days after inoculation with SCN as compared to noninoculated roots included the repetitive proline-rich glycoprotein, the stress-induced gene SAM22, ß-1,3-endoglucanase, peroxidase, and those involved in carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, and signaling. PMID:19262812

  14. Effect of substitution of low linolenic acid soybean oil for hydrogenated soybean oil on fatty acid intake.

    PubMed

    DiRienzo, Maureen A; Astwood, James D; Petersen, Barbara J; Smith, Kim M

    2006-02-01

    Low linolenic acid soybean oil (LLSO) has been developed as a substitute for hydrogenated soybean oil to reduce intake of trans FA while improving stability and functionality in processed foods. We assessed the dietary impact of substitution of LLSO for hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO) used in several food categories. All substitutions were done using an assumption of 100% market penetration. The impact of this substitution on the intake of five FA and trans FA was assessed. Substitution of LLSO for current versions of HSBO resulted in a 45% decrease in intake of trans FA. Impacts on other FA intakes were within the realm of typical dietary intakes. No decrease in intake of alpha-linolenic acid was associated with the use of LLSO in place of HSBO because LLSO substitutes for HSBO that are already low in alpha-linolenic acid.

  15. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi; Horak, Michael J.; Ahmad, Aqeel; Baltazar, Baltazar M.; Perez, Tim; McPherson, Marc A.; Stojšin, Duška; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2%) caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible. PMID:26963815

  16. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi; Horak, Michael J; Ahmad, Aqeel; Baltazar, Baltazar M; Perez, Tim; McPherson, Marc A; Stojšin, Duška; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2%) caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible.

  17. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Lucas, D; Davis, S; Nemeth, M

    2007-12-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. Soybean meal produced from 6 conventional soybean varieties was included in the study to provide comparison measurements for broilers fed meal derived from conventional soybeans. It has been found that MON 89788 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 33% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 30% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, adjusted feed conversion, or any measured carcass and meat quality parameters. Comparison of all performance, carcass, and meat quality parameters measured showed no differences (P > 0.05) between birds fed the MON 89788 soybean meal diet and the population of birds fed the control and 6 conventional reference soybean meal diets. It is concluded that the diets containing soybean meal produced from MON 89788 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing soybean meal produced from the control and conventional reference soybean varieties when fed to broilers.

  18. Root Interactions in a Maize/Soybean Intercropping System Control Soybean Soil-Borne Disease, Red Crown Rot

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Wu, Man; Xu, Ruineng; Wang, Xiurong; Pan, Ruqian; Kim, Hye-Ji; Liao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. Principal Findings In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum). The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices. PMID:24810161

  19. Isoflavone content and profile comparisons of cooked soybean-rice mixtures: electric rice cooker versus electric pressure rice cooker.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yu, Bo-Ra; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-12-10

    This study examined the effects of heat and pressure on the isoflavone content and profiles of soybeans and rice cooked together using an electric rice cooker (ERC) and an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The total isoflavone content of the soybean-rice mixture after ERC and EPRC cooking relative to that before cooking was ∼90% in soybeans and 14-15% in rice. Malonylglucosides decreased by an additional ∼20% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those cooked using the ERC, whereas glucosides increased by an additional ∼15% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those in ERC-cooked soybeans. In particular, malonylgenistin was highly susceptible to isoflavone conversion during soybean-rice cooking. Total genistein and total glycitein contents decreased in soybeans after ERC and EPRC cooking, whereas total daidzein content increased in EPRC-cooked soybeans (p < 0.05). These results may be useful for improving the content of nutraceuticals, such as isoflavones, in soybeans.

  20. Release of free fatty acids from raw or processed soybeans and subsequent effects on fiber digestibilities.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P V; Morrill, J L; Nagaraja, T G

    1994-11-01

    Two in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the rates of lipolysis and the extent of biohydrogenation of fat from raw or processed soybeans and to examine the subsequent effects on fiber digestibilities. In Experiment 1, substrates containing soy oil, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, and soybeans roasted at 132, 146, or 163 degrees C were incubated with ruminal contents for 2, 4, 6, 12, or 24 h; and release of FFA was measured. The FFA released from substrates containing soy oil, extruded soybeans, and raw or roasted soybeans reached maxima at incubations of 4, 6, and 12 h, respectively. As the roasting temperature increased from 132 to 163 degrees C, release of FFA decreased at incubations of 2, 12, and 24 h. Fatty acids in roasted soybeans were subjected to less biohydrogenation than those in raw or extruded soybeans, suggesting that FFA of roasted soybeans are partially protected from ruminal bacteria. In Experiment 2, ground alfalfa hay was added to substrates used previously to determine the effect of release rate of FFA on ADF and NDF digestibilities. At all incubation times, the substrates containing soy oil and extruded soybeans had lower digestibilities, and those containing raw or roasted soybeans had higher digestibilities of NDF and ADF.

  1. Enzymatic production of γ-aminobutyric acid in soybeans using high hydrostatic pressure and precursor feeding.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Shigeaki; Katayama, Takumi; Watanabe, Takae; Nakajima, Kanako; Hayashi, Mayumi; Shigematsu, Toru; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    The effects were investigated of the glutamic acid (Glu) substrate concentration on the generation and kinetics of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in soybeans treated under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP; 200 MPa for 10 min at 25 °C). The conversion of Glu to GABA decreased with increasing initial Glu concentration in the soybeans. The crude glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) obtained from the HHP-treated soybeans showed substrate inhibition. The GABA production rate in the HHP-treated soybeans fitted the following substrate inhibition kinetic equation: v0=(VmaxS0)/(Km+S0+(S0)2/Ki). The Km value for the HHP-treated soybeans was significantly higher than that of the untreated soybeans. The Km values in this study show the affinity between Glu and GAD, and indicate that the HHP-treated soybeans had lower affinity between Glu and GAD than the untreated soybeans. GAD extracted from the HHP-treated soybeans showed a similar value to that in the HHP-treated soybeans. The intact biochemical system was so damaged in the HHP-treated soybeans that it showed substrate inhibition kinetics similar to that of the extracted GAD. The combination of HHP and precursor feeding proved to be a novel tool that can be used to increase the concentration of a target component.

  2. Can Row Spacing Influence Arthropod Communities in Soybean? Implications for Early and Late Planting.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Amanda L; Zobel, Emily; Hinds, Jermaine; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2015-06-01

    Row spacing in agricultural systems can influence crop yield as well as pest and predator abundances. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) growers in Maryland typically plant in narrow (∼19 cm), medium (∼38 cm), or wide (∼76 cm)-spaced rows, and there is a general lack of information on how these row-spacing schemes influence arthropod abundance and soybean yields. A study was conducted during two growing seasons to determine the effect of soybean row spacing and planting date (early and late) on soybean arthropods and yield. Despite a great deal of variation in arthropod responses to row spacing, and interactions between row spacing and study year, leaf-feeding herbivores were generally more abundant in narrow-spaced soybeans. All arthropod functional groups were more abundant, and yield was greater in early-planted soybeans relative to late-planted soybeans. Potential causes and implications of these finding are discussed.

  3. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively.

  4. Event DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean grown in Brazil is compositionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Galan, Maria P; Schafer, Ariane C

    2016-04-02

    Soybean event DAS-444Ø6-6 is tolerant to the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate, and glufosinate. An investigation of potential unintended adverse compositional changes in a genetically modified crop is required to meet government regulatory requirements in various geographies. A study to meet these requirements in Brazil was completed demonstrating compositional equivalency between DAS-444Ø6-6 and non-transgenic soybean. This study supplements the extensive literature supporting transgenesis as less disruptive of crop composition compared with traditional breeding methods.

  5. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends.

    PubMed

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Ostlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-03-01

    Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean-and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans.

  6. Effects of thiamethoxam seed treatments on soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Stamm, M D; Heng-Moss, T M; Baxendale, F P; Reese, J C; Siegfried, B D; Hunt, T E; Gaussoin, R E; Blankenship, E E

    2013-12-01

    Since its discovery in North America in 2000, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has rapidly become an important pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], sometimes resulting in significant yield losses. Previous research has documented the toxicity of neonicotinoid seed treatments to soybean aphids, but control under field conditions has been inconsistent. Imidacloprid, a popular neonicotinoid insecticide, has been shown to exhibit antifeedant effects on aphids. Antifeedant activity has not been demonstrated for other neonicotinoids, including thiamethoxam. This research investigated the effects of a thiamethoxam seed treatment on soybean aphid feeding behavior by using electronic penetration graphs (EPG) to visualize stylet penetration behavior. Soybean aphid feeding behavior was assessed for 9 h on thiamethoxam-treated and untreated soybeans (V2 and V4 stages). Because results were inconclusive from initial experiments, a study was conducted to document the effects of thiamethoxam-treated soybeans on soybean aphid survival. The seed treatment was shown to negatively affect aphid survival at 4, 8, and 11 d after aphid introduction. A subsequent EPG study then was designed to document soybean aphid feeding behavior for 15 h, after an initial exposure of 9 h to thiamethoxam-treated soybeans. In this study, the exposed aphids exhibited significant differences in feeding behavior compared with those aphids feeding on untreated soybeans. Soybean aphids on thiamethoxam-treated soybeans spent significantly less time feeding in the sieve element phase, with a greater duration of nonprobing events. These studies suggest soybean aphids are unable to ingest phloem sap, which may be another important element in seed treatment protection.

  7. Population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean (Glycine soja) based on microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Y; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Vaughan, D A

    2006-04-01

    The research objectives were to determine aspects of the population dynamics relevant to effective monitoring of gene flow in the soybean crop complex in Japan. Using 20 microsatellite primers, 616 individuals from 77 wild soybean (Glycine soja) populations were analysed. All samples were of small seed size (< 0.03 g), were directly collected in the field and came from all parts of Japan where wild soybeans grow, except Hokkaido. Japanese wild soybean showed significant reduction in observed heterozygosity, low outcrossing rate (mean 3.4%) and strong genetic differentiation among populations. However, the individual assignment test revealed evidence of rare long-distance seed dispersal (> 10 km) events among populations, and spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed that populations within a radius of 100 km showed a close genetic relationship to one another. When analysis of graphical ordination was applied to compare the microsatellite variation of wild soybean with that of 53 widely grown Japanese varieties of cultivated soybean (Glycine max), the primary factor of genetic differentiation was based on differences between wild and cultivated soybeans and the secondary factor was geographical differentiation of wild soybean populations. Admixture analysis revealed that 6.8% of individuals appear to show introgression from cultivated soybeans. These results indicated that population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean is (i) strongly affected by the founder effect due to seed dispersal and inbreeding strategy, (ii) generally well differentiated from cultivated soybean, but (iii) introgression from cultivated soybean occurs. The implications of the results for the release of transgenic soybeans where wild soybeans grow are discussed.

  8. Effect of germination on bioactive compounds of soybean (Glycine max)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germination is the practice of soaking, draining, and keeping seeds until they produce sprouts. The increasing interest in functional and healthy food products has promoted the use of germinated soybean flour in the manufacture of foods for human consumption. It is well known that germination induce...

  9. Transcriptome response to glyphosate in sensitive and resistant soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of soybeans planted in the United States are resistant to glyphosate due to introduction of a gene encoding for a glyphosate-insensitive 5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Gene expression profiling was conducted using cDNA microarrays to address questions related to p...

