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Sample records for gan prime yu

  1. [Experimental study on anti-DHBV effect of yu gan capsules].

    PubMed

    Tan, Xinghua; Zhang, Aimin; Yu, Weihua; Cen, Yuwen; Zhang, Fengxue

    2005-08-01

    To observe the antiviral effect of Yu Gan capsules against DHBV in ducks. 50 Guangzhou brown spot ducks were used in this experiment. After the ducks were infected DHBV, they were divided into four groups at random (ACV 200 mg/kg group, Yu Gan capsules 6.5 g/kg group, Yu Gan capsules 3.25 g/kg group and virus control group) and Drugs were given by stomach once a day. Blood samples were taken from each duck and tested for DHBV-DNA's level. Researches left liver tissue were, sheared and used for optical analysis. In Yu Gan capsules 6.5 g/kg group, DHBV-DNA's level in ducks' serum decreased on the 5th and 10th days after treatment and the 3th day after recession of treatment. There was a significant difference in the DHBV-DNA's level between the days after treatment and before treatment. there was also significant difference in the DHBV-DNA's level between Yu Gan capsules 6. 5 g/kg group and virus control group (P <0.01). Whereas, no inhibition effect was found in Yu Gan capsules 3.25 g/kg group. Yu Gan capsules have functions on anti-DHBV in duck.

  2. Yu's flap for lower lip and reverse Yu's flap for upper lip reconstruction: 20 years experience.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Ning; Li, Rui-Wu; Tan, Xue-Xin; Xu, Zhong-Fei; Liu, Fa-Yu; Duan, Wei-Yi; Fang, Qi-Gen; Zhang, Xu; Sun, Chang-Fu

    2013-12-01

    Reconstruction of defects of the lip caused by cancer with its requirements of a complicated anatomical structure, important physiological function, and acceptable cosmetic result, is a challenge for oral and maxillofacial and plastic surgeons. A method that combines rotation and advancement flaps was described by Yu in 1989 for the reconstruction of defects of the lower lip. In our department between January 1992 and December 2012, 8 patients had reverse Yu flaps for the reconstruction of upper lip defects and 56 patients had classic Yu flaps for lower lip defects. Patients with defects located laterally to the upper lips, ranging from ⅓ to ½, had unilateral reverse Yu flaps, and bilateral procedures were done for defects of less than ⅔ of the lips. However, if the defects were located in the centre of the upper lips, between ⅓ and ½, they were treated with bilateral reverse Yu flaps. Patients with defects between ⅓ and ⅔ of lower lips had unilateral Yu flaps, and if the defects were wider than ⅔ of the lower lips, the procedure was bilateral. No flap failed and desirable functional and aesthetic outcomes were recorded in all cases. Here we report our experience with the Yu flap for the benefit of other surgeons. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunity of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng children in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shou Jen; Yen, Yea Yin; Chen, Eng Rin

    1990-02-01

    Up to now, there has been no studies about the immune status of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies. In an earlier study, Yu-Cheng babies were reported to have a high infant mortality rate. It was reported that these babies would easily catch cold, experience diarrhea and abdominal pains. Recently, it was found that the bronchitis rate of Yu-Cheng babies is higher than in control babies. Because of high risk of infection, it is presumed that these babies might suffer immunosuppression to a certain extent. According to these findings, investigations into the immune functions of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies are needed.

  4. A Pioneer Chinatown Teacher: An Interview with Alice Fong Yu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Christopher; Leong, Russell

    1978-01-01

    In this interview, Alice Fong Yu discusses her background, what it was like to teach at the Commodore Elementary School in San Francisco Chinatown, and her views on busing, bilingual education, and the Bakke Case. (A M)

  5. First-Principles Study of Migration Mechanisms and Diffusion of Carbon in GaN (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-21

    and Eu M Yamaga, H Watanabe, M Kurahashi et al . Theoretical investigation of GaN carbon doped M J Espitia Rico, M G Moreno Armenta, J A Rodríguez et ...photoelectrolysis of water M V Puzyk, A S Usikov, S Yu Kurin et al . Steady-state and high-frequency electron transport in GaN nanowires V V Korotyeyev...V A Kochelap, S Vitusevich et al . High-field electron transport in GaN under crossed electric and magnetic fields V A Kochelap, V V Korotyeyev, G I

  6. [Autobiography of modern acupuncturist Yu Shu-zhuang].

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-jian' i; Guo, Jing; Yu, Zhen-zhong; Wang, Lin-peng

    2014-11-01

    Professor YU Shu-zhuang is a distinguished acupuncturist in China. He has practiced the TCM acupuncture-moxibustion clinical, educational and scientific research for 60 years in his life. In clinic, he summarized the experiences "five-ming first"; in treatment, he insisted "dredging" and "regulating", protecting the function of spleen and stomach, and needles should be less but specific. In the meanwhile, he made a deep study on the function and clinical effects of specific acupoints, and used the research results of propagated sensation along channel to guide clinical treatment, forming his special academic points. Professor YU has educated a great number of acupuncture-moxibustion talents in China and foreign countries, making great contribution to the popularization of acupuncture-moxibustion in the worldwide.

  7. Orbital Picture of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov Multiplets.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Michael; Peng, Yang; von Oppen, Felix; Heinrich, Benjamin W; Franke, Katharina J

    2016-10-28

    We investigate the nature of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) subgap states induced by single manganese (Mn) atoms adsorbed on different surface orientations of superconducting lead (Pb). Depending on the adsorption site, we detect a distinct number and characteristic patterns of YSR states around the Mn atoms. We suggest that the YSR states inherit their properties from the Mn d levels, which are split by the surrounding crystal field. The periodicity of the long-range YSR oscillations allows us to identify a dominant coupling of the d states to the outer Fermi sheet of the two-band superconductor Pb.

  8. Bao-yu: a mental disorder or a cultural icon?

    PubMed

    Huang, Flora; Gillett, Grant

    2014-06-01

    The embodied human subject is dynamically connected to his or her historico-sociocultural context, the soil from which a person's psyche is nourished as multiplex meanings are absorbed and enable personal development. In each culture certain towering artistic works embody this perspective. The Dream of the Red Chamber introduces Jia Bao-yu--a scion of the prestigious Jia family--and his relationships with a large cast of characters. Bao-yu is controversial but, at the time of the family's tragic collapse, he can be seen as embodying a spiritual struggle in which his instinct, nature, sensitivity, and creativity are grounded in his transcendent relationship with a fragment of the world stone, an eternal source of energy and creativity. We are invited to draw on a metaphysical level of thought to consider his struggles with man-made hierarchies and a situated historico-sociocultural order in such a way as to live out his spiritual being. As such, the novel is closely relevant to questions of spirituality in bioethics. Through personal experiences, passions, creativity, and relationships with others, the body is inscribed, forming the soul, which may be misconstrued (for instance, through a medical or Cartesian reformulation of events) but which can be seen as the site of ethical and spiritual thought.

  9. [On the contribution of Prof. Yu. S. Balashov to the fundamental parasitology].

    PubMed

    Ryss, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    Brief review of main conceptions of Yu. S. Balasov in fundamental parasitology: types of host-parasite relations, evolution, transmissive infections, econiches, population structure, parasite communities.

  10. Large-Scale Professional Development towards Emancipatory Mathematics: The Genesis of YuMi Deadly Maths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Tom; Carter, Merilyn

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the genesis of YuMi Deadly Maths, a school change process that has been used in over 200 schools to develop mathematics teaching and learning to improve students' employment and life chances. The paper discusses the YuMi Deadly Maths approach to mathematics content and pedagogy, implemented through a process of PD and school…

  11. Yu-Gong Yi Shan: Exploring Some Possibilities of Designing Tomorrow's Foreign Language Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Chung; Liu, Li-chia

    1992-01-01

    An electronic version of Yu-gong Yi Shan, an ancient Chinese fable, is discussed as a prototype of the use of technology for Chinese teaching and learning. Yu-gong demonstrates how hypermedia can be designed to overcome the linear, static, and silent constraints of book technology. (four references) (Author/LB)

  12. Atomic Composition of the Positron-Sensitive Vacancy Complexes in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, Nikolai; Emtsev, Vadim

    2004-03-01

    The positron probing of the as-grown point defects in GaN and related materials has been conducted by the one-dimensional angular correlation of the annihilation radiation (1D-ACAR) as well as by some other positron annihilation techniques. It has been established that the electron density around the positron is lowered suggesting that positrons are trapped by the defects of a vacancy type in the crystal lattice of GaN. The electron-positron radii fitted to the conventional ion radii for the relevant anion and cation sites have formed a basis for a comparative analysis of the obtained results. The electron-positron cation core radius whose length is determined by the atoms in the nearest environment of the annihilating positrons has been estimated by the parameters of the high-momentum component of 1D-ACAR curves. The electron-positron momentum distribution outside the cation cores has been used for the estimations of the electron-positron anion core radius. A comparison of the electron-positron ion radii with a certain standards obtained for B, Al, Ga, related III-V compounds GaP, GaAs, GaSb, BN, and AlN has been done systematically at the processing of results. A plausible explanation of the experimental data obtained for GaN may be given assuming that the positron annihilation occurs in the complex of a vacancy-type where the nitrogen atom is shifted from its regular position and, probably, is trapped by the gallium vacancy forming the antisite configuration (N.Yu. Arutyunov, A.V.Mikhailin, V.Yu. Davidov, V.V.Emtsev, G.A. Oganesyan, and E.E.Haller, Semiconductors, 36 (2002) 1106.) (N.Yu. Arutyunov, V.V.Emtsev, A.V.Mikhailin, and C.J. Humphreys, Physica B, (2003), in press.) Similar complexes in GaN have been discussed theoretically. (D.J. Chadi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71 (1997) 2970.) In this connection the results of the positron annihilation studies in GaN:Mg are also considered.

  13. Interannual variability of spring intraseasonal variability and Mei-Yu onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y.; Lin, H.; Wu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The Mei-Yu onset over the middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River Basin from mid-June to mid-July in China is associated with a transition of weather regimes andevolution of the East Asia summer monsoon. The Mei-Yu onset date likely determines the amount of rainfall and the length of rainy season. In this study, we find that the Mei-Yu onset date is significantly associated with the intensity of the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) over the East Asian and western Pacific (EAWNP) region in spring, and that a strong (weak) EAWNP ISO during the spring season leads to an early (late) onset of Mei-Yu over the middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River Basin. The seasonal march of the rain belt in China matches well the convective activity of the 8 phases of the EAWNP ISO. An examination of precursory signals associated with early onsets of Mei-Yu reveals that, during strong spring EAWNP ISO years, an anomalous warmsea surface temperature (SST) appears in the eastern Pacific which resembles the EP-ENSO pattern from January to July. With the EP-ENSO pattern, negative SST anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean and the South China Sea (SCS) in May lead to an early onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon, and an early Mei-Yu onset. On the other hand, in weak spring EAWNP ISO years, the SST anomaly pattern changes from a central Pacific ENSO (CP-ENSO) to an eastern Pacific ENSO (EP-ENSO) in May, and positive SST anomalies appear in both the eastern Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, leading to a late onset of the South China Sea monsoon and a late Mei-Yu onset. A statistical forecast model is established using the intensity of spring EAWNP ISO, CP-ENSO and EP-ENSO indices to assess the predictability of the onset date of Mei-Yu. The results suggest that the intensity of spring EAWNP ISO plays a key role to predict the Mei-Yu onset. Since all these predictors can be readily monitored in real time, this empirical model provides a real-time forecast tool for Mei-Yu onset.

  14. Mechanism of Torrential Rain Associated with the Mei-yu Development during SCSMEX-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Jian-Hua; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lau, K.-M.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A case of torrential precipitation process in the Mei-yu front, an Asian monsoon system east to the Tibetan Plateau, is studied with the coupled Penn State University/NCAR MM5 and NASA/GSFC PLACE (Parameterization for Land - Atmosphere - Cloud Exchange) models. Remote and local impacts of water vapor on the location and intensity of Mei-yu precipitation are studied by numerical experiments. Results demonstrate that the water vapor source for this heavy precipitation case in Yangtze river basin is derived mostly from the Bay of Bengal, transported by the southwesterly low-level Jet (LLJ) southeast to the Tibetan Plateau. The moist convection is a critical process in the development and maintenance of the front. The meridional and zonal secondary circulations resulted from Mei-yu condensation heating both act to increase the wind speed in the LLJ. The condensation induced local circulation strengthens the moisture transport in the LLJ, providing a positive feedback to sustain the Mei-yu precipitation system. It is found that local precipitation recycling shifts heavy rain toward the warm side of the Mei-yu front. This shift of rainfall location is due to the pronounced increase of atmospheric moisture and decrease of surface temperature over the warm side of the front.

  15. PCBs, PCQs and PCDFs in blood of Yusho and Yu-Cheng patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kashimoto, T.; Miyata, H.; Fukushima, S.

    1985-02-01

    Individual blood samples obtained from Yusho and Yu-Cheng patients who had been poisoned by ingesting contaminated cooking oils, from workers occupationally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and from unexposed individuals were analyzed for PCBs, polychlorinated quaterphenyls (PCQs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. PCBs were found in the blood of all samples. PCQs were detected in the blood of 54 or 56 living Yusho patients 11 years after the outbreak, and in all Yu-Cheng patients 6 months following poisoning. These facts indicate that the presence of PCQs in the blood was a good mark of pastmore » ingestion of the toxic oil. In the Yu-Cheng cases, PCDFs as well as PCBs and PCQs were detected in all blood samples. These identified isomers have been reported to be remarkably highly toxic compounds, i.e., both the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated compounds are toxicologically hundreds to thousands of times more toxic than PCB. In view of the high toxicity of PCDFs found in the Yu-Cheng patients' blood, it is concluded that they are the primary causal agents of Yusho as well as of the Yu-Cheng incident.« less

  16. Bandgap engineering of GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Bang-Ming; Yan, Hui; Wang, Ru-Zhi, E-mail: wrz@bjut.edu.cn, E-mail: yamcy@csrc.ac.cn

    2016-05-15

    Bandgap engineering has been a powerful technique for manipulating the electronic and optical properties of semiconductors. In this work, a systematic investigation of the electronic properties of [0001] GaN nanowires was carried out using the density functional based tight-binding method (DFTB). We studied the effects of geometric structure and uniaxial strain on the electronic properties of GaN nanowires with diameters ranging from 0.8 to 10 nm. Our results show that the band gap of GaN nanowires depends linearly on both the surface to volume ratio (S/V) and tensile strain. The band gap of GaN nanowires increases linearly with S/V, whilemore » it decreases linearly with increasing tensile strain. These linear relationships provide an effect way in designing GaN nanowires for their applications in novel nano-devices.« less

  17. Neutronographic investigations of supramolecular structures on upgraded small-angle spectrometer YuMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklin, A. I.; Rogachev, A. V.; Soloviov, D. V.; Ivankov, O. I.; Kovalev, Yu S.; Utrobin, P. K.; Kutuzov, S. A.; Soloviev, A. G.; Rulev, M. I.; Gordeliy, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    Abstract.The work is a review of neutronographic investigations of supramolecular structures on upgraded small-angle spectrometer YuMO. Here, key parameters of small-angle spectrometers are considered. It is shown that two-detector system is the basis of YuMO upgrade. It allows to widen the dynamic q-range twice. In result, the available q-range is widened and dynamic q-range and data collection rate are doubled. The detailed description of YuMO spectrometer is given.The short review of experimental researches made on the spectrometer in the polymers field, biology, material science and physical chemistry is given. The current investigations also have a methodological aspect. It is shown that upgraded spectrometer provides advanced world level of research of supramolecular structures.

  18. Problems with Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melrose, Tim; Scott, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses prime numbers, defined as integers greater than 1 that are divisible only by only themselves and the number 1. A positive integer greater than 1 that is not a prime is called composite. The number 1 itself is considered neither prime nor composite. As the name suggests, prime numbers are one of the most basic but important…

  19. Spectroscopic Classification of DLT18i (=SN 2018yu) as a young Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jujia; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2018-03-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum (range 350-900 nm) of DLT18i (=SN 2018yu, ATEL#11371), discovered by the D < 40 Mpc (DLT40) supernova search, on UT Mar. 1.51 2018 with the 2.4 m telescope (+YFOSC) at the LiJiang Observatory of YNAO.

  20. [Herbological study on the botanical origin of the Chinese crude drug shan-zhu-yu].

    PubMed

    Mikage, Masayuki; Hutagi, Yukari

    2008-01-01

    The historical change in the botanical origin of the Chinese herbal drug Shan-zhu-yu, San-syu-yu in Japanese) was studied herbologically. The results obtained were as follows: The original plant, described in Shen-nong-ben-cao-jing written in the Hou-Han Dynasty (A.D. 25-220) and Wu-pu-ben-cao written in the Wei dynasty (A.D. 220-265), was Prunus pseudocerasus or an allied species such as P. tomentosa. However, the original plant described in Ming-yi-bie-lu, written in the same era, was thought to be Cornus officinalis; the fruit of which is used commonly today as Shan-zhu-yu. In addition to Prunus and Cornus, the plants of the genus Berberis, of the family Berberidaceae, and Zanthoxylum of Rutaceae were also used in China until the Ming Dynasty. The plants of Elaeagnus, of the family Elaeagnaceae, were possibly used in ancient Japan. Cornus officinalis was determined to be the origin of Shan-zhu-yu during the Qing Dynasty, China.

  1. Discovery of DLT18i/AT 2018yu with PROMPT and the DLT40 Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, D.; Valenti, S.; Wyatt, S.; Bostroem, K. A.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Kouprianov, V.

    2018-03-01

    We report the discovery of DLT18i/AT 2018yu, which was found on 2018 March 1.0 (UT) at r 17.6 mag during the ongoing D < 40 Mpc (DLT40) supernova search, using data from the PROMPT5 0.41m telescope located at CTIO.

  2. High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Standing Wave Study of thin GaN Film on SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faleev, N.; Kazimirov, A.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Temkin, H.; Dmitriev, V.; Melnik, Yu.

    2001-03-01

    The x-ray standing wave (XSW) method and high-resolution X-ray diffraction were used to study the structural perfection and polarity of a 300 nm thick GaN epitaxial film grown on the Si-face of a SiC substrate. The film was grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy without any buffer layer [1]. X-ray diffraction was performed in double- and triple-axis geometries. The XSW measurements performed at the beamline X15A of the NSLS were based on the generation of the XSW under the condition of Bragg diffraction from the film [2]. Excellent crystalline quality of the GaN film was revealed by both techniques. The XSW analysis of the Ga-K fluorescence yield measured while scanning through the GaN(0002) diffraction peak unambiguously showed the Ga-polarity of the film in agreement with the "standard framework" proposed in [3]. Correlation between the mosaic structure and the static Debye-Waller factor of the GaN lattice was also studied. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38 and by the NSF under contract No DMR9973436. 1. Yu.V. Melnik, et al. Diamond and Related Materials 6, (1997) 1532. 2. A. Kazimirov, et al. Solid State Com. 104, 347 (1997); 3. E.S. Hellman, MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 3, 11 (1998) 1-11.

  3. Language Ideology in Taiwan: The KMT's Language Policy, the Tai-yu Language Movement, and Ethnic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiau, A-chin

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the official (Kuomintang) language policy in Taiwan, which had exalted Mandarin and suppressed other local languages, and the efforts during the last decade to revive Tai-yu, a major language in the post-war period. The dynamics of the Tai-yu language movement reveal a pressing problem facing Taiwan: how to balance national cohesion with…

  4. Repetition Priming in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance…

  5. Mesoscale Characteristics of Mei-Yu Precipitation Systems over South China, Taiwan and the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Zipser, E.; Liu, C.

    2008-12-01

    After the onset of the Asian summer monsoon in early to mid May over the South China Sea, a quasi- stationary front (called Mei-Yu in Taiwan and Pre-summer rainy season by Chinese meteorologists) occurs frequently and repeatedly over South China (SC), Taiwan and South China Sea (SCS). During this period, heavy rainfall and flash floods are often produced by the slow moving Mei-Yu frontal rainband, especially by the embedded active Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs). This work summarizes the mesoscale characteristics of precipitation systems within defined Mei-Yu rainbands over SC, SCS and Taiwan, based on a 10-year database of precipitation feature (PFs). The 3 hourly rainfall product derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) is utilized to explore the definition, position and rainfall contribution of Mei-Yu rainbands in May-June from 1998 to 2008. A Mei-Yu rainband is defined by the criteria of: (1) a well-defined daily accumulated rainfall band, (2) lifetime > 3 days, (3) length > 10 degree longitude, and (4) a rainfall center > 50mm. Most of the rainbands happen after May 10th, with the largest occurrence center located along south China Coast. The distribution pattern of rainfall contributed by well-defined Mei-Yu rainbands during May11 and June24th dominates that of total rainfall in the period. Smooth distribution of Mei-Yu fronts doesn't correspond to smooth rainfall center: bulk eyes show up in the smooth Mei-Yu rainband center. Further studies show that more than 60 percent of total rainfall is contributed by Mei-Yu rainfall. The properties of PFs within the defined Mei-Yu rainband are analyzed using TRMM PF database. Distribution of PFs with different properties such as maximum height of 40 dBZ, minimum PCT of 85 GHz, radar area and volume, and lighting flash rate is mapped. This can indicate specific regions where Mei-Yu related active MCSs and strong thunderstorms tend to be. Vertical structure of the MCSs within the Mei-Yu rainband

  6. PCB and PCDF congeners in the blood and tissues of Yusho and Yu-Cheng patients

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Y.; Kuroki, H.; Haraguchi, K.

    1985-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisonings occurred in western Japan, where it is called Yusho, in 1968, and in central Taiwan, where it is called Yu-Cheng, in 1979. The average concentrations of PCBs in the adipose tissue, liver and blood of Yusho patients and in the blood of Yu-Cheng patients were 1.9 ppm, 0.08 ppm, 6.7 ppb and 99 ppb, respectively. Seven PCB congeners, such as 2,4,5,3',4'-pentachloro-, 2,3,4,3',4'-pentachloro-, 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachloro-, 2,3,4,2',4',5'-hexachloro-, 2,3,4,5,3',4'-hexachloro-, 2,3,4,5,2',4',5'- heptachloro- and 2,3,4,5,2',3',4'-heptachloro biphenyls were identified in the blood and tissues of patients with Yusho and Yu-Cheng and controls. The concentration of 2,3,4,5,3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl was comparatively higher in the patients thanmore » in controls. The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the adipose tissue and liver of Yusho patients were 6 to 13 ppb and 3 to 25 ppb, respectively, while no PCDFs were detected in the controls. Major PCDF congeners identified in the tissues and blood of Yusho and Yu-Cheng patients were the 2,3,6,8-tetrachloro-, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-, 1,2,4,7,8-pentachloro-, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachloro- and 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofurans (DFs), of which the 2,3,4,7,8-pentachloro compound was predominant. Some of the major peaks of the PCB methylthio and methylsulfone derivatives were identical in gas chromatographic retention times with those of 4-methylthio- and 4-methylsulfone-2,5-2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl PCDFs, especially 2,3,4,7,8-pentachloro DF, appear to be mainly responsible in the poisonings.« less

  7. The Near-Earth Encounter of Asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55): Thermal IR Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, J. P.; Moskovitz, N. A.; Busch, N. W.; Yang, B.; Granvik, M.

    2012-01-01

    The near-Earth approach (0.00217 AU, or 0.845 lunar distances) of the C-type asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55) in November 2011 presented a rare opportunity for detailed observations of a low-albedo NEA in this size range. As part of a multi-telescope campaign to measure visible and infrared spectra and photometry, we obtained mid-infrared (approx. 8 to 22 micron) photometry and spectroscopy of 2005 YU55 using Michelle on the Gemini North telescope on UT November 9 and 10,2011. An extensive radar campaign together with optical light-curves established the rotation state of YU55. In addition, the radar imaging resulted in a shape model for the asteroid, detection of numerous boulders on its surface, and a preliminary estimate of its equatorial diameter at 380 +/- 20 m. In a preliminary analysis, applying the radar and lightcurve-derived parameters to a rough-surface thermophysical model fit to the Gemini/Michelle thermal emission photometry results in a thermal inertia range of approximately 500 to 1500 J/sq m/0.5s/K, with the low-thermal-inertia solution corresponding to the small end of the radar size range and vice versa. Updates to these results will be presented and modeling of the thermal contribution to the measured near-infrared spectra from Palomar/Triplespec and IRTF/SpeX will also be discussed.

  8. Musculoskeletal changes in children prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds (Yu-Cheng children)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.L.; Lin, C.J.; Yao, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-five Yu-Cheng (oil-disease) children born between 1978 and 1985 to mothers who ate PCB-contaminated rice oil in 1978-1979 were studied and compared to age- and sex-matched control subjects in 1991. The children's growth profiles, bone mineral density and soft tissue composition, joint laxity, and serum parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and phosphate were compared. The Yu-Cheng children were 3.1 cm (p < .05) smaller and had less total lean mass and soft tissue mass as compared to the matched control subjects. All other parameters studied were similar in both groups. The shorter height and decreased total lean massmore » and soft tissue control were only seen in the Yu-Cheng children who were the first born after the ingestion, but not in subsequent children. This was most likely due to decreased body burdens of the PCBs and related contaminants over time in the mothers.« less

  9. The Near-Earth Encounter of Asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55): Thermal IR Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, J. P.; Moskovitz, N. A.; Busch, M. W.; Yang, B.; Granvik, M.

    2012-10-01

    The near-Earth approach (0.00217 AU, or 0.845 lunar distances) of the C-type asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55) in November 2011 presented a rare opportunity for detailed observations of a low-albedo NEA in this size range. As part of a multi-telescope campaign to measure visible and infrared spectra and photometry, we obtained mid-infrared ( 8 to 22 micron) photometry and spectroscopy of 2005 YU55 using Michelle [1] on the Gemini North telescope on UT November 9 and 10, 2011. An extensive radar campaign [2] together with optical lightcurves [3,4] established the rotation state of YU55. In addition, the radar imaging resulted in a shape model for the asteroid, detection of numerous boulders on its surface, and a preliminary estimate of its equatorial diameter at 380 +/- 20 m. In a preliminary analysis, applying the radar and lightcurve-derived parameters to a rough-surface thermophysical model fit to the Gemini/Michelle thermal emission photometry results in a thermal inertia range of approximately 500 to 1500 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1, with the low-thermal-inertia solution corresponding to the small end of the radar size range and vice versa. Updates to these results will be presented and modeling of the thermal contribution to the measured near-infrared spectra from Palomar/Triplespec and IRTF/SpeX will also be discussed. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of observatory staff and the support of the NASA NEOO program (LFL and JPE), the Carnegie fellowship (NAM), and NASA AES, NSF, and the NRAO Jansky Fellowship (MWB). [1] De Buizer, J. and R. Fisher, Proc. Hris (2005), pp. 84-87. [2] Busch, M.W. et al., ACM (2012), abstract #6179. [3] Warner, B., MPBull 39 (2), 84 [4] Pravec, P.

  10. Growth and development of permanent teeth germ of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shoujen; Yen, Yeayin; Ko, Yingchin

    1989-06-01

    This paper is intended to present a study of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan. The focus of the study is to demonstrate how a contaminated food source can affect the growth and development of permanent teeth germ in children. A sporadic outbreak of a peculiar skin disease was reported in Japan in October of 1968. An epidemiological study revealed the outbreak of this disease was caused by contaminated Kanemi rice oil. This episode of rice oil poisoned with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was the first reported outbreak of PCB poisoning in the world. A second episode occurred in central Taiwan elevenmore » years after the Japanese episode. Registered data from the Taiwan Provincial Government Health Department reported 1,843 cases in 1980. Of this group, more than 800 women were child-bearing age and most of these women would or soon would be married and pregnant. The offsprings of these women were in danger, because it has been proven that PCB intoxication could affect the fetus. These babies, only contaminated through the placenta, are called PCB transplacental Yusho babies in Japan and PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies in Taiwan. Babies with PCB poisoning could have Fetal PCB syndrome (FPS) and may have retarded eruption of permanent teeth and other anomalies such as reduced numbers of teeth and abnormal shaped roots. The study of transplacental Yu-Cheng babies is an important public health issue for Taiwan. Although there may be other issues, this study focuses only on the growth and development of permanent teeth of those babies affected by PCB transplacental contamination.« less

  11. Separation of thick HVPE-GaN films from GaN templates using nanoporous GaN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zengyin; Yang, Ruixia; Zhang, Song; Wang, Zaien; Chen, Jianli; Li, Xun

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we have succeeded in growing an approximate 2-inch self-separated thick GaN wafer by hydride vapor phase epitaxy with an introduction of a sacrificial layer of nanoporous GaN. Such nanoporous GaN layer is invented by using the HVPE growth of thin GaN layer on the spin-coating silica nanosphere layer followed by a hydrofluoric acid etching to the silica nanosphere layer. It has been found that the nanoporous GaN layer, enabling a reduction of stickiness between thick GaN films and the substrates, plays a significant role in the self-separation of thick GaN films during the cooling process. However, the thickness of the nanoporous GaN layer is another key issue to achieve good quality self-separated GaN thick films. In our study, we suggest that the nanoporous GaN layer with a thickness of approximately 150-240 nm can best serve as the sacrificial layer in self-separation process. Raman spectroscopy also indicates the self-separated thick GaN films by using the proposed approach are virtually strain-free.