  10. Bean pod mottle virus movement in insect feeding resistant soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) impacts yield and seed quality. BPMV is vectored primarily by the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata) in Ohio. A 2-year experiment was carried out at two locations in Ohio to determine if resistance to insect feeding reduces disease incidence and spread in soybeans....

  11. Developing low cost feed grade soybean protein concentrates for aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One emerging area in the global soy industry, particularly the U.S. soybean industry, has been developing soy-based feeds as an alternative protein source to meet the growing needs of aquaculture in China and elsewhere. Traditionally, fishmeal is a key protein ingredient in fish diets, but its sup...

  12. Epitopes from two soybean glycinin subunits antigenic in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Glycinin is a seed storage protein in soybean (Glycine max) that is allergenic in pigs. Glycinin is a hexamer composed of subunits consisting of a basic and acidic portion joined by disulfide bridges. There are 5 glycinin subunits designated Gy1-Gy5. Results: Twenty seven out of 30 pi...

  13. Removal of phenolic compounds from wastewaters using soybean peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, H.; Nicell, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    Toxic and odiferous phenolic compounds are present in wastewaters generated by a variety of industries including petroleum refining, plastics, resins, textiles, and iron and steel manufacturing among others. Due to its commercial availability in purified form, its useful presence in raw plant material, and its proven ability to remove a variety of phenolic contaminants from wastewaters over a wide range of pH and temperature, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) appears to be the peroxidase enzyme of choice in enzymatic wastewater treatment studies. Problems with HRP catalyzed phenol removal, however, include the formation of toxic soluble reaction by-products, the cost of the enzyme, and costs associated with disposal of the phenolic precipitate generated. Enzyme costs are incurred because the enzyme is inactivated during the phenol removal process by various side reactions. While recent work has shown that enzyme inactivation can be reduced using chemical additives, the problem of enzyme cost could be circumvented by using a less expensive source of enzyme. In 1991, the seed coat of the soybean was identified as a very rich source of peroxidase enzyme. Since the seed coat of the soybean is a waste product of the soybean food industry, soybean peroxidase (SBP) has the potential of being a cost effective alternative to HRP in wastewater treatment. In this study, SBP is characterized in terms of its catalytic activity, its stability, and its ability to promote removal of phenolic compounds from synthetic wastewaters. Results obtained are discussed and compared to similar investigations using HRP.

  14. Ultraviolet-B Radiation Alters Soybean Growth and Seed Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on the effects of ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation, due to possible global climate change, on soybean growth is limited, and its effects on seed quality (seed composition: protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) almost non-existent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the ef...

  15. Identifying physiological gains in the historic Midwest soybean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yields in the US have steadily increased throughout the past century due to advances made in breeding and management practices. Despite these historical gains, producers will face a significant challenge to provide sufficient food, fiber, and fuel to supply a growing world population, which ...

  16. Identifying physiological gains in the historic Midwest soybean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yields in the US have steadily increased throughout the past century due to advances made in breeding and management practices. Despite these historical gains, world food production must increase by 50% by 2030 to meet population demands according to the UN, raising the question of whether t...

  17. Archaeophytopathology of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the soybean rust pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae are two rust species that infect soybean (Glycine max). Traditionally, these two species are said to differ in geographic distribution, with P. pachyrhizi confined to Asia, Africa & Australia, and P. meibomiae confined to South & Central America. Several herbar...

  18. Evaluation of Partially Hydrogenated Methyl Esters of Soybean Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specifications mandating biodiesel quality, most notably in the EU (EN 14214) and the USA (ASTM D 6751), have emerged that influence feedstock choice in the production of biodiesel fuel. For instance, EN 14214 contains a specification for iodine value (IV, 120) that eliminates soybean oil (SBO) as ...

  19. Response of soybean seed germination to cadmium and acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting Ting; Wu, Peng; Wang, Li Hong; Zhou, Qing

    2011-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution and acid rain are the main environmental issues, and they often occur in the same agricultural region. Nevertheless, up to now, little information on the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain action on crops were presented. Here, we investigated the combined effect of Cd(2+) and acid rain on the seed germination of soybean. The results indicated that the single treatment with the low level of Cd(2+) (0.18, 1.0, 3.0 mg L(-1)) or acid rain (pH ≥3.0) could not affect the seed germination of soybean, which was resulted in the increased activities of peroxidase and catalase. The single treatment with the high concentration of Cd(2+) (>6 mg L(-1)) or acid rain at pH 2.5 decreased the activities of peroxidase and catalase, damaged the cell membrane and then decreased the seed germination of soybean. Meanwhile, the same toxic effect was observed in the combined treatment with Cd(2+) and acid rain, and the combined treatment had more toxic effect than the single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain. Thus, the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain had more potential threat to the seed germination of soybean than the single pollution of Cd(2+) or acid rain.

  20. Dispersion and evaporation of droplets amended with adjuvants on soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased use of adjuvants to improve pesticide spray application efficiency is hindered by a lack of knowledge to enhance droplet adhesion. Dispersion and evaporation of single 300 µm droplets amended with four different spray adjuvants deposited at four different soybean plant locations were inves...

  1. Genomic heterogeneity and structural variation in soybean near isogenic lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-isogenic lines (NILs) are a critical genetic resource for the soybean research community. The ability to identify and characterize the genes driving the phenotypic differences between NILs is limited by the degree to which differential genetic introgressions can be resolved. Furthermore, the ge...

  2. Multicellular Secretory Trichome Development on Soybean and Related Glycine Gynoecia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multicellular glandular trichomes form on gynoecia of wild Glycine annual species, annual soybean cultivars, and wild perennial species. These trichomes occur on gynoecia of annual taxa from ovary base to style base, and along style of perennial species. Trichomes form at least two days prior to ant...

  3. Margarine from organogels of plant wax and soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogels obtained from plant wax and soybean oil tested for suitability for incorporation into margarine. Sunflower wax, rice bran wax and candelilla wax were evaluated. Candelilla wax showed phase separation after making the emulsion with the formulation used in this study. Rice bran wax showe...

  4. Allelism and Molecular Mapping of Soybean Necrotic Root Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutability of the w4 flower color locus in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is conditioned by an allele designated w4-m. Germinal revertants recovered among self-pollinated progeny of mutable plants have been associated with the generation of necrotic root mutations, chlorophyll-deficiency mutation...

  5. Sensory quality of soymilk and tofu from soybeans lacking lipoxygenases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aijun; Smyth, Heather; Chaliha, Mridusmita; James, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The oxidation of unsaturated lipids by lipoxygenases in soybeans causes undesirable flavors in soy foods. Using a traditional and a nontraditional soy food user group, we examined the cultural difference in perceiving the sensory characteristics of soymilk and tofu produced from soybeans with or without lipoxygenases (Lx123). The two groups described the samples using similar terms. The traditional users preferred the control soy milk and lipoxygenase-free tofu while the nontraditional users preferred the lipoxygenase-free soymilk with no preference for tofu. In a separate study, a trained descriptive taste panel compared the odor of soymilk and tofu from control soybeans or those lacking lipoxygenase-1 and lipoxygenase-2 (Lx12) or all three isomers (Lx123). The rancid/grassy odor was rated the lowest in Lx123 products, followed by Lx12 products with the control products given the highest rating. The Lx12 and Lx123 products were also sweeter and less bitter than the controls. Taken together, our results demonstrated that soybeans lacking lipoxygenases can produce soy foods with less undesirable aromas and are therefore likely more acceptable to the consumers.

  6. Critical soil bulk density for soybean growth in Oxisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keisuke Sato, Michel; Veras de Lima, Herdjania; Oliveira, Pedro Daniel de; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the critical soil bulk density from the soil penetration resistance measurements for soybean root growth in Brazilian Amazon Oxisols. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using disturbed soil samples collected from the northwest of Para characterized by different texture. The treatments consisted of a range of soil bulk densities for each soil textural class. Three pots were used for soybean growth of and two for the soil penetration resistance curve. From the fitted model, the critical soil bulk density was determined considering the penetration resistance values of 2 and 3 MPa. After sixty days, plants were cut and root length, dry mass of root, and dry mass of shoots were determined. At higher bulk densities, the increase in soil water content decreased the penetration resistance, allowing unrestricted growth of soybean roots. Regardless of soil texture, the penetration resistance of 2 and 3 MPa had a slight effect on root growth in soil moisture at field capacity and a reduction of 50% in the soybean root growth was achieved at critical soil bulk density of 1.82, 1.75, 1.51, and 1.45 Mg m-3 for the sandy loam, sandy clay loam, clayey, and very clayey soil.

  7. A sampling procedure for quantifying mites in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Storck, Lindolfo; Fiorin, Rubens Alex; Filho, Alberto Cargnelutti; Guedes, Jerson Vanderlei Carus

    2012-06-01

    To control phytophagous mites on soybean crops in an economically viable way, it is necessary to quantify the occurrence of the mites on the leaflets. Estimating the number of mites cm(-2) on leaflets is more difficult because of their irregular distribution on the leaflet surface. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the count-area/leaflet and the number of soybean leaflets to quantify the mites. One hundred infested plants were randomly collected. One leaflet was removed from each plant and divided into 32 sections (1.0 cm(2) per section), arranged in four columns and eight rows, to count the mites (adults, nymphs and eggs). The ideal count-area size per leaflet (Xo) was estimated by the maximum curvature of the coefficient of variation method for each of the 100 leaflets. For a count-area of Xo size, we obtained the number of mites cm(-2) per leaflet and, using the bootstrap resampling method, we estimated the point and interval averages as well as the sample size for a pre-established error. We suggest that the determination of the evaluated area size on each soybean leaflet (20 cm(2) in this case) and the bootstrap resampling estimate of the appropriate number of leaflets (12 in this case) for a bootstrap confidence interval of four mites (adults + nymphs) cm(-2) is sufficient to standardize the sampling-procedures for quantifying mites on soybean leaflets.

  8. Impacts of genetic bottlenecks on soybean genome diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hyten, David L.; Song, Qijian; Zhu, Youlin; Choi, Ik-Young; Nelson, Randall L.; Costa, Jose M.; Specht, James E.; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Cregan, Perry B.

    2006-01-01

    Soybean has undergone several genetic bottlenecks. These include domestication in Asia to produce numerous Asian landraces, introduction of relatively few landraces to North America, and then selective breeding over the past 75 years. It is presumed that these three human-mediated events have reduced genetic diversity. We sequenced 111 fragments from 102 genes in four soybean populations representing the populations before and after genetic bottlenecks. We show that soybean has lost many rare sequence variants and has undergone numerous allele frequency changes throughout its history. Although soybean genetic diversity has been eroded by human selection after domestication, it is notable that modern cultivars have retained 72% of the sequence diversity present in the Asian landraces but lost 79% of rare alleles (frequency ≤0.10) found in the Asian landraces. Simulations indicated that the diversity lost through the genetic bottlenecks of introduction and plant breeding was mostly due to the small number of Asian introductions and not the artificial selection subsequently imposed by selective breeding. The bottleneck with the most impact was domestication; when the low sequence diversity present in the wild species was halved, 81% of the rare alleles were lost, and 60% of the genes exhibited evidence of significant allele frequency changes. PMID:17068128

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics of iron deficiency in soybean leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is an important agricultural concern leading to lower yields and crop quality. A better understanding of the condition, at the metabolome level, could contribute to the design of strategies to ameliorate Fe deficiency problems. Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient soybean leaf extract...

  10. Detection and validation of quantitative trait loci for soybean isoflavones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] isoflavones has increased in recent years due to numerous potential health benefits. Consequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection for marker assisted breeding is being examined for potential genetic gains. This study sought to detect QTL for ...

  11. Physiology of iron deficiency chlorosis resistance in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans (Glycine max L.) are an important source of plant protein in the human diet and a leading source of vegetable oil in the world. It is also gaining importance in the production of biodiesel and in programs of phytoremediation. Notably, it is one of the most important agricultural legumes in ...

  12. The composition and origins of intravarietal genomic heterogeneity in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a self-pollinating crop species that has relatively low nucleotide polymorphism rates compared to other crop plant species. Despite the appearance of a low intervarietal nucleotide polymorphism rate, a wide range of heritable phenotypic variation exists. There is even evidence for herit...

  13. Rolled cover crop mulches for organic corn and soybean production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in cover crop mulches has increased out of both economic and soil conservation concerns. The number of tractor passes required to produce corn and a soybean organically is expensive and logistically challenging. Farmers currently use blind cultivators, such as a rotary hoe or flex-tine harr...

  14. Distribution of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in Developing Soybean Cotyledons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The somewhat surprising report that storage proteins and oil are non-uniformly distributed in the cotyledons of developing soybeans prompted us to determine the spatial distribution of the mitochondrial and plastidial forms of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). It has been proposed that pla...

  15. Discrimination of transgenic soybean seeds by terahertz spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Feng; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination of genetically modified organisms is increasingly demanded by legislation and consumers worldwide. The feasibility of a non-destructive discrimination of glyphosate-resistant and conventional soybean seeds and their hybrid descendants was examined by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system combined with chemometrics. Principal component analysis (PCA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) and PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) models with the first and second derivative and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation pre-treatments were applied to classify soybean seeds based on genotype. Results demonstrated clear differences among glyphosate-resistant, hybrid descendants and conventional non-transformed soybean seeds could easily be visualized with an excellent classification (accuracy was 88.33% in validation set) using the LS-SVM and the spectra with SNV pre-treatment. The results indicated that THz spectroscopy techniques together with chemometrics would be a promising technique to distinguish transgenic soybean seeds from non-transformed seeds with high efficiency and without any major sample preparation. PMID:27782205

  16. A Roadmap for Functional Structural Variants in the Soybean Genome

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Justin E.; Kantar, Michael B.; Kono, Thomas Y.; Fu, Fengli; Stec, Adrian O.; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry B.; Specht, James E.; Diers, Brian W.; Cannon, Steven B.; McHale, Leah K.; Stupar, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Gene structural variation (SV) has recently emerged as a key genetic mechanism underlying several important phenotypic traits in crop species. We screened a panel of 41 soybean (Glycine max) accessions serving as parents in a soybean nested association mapping population for deletions and duplications in more than 53,000 gene models. Array hybridization and whole genome resequencing methods were used as complementary technologies to identify SV in 1528 genes, or approximately 2.8%, of the soybean gene models. Although SV occurs throughout the genome, SV enrichment was noted in families of biotic defense response genes. Among accessions, SV was nearly eightfold less frequent for gene models that have retained paralogs since the last whole genome duplication event, compared with genes that have not retained paralogs. Increases in gene copy number, similar to that described at the Rhg1 resistance locus, account for approximately one-fourth of the genic SV events. This assessment of soybean SV occurrence presents a target list of genes potentially responsible for rapidly evolving and/or adaptive traits. PMID:24855315

  17. Evolutionary and comparative analyses of the soybean genome

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Steven B.; Shoemaker, Randy C.

    2012-01-01

    The soybean genome assembly has been available since the end of 2008. Significant features of the genome include large, gene-poor, repeat-dense pericentromeric regions, spanning roughly 57% of the genome sequence; a relatively large genome size of ~1.15 billion bases; remnants of a genome duplication that occurred ~13 million years ago (Mya); and fainter remnants of older polyploidies that occurred ~58 Mya and >130 Mya. The genome sequence has been used to identify the genetic basis for numerous traits, including disease resistance, nutritional characteristics, and developmental features. The genome sequence has provided a scaffold for placement of many genomic feature elements, both from within soybean and from related species. These may be accessed at several websites, including http://www.phytozome.net, http://soybase.org, http://comparative-legumes.org, and http://www.legumebase.brc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp. The taxonomic position of soybean in the Phaseoleae tribe of the legumes means that there are approximately two dozen other beans and relatives that have undergone independent domestication, and which may have traits that will be useful for transfer to soybean. Methods of translating information between species in the Phaseoleae range from design of markers for marker assisted selection, to transformation with Agrobacterium or with other experimental transformation methods. PMID:23136483

  18. Evaluation of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] F1 Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterosis is an important factor in development of hybrid cultivars. Few heterosis studies have been done in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. This is because manual cross-pollination is difficult and time consuming, and not conducive as an economical way to produce large quantities of hybrid seed...

  19. Canopy position has a profound effect on soybean seed composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although soybean seeds appear homogenous their composition (protein, oil and mineral concentrations) can vary significantly with canopy position. Seeds produced at the top of the canopy have higher concentrations of protein but less oil and minerals such as Mg, Fe, and Cu compared to seeds produced ...

  20. Discrete Variation Of Glycitein Ratio In Soybean (Glycine max) Hypocotyls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seed has a very uneven isoflavone concentration and composition, with 4 to 10 times more isoflavones in the hypocotyls than in the cotyledons, and a low genistein ratio in the hypocotyls. Independent accumulation kinetics of isoflavones with distinct controls are observed in these two seed p...

  1. Soybean Root Elongation Response to Magnesium Additions to Acid Subsoil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Additions of micromolar concentrations of Mg2+ to hydroponic solutions enhance Al tolerance of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] by increasing citrate secretion from roots and external complexation of toxic Al species in solution. The objective of this study was to assess the ameliorative effect of M...

  2. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  3. Brazilian Soybean Production: Emergy Analysis with an Expanded Scope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Enrique; Cavalett, Otavio; Bonifacio, Robert; Watanabe, Marcos

    2005-01-01

    This article offers the results of emergy analysis used to evaluate four different soybean production systems in Brazil that were divided into two main categories: biological models (organic and ecological farms) and industrial models (green-revolution chemical farms and herbicide with no-tillage farms). The biological models show better…

  4. Discrimination of transgenic soybean seeds by terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Feng; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Discrimination of genetically modified organisms is increasingly demanded by legislation and consumers worldwide. The feasibility of a non-destructive discrimination of glyphosate-resistant and conventional soybean seeds and their hybrid descendants was examined by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system combined with chemometrics. Principal component analysis (PCA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) and PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) models with the first and second derivative and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation pre-treatments were applied to classify soybean seeds based on genotype. Results demonstrated clear differences among glyphosate-resistant, hybrid descendants and conventional non-transformed soybean seeds could easily be visualized with an excellent classification (accuracy was 88.33% in validation set) using the LS-SVM and the spectra with SNV pre-treatment. The results indicated that THz spectroscopy techniques together with chemometrics would be a promising technique to distinguish transgenic soybean seeds from non-transformed seeds with high efficiency and without any major sample preparation.

  5. Soybean yield response: planting date and maturity groups in Missouri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting date is one of the main factors affecting soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr.)) yield. The environmental conditions in the U.S. Mid-South, combined with irrigated management, can allow for a wide planting window from late March to early July, and using cultivars from maturity group (MG) 3 to 6. ...

  6. Soybean Oil: Powering a High School Investigation of Biodiesel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Rosa, Paul; Azurin, Katherine A.; Page, Michael F. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory investigation challenges students to synthesize, analyze, and compare viable alternative fuels to Diesel No. 2 using a renewable resource, as well as readily available reagents and supplies. During the experiment, students synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil in an average percent yield of 83.8 ± 6.3%. They then prepared fuel…

  7. Isolation of Soybean Agglutinin (SBA) from Soy Meal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattsangi, Prem D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a straight-forward and relatively inexpensive method for routine isolation of purified soybean agglutinin, suitable for use as a starting material in most studies, especially for fluorescent-labeling experiments. The process is used as a project to provide advanced laboratory training at a two-year college. (Author/JN)

  8. Advancing our understanding of charcoal rot in soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid ) of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], is an important but commonly misidentified disease, and very few summary articles exist on this pathosystem. Research conducted over the last 10 years has improved our understanding of the environment conducive...

  9. Composition and Palatability of Breads Made with Ground Soybean Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Barbara P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Ground soy products made from whole soybeans were used in bread as substitutes for 12 percent of the wheat flour to demonstrate that home-prepared soy products can be used to bake palatable breads and supplement their protein content. (Author/SK)

  10. Genomic analysis of soybean resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that infects soybean causing white mold disease. Oxalic acid is considered to be its major virulence factor. Plants from the oxalate oxidase (OxO) transgenic line (80(30)1) which showed resistance to the pathogen and its susceptible parent l...

  11. Daytime soybean transcriptome fluctuations during water deficit stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since drought can seriously affect plant growth and development and little is known about how the oscillations of gene expression during the drought stress-acclimation response in soybean is affected, we applied Illumina technology to sequence 36 cDNA libraries synthesized from control and drought-s...

  12. Glyphosate affects seed composition in glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    PubMed

    Zobiole, Luiz H S; Oliveira, Rubem S; Visentainer, Jesui V; Kremer, Robert J; Bellaloui, Nacer; Yamada, Tsuioshi

    2010-04-14

    The cultivation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybeans has continuously increased worldwide in recent years mainly due to the importance of glyphosate in current weed management systems. However, not much has been done to understand eventual effects of glyphosate application on GR soybean physiology, especially those related to seed composition with potential effects on human health. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of glyphosate application on GR soybeans compared with its near-isogenic non-GR parental lines. Results of the first experiment showed that glyphosate application resulted in significant decreases in shoot nutrient concentrations, photosynthetic parameters, and biomass production. Similar trends were observed for the second experiment, although glyphosate application significantly altered seed nutrient concentrations and polyunsaturated fatty acid percentages. Glyphosate resulted in significant decreases in polyunsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (2.3% decrease) and linolenic acid (18:3n-3) (9.6% decrease) and a significant increase in monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1n-7 (30.3% increase) and 18:1n-7 (25% increase). The combined observations of decreased photosynthetic parameters and low nutrient availability in glyphosate-treated plants may explain potential adverse effects of glyphosate in GR soybeans.

  13. Feruloylated Soybean Oil: Novel Soy-Based Cosmeceuticals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have synthesized novel, lipid-based cosmeceutical ingredients by incorporating ferulic acid onto the glycerol backbone of soybean oil. Ferulic acid is present in nature esterified to other plant components, such as the hemicellulose and lignin fractions of plant cell walls, as well as in the wax...

  14. Ring-opening Polymerization of Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, (BF3•OEt2), in methylene chloride was conducted in an effort to develop useful biodegradable polymers. The resulting polymers (PESO) were characterized using Infrared (IR), differential scan...

  15. Preparation of soybean oil polymers with high molecular weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cationic polymerization of soybean oils was initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O(C2H5)2 in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. The resulting polymers had molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gel perme...