  12. Priming Gestures with Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Heller, Laurie M.; Navolio, Nicole; Zúñiga-Peñaranda, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge. PMID:26544884

  13. Building Numbers from Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  14. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  15. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  16. GaN Micromechanical Resonators with Meshed Metal Bottom Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Azadeh; Liu, Che-Yu; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Ku, Pei-Cheng; Rais-Zadeh, Mina

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a novel architecture to realize high-performance gallium nitride (GaN) bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. The method is based on the growth of a thick GaN layer on a metal electrode grid. The fabrication process starts with the growth of a thin GaN buffer layer on a Si (111) substrate. The GaN buffer layer is patterned and trenches are made and refilled with sputtered tungsten (W)/silicon dioxide (SiO2) forming passivated metal electrode grids. GaN is then regrown, nucleating from the exposed GaN seed layer and coalescing to form a thick GaN device layer. A metal electrode can be deposited and patterned on top of the GaN layer. This method enables vertical piezoelectric actuation of the GaN layer using its largest piezoelectric coefficient (d33) for thickness-mode resonance. Having a bottom electrode also results in a higher coupling coefficient, useful for the implementation of acoustic filters. Growth of GaN on Si enables releasing the device from the frontside using isotropic xenon difluoride (XeF2) etch and therefore eliminating the need for backside lithography and etching. PMID:28787997

  17. Phenolic Component Profiles of Mustard Greens, Yu Choy, and 15 Other Brassica Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2013-01-01

    A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip, bok choy, bok choy tip, baby bok choy, bok choy sum, Taiwan bok choy, Shanghai bok choy, baby Shanghai bok choy, rapini broccoli, turnip green, napa, and baby napa. This work led to the tentative identification of 71 phenolic compounds consisting of kaempferol 3-O-diglucoside-7-O-glucoside derivatives, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside-7-O-glucoside hydroxycinnamoyl gentiobioses, hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids, and hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids. Ten of the compounds, 3-O-diacyltriglucoside-7-O-glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin, had not been previously reported. The phenolic component profiles of these vegetables were significantly different than those of the leafy vegetables from B. oleracea. This is the first comparative study of these leafy vegetables. Ten of the vegetables had never been previously studied by LC-MS. PMID:20465307

  18. Effects of nonmagnetic disorder on the energy of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiendl, Thomas; von Oppen, Felix; Brouwer, Piet W.

    2017-10-01

    We study the sensitivity of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states, bound states that form around magnetic scatterers in superconductors, to the presence of nonmagnetic disorder in both two and three dimensional systems. We formulate a scattering approach to this problem and reduce the effects of disorder to two contributions: disorder-induced normal reflection and a random phase of the amplitude for Andreev reflection. We find that both of these are small even for moderate amounts of disorder. In the dirty limit in which the disorder-induced mean free path is smaller than the superconducting coherence length, the variance of the energy of the Yu-Shiba-Rusinov state remains small in the ratio of the Fermi wavelength and the mean free path. This effect is more pronounced in three dimensions, where only impurities within a few Fermi wavelengths of the magnetic scatterer contribute. In two dimensions the energy variance is larger by a logarithmic factor because impurities contribute up to a distance of the order of the superconducting coherence length.

  19. Largest known twin primes and Sophie Germain primes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indlekofer, Karl-Heinz; Járai, Antal

    The numbers 242206083* 2^38880+-1 are twin primes. The number p=2375063906985* 2^19380-1 is a Sophie Germain prime, i.e. p and 2p+1 are both primes. For p=4610194180515* 2^ 5056-1, the numbers p, p+2 and 2p+1 are all primes.

  20. Twin Prime Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, Harvey

    2005-08-01

    Hardy and Littlewood conjectured that the number of twin primes less than x is asymptotic to 2 C_2 int_2^x dt/(log t)^2 where C_2 is the twin prime constant. This has been shown to give excellent results for x up to 10^16. This article presents statistics supporting the accuracy of the conjecture up to 10^600.

  1. Quantum efficiency of GaN photocathode under different illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Chang, Benkang; Du, Yujie; Qiao, Jianliang

    2011-07-01

    GaN samples are activated by Cs/O under illumination of deuterium lamp, 300 nm monochromatic light with power of 70 μW and 300 nm monochromatic light with power of 35 μW, respectively. Photocurrent is detected before activation under illumination of deuterium lamp. Quantum efficiency (QE) is tested after activation. The results indicate that GaN activated under 300 nm monochromatic light have higher QE than that under deuterium lamp, and no obvious difference is detected between different power 300 nm monochromatic light. The photocurrent before activation inhibits the adsorption of Cs on the GaN surface, which decrease the QE of GaN.

  2. Spin-Resolved Spectroscopy of the Yu-Shiba-Rusinov States of Individual Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornils, L.; Kamlapure, A.; Zhou, L.; Pradhan, S.; Khajetoorians, A. A.; Fransson, J.; Wiebe, J.; Wiesendanger, R.

    2017-11-01

    A magnetic atom in a superconducting host induces so-called Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) bound states inside the superconducting energy gap. By combining spin-resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy with simulations we demonstrate that the pair of peaks associated with the YSR states of an individual Fe atom coupled to an oxygen-reconstructed Ta surface gets spin polarized in an external magnetic field. As theoretically predicted, the electron and hole parts of the YSR states have opposite signs of spin polarizations which keep their spin character when crossing the Fermi level through the quantum phase transition. The simulation of a YSR state right at the Fermi level reveals zero spin polarization which can be used to distinguish such states from Majorana zero modes in chains of YSR atoms.

  3. [Shi Ji Yao Yu, the earliest extant monograph on TCM nursery].

    PubMed

    Fu, W

    1999-07-01

    Nursery of traditional Chinese medicine (NTCM) has a long history. However, due to the change and influence of the era, society, life style, and many other factors, NTCM did not become an independent discipline for a long period. Although there have been many articles about NTCM appearing in various historical books of traditional Chinese medicine, books specializing on NTCM were not available until later. The earliest ancient book, which is still currently available, describing NTCM in details is the "Shi Ji Yao Yu" written by Qian Xiang in the Qing Dynasty. The book explains the key issues of taking care of a patient's emotional well-being, life style, diet, illness, and drug administration which are of great practical significance now and for the future.

  4. PREFACE: SANS-YuMO User Meeting at the Start-up of Scientific Experiments on the IBR-2M Reactor: Devoted to the 75th anniversary of Yu M Ostanevich's birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordely, Valentin; Kuklin, Alexander; Balasoiu, Maria

    2012-03-01

    The Second International Workshop 'SANS-YuMO User Meeting at the Start-up of Scientific Experiments on the IBR-2M Reactor', devoted to the 75th anniversary of the birth of Professor Yu M Ostanevich (1936-1992), an outstanding neutron physicist and the founder of small-angle neutron scattering (field, group, and instrument) at JINR FLNPh, was held on 27-30 May at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics. The first Workshop was held in October 2006. Research groups from different neutron centers, universities and research institutes across Europe presented more than 35 oral and poster presentations describing scientific and methodological results. Most of them were obtained with the help of the YuMO instrument before the IBR-2 shutdown in 2006. For the last four years the IBR-2 reactor has been shut down for refurbishment. At the end of 2010 the physical launch of the IBR-2M reactor was finally realized. Nowadays the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique is applied to a wide range of scientific problems in condensed matter, soft condensed matter, biology and nanotechnology, and despite the fact that there are currently over 30 SANS instruments in operation worldwide at both reactor and spallation sources, the demand for beam-time is considerably higher than the time available. It must be remembered, however, that as the first SANS machine on a steady-state reactor was constructed at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, the first SANS instrument on a 'white' neutron pulsed beam was accomplished at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at the IBR-30 reactor, beamline N5. During the meeting Yu M Ostanevich's determinative and crucial contribution to the construction of spectrometers at the IBR-2 high-pulsed reactor was presented, as well as his contribution to the development of the time-of-flight (TOF) small-angle scattering technique, and a selection of other scientific areas. His leadership and outstanding scientific achievements in applications of the

  5. Description of immature stages of Scymnus (Neopullus) sinuanodulus Yu and Yao (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with notes on life history

    Treesearch

    Wenhua Lu; Phetsamon Souphanya; Michael E. Montgomery

    2002-01-01

    We describe for the first time immature stages of the Scymnus subgenus Neopullus; namely the egg, larval (4 instars), and pupal stages of Scymnus (Neopullus) sinuanodulus Yu and Yao (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), which is indigenous to China. This lady beetle was imported to...

  6. Teachers' Use of a Pedagogical Framework for Improvement in Mathematics Teaching: Case Studies from YuMi Deadly Maths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Merilyn; Cooper, Tom; Anderson, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the pedagogical framework used by YuMi Deadly Maths, a school change process used to improve mathematics teaching and thus enhance employment and life chances for socially disadvantaged students. The framework, called the RAMR cycle, is capable of being used by mathematics teachers for planning and delivering lessons and units…

  7. Reexamining unconscious response priming: A liminal-prime paradigm.

    PubMed

    Avneon, Maayan; Lamy, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    Research on the limits of unconscious processing typically relies on the subliminal-prime paradigm. However, this paradigm is limited in the issues it can address. Here, we examined the implications of using the liminal-prime paradigm, which allows comparing unconscious and conscious priming with constant stimulation. We adapted an iconic demonstration of unconscious response priming to the liminal-prime paradigm. On the one hand, temporal attention allocated to the prime and its relevance to the task increased the magnitude of response priming. On the other hand, the longer RTs associated with the dual task inherent to the paradigm resulted in response priming being underestimated, because unconscious priming effects were shorter-lived than conscious-priming effects. Nevertheless, when the impact of long RTs was alleviated by considering the fastest trials or by imposing a response deadline, conscious response priming remained considerably larger than unconscious response priming. These findings suggest that conscious perception strongly modulates response priming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A study of formation and development of one kind of cyclone on the mei-yu (Baiu) front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Sixiong

    2004-10-01

    The paper presents one diagnosis of baroclinity and the coupling of jets during the developing process of a cyclone that occurred on the mei-yu (Baiu) front around the end of the second stage of the mei-yu (Baiu) in 1998. Results have shown that: (1) The advantageous changes of upper-level large-scale circulation caused the appearance and maintenance of the coupling between the upper-level jet (ULJ) and lower-level jet (LLJ) over the cyclone’s area. The coupling of jets in this case possesses some different characteristics from previous cases. Moreover, the coupling between the ULJ and LLJ caused the intensification of both lower-level convergence and upper-level divergence, which was favorable for the development of this cyclone. (2) From the analysis of the voricity budget, the role of lower-level convergence in the development of the cyclone was emphasized. Divergent wind in the lower troposphere was a direct contributor to the development of the cyclone. (3) During the development of the cyclone, cold air and warm air were active over the cyclone’s domain. Although this cyclone occurred at the mei-yu (Baiu) front, its development assumed baroclinity to a certain extent, which was just the main difference between this kind of cyclone and the first kind of low which is usually barotropic (or quasi-barotropic). (4) In recent years, studies on mei-yu front lows have paid more attention to the lower troposphere. In this paper, the analysis of the energy budget further supports this point: the certain effect of baroclinity forcing in the upper troposphere on mei-yu front lows cannot be ignored.

  9. [Prescription regularity of famous veteran traditional Chinese medicine Doctor Yu Guoyou for treating gastrointestinal failure based ondata mining].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Chen, Yi-Lian; Wu, Guo-Lin; Xiong, Fu-Lin; Yu, Guo-You

    2017-10-01

    Gastrointestinal failure is a kind of severe systemic inflammatory response, and often complicated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine have a better curative effect in treating it. This study collected the famous veteran TCM physician Yu Guoyou's 175 prescriptions for treating 89 cases of gastrointestinal failure, calculated the frequency of traditional Chinese medicines and their categories, and analyzed the medication regularity with system clustering method, so as to summarize Yu's frequently used drugs and prescriptions. The results showed the top three most frequently used drugs aremagnolia bark, bitter orange, and rhubarb, which are components of Xiaochengqi decoction; Among the traditional Chinese medicines, medicines of tonifying deficiency, regulating qi, clearing heat, eliminating phlegm and dissipating dampness are most commonly used. Among the tonic medicines, those for tonifying Qi accounted for 2/3, which was the largest proportion; At the same time, some new prescriptions and new drug combinations were excavated and could be used as the reference for clinical medication. According to the findings, when differentiating syndromes of gastrointestinal failure, Yu regards the spleen and stomach Qi deficiency as the root cause and the heat toxin, blood stasis, Qi stagnation and dampness as the symptoms. In the treatment of gastrointestinal function failure, Yu gives priority to strengthening spleen, regulating Qi and purgation, prescribes medicines for dissolving blood stasis and detoxication, dissipating dampness, clearing heat and eliminating phlegm according to syndrome types. In other words, the treatment is based on syndrome differentiation, and the prescription is modified according to symptoms. In particular, Yu attaches importance to stomach-Qi recuperation and gastrointestinal function recovery in the process of treatment. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Atomic force microscopy studies of homoepitaxial GaN layers grown on GaN template by laser MBE

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, B. S.; Rajasthan Technical University, Rawatbhata Road, Kota 324010; Singh, A.

    2016-04-13

    We have grown homoepitaxial GaN films on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown 3.5 µm thick GaN on sapphire (0001) substrate (GaN template) using an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) laser assisted molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) system. The GaN films were grown by laser ablating a polycrystalline solid GaN target in the presence of active r.f. nitrogen plasma. The influence of laser repetition rates (10-30 Hz) on the surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN layers have been studied using atomic force microscopy. It was found that GaN layer grown at 10 Hz shows a smooth surface with uniform grain size compared to the rough surfacemore » with irregular shape grains obtained at 30 Hz. The variation of surface roughness of the homoepitaxial GaN layer with and without wet chemical etching has been also studied and it was observed that the roughness of the film decreased after wet etching due to the curved structure/rough surface.« less

  11. Integration of Functional Perovskites with (0001) GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaithyanathan, Venu; Shlichta, Paul J.

    2005-03-01

    Hybrid structures in which the functional properties of oxides can be exploited in combination with semiconductors offer exciting opportunities for devices. Perovskite oxides exhibit a wide range of functional properties motivating their integration with (0001) GaN. We used two basic criteria to select functional perovskite oxides for integration with GaN: thermodynamic stability and lattice match. Using the NIST-ICDD Crystal Data database of about 150,000 inorganic compounds, a comprehensive lattice match search was performed between all orientations of all known oxide perovskites and the (0001) face of GaN. The best lattice match was for a σ3 boundary between the (111) pseudocubic perovskite plane and the (0001) plane of GaN. We also performed extensive thermodynamic stability calculations between all binary oxides and GaN. Our analysis led us to believe that (111) SrTiO3 would be a good buffer layer to grow on (0001) GaN, from which the transition to one of many functional perovskite oxides could be made. Extensive attempts to integrate epitaxial (111) SrTiO3 on (0001) GaN were, however, unsuccessful. As the surface of GaN often contains a thin Ga wetting layer, we calculated the thermodynamic stability of Ga with all binary oxides. In contrast to the thermodynamic stability of SrO in contact with GaN, SrO is found to be thermodynamically unstable in contact with Ga while TiO2 is stable in contact with Ga. This is consistent with our experimental observations during the deposition of SrTiO3 on GaN.

  12. Prime Retrieval of Motor Responses in Negative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel; Dentale, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Three auditory identification experiments were designed to specify the prime-response retrieval model of negative priming (S. Mayr & A. Buchner, 2006), which assumes that the prime response is retrieved in ignored repetition trials and interferes with probe responding. In Experiment 1, shortly before (in Experiment 1A) or after (in Experiment 1B)…

  13. Preparation of freestanding GaN wafer by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xian; Li, Peng; Liang, Renrong; Xiao, Lei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    A freestanding GaN wafer was prepared on porous Si (111) substrate using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). To avoid undesirable effects of the porous surface on the crystallinity of the GaN, a GaN seed layer was first grown on the Si (111) bare wafer. A pattern with many apertures was fabricated in the GaN seed layer using lithography and etching processes. A porous layer was formed in the Si substrate immediately adjacent to the GaN seed layer by an anodic etching process. A 500-μm-thick GaN film was then grown on the patterned GaN seed layer using HVPE. The GaN film was separated from the Si substrate through the formation of cracks in the porous layer caused by thermal mismatch stress during the cooling stage of the HVPE. Finally, the GaN film was polished to obtain a freestanding GaN wafer.

  14. "Fell" Primes "Fall", but Does "Bell" Prime "Ball"? Masked Priming with Irregularly-Inflected Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepaldi, Davide; Rastle, Kathleen; Coltheart, Max; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2010-01-01

    Recent masked priming experiments have brought to light a morphological level of analysis that is exclusively based on the orthographic appearance of words, so that it breaks down corner into corn- and -er, as well as dealer into deal- and -er (Rastle, Davis, & New, 2004). Being insensitive to semantic factors, this morpho-orthographic…

  15. Finger posing primes number comprehension.

    PubMed

    Sixtus, Elena; Fischer, Martin H; Lindemann, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Canonical finger postures, as used in counting, activate number knowledge, but the exact mechanism for this priming effect is unclear. Here we dissociated effects of visual versus motor priming of number concepts. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed either to pictures of canonical finger postures (visual priming) or actively produced the same finger postures (motor priming) and then used foot responses to rapidly classify auditory numbers (targets) as smaller or larger than 5. Classification times revealed that manually adopted but not visually perceived postures primed magnitude classifications. Experiment 2 obtained motor priming of number processing through finger postures also with vocal responses. Priming only occurred through canonical and not through non-canonical finger postures. Together, these results provide clear evidence for motor priming of number knowledge. Relative contributions of vision and action for embodied numerical cognition and the importance of canonicity of postures are discussed.

  16. Masked Repetition Priming Using Magnetoencephalography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Philip J.; Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David

    2008-01-01

    Masked priming is used in psycholinguistic studies to assess questions about lexical access and representation. We present two masked priming experiments using MEG. If the MEG signal elicited by words reflects specific aspects of lexical retrieval, then one expects to identify specific neural correlates of retrieval that are sensitive to priming.…

  17. Priming Ditransitive Structures in Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Manabu; van Gompel, Roger P. G.; Scheepers, Cristoph

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown evidence for syntactic priming during language production (e.g., Bock, 1986). It is often assumed that comprehension and production share similar mechanisms and that priming also occurs during comprehension (e.g., Pickering & Garrod, 2004). Research investigating priming during comprehension (e.g., Branigan et al., 2005 and…

  18. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  19. Generation of large prime numbers from a sequence of previous prime numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samir, Brahim Belhaouari; Rezk, Youssef A. Y.

    2012-09-01

    A prime number is co-prime with all the primes as well. This paper utilizes this fact by generating larger prime numbers based on a set of smaller prime numbers. The prime numbers are ordered and each two consecutive primes are coupled to generate their co-prime number formula extending this process larger prime sequence is established. Will the process help us produce larger prime numbers faster and more efficiently? This paper investigates the described process.

  20. GaN power devices for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesugi, T.; Kachi, Tetsu

    2013-03-01

    GaN is an attractive material for high performance power devices. Vertical GaN power devices are suitable for high current operation, on the other hand, lateral GaN power devices, namely GaN lateral HEMTs have both low on-resistance and low parasitic capacitance. In addition, the GaN lateral HEMTs can be fabricated on Si substrate. We can get low conduction loss and low switching loss devices with low cost. So the GaN lateral HEMTs are suitable for subsystems like an air conditioner and an electric power steering. Serious technical issues about GaN power devices are a normally-off operation, a current collapse, and a high quality gate insulator. Several normally-off operation techniques have been proposed but there is no decisive method. An NH3 surface treatment and a SiO2 passivation are useful to suppress the current collapse. An Al2O3 deposited by ALD is excellent for gate insulator in breakdown and it has enough TDDB reliability under room temperature and 150°C.

  1. GaN for LED applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pankove, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    In order to improve the synthesis of GaN the effect of various growth and doping parameters has been studied. Although Be, Li, Mg, and Dy can be used to overcompensate native donors, the most interesting acceptor element is Zn. The emission spectrum and the luminescence efficiency depend on the growth temperature (below 800 C), on the partial pressure of the doping impurity, and on the duration of growth. Blue-green electroluminescence with a power efficiency of 0.1 percent and a brightness of 850 fL (at 0.6 mA and 22.5 V) was obtained. Some diodes allow the color of the emitted light to change by reversing the polarity of the bias. Continuous operation of a diode over a period of 5 months showed no evidence of degradation. The luminescence properties of ion-implanted GaN were studied. Delay effects were found in the electroluminescence of diodes, although, with a dc bias, a 70-MHz modulation was possible.

  2. [Research on Yi yu (Medical Education), a professional journal on medical education during the period of Anti-Japanese War].

    PubMed

    He, L P

    2017-01-28

    Founded in October, 1935, Yi yu ( Medical Education ) was the first professional journal of medical education in China. Unlike other medical journals, Yi yu had strong official background. It was sponsored by the Medical Education Committee of Ministry of Education of the National Government, whose chief editor, editors and authors were mostly authoritative scholars. Its publication time was 1935-1941, and was once an important basis reflecting the development levels and results of Chinese medicine during the Anti-Japanese War, introspecting Chinese medicine education, spreading medical knowledge. From a side, its creation and development reflected the interaction between the journals of science and technology and Chinese society from middle of the 1930s to early 1940s.

  3. Semantic priming of familiar songs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-05-01

    We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities.

  4. Repetition priming: Is music special?

    PubMed

    Bigand, E; Tillmann, B; Poulin-Charronnat, B; Manderlier, D

    2005-11-01

    Using short and long contexts, the present study investigated musical priming effects that are based on chord repetition and harmonic relatedness. A musical target (a chord) was preceded by either an identical prime or a different but harmonically related prime. In contrast to words, pictures, and environmental sounds, chord processing was not facilitated by repetition. Experiments 1 and 2 using single-chord primes showed either no significant difference between chord repetition and harmonic relatedness or facilitated processing for harmonically related targets. Experiment 3 using longer prime contexts showed that musical priming depended more on the musical function of the target in the preceding context than on target repetition. The effect of musical function was decreased, but not qualitatively changed, by chord repetition. The outcome of this study challenges predictions of sensory approaches and supports a cognitive approach of musical priming.

  5. GaN grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Kong; Meixin, Feng; Jin, Cai; Hui, Wang; Huaibing, Wang; Hui, Yang

    2015-04-01

    High-quality gallium nitride (GaN) film was grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) and investigated using XRD and SEM. It was found that the optimum thickness of the GaN buffer layer on the NPSS is 15 nm, which is thinner than that on micro-patterned sapphire substrates (MPSS). An interesting phenomenon was observed for GaN film grown on NPSS:GaN mainly grows on the trench regions and little grows on the sidewalls of the patterns at the initial growth stage, which is dramatically different from GaN grown on MPSS. In addition, the electrical and optical properties of LEDs grown on NPSS were characterized. Project supported by the Suzhou Nanojoin Photonics Co., Ltd and the High-Tech Achievements Transformation of Jiangsu Province, China (No.BA2012010).

  6. [The spectral response analysis of activated GaN photocathode].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Chang, Ben-Kang; Zhang, Yi-Jun; Hou, Rui-Li; Xiong, Ya-Juan

    2011-10-01

    GaN photocathode has a wide applicaion in ultraviolet detection because of the outstanding performance. GaN photocathode was activated in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) system by Cs/O, and the reflection-mode quantum efficiency (QE) was analyzed. The QE is 30%-10% corresponding to the wavelength 240-350 nm, and the QE curve is flat. The QE reaches the maximum of 30% at 240 nm. Compared with the abroad result, the QE obtained by us is still inadequate at the short wavelength The atom arrangement of GaN (0001) was studied. The atom arrangement on the surface was simulated by 3D, and in this way the adsorption of Cs on the GaN(0001) was speculated.

  7. Characterization of Deep and Shallow Levels in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Bruce

    1997-03-01

    The role of native defects and impurities in compensating n-type GaN was investigated. From the observed dependence of carrier concentration on dopant partial pressure the compensating acceptor in n-type material is attributed to the triply charged gallium vacancy. This is consistent with recent calculations on defect stability using density functional theory. The interaction of hydrogen and point defects in GaN was also investigated using FTIR. The role of these defects in compensation will be discussed.

  8. ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island (AMIE-Gan) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Long, CL; Del Genio, A; Deng, M

    2011-04-11

    The overarching campaign, which includes the ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) deployment in conjunction with the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) and the Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns, is designed to test several current hypotheses regarding the mechanisms responsible for Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) initiation and propagation in the Indian Ocean area. The synergy between the proposed AMF2 deployment with DYNAMO/CINDY2011, and the corresponding funded experiment on Manus, combine for an overarching ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) with two components: AMF2 on Gan Island in the Indian Ocean (AMIE-Gan), where the MJOmore » initiates and starts its eastward propagation; and the ARM Manus site (AMIE-Manus), which is in the general area where the MJO usually starts to weaken in climate models. AMIE-Gan will provide measurements of particular interest to Atmospheric System Research (ASR) researchers relevant to improving the representation of MJO initiation in climate models. The framework of DYNAMO/CINDY2011 includes two proposed island-based sites and two ship-based locations forming a square pattern with sonde profiles and scanning precipitation and cloud radars at both island and ship sites. These data will be used to produce a Variational Analysis data set coinciding with the one produced for AMIE-Manus. The synergy between AMIE-Manus and AMIE-Gan will allow studies of the initiation, propagation, and evolution of the convective cloud population within the framework of the MJO. As with AMIE-Manus, AMIE-Gan/DYNAMO also includes a significant modeling component geared toward improving the representation of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and forecast models. This campaign involves the deployment of the second, marine-capable, AMF; all of the included measurement systems; and especially the scanning and vertically pointing radars. The campaign will include

  9. GaN Technology for Power Electronic Applications: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Tyler J.; Pushpakaran, Bejoy N.; Bayne, Stephen B.

    2016-06-01

    Power semiconductor devices based on silicon (Si) are quickly approaching their limits, set by fundamental material properties. In order to address these limitations, new materials for use in devices must be investigated. Wide bandgap materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) have suitable properties for power electronic applications; however, fabrication of practical devices from these materials may be challenging. SiC technology has matured to point of commercialized devices, whereas GaN requires further research to realize full material potential. This review covers fundamental material properties of GaN as they relate to Si and SiC. This is followed by a discussion of the contemporary issues involved with bulk GaN substrates and their fabrication and a brief overview of how devices are fabricated, both on native GaN substrate material and non-native substrate material. An overview of current device structures, which are being analyzed for use in power switching applications, is then provided; both vertical and lateral device structures are considered. Finally, a brief discussion of prototypes currently employing GaN devices is given.

  10. High nitrogen pressure solution growth of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockowski, Michal

    2014-10-01

    Results of GaN growth from gallium solution under high nitrogen pressure are presented. Basic of the high nitrogen pressure solution (HNPS) growth method is described. A new approach of seeded growth, multi-feed seed (MFS) configuration, is demonstrated. The use of two kinds of seeds: free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN (HVPE-GaN) obtained from metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing HVPE-GaN obtained from the ammonothermally grown GaN crystals, is shown. Depending on the seeds’ structural quality, the differences in the structural properties of pressure grown material are demonstrated and analyzed. The role and influence of impurities, like oxygen and magnesium, on GaN crystals grown from gallium solution in the MFS configuration is presented. The properties of differently doped GaN crystals are discussed. An application of the pressure grown GaN crystals as substrates for electronic and optoelectronic devices is reported.

  11. Fabrication and properties of nanoporous GaN films

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.D.; Chua, S.J.; Sander, M.S.

    2004-08-02

    Nanopore arrays with pore diameters of approximately 75 nm were fabricated in GaN films by inductively coupled plasma etching using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films as etch masks. Nanoporous AAO films were formed on the GaN surface by evaporating an Al film onto a GaN epilayer and subsequently anodizing the aluminum. To minimize plasma-induced damage, the template was exposed to CF{sub 4}-based plasma conditions. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that the diameter and the periodicity of the nanopores in the GaN were directly transferred from the original anodic alumina template. The pore diameter in the AAO film can be easilymore » controlled by tuning the anodization conditions. Atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence, and micro-Raman techniques were employed to assess the etched GaN nanopore surface. This cost-effective, nonlithographic method to produce nano-patterned GaN templates is expected to be useful for growth and fabrication of nitride-based nanostructures and photonic band gap materials.« less

  12. Polarity Control of Heteroepitaxial GaN Nanowires on Diamond.

    PubMed

    Hetzl, Martin; Kraut, Max; Hoffmann, Theresa; Stutzmann, Martin

    2017-06-14

    Group III-nitride materials such as GaN nanowires are characterized by a spontaneous polarization within the crystal. The sign of the resulting sheet charge at the top and bottom facet of a GaN nanowire is determined by the orientation of the wurtzite bilayer of the different atomic species, called N and Ga polarity. We investigate the polarity distribution of heteroepitaxial GaN nanowires on different substrates and demonstrate polarity control of GaN nanowires on diamond. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy is used to determine the polarity of individual selective area-grown and self-assembled nanowires over a large scale. At standard growth conditions, mixed polarity occurs for selective GaN nanowires on various substrates, namely on silicon, on sapphire and on diamond. To obtain control over the growth orientation on diamond, the substrate surface is modified by nitrogen and oxygen plasma exposure prior to growth, and the growth parameters are adjusted simultaneously. We find that the surface chemistry and the substrate temperature are the decisive factors for obtaining control of up to 93% for both polarity types, whereas the growth mode, namely selective area or self-assembled growth, does not influence the polarity distribution significantly. The experimental results are discussed by a model based on the interfacial bonds between the GaN nanowires, the termination layer, and the substrate.

  13. Transposed-Letter Priming Effects with Masked Subset Primes: A Re-Examination of the "Relative Position Priming Constraint"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchcombe, Eric J.; Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments are reported investigating the role of letter order in orthographic subset priming (e.g., "grdn"-GARDEN) using both the conventional masked priming technique as well as the sandwich priming technique in a lexical decision task. In all three experiments, subset primes produced priming with the effect being considerably…

  14. Autonomic Nervous System Involvement in the Giant Axonal Neuropathy (GAN) KO Mouse: Implications for Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Armao, Diane; Bailey, Rachel M.; Bouldin, Thomas W.; Kim, Yongbaek; Gray, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is an inherited severe sensorimotor neuropathy. The aim of this research was to investigate the neuropathologic features and clinical autonomic nervous system (ANS) phenotype in two GAN knockout (KO) mouse models. Little is known about ANS involvement in GAN in humans, but autonomic signs and symptoms are commonly reported in early childhood. METHODS Routine histology and immunohistochemistry was performed on GAN KO mouse specimens taken at various ages. Enteric dysfunction was assessed by quantifying the frequency, weight, and water content of defecation in GAN KO mice. RESULTS Histological examination of the enteric, parasympathetic and sympathetic ANS of GAN KO mice revealed pronounced and widespread neuronal perikaryal intermediate filament inclusions. These neuronal inclusions served as an easily identifiable, early marker of GAN in young GAN KO mice. Functional studies identified an age-dependent alteration in fecal weight and defecation frequency in GAN KO mice. CONCLUSIONS For the first time in the GAN KO mouse model, we described the early, pronounced and widespread neuropathologic features involving the ANS. In addition, we provided evidence for a clinical autonomic phenotype in GAN KO mice, reflected in abnormal gastrointestinal function. These findings in GAN KO mice suggest that consideration should be given to ANS involvement in human GAN, especially when considering treatments and patient care. PMID:27369358

  15. Autonomic nervous system involvement in the giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) KO mouse: implications for human disease.

    PubMed

    Armao, Diane; Bailey, Rachel M; Bouldin, Thomas W; Kim, Yongbaek; Gray, Steven J

    2016-08-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is an inherited severe sensorimotor neuropathy. The aim of this research was to investigate the neuropathologic features and clinical autonomic nervous system (ANS) phenotype in two GAN knockout (KO) mouse models. Little is known about ANS involvement in GAN in humans, but autonomic signs and symptoms are commonly reported in early childhood. Routine histology and immunohistochemistry was performed on GAN KO mouse specimens taken at various ages. Enteric dysfunction was assessed by quantifying the frequency, weight, and water content of defecation in GAN KO mice. Histological examination of the enteric, parasympathetic and sympathetic ANS of GAN KO mice revealed pronounced and widespread neuronal perikaryal intermediate filament inclusions. These neuronal inclusions served as an easily identifiable, early marker of GAN in young GAN KO mice. Functional studies identified an age-dependent alteration in fecal weight and defecation frequency in GAN KO mice. For the first time in the GAN KO mouse model, we described the early, pronounced and widespread neuropathologic features involving the ANS. In addition, we provided evidence for a clinical autonomic phenotype in GAN KO mice, reflected in abnormal gastrointestinal function. These findings in GAN KO mice suggest that consideration should be given to ANS involvement in human GAN, especially when considering treatments and patient care.

  16. Role of the ganSPQAB Operon in Degradation of Galactan by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Watzlawick, Hildegard; Morabbi Heravi, Kambiz; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2016-10-15

    Bacillus subtilis possesses different enzymes for the utilization of plant cell wall polysaccharides. This includes a gene cluster containing galactan degradation genes (ganA and ganB), two transporter component genes (ganQ and ganP), and the sugar-binding lipoprotein-encoding gene ganS (previously known as cycB). These genes form an operon that is regulated by GanR. The degradation of galactan by B. subtilis begins with the activity of extracellular GanB. GanB is an endo-β-1,4-galactanase and is a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 53. This enzyme was active on high-molecular-weight arabinose-free galactan and mainly produced galactotetraose as well as galactotriose and galactobiose. These galacto-oligosaccharides may enter the cell via the GanQP transmembrane proteins of the galactan ABC transporter. The specificity of the galactan ABC transporter depends on the sugar-binding lipoprotein, GanS. Purified GanS was shown to bind galactotetraose and galactotriose using thermal shift assay. The energy for this transport is provided by MsmX, an ATP-binding protein. The transported galacto-oligosaccharides are further degraded by GanA. GanA is a β-galactosidase that belongs to GH family 42. The GanA enzyme was able to hydrolyze short-chain β-1,4-galacto-oligosaccharides as well as synthetic β-galactopyranosides into galactose. Thermal shift assay as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that galactobiose is the inducer of the galactan operon regulated by GanR. DNase I footprinting revealed that the GanR protein binds to an operator overlapping the -35 box of the σ(A)-type promoter of Pgan, which is located upstream of ganS IMPORTANCE: Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive soil bacterium that utilizes different types of carbohydrates, such as pectin, as carbon sources. So far, most of the pectin degradation systems and enzymes have been thoroughly studied in B. subtilis Nevertheless, the B. subtilis utilization system of galactan, which is

  17. Prime time sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Grauerholz, E; King, A

    1997-04-01

    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves.

  18. 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis using 3[prime]-photoremovable protecting group

    DOEpatents

    Pirrung, M.C.; Shuey, S.W.; Bradley, J.C.

    1999-06-01

    The present invention relates, in general, to a method of synthesizing a nucleic acid, and, in particular, to a method of effecting 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis. The method can be used to prepare arrays of oligomers bound to a support via their 5[prime] end. The invention also relates to a method of effecting mutation analysis using such arrays. The invention further relates to compounds and compositions suitable for use in such methods.

  19. Investigating Home Primes and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Marlena; Schiffman, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The process of prime factor splicing to generate home primes raises opportunity for conjecture and exploration. The notion of "home primes" is relatively new in the chronicle of mathematics. Heleen (1996-97) first described a procedure called "prime factor splicing" (PFS). The exploration of home primes is interesting and…

  20. Gallium hydride vapor phase epitaxy of GaN nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Straight GaN nanowires (NWs) with diameters of 50 nm, lengths up to 10 μm and a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure have been grown at 900°C on 0.5 nm Au/Si(001) via the reaction of Ga with NH3 and N2:H2, where the H2 content was varied between 10 and 100%. The growth of high-quality GaN NWs depends critically on the thickness of Au and Ga vapor pressure while no deposition occurs on plain Si(001). Increasing the H2 content leads to an increase in the growth rate, a reduction in the areal density of the GaN NWs and a suppression of the underlying amorphous (α)-like GaN layer which occurs without H2. The increase in growth rate with H2 content is a direct consequence of the reaction of Ga with H2 which leads to the formation of Ga hydride that reacts efficiently with NH3 at the top of the GaN NWs. Moreover, the reduction in the areal density of the GaN NWs and suppression of the α-like GaN layer is attributed to the reaction of H2 with Ga in the immediate vicinity of the Au NPs. Finally, the incorporation of H2 leads to a significant improvement in the near band edge photoluminescence through a suppression of the non-radiative recombination via surface states which become passivated not only via H2, but also via a reduction of O2-related defects. PMID:21711801

  1. Primes in short arithmetic progressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchta, Jan-Christoph

    We give a large sieve type inequality for functions supported on primes. As application we prove a conjecture by Elliott, and give bounds for short character sums over primes. The proves uses a combination of the large sieve and the Selberg sieve.

  2. The 24th mersenne prime.

    PubMed

    Tuckerman, B

    1971-10-01

    The 24th Mersenne prime M(p) = 2(p) - 1, and currently the largest known prime, is 2(19937) - 1. Primality was shown by the Lucas-Lehmer test on an IBM 360/91 computer. The 24th even perfect number is (2(19937) - 1).2(19936).

  3. The 24th Mersenne Prime

    PubMed Central

    Tuckerman, Bryant

    1971-01-01

    The 24th Mersenne prime Mp = 2p - 1, and currently the largest known prime, is 219937 - 1. Primality was shown by the Lucas-Lehmer test on an IBM 360/91 computer. The 24th even perfect number is (219937 - 1)·219936. PMID:16591945

  4. 10kW TWT Transition to GaN IRE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-31

    tubes in high power radar and Electronic Warfare (EW) applications. GaN transistors , using evaluation boards, were tested and analyzed, supplementing...power radar and Electronic Warfare (EW) applications. GaN transistors , using evaluation boards, were tested and analyzed, supplementing and compared... GaN transistors as a substitute for traveling wave tubes in high power radar and EW applications. GaN transistors and evaluation boards were tested

  5. Exodus: Prime Mover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Nikkol; Conwell, Pete; Johnson, Matt; Shields, Wendy; Thornton, Tim; Tokarz, Rob; Mcmanus, Rich

    1992-01-01

    The Exodus Prime Mover is an overnight package delivery aircraft designed to serve the Northern Hemisphere of Aeroworld. The preliminary design goals originated from the desire to produce a large profit. The two main driving forces throughout the design process were first to reduce the construction man-hours by simplifying the aircraft design, thereby decreasing the total production cost of the aircraft. The second influential factor affecting the design was minimizing the fuel cost during cruise. The lowest fuel consumption occurs at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. Overall, it was necessary to balance the economic benefits with the performance characteristics in order to create a profitable product that meets all specified requirements and objectives.

  6. The 2018 GaN power electronics roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, H.; Baines, Y.; Beam, E.; Borga, Matteo; Bouchet, T.; Chalker, Paul R.; Charles, M.; Chen, Kevin J.; Chowdhury, Nadim; Chu, Rongming; De Santi, Carlo; Merlyne De Souza, Maria; Decoutere, Stefaan; Di Cioccio, L.; Eckardt, Bernd; Egawa, Takashi; Fay, P.; Freedsman, Joseph J.; Guido, L.; Häberlen, Oliver; Haynes, Geoff; Heckel, Thomas; Hemakumara, Dilini; Houston, Peter; Hu, Jie; Hua, Mengyuan; Huang, Qingyun; Huang, Alex; Jiang, Sheng; Kawai, H.; Kinzer, Dan; Kuball, Martin; Kumar, Ashwani; Boon Lee, Kean; Li, Xu; Marcon, Denis; März, Martin; McCarthy, R.; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Meneghini, Matteo; Morvan, E.; Nakajima, A.; Narayanan, E. M. S.; Oliver, Stephen; Palacios, Tomás; Piedra, Daniel; Plissonnier, M.; Reddy, R.; Sun, Min; Thayne, Iain; Torres, A.; Trivellin, Nicola; Unni, V.; Uren, Michael J.; Van Hove, Marleen; Wallis, David J.; Wang, J.; Xie, J.; Yagi, S.; Yang, Shu; Youtsey, C.; Yu, Ruiyang; Zanoni, Enrico; Zeltner, Stefan; Zhang, Yuhao

    2018-04-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a compound semiconductor that has tremendous potential to facilitate economic growth in a semiconductor industry that is silicon-based and currently faced with diminishing returns of performance versus cost of investment. At a material level, its high electric field strength and electron mobility have already shown tremendous potential for high frequency communications and photonic applications. Advances in growth on commercially viable large area substrates are now at the point where power conversion applications of GaN are at the cusp of commercialisation. The future for building on the work described here in ways driven by specific challenges emerging from entirely new markets and applications is very exciting. This collection of GaN technology developments is therefore not itself a road map but a valuable collection of global state-of-the-art GaN research that will inform the next phase of the technology as market driven requirements evolve. First generation production devices are igniting large new markets and applications that can only be achieved using the advantages of higher speed, low specific resistivity and low saturation switching transistors. Major investments are being made by industrial companies in a wide variety of markets exploring the use of the technology in new circuit topologies, packaging solutions and system architectures that are required to achieve and optimise the system advantages offered by GaN transistors. It is this momentum that will drive priorities for the next stages of device research gathered here.

  7. Activation and evaluation of GaN photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yunsheng; Chang, Benkang; Qiao, Jiangliang; Zhang, Yijun; Fu, Rongguo; Qiu, Yafeng

    2009-09-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) photocathodes are potentially attractive as UV detective materials and electron sources. Based on the activation and evaluation system for GaAs photocathode, which consists of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) activation chamber, multi-information measurement system, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet ray photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), the control and measurement system for the activation of UV photocathodes was developed. The developed system, which consists of Xenon lamp, monochromator with scanner, signal-processing module, power control unit of Cs and O source, A/D adapter, digital I/O card, computer and software, can control the activation of GaN photocathodes and measure on-line the spectral response curves of GaN photocathodes. GaN materials on sapphire substrate were grown by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) with p-type Mg doping. The GaN materials were activated by Cs-O. The spectral response and quantum efficiency (QE) were measured and calculated. The experiment results are discussed.

  8. GaN photocathodes for UV detection and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Martin, Adrian; Malloy, James; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wessels, Bruce

    2003-12-01

    The nitride-III semiconductors, in particular GaN (band gap energy 3.5 eV), AlN (band gap 6.2 eV) and their alloys AlxGa1-xN are attractive as UV photo-convertors with applications as photocathodes for position sensitive detector systems. These can "fill the gap" in the 150-400nm wavelength regime between alkali halide photocathodes (<2000Å), and the various optical photocathodes (>4000Å, mutlialkali & GaAs). Currently CsTe photocathodes have fairly low efficiency (Fig. 1) in the 100nm to 300nm regime are sensitive to contamination and have no tolerance to gas exposure. We have prepared and measured a number of GaN photocathodes in opaque and semitransparent modes, achieving >50% quantum efficiency in opaque mode and ~35% in semitransparent mode (Fig. 2). The GaN photocathodes are stable over periods of >1 year and are robust enough to be re-activated many times. The cutoff wavelength is sharp, with a rapid decline in quantum efficiency at ~380-400nm. Application of GaN photocathodes in imaging devices should be feasible in the near future. Further performance improvements are also expected as GaN fabrication and processing techniques are refined.

  9. Unintentional doping in GaN.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tongtong; Oliver, Rachel A

    2012-07-21

    The optimisation of GaN-based electronic and optoelectronic devices requires control over the doping of the material. However, device performance, particular for lateral transport electronic devices, is degraded by the presence of unintentional doping, which for heteroepitaxial GaN layers grown in the polar (0001) orientation is mainly confined to a layer adjacent to the GaN/substrate interface. The use of scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) has demonstrated that this layer forms due to the high rate of incorporation of gas phase impurities, primarily oxygen, during the early stages of growth, when N-rich semi-polar facets are often present. The presence of such facets leads to additional unintentional doping when defect density reduction strategies involving a three-dimensional growth phase (such as epitaxial lateral overgrowth) are employed. Many semi-polar epitaxial layers, on the other hand, exhibit significant unintentional doping throughout their thickness, except when a three-dimensional growth phase is introduced to aid in defect density reduction resulting in the presence of (0001) and non-polar facets which incorporate less dopant. Non-polar epitaxial samples exhibit behaviour more similar to (0001)-oriented material, but oxygen diffusion from the sapphire substrate along prismatic stacking faults also locally affects the extent of the unintentional doping in this case.

  10. Characterization of electrospun GaN nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Idalia; Melendez, Anamaris; Morales, Kristle; Campo, Eva M.; Santiago-Aviles, Jorge J.

    2010-03-01

    Gallium Nitride shows characteristics pertinent to optoelectronics and gas sensing applications. Nanofibers have been produced using electrospinning and a precursor composed of Gallium (III) Nitrate Hydrate dissolved in Dimethyl-Acetamide and Cellulose Acetate in Acetone and DMA. The resulting nanofibers were sintered at 400C in nitrogen for one hour to decompose the polymer, the furnace atmosphere switched to ammonia and the fibers sintered for periods of 3, 5 and 7 hrs at 900C. They showed morphologies with unclear dependence on processing parameters. X-ray Diffraction revealed the evolution towards wurtzite phase through annealing. From line broadening we estimate a crystalline domain size of about 12 nm. Transmission Electron Microscopy suggests nucleation and growth of X-tallites while Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy confirm the material evolution towards crystallinity and the production of wurtzite GaN nanofibers. I-V characteristics of single nanofibers show linearity with increments in conductivity for those fibers ammoniated during longer periods of time. Ongoing efforts aim at improving fabrication, sensing and photoluminescence characterization.

  11. Structural defects in bulk GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; dos Reis, R.; Mancuso, M.; Song, C. Y.; Grzegory, I.; Porowski, S.; Bockowski, M.

    2014-10-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies of undoped and Mg doped GaN layers grown on the HVPE substrates by High Nitrogen Pressure Solution (HNPS) with the multi-feed-seed (MFS) configuration are shown. The propagation of dislocations from the HVPE substrate to the layer is observed. Due to the interaction between these dislocations in the thick layers much lower density of these defects is observed in the upper part of the HNPS layers. Amorphous Ga precipitates with attached voids pointing toward the growth direction are observed in the undoped layer. This is similar to the presence of Ga precipitates in high-pressure platelets, however the shape of these precipitates is different. The Mg doped layers do not show Ga precipitates, but MgO rectangular precipitates are formed, decorating the dislocations. Results of TEM studies of HVPE layers grown on Ammonothermal substrates are also presented. These layers have superior crystal quality in comparison to the HNPS layers, as far as density of dislocation is concern. Occasionally some small inclusions can be found, but their chemical composition was not yet determined. It is expected that growth of the HNPS layers on these substrate will lead to large layer thickness obtained in a short time and with high crystal perfection needed in devices.

  12. Local circulation and aerosol water-soluble ions--a case study in Taiwan during Mei-yu season

    PubMed

    Lee; Lin; Hsu; Chang; Chang

    1999-01-01

    The Mei-yu (plum rain) season is a short but important period when the weather changes from spring to summer in Taiwan. In this study, size-segregated aerosols were collected alternately at 5 sampling sites in northwestern Taiwan from June 16 to 24, 1994. For the first time in Taiwan, this study revealed the aerosol mass spectra and water-soluble ions in the Mei-yu season. For all samples, a bi-modal aerosol mass spectra was found with modal diameters at 3.2 and 0.32 microm, respectively. The aerosol samples were able to be divided into different groups to show their mass and ion spectra according to the calculated 5-hr backward air trajectory. The utilization of enrichment factors showed that aerosol Cl-, Na+, and Mg2+ for all sizes, and super-micron SO4(2-) were related to the sea. Both the scheme of "chlorine loss" (Ohta and Okita, 1990) and a multivariate analysis (Thurston and Spengler, 1985) for categorizing water-soluble ions showed that sea-salts were major contributors in the prevalence of a sea breeze. In contrast, the secondary salts were significant for land breeze and a mix of land-sea breeze. In conclusion, the influence of local circulation on the distribution of aerosol mass and ionic species was found to be prominent.

  13. Modified Multi Prime RSA Cryptosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Aminudin, N.; Che-Him, Norziha; Sufahani, Suliadi; Khalid, Kamil; Roslan, Rozaini

    2018-04-01

    RSA [1] is one of the mostly used cryptosystem in securing data and information. Though, it has been recently discovered that RSA has some weaknesses and in advance technology, RSA is believed to be inefficient especially when it comes to decryption. Thus, a new algorithm called Multi prime RSA, an extended version of the standard RSA is studied. Then, a modification is made to the Multi prime RSA where another keys is shared secretly between the receiver and the sender to increase the securerity. As in RSA, the methodology used for modified Multi-prime RSA also consists of three phases; 1. Key Generation in which the secret and public keys are generated and published. In this phase, the secrecy is improved by adding more prime numbers and addition of secret keys. 2. Encryption of the message using the public and secret keys given. 3. Decryption of the secret message using the secret key generated. For the decryption phase, a method called Chinese Remainder Theorem is used which helps to fasten the computation. Since Multi prime RSA use more than two prime numbers, the algorithm is more efficient and secure when compared to the standard RSA. Furthermore, in modified Multi prime RSA another secret key is introduced to increase the obstacle to the attacker. Therefore, it is strongly believed that this new algorithm is better and can be an alternative to the RSA.

  14. Priming effects with ambiguous figures.

    PubMed

    Goolkasian, Paula; Woodberry, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    We varied the format and semantic content of primes to determine the degree to which they would influence the interpretation of ambiguous figures. The primes were objects or object names that were related in some way to one of the two organizations of the ambiguous figures. In Experiment 1, we provided some normative data regarding the stimulus materials, whereas in Experiment 2, an orienting question was used to focus attention on the semantic relationship between the prime and the figure. In Experiment 3, we used the orienting question to divert attention away from the relationship by asking about physical features of the figures. Recognition responses to biased versions of the figures and to new figures were measured. Primes that were loosely and indirectly associated with one of the two interpretations of an ambiguous figure were found to be effective at biasing the interpretation of an ambiguous figure in the direction of the primed alternative but only if attention was focused on the semantic relationship between the two stimuli. Attention to the physical characteristics of the stimuli during encoding eliminated the prime's influence on complex object perception. These findings are consistent with the conceptual priming literature and extend those of some recent studies (Balcetis & Dale, 2007; Feist & Gentner, 2007), which show that the interpretation of complex figures can be biased by the advanced presentation of related verbal information.

  15. Alignment control and atomically-scaled heteroepitaxial interface study of GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingyun; Liu, Baodan; Yang, Wenjin; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Xinglai; Labbé, Christophe; Portier, Xavier; An, Vladimir; Jiang, Xin

    2017-04-20

    Well-aligned GaN nanowires are promising candidates for building high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices. In this work, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of well-aligned GaN nanowires on a [0001]-oriented sapphire substrate in a simple catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition process and their alignment control. It is found that the ammonia flux plays a key role in dominating the initial nucleation of GaN nanocrystals and their orientation. Typically, significant improvement of the GaN nanowire alignment can be realized at a low NH 3 flow rate. X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy studies further verified the preferential orientation of GaN nanowires along the [0001] direction. The growth mechanism of GaN nanowire arrays is also well studied based on cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization and it is observed that GaN nanowires have good epitaxial growth on the sapphire substrate following the crystallographic relationship between (0001) GaN ∥(0001) sapphire and (101[combining macron]0) GaN ∥(112[combining macron]0) sapphire . Most importantly, periodic misfit dislocations are also experimentally observed in the interface region due to the large lattice mismatch between the GaN nanowire and the sapphire substrate, and the formation of such dislocations will favor the release of structural strain in GaN nanowires. HRTEM analysis also finds the existence of "type I" stacking faults and voids inside the GaN nanowires. Optical investigation suggests that the GaN nanowire arrays have strong emission in the UV range, suggesting their crystalline nature and chemical purity. The achievement of aligned GaN nanowires will further promote the wide applications of GaN nanostructures toward diverse high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices including nano-LEDs, photovoltaic cells, photodetectors etc.

  16. Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Foronda, Humberto M.; Young, Erin C.; Robertson, Christian A.

    2016-07-21

    We investigate the bow of free standing (0001) oriented hydride vapor phase epitaxy grown GaN substrates and demonstrate that their curvature is consistent with a compressive to tensile stress gradient (bottom to top) present in the substrates. The origin of the stress gradient and the curvature is attributed to the correlated inclination of edge threading dislocation (TD) lines away from the [0001] direction. A model is proposed and a relation is derived for bulk GaN substrate curvature dependence on the inclination angle and the density of TDs. The model is used to analyze the curvature for commercially available GaN substratesmore » as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction. The results show a close correlation between the experimentally determined parameters and those predicted from theoretical model.« less

  17. The controlled growth of GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hersee, Stephen D; Sun, Xinyu; Wang, Xin

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports a scalable process for the growth of high-quality GaN nanowires and uniform nanowire arrays in which the position and diameter of each nanowire is precisely controlled. The approach is based on conventional metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using regular precursors and requires no additional metal catalyst. The location, orientation, and diameter of each GaN nanowire are controlled using a thin, selective growth mask that is patterned by interferometric lithography. It was found that use of a pulsed MOCVD process allowed the nanowire diameter to remain constant after the nanowires had emerged from the selective growth mask. Vertical GaN nanowire growth rates in excess of 2 mum/h were measured, while remarkably the diameter of each nanowire remained constant over the entire (micrometer) length of the nanowires. The paper reports transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence data.

  18. High-Sensitivity GaN Microchemical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Yang, Baohua; Liao, Anna; Moon, Jeongsun; Prokopuk, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Systematic studies have been performed on the sensitivity of GaN HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) sensors using various gate electrode designs and operational parameters. The results here show that a higher sensitivity can be achieved with a larger W/L ratio (W = gate width, L = gate length) at a given D (D = source-drain distance), and multi-finger gate electrodes offer a higher sensitivity than a one-finger gate electrode. In terms of operating conditions, sensor sensitivity is strongly dependent on transconductance of the sensor. The highest sensitivity can be achieved at the gate voltage where the slope of the transconductance curve is the largest. This work provides critical information about how the gate electrode of a GaN HEMT, which has been identified as the most sensitive among GaN microsensors, needs to be designed, and what operation parameters should be used for high sensitivity detection.

  19. Identification of nonradiative recombination centers in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramaratne, Darshana

    Defect-assisted recombination limits the efficiency of solid-state devices. Since nonradiative capture rates decrease exponentially with the energy of the transition, the mechanisms by which recombination take place in wide-band-gap materials are unclear. We will discuss the methodology we have developed to address nonradiative recombination rates from first principles, and illustrate its application with the important case of Fe in GaN. Research on Fe has been motivated by the use of Fe to achieve semi-insulating GaN substrates and room-temperature ferromagnetism in GaN. Iron can also be introduced unintentionally into GaN during growth. In traditional semiconductors such as silicon, transition metal impurities are known to act as efficient Shockley-Read-Hall centers by introducing midgap defect levels. Iron impurities in GaN do not follow this pattern: their defect level is close to the conduction band, and hence iron is not expected to act as a strong nonradiative recombination center. We use first-principles calculations based on density functional theory with a hybrid functional to uncover the electronic properties of Fe in GaN. We demonstrate that its high efficiency as a nonradiative center is due to a recombination cycle involving excited states. Unintentional incorporation of iron impurities at modest concentrations leads to nanosecond nonradiative recombination lifetimes. These calculations provide insight into the mechanisms that govern efficient nonradiative recombination in wide-band-gap semiconductors, which is essential for engineering improved materials to be adopted in efficient devices. This work was performed in collaboration with J.-X. Shen, C. E. Dreyer, G. Kresse, S. Marcinkevicius, A. Alkauskas, and C. G. Van de Walle. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EU Marie Sklodowska-Curie Action.

  20. Temperature dependent growth of GaN nanowires using CVD technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshjihrnp@gmail.com; Singh, R.; Kumar, Vikram

    2016-05-23

    Growth of GaN nanowires have been carried out on sapphire substrates with Au as a catalyst using chemical vapour deposition technique. GaN nanowires growth have been studied with the experimental parameter as growth temperature. Diameter of grown GaN nanowires are in the range of 50 nm to 100 nm while the nanowire length depends on growth temperature. Morphology of the GaN nanowires have been studied by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline nature has been observed by XRD patterns. Optical properties of grown GaN nanowires have been investigated by photoluminescence spectra.