  16. Association of green stem disorder with agronomic traits in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green stem disorder (GSD) of soybean is the occurrence of non-senescent, fleshy green stems of plants with normal, fully mature pods and seeds. The main focus of this study was to determine the relationship between GSD incidence and agronomic traits and to determine if GSD incidence was associated w...

  17. Detection of novel QTLs for foxglove aphid resistance in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach), is a Hemipteran insect that infected a wide variety of plants worldwide and caused serious yield losses in crops. The objective of this study was to identify the putative QTL for foxglove aphid resistance in wild soybean, PI 366121, (Glycine soja Sieb...

  18. Soybean lines evaluated for resistance to reniform nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four wild and domestic soybean (Glycine max and G. soja) lines were evaluated for resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in growth chamber tests with a day length of 16 hours and temperature held constant at 28 C. Several entries for which reactions to reniform nematode w...

  19. Identification of microRNAs in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Hu, Zheng; Zhang, Hui

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality, in which 1 347 were 19-24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.

  20. First report of Aster Yellows Phytoplasma in soybean in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the summer of 2012, soybean plants in a commercial field in Clinton County, Michigan, exhibited symptoms characteristic of phytoplasmal diseases [1, 2]. Symptoms included extensive top dieback, stunting, purple stem surfaces, internal necrosis, leaf vein discoloration and bud proliferation (F...

  1. Preparation of microemulsions with soybean oil-based surfactants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emulsions are widely applied in food, cosmeceutical and medicinal formulations. Smaller and highly stable droplets of emulsions are important for their application. This research reports that by using soybean oil-based surfactants, the higher stabilized oil-in-water emulsions were obtained via an ul...

  2. Transcription Profiling and Mutation Detection of Soybean Homoeologous Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean genome maintains numerous gene duplications, many of which are derived from ancient large-scale duplication. We are interested in exploring the evolutionary fate of duplicated genes and the extent to which gene duplication affects selectable trait variation. We are applying quantitative ...

  3. Day temperature influences the male-sterile locus in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a major source of oil and protein in global food production. As demand for soy-based products increases, it is essential for breeders to find ways to increase yield beyond conventional methods. Alternative methods of cultivar development need to be id...

  4. [Resource competition in maize/soybean intercropping system].

    PubMed

    Lü, Yue; Wu, Pu-Te; Chen, Xiao-Li; Wang, Yu-Bao; Zhao, Xi-Ning

    2014-01-01

    The soil water storage, growth development, biomass and yield in maize/soybean intercropping system under different separation methods were measured to analyze the resource competition of the intercropping crops. The treatments included no shoot or root separation (T1), shoot and root separation (T2), only root separation (T3), and only shoot separation (T4). Results indicated that compared to others, the average soil moisture content in the 0-120 cm soil layer decreased by 3.1%-12.9% in maize line, and by 2.8%-12.5% in soybean line for T1. Compared to T1, maize growth stage in T2, T3 and T4 came late, and the plant height, leaf area and cumulative total biomass, yield and yield components all decreased, while the trends found for soybean were the opposite. In summary, the changes of crop growth and yield in the maize/soybean intercropping system were driven by the interactions of above- and below-ground parts, and the below-ground part played a more important role.

  5. Soybean micronutrient content in irrigated plants grown in the Midsouth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronutrients are essential to soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) but required in minute quantities. Concentrations and tissue contents of Fe, B, Zn, Mn and Cu were determined for two MG IV and one MG V irrigated cultivars grown in twin-rows in the Mississippi Delta on clay and sandy loam soil sites i...

  6. Photosynthetic Rate of Soybean at Various Planting Dates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yield is typically maximized by early planting in the upper Midwest USA. Seasonal carbon dioxide exchange rate (CER) has not been quantified to explain the positive yield response to early planting. Five planting dates were established between 18-April and 22-May nea...

  7. SOYBEAN STEM LIGNIN CONCENTRATION RELATES TO RESISTANCE TO SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is an economically important disease of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the north central United States and other temperate regions throughout the world. The occurrence and severity of SSR in the field is highly depend...

  8. Optimization of Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuxuan; Cong, Yahui; Liu, Yaping; Wang, Tingting; Shuai, Qin; Chen, Nana; Gai, Junyi; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    High transformation efficiency is a prerequisite for study of gene function and molecular breeding. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a preferred method in many plants. However, the transformation efficiency in soybean is still low. The objective of this study is to optimize Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in soybean by improving the infection efficiency of Agrobacterium and regeneration efficiency of explants. Firstly, four factors affecting Agrobacterium infection efficiency were investigated by estimation of the rate of GUS transient expression in soybean cotyledonary explants, including Agrobacterium concentrations, soybean explants, Agrobacterium suspension medium, and co-cultivation time. The results showed that an infection efficiency of over 96% was achieved by collecting the Agrobacterium at a concentration of OD650 = 0.6, then using an Agrobacterium suspension medium containing 154.2 mg/L dithiothreitol to infect the half-seed cotyledonary explants (from mature seeds imbibed for 1 day), and co-cultured them for 5 days. The Agrobacterium infection efficiencies for soybean varieties Jack Purple and Tianlong 1 were higher than the other six varieties. Secondly, the rates of shoot elongation were compared among six different concentration combinations of gibberellic acid (GA3) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The shoot elongation rate of 34 and 26% was achieved when using the combination of 1.0 mg/L GA3 and 0.1 mg/L IAA for Jack Purple and Tianlong 1, respectively. This rate was higher than the other five concentration combinations of GA3 and IAA, with an 18 and 11% increase over the original laboratory protocol (a combination of 0.5 mg/L GA3 and 0.1 mg/L IAA), respectively. The transformation efficiency was 7 and 10% for Jack Purple and Tianlong 1 at this optimized hormone concentration combination, respectively, which was 2 and 6% higher than the original protocol, respectively. Finally, GUS histochemical staining, PCR, herbicide

  9. Automated mapping of soybean and corn using phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Liheng; Hu, Lina; Yu, Le; Gong, Peng; Biging, Gregory S.

    2016-09-01

    For the two of the most important agricultural commodities, soybean and corn, remote sensing plays a substantial role in delivering timely information on the crop area for economic, environmental and policy studies. Traditional long-term mapping of soybean and corn is challenging as a result of the high cost of repeated training data collection, the inconsistency in image process and interpretation, and the difficulty of handling the inter-annual variability of weather and crop progress. In this study, we developed an automated approach to map soybean and corn in the state of Paraná, Brazil for crop years 2010-2015. The core of the approach is a decision tree classifier with rules manually built based on expert interaction for repeated use. The automated approach is advantageous for its capacity of multi-year mapping without the need to re-train or re-calibrate the classifier. Time series MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance product (MCD43A4) were employed to derive vegetation phenology to identify soybean and corn based on crop calendar. To deal with the phenological similarity between soybean and corn, the surface reflectance of the shortwave infrared band scaled to a phenological stage was used to fully separate the two crops. Results suggested that the mapped areas of soybean and corn agreed with official statistics at the municipal level. The resultant map in the crop year 2012 was evaluated using an independent reference data set, and the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 87.2% and 0.804 respectively. As a result of mixed pixel effect at the 500 m resolution, classification results were biased depending on topography. In the flat, broad and highly-cropped areas, uncultivated lands were likely to be identified as soybean or corn, causing over-estimation of cropland area. By contrast, scattered crop fields in mountainous regions with dense natural vegetation tend to be overlooked. For future mapping efforts, it has great

  10. Transcriptome analysis of resistant soybean roots infected by Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Maria Eugênia Lisei; Conceição Lopes, Marcus José; de Araújo Campos, Magnólia; Paiva, Luciano Vilela; dos Santos, Regina Maria Amorim; Beneventi, Magda Aparecida; Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; de Sá, Maria Fátima Grossi

    2012-01-01

    Soybean is an important crop for Brazilian agribusiness. However, many factors can limit its production, especially root-knot nematode infection. Studies on the mechanisms employed by the resistant soybean genotypes to prevent infection by these nematodes are of great interest for breeders. For these reasons, the aim of this work is to characterize the transcriptome of soybean line PI 595099-Meloidogyne javanica interaction through expression analysis. Two cDNA libraries were obtained using a pool of RNA from PI 595099 uninfected and M. javanica (J2) infected roots, collected at 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144 and 192 h after inoculation. Around 800 ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) were sequenced and clustered into 195 clusters. In silico subtraction analysis identified eleven differentially expressed genes encoding putative proteins sharing amino acid sequence similarities by using BlastX: metallothionein, SLAH4 (SLAC1 Homologue 4), SLAH1 (SLAC1 Homologue 1), zinc-finger proteins, AN1-type proteins, auxin-repressed proteins, thioredoxin and nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF-2). Other genes were also found exclusively in nematode stressed soybean roots, such as NAC domain-containing proteins, MADS-box proteins, SOC1 (suppressor of overexpression of constans 1) proteins, thioredoxin-like protein 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase and the transcription factor (TF) MYBZ2. Among the genes identified in non-stressed roots only were Ser/Thr protein kinases, wound-induced basic protein, ethylene-responsive family protein, metallothionein-like protein cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) and Putative Kunitz trypsin protease inhibitor. An understanding of the roles of these differentially expressed genes will provide insights into the resistance mechanisms and candidate genes involved in soybean-M. javanica interaction and contribute to more effective control of this pathogen. PMID:22802712

  11. Expanding Omics Resources for Improvement of Soybean Seed Composition Traits

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Juhi; Patil, Gunvant B.; Sonah, Humira; Deshmukh, Rupesh K.; Vuong, Tri D.; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Food resources of the modern world are strained due to the increasing population. There is an urgent need for innovative methods and approaches to augment food production. Legume seeds are major resources of human food and animal feed with their unique nutrient compositions including oil, protein, carbohydrates, and other beneficial nutrients. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) together with “omics” technologies have considerably strengthened soybean research. The availability of well annotated soybean genome sequence along with hundreds of identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with different seed traits can be used for gene discovery and molecular marker development for breeding applications. Despite the remarkable progress in these technologies, the analysis and mining of existing seed genomics data are still challenging due to the complexity of genetic inheritance, metabolic partitioning, and developmental regulations. Integration of “omics tools” is an effective strategy to discover key regulators of various seed traits. In this review, recent advances in “omics” approaches and their use in soybean seed trait investigations are presented along with the available databases and technological platforms and their applicability in the improvement of soybean. This article also highlights the use of modern breeding approaches, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genomic selection (GS), and marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) for developing superior cultivars. A catalog of available important resources for major seed composition traits, such as seed oil, protein, carbohydrates, and yield traits are provided to improve the knowledge base and future utilization of this information in the soybean crop improvement programs. PMID:26635846

  12. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of resistant soybean roots infected by Meloidogyne javanica.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Maria Eugênia Lisei; Conceição Lopes, Marcus José; de Araújo Campos, Magnólia; Paiva, Luciano Vilela; Dos Santos, Regina Maria Amorim; Beneventi, Magda Aparecida; Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; de Sá, Maria Fátima Grossi

    2012-06-01

    Soybean is an important crop for Brazilian agribusiness. However, many factors can limit its production, especially root-knot nematode infection. Studies on the mechanisms employed by the resistant soybean genotypes to prevent infection by these nematodes are of great interest for breeders. For these reasons, the aim of this work is to characterize the transcriptome of soybean line PI 595099-Meloidogyne javanica interaction through expression analysis. Two cDNA libraries were obtained using a pool of RNA from PI 595099 uninfected and M. javanica (J(2)) infected roots, collected at 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144 and 192 h after inoculation. Around 800 ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) were sequenced and clustered into 195 clusters. In silico subtraction analysis identified eleven differentially expressed genes encoding putative proteins sharing amino acid sequence similarities by using BlastX: metallothionein, SLAH4 (SLAC1 Homologue 4), SLAH1 (SLAC1 Homologue 1), zinc-finger proteins, AN1-type proteins, auxin-repressed proteins, thioredoxin and nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF-2). Other genes were also found exclusively in nematode stressed soybean roots, such as NAC domain-containing proteins, MADS-box proteins, SOC1 (suppressor of overexpression of constans 1) proteins, thioredoxin-like protein 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase and the transcription factor (TF) MYBZ2. Among the genes identified in non-stressed roots only were Ser/Thr protein kinases, wound-induced basic protein, ethylene-responsive family protein, metallothionein-like protein cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) and Putative Kunitz trypsin protease inhibitor. An understanding of the roles of these differentially expressed genes will provide insights into the resistance mechanisms and candidate genes involved in soybean-M. javanica interaction and contribute to more effective control of this pathogen.