  1. Conductivity based on selective etch for GaN devices and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2015-12-08

    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  2. Space Place Prime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Novati, Alexander; Fisher, Diane K.; Leon, Nancy J.; Netting, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Space Place Prime is public engagement and education software for use on iPad. It targets a multi-generational audience with news, images, videos, and educational articles from the Space Place Web site and other NASA sources. New content is downloaded daily (or whenever the user accesses the app) via the wireless connection. In addition to the Space Place Web site, several NASA RSS feeds are tapped to provide new content. Content is retained for the previous several days, or some number of editions of each feed. All content is controlled on the server side, so features about the latest news, or changes to any content, can be made without updating the app in the Apple Store. It gathers many popular NASA features into one app. The interface is a boundless, slidable- in-any-direction grid of images, unique for each feature, and iconized as image, video, or article. A tap opens the feature. An alternate list mode presents menus of images, videos, and articles separately. Favorites can be tagged for permanent archive. Face - book, Twitter, and e-mail connections make any feature shareable.

  3. Dislocation luminescence in GaN single crystals under nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Xu, Ke; Fan, Ying Min; Wang, Jian Feng; Zhang, Ji Cai; Ren, Guo Qiang

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study on the dislocation luminescence in GaN by nanoindentation, cathodoluminescence, and Raman. The dislocation luminescence peaking at 3.12 eV exhibits a series of special properties in the cathodoluminescence measurements, and it completely disappears after annealing at 500°C. Raman spectroscopy shows evidence for existence of vacancies in the indented region. A comprehensive investigation encompassing cathodoluminescence, Raman, and annealing experiments allow the assignment of dislocation luminescence to conduction-band-acceptor transition involving Ga vacancies. The nanoscale plasticity of GaN can be better understood by considering the dislocation luminescence mechanism.

  4. MOVPE homoepitaxial growth on vicinal GaN(0001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xueping; Vaudo, Robert P.; Flynn, Jeffery; Dion, Joe; Brandes, George R.

    2005-04-01

    Homoepitaxial growth of GaN by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) was systematically evaluated using nominal c-plane and various vicinal GaN(0001) wafers: 1°, 2°, 4°, and 8° offcut in the directions of 100 and 110. It was found that a hillock morphology formed on the nominal c-plane substrate whereas smooth epi films were formed on vicinal substrates. Silicon-doped films showed similarly improved surface morphology with offcut angle, however Mg-doped films exhibited a rougher microstructure.

  5. Critical issues for homoepitaxial GaN growth by molecular beam epitaxy on hydride vapor-phase epitaxy-grown GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, D. F.; Hardy, M. T.; Katzer, D. S.; Nepal, N.; Downey, B. P.; Meyer, D. J.; McConkie, Thomas O.; Zhou, Lin; Smith, David J.

    2016-12-01

    While the heteroepitaxial growth of gallium nitride-based materials and devices on substrates such as SiC, sapphire, and Si has been well-documented, the lack of a cost-effective source of bulk GaN crystals has hindered similar progress on homoepitaxy. Nevertheless, freestanding GaN wafers are becoming more widely available, and there is great interest in growing GaN films and devices on bulk GaN substrates, in order to take advantage of the greatly reduced density of threading dislocations, particularly for vertical devices. However, homoepitaxial GaN growth is far from a trivial task due to the reactivity and different chemical sensitivities of N-polar (0001) and Ga-polar (0001) GaN surfaces, which can affect the microstructure and concentrations of impurities in homoepitaxial GaN layers. In order to achieve high quality, high purity homoepitaxial GaN, it is necessary to investigate the effect of the ex situ wet chemical clean, the use of in situ cleaning procedures, the sensitivity of the GaN surface to thermal decomposition, and the effect of growth temperature. We review the current understanding of these issues with a focus on homoepitaxial growth of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on c-plane surfaces of freestanding GaN substrates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), as HVPE-grown substrates are most widely available. We demonstrate methods for obtaining homoepitaxial GaN layers by plasma-assisted MBE in which no additional threading dislocations are generated from the regrowth interface and impurity concentrations are greatly reduced.

  6. Prime Diagnosticity in Short-Term Repetition Priming: Is Primed Evidence Discounted, Even when It Reliably Indicates the Correct Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidemann, Christoph T.; Huber, David E.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 repetition priming experiments that manipulated prime duration and prime diagnosticity in a visual forced-choice perceptual identification task. The strength and direction of prime diagnosticity produced marked effects on identification accuracy, but those effects were resistant to subsequent changes of diagnosticity.…

  7. Study of photoemission mechanism for varied doping GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jianliang; Xu, Yuan; Niu, Jun; Gao, Youtang; Chang, Benkang

    2015-10-01

    Negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathode has many virtues, such as high quantum efficiency, low dark current, concentrated electrons energy distribution and angle distribution, adjustive threshold and so on. The quantum efficiency is an important parameter for the preparation and evaluation of NEA GaN photocathode. The varied doping GaN photocathode has the directional inside electric field within the material, so the higher quantum efficiency can be obtained. The varied doping NEA GaN photocathode has better photoemission performance. According to the photoemission theory of NEA GaN photocathode, the quantum efficiency formulas for uniform doping and varied doping NEA GaN photocathodes were given. In the certain condition, the quantum efficiency formula for varied doping GaN photocathode consists with the uniform doping. The activation experiment was finished for varied doping GaN photocathode. The cleaning method and technics for varied doping GaN photocathode were given in detail. To get an atom clean surface, the heat cleaning must be done after the chemical cleaning. Using the activation and evaluation system for NEA photocathode, the varied doping GaN photocathode was activated with Cs and O, and the photocurrent curve for varied doping GaN photocathode was gotten.

  8. Adsorption of alkali-metal atoms on GaN nanowires photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhen; Li, Enling; Ke, Xizheng; Zhao, Taifei; Yang, Yufeng; Ding, Yingchun; Liu, Tong; Qu, Yao; Xu, Shan

    2017-11-01

    The adsorption of alkali-metal atoms on GaN nanowires photocathode was investigated by using first principles with density functional theory. The calculation of electronic and optical properties indicates that alkali metal adsorbed GaN nanowires are direct band gap semiconductor, and the band gap of GaN nanowires could be decreased by alkali metal adsorption. A new surface state near the Fermi level results from the Ga, N and alkali metal hybridization, which leads to form a metal electrical conductivity for GaN nanowires. More importantly, alkali metal adsorption can decrease the work function of GaN nanowires. Furthermore, the absorption spectrum of GaN nanowires is red shifted and moves to lower energy side because of alkali metal adsorption. Accordingly, this study will provide the theoretical basis for producing the alkali metal adsorbed GaN photoelectric devices.

  9. Sequential Stereotype Priming: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kidder, Ciara K; White, Katherine R; Hinojos, Michelle R; Sandoval, Mayra; Crites, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Psychological interest in stereotype measurement has spanned nearly a century, with researchers adopting implicit measures in the 1980s to complement explicit measures. One of the most frequently used implicit measures of stereotypes is the sequential priming paradigm. The current meta-analysis examines stereotype priming, focusing specifically on this paradigm. To contribute to ongoing discussions regarding methodological rigor in social psychology, one primary goal was to identify methodological moderators of the stereotype priming effect-whether priming is due to a relation between the prime and target stimuli, the prime and target response, participant task, stereotype dimension, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and stimuli type. Data from 39 studies yielded 87 individual effect sizes from 5,497 participants. Analyses revealed that stereotype priming is significantly moderated by the presence of prime-response relations, participant task, stereotype dimension, target stimulus type, SOA, and prime repetition. These results carry both practical and theoretical implications for future research on stereotype priming.

  10. NK Cell-Dependent Growth Inhibition of Lewis Lung Cancer by Yu-Ping-Feng, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Formula.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yingbin; Wu, Jianchun; Zhu, Xiaowen; Gong, Chenyuan; Yao, Chao; Ni, Zhongya; Wang, Lixin; Ni, Lulu; Li, Yan; Zhu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about Yu-Ping-Feng (YPF), a typical Chinese herbal decoction, for its antitumor efficacy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we found that YPF significantly inhibited the growth of Lewis lung cancer, prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice, promoted NK cell tumor infiltration, increased the population of NK cells in spleen, and enhanced NK cell-mediated killing activity. The growth suppression of tumors by YPF was significantly reversed by the depletion of NK cells. Furthermore, we found that YPF significantly downregulated the expression of TGF-β, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and IL-10 in tumor microenvironment. These results demonstrated that YPF has a NK cell-dependent inhibitory effect on Lewis lung cancer.

  11. On the Control of Single-Prime Negative Priming: The Effects of Practice and Time Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Single-prime negative priming refers to the phenomenon wherein repetition of a prime as the probe target results in delayed response. Sometimes this effect has been found to be contingent on participants' unawareness of the primes, and sometimes it has not. Further, sometimes this effect has been found to be eliminated when the prime could predict…

  12. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  13. Thermal quenching of the yellow luminescence in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Albarakati, N. M.; Monavarian, M.; Avrutin, V.; Morkoç, H.

    2018-04-01

    We observed varying thermal quenching behavior of the yellow luminescence band near 2.2 eV in different GaN samples. In spite of the different behavior, the yellow band in all the samples is caused by the same defect—the YL1 center. In conductive n-type GaN, the YL1 band quenches with exponential law, and the Arrhenius plot reveals an ionization energy of ˜0.9 eV for the YL1 center. In semi-insulating GaN, an abrupt and tunable quenching of the YL1 band is observed, where the apparent activation energy in the Arrhenius plot is not related to the ionization energy of the defect. In this case, the ionization energy can be found by analyzing the shift of the characteristic temperature of PL quenching with excitation intensity. We conclude that only one defect, namely, the YL1 center, is responsible for the yellow band in undoped and doped GaN samples grown by different techniques.

  14. Properties of H, O and C in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Lee, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    The electrical properties of the light ion impurities H, O and C in GaN have been examined in both as-grown and implanted material. H is found to efficiently passivate acceptors such as Mg, Ca and C. Reactivation occurs at {ge} 450 C and is enhanced by minority carrier injection. The hydrogen does not leave the GaN crystal until > 800 C, and its diffusivity is relatively high ({approximately} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 2}/s) even at low temperatures (< 200 C) during injection by wet etching, boiling in water or plasma exposure. Oxygen shows a low donor activation efficiency when implanted intomore » GaN, with an ionization level of 30--40 meV. It is essentially immobile up to 1,100 C. Carbon can produce low p-type levels (3 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3}) in GaN during MOMBE, although there is some evidence it may also create n-type conduction in other nitrides.« less

  15. Novel Cs-Free GaN Photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Neeraj; Bell, L. D.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Tungare, Mihir; Suvarna, Puneet H.; Sandvik, Fatemeh Shahedipour

    2011-04-01

    We report on a novel GaN photocathode structure that eliminates the use of Cs for photocathode activation. Development of such a photocathode structure promises reduced cost and complexity of the device, potentially with stable operation for a longer time. Device simulation studies suggest that deposition of Si delta-doped GaN on p-GaN templates induces sharp downward energy band bending at the surface, assisting in achieving effective negative electron affinity for GaN photocathodes without the use of Cs. A series of experiments has been performed to optimize the quality of the Si delta-doped layer to minimize the emission threshold of the device. This report includes significant observations relating the dependence of device properties such as emission threshold, quantum efficiency, and surface morphology on the Si incorporation in the Si delta-doped layer. An optimum Si incorporation has been observed to provide the minimum emission threshold of 4.1 eV for the discussed Cs-free GaN photocathodes. Photoemission (PE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) have been performed to study the effect of growth conditions on device performance.

  16. Basic ammonothermal GaN growth in molybdenum capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimputkar, S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystal, bulk gallium nitride (GaN) crystals were grown using the basic ammonothermal method in a high purity growth environment created using a non-hermetically sealed molybdenum (Mo) capsule and compared to growths performed in a similarly designed silver (Ag) capsule and capsule-free René 41 autoclave. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis revealed transition metal free (<1×1017 cm-3) GaN crystals. Anomalously low oxygen concentrations ((2-6)×1018 cm-3) were measured in a {0001} seeded crystal boule grown using a Mo capsule, despite higher source material oxygen concentrations ((1-5)×1019 cm-3) suggesting that molybdenum (or molybdenum nitrides) may act to getter oxygen under certain conditions. Total system pressure profiles from growth runs in a Mo capsule system were comparable to those without a capsule, with pressures peaking within 2 days and slowly decaying due to hydrogen diffusional losses. Measured Mo capsule GaN growth rates were comparable to un-optimized growth rates in capsule-free systems and appreciably slower than in Ag-capsule systems. Crystal quality replicated that of the GaN seed crystals for all capsule conditions, with high quality growth occurring on the (0001) Ga-face. Optical absorption and impurity concentration characterization suggests reduced concentrations of hydrogenated gallium vacancies (VGa-Hx).

  17. Ultradeep electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching of GaN

    DOE PAGES

    Harrison, Sara E.; Voss, Lars F.; Torres, Andrea M.; ...

    2017-07-25

    Here, ultradeep (≥5 μm) electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching of GaN micropillars was investigated. Parametric studies on the influence of the applied radio-frequency power, chlorine content in a Cl 2/Ar etch plasma, and operating pressure on the etch depth, GaN-to-SiO 2 selectivity, and surface morphology were performed. Etch depths of >10 μm were achieved over a wide range of parameters. Etch rates and sidewall roughness were found to be most sensitive to variations in RF power and % Cl 2 in the etch plasma. Selectivities of >20:1 GaN:SiO 2 were achieved under several chemically driven etch conditions where a maximummore » selectivity of ~39:1 was obtained using a 100% Cl 2 plasma. The etch profile and (0001) surface morphology were significantly influenced by operating pressure and the chlorine content in the plasma. Optimized etch conditions yielded >10 μm tall micropillars with nanometer-scale sidewall roughness, high GaN:SiO 2 selectivity, and nearly vertical etch profiles. These results provide a promising route for the fabrication of ultradeep GaN microstructures for use in electronic and optoelectronic device applications. In addition, dry etch induced preferential crystallographic etching in GaN microstructures is also demonstrated, which may be of great interest for applications requiring access to non- or semipolar GaN surfaces.« less

  18. Electrochemical characterization of GaN surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnerl, Andrea; Garrido, Jose A.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we present a systematic study of the electrochemical properties of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and hybrid vapor phase epitaxy grown n-type GaN in aqueous electrolytes. For this purpose, we perform cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy measurements over a wide range of potentials and frequencies, using a pure aqueous electrolyte and adding two different types of redox couples, as well as applying different surface treatments to the GaN electrodes. For Ga-polar GaN electrodes, the charge transfer to an electrolyte is dominated by surface states, which are not related to dislocations and are independent of the specific growth technique. These surface states can be modified by the surface treatment; they are generated by etching in HCl and are passivated by oxidation. Different surface defect states are present on N-polar GaN electrodes which do not significantly contribute to the charge transfer across the GaN/electrolyte interface.

  19. Early dynamics of the semantic priming shift

    PubMed Central

    Lavigne, Frédéric; Chanquoy, Lucile; Dumercy, Laurent; Vitu, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Semantic processing of sequences of words requires the cognitive system to keep several word meanings simultaneously activated in working memory with limited capacity. The real- time updating of the sequence of word meanings relies on dynamic changes in the associates to the words that are activated. Protocols involving two sequential primes report a semantic priming shift from larger priming of associates to the first prime to larger priming of associates to the second prime, in a range of long SOAs (stimulus-onset asynchronies) between the second prime and the target. However, the possibility for an early semantic priming shift is still to be tested, and its dynamics as a function of association strength remain unknown. Three multiple priming experiments are proposed that cross-manipulate association strength between each of two successive primes and a target, for different values of short SOAs and prime durations. Results show an early priming shift ranging from priming of associates to the first prime only to priming of strong associates to the first prime and all of the associates to the second prime. We investigated the neural basis of the early priming shift by using a network model of spike frequency adaptive cortical neurons (e.g., Deco & Rolls, 2005), able to code different association strengths between the primes and the target. The cortical network model provides a description of the early dynamics of the priming shift in terms of pro-active and retro-active interferences within populations of excitatory neurons regulated by fast and unselective inhibitory feedback. PMID:23717346

  20. Luminescence properties of defects in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshchikov, Michael A.; Morkoç, Hadis

    2005-03-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and its allied binaries InN and AIN as well as their ternary compounds have gained an unprecedented attention due to their wide-ranging applications encompassing green, blue, violet, and ultraviolet (UV) emitters and detectors (in photon ranges inaccessible by other semiconductors) and high-power amplifiers. However, even the best of the three binaries, GaN, contains many structural and point defects caused to a large extent by lattice and stacking mismatch with substrates. These defects notably affect the electrical and optical properties of the host material and can seriously degrade the performance and reliability of devices made based on these nitride semiconductors. Even though GaN broke the long-standing paradigm that high density of dislocations precludes acceptable device performance, point defects have taken the center stage as they exacerbate efforts to increase the efficiency of emitters, increase laser operation lifetime, and lead to anomalies in electronic devices. The point defects include native isolated defects (vacancies, interstitial, and antisites), intentional or unintentional impurities, as well as complexes involving different combinations of the isolated defects. Further improvements in device performance and longevity hinge on an in-depth understanding of point defects and their reduction. In this review a comprehensive and critical analysis of point defects in GaN, particularly their manifestation in luminescence, is presented. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of native point defects, the signatures of intentionally and unintentionally introduced impurities are addressed. The review discusses in detail the characteristics and the origin of the major luminescence bands including the ultraviolet, blue, green, yellow, and red bands in undoped GaN. The effects of important group-II impurities, such as Zn and Mg on the photoluminescence of GaN, are treated in detail. Similarly, but to a lesser extent, the effects of

  1. Substitutional and interstitial oxygen in wurtzite GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. F.

    2005-11-01

    Density-functional theory was used to compute energy-minimum configurations and formation energies of substitutional and interstitial oxygen (O) in wurtzite GaN. The results indicate that O substituted at a N site (ON) acts as a single donor with the ionized state (ON+1) being the most stable O state in p-type GaN. In n-type GaN, interstitial O (OI) is predicted to be a double acceptor and O substituted at a Ga site (OGa) is predicted to be a triple acceptor. The formation energies of these two species are comparable to that of ON in n-type GaN and, as such, they should form and compensate the ON donors. The extent of compensation was estimated for both Ga-rich and N-rich conditions with a total O concentration of 1017cm-3. Ga-rich conditions yielded negligible compensation and an ON concentration in excess of 9.9×1016cm-3. N-rich conditions yielded a 25% lower ON concentration, due to the increased stability of OI and OGa relative to ON, and moderate compensation. These findings are consistent with experimental results indicating that O acts as a donor in GaN(O). Complexes of ON with the Mg acceptor and OI with the Si donor were examined. Binding energies for charge-conserving reactions were ⩾0.5eV, indicating that these complexes can exist in equilibrium at room temperature. Complexes of ON with the Ga vacancy in n-type GaN were also examined and their binding energies were 1.2 and 1.4eV, indicating that appreciable concentrations can exist in equilibrium even at elevated temperatures.

  2. The structure factor of primes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Martelli, F.; Torquato, S.

    2018-03-01

    Although the prime numbers are deterministic, they can be viewed, by some measures, as pseudo-random numbers. In this article, we numerically study the pair statistics of the primes using statistical-mechanical methods, particularly the structure factor S(k) in an interval M ≤slant p ≤slant M + L with M large, and L/M smaller than unity. We show that the structure factor of the prime-number configurations in such intervals exhibits well-defined Bragg-like peaks along with a small ‘diffuse’ contribution. This indicates that primes are appreciably more correlated and ordered than previously thought. Our numerical results definitively suggest an explicit formula for the locations and heights of the peaks. This formula predicts infinitely many peaks in any non-zero interval, similar to the behavior of quasicrystals. However, primes differ from quasicrystals in that the ratio between the location of any two predicted peaks is rational. We also show numerically that the diffuse part decays slowly as M and L increases. This suggests that the diffuse part vanishes in an appropriate infinite-system-size limit.

  3. Structural Priming: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Martin J.; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2009-01-01

    Repetition is a central phenomenon of behavior, and researchers make extensive use of it to illuminate psychological functioning. In the language sciences, a ubiquitous form of such repetition is structural priming, a tendency to repeat or better process a current sentence because of its structural similarity to a previously experienced (“prime”) sentence (Bock, 1986). The recent explosion of research in structural priming has made it the dominant means of investigating the processes involved in the production (and increasingly, comprehension) of complex expressions such as sentences. This review considers its implications for the representation of syntax and the mechanisms of production, comprehension, and their relationship. It then addresses the potential functions of structural priming, before turning to its implications for first language acquisition, bilingualism, and aphasia We close with theoretical and empirical recommendations for future investigations. PMID:18444704

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain YU15 (Sequence Type 19) Harboring the Salmonella Genomic Island 1 and Virulence Plasmid pSTV

    PubMed Central

    Calva, Edmundo; Puente, José L.; Zaidi, Mussaret B.

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium sequence type 19 (ST19) strain YU15, isolated in Yucatán, Mexico, from a human baby stool culture, was determined using PacBio technology. The chromosome contains five intact prophages and the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). This strain carries the Salmonella virulence plasmid pSTV. PMID:27081132

  5. Oligomerizations of deoxyadenosine bis-phosphates and of their 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers - Effects of a pyrophosphate-linked, poly(T) analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, J.; Bakker, C. G.; Schwartz, Alan W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a 3-prime-5-prime pyrophosphate-linked oligomer of pTp on oligomerizations of pdAp and of its 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers was investigated, using HPLC to separate the reaction mixtures; peak detection was by absorbance monitoring at 254 nm. It was expected that the dimers would form stable complexes with the template, with the degree of stability depending upon the internal linkage of each dimer. It was found that, although the isomers differ substantially in their oligomerization behavior in the absence of template, the analog-template catalyzes the oligomerization to about the same extent in all three cases.

  6. Priming and Habituation for Faces: Individual Differences and Inversion Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Immediate repetition priming for faces was examined across a range of prime durations in a threshold identification task. Similar to word repetition priming results, short duration face primes produced positive priming whereas long duration face primes eliminated or reversed this effect. A habituation model of such priming effects predicted that…

  7. The pros and cons of masked priming.

    PubMed

    Forster, K I

    1998-03-01

    Masked priming paradigms offer the promise of tapping automatic, strategy-free lexical processing, as evidenced by the lack of expectancy disconfirmation effects, and proportionality effects in semantic priming experiments. But several recent findings suggest the effects may be prelexical. These findings concern nonword priming effects in lexical decision and naming, the effects of mixed-case presentation on nonword priming, and the dependence of priming on the nature of the distractors in lexical decision, suggesting possible strategy effects. The theory underlying each of these effects is discussed, and alternative explanations are developed that do not preclude a lexical basis for masked priming effects.

  8. Pendeo-Epitaxy Process Optimization of GaN for Novel Devices Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Pendeo-Epitaxy Process Optimization of GaN for Novel Devices Applications by Michael A. Derenge, Tsvetanka S. Zheleva, Kenneth A. Jones...Epitaxy Process Optimization of GaN for Novel Devices Applications Michael A. Derenge, Tsvetanka S. Zheleva, Kenneth A. Jones, Pankaj B. Shah...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pendeo-Epitaxy Process Optimization of GaN for Novel Devices Applications 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  9. Epitaxy of GaN in high aspect ratio nanoscale holes over silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kejia; Wang, Anqi; Ji, Qingbin; Hu, Xiaodong; Xie, Yahong; Sun, Ying; Cheng, Zhiyuan

    2017-12-01

    Dislocation filtering in gallium nitride (GaN) by epitaxial growth through patterned nanoscale holes is studied. GaN grown from extremely high aspect ratio holes by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is examined by transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This selective area epitaxial growth method with a reduced epitaxy area and an increased depth to width ratio of holes leads to effective filtering of dislocations within the hole and improves the quality of GaN significantly.

  10. Apollo 15 prime crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    These three astronauts are the prime crew of the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission. They are, left to right, David R. Scott, commander; Alfred M. Worden, command module pilot; and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot. The Apollo 15 emblem is in the background.

  11. Apollo 15 prime crew portrait

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-06-28

    S71-37963 (July 1971) --- These three astronauts are the prime crew of the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission. They are, left to right, David R. Scott, commander; Alfred M. Worden, command module pilot; and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot. The Apollo 15 emblem is in the background.

  12. Cross-Modal Semantic Priming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabossi, Patrizia

    1996-01-01

    Describes the cross-modal semantic priming paradigm, including its underlying rationale and the different tasks with which it is combined. Introduces the type of stimuli used and the dependent and independent variables typically manipulated; discusses the paradigm's main advantages and drawbacks; and considers its most important areas of…

  13. Prime Suspect, Second Row Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    His father had been hacked to death in his own bed with an ax the previous November. His mother was similarly brutalized and left for dead with her husband but survived. On the last Monday of that August, after several months and many investigative twists, turns, and fumbles, there sat the son--the prime suspect--in Ellen Laird's literature class,…

  14. Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende GaN Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Xinghe; Feng, Chuang; Yang, Daoguo; Zhang, Guoqi

    2017-01-01

    For the limitation of experimental methods in crystal characterization, in this study, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Firstly, bulk moduli, shear moduli, elastic moduli and Poisson’s ratios of the two GaN polycrystals were calculated using Voigt and Hill approximations, and the results show wurtzite GaN has larger shear and elastic moduli and exhibits more obvious brittleness. Moreover, both wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN monocrystals present obvious mechanical anisotropic behavior. For wurtzite GaN monocrystal, the maximum and minimum elastic moduli are located at orientations [001] and <111>, respectively, while they are in the orientations <111> and <100> for zinc-blende GaN monocrystal, respectively. Compared to the elastic modulus, the shear moduli of the two GaN monocrystals have completely opposite direction dependences. However, different from elastic and shear moduli, the bulk moduli of the two monocrystals are nearly isotropic, especially for the zinc-blende GaN. Besides, in the wurtzite GaN, Poisson’s ratios at the planes containing [001] axis are anisotropic, and the maximum value is 0.31 which is located at the directions vertical to [001] axis. For zinc-blende GaN, Poisson’s ratios at planes (100) and (111) are isotropic, while the Poisson’s ratio at plane (110) exhibits dramatically anisotropic phenomenon. Additionally, the calculated Debye temperatures of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 641.8 and 620.2 K, respectively. At 300 K, the calculated heat capacities of wurtzite and zinc-blende are 33.6 and 33.5 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. Finally, the band gap is located at the G point for the two crystals, and the band gaps of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 3.62 eV and 3.06 eV, respectively. At the G point, the lowest energy of conduction band in the wurtzite GaN is larger, resulting in a

  15. Direct growth of freestanding GaN on C-face SiC by HVPE

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Hao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yuanbin; Huo, Qin

    2015-01-01

    In this work, high quality GaN crystal was successfully grown on C-face 6H-SiC by HVPE using a two steps growth process. Due to the small interaction stress between the GaN and the SiC substrate, the GaN was self-separated from the SiC substrate even with a small thickness of about 100 μm. Moreover, the SiC substrate was excellent without damage after the whole process so that it can be repeatedly used in the GaN growth. Hot phosphoric acid etching (at 240 °C for 30 min) was employed to identify the polarity of the GaN layer. According to the etching results, the obtained layer was Ga-polar GaN. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were done to characterize the quality of the freestanding GaN. The Raman measurements showed that the freestanding GaN film grown on the C-face 6H-SiC was stress-free. The optical properties of the freestanding GaN layer were determined by photoluminescence (PL) spectra. PMID:26034939

  16. Structural defects in GaN revealed by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna

    2014-09-08

    This paper reviews the various types of structural defects observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy in GaN heteroepitaxial layers grown on foreign substrates and homoepitaxial layers grown on bulk GaN substrates. The structural perfection of these layers is compared to the platelet self-standing crystals grown by High Nitrogen Pressure Solution. Defects in undoped and Mg doped GaN are discussed. Lastly, some models explaining the formation of inversion domains in heavily Mg doped layers that are possible defects responsible for the difficulties of p-doping in GaN are also reviewed.

  17. Mg acceptors and the ultraviolet band in Mg-doped GaN.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, Ibrahima; Demchenko, Denis; Reshchikov, Michael

    The sharp ultraviolet luminescence (UVL) band with a maximum photoluminescence and zero-phonon line at approximately 3.25-3.30 eV is observed in magnesium (Mg) doped GaN. Using the hybrid density functional method, we calculate electronic and optical properties of Mg acceptors in GaN. We show that Mg substituting Ga is responsible for the experimentally observed sharp UVL band in Mg-doped GaN. We also analyze the dual nature of Mg acceptors in GaN. National Science Foundation (DMR-1410125).

  18. Photoemission of graded-doping GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiao-Qian; Chang, Ben-Kang; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Li, Biao; Du, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Jun-Ju

    2011-03-01

    We study the photoemission process of graded-doping GaN photocathode and find that the built-in electric fields can increase the escape probability and the effective diffusion length of photo-generated electrons, which results in the enhancement of quantum efficiency. The intervalley scattering mechanism and the lattice scattering mechanism in high electric fields are also investigated. To prevent negative differential mobility from appearing, the surface doping concentration needs to be optimized, and it is calculated to be 3.19×1017 cm-3. The graded-doping GaN photocathode with higher performance can be realized by further optimizing the doping profile. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 60871012) and the Research Fund of Nanjing University of Science and Technology (Grant No. 2010ZYTS032).

  19. Size dictated thermal conductivity of GaN

    DOE PAGES

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Fuller, Elliot James; ...

    2016-04-01

    The thermal conductivity on n- and p-type doped gallium nitride (GaN) epilayers having thickness of 3-4 μm was investigated using time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR). Despite possessing carrier concentrations ranging across 3 decades (10 15 – 10 18 cm –3), n-type layers exhibit a nearly constant thermal conductivity of 180 W/mK. The thermal conductivity of p-type epilayers, in contrast, reduces from 160 to 110 W/mK with increased doping. These trends–and their overall reduction relative to bulk–are explained leveraging established scattering models where it is shown that size effects play a primary role in limiting thermal conductivity for layers even tens ofmore » microns thick. GaN device layers, even of pristine quality, will therefore exhibit thermal conductivities less than the bulk value of 240 W/mK owing to their finite thickness.« less

  20. Study of Charge Carrier Transport in GaN Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kuokstis, Edmundas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Reklaitis, Ignas

    2016-01-01

    Capacitor and Schottky diode sensors were fabricated on GaN material grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques using plasma etching and metal deposition. The operational characteristics of these devices have been investigated by profiling current transients and by comparing the experimental regimes of the perpendicular and parallel injection of excess carrier domains. Profiling of the carrier injection location allows for the separation of the bipolar and the monopolar charge drift components. Carrier mobility values attributed to the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) GaN material have been estimated as μe = 1000 ± 200 cm2/Vs for electrons, and μh = 400 ± 80 cm2/Vs for holes, respectively. Current transients under injection of the localized and bulk packets of excess carriers have been examined in order to determine the surface charge formation and polarization effects. PMID:28773418

  1. Transition from the southern mode of the mei-yu front cloud system to other leading modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Danyu; Li, Bo; Huang, Yong

    2014-07-01

    Based on normalized six-hourly black body temperature (TBB) data of three geostationary meteorological satellites, the leading modes of the mei-yu cloud system between 1998 and 2008 were extracted by the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method, and the transition processes from the first typical leading mode to other leading modes were discussed and compared. The analysis shows that, when the southern mode (EOF1) transforms to the northeastern mode (EOF3), in the mid-troposphere, a low trough develops and moves southeastward over central and eastern China. The circulation pattern is characterized by two highs and one low in the lower troposphere. A belt of low pressure is sandwiched between the weak high over central and western China and the strong western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH). Cold air moves southward along the northerly flow behind the low, and meets the warm and moist air between the WNPSH and the forepart of the low trough, which leads to continuous convection. At the same time, the central extent of the WNPSH increases while its ridge extends westward. In addition, transitions from the southern mode to the dual centers mode and the tropical-low-influenced mode were found to be atypical, and so no common points could be concluded. Furthermore, the choice of threshold value can affect the number of samples discussed.

  2. Ancient Chinese Formula Qiong-Yu-Gao Protects Against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity Without Reducing Anti-tumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Zhi-Ying; Cheng, Xiao-Lan; Cai, Xue-Ting; Yang, Yang; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Jin-Di; Lu, Wu-Guang; Chen, Jiao; Hu, Chun-Ping; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Li, Song-Lin; Cao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin is a highly effective anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent; however, its clinical use is severely limited by serious side effects, of which nephrotoxicity is the most important. In this study, we investigated whether Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), a popular traditional Chinese medicinal formula described 840 years ago, exhibits protective effects against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity. Using a mouse model of cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction, we observed that pretreatment with QYG attenuated cisplatin-induced elevations in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, ameliorated renal tubular lesions, reduced apoptosis, and accelerated tubular cell regeneration. Cisplatin-mediated elevations in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) mRNA, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein in the kidney were also significantly suppressed by QYG treatment. Furthermore, QYG reduced platinum accumulation in the kidney by decreasing the expression of copper transporter 1 and organic cation transporter 2. An in vivo study using implanted Lewis lung cancer cells revealed that concurrent administration of QYG and cisplatin did not alter the anti-tumor activity of cisplatin. Our findings suggest that the traditional Chinese medicinal formula QYG inhibits cisplatin toxicity by several mechanisms that act simultaneously, without compromising its therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, QYG may be useful in the clinic as a protective agent to prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:26510880

  3. Study of neutron irradiated structures of ammonothermal GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Deveikis, L.; Meskauskaite, D.; Miasojedovas, S.; Mickevicius, J.; Pavlov, J.; Pukas, K.; Vaitkus, J.; Velicka, M.; Zajac, M.; Kucharski, R.

    2017-04-01

    Study of the radiation damage in GaN-based materials becomes an important aspect for possible application of the GaN detectors in the harsh radiation environment at the Large Hadron Collider and at other particle acceleration facilities. Intentionally doped and semi-insulating bulk ammonothermal GaN materials were studied to reveal the dominant defects introduced by reactor neutron irradiations. These radiation defects have been identified by combining electron spin resonance and transmission spectroscopy techniques. Characteristics of carrier lifetime dependence on neutron irradiation fluence were examined. Variations of the response of the capacitor-type sensors with neutron irradiation fluence have been correlated with the carrier lifetime changes. The measurements of the photoconductivity and photoluminescence transients have been used to study the variation of the parameters of radiative and non-radiative recombination. The examined characteristics indicate that AT GaN as a particle sensing material is radiation hard up to high hadron fluences  ⩾1016 cm-2.

  4. Radiation sensors based on GaN microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheij, D.; Peres, M.; Cardoso, S.; Alves, L. C.; Alves, E.; Durand, C.; Eymery, J.; Lorenz, K.

    2018-05-01

    GaN microwires were shown to possess promising characteristics as building blocks for radiation resistant particle detectors. They were grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy with diameters between 1 and 2 μm and lengths around 20 μm. Devices were fabricated by depositing gold contacts at the extremities of the wires using photolithography. The response of these single wire radiation sensors was then studied under irradiation with 2 MeV protons. Severe degradation of the majority of devices only sets in for fluences above protons cm‑2 revealing good radiation resistance. During proton irradiation, a clear albeit small current gain was observed with a corresponding decay time below 1 s. Photoconductivity measurements upon irradiation with UV light were carried out before and after the proton irradiation. Despite a relatively low gain, attributed to significant dark currents caused by a high dopant concentration, fast response times of a few seconds were achieved comparable to state-of-the-art GaN nanowire photodetectors. Irradiation and subsequent annealing resulted in an overall improvement of the devices regarding their response to UV radiation. The photocurrent gain increased compared to the values that were obtained prior to the irradiation, without compromising the decay times. The results indicate the possibility of using GaN microwires not only as UV detectors, but also as particle detectors.

  5. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  6. The Prime Problem with General Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that "E-Prime" (a form of English that eliminates all forms of the verb "to be") should not be woven directly into the fabric of today's system of English education. Reacts to arguments for E-Prime as espoused by David Bourland and states a case against E-Prime. (HB)

  7. Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

  8. Structural priming, action planning, and grammar.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Maryellen C; Weiss, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Structural priming is poorly understood and cannot inform accounts of grammar for two reasons. First, those who view performance as grammar + processing will always be able to attribute psycholinguistic data to processing rather than grammar. Second, structural priming may be simply an example of hysteresis effects in general action planning. If so, then priming offers no special insight into grammar.

  9. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  10. Spatial priming in ecologically relevant reference frames.

    PubMed

    Tower-Richardi, Sarah M; Leber, Andrew B; Golomb, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have observed many phenomena demonstrating how the visual system exploits spatial regularities in the environment in order to benefit behavior. In this paper, we question whether spatial priming can be considered one such phenomenon. Spatial priming is defined as a response time facilitation to a visual search target when its spatial position has been repeated in recent trials (Maljkovic & Nakayama, 1996, Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 977-991). Does this priming serve a behaviorally adaptive role or is it merely a byproduct of ongoing visual processing? Critically, an adaptive priming mechanism must actively transform visual inputs from native retinotopic (eye-centered) coordinates into ecologically relevant coordinates, e.g., spatiotopic (world-centered) and/or object-centered. In Experiment 1, we tested this hypothesis by having participants move their eyes between trials, which dissociated retinotopic and spatiotopic frames of reference. Results showed only weak retinotopic priming, but robust spatiotopic priming. The second experiment again had participants move their eyes between trials but also manipulated the placement of a grouped array of display objects from trial to trial. This allowed us to measure not just retinotopic and spatiotopic priming, but object-centered priming as well. Results from this experiment did not yield retinotopic priming but showed robust spatiotopic and object-centered priming. These findings demonstrate that spatial priming operates within ecologically relevant coordinate systems, and the findings support the notion that spatial priming serves an adaptive role in human behavior.

  11. Structural Priming and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

  12. Cubic crystalline erbium oxide growth on GaN(0001) by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pei-Yu; Posadas, Agham B.; Kwon, Sunah; Wang, Qingxiao; Kim, Moon J.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2017-12-01

    Growth of crystalline Er2O3, a rare earth sesquioxide, on GaN(0001) is described. Ex situ HCl and NH4OH solutions and an in situ N2 plasma are used to remove impurities on the GaN surface and result in a Ga/N stoichiometry of 1.02. Using atomic layer deposition with erbium tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) [Er(iPrCp)3] and water, crystalline cubic Er2O3 (C-Er2O3) is grown on GaN at 250 °C. The orientation relationships between the C-Er2O3 film and the GaN substrate are C-Er2O3(222) ǁ GaN(0001), C-Er2O3⟨-440⟩ ǁ GaN ⟨11-20⟩, and C-Er2O3⟨-211⟩ ǁ GaN ⟨1-100⟩. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy are used to examine the microstructure of C-Er2O3 and its interface with GaN. With post-deposition annealing at 600 °C, a thicker interfacial layer is observed, and two transition layers, crystalline GaNwOz and crystalline GaErxOy, are found between GaN and C-Er2O3. The tensile strain in the C-Er2O3 film is studied with x-ray diffraction by changes in both out-of-plane and in-plane d-spacing. Fully relaxed C-Er2O3 films on GaN are obtained when the film thickness is around 13 nm. Additionally, a valence band offset of 0.7 eV and a conduction band offset of 1.2 eV are obtained using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Vertical Gallium Nitride Power Schottky Diodes on Bulk GaN Substrates FY2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    crystal GaN substrate grown using the ammonothermal growth technique. To investigate the electrical performance of the SDs as a function of diode size...the epi-polished Ga-face of the GaN bulk single crystal . Both the a) 15 µm2 and b) 1 µm2 micrographs reveal a smooth surface morphology, free of...Optical profilometry image of GaN sample denoting the presence of a deep crack on the GaN crystal surface

  14. The Effects of Priming on Children's Attitudes toward Older Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoe, Sony; Davidson, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine younger (7-years-old) and older (10-years-old) children's attitudes toward older individuals following one type of five primes: positive prime, negative prime, elderly prime, grandparent prime, or neutral prime. Overall, children's attitudes on three tests--Apperception, Semantic Differential, and…

  15. Maglev ready for prime time.

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D. M.; Johnson, L. R.; Energy Systems

    2003-01-01

    Putting Maglev on Track' (Issues, Spring 1990) observed that growing airline traffic and associated delays were already significant and predicted that they would worsen. The article argued that a 300-mile-per-hour (mph) magnetic levitation (maglev) system integrated into airport and airline operations could be a part of the solution. Maglev was not ready for prime time in 1990, but it is now.

  16. Continued Funding for Prime Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-18

    Portal The PrIMe Portal is based on the Drupal open-source software. During the past year we upgraded it to version 6. There are currently over 350...Primekinetics.org ( Drupal Data warehouse \\, WebDAV Access Layer - L qeirch Re~~ est Role validation/Authorization Authentication Module I ~ Module...PHP language with the help of CMF Drupal -6. The standard modules of the Drupal core set are developed by third parties and obtained from the

  17. Masked response priming in expert typists.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Pohl, Carsten; Kunde, Wilfried

    2010-03-01

    In masked priming tasks responses are usually faster when prime and target require identical rather than different responses. Previous research has extensively manipulated the nature and number of response-affording stimuli. However, little is known about the constraints of masked priming regarding the nature and number of response alternatives. The present study explored the limits of masked priming in a six-choice reaction time task, where responses from different fingers of both hands were required. We studied participants that were either experts for the type of response (skilled typists) or novices. Masked primes facilitated responding to targets that required the same response, responses with a different finger of the same hand, and with a homologous finger of the other hand. These effects were modulated by expertise. The results show that masked primes facilitate responding especially for experts in the S-R mapping and with increasing similarity of primed and required response.

  18. Preparation and characterization of one-dimensional GaN nanorods with Tb intermediate layer

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Feng, E-mail: sf751106@sina.com.cn; Xue, Chengshan

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► GaN nanorods have been prepared on Si substrates by magnetron sputtering. ► GaN nanorods are single crystal with hexagonal wurtzite structure. ► GaN nanorods are high-quality crystalline after ammoniating at 950 °C for 15 min. ► Ammoniating temperatures and times affect the growth of GaN nanorods significantly. -- Abstract: GaN nanorods have been successfully prepared on Si(1 1 1) substrates by magnetron sputtering through ammoniating Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Tb thin films. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), FT-IR spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were usedmore » to characterize the microstructures, morphologies compositions and optical properties of the GaN samples. The results demonstrate that the nanorods are single crystal GaN with hexagonal wurtzite structure and high-quality crystalline after ammoniating at 950 °C for 15 min, which have the size of 100–150 nm in diameter. Ammoniating temperatures and times affect the growth of GaN nanorods significantly. The growth procedure mainly follows the Tb catalyst-assisted VLS mechanism.« less

  19. Controllable process of nanostructured GaN by maskless inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanfei; Wang, Hu; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jiadong; Shen, Yang; Huang, Zengli; Zhang, Jian; Dingsun, An

    2017-11-01

    This work improved the anisotropically etching profile of GaN with Cl2 ICP by adjusting etching pressure and gas flow. High etching rate is achieved by lowering pressure and gas flow instead of increasing etching power. High etching power is unfavorable because it may cause physical damages on the surface. In addition, it is noticed that the material of the carrier, used for holding samples during etching, has significant effects on the morphology and profile of the etched GaN surface. A smooth and large-area GaN surface was achieved by proper ICP etching with a big piece of Si carrier; whereas, with other kinds of carriers, various nano-structures were formed on the GaN surfaces after etching. In fact, it is the etching resistance of carrier materials that impacts the surface profile of etched GaN. Needle-like and grass-like nanostructures on etched GaN surfaces were observed with Al and sapphire carriers, of which the process is very similar to RIE-grass or black-silicon technology. This controllable maskless dry-etching process for the GaN nanostructured surface may show more potential applications in GaN devices.

  20. Basic ammonothermal growth of bulk GaN single crystal using sodium mineralizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jang Bo; Kim, Gun Hwan; Lee, Young Kuk

    2017-11-01

    Basic ammonothermal growth of GaN crystals was studied. We examined the effect of different sodium-based mineralizers, including sodium amide, sodium azide, and sodium metal, on the growth rate and quality of the as-grown GaN crystals. Ammonothermally grown GaN crystal in sodium metal mineralizer showed significant increase in both the growth rate and quality of the as-grown GaN crystals. The full-width half-maximum values of the as-grown GaN crystal using sodium metal mineralizer were 270 arcsec for Ga face and 88 arcsec for N face. Also, we reported approximately 2 in. GaN crystals using sodium metal mineralizer. Ammonothermally grown GaN crystal showed higher chemical stability than HVPE-grown GaN crystal after H3PO4 etching at 160 °C for 2 h. The dark spot density in cathodoluminescence image was measured at the level of 1 × 105/cm2.

  1. The investigation of stress in freestanding GaN crystals grown from Si substrates by HVPE.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonsang; Mikulik, Dmitry; Yang, Mino; Park, Sungsoo

    2017-08-17

    We investigate the stress evolution of 400 µm-thick freestanding GaN crystals grown from Si substrates by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) and the in situ removal of Si substrates. The stress generated in growing GaN can be tuned by varying the thickness of the MOCVD AlGaN/AlN buffer layers. Micro Raman analysis shows the presence of slight tensile stress in the freestanding GaN crystals and no stress accumulation in HVPE GaN layers during the growth. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the residual tensile stress in HVPE GaN is caused only by elastic stress arising from the crystal quality difference between Ga- and N-face GaN. TEM analysis revealed that the dislocations in freestanding GaN crystals have high inclination angles that are attributed to the stress relaxation of the crystals. We believe that the understanding and characterization on the structural properties of the freestanding GaN crystals will help us to use these crystals for high-performance opto-electronic devices.

  2. Analysis of the growth of GaN epitaxy on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Danmei; Zhao, Degang

    2018-03-01

    Due to the great potential of GaN based devices, the analysis of the growth of crack-free GaN with high quality has always been a research hotspot. In this paper, two methods for improving the property of the GaN epitaxial layer on Si (111) substrate are researched. Sample A, as a reference, only has an AlN buffer between the Si substrate and the epitaxy. In the following two samples, a GaN transition layer (sample B) and an AlGaN buffer (sample C) are grown on the AlN buffer separately. Both methods improve the quality of GaN. Meanwhile, using the second method, the residual tensile thermal stress decreases. To further study the impact of the two introduced layers, we investigate the stress condition of GaN epitaxial layer by Raman spectrum. According to the Raman spectrum, the calculated residual stress in the GaN epitaxial layer is approximately 0.72 GPa for sample B and 0.42 GPa for sample C. The photoluminescence property of GaN epitaxy is also investigated by room temperature PL spectrum.

  3. Screening active components from Yu-ping-feng-san for regulating initiative key factors in allergic sensitization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dandan; Xie, Xuejian; Zhu, Zhijie; Yu, Xi; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Huizhu; Fan, Hongwei; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Guorong; Hong, Min

    2014-01-01

    Yu-ping-feng-san (YPFS) is a Chinese medical formula that is used clinically for allergic diseases and characterized by reducing allergy relapse. Our previous studies demonstrated that YPFS efficiently inhibited T helper 2 cytokines in allergic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms of action of YPFS and its effective components remain unclear. In this study, it was shown that YPFS significantly inhibited production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cell-derived initiative factor in allergic inflammation, in vitro and in vivo. A method of human bronchial epithelial cell (16HBE) binding combined with HPLC-MS (named 16HBE-HPLC-MS) was established to explore potential active components of YPFS. The following five components bound to 16HBE cells: calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, claycosin, sec-o-glucosylhamaudol and formononetin. Serum from YPFS-treated mice was analyzed and three major components were detected claycosin, formononetin and cimifugin. Among these, claycosin and formononetin were detected by 16HBE-HPLC-MS and in the serum of YPFS-treated mice. Claycosin and formononetin decreased the level of TSLP markedly at the initial stage of allergic inflammation in vivo. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a key transcription factor in TSLP production, was also inhibited by claycosin and formononetin, either in terms of transcriptional activation or its nuclear translocation in vitro. Allergic inflammation was reduced by claycosin and formononetin when they are administered only at the initial stage in a murine model of atopic contact dermatitis. Thus, epithelial cell binding combined with HPLC-MS is a valid method for screening active components from complex mixtures of Chinese medicine. It was demonstrated that the compounds screened from YPFS significantly attenuated allergic inflammation probably by reducing TSLP production via regulating NF-κB activation.

  4. Nondestructive measurement of homoepitaxially grown GaN film thickness with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikiri, Fumimasa; Narita, Yoshinobu; Yoshida, Takehiro

    2017-12-01

    In vertical devices containing GaN homoepitaxial layers on GaN substrates, the layer thickness is a key parameter that needs to be clarified before starting the device process. We applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to a homoepitaxially grown GaN film that consisted of an n--GaN layer. The estimated film thickness from the FT-IR spectrum agreed well with the results of cross-sectional scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence images. This is the first report of nondestructive film thickness measurements for homoepitaxially grown GaN and indicates the applicability of FT-IR to the nondestructive inspection of vertical GaN power devices.

  5. Nucleation control for the growth of vertically aligned GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-Chi; Wu, Tung-Hsien; Tang, Wei-Che; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2012-07-07

    Aligned GaN nanowire arrays have high potentials for applications in future electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, the growth of GaN nanowire arrays with high degree of vertical alignment was attempted by plasma-enhanced CVD on the c-plane GaN substrate. We found that the lattice matching between the substrate and the nanowire is essential for the growth of vertically aligned GaN nanowires. In addition, the initial nucleation process is also found to play a key role in creating the high-quality homoepitaxy at the nanowire-substrate interface. By controlling the nucleation stage, the growth of highly aligned vertical GaN nanowire arrays can be achieved. The reasons for the observed effects are discussed.

  6. The optimal thickness of a transmission-mode GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Shi, Feng; Guo, Hui; Hu, Cang-Lu; Cheng, Hong-Chang; Chang, Ben-Kang; Ren, Ling; Du, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Jun-Ju

    2012-08-01

    A 150-nm-thick GaN photocathode with a Mg doping concentration of 1.6 × 1017 cm-3 is activated by Cs/O in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber, and a quantum efficiency (QE) curve of the negative electron affinity transmission-mode (t-mode) of the GaN photocathode is obtained. The maximum QE reaches 13.0% at 290 nm. According to the t-mode QE equation solved from the diffusion equation, the QE curve is fitted. From the fitting results, the electron escape probability is 0.32, the back-interface recombination velocity is 5 × 104 cm·s-1, and the electron diffusion length is 116 nm. Based on these parameters, the influence of GaN thickness on t-mode QE is simulated. The simulation shows that the optimal thickness of GaN is 90 nm, which is better than the 150-nm GaN.

  7. Spin injection in epitaxial MnGa(111)/GaN(0001) heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zube, Christian; Malindretos, Joerg; Watschke, Lars; Zamani, Reza R.; Disterheft, David; Ulbrich, Rainer G.; Rizzi, Angela; Iza, Michael; Keller, Stacia; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2018-01-01

    Ferromagnetic MnGa(111) layers were grown on GaN(0001) by molecular beam epitaxy. MnGa/GaN Schottky diodes with a doping level of around n = 7 × 1018 cm-3 were fabricated to achieve single step tunneling across the metal/semiconductor junction. Below the GaN layer, a thin InGaN quantum well served as optical spin detector ("spin-LED"). For electron spin injection from MnGa into GaN and subsequent spin transport through a 45 nm (70 nm) thick GaN layer, we observe a circular polarization of 0.3% (0.2%) in the electroluminescence at 80 K. Interface mixing, spin polarization losses during electrical transport in the GaN layer, and spin relaxation in the InGaN quantum well are discussed in relation with the low value of the optically detected spin polarization.

  8. Regulation of the electronic properties of GaN(0001) surface by metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiabin; Liu, Hongxia; Wu, Lei

    2018-02-01

    On the basis of first-principles calculation, we investigate the control of the electronic properties of the GaN(0001) surface by metal atoms. The results show that all the metal-atom-adsorbed GaN(0001) surfaces are direct-band-gap semiconductors, and their band gaps could be reduced considerably. The results of the density of states indicate that the orbital hybridization of the electronic states near the Fermi level took place between adatoms and the GaN(0001) surface, and electrons were mainly transferred from the adatoms to the GaN. Furthermore, the work function of the GaN(0001) surface becomes smaller with the adsorption of metal atoms, while the effect of metallic activity becomes more pronounced.

  9. Characterization of Pb-Doped GaN Thin Films Grown by Thermionic Vacuum Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özen, Soner; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2018-03-01

    Undoped and lead (Pb)-doped gallium nitride (GaN) thin films have been deposited by a thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method. Glass and polyethylene terephthalate were selected as optically transparent substrates. The structural, optical, morphological, and electrical properties of the deposited thin films were investigated. These physical properties were interpreted by comparison with related analysis methods. The crystalline structure of the deposited GaN thin films was hexagonal wurtzite. The optical bandgap energy of the GaN and Pb-doped GaN thin films was found to be 3.45 eV and 3.47 eV, respectively. The surface properties of the deposited thin films were imaged using atomic force microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, revealing a nanostructured, homogeneous, and granular surface structure. These results confirm that the TVA method is an alternative layer deposition system for Pb-doped GaN thin films.

  10. 1.2 kV GaN Schottky barrier diodes on free-standing GaN wafer using a CMOS-compatible contact material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinke; Liu, Qiang; Li, Chao; Wang, Jianfeng; Yu, Wenjie; Xu, Ke; Ao, Jin-Ping

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we report the formation of vertical GaN Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on a 2-in. free-standing (FS) GaN wafer, using CMOS-compatible contact material. By realizing an off-state breakdown voltage V BR of 1200 V and an on-state resistance R on of 7 mΩ·cm2, the FS-GaN SBDs fabricated in this work achieve a power device figure-of-merit V\\text{BR}2/R\\text{on} of 2.1 × 108 V2·Ω-1·cm-2 on a high quality GaN wafer. In addition, the fabricated FS-GaN SBDs show the highest I on/I off current ratio of ˜2.3 × 1010 among the GaN SBDs reported in the literature.

  11. Polarity of semipolar wurtzite crystals: X-ray photoelectron diffraction from GaN(101⁻1) and GaN(202⁻1) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyuk, O., E-mail: romanyuk@fzu.cz; Jiříček, P.; Bartoš, I.

    2014-09-14

    Polarity of semipolar GaN(101⁻1) (101⁻1⁻) and GaN(202⁻1) (202⁻1⁻) surfaces was determined with X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) using a standard MgKα source. The photoelectron emission from N 1s core level measured in the a-plane of the crystals shows significant differences for the two crystal orientations within the polar angle range of 80–100° from the (0001) normal. It was demonstrated that XPD polar plots recorded in the a-plane are similar for each polarity of the GaN(101⁻1) and GaN(202⁻1) crystals if referred to (0001) crystal axes. For polarity determinations of all important GaN(h0h⁻l) semipolar surfaces, the above given polar angle range is suitable.

  12. Relational integrativity of prime-target pairs moderates congruity effects in evaluative priming.

    PubMed

    Ihmels, Max; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus; Alexopoulos, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    In evaluative priming, positive or negative primes facilitate reactions to targets that share the same valence. While this effect is commonly explained as reflecting invariant structures in semantic long-term memory or in the sensorimotor system, the present research highlights the role of integrativity in evaluative priming. Integrativity refers to the ease of integrating two concepts into a new meaningful compound representation. In extended material tests using paired comparisons from two pools of positive and negative words, we show that evaluative congruity is highly correlated with integrativity. Therefore, in most priming studies, congruity and integrativity are strongly confounded. When both aspects are disentangled by manipulating congruity and integrativity orthogonally, three priming experiments show that evaluative-priming effects were confined to integrative prime-target pairs. No facilitation of prime-congruent targets was obtained for non-integrative stimuli. These findings are discussed from a broader perspective on priming conceived as flexible, context-dependent, and serving a generative adaptation function.

  13. Wrath of God: religious primes and punishment.

    PubMed

    McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-06-22

    Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.

  14. Fabrication of low-density GaN/AlN quantum dots via GaN thermal decomposition in MOCVD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Li, Senlin; Xiong, Hui; Tian, Wu; Li, Yang; Fang, Yanyan; Wu, Zhihao; Dai, Jiangnan; Xu, Jintong; Li, Xiangyang; Chen, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    With an appropriate high anneal temperature under H2 atmosphere, GaN quantum dots (QDs) have been fabricated via GaN thermal decomposition in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Based on the characterization of atomic force microscopy (AFM), the obtained GaN QDs show good size distribution and have a low density of 2.4 × 10(8) cm(-2). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis demonstrates that the GaN QDs were formed without Ga droplets by thermal decomposition of GaN.

  15. GaN Nanowire Devices: Fabrication and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Reum

    The development of microelectronics in the last 25 years has been characterized by an exponential increase of the bit density in integrated circuits (ICs) with time. Scaling solid-state devices improves cost, performance, and power; as such, it is of particular interest for companies, who gain a market advantage with the latest technology. As a result, the microelectronics industry has driven transistor feature size scaling from 10 μm to ~30 nm during the past 40 years. This trend has persisted for 40 years due to optimization, new processing techniques, device structures, and materials. But when noting processor speeds from the 1970's to 2009 and then again in 2010, the implication would be that the trend has ceased. To address the challenge of shrinking the integrated circuit (IC), current research is centered on identifying new materials and devices that can supplement and/or potentially supplant it. Bottom-up methods tailor nanoscale building blocks---atoms, molecules, quantum dots, and nanowires (NWs)---to be used to overcome these limitations. The Group IIIA nitrides (InN, AlN, and GaN) possess appealing properties such as a direct band gap spanning the whole solar spectrum, high saturation velocity, and high breakdown electric field. As a result nanostructures and nanodevices made from GaN and related nitrides are suitable candidates for efficient nanoscale UV/ visible light emitters, detectors, and gas sensors. To produce devices with such small structures new fabrication methods must be implemented. Devices composed of GaN nanowires were fabricated using photolithography and electron beam lithography. The IV characteristics of these devices were noted under different illuminations and the current tripled from 4.8*10-7 A to 1.59*10 -6 A under UV light which persisted for at least 5hrs.