  14. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are affected by crop management.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Philippe; Tremblay, Gilles; Pageau, Denis; Liu, Wucheng

    2010-05-12

    Soybeans are an important source of tocopherols, which have health-beneficial properties. Previous studies have demonstrated that environmental factors may affect soybean tocopherol concentrations; the impact of specific crop management strategies, however, remains poorly understood. Experiments were conducted for 2 years at three sites in Quebec to determine the impact on soybean tocopherol concentrations of seeding rate, row spacing, seeding date, cultivar, and P and K fertilization. Total and alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Overall, alpha-tocopherol was the most responsive to the factors evaluated; the response of other tocopherols was often lower or inconsistent across environments. The seeding rate affected alpha-tocopherol concentrations in three out of five environments; seeding at a rate of 40 seeds m(-2) resulted in 4% higher concentrations than seeding at a higher rate. Wide row spacing (more than 36 cm) resulted in two out of five environments in 6% higher alpha-tocopherol concentrations as compared to narrower row spacing. The seeding date had a greater impact; mid- to late-May seeding across four environments resulted in 45% greater alpha-tocopherol concentrations than seeding at later dates. Phosphorus and K fertilization had a negligible impact on tocopherol concentrations. Across experiments, large differences were observed between environments; plants grown in northern environments consistently had lower concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols but higher concentrations of delta-tocopherol. Differences between cultivars were also consistent, ranging between 10 and 30%, depending on the tocopherol. Results demonstrate that soybean tocopherol concentrations are affected by crop management and thus suggest that specific recommended agronomic practices may need to be established for the production of soybeans for the functional food market.

  15. Soybean flour asthma: detection of allergens by immunoblotting

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, R.K.; Schroeckenstein, D.; Meier-Davis, S.; Balmes, J.; Rempel, D.

    1988-08-01

    A 43-year-old woman developed asthma 6 years after beginning work in a food-processing plant in which soybean flour was used as a protein extender. Symptoms of sneezing, coughing, and wheezing would begin within minutes of exposure to soybean flour and resolve 2 hours after exposure ceased. Skin tests were positive to a soy extract prepared from the flour. Airway hyperreactivity was confirmed by a positive bronchial challenge to methacholine. Bronchial challenge with soybean flour produced an immediate increase in specific airway resistance from 5.0 to 22.7 L. cm of H2O/L/sec. There was no response to challenge with lactose. The patient's allergic response to soy-flour extract was further characterized by several immunologic methods. IgE binding to soy-flour protein by direct RAST was 5.98 times that of a normal control serum. The soy-flour extract was separated by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four protein bands were detected in the crude soy-flour extract. After immunoblotting and subsequent autoradiography, nine proteins with molecular weights ranging from 54,500 to 14,875 were found. Cross-reactivity studies with other legumes demonstrated apparent immunologic identity between a component in green pea extract and a soybean protein with a molecular weight of 17,000. The clinical significance of this cross-reactivity is not known. We conclude that in this case of occupational asthma to soybean flour, multiple allergens were involved. Immunoblotting may be useful in identifying the allergens involved in occupational asthma.

  16. A Novel Soybean ERF Transcription Factor, GmERF113, Increases Resistance to Phytophthora sojae Infection in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuanling; Chang, Xin; Qi, Dongyue; Dong, Lidong; Wang, Guangjin; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Cheng, Qun; Chen, Xi; Han, Dan; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a destructive disease worldwide. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) play important roles in regulating plant biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, a new ERF gene, GmERF113, was isolated from the highly resistant soybean ‘Suinong 10.’ Sequence analysis suggested that the protein encoded by GmERF113 contained a conserved AP2/ERF domain of 58 amino acid and belonged to the B-4 subgroup of the ERF subfamily. Expression of GmERF113 was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethylene, and methyl jasmonate. GmERF113 protein localized to the nucleus when transiently expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts, could bind to the GCC-box, and acted as a transcription activator. In addition, a region of the full-length GmERF113, GmERF113-II, interacted with a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (GmbHLH) in yeast cells. Full-length GmERF113 also interacted with GmbHLH in planta. GmERF113-overexpressing transgenic plants in susceptible cultivar ‘Dongnong 50’ soybean exhibited increased resistance to P. sojae and positively regulated the expression of the pathogenesis-related genes, PR1 and PR10-1. These results indicate that GmERF113 may play a crucial role in the defense of soybean against P. sojae infection. PMID:28326092

  17. Seasonal Population Dynamics of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Kudzu and Soybean, and Implication for Insecticidal Management in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Blount, J L; Roberts, P M; Toews, M D; Gardner, W A; Buntin, G D; Davis, J W; All, J N

    2016-12-29

    Megacopta cribraria (F.), an invasive species introduced from Asia in 2009, is now prolific in the southeastern United States. Megacopta cribraria develops primarily on kudzu and soybean completing two generations. It is not well understood how this economic pest is affected by changes in geographic distribution in the United States or how population levels have changed since its establishment. The effect of insecticide application timing on field populations of M. cribraria is not well documented. These studies seek to understand how population dynamics of M. cribraria vary with geographic regions in Georgia. Effect of application timing on populations throughout the growing season was also examined. Weekly from 2012 to 2013, all life stages were enumerated from kudzu and soybean environments at several locations throughout Georgia from sweeps samples and flight intercept captures. Coordinates were recorded for locations, and classified as belonging to the Piedmont or Coastal Plain region of the state. Single spray trials were conducted from 2011-2014, and applications were made to soybean at intervals throughout the season. From 2012 to 2015, two kudzu patches near Griffin, GA, were monitored to detect population changes. Differences in population dynamics from locations around the state were found, but no clear effect of latitude, longitude, or region was observed. Insecticide applications applied in July suppressed nymph populations significantly better than treatments made earlier or later. Megacopta cribraria populations declined in 2014 and 2015 compared with 2012 and 2013. These studies provide the critical information for M. cribraria management in soybean in the southeastern United States.

  18. A coordinated effort to manage soybean rust in North America: a success story in soybean disease monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anticipated threat of soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, resulted in an unprecedented effort to develop and implement disease monitoring and education platforms in North America. Since 2005, the primary platform for SBR information dispersal, known as the Soyb...

  19. Computational discovery of soybean promoter cis-regulatory elements for the construction of soybean cyst nematode inducible synthetic promoters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computational methods offer great hope but limited accuracy in the prediction of functional cis-regulatory elements; improvements are needed to enable synthetic promoter design. We applied an ensemble strategy for de novo soybean cyst nematode (SCN)-inducible motif discovery among promoters of 18 co...

  20. Web camera as low cost multispectral sensor for quantification of chlorophyll in soybean leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhiwibawa, Marcelinus A.; Setiawan, Yonathan E.; Prilianti, Kestrilia R.; Brotosudarmo, Tatas H. P.

    2015-01-01

    Soybeans is one of main crops in Indonesia but the demand for soybeans is not followed by an increase in soybeans national production. One of the production limitation factor is the availability of lush cultivation area for soybeans plantation. Indonesian farners are usually grow soybeans in marginal cultivation area that requires soybeans varieties which tolerant with environmental stress such as drought, nutrition limitation, pest, disease and many others. Chlorophyll content in leaf is one of plant health indicator that can be used to determine environmental stress tolerant soybean varieties. However, there are difficulties in soybeans breeding research due to the manual acquisition of data that are time consume and labour extensive. In this paper authors proposed automatic system of soybeans leaves area and chlorophyll quantification based on low cost multispectral sensor using web camera as an indicator of soybean plant tollerance to environmental stress particularlly drought stress. The system acquires the image of the plant that is placed in the acquisition box from the top of the plant. The image is segmented using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from image and quantified to yield an average value of NDVI and leaf area. The proposed system showed that acquired NDVI value has a strong relationship with SPAD value with r-square value 0.70, while the leaf area prediction has error of 18.41%. Thus the automation system can quantify plant data with good result.

  1. Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust immunity by virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars.

  2. Inhibition of DNA polymerase λ and associated inflammatory activities of extracts from steamed germinated soybeans.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Yoshida, Hiromi

    2014-04-01

    During the screening of selective DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitors from more than 50 plant food materials, we found that the extract from steamed germinated soybeans (Glycine max L.) inhibited human pol λ activity. Among the three processed soybean samples tested (boiled soybeans, steamed soybeans, and steamed germinated soybeans), both the hot water extract and organic solvent extract from the steamed germinated soybeans had the strongest pol λ inhibition. We previously isolated two glucosyl compounds, a cerebroside (glucosyl ceramide, AS-1-4, compound ) and a steroidal glycoside (eleutheroside A, compound ), from dried soybean, and these compounds were prevalent in the extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans as pol inhibitors. The hot water and organic solvent extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans and compounds and selectively inhibited the activity of eukaryotic pol λ in vitro but did not influence the activities of other eukaryotic pols, including those from the A-family (pol γ), B-family (pols α, δ, and ε), and Y-family (pols η, ι, and κ), and also showed no effect on the activity of pol β, which is of the same family (X) as pol λ. The tendency for in vitro pol λ inhibition by these extracts and compounds showed a positive correlation with the in vivo suppression of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation in mouse ear. These results suggest that steamed germinated soybeans, especially the glucosyl compound components, may be useful for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. Development of soybean protein-isolate edible films incorporated with beeswax, Span 20, and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Chao, Zhang; Yue, Ma; Xiaoyan, Zhao; Dan, Ma

    2010-08-01

    The effect of the beeswax, Span 20, and glycerol content on qualities of soybean-protein-isolate edible films was evaluated. Beeswax and Span 20 were selected to improve qualities of soybean-protein-isolate films from 11 emulsifiers. The content of beeswax, Span 20, and glycerol was further optimized by response surface analysis. The optimal composite emulsifier was beeswax (1.87% of soybean protein-isolate), Span 20 (10.25% of soybean protein-isolate), and glycerol (29.12% of soybean protein-isolate) with tensile strength of 908 MPa, percentage elongation at break of 25.8%, water vapor permeability of 19.2 g/m.d.MPa, and oxygen permeability of 0 cm(3)/m.d.MPa. The quality of soybean-protein-isolate films incorporated with the optimal composite emulsifier was 2.34 times higher than that of the control. Furthermore, the disulfide bond content of soybean-protein-isolate films showed a positive correlation with their quality, which provided a simple and rapid way to rank quality of soybean-protein-isolate films. Therefore, our result will not only give an instruction to soybean-protein-isolate-film production, but also give a simple and rapid way to rank film qualities. Practical Application: Our results give the optimal composite emulsifiers for the soybean-protein-isolate-film production. The soybean-protein-isolate films based on the optimal composite emulsifiers show their tensile strength of 908 MPa, percentage elongation at break of 25.8%, water vapor permeability of 19.2 g/m.d.MPa, and oxygen permeability of 0 cm(3)/m.d.MPa, being stronger than the control. Moreover, our results give a simple and rapid way to rank film qualities, because the disulfide bond content of soybean-protein-isolate films showed a positive correlation with their quality. Hence, the disulfide bond content was an indicator to rank qualities of soybean-protein-isolate films.