  16. Devices for medical diagnosis with GaN lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasny, Miroslaw; Mierczyk, Zygmunt

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents laser-induced fluroescence method (LIF) employing endogenous ("autofluroescence") and exogenous fluorophores. LIF is applied for clinical diagnosis in dermatology, gynaecology, urology, lung tumors as well as for early dentin caries. We describe the analysers with He-Ne, He-Cd, and SHG Nd:YAG lasers and new generation systems based on blue semiconductor GaN lasers that have been implemented into clinical practice till now. The LIF method, fundamental one for many medical applications, with excitation radiation of wavelength 400 nm could be appl,ied only using tunable dye lasers or titanium lasers adequte for laboratory investigations. Development of GaN laser shows possibility to design portable, compact diagnostic devices as multi-channel analysers of fluorescence spectra and surface imaging devoted to clinical application. The designed systems used for spectra measurement and registration of fluorescence images include lasers of power 5-30 mW and generate wavelengths of 405-407 nm. They are widely used in PDT method for investigation of superficial distribution of accumulation kinetics of all known photosensitizers, their elimination, and degradation as well as for treatment of superficial lesions of mucosa and skin. Excitation of exogenous porphrins in Soret band makes possible to estimate their concentration and a period of healthy skin photosensitivity that occurs after photosensitiser injections. Due to high sensitivity of spectrum analysers, properties of photosensitisers can be investigated in vitro (e.g. their aggregation, purity, chromatographic distributions) when their concentrations are 2-3 times lower in comparison to concentrations investigated with typical spectrofluorescence methods. Dentistry diagnosis is a new field in which GaN laser devices can be applied. After induction with blue light, decreased autofluorescence intensity can be observed when dentin caries occur and strong characteristic bands of endogenous porphyrines

  17. Radiation enhanced basal plane dislocation glide in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Eugene B.; Vergeles, Pavel S.; Polyakov, Alexander Y.; Lee, In-Hwan; Pearton, Stephen J.

    2016-05-01

    A movement of basal plane segments of dislocations in GaN films grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth under low energy electron beam irradiation (LEEBI) was studied by the electron beam induced current (EBIC) method. Only a small fraction of the basal plane dislocation segments were susceptible to irradiation and the movement was limited to relatively short distances. The effect is explained by the radiation enhanced dislocation glide (REDG) in the structure with strong pinning. A dislocation velocity under LEEBI with a beam current lower than 1 nA was estimated as about 10 nm/s. The results assuming the REDG for prismatic plane dislocations were presented.

  18. Characterisation of Cs ion implanted GaN by DLTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoepe, P. N. M.; Meyer, W. E.; Auret, F. D.; Omotoso, E.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; Diale, M.

    2018-04-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to characterise Cs implanted GaN grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE). This implantation was done at room temperature using energy of 360 keV to a fluence of 10-11 cm-2. A defect with activation energy of 0.19 eV below the conduction band and an apparent capture cross section of 1.1 × 10-15 cm2 was induced. This defect has previously been observed after rare earth element (Eu, Er and Pr) implantation. It has also been reported after electron, proton and He ion implantation.

  19. Apollo 17 prime crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    These three astronauts are the prime crewmen of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. They are Eugene A. Cernan (seated), commander; Ronald E. Evans (standing on right), command module pilot; and Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot. They are photographed with a Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) trainer. Cernan and Schmitt will use an LRV during their exploration of the Taurus-Littrow landing site. The Apollo 17 Saturn V space vehicle is in the background. This picture was taken at Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, The Apollo 17 emblem is in the photo insert at upper left.

  20. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 all three word types were used. Results showed significant priming in all experiments, as indicated by faster reaction times for studied words than for novel words. A priming × emotion interaction was found in Experiments 1 and 3, with greater priming for taboo relative to neutral words. The LAN words in Experiments 2 and 3 showed no difference in priming magnitude relative to the other word types. These results show selective enhancement of word repetition priming by emotional arousal. PMID:26321783

  1. Multiple Phenotypic Changes Define Neutrophil Priming

    PubMed Central

    Miralda, Irina; Uriarte, Silvia M.; McLeish, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, mitochondrial contents, and bacterial and viral products induces neutrophils to transition from a basal state into a primed one, which is currently defined as an enhanced response to activating stimuli. Although, typically associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase, primed neutrophils show enhanced responsiveness of exocytosis, NET formation, and chemotaxis. Phenotypic changes associated with priming also include activation of a subset of functions, including adhesion, transcription, metabolism, and rate of apoptosis. This review summarizes the breadth of phenotypic changes associated with priming and reviews current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind those changes. We conclude that the current definition of priming is too restrictive. Priming represents a combination of enhanced responsiveness and activated functions that regulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. PMID:28611952

  2. Identifying the candidate genes involved in the calyx abscission process of 'Kuerlexiangli' (Pyrus sinkiangensis Yu) by digital transcript abundance measurements.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Jun; Wang, Lifen; Li, Leiting; Cao, Yufen; Tian, Luming; Dong, Xingguang; Zhang, Shaoling

    2013-10-23

    'Kuerlexiangli' (Pyrus sinkiangensis Yu), a native pear of Xinjiang, China, is an important agricultural fruit and primary export to the international market. However, fruit with persistent calyxes affect fruit shape and quality. Although several studies have looked into the physiological aspects of the calyx abscission process, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In order to better understand the molecular basis of the process of calyx abscission, materials at three critical stages of regulation, with 6000 × Flusilazole plus 300 × PBO treatment (calyx abscising treatment) and 50 mg.L-1GA3 treatment (calyx persisting treatment), were collected and cDNA fragments were sequenced using digital transcript abundance measurements to identify candidate genes. Digital transcript abundance measurements was performed using high-throughput Illumina GAII sequencing on seven samples that were collected at three important stages of the calyx abscission process with chemical agent treatments promoting calyx abscission and persistence. Altogether more than 251,123,845 high quality reads were obtained with approximately 8.0 M raw data for each library. The values of 69.85%-71.90% of clean data in the digital transcript abundance measurements could be mapped to the pear genome database. There were 12,054 differentially expressed genes having Gene Ontology (GO) terms and associating with 251 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) defined pathways. The differentially expressed genes correlated with calyx abscission were mainly involved in photosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, cell wall modification, transcriptional regulation, and carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, candidate calyx abscission-specific genes, e.g. Inflorescence deficient in abscission gene, were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the digital transcript abundance measurements results. We identified candidate genes that showed highly dynamic changes in

  3. Complex architecture of primes and natural numbers.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-08-01

    Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cramér's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cramér's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers.

  4. Wrath of God: religious primes and punishment

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants—those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a ‘supernatural watcher’ mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a ‘behavioural priming’ mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents. PMID:21106588

  5. The epidemiological consequences of immune priming.

    PubMed

    Tidbury, Hannah J; Best, Alex; Boots, Mike

    2012-11-07

    Exposure to low doses of pathogens that do not result in the host becoming infectious may 'prime' the immune response and increase protection to subsequent challenge. There is increasing evidence that such immune priming is a widespread and important feature of invertebrate host-pathogen interactions. Immune priming clearly has implications for individual hosts but will also have population-level implications. We present a susceptible-primed-infectious model-in contrast to the classic susceptible-infectious-recovered framework-to investigate the impacts of immune priming on pathogen persistence and population stability. We describe impacts of immune priming on the epidemiology of the disease in both constant and seasonal environments. A key result is that immune priming may act to destabilize population dynamics. In particular, when the proportion of individuals becoming primed rather than infected is high, but this priming does not confer full immunity, the population may be strongly destabilized through the generation of limit cycles. We discuss the implications of our model both in the context of invertebrate immunity and more widely.

  6. Photoelectrochemical water splitting on nanoporous GaN thin films for energy conversion under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dezhong; Xiao, Hongdi; Fang, Jiacheng; Liu, Jianqiang; Gao, Qingxue; Liu, Xiangdong; Ma, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous (NP) GaN thin films, which were fabricated by an electrochemical etching method at different voltages, were used as photoelectrodes during photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting in 1 M oxalic acid solution. Upon illumination at a power density of 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5), water splitting is observed in NP GaN thin films, presumably resulting from the valence band edge which is more positive than the redox potential of the oxidizing species. In comparison with NP GaN film fabricated at 8 V, NP GaN obtained at 18 V shows nearly twofold enhancement in photocurrent with the maximum photo-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 1.05% at ~0 V (versus Ag/AgCl). This enhancement could be explained with (i) the increase of surface area and surface states, and (ii) the decrease of resistances and carrier concentration in the NP GaN thin films. High stability of the NP GaN thin films during the PEC water splitting further confirms that the NP GaN thin film could be applied to the design of efficient solar cells and solar fuel devices.

  7. Impact of substrate off-angle on the m-plane GaN Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hisashi; Chonan, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effects of the substrate off-angle on the m-plane GaN Schottky diodes. GaN epitaxial layers were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on m-plane GaN substrates having an off-angle of 0.1, 1.1, 1.7, or 5.1° toward [000\\bar{1}]. The surface of the GaN epitaxial layers on the 0.1°-off substrate consisted of pyramidal hillocks and contained oxygen (>1017 cm-3) and carbon (>1016 cm-3) impurities. The residual carbon and oxygen impurities decreased to <1016 cm-3 when the off-angle of the m-plane GaN substrate was increased. The leakage current of the 0.1°-off m-plane GaN Schottky diodes originated from the +c facet of the pyramidal hillocks. The leakage current was efficiently suppressed through the use of an off-angle that was observed to be greater than 1.1°. The off-angle of the m-plane GaN substrate is critical in obtaining high-performance Schottky diodes.

  8. Study on photoemission surface of varied doping GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jianliang; Du, Ruijuan; Ding, Huan; Gao, Youtang; Chang, Benkang

    2014-09-01

    For varied doping GaN photocathode, from bulk to surface the doping concentrations are distributed from high to low. The varied doping GaN photocathode may produce directional inside electric field within the material, so the higher quantum efficiency can be obtained. The photoemission surface of varied doping GaN photocathode is very important to the high quantum efficiency, but the forming process of the surface state after Cs activation or Cs/O activation has been not known completely. Encircling the photoemission mechanism of varied GaN photocathode, considering the experiment phenomena during the activation and the successful activation results, the varied GaN photocathode surface model [GaN(Mg):Cs]:O-Cs after activation with cesium and oxygen was given. According to GaN photocathode activation process and the change of electronic affinity, the comparatively ideal NEA property can be achieved by Cs or Cs/O activation, and higher quantum efficiency can be obtained. The results show: The effective NEA characteristic of GaN can be gotten only by Cs. [GaN(Mg):Cs] dipoles form the first dipole layer, the positive end is toward the vacuum side. In the activation processing with Cs/O, the second dipole layer is formed by O-Cs dipoles, A O-Cs dipole includes one oxygen atom and two Cs atoms, and the positive end is also toward the vacuum side thus the escape of electrons can be promoted.

  9. Comparative study of GaN and GaAs photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jianliang; Chang, Benkang; Yang, Zhi; Tian, Si; Gao, Youtang

    2008-02-01

    Taking GaAs and GaN as representation, negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathode has many virtues, such as high quantum efficiency, low dark current, concentrated electrons energy distribution and angle distribution, adjustive long-wave threshold, great potential to extend the long-wave spectral response waveband. Therefore it plays more and more important effect in high performance image intensifiers and polarized electron sources. GaN NEA photocathode and GaAs NEA photocathode are very similar because they all belong to III-V compound. But, GaN photocathode and GaAs photocathode have many difference in such aspects as preparation process, activation manners, stability and application field etc. In this paper, using the multi-information measurement and evaluation system of photocathode, the preparation processes of native reflection-mode GaN photocathode and GaAs photocathode are studied. The different activation manners of GaN photocathode and GaAs photocathode are compared and analyzed. The spectral response and stability of the two kind of photocathode are compared also. The experiments indicate: the atomically clean degree of NEA photocathode surface and the structure of activation layer are the main factors that influence photocathode sensitivity and stability after activation. GaN photocathode and GaAs photocathode have good NEA property and large quantum yield. Compare with GaAs photocathode, GaN photocathode has high stability, and the decay of the quantum yield is comparatively slow.

  10. The impact of graphene properties on GaN and AlN nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Balushi, Zakaria Y.; Miyagi, Takahira; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Wang, Ke; Calderin, Lazaro; Bhimanapati, Ganesh; Redwing, Joan M.; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2015-04-01

    The use of graphene as a template layer for the heteroepitaxy of III-nitrides (GaN and AlN) has gained interest due to the hexagonal arrangement of the sp2 hybridized carbon atoms being similar to the (0001) c-plane of wurtzite GaN. In this study, the nucleation of GaN and AlN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on quasi-free standing epitaxial graphene (EG) was investigated. We observed that the nucleation of AlN and GaN was preferential along the periodic (1 1 bar0n) EG coated step edges and at defects sites on the (0001) terraces due to the enhanced chemical reactivity at those regions. The density of nuclei on the (0001) terraces of EG increased with the incorporation of nitrogen defects into the graphene lattice via NH3 exposure as was evident from surface chemical analysis by XPS. Raman spectral mapping showed that GaN selectively nucleates on regions of few-layered EG as opposed to regions of multi-layered EG. HR-TEM also revealed that the EG underlayers were highly defective in the region of GaN nucleation, however, the GaN nuclei were single crystalline, c-axis oriented and were free of threading dislocations. In contrast, polycrystalline islands of AlN were found to nucleate on EG without producing disorder in the underlying EG.

  11. One-step graphene coating of heteroepitaxial GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Kyung; Huh, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Dae; Moon, Daeyoung; Yoon, Duhee; Joo, Kisu; Kwak, Jinsung; Chu, Jae Hwan; Youb Kim, Sung; Park, Kibog; Kim, Young-Woon; Yoon, Euijoon; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Kwon, Soon-Yong

    2012-11-01

    Today, state-of-the-art III-Ns technology has been focused on the growth of c-plane nitrides by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using a conventional two-step growth process. Here we show that the use of graphene as a coating layer allows the one-step growth of heteroepitaxial GaN films on sapphire in a MOCVD reactor, simplifying the GaN growth process. It is found that the graphene coating improves the wetting between GaN and sapphire, and, with as little as ˜0.6 nm of graphene coating, the overgrown GaN layer on sapphire becomes continuous and flat. With increasing thickness of the graphene coating, the structural and optical properties of one-step grown GaN films gradually transition towards those of GaN films grown by a conventional two-step growth method. The InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure grown on a GaN/graphene/sapphire heterosystem shows a high internal quantum efficiency, allowing the use of one-step grown GaN films as ‘pseudo-substrates’ in optoelectronic devices. The introduction of graphene as a coating layer provides an atomic playground for metal adatoms and simplifies the III-Ns growth process, making it potentially very useful as a means to grow other heteroepitaxial films on arbitrary substrates with lattice and thermal mismatch.

  12. Can Faces Prime a Language?

    PubMed

    Woumans, Evy; Martin, Clara D; Vanden Bulcke, Charlotte; Van Assche, Eva; Costa, Albert; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    Bilinguals have two languages that are activated in parallel. During speech production, one of these languages must be selected on the basis of some cue. The present study investigated whether the face of an interlocutor can serve as such a cue. Spanish-Catalan and Dutch-French bilinguals were first familiarized with certain faces, each of which was associated with only one language, during simulated Skype conversations. Afterward, these participants performed a language production task in which they generated words associated with the words produced by familiar and unfamiliar faces displayed on-screen. When responding to familiar faces, participants produced words faster if the faces were speaking the same language as in the previous Skype simulation than if the same faces were speaking a different language. Furthermore, this language priming effect disappeared when it became clear that the interlocutors were actually bilingual. These findings suggest that faces can prime a language, but their cuing effect disappears when it turns out that they are unreliable as language cues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Magneto-ballistic transport in GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Santoruvo, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.santoruvo@epfl.ch; Allain, Adrien; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry

    2016-09-05

    The ballistic filtering property of nanoscale crosses was used to investigate the effect of perpendicular magnetic fields on the ballistic transport of electrons on wide band-gap GaN heterostructures. The straight scattering-less trajectory of electrons was modified by a perpendicular magnetic field which produced a strong non-linear behavior in the measured output voltage of the ballistic filters and allowed the observation of semi-classical and quantum effects, such as quenching of the Hall resistance and manifestation of the last plateau, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. A large measured phase coherence length of 190 nm allowed the observation of universal quantum fluctuationsmore » and weak localization of electrons due to quantum interference up to ∼25 K. This work also reveals the prospect of wide band-gap GaN semiconductors as a platform for basic transport and quantum studies, whose properties allow the investigation of ballistic transport and quantum phenomena at much larger voltages and temperatures than in other semiconductors.« less

  14. GaN nanophosphors for white-light applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mirgender; Singh, V. P.; Dubey, Sarvesh; Suh, Youngsuk; Park, Si-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    GaN nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by carbothermal reduction combined with nitridation, using Ga2O3 powder and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as precursors. Characterization of the NPs was performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was also performed to detect the chemical states of the different species. A universal yellow luminescence (YL) band was observed from complexes of Ga vacancies with O anti-sites and of O anti-sites with C. Further increments in the C content were observed with continued growth and induced an additional blue luminescence (BL) band. Tuning of the YL and BL bands resulted in white-light emission under certain experimental conditions, thus offering a new way of employing GaN nanophosphors for solid-state white lighting. Calculations of the correlated color temperature and color-quality scale parameters confirmed the utility of the experimental process for different applications.

  15. Research on quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Diao, Yu; Kong, Yike

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of three-dimensional continuity equation in semiconductors and finite difference method, the carrier concentration and the quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode as a function of incident photon energy are achieved. Results show that the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode is largely enhanced compared with the conventional planar photocathode. The superiority of the wire photocathode is reflected in its structure with surrounding surfaces. The quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode largely depends on the wire width, surface reflectivity, surface escape probability and incident angle of light. The back interface recombination rate, however, has little influences on the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode. The simulation results suggest that the optimal width for photoemission is 150-200 nm. Besides, the quantum efficiency increases and decreases linearly with increasing surface escape probability and surface reflectivity, respectively. With increasing ratio of wire spacing to wire height, the optimal incident angle of light is reduced. These simulations are expected to guide the preparation of a better performing GaN wire photocathode.

  16. Size dictated thermal conductivity of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beechem, Thomas E.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Fuller, Elliot J.; Talin, A. Alec; Rost, Christina M.; Maria, Jon-Paul; Gaskins, John T.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2016-09-01

    The thermal conductivity of n- and p-type doped gallium nitride (GaN) epilayers having thicknesses of 3-4 μm was investigated using time domain thermoreflectance. Despite possessing carrier concentrations ranging across 3 decades (1015-1018 cm-3), n-type layers exhibit a nearly constant thermal conductivity of 180 W/mK. The thermal conductivity of p-type epilayers, in contrast, reduces from 160 to 110 W/mK with increased doping. These trends—and their overall reduction relative to bulk—are explained leveraging established scattering models where it is shown that, while the decrease in p-type layers is partly due to the increased impurity levels evolving from its doping, size effects play a primary role in limiting the thermal conductivity of GaN layers tens of microns thick. Device layers, even of pristine quality, will therefore exhibit thermal conductivities less than the bulk value of 240 W/mK owing to their finite thickness.

  17. Atomic layer deposition of GaN at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ozgit, Cagla; Donmez, Inci; Alevli, Mustafa

    2012-01-15

    The authors report on the self-limiting growth of GaN thin films at low temperatures. Films were deposited on Si substrates by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMG) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the group-III and -V precursors, respectively. GaN deposition rate saturated at 185 deg. C for NH{sub 3} doses starting from 90 s. Atomic layer deposition temperature window was observed from 185 to {approx}385 deg. C. Deposition rate, which is constant at {approx}0.51 A/cycle within the temperature range of 250 - 350 deg. C, increased slightly as the temperature decreased to 185 deg. C. In the bulk film,more » concentrations of Ga, N, and O were constant at {approx}36.6, {approx}43.9, and {approx}19.5 at. %, respectively. C was detected only at the surface and no C impurities were found in the bulk film. High oxygen concentration in films was attributed to the oxygen impurities present in group-V precursor. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies revealed a microstructure consisting of small crystallites dispersed in an amorphous matrix.« less

  18. MARTA GANs: Unsupervised Representation Learning for Remote Sensing Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Daoyu; Fu, Kun; Wang, Yang; Xu, Guangluan; Sun, Xian

    2017-11-01

    With the development of deep learning, supervised learning has frequently been adopted to classify remotely sensed images using convolutional networks (CNNs). However, due to the limited amount of labeled data available, supervised learning is often difficult to carry out. Therefore, we proposed an unsupervised model called multiple-layer feature-matching generative adversarial networks (MARTA GANs) to learn a representation using only unlabeled data. MARTA GANs consists of both a generative model $G$ and a discriminative model $D$. We treat $D$ as a feature extractor. To fit the complex properties of remote sensing data, we use a fusion layer to merge the mid-level and global features. $G$ can produce numerous images that are similar to the training data; therefore, $D$ can learn better representations of remotely sensed images using the training data provided by $G$. The classification results on two widely used remote sensing image databases show that the proposed method significantly improves the classification performance compared with other state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Characteristics of GaN material and application in UV detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jianliang; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Xiaohui; Qian, Yunsheng; Chang, Benkang

    2012-10-01

    For the characteristics such as wide bandgap, low dielectric constant, ability to bear high temperature, ability to resist radiation etc., GaN material can be used for UV solar blind detection in very rigorous environments. But for a long time, the preparation technology for GaN material has been still keeping it from being used extensively. GaN photocathode with good future is developed slowly in the field of UV detection. The key method of obtaining effective photoemission is to reduce the vacuum energy level of GaN emission surface, make it lower than bulk conduction band minimum. Negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathode can convert the light under 365 nm to the photoelectrons that can be sent to the free space. The surface potential of NEA GaN photocathode is made up of two straight line sections with different slope. As the first dipole layer, [GaN(Mg):Cs] dipole brings 3.0 eV decline of the vacuum energy level, make the GaN photocathode surface obtain about -1.0 eV effective negative electron affinity. The second dipole O-Cs makes effective electron affinity reduce further to - 1.2 eV. The results show: near 37% quantum efficiency can be gotten at the wavelength 200 nm for reflection-mode GaN photocathode, and the quantum efficiency reaches up to 13% at 290 nm in transmission mode. The large quantum efficiency and high stability are very good properties for UV detection devices employing GaN photoemitter.

  20. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Primed and Non-primed Rice Seedlings under Submergence Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Saddam; Yin, Hanqi; Peng, Shaobing; Khan, Faheem A.; Khan, Fahad; Sameeullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Hafiz A.; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Submergence stress is a limiting factor for direct-seeded rice systems in rainfed lowlands and flood-prone areas of South and Southeast Asia. The present study demonstrated that submergence stress severely hampered the germination and seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming alleviated the detrimental effects of submergence stress. To elucidate the molecular basis of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance, transcriptome analyses were performed using 4-day-old primed (selenium-Se and salicylic acid-SA priming) and non-primed rice seedlings under submergence stress. Genomewide transcriptomic profiling identified 2371 and 2405 transcripts with Se- and SA-priming, respectively, that were differentially expressed in rice compared with non-priming treatment under submergence. Pathway and gene ontology term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in regulation of secondary metabolism, development, cell, transport, protein, and metal handling were over-represented after Se- or SA-priming. These coordinated factors might have enhanced the submergence tolerance and maintained the better germination and vigorous seedling growth of primed rice seedlings. It was also found that many genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes such as carbohydrate metabolism, cellular, and metabolic biosynthesis, nitrogen compound metabolic process, transcription, and response to oxidative stress were induced and overlapped in seed priming treatments, a finding which reveals the common mechanism of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance. Taken together, these results may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced responses to submergence tolerance in crop plants. PMID:27516766

  1. The Effect of Prime Duration in Masked Orthographic Priming Depends on Neighborhood Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A lexical decision task was used with a masked priming procedure to investigate whether and to what extent neighborhood distribution influences the effect of prime duration in masked orthographic priming. French word targets had two higher frequency neighbors that were either distributed over two letter positions (e.g., "LOBE/robe-loge")…

  2. Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

  3. Priming effects on the N400 in the affective priming paradigm with facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Luis; Dieguez-Risco, Teresa; Méndez-Bértolo, Constantino; Pozo, Miguel A; Hinojosa, José A

    2013-06-01

    We studied the effect of facial expression primes on the evaluation of target words through a variant of the affective priming paradigm. In order to make the affective valence of the faces irrelevant to the task, the participants were assigned a double prime-target task in which they were unpredictably asked either to identify the gender of the face or to evaluate whether the word was pleasant or unpleasant. Behavioral and electrophysiological (event-related potential, or ERP) indices of affective priming were analyzed. Temporal and spatial versions of principal components analyses were used to detect and quantify those ERP components associated with affective priming. Although no significant behavioral priming was observed, electrophysiological indices showed a reverse priming effect, in the sense that the amplitude of the N400 was higher in response to congruent than to incongruent negative words. Moreover, a late positive potential (LPP), peaking around 700 ms, was sensitive to affective valence but not to prime-target congruency. This pattern of results is consistent with previous accounts of ERP effects in the affective priming paradigm that have linked the LPP with evaluative priming and the N400 with semantic priming. Our proposed explanation of the N400 priming effects obtained in the present study is based on two assumptions: a double check of affective stimuli in terms of valence and specific emotion content, and the differential specificities of facial expressions of positive and negative emotions.

  4. On the robustness of prime response retrieval processes: evidence from auditory negative priming without probe interference.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel

    2014-02-01

    Visual negative priming has been shown to depend on the presence of probe distractors, a finding that has been traditionally seen to support the episodic retrieval model of negative priming; however, facilitated prime-to-probe contingency learning might also underlie this effect. In four sound identification experiments, the role of probe distractor interference in auditory negative priming was investigated. In each experiment, a group of participants was exposed to probe distractor interference while another group ran the task in the absence of probe distractors. Experiments 1A, 1B, and 1C varied in the extent to which fast versus accurate responding was required. Between Experiments 1 and 2, the spatial cueing of the to-be-attended ear was varied. Whereas participants switched ears from prime to probe in Experiment 1, they kept a stable attentional focus throughout Experiment 2. For trials with probe distractors, a negative priming effect was present in all experiments. For trials without probe distractors, the only ubiquitous after-effect of ignoring a prime distractor was an increase of prime response errors in ignored repetition compared to control trials, indicating that prime response retrieval processes took place. Whether negative priming beyond this error increase was found depended on the stability of the attentional focus. The findings suggest that several mechanisms underlie auditory negative priming with the only robust one being prime response retrieval.

  5. Unconscious congruency priming from unpracticed words is modulated by prime-target semantic relatedness.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Marí-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllón, Vanesa

    2013-03-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility were used in all experiments. On 80% of the trials the primes and targets belonged to different categories (incongruent trials), whereas in the remaining 20% (congruent trials) they could be either strong or weak semantically related category members. Positive congruency effects (reaction times faster on congruent than on incongruent trials) were consistently found, but only when the mask immediately followed the primes, and participants reported being unaware of the identity of the primes. Primes followed by a delayed mask (such that participants reported being aware of their identity) produced either nonreliable facilitation or reliable reversed priming (strategic), depending on whether the prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony was either short (200 ms; Experiments 1 and 4) or long (1,000 ms; Experiment 4). Facilitatory priming with immediate mask was found strong (a) even for participants who performed at chance in prime visibility tests; and (b) for high but not for weakly semantically related category coordinates, irrespective of category size (animals, body parts). These findings provide evidence that unconscious congruency priming by unpracticed words from large stimulus sets critically depends on associative strength and/or semantic similarity between category coexemplars. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Tight Coupling between Positive and Reversed Priming in the Masked Prime Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy, Frederic; Sumner, Petroc

    2010-01-01

    When associations between certain visual stimuli and particular actions are learned, those stimuli become capable of automatically and unconsciously activating their associated action plans. Such sensorimotor priming is assumed to be fundamental for efficient responses, and can be reliably measured in masked prime studies even when the primes are…

  7. Inverse Target- and Cue-Priming Effects of Masked Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattler, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    The processing of a visual target that follows a briefly presented prime stimulus can be facilitated if prime and target stimuli are similar. In contrast to these positive priming effects, inverse priming effects (or negative compatibility effects) have been found when a mask follows prime stimuli before the target stimulus is presented: Responses…

  8. Amount of Priming in the Difference of Mental Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanamori, Nobuhiro; Yagi, Akihiro

    2005-01-01

    We examined in detail effects of priming in 2 mental rotation strategies: spinning (rotating in a picture plane) and flipping (rotating in depth around a horizontal axis) by using a priming paradigm of Kanamori and Yagi (2002). The priming paradigm included prime and probe tasks within 1 trial. In the prime task, 16 participants were asked to…

  9. Defect reduction in GaN regrown on hexagonal mask structure by facet assisted lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimoradi Jazi, M.; Meisch, T.; Klein, M.; Scholz, F.