  4. Selection of soybean pods by the stink bugs, Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii.

    PubMed

    Molina, Gonzalo A R; Trumper, Eduardo V

    2012-01-01

    Different biological parameters of the stink bugs, Nezara viridula L. and Piezodorus guildinii Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), are affected by the developmental stage of the soybean (Glycine max Merrill) pods they feed on. These effects of the soybean on the stink bugs could represent a selection pressure leading to the ability of these species to discriminate the phenological stage of soybean pods, and, therefore, to exhibit feeding preferences. We designed three studies: (1) Distant detection of soybean pods through an olfactometer; (2) Free choice tests to evaluate preferences for soybean pods of different developmental stages; (3) No choice tests to study effects of soybean pod development on feeding time and number of probes. Stink bugs showed no differential response to olfactometer arms with or without soybean pods, suggesting an inability to detect soybean volatiles. Free choice tests showed no species effects on pods selection, but significant differences among fifth instar nymphs, adult male, and adult females. Fifth instar nymphs fed more frequently on soybean pods of advanced development stages compared to female adults, despite previous evidence showing poor development of stink bugs fed pods of the same stage. No choice tests showed significant effects of stink bug species, stink bug stage and sex, and soybean pod phenology. N. viridula expressed shorter feeding times and higher numbers of probes than P. guildinii. The highest numbers of probes of both species were observed when they were fed soybean pods in early phenological stages. When placed in direct contact with food, fifth instar nymphs prefered to feed on more developed pods, despite these pods being suboptimal food items. These results suggest that for the ecological time framework of soybean-stink bugs coexistence, around thirty-five years in Argentina, the selection pressure was not enough for stink bugs to evolve food preferences that match their performance on soybean pods of

  5. Impact of no-till cover cropping of Italian ryegrass on above and below ground faunal communities inhabiting a soybean field with special emphasis on soybean cyst nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two field trials were conducted in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop in a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting to 1) reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes (i.e., the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines and lesion nematodes...

  6. Introgression of leginsulin, a cysteine-rich protein, and high-protein trait from an Asian soybean plant introduction genotype into a North American experimental soybean line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is an important protein source for both humans and animals. However, soybean proteins are relatively poor in the sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Improving the content of endogenous proteins rich in sulfur containing amino acids could enhance the nutritive value of soy...

  7. The origin and fate of morphological intermediates between wild and cultivated soybeans in their natural habitats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Y; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Vaughan, D

    2010-06-01

    The spread of transgenes into the genome of wild soybean is a concern when transgenic and wild soybeans are planted sympatrically. The objectives of this study were to investigate the origin and fate of morphological intermediates between wild and cultivated soybeans in their natural habitats in Japan. Twenty nuclear microsatellite and two chloroplast dCAPS markers were used to evaluate genetic variation of 468 wild, 17 intermediate, and 12 cultivated soybean samples collected from six sites between 2003 and 2006. Allelic differentiation of microsatellite markers between wild and cultivated soybeans was sufficient to detect their hybrids. Based on levels of observed heterozygosity, intermediate soybean plants were from two generations: either F(1) or an early segregating generation. Genetic admixture analysis and parentage assignment analysis revealed that the parents of all intermediate soybean plants could be assigned to a particular wild soybean plant and late-maturing cultivar. The chloroplast DNA haplotypes revealed that all intermediate soybean plants originated from gene flow from cultivated to wild soybeans at all sites. Based on monitoring at both the phenotypic and molecular levels, hybrids quickly disappeared from natural habitats, and secondary gene flow from these plants to wild soybean was not detected. Thus, while gene flow from transgenic soybean into wild soybean can occur, gene introgression appears to be rare in natural habitats in Japan. This is the first report on the detection of gene flow from cultivated to wild soybean at the molecular level.

  8. Insect-protected event DAS-81419-2 soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in the United States and Brazil is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean.

    PubMed

    Fast, Brandon J; Schafer, Ariane C; Johnson, Tempest Y; Potts, Brian L; Herman, Rod A

    2015-02-25

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated.

  9. Insect-Protected Event DAS-81419-2 Soybean (Glycine max L.) Grown in the United States and Brazil Is Compositionally Equivalent to Nontransgenic Soybean

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated. PMID:25641393

  10. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  11. Ruminal phosphorus disappearance from corn and soybean feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Mjoun, K; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

    2008-10-01

    Byproducts of corn and soybeans have high phosphorus (P) content, but little is known about their P disappearance in the rumen of lactating dairy cows. In situ disappearance of P from corn and soybean feed-stuffs was determined in 2 experiments. In the first experiment, 3 ruminally cannulated lactating dairy cows were used to estimate in situ P disappearance of 9 feed ingredients that included 3 sources of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDG; DGa, DGb, DGc), corn, corn germ, solvent-extracted soybean meal, (44% CP; SBM), expeller soybean meal (SoyPlus; SP), extruded soybeans (ES), and soyhulls (SH). Nylon bags were incubated in the rumen of each cow for 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 h. The water-soluble fraction of P (A(P)) was greatest in DDG (mean 82.1%) followed by corn germ (77%), with SH having the least A(P) among all feedstuffs (45%). The remaining feedstuffs (SBM, SP, ES, and corn) were similar in A(P) (64.2%). The slowly available fraction of P (B(P)) was greatest in SH (45.6%), lowest in DDG (13.5%), and intermediate, averaging 31.4%, in SBM, ES, SP, and corn. The effective disappearance of P (ED(P)) was greatest for DDG (93.5%), whereas corn germ, ES, SBM, and SP followed with an ED(P) of 93.3, 88.0, 87.5, and 87.0%, respectively. The ED(P) was less for corn and SH than for the other feedstuffs at 83.3 and 69.1%, respectively. Rate of P disappearance was similar for all feedstuffs (16.2%/h). In the second experiment, 3 new sources of DDG (DG1, DG2, and DG3), and one wet distillers grains with solubles (WDG) source were incubated for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h on replicate days in the rumen of 2 cannulated lactating dairy cows. Fraction A(P) varied from 82.7 to 90.3%, with that in WDG being the least soluble. The WDG source had a greater B(P) fraction (15.8%) compared with the DDG sources (9.5%). The WDG had the lowest ED(P) (88.1%), whereas the DDG varied from 89.7 to 92.7%. Corn and soybean byproducts tested, with the exception of SH, have high

  12. Chemical treatment and characterization of soybean straw and soybean protein isolate/straw composite films.

    PubMed

    Martelli-Tosi, Milena; Assis, Odílio B G; Silva, Natália C; Esposto, Bruno S; Martins, Maria Alice; Tapia-Blácido, Delia R

    2017-02-10

    This work investigated changes in the chemical composition and structure of soybean straw (SS) treated with alkali (NaOH 5% and 17.5%) and bleached with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Removal of the amorphous constituents increased the degree of crystallinity and the content of cellulose fibers particularly after reaction with high concentrations of alkali. Treatment with NaOH 17.5% contributed to the allomorph transition from cellulose I to II regardless of the bleaching agent, but H2O2 as bleaching agent promoted more effective delignification. This work also evaluated the potential use of treated and non-treated SS as reinforcement filler in soy protein isolate film (SPI). Films added with treated SS presented higher mechanical resistance, lower elongation at break, and lower solubility in water. Addition of non-treated SS did not affect the properties of the SPI film significantly. The low solubility and the reasonable water vapor permeability of the composite films make them suitable packaging materials for fresh fruit and vegetables.

  13. Characterization of a novel flooding stress-responsive alcohol dehydrogenase expressed in soybean roots.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Deschamps, Thibaut; Thibaut, Deschamps; Hiraga, Susumu; Kato, Mikio; Chiba, Mitsuru; Hashiguchi, Akiko; Tougou, Makoto; Shimamura, Satoshi; Yasue, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) is the key enzyme in alcohol fermentation. We analyzed Adh expression in order to clarify the role of Adh of soybeans (Glycine max) to flooding stress. Proteome analysis confirmed that expression of Adh is significantly upregulated in 4-day-old soybean seedlings subjected to 2 days of flooding. Southern hybridization analysis and soybean genome database search revealed that soybean has at least 6 Adh genes. The GmAdh2 gene that responded to flooding was isolated from soybean cultivar Enrei. Adh2 expression was markedly increased 6 h after flooding and decreased 24 h after floodwater drainage. In situ hybridization and Western blot indicated that flooding strongly induces Adh2 expression in RNA and protein levels in the root apical meristem. Osmotic, cold, or drought stress did not induce expression of Adh2. These results indicate that Adh2 is a flooding-response specific soybean gene expressed in root tissue.

  14. Recent advances in soybean transformation and their application to molecular breeding and genomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Takagi, Kyoko; Ishimoto, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant transgenic soybean plants hold a leading market share in the USA and other countries, but soybean has been regarded as recalcitrant to transformation for many years. The cumulative and, at times, exponential advances in genetic manipulation have made possible further choices for soybean transformation. The most widely and routinely used transformation systems are cotyledonary node–Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and somatic embryo–particle-bombardment-mediated transformation. These ready systems enable us to improve seed qualities and agronomic characteristics by transgenic approaches. In addition, with the accumulation of soybean genomic resources, convenient or promising approaches will be requisite for the determination and use of gene function in soybean. In this article, we describe recent advances in and problems of soybean transformation, and survey the current transgenic approaches for applied and basic research in Japan. PMID:23136488

  15. Effect of the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties on the growth and productivity of soybeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutuzova, N. D.; Kust, G. S.; Rozov, S. Yu.; Stoma, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The joint study of the spatial heterogeneity and dynamics of the biometric parameters of soybean growth and productivity and the soil properties has shown that the thickness and bulk density of the subsurface horizon, which determine the accumulation of water in the root-inhabited layer and its dynamics at the critical stages of soybean growing during the vegetation period, mainly affect the growth dynamics of soybean plants on chernozems in Krasnodar region.

  16. Detection of soil microarthropod aggregations in soybean fields, using a modified tullgren extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, F.P. Jr.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The spatial distribution of soil microarthropods in soybean fields was investigated by use of a modified Tullgren extractor. Blocks of soil were extracted over a grid of collection cells from which microarthropod aggregations could be identified and measured. Aggregations in conventionally tilled soybeans were smaller than those in no tillage soybeans, and had less influence on population distributions. Population size was highly correlated with the area of soil microarthropod aggregations. 10 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  17. 12th Biennial conference on Cellular and Molecular Biology of Soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott A.

    2008-07-01

    The 2008 meeting attracted ~350 academic and industrial representatives and was the capstone of the DOE-led sequencing of the soybean genome (published 2010 in Nature). Many of the talks focused on engineering of soybean for biodiesel production and how to protect soybean yield. Several of the plenary talks were focused on the newly available genome sequence and how to effectively capitalize on this investment.

  18. Genetic Analysis of Seed Isoflavones, Protein, and Oil Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-13

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important crop in the US and worldwide. It has numerous health benefits because of its...for protein, oil, and isoflavones contents in three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of soybean . We have achieved 100% of the goals. We have...Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods, Chungkookjang and Doenjang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Son, Jun-Ho; Yook, Hong-Sun; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2002-06-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods were investigated. Chungkookjang, the whole cooked soybean product and Doenjang, soybean paste were purchased and irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy of absorbed doses. The physiological activity was evaluated by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, xanthine oxidase inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition and radical scavenging ability and results indicated that at 10 kGy or below did not show any significant change on physiological activities by irradiation.

  20. Irradiation influence on the detection of genetic-modified soybeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Baldasso, J. G.; Aquino, S.; Konietzny, U.; Greiner, R.

    2004-09-01

    Three soybean varieties were analyzed to evaluate the irradiation influence on the detection of genetic modification. Samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0, 500, 800, and 1000Gy. The seeds were at first analyzed by Comet Assay as a rapid screening irradiation detection method. Secondly, germination test was performed to detect the viability of irradiated soybeans. Finally, because of its high sensitivity, its specificity and rapidity the polimerase chain reaction was the method applied for genetic modified organism detection. The analysis of DNA by the single technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) showed that DNA damage increased with increasing radiation doses. No negative influence of irradiation on the genetic modification detection was found.

  1. Nutritional quality and ions uptake to PTNDS in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Porous-tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) allows high control of the root environment and prevents plant infections in both microgravity and ground conditions. In this paper, six soybean cultivars ('ZH13', 'ZH57', 'LD10', 'HH35', 'HH43', and 'ZGDD') were evaluated in terms of yield, photosynthetic efficiency, insoluble dietary fiber and ions uptake efficiency. Besides proximal composition, the concentrations of mineral and isoflavones were monitored in the seeds. 'HH35' and 'ZH13' plants showed much higher yield and harvest index, in addition to the lower lignin content of inedible biomass. Data showed that 'HH35' had the higher photosynthetic efficiency of soybean leaves with regard to photosynthetic rate and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency, whereas chlorophyll ratio and carotenoids content were no difference with the other cultivars. Both cations and anions except NH4(+) and H2PO4(-), were accumulated excessively compared to controls, especially with anions in PTNDS.

  2. Cadmium Distribution and Chemical Fate in Soybean Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Dominic A.; Garland, Thomas R.; Wildung, Raymond E.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and chemical behavior of Cd2+ in tissues and its chemical form in xylem water of soybean plants (cv. Williams) were investigated. Following root absorption, Cd is strongly retained by roots, with only 2% of the accumulated Cd being transported to leaves; as much as 8% was transported to seeds during seed filling. In vivo xylem exudates contained two anionic Cd complexes in addition to inorganic forms of Cd. Once accumulated in root and leaf tissues, Cd rapidly equilibrated between the insoluble, soluble, and organelle fractions. Of the solubles, which contain 50% of the Cd, >50% was associated with components of >10,000 molecular weight, and <8% was associated with <500 molecular weight components. Cadmium accumulated in soybean seeds was primarily associated with cotyledons. Fractionation of seeds showed the soy proteinate and soy whey to contain 32 and 50% of the accumulated Cd, respectively. PMID:16662008

  3. Gelation of soybean protein and polysaccharides delays digestion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Chen, Qing; Cai, Qimeng; Fan, Yun; Wilde, Peter J; Rong, Zhen; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2017-04-15

    Xanthan gum and carrageenan, representing the medium and highly negatively charged polysaccharides, were heated respectively together with soybean protein isolate (SPI) at different biopolymer ratios. Upon mixing with simulated stomach juice (SSJ), the xanthan-SPI and carrageenan-SPI at biopolymer ratios higher than 0.01 leads to self-assembled gelation immediately. Stronger gel is formed under higher biopolymer ratios. Highly negatively charged carrageenan forms a stronger gel than that composed with xanthan gum. SDS-PAGE results show the digestibility of SPI is delayed after incorporation with the polysaccharides, which is enhanced with the increase of the biopolymer mass ratios. And the polysaccharide with higher negative charge has stronger potential in delaying the digestion of SPI. Furthermore, the microstructure of the xanthan-SPI and carrageenan-SPI gel before and after simulated stomach digestion was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), which also confirms that the gel delays the digestion of soybean protein.

  4. Metabolic Profiles Reveal Changes in Wild and Cultivated Soybean Seedling Leaves under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Dongshuang; Li, Mingxia; Shi, Lianxuan

    2016-01-01

    Clarification of the metabolic mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in plants will allow further optimization of crop breeding and cultivation to obtain high yields in saline-alkali land. Here, we characterized 68 differential metabolites of cultivated soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) under neutral-salt and alkali-salt stresses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics, to reveal the physiological and molecular differences in salt tolerance. According to comparisons of growth parameters under the two kinds of salt stresses, the level of inhibition in wild soybean was lower than in cultivated soybean, especially under alkali-salt stress. Moreover, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of phenylalanine, asparagine, citraconic acid, citramalic acid, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under neutral-salt stress, and higher amounts of palmitic acid, lignoceric acid, glucose, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under alkali-salt stress, than cultivated soybean. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of wild soybean to salt tolerance was mainly based on the synthesis of organic and amino acids, and the more active tricarboxylic acid cycle under neutral-salt stress. In addition, the metabolite profiling analysis suggested that the energy generation from β-oxidation, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle plays important roles under alkali-salt stress. Our results extend the understanding of mechanisms involved in wild soybean salt tolerance and provide an important reference for increasing yields and developing salt-tolerant soybean cultivars. PMID:27442489

  5. Structural and Functional Characterization of the VQ Protein Family and VQ Protein Variants from Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Xinjian; Chi, Yingjun; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Proteins containing the FxxxVQxhTG or VQ motif interact with WRKY transcription factors. Although VQ proteins have been reported in several plants, knowledge about their structures, functions and evolution is still very limited. Here, we report structural and functional analysis of the VQ protein family from soybean. Like Arabidopsis homologues, soybean VQ proteins bind only Group I and IIc WRKY proteins and a substantial number of their genes are responsive to stress-associated phytohormones. Overexpression of some soybean VQ genes in Arabidopsis had strong effects on plant growth, development, disease resistance and heat tolerance. Phylogenetic analysis, sequence alignment and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the region immediately upstream of the FxxxVQxhTG motif also affects binding to WRKY proteins. Consistent with a larger WRKY-binding VQ domain, soybean VQ22 protein from cultivated soybean contains a 4-amino acid deletion in the region preceding its VQ motif that completely abolishes its binding to WRKY proteins. By contrast, the 4-amino acid deletion is absent in the VQ22 protein from wild soybean species (Glycine soja). Overexpression of wild soybean VQ22 in cultivated soybean inhibited growth, particularly after cold treatment. Thus, the mutation of soybean VQ22 is associated with advantageous phenotypes and may have been positively selected during evolution. PMID:27708406

  6. Expression of a complete soybean leghemoglobin gene in root nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus.

    PubMed

    Stougaard, J; Petersen, T E; Marcker, K A

    1987-08-01

    The complete soybean leghemoglobin lbc(3) gene was transferred into the legume Lotus corniculatus using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes vector system. Organ-specific expression of the soybean gene was observed in root nodules formed on regenerated transgenic plants after infection with Rhizobium loti. The primary transcript was processed in the same way as in soybean nodules and the resulting mRNA was translated into Lbc(3) protein. Quantitative determination of the Lbc(3) protein in nodules of transgenic plants indicated that the steady-state level of the soybean protein is comparable to that of endogenous Lotus leghemoglobin.

  7. Gel-free proteomic analysis of soybean root proteins affected by calcium under flooding stress

    PubMed Central

    Oh, MyeongWon; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress and exhibits reduced growth under flooding conditions. To better understand the flooding-responsive mechanisms of soybean, the effect of exogenous calcium on flooding-stressed soybeans was analyzed using proteomic technique. An increase in exogenous calcium levels enhanced soybean root elongation and suppressed the cell death of root tip under flooding stress. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-day-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress without or with calcium for 2 days and analyzed using gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis/posttranslational modification, hormone/cell wall metabolisms, and DNA synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, their reductions were recovered by calcium treatment. Development, lipid metabolism, and signaling-related proteins were increased in soybean roots when calcium was supplied under flooding stress. Fermentation and glycolysis-related proteins were increased in response to flooding; however, these proteins were not affected by calcium supplementation. Furthermore, urease and copper chaperone proteins exhibited similar profiles in 4-day-old untreated soybeans and 4-day-old soybeans exposed to flooding for 2 days in the presence of calcium. These results suggest that calcium might affect the cell wall/hormone metabolisms, protein degradation/synthesis, and DNA synthesis in soybean roots under flooding stress. PMID:25368623

  8. Development and application of a novel genome-wide SNP array reveals domestication history in soybean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Chu, Shanshan; Zhang, Huairen; Zhu, Ying; Cheng, Hao; Yu, Deyue

    2016-02-09

    Domestication of soybeans occurred under the intense human-directed selections aimed at developing high-yielding lines. Tracing the domestication history and identifying the genes underlying soybean domestication require further exploration. Here, we developed a high-throughput NJAU 355 K SoySNP array and used this array to study the genetic variation patterns in 367 soybean accessions, including 105 wild soybeans and 262 cultivated soybeans. The population genetic analysis suggests that cultivated soybeans have tended to originate from northern and central China, from where they spread to other regions, accompanied with a gradual increase in seed weight. Genome-wide scanning for evidence of artificial selection revealed signs of selective sweeps involving genes controlling domestication-related agronomic traits including seed weight. To further identify genomic regions related to seed weight, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted across multiple environments in wild and cultivated soybeans. As a result, a strong linkage disequilibrium region on chromosome 20 was found to be significantly correlated with seed weight in cultivated soybeans. Collectively, these findings should provide an important basis for genomic-enabled breeding and advance the study of functional genomics in soybean.

  9. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  10. Enhanced germination and gravitropism of soybean in a hypogeomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Weichuan

    For the future manned space exploration, the duration of the missions would significantly in-crease. Investigating plant growth and development under the space environmental conditions is of essential importance for the food supply projects for the astronauts. Hypogeomagnetic field (HGMF), namely, extremely low magnetic field, is one of the main characters of the space environment. Germination is the first vital step of plant growth and development, which determines the final yield of plants. The effect of HGMF on plant growth, especially early ger-mination, still remains open. In this study, we established a hypogeomagnetic field (HGMF) incubation system, the remnant magnetic field inside no more than 250 nT. Soybean seeds were incubated at 25 in HGMF, and the very beginning of soybean germination, from water ab-sorbance of cotyledon to radicle emergence, was examined within 24 h. Our results showed that the germination ratio and weight ratio of emerged soybean radicles were markedly increased during germination in HGMF. Furthermore, the tropism angle of emerged radicle with gravity in HGMF was statistically smaller than that in GMF when the radicle direction was placed opposite to gravity before germination. These results indicate that the germination and gravit-ropism of soybean is enhanced in a hypogeomagnetic environment, This is a new finding about the early seed germination in such a low environmental magnetic field which is comparable to the magnetic field of Lunar Swirls on the Moon (a few hundred nT), and it might provide new perspectives on the space science researches concerning plant growth and food supply.