    2015-11-01

    It is demonstrated that the threading dislocation density in GaN is considerably reduced by Facet Assisted Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (FACELO) on a hexagonal honeycomb grid structure. We observed a more isotropic strain and curvature development in the GaN layer by such a mask geometry. Here, we describe how to achieve a nearly dislocation-free surface by a fairly complex variation of the epitaxial growth parameters. Eventually, dislocation analysis of epitaxially grown GaN using an HCl vapor phase etching process resulted in dislocation densities below 106cm-2.

  10. Blue luminescence from amorphous GaN nanoparticles synthesized {ital in situ} in a polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Leppert, V.J.; Risbud, S.H.

    1999-04-01

    Amorphous GaN nanoparticles were synthesized by the {ital in situ} thermal decomposition of cyclotrigallazane incorporated into a polystyrene{endash}poly({ital N,N}-dimethyl-4-vinylaniline) copolymer. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that the composite material consists of amorphous GaN nanoparticles (average diameter {approximately}40 nm) well dispersed in the copolymer. The photoluminescence spectra show blue light emission from the amorphous GaN nanoparticles, peaked at {approximately}426 nm. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Redshift of A 1(longitudinal optical) mode for GaN crystals under strong electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hong; Wu, Kaijie; Zheng, Shunan; Shi, Lin; Zhang, Min; Liu, Zhenghui; Liu, Xinke; Wang, Jianfeng; Zhou, Taofei; Xu, Ke

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the property of GaN crystals under a strong electric field. The Raman spectra of GaN were measured using an ultraviolet laser, and a remarkable redshift of the A 1(LO) mode was observed. The role of the surface depletion layer was discussed, and the interrelation between the electric field and phonons was revealed. First-principles calculations indicated that, in particular, the phonons that vibrate along the [0001] direction are strongly influenced by the electric field. This effect was confirmed by a surface photovoltage experiment. The results revealed the origin of the redshift and presented the phonon property of GaN under a strong electric field.

  12. Linear Distributed GaN MMIC Power Amplifier with Improved Power-added Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    2017 HRL Laboratories, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Linear Distributed GaN MMIC Power Amplifier with Improved Power - added Efficiency 1) HRL...output power of ~35 dBm at Vdd = 17 V. The PAE improved by 7% – 10% within the band compared to the previous NDPA with 150-nm gate-length GaN FETs...QPSK LTE waveform, the ACPR1improved by ~10 dBc at average output power of 23 dBm, without digital pre-distortion. Keywords: GaN, linear amplifiers

  13. Single-mode ultraviolet whispering gallery mode lasing from a floating GaN microdisk.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gangyi; Li, Jiaping; Li, Jitao; Guo, Jiyuan; Dai, Jun; Xu, Chunxiang; Wang, Yongjin

    2018-02-15

    We fabricated a floating GaN microdisk supported by a silicon pillar through photolithography, dry-etching GaN, and isotropic wet-etching silicon methods. Single-mode ultraviolet whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing was obtained from the floating GaN microdisk under optical pumping conditions at room temperature. The features of WGM lasing, i.e., the threshold, emission intensity, and lasing mode number, were characterized. A two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation about the optical field contour profile also confirmed the resonance mechanism of WGM lasing. This work can help realize single-mode WGM lasing with high quality factor and low threshold.

  14. Synthesis and field emission performance for P-doped GaN NWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Enling; Yan, Jie; Ma, Deming; Cui, Zhen; Qi, Qingping

    2018-03-01

    P-doped GaN NWs in different contents have been synthesized via CCVD. The P-doped GaN NWs present a uniform density and the each nanowire possesses a uniform thickness. The structure of the NWs is single crystalline structure of hexagonal wurtzite. Furthermore, the results from FE test indicate that the turn-on field of the sample with P content of 2.24 at. % is as low as 2.85 V/μm, which presents significant improvement of the FE properties in contrast to pristine GaN NWs.

  15. A Paradox of Syntactic Priming: Why Response Tendencies Show Priming for Passives, and Response Latencies Show Priming for Actives

    PubMed Central

    Segaert, Katrien; Menenti, Laura; Weber, Kirsten; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Speakers tend to repeat syntactic structures across sentences, a phenomenon called syntactic priming. Although it has been suggested that repeating syntactic structures should result in speeded responses, previous research has focused on effects in response tendencies. We investigated syntactic priming effects simultaneously in response tendencies and response latencies for active and passive transitive sentences in a picture description task. In Experiment 1, there were priming effects in response tendencies for passives and in response latencies for actives. However, when participants' pre-existing preference for actives was altered in Experiment 2, syntactic priming occurred for both actives and passives in response tendencies as well as in response latencies. This is the first investigation of the effects of structure frequency on both response tendencies and latencies in syntactic priming. We discuss the implications of these data for current theories of syntactic processing. PMID:22022352

  16. Selective area growth of GaN on trench-patterned nonpolar bulk GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shunsuke; Iwai, Hiroki; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa

    2017-06-01

    Selective area growth of GaN (SAG-GaN) films grown on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrates using trench patterns was performed by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. We investigated the transformation of SAG-GaN facet structures by changing growth temperature, ambient, and miscut angle of substrates. Substrates with trench patterns along a-axis formed (10-11), (10-10), and (000-1) facet structures after SAG-GaN growth for growth conditions of 800 °C in N2+NH3 and 1000 °C in H2+NH3 ambience. Those with trench pattern along 45° off from a-axis contained (11-22), (10-10), (0-110) facet structures in substrates with a miscut angle of 5° whereas SAG-GaN films completely coalesced and formed smooth (10-10) surface in substrates with a miscut angle of 1°. Undesirable grains were formed for 800 °C in N2+NH3 ambience regardless of the miscut angle of substrates whereas theses grains were annihilated using 1000 °C in H2+NH3 ambience due to the intensively hydrogen etching.

  17. Structural study of GaN grown on nonpolar bulk GaN substrates with trench patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shunsuke; Iwai, Hiroki; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa

    2017-12-01

    The selective-area growth of GaN (SAG-GaN) films on nonpolar bulk GaN substrates with trench patterns was performed by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. We investigated the transformation of SAG-GaN facet structures by changing the direction of the trench patterns. Anisotropic SAG-GaN structures with the (10\\bar{1}1) facet on the (0001) plane sidewall, the (10\\bar{1}0) facet on the top surface, and the (000\\bar{1}) facet on the (000\\bar{1}) plane sidewall appeared for trench patterns along the a-axis. The width of (10\\bar{1}1) facets decreased whereas (10\\bar{1}0) facets expanded with increasing off angle of trench patterns from the a-axis. On the other hand, hexagonal facet structures with {10\\bar{1}0} facets appeared for trench patterns along the c-axis. (10\\bar{1}0) facets on the top surface expanded with increasing off angle of trench patterns from the c-axis, similar to the results of using trench patterns along the a-axis. Basal-plane stacking faults were annihilated by using trench-patterned substrates. Low basal-plane stacking fault (BSF) density and faster coalescence were obtained for the off angle of trench patterns of around 6° from the c-axis.

  18. Phonological Priming in Children's Picture Naming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Patricia J.; MacWhinney, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words were presented over headphones. Results indicate that priming effects reach a peak during a time when articulatory information is being…

  19. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  20. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  1. Does Verb Bias Modulate Syntactic Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In a corpus analysis of spontaneous speech Jaeger and Snider (2007) found that the strength of structural priming is correlated with verb alternation bias. This finding is consistent with an implicit learning account of syntactic priming: because the implicit learning model implemented by Chang (2002), Chang, Dell, and Bock (2006), and Chang,…

  2. Masked Repetition Priming Treatment for Anomia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silkes, JoAnn P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Masked priming has been suggested as a way to directly target implicit lexical retrieval processes in aphasia. This study was designed to investigate repeated use of masked repetition priming to improve picture naming in individuals with anomia due to aphasia. Method: A single-subject, multiple-baseline design was used across 6 people…

  3. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  4. Visual Priming of Inverted and Rotated Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Barbara J.; McAuliffe, Sean P.; Coelho, Chase J.; Hummel, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Object images are identified more efficiently after prior exposure. Here, the authors investigated shape representations supporting object priming. The dependent measure in all experiments was the minimum exposure duration required to correctly identify an object image in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Priming was defined as the change…

  5. Morphological Priming Effects on Children's Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Joao Manuel; Nunes, Terezinha

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that children in the early grades of primary school do not have much awareness of morphemes. In this study, a priming paradigm was used to try to detect early signs of morphological representation of stems through a spelling task presented to Portuguese children (N = 805; age range 6-9 years). Primes shared the stem…

  6. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  7. Syntactic priming in American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew L; Ferreira, Victor S; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL). Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2) signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect). Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming) operates similarly in sign and speech.

  8. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth and...

  9. Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states of impurities in a triangular lattice of NbSe2 with spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptok, Andrzej; Głodzik, Szczepan; Domański, Tadeusz

    2017-11-01

    We study the topography of the spin-polarized bound states of magnetic impurities embedded in a triangular lattice of a superconducting host. Such states have been observed experimentally in 2 H -NbSe2 crystal [G. C. Ménard et al., Nat. Phys. 11, 1013 (2015), 10.1038/nphys3508], and they revealed oscillating particle-hole asymmetry extending to tens of nanometers. Using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, we explore the Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. We also study the bound states of double impurities for several relative positions in a triangular lattice.

  10. Does translation involve structural priming?

    PubMed

    Maier, Robert M; Pickering, Martin J; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2017-08-01

    When asked to translate utterances, people might merely make sure that their translations have the same meaning as the source, but they might also maintain aspects of sentence form across languages. We report two experiments in which English-German and German-English bilinguals (without specialist translator training) repeated German ditransitive sentences whose meaning was compatible with more than one grammatical form or translated them into English. Participants almost invariably repeated the sentences accurately, thereby retaining the grammatical structure. Importantly, Experiment 1 found that they tended to repeat grammatical form across languages. Experiment 2 included a condition with sentences that had no grammatical equivalent form in English; here participants tended to persist in the order of thematic roles. We argue that cross-linguistic structural priming plays a major role in the act of translation.

  11. Apollo 17 prime crew portrait

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-09-30

    S72-50438 (September 1972) --- These three astronauts are the prime crew members of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. They are Eugene A. Cernan (seated), commander; Ronald E. Evans (standing on right), command module pilot; and Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot. They are photographed with a Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) trainer. Cernan and Schmitt will use an LRV during their exploration of the Taurus-Littrow landing site. The Apollo 17 Saturn V space vehicle is in the background. This picture was taken at Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The Apollo 17 insignia is in the photo insert at upper left. The insignia, designed by artist Robert T. McCall in collaboration with the crewmen, is dominated by the image of Apollo, the Greek sun god.

  12. Apollo 13 - Prime Crew Portrait

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-12-11

    S69-62224 (December 1969) --- The members of the prime crew of the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission (left to right) are astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., commander; Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot; and Fred W. Haise Jr., lunar module pilot. They are seated in front of a scene of the Lagoon Nebula, with the mission insignia and two items of early navigation in the foreground. Represented in the Apollo 13 emblem (center) is Apollo, the sun god of Greek mythology, symbolizing that the Apollo flights have extended the light of knowledge to all mankind. The Latin phrase Ex Luna, Scientia means "From the Moon, Knowledge." The Hindu astrolabe in Sanskrit (on right) was used to predict the position of celestial bodies before the invention of the octant (on left) was used in 1790 to determine the altitude of celestial bodies from aboard ship.

  13. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  14. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    PubMed

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  15. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation.

  16. Movement-Based Priming: Clinical Applications and Neural Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Corcos, Daniel Montie; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2017-01-01

    Priming can be described as behavior change generated by preceding stimuli. Although various types of priming have been long studied in the field of psychology, priming that targets motor cortex is a relatively new topic of research in the fields of motor control and rehabilitation. In reference to a rehabilitation intervention, priming is categorized as a restorative approach. There are a myriad of possible priming approaches including noninvasive brain stimulation, motor imagery, and sensory-based priming, to name a few. The authors report on movement-based priming which, compared to other priming types, is less frequently examined and under reported. Movement-based priming includes, but is not limited to, bilateral motor priming, unilateral priming, and aerobic exercise. Clinical and neural mechanistic aspects of movement-based priming techniques are explored.

  17. Bulk GaN single crystal growth for substrate by solvent-thermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, T. I.; Lee, H. J.; Chung, K. W.; Kang, M. S.; Yoon, D. H.

    2004-09-01

    We grew bulk GaN single crystals by solvent-thermal method. GaN single crystals were synthesized at 600-800 °C and 6-8 MPa of N2 gas for 200 h. We used 99% pure Na as a flux. The mole fraction of Na / (Na+Ga) were 0.30-0.67. A pyramid GaN single crystal having a size of 1-3 mm grew on the bottom and wall of a sintered BN crucible. We confirmed wurtzite structure GaN which was grown single crystal through XRD pattern. The chemical composition was investigated by EPMA. Raman spectroscopy yielded narrow peaks representing only the modes allowed for the wurtzite structure.

  18. Boron doped GaN and InN: Potential candidates for spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, S. W.; Huang, X. N.; Yao, K. L.

    2017-02-01

    The full potential linearized augmented plane wave method together with the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential is utilized to investigate the electronic structures and magnetism for boron doped GaN and InN. Calculations show the boron substituting nitrogen (BN defects) could induce the GaN and InN to be half-metallic ferromagnets. The magnetic moments mainly come from the BN defects, and each BN defect would produce the 2.00 μB total magnetic moment. The electronic structures indicate the carriers-mediated double exchange interaction plays a crucial role in forming the ferromagnetism. Positive chemical pair interactions imply the BN defects would form the homogeneous distribution in GaN and InN matrix. Moderate formation energies suggest that GaN and InN with BN defects could be fabricated experimentally.

  19. The GaN trench gate MOSFET with floating islands: High breakdown voltage and improved BFOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lingyan; Müller, Stephan; Cheng, Xinhong; Zhang, Dongliang; Zheng, Li; Xu, Dawei; Yu, Yuehui; Meissner, Elke; Erlbacher, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    A novel GaN trench gate (TG) MOSFET with P-type floating islands (FLI) in drift region, which can suppress the electric field peak at bottom of gate trench during the blocking state and prevent premature breakdown in gate oxide, is proposed and investigated by TCAD simulations. The influence of thickness, position, doping concentration and length of the FLI on breakdown voltage (BV) and specific on-resistance (Ron_sp) is studied, providing useful guidelines for design of this new type of device. Using optimized parameters for the FLI, GaN FLI TG-MOSFET obtains a BV as high as 2464 V with a Ron_sp of 3.0 mΩ cm2. Compared to the conventional GaN TG-MOSFET with the same structure parameters, the Baliga figure of merit (BFOM) is enhanced by 150%, getting closer to theoretical limit for GaN devices.

  20. Spectroscopic investigation of native defect induced electron-phonon coupling in GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, Santanu; Patsha, Avinash; Bera, Santanu; Dhara, Sandip

    2017-07-01

    The integration of advanced optoelectronic properties in nanoscale devices of group III nitride can be realized by understanding the coupling of charge carriers with optical excitations in these nanostructures. The native defect induced electron-phonon coupling in GaN nanowires are reported using various spectroscopic studies. The GaN nanowires having different native defects are grown in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed the variation of Ga/N ratios in nanowires having possible native defects, with respect to their growth parameters. The analysis of the characteristic features of electron-phonon coupling in the Raman spectra show the variations in carrier density and mobility, with respect to the native defects in unintentionally doped GaN nanowires. The radiative recombination of donor acceptor pair transitions and the corresponding LO phonon replicas observed in photoluminescence studies further emphasize the role of native defects in electron-phonon coupling.

  1. Characteristics of GaN and AlGaN/GaN FinFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Ki-Sik; Kang, Hee-Sung; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Chang, Sung-Jae; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Bawedin, Maryline; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2014-07-01

    AlGaN/GaN FinFETs, with high quality atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 gate dielectric, have been fabricated. The devices have a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel formed at AlGaN/GaN heterointerface and two sidewall GaN MOS channels. Two distinct transconductance peaks can be observed, one for the 2DEG channel and the other for the sidewall GaN MOS channels. On the other hand, we present heterojunction-free GaN FinFETs with junctionless configuration. The current flows through the volume of the heavily doped GaN fin rather than at the surface channel, which leads to superior off-state performance and less drain-induced virtual substrate biasing (DIVSB) effect.

  2. Clinical and molecular findings in patients with giant axonal neuropathy (GAN).

    PubMed

    Bruno, C; Bertini, E; Federico, A; Tonoli, E; Lispi, M L; Cassandrini, D; Pedemonte, M; Santorelli, F M; Filocamo, M; Dotti, M T; Schenone, A; Malandrini, A; Minetti, C

    2004-01-13

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder of early onset, clinically characterized by a progressive involvement of both peripheral and CNS. The diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic giant axons, filled with neurofilaments, on nerve biopsy. Recently, the defective protein, gigaxonin, has been identified and different pathogenic mutations in the gigaxonin gene have been reported as the underlying genetic defect. Gigaxonin, a member of the BTB/kelch superfamily proteins, seems to play a crucial role in the cross talk between the intermediate filaments and the membrane network. The authors report clinical and molecular findings in five Italian patients with GAN. This study shows the allelic heterogeneity of GAN and expands the spectrum of mutations in the GAN gene. The frequent occurrence of private mutations stresses the importance of a complete gene analysis.

  3. Characterization of an Mg-implanted GaN p-i-n Diode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    Characterization of an Mg- implanted GaN p-i-n Diode Travis J. Anderson, Jordan D. Greenlee, Boris N. Feigelson, Karl D. Hobart, and Francis J...Kub Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 Abstract: A p-i-n diode formed by the implantation of Mg in GaN was fabricated and...characterized. After implantation , Mg was activated using the symmetrical multicycle rapid thermal annealing technique with heating pulses up to 1340C

  4. Temperature Dependence of the Piezotronic and Piezophototronic Effects in a-axis GaN Nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingfu; Yu, Ruomeng; Peng, Wenbo; Wu, Wenzhuo; Li, Shuti; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    The temperature dependence of the piezotronic and piezophototronic effects in a-axis GaN nanobelts from 77 to 300 K is investigated. The piezotronic effect is enhanced by over 440% under lower temp-eratures. Two independent processes are discovered to form a competing mechanism through the investigation of the temperature dependence of the piezophototronic effect in a-axis GaN nanobelts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Gadolinium-Based GaN for Neutron Detection with Gamma Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    diodes since the proposed neutron convertor is Gd, which emits fast electrons upon neutron capture. Diode N7 appeared to show a good response to a 14C...research. Workable GaN Schottky diode radiation detectors were successfully fabricated and tested. The first year has, however, seen a significant effort...Epitaxy (HVPE) grown GaN substrate (Kyma technology [3]) was employed and the sandwich structure Schottky diode was fabricated, on which both alpha and

  6. Optimization of GaN Nanorod Growth Conditions for Coalescence Overgrowth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-04

    techniques can lead to an outperforming LED device with the NR structure. 15. SUBJECT TERMS nanotechnology , GaN, Coalescence Overgrowth 16. SECURITY...metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, Nanotechnology 18 (2007) 445601. [4] T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y...Wehmann, A. Waag, Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells, Nanotechnology 21 (2010

  7. Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN): case report and two novel mutations in the gigaxonin gene.

    PubMed

    Kuhlenbäumer, G; Young, P; Oberwittler, C; Hünermund, G; Schirmacher, A; Domschke, K; Ringelstein, B; Stögbauer, F

    2002-04-23

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder clinically characterized by a severe polyneuropathy, CNS abnormalities, and characteristic tightly curled hair. Recently, mutations in the gigaxonin gene have been identified as the underlying genetic defect. The authors report two novel mutations confirming that GAN is caused by mutations in the gigaxonin gene and raise the question whether some mutations may cause a mild subclinical neuropathy.

  8. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; ...

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444kW/cm 2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent controlmore » over the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.« less

  9. Vacancy charged defects in two-dimensional GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Roberto; López-Pérez, William; González-García, Álvaro; Moreno-Armenta, María G.; González-Hernández, Rafael

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we have studied the structural and electronic properties of vacancy charged defects in the graphene phase (honeycomb type) of gallium nitride (g-GaN) by using first-principle calculations within the framework of the Density Functional Theory. It is found that the vacancies introduce defect levels in the band gap, and these generate a total magnetization in the g-GaN system. The formation energy with different charge states for the vacancies of gallium and nitrogen were calculated, obtaining higher energies than the GaN wurtzite phase (w-GaN). Furthermore, nitrogen vacancies were found to be more stable than gallium vacancies in a whole range of electronic chemical potential. Finally, gallium and nitrogen vacancies produce a nonzero magnetic moment in g-GaN, making it a potential candidate for future spintronics applications.

  10. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  11. Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN /GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (112¯2)-plane GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Hisashi; Baker, Troy J.; Iza, Michael; Zhong, Hong; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2006-12-01

    Light polarization and emission spectra from InGaN /GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were investigated. The LEDs were prepared on the (112¯2) plane of wurtzite GaN. Polarization and spectrum measurement was performed at different observation angles with respect to the LED surface. Partially polarized electroluminescence was confirmed at any angle of observation, where the emission intensity tended to be greater when a polarizer was aligned along the c axis of the InGaN /GaN LED structure. The results clearly indicated the inclination of the c axis relative to the LED surface. As a result, two light polarizations were identified and they were assigned to two different electronic transitions in relation to emission peak energies. Possible alteration of the valence-band structure was suggested due to the induced strain.

  12. Carrier confinement effects of InxGa1-xN/GaN multi quantum disks with GaN surface barriers grown in GaN nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngsin; Chan, Christopher C. S.; Taylor, Robert A.; Kim, Nammee; Jo, Yongcheol; Lee, Seung W.; Yang, Woochul; Im, Hyunsik

    2018-04-01

    Structural and optical properties of InxGa1-xN/GaN multi quantum disks (QDisks) grown on GaN nanorods by molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and micro-photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Two types of InGaN QDisks were grown: a pseudo-3D confined InGaN pillar-type QDisks embedded in GaN nanorods; and QDisks in flanged cone type GaN nanorods. The PL emission peak and excitation dependent PL behavior of the pillar-type Qdisks differ greatly from those of the flanged cone type QDisks. Time resolved PL was carried out to probe the differences in charge carrier dynamics. The results suggest that by constraining the formation of InGaN QDisks within the centre of the nanorod, carriers are restricted from migrating to the surface, decreasing the surface recombination at high carrier densities.

  13. Influence of in-situ deposited SiNx interlayer on crystal quality of GaN epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Teng; Jia, Wei; Tong, Guangyun; Zhai, Guangmei; Li, Tianbao; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-05-01

    GaN epitaxial films with SiNx interlayers were prepared by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates. The influences of deposition times and locations of SiNx interlayers on crystal quality of GaN epitaxial films were studied. Under the optimal growth time of 120 s for the SiNx interlayer, the dislocation density of GaN film is reduced to 4.05 × 108 cm-2 proved by high resolution X-ray diffraction results. It is found that when the SiNx interlayer deposits on the GaN nucleation islands, the subsequent GaN film has the lowest dislocation density of only 2.89 × 108 cm-2. Moreover, a model is proposed to illustrate the morphological evolution and associated propagation processes of TDs in GaN epi-layers with SiNx interlayers for different deposition times and locations.

  14. m-Plane GaN Films Grown on Patterned a-Plane Sapphire Substrates with 3-inch Diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuno, Koji; Saito, Yoshiki; Boyama, Shinya; Nakada, Naoyuki; Nitta, Shugo; Tohmon, Ryoichi George; Ushida, Yasuhisa; Shibata, Naoki

    2009-03-01

    Nonpolar m-plane GaN films have been grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates (diameter: 3 in.) without dielectric masks made of materials such as SiO2. The m-plane GaN layer had a smooth and transparent surface over the entire area of the substrate. Furthermore, the epitaxial relationships between the m-plane GaN film and the patterned a-plane sapphire substrate were as follows: [0001]GaN∥[0001]Sapphire and [1120]GaN∥[1010]Sapphire. The full width at half maximum values of the X-ray rocking curves for (1010) GaN along [1120]GaN and [0001]GaN were found to be 396 and 565 arcsec, respectively.

  15. Low temperature homoepitaxy of GaN structures by Vapor Liquid Solid transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaud, Alexandre; Auvray, Laurent; Kahouli, Abdelkarim; Abi-Tannous, Tony; Linas, Sébastien; Ferro, Gabriel; Brylinski, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Low temperature (500-800 °C) homoepitaxy of not intentionally doped GaN structures on GaN(0 0 0 1)/Si(1 1 1) seed has been investigated by Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) approach. The growth sequence consists in the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of a network of submicrometric liquid Ga droplets, followed by their nitridation under flowing ammonia diluted either in H2 or Ar. When nitridation is performed under Ar carrier gas, GaN growth is very difficult to control due to too high N supersaturation within the droplets, despite very low NH3 flows. Nucleation and growth at the droplets periphery are always favored and, in most cases, high growth rates induce a crust-like growth, forming hollow GaN gangues. The use of H2 as carrier gas is detrimental to GaN (seed and grown material) stability, for nitridation temperatures ≥700 °C. But, compared to Ar atmosphere, a pronounced decrease of N supersaturation is demonstrated, allowing a better control of the growth mode. This is probably a consequence of a lower thermal decomposition efficiency of NH3 at the droplets surface. Optimal growth conditions are found at relatively low temperature (600 °C) and NH3 flow (20 sccm) for which a network of well-separated and faceted epitaxial GaN dots or rings is obtained. The growth mechanisms allowing these results are discussed.

  16. Layered transition metal dichalcogenides: promising near-lattice-matched substrates for GaN growth

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priti; Rahman, A. A.; Subramanian, Shruti; Gupta, Shalini; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Orlova, Tatyana; Rouvimov, Sergei; Vishwanath, Suresh; Protasenko, Vladimir; Laskar, Masihhur R.; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Most III-nitride semiconductors are grown on non-lattice-matched substrates like sapphire or silicon due to the extreme difficulty of obtaining a native GaN substrate. We show that several layered transition-metal dichalcogenides are closely lattice-matched to GaN and report the growth of GaN on a range of such layered materials. We report detailed studies of the growth of GaN on mechanically-exfoliated flakes WS2 and MoS2 by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. Structural and optical characterization show that strain-free, single-crystal islands of GaN are obtained on the underlying chalcogenide flakes. We obtain strong near-band-edge emission from these layers, and analyse their temperature-dependent photoluminescence properties. We also report a proof-of-concept demonstration of large-area growth of GaN on CVD MoS2. Our results show that the transition-metal dichalcogenides can serve as novel near-lattice-matched substrates for nitride growth. PMID:27025461

  17. Electron transport properties of degenerate n-type GaN prepared by pulsed sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Kohei; Fudetani, Taiga; Arakawa, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the transport properties of highly degenerate electrons in Ge-doped and Si-doped GaN epilayers prepared using the pulsed sputtering deposition (PSD) technique. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry and Hall-effect measurements revealed that the doping efficiency of PSD n-type GaN is close to unity at electron concentrations as high as 5.1 × 1020 cm-3. A record low resistivity for n-type GaN of 0.16 mΩ cm was achieved with an electron mobility of 100 cm2 V-1 s-1 at a carrier concentration of 3.9 × 1020 cm-3. We explain this unusually high electron mobility of PSD n-type GaN within the framework of conventional scattering theory by modifying a parameter related to nonparabolicity of the conduction band. The Ge-doped GaN films show a slightly lower electron mobility compared with Si-doped films with the same carrier concentrations, which is likely a consequence of the formation of a small number of compensation centers. The excellent electrical properties presented in this letter clearly demonstrate the striking advantages of the low-temperature PSD technique for growing high-quality and highly conductive n-type GaN.

  18. [Two novel pathogenic mutations of GAN gene identified in a patient with giant axonal neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Ma, Qingwen; Cai, Qin; Liu, Yanna; Wang, Wei; Ren, Zhaorui

    2016-06-01

    To explore the disease-causing mutations in a patient suspected for giant axonal neuropathy(GAN). Target sequence capture sequencing was used to screen potential mutations in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood sample of the patient. Sanger sequencing was applied to confirm the detected mutation. The mutation was verified among 400 GAN alleles from 200 healthy individuals by Sanger sequencing. The function of the mutations was predicted by bioinformatics analysis. The patient was identified as a compound heterozygote carrying two novel pathogenic GAN mutations, i.e., c.778G>T (p.Glu260Ter) and c.277G>A (p.Gly93Arg). Sanger sequencing confirmed that the c.778G>T (p.Glu260Ter) mutation was inherited from his father, while c.277G>A (p.Gly93Arg) was inherited from his mother. The same mutations was not found in the 200 healthy individuals. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the two mutations probably caused functional abnormality of gigaxonin. Two novel GAN mutations were detected in a patient with GAN. Both mutations are pathogenic and can cause abnormalities of gigaxonin structure and function, leading to pathogenesis of GAN. The results may also offer valuable information for similar diseases.

  19. Progress in the fabrication of GaN photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Wessels, Bruce W.; Shahedipour, Fatemeh; Korotokov, Roman Y.; Joseph, Charles L.; Nihashi, Tokuaki

    2001-06-01

    Currently, photo-cathodes hold the highest promise in the near term (next few years) of being able to detect low light level UV signals at high QE while being nearly blind to visible wavelengths. We briefly discuss the requirements for UV detection for astronomical applications, and then we describe our work on producing GaN based photo-cathodes. The p-type GaN films were grown on sapphire at Northwestern University. The films were then converted into opaque photo-cathodes inside photo-tubes at Hamamatsu. Hamamatsu tested detective quantum efficiencies (DQE) of these detectors to be as high as 30% at 200 nm. The ratio of peak DQE at 200 nm to the minimum DQE at 500 nm was measured to be about 6 X 103. We found a dramatic increase in the DQE at 200 nm versus the conductivity, with the break point being near 0.13 1/(Ohm-cm). Based on this dramatic increase, we believe that further improvement in photo-cathode quantum efficiencies can be achieved by increasing the conductivity. We have recently achieved more than an order of magnitude increase in conductivity by co-doping techniques. Improvements in the solar blindness of the devices depend both on characteristics of the film and its surface properties. A detailed discussion of decreasing the visible response and producing a sharper wave-length cutoff is beyond the scope of this work, but we briefly discuss the attributes that most likely affect the wavelength dependence of the photo-cathode response.

  20. Test sequence priming in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Johns, Elizabeth E; Mewhort, D J K

    2009-09-01

    The authors examined priming within the test sequence in 3 recognition memory experiments. A probe primed its successor whenever both probes shared a feature with the same studied item (interjacent priming), indicating that the study item like the probe is central to the decision. Interjacent priming occurred even when the 2 probes did not themselves share any features: A lure that shared a single feature with a study item primed a lure that shared a different feature with the same study item. The experiments distinguished interjacent priming from other types of facilitation. Interjacent priming indicates that a study item that is like the probe is more relevant to the decision than other study items, contrary to global memory models. It also shows that negative decisions depend on contradiction, not insufficient familiarity, because lures, as well as targets, benefited. The data are discussed in terms of a recall check within a dual-process theory, but the authors prefer a single-process resonance model with separate decision mechanisms for yes and no responses (D. J. K. Mewhort & E. E. Johns, 2005). (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. The epidemiological consequences of immune priming

    PubMed Central

    Tidbury, Hannah J.; Best, Alex; Boots, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to low doses of pathogens that do not result in the host becoming infectious may ‘prime’ the immune response and increase protection to subsequent challenge. There is increasing evidence that such immune priming is a widespread and important feature of invertebrate host–pathogen interactions. Immune priming clearly has implications for individual hosts but will also have population-level implications. We present a susceptible–primed–infectious model—in contrast to the classic susceptible–infectious–recovered framework—to investigate the impacts of immune priming on pathogen persistence and population stability. We describe impacts of immune priming on the epidemiology of the disease in both constant and seasonal environments. A key result is that immune priming may act to destabilize population dynamics. In particular, when the proportion of individuals becoming primed rather than infected is high, but this priming does not confer full immunity, the population may be strongly destabilized through the generation of limit cycles. We discuss the implications of our model both in the context of invertebrate immunity and more widely. PMID:22977154

  2. The trap states in lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE on a freestanding GaN substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tetsuo; Tokuda, Yutaka; Kogiso, Tatsuya; Tomita, Kazuyoshi; Kachi, Tetsu

    2018-04-01

    We investigated traps in lightly Mg-doped (2 × 1017 cm-3) p-GaN fabricated by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on a freestanding GaN substrate and the subsequent post-growth annealing, using deep level transient spectroscopy. We identified four hole traps with energy levels of EV + 0.46, 0.88, 1.0, and 1.3 eV and one electron trap at EC - 0.57 eV in a p-type GaN layer uniformly doped with magnesium (Mg). The Arrhenius plot of hole traps with the highest concentration (˜3 × 1016 cm-3) located at EV + 0.88 eV corresponded to those of hole traps ascribed to carbon on nitrogen sites in n-type GaN samples grown by MOVPE. In fact, the range of the hole trap concentrations at EV + 0.88 eV was close to the carbon concentration detected by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Moreover, the electron trap at EC - 0.57 eV was also identical to the dominant electron traps commonly observed in n-type GaN. Together, these results suggest that the trap states in the lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE show a strong similarity to those in n-type GaN, which can be explained by the Fermi level close to the conduction band minimum in pristine MOVPE grown samples due to existing residual donors and Mg-hydrogen complexes.

  3. Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i-N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion: Measurement and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TR-7801 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i- N Device Evaluated for...SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Planar Homojunction Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i- N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion...Gallium Nitride (GaN) P-i- N Device Evaluated for Betavoltaic Energy Conversion: Measurement and Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  4. Zn-dopant dependent defect evolution in GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bing; Liu, Baodan; Wang, Yujia; Zhuang, Hao; Liu, Qingyun; Yuan, Fang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-10-01

    Zn doped GaN nanowires with different doping levels (0, <1 at%, and 3-5 at%) have been synthesized through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The effect of Zn doping on the defect evolution, including stacking fault, dislocation, twin boundary and phase boundary, has been systematically investigated by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Undoped GaN nanowires show a hexagonal wurtzite (WZ) structure with good crystallinity. Several kinds of twin boundaries, including (101&cmb.macr;3), (101&cmb.macr;1) and (202&cmb.macr;1), as well as Type I stacking faults (...ABABC&cmb.b.line;BCB...), are observed in the nanowires. The increasing Zn doping level (<1 at%) induces the formation of screw dislocations featuring a predominant screw component along the radial direction of the GaN nanowires. At high Zn doping level (3-5 at%), meta-stable cubic zinc blende (ZB) domains are generated in the WZ GaN nanowires. The WZ/ZB phase boundary (...ABABAC&cmb.b.line;BA...) can be identified as Type II stacking faults. The density of stacking faults (both Type I and Type II) increases with increasing the Zn doping levels, which in turn leads to a rough-surface morphology in the GaN nanowires. First-principles calculations reveal that Zn doping will reduce the formation energy of both Type I and Type II stacking faults, favoring their nucleation in GaN nanowires. An understanding of the effect of Zn doping on the defect evolution provides an important method to control the microstructure and the electrical properties of p-type GaN nanowires.Zn doped GaN nanowires with different doping levels (0, <1 at%, and 3-5 at%) have been synthesized through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The effect of Zn doping on the defect evolution, including stacking fault, dislocation, twin boundary and phase boundary, has been systematically investigated by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Undoped GaN nanowires show a

  5. DFT modeling of carbon incorporation in GaN(0001) and GaN(000 1 \\xAF ) metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempisty, Pawel; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kusaba, Akira; Shiraishi, Kenji; Krukowski, Stanislaw; Bockowski, Michal; Kakimoto, Koichi; Amano, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    The carbon incorporation mechanism in GaN(0001) and GaN(000 1 ¯) during MOVPE was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results confirm that the crucial factors for carbon incorporation are Fermi level pinning and accompanying surface band bending. In addition, the lattice symmetry has a strong dependence on the stability of carbon in a few subsurface layers, which results from interactions between the impurities and surface states. It was shown that these effects are responsible for facilitating or hindering the incorporation of impurities and dopants. The influence of diluent gas species (hydrogen or nitrogen) on carbon incorporation was discussed.

  6. A growth diagram for plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of GaN nanocolumns on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Grandal, J.; Calleja, E.

    2009-12-15

    The morphology of GaN samples grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) was systematically studied as a function of impinging Ga/N flux ratio and growth temperature (730-850 deg. C). Two different growth regimes were identified: compact and nanocolumnar. A growth diagram was established as a function of growth parameters, exhibiting the transition between growth regimes, and showing under which growth conditions GaN cannot be grown due to thermal decomposition and Ga desorption. Present results indicate that adatoms diffusion length and the actual Ga/N ratio on the growing surface are key factors to achieve nanocolumnar growth.

  7. When SOFA primes TOUCH: interdependence of spelling, sound, and meaning in "semantically mediated" phonological priming.

    PubMed

    Farrar, W T; Van Orden, G C; Hamouz, V

    2001-04-01

    Three experiments test for semantically mediated priming of a word's phonology (e.g., sofa, an associate of couch, primes naming performance to touch). In the first two experiments, words that were body-rime-inconsistent (compare touch to couch) were used as naming targets. In the third experiment, words that were body-rime-consistent were also used (i.e., sofa primed pouch). Low-frequency inconsistent words yield a high rate of pronunciation errors when they were primed by indirectly related words, such as sofa, in both a standard naming task and a speeded naming task. High-frequency inconsistent words yielded slower naming times when they were primed by indirectly related words in a speeded naming task, but consistent words showed no significant effects of the primes. The results suggest that the relationship between semantics and phonology plays an important, early role in word perception.

  8. Attachment security priming: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gillath, Omri; Karantzas, Gery

    2018-03-15

    Attachment security priming has been used to shed light on the cognitive processes related to attachment internal working models as well as the cognitive substrates of people's attachment-related affect and behavior. Security primes activate a sense of attachment security by making mental representations in one's memory more accessible and salient. In the current paper, we report on a qualitative synthesis of 20 studies published in the last two years to determine the effects of security priming. We found that supraliminally administered security priming (especially via guided imagery or visualization) is associated with beneficial effects across a diverse set of domains. The effects were especially strong among anxiously attached individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diverging Influences of Money Priming on Choice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin

    2017-01-01

    Prior research on money priming has suggested two seemingly contradicting findings. On the one hand, money has been shown to highlight the importance of cost saving, leading to the choice of a low-quality/low-price option. On the other hand, individuals primed with money as a symbol of social status, and capabilities may focus on social value of money, e.g., higher spending symbolizes higher status and prefer an option with high quality/high price. Current research proposes and demonstrates that whether money priming will lead different choices depends on the nature of the consumption context. Specifically, when the product is to be consumed privately, money priming will highlight the importance of cost, thus increasing the preference for lower price at a lower quality. However, when the product is to be consumed publicly, reversed pattern of consumer preference will be found.

  10. Reconciling Mechanistic Hypotheses About Rhizosphere Priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W.

    2016-12-01

    Rhizosphere priming on soil organic matter decomposition has emerged as a key mechanism regulating biogeochemnical cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements from local to global scales. The level of the rhizosphere priming effect on decomposition rates can be comparable to the levels of controls from soil temperature and moisture conditions. However, our understanding on mechanisms responsible for rhizosphere priming remains rudimentary and controversial. The following individual hypotheses have been postulated in the published literature: (1) microbial activation, (2) microbial community succession, (3) aggregate turnover, (4) nitrogen mining, (5) nutrient competition, (6) preferential substrate utilization, and (7) drying-rewetting. Meshing these hypotheses with existing empirical evidence tends to support a general conclusion: each of these 7 hypotheses represents an aspect of the overall rhizosphere priming complex while the relative contribution by each individual aspect varies depending on the actual plant-soil conditions across time and space.

  11. Integrative Priming of Compositional and Locative Relations

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lara L.; Wurm, Lee H.; Calcaterra, Ryan D.; Ofen, Noa

    2017-01-01

    Integrative priming refers to the facilitated recognition of a target word (bench) as a real word following a prime (park). Prior integrative priming studies have used a wide variety of integrative relations including temporal (summer rain), topical (travel book), locative (forest river), and compositional (peach pie) relations. Yet differences in the types of integrative relations may yield differences in the underlying explanatory processes of integrative priming. In this study, we compared the magnitude, time course, and three theoretically based correlates of integrative priming for compositional (stone table) and locative (patio table) pairs in a lexical decision task across four stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs; 50, 300, 800, and 1,600 ms). Based on the Complementary Role Activation theory, integrative ratings (the extent to which the prime and target can be combined into a meaningful phrase) were predicted to facilitate target RTs. Based on the Embodied Conceptual Combination (ECCo) theory, the local co-occurrence of the prime and target, and the ability to perceptually simulate (visually experience) the prime-target pair were tested as predictors. In comparison to unrelated pairs (nose table), target RTs were faster for the compositional and locative pairs, though did not differ between these relations. In support of the Complementary Role Activation theory, integrative ratings predicted target RTs above and beyond our control variables. In support of the ECCo theory, co-occurrence emerged as an early predictor of target RTs, and visual experience ratings was a reliable predictor at the 300 ms SOA, though only for the compositional relations. PMID:28360872

  12. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of high-mobility AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures on GaN templates and native GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jr-Tai, E-mail: jrche@ifm.liu.se; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Forsberg, Urban

    2015-02-28

    Severe surface decomposition of semi-insulating (SI) GaN templates occurred in high-temperature H{sub 2} atmosphere prior to epitaxial growth in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition system. A two-step heating process with a surface stabilization technique was developed to preserve the GaN template surface. Utilizing the optimized heating process, a high two-dimensional electron gas mobility ∼2000 cm{sup 2}/V·s was obtained in a thin AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure with an only 100-nm-thick GaN spacer layer homoepitaxially grown on the GaN template. This technique was also demonstrated viable for native GaN substrates to stabilize the surface facilitating two-dimensional growth of GaN layers. Very high residual silicon andmore » oxygen concentrations were found up to ∼1 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} at the interface between the GaN epilayer and the native GaN substrate. Capacitance-voltage measurements confirmed that the residual carbon doping controlled by growth conditions of the GaN epilayer can be used to successfully compensate the donor-like impurities. State-of-the-art structural properties of a high-mobility AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure was then realized on a 1 × 1 cm{sup 2} SI native GaN substrate; the full width at half maximum of the X-ray rocking curves of the GaN (002) and (102) peaks are only 21 and 14 arc sec, respectively. The surface morphology of the heterostructure shows uniform parallel bilayer steps, and no morphological defects were noticeable over the entire epi-wafer.« less

  13. Non-cognate translation priming in masked priming lexical decision experiments: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2017-06-01

    The masked translation priming paradigm has been widely used in the last 25 years to investigate word processing in bilinguals. Motivated by studies reporting mixed findings, in particular for second language (L2) to first language (L1) translation priming, we conducted, for the first time in the literature, a meta-analysis of 64 masked priming lexical decision experiments across 24 studies to assess the effect sizes of L1-L2 and L2-L1 non-cognate translation priming effects in bilinguals. Our meta-analysis also investigated the influence of potential moderators of translation priming effects. The results provided clear evidence of significant translation priming effects for both directions, with L1-L2 translation priming significantly larger than L2-L1 translation priming (i.e., effect size of 0.86 vs. 0.31). The analyses also revealed that L1-L2 translation effect sizes were moderated by the interval between prime and target (ISI), whereas L2-L1 translation effect sizes were modulated by the number of items per cell. Theoretical and methodological implications of this meta-analysis are discussed and recommendations for future studies are provided.

  14. Components of competitor priming in task switching.

    PubMed

    Teskey, Morgan L; Masson, Michael E J

    2017-11-01

    Executing an action in response to a stimulus is thought to result in the creation of an event code that integrates stimulus and action features (Allport, 1987; Hommel in Visual Cognition 5: 183-216, 1998). When switching between tasks, competitor priming occurs if a distractor stimulus cues the retrieval of a previously established event code in which that distractor is bound to a competing task, creating a source of interference with the current task whereby the observer is encouraged to apply the competing task to the distractor. We propose a second aspect of competitor priming: the misapplication of the retrieved competing task to the target stimulus. We report two task-switching experiments in which tasks applied to picture-word compound stimuli were manipulated to create conditions in which this second aspect of competitor priming could be revealed and distinguished from other sources of task- and stimulus-based priming. A substantial increase in competitor priming was observed when subjects switched between tasks that required very different processing operations and the competing task was highly relevant to the target stimulus. These results are consistent with our claim that competitor priming can result from applying the competing task either to the distractor that cued it or to the target stimulus.

  15. RETRACTED: High quality N-polar GaN two-dimensional growth on c-plane sapphire by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuantao; Dong, Xin; Li, Guoxing; Li, Wancheng; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong

    2013-03-01

    We report the growth of atomically smooth N-polar GaN on c-plane sapphire by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. A two-step growth technique was adopted; low-temperature growth of GaN buffer before high-temperature GaN growth. The complete two-dimensional N-polar GaN growth process was recorded by in situ reflectance. The phase composition of the low-temperature GaN was examined by X-ray diffraction pole figure measurements. The thickness of the low-temperature GaN buffer dramatically affected the crystalline and electronic properties of the N-polar GaN. A very small full width at half maximum for the (0 0 0 2) X-ray rocking curve, 51 arcs, was obtained for 700-nm-thick N-polarity GaN by optimizing the buffer thickness.

  16. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamond, N.; Chrétien, P.; Houzé, F.; Lu, L.; Largeau, L.; Maugain, O.; Travers, L.; Harmand, J. C.; Glas, F.; Lefeuvre, E.; Tchernycheva, M.; Gogneau, N.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ˜12.7 mW cm-3. This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  17. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jamond, N; Chrétien, P; Houzé, F; Lu, L; Largeau, L; Maugain, O; Travers, L; Harmand, J C; Glas, F; Lefeuvre, E; Tchernycheva, M; Gogneau, N

    2016-08-12

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ∼12.7 mW cm(-3). This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  18. Clinical, pathological and molecular findings in two siblings with giant axonal neuropathy (GAN): report from India.

    PubMed

    Nalini, A; Gayathri, N; Yasha, T C; Ravishankar, S; Urtizberea, A; Huehne, Kathrin; Rautenstrauss, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN, MIM: 256850) is characterized by an early onset of severe peripheral neuropathy, varying central nervous system involvement and strikingly frizzly hair. Mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive. Mutations in the gigaxonin (GAN) gene on chromosome 16q24.1 are frequently observed for this disorder, but genetic heterogeneity has been demonstrated for a milder variant of GAN. Gigaxonin binds C-terminally to various microtubule associated proteins causing their ubiquitin-mediated degradation. For several gigaxonin mutations it was shown that they hamper this process resulting finally in accumulation of microtubule associated proteins which may disturb cellular functions. Here, we report a family originating in India with two patients showing typical clinical signs suggestive of GAN. Genomic DNA was analyzed for both siblings and their parents in order to detect the molecular changes in the GAN gene. The complete coding region including flanking sequences was amplified using published primer sequences. The PCR products were sequenced on both strands after purification using an ABI 3730 (Applied Biosystems) capillary sequencer. The resulting sequences were evaluated using SeqPilot (JSI-medical systems GmbH) and were compared to the reference sequences (NT_024797, NM_022041) given in the NCBI-database. An AluYa5 insertion (c.1657ALUYa5ins, p.Thr553_Pro597del) in exon 11 of the GAN gene was identified homozygous in both siblings, whereas the parents were heterozygous carriers of this mutation. Here, the reported mutation is located in C-terminal part of the protein affecting the terminal kelch domain. Thus a functional important part of the protein is altered by the AluYa5 insertion and causes GAN.

  19. Masked Priming from Orthographic Neighbors: An ERP Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massol, Stephanie; Grainger, Jonathan; Dufau, Stephane; Holcomb, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments combined masked priming with event-related potential (ERP) recordings to examine effects of primes that are orthographic neighbors of target words. Experiment 1 compared effects of repetition primes with effects of primes that were high-frequency orthographic neighbors of low-frequency targets (e.g., faute-faune [error-wildlife]),…

  20. Pure Mediated Priming: A Retrospective Semantic Matching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lara L.

    2010-01-01

    Mediated priming refers to the activation of a target (e.g., "stripes") by a prime (e.g., "lion") that is related indirectly via a connecting mediator (e.g., tiger). In previous mediated priming studies (e.g., McNamara & Altarriba, 1988), the mediator was associatively related to the prime. In contrast, pure mediated…

  1. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  2. 46 CFR 111.12-1 - Prime movers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-1 Prime movers. (a) Prime movers must meet section 58...-1). Further requirements for emergency generator prime movers are in 46 CFR subpart 112.50. (b) Each generator prime mover must have an overspeed device that is independent of the normal operating governor and...

  3. An Electrophysiological Investigation of Early Effects of Masked Morphological Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joanna; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined event-related responses to targets preceded by semantically transparent morphologically related primes (e.g., farmer-farm), semantically opaque primes with an apparent morphological relation (corner-corn), and orthographically, but not morphologically, related primes (scandal-scan) using the masked priming technique…

  4. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  5. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  6. Masked Inhibitory Priming in English: Evidence for Lexical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Predictions derived from the interactive activation (IA) model were tested in 3 experiments using the masked priming technique in the lexical decision task. Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of prime lexicality: Classifications of target words were facilitated by orthographically related nonword primes (relative to unrelated nonword primes) but…

  7. GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, George

    2015-07-03

    For nearly 4 ½ years, MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) led a very successful, DoE-funded team effort to develop GaN-on-Si materials and devices, targeting high-voltage (>1 kV), high-power, cost-effective electronics for grid applications. This effort, called the GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA) program, was initially made up of MIT/LL, the MIT campus group of Prof. Tomas Palacios (MIT), and the industrial partner M/A Com Technology Solutions (MTS). Later in the program a 4th team member was added (IQE MA) to provide commercial-scale GaN-on-Si epitaxial materials. A basic premise of the GIGA program was that power electronics, for ubiquitous utilization -evenmore » for grid applications - should be closer in cost structure to more conventional Si-based power electronics. For a number of reasons, more established GaN-on-SiC or even SiC-based power electronics are not likely to reach theses cost structures, even in higher manufacturing volumes. An additional premise of the GIGA program was that the technical focus would be on materials and devices suitable for operating at voltages > 1 kV, even though there is also significant commercial interest in developing lower voltage (< 1 kV), cost effective GaN-on-Si devices for higher volume applications, like consumer products. Remarkable technical progress was made during the course of this program. Advances in materials included the growth of high-quality, crack-free epitaxial GaN layers on large-diameter Si substrates with thicknesses up to ~5 μm, overcoming significant challenges in lattice mismatch and thermal expansion differences between Si and GaN in the actual epitaxial growth process. Such thick epilayers are crucial for high voltage operation of lateral geometry devices such as Schottky barrier (SB) diodes and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). New “Normally-Off” device architectures were demonstrated – for safe operation of power electronics circuits. The trade-offs between lateral

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzofurans and quaterphenyls in toxic rice-bran oil and in the blood and tissues of patients with PCB poisoning (Yu-Cheng) in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.H.; Wong, C.K.; Rappe, C.

    1985-02-01

    A mass outbreak of poisoning occurred in central Taiwan in 1979 due to the ingestion of rice-bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and quaterphenyls (PCQs). The incident was called PCB poisoning or Yu-Cheng in Taiwan. The major PCB and PCDF congeners in the toxic oil and in the blood and tissues of the poisoned patients were characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using highly efficient glass capillary columns. The levels of toxic agents in the rice oil samples collected from the factory and school cafeterias and the families of the poisoned patients are in themore » range of 53 to 99 ppm, 0.18 to 0.40 ppm and 25 to 53 ppm for PCBs, PCDFs, and PCQs, respectively. The blood samples of 165 patients collected 9 to 18 months after the onset of poisoning contained 10 to 720 ppb of PCBs, with a mean value of 38 ppb. The blood samples of 10 patients collected 9 to 27 months after poisoning contained 0.02 to 0.20 ppb of PCDFs. Comparative rates of elimination of some PCB congeners from the blood of patients were studied. Various tissues from a patient who died 2 years after poisoning were analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs and PCQs. The intestinal fat contains the highest level of PCBs, while the liver contains the highest concentration of PCDFs. The major PCDF congeners retained in the tissues were 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachloro-DF, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachloro-DF and 1,2,4,7,8-pentachloro-DF. The former two congeners, especially 2,3,4,7,8-pentachloro-DF, are very toxic PCDFs; they may play important roles in the etiology of Yu-Cheng.« less

  9. On the statistical distribution of prime numbers: A view from where the distribution of prime numbers are not erratic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristyan, Sandor

    2017-07-01

    The properties of the function 2ab+a+b in the domain of natural numbers are introduced, analyzed, and exhibited to illustrate how these single out all the prime numbers from the full set of odd numbers in contrast that, it is generally said that primes show quite "erratic" distribution. The characterization of odd primes vs. odd non-primes can be done with it among the odd natural numbers as an analogue to the other, well known type of fundamental characterization for irrational and rational numbers among the real numbers. The prime number theorem, twin primes and erratic nature of primes, are also commented upon with respect to selection.

  10. Rapid response learning of brand logo priming: Evidence that brand priming is not dominated by rapid response learning.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Stephan G; Smith, Ciaran; Muench, Niklas; Noble, Kirsty; Atherton, Catherine

    2017-08-31

    Repetition priming increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Repetition priming can result from two complementary sources: rapid response learning and facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks. In conceptual classification tasks, rapid response learning dominates priming of object recognition, but it does not dominate priming of person recognition. This suggests that the relative engagement of network facilitation and rapid response learning depends on the stimulus domain. Here, we addressed the importance of the stimulus domain for rapid response learning by investigating priming in another domain, brands. In three experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions for brand logos. Strong priming was present, but it was not dominated by rapid response learning. These findings add further support to the importance of the stimulus domain for the relative importance of network facilitation and rapid response learning, and they indicate that brand priming is more similar to person recognition priming than object recognition priming, perhaps because priming of both brands and persons requires individuation.

  11. Use of GaN as a Scintillating Ionizing Radiation Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensman, Johnathan; Guardala, Noel; Mathur, Veerendra; Alasagas, Leslie; Vanhoy, Jeffrey; Statham, John; Marron, Daniel; Millett, Marshall; Marsh, Jarrod; Currie, John; Price, Jack

    2017-09-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a III/V direct bandgap semiconductor which has been used in light emitting diodes (LEDs) since the 1990s. Currently, due to a potential for increased efficiency, GaN is being investigated as a replacement for silicon in power electronics finding potential uses ranging from data centers to electric vehicles. In addition to LEDs and power electronics though, doped GaN can be used as a gamma insensitive fast neutron detector due to the direct band-gap, light propagation properties, and response to ionizing radiations. Investigation of GaN as a semiconductor scintillator for use in a radiation detection system involves mapping the response function of the detector crystal over a range of photon and neutron energies, and measurements of light generation in the GaN crystal due to proton, alpha, and nitrogen projectiles. In this presentation we discuss the measurements made to date, and plausible interpretations of the response functions. This work funded in part by the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division In-house Laboratory Independent Research program.

  12. Effect of Eu-implantation and annealing on the GaN quantum dots excitonic recombination.

    PubMed

    Peres, Marco; Magalhães, Sérgio; Fellmann, Vincent; Daudin, Bruno; Neves, Armando José; Alves, Eduardo; Lorenz, Katharina; Monteiro, Teresa

    2011-05-09

    Undoped self-assembled GaN quantum dots (QD) stacked in superlattices (SL) with AlN spacer layers were submitted to thermal annealing treatments. Changes in the balance between the quantum confinement, strain state of the stacked heterostructures and quantum confined Stark effect lead to the observation of GaN QD excitonic recombination above and below the bulk GaN bandgap. In Eu-implanted SL structures, the GaN QD recombination was found to be dependent on the implantation fluence. For samples implanted with high fluence, a broad emission band at 2.7 eV was tentatively assigned to the emission of large blurred GaN QD present in the damage region of the implanted SL. This emission band is absent in the SL structures implanted with lower fluence and hence lower defect level. In both cases, high energy emission bands at approx. 3.9 eV suggest the presence of smaller dots for which the photoluminescence intensity was seen to be constant with increasing temperatures. Despite the fact that different deexcitation processes occur in undoped and Eu-implanted SL structures, the excitation population mechanisms were seen to be sample-independent. Two main absorption bands with maxima at approx. 4.1 and 4.7 to 4.9 eV are responsible for the population of the optically active centres in the SL samples.

  13. Ultrafast Hot Carrier Dynamics in GaN and Its Impact on the Efficiency Droop.

    PubMed

    Jhalani, Vatsal A; Zhou, Jin-Jian; Bernardi, Marco

    2017-08-09

    GaN is a key material for lighting technology. Yet, the carrier transport and ultrafast dynamics