  11. Seasonal canopy reflectance patterns of wheat, sorghum, and soybean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted of canopy-reflectance patterns as a basis for the determination of surface conditions. Two fields each of wheat, sorghum, and soybeans were selected in a bottom land area. One field contained a dark-colored, silty clay loam and the other a light-colored, silt loam. The study suggests that the reflectance ratio of the 545- to 655-nm-wavelengths may be used as an indicator of crop growth.

  12. Soil Moisture Dynamics under Corn, Soybean, and Perennial Kura Clover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochsner, T.; Venterea, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Rising global food and energy consumption call for increased agricultural production, whereas rising concerns for environmental quality call for farming systems with more favorable environmental impacts. Improved understanding and management of plant-soil water interactions are central to meeting these twin challenges. The objective of this research was to compare the temporal dynamics of soil moisture under contrasting cropping systems suited for the Midwestern region of the United States. Precipitation, infiltration, drainage, evapotranspiration, soil water storage, and freeze/thaw processes were measured hourly for three years in field plots of continuous corn (Zea mays L.), corn/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation, and perennial kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) in southeastern Minnesota. The evapotranspiration from the perennial clover most closely followed the temporal dynamics of precipitation, resulting in deep drainage which was reduced up to 50% relative to the annual crops. Soil moisture utilization also continued later into the fall under the clover than under the annual crops. In the annual cropping systems, crop sequence influenced the soil moisture dynamics. Soybean following corn and continuous corn exhibited evapotranspiration which was 80 mm less than and deep drainage which was 80 mm greater than that of corn following soybean. These differences occurred primarily during the spring and were associated with differences in early season plant growth between the systems. In the summer, soil moisture depletion was up to 30 mm greater under corn than soybean. Crop residue also played an important role in the soil moisture dynamics. Higher amounts of residue were associated with reduced soil freezing. This presentation will highlight key aspects of the soil moisture dynamics for these contrasting cropping systems across temporal scales ranging from hours to years. The links between soil moisture dynamics, crop yields, and nutrient leaching

  13. A systems biology approach toward understanding seed composition in soybean

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The molecular, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms that regulate the complex metabolic network of soybean seed development determine the ultimate balance of protein, lipid, and carbohydrate stored in the mature seed. Many of the genes and metabolites that participate in seed metabolism are unknown or poorly defined; even more remains to be understood about the regulation of their metabolic networks. A global omics analysis can provide insights into the regulation of seed metabolism, even without a priori assumptions about the structure of these networks. Results With the future goal of predictive biology in mind, we have combined metabolomics, transcriptomics, and metabolic flux technologies to reveal the global developmental and metabolic networks that determine the structure and composition of the mature soybean seed. We have coupled this global approach with interactive bioinformatics and statistical analyses to gain insights into the biochemical programs that determine soybean seed composition. For this purpose, we used Plant/Eukaryotic and Microbial Metabolomics Systems Resource (PMR, http://www.metnetdb.org/pmr, a platform that incorporates metabolomics data to develop hypotheses concerning the organization and regulation of metabolic networks, and MetNet systems biology tools http://www.metnetdb.org for plant omics data, a framework to enable interactive visualization of metabolic and regulatory networks. Conclusions This combination of high-throughput experimental data and bioinformatics analyses has revealed sets of specific genes, genetic perturbations and mechanisms, and metabolic changes that are associated with the developmental variation in soybean seed composition. Researchers can explore these metabolomics and transcriptomics data interactively at PMR. PMID:25708381

  14. Spectral reflectance pattern in soybean for assessing yellow mosaic disease.

    PubMed

    Gazala, I F Saad; Sahoo, R N; Pandey, Rakesh; Mandal, Bikash; Gupta, V K; Singh, Rajendra; Sinha, P

    2013-09-01

    Remote sensing technique is useful for monitoring large crop area at a single time point, which is otherwise not possible by visual observation alone. Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) is a serious constraint in soybean production in India. However, hardly any basic information is available for monitoring YMD by remote sensing. Present study examines spectral reflectance of soybean leaves due to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) infection in order to identify YMD sensitive spectral ratio or reflectance. Spectral reflectance measurement indicated significant (p < 0.001) change in reflectance in the infected soybean canopy as compared to the healthy one. In the infected canopy, reflectance increased in visible region and decreased in near infra-red region of spectrum. Reflectance sensitivity analysis indicated wavelength ~642, ~686 and ~750 nm were sensitive to YMD infection. Whereas, in yellow leaves induced due to nitrogen deficiency, the sensitive wavelength was ~589 nm. Due to viral infection, a shift occurred in red and infra-red slope (called red edge) on the left in comparison to healthy one. Red edge shift was a good indicator to discriminate yellow mosaic as chlorophyll gets degraded due to MYMIV infection. Correlation of reflectance at 688 nm (R688) and spectral reflectance ratio at 750 and 445 nm (R750/R445) with the weighted mosaic index indicated that detection of yellow mosaic is possible based on these sensitive bands. Our study for the first time identifies the yellow mosaic sensitive band as R688 and R750/R445, which could be utilized to scan satellite data for monitoring YMD affected soybean cropping regions.

  15. Affordable Resins and Adhesives From Optimized Soybean Varieties (ARA Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Richard WOol; Dr. X. Susan Sun; Rich Chapas

    2004-04-21

    The Mission of the ARA Program was to develop the Corporate Infrastructure to mass-produce new bio-based materials from Soybeans. The resins were integrated with the bio-fuels program. (1) to research, develop, and commercialize low cost adhesives and resins from soy oil and protein, the co-products of the soy bio-diesel process. (2) to study structure-functionality of soy oil and proteins at molecular and genomic levels

  16. Aggressiveness and Reproduction of Four Meloidogyne arenaria Populations on Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, A. S.; Lewis, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    Aggressiveness and reproduction differed among four geographical populations of M. arenaria on six soybean cultivars in field microplots. These differences were consistent over 3 years. The populations did not differ in virulence; i.e., population by cultivar interactions were not significant. Perineal pattern morphology, the North Carolina differential host test, chromosome counts of immature oocytes, and esterase phenotypes confirmed that the four populations were M. arenaria. Three populations were host race 2 and one population was host race 1. PMID:19283118

  17. Soybean and sunflower oil performance in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Schlick, M.L.; Hanna, M.A.; Schinstock, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of a direct injection diesel engine operating on mechanically expelled-unrefined soybean oil and sunflower oil blende with number 2 diesel fuel on a 25:75 v/v basis was evaluated. The power output remained constant throughout 200 h of operation. Excessive carbon deposits on all combustion chamber parts precludes the use of these fuel blends, at least in the engine and under the specified EMA operating conditions.

  18. A single origin and moderate bottleneck during domestication of soybean (Glycine max): implications from microsatellites and nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juan; Wang, Yunsheng; Song, Chi; Zhou, Jianfeng; Qiu, Lijuan; Huang, Hongwen; Wang, Ying

    2010-09-01

    Background and Aims It is essential to illuminate the evolutionary history of crop domestication in order to understand further the origin and development of modern cultivation and agronomy; however, despite being one of the most important crops, the domestication origin and bottleneck of soybean (Glycine max) are poorly understood. In the present study, microsatellites and nucleotide sequences were employed to elucidate the domestication genetics of soybean. Methods The genomes of 79 landrace soybeans (endemic cultivated soybeans) and 231 wild soybeans (G. soja) that represented the species-wide distribution of wild soybean in East Asia were scanned with 56 microsatellites to identify the genetic structure and domestication origin of soybean. To understand better the domestication bottleneck, four nucleotide sequences were selected to simulate the domestication bottleneck. Key Results Model-based analysis revealed that most of the landrace genotypes were assigned to the inferred wild soybean cluster of south China, South Korea and Japan. Phylogeny for wild and landrace soybeans showed that all landrace soybeans formed a single cluster supporting a monophyletic origin of all the cultivars. The populations of the nearest branches which were basal to the cultivar lineage were wild soybeans from south China. The coalescent simulation detected a bottleneck severity of K' = 2 during soybean domestication, which could be explained by a foundation population of 6000 individuals if domestication duration lasted 3000 years. Conclusions As a result of integrating geographic distribution with microsatellite genotype assignment and phylogeny between landrace and wild soybeans, a single origin of soybean in south China is proposed. The coalescent simulation revealed a moderate genetic bottleneck with an effective wild soybean population used for domestication estimated to be approximately 2 % of the total number of ancestral wild soybeans. Wild soybeans in Asia, especially in

  19. 18O enrichment in phosphorus pools extracted from soybean leaves.

    PubMed

    Pfahler, Verena; Dürr-Auster, Thilo; Tamburini, Federica; Bernasconi, M Stefano; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the isotopic composition of oxygen bound to phosphate (δ(18)O-PO(4)) in different phosphorus (P) pools in plant leaves. As a model plant we used soybean (Glycine max cv Toliman) grown in the presence of ample P in hydroponic cultures. The leaf blades were extracted with 0.3 M trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and with 10 M nitric acid. These extractions allowed measurement of the TCA-soluble reactive P (TCA P) that is rapidly cycled within the cell and the total leaf P. The difference between total leaf P and TCA P yielded the structural P which includes organic P compounds not extractable by TCA. P uptake and its translocation and transformation within the soybean plants lead to an (18)O enrichment of TCA P (δ(18)O-PO(4) between 16.9 and 27.5‰) and structural P (δ(18)O-PO(4) between 42.6 and 68.0 ‰) compared with 12.4‰ in the phosphate in the nutrient solution. δ(18)O values of phosphate extracted from soybean leaves grown under optimal conditions are greater than the δ(18)O-PO(4) values of the provided P source. Furthermore, the δ(18)O-PO(4) of TCA P seems to be controlled by the δ(18)O of leaf water and the activity of inorganic pyrophosphatase or other pyrophosphatases.

  20. Dissipation of Pendimethalin in Soybean Crop Under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Shishir

    2016-05-01

    Persistence of pendimethalin was studied in soil, soybean pods, straw and water under field conditions. Pendimethalin was applied at 1 and 2 kg a.i. ha(-1). Residues in soil were detected up to 60 and 90 days at the recommended and double dose, respectively. Dissipation followed first order kinetics and was accounted for by a biphasic pattern. The half-life for the initial phase and later phase was 12.73 and 26.60 days, respectively, for recommended and 7.25 and 37.91 days, respectively, for double dose. The limit of quantification was 0.005 µg g(-1) of sample. Percent recovery from soil, oil, defatted cake, straw and water samples fortified with 0.01-1.0 mg kg(-1) varied from 84.5 %-89.6 %, 84.6 %-88.7 %, 79.4 %-86.0 %, 78.2 %-85.6 % and 90.2 %-93.0 %, respectively. At harvest, pendimethalin residue in soybean pods, straw, and soil were below detectable limits. No residues of pendimethalin were detected in ground water. Current application of pendimethalin in the environment is not expected to cause adverse health effects form the consumption of soybeans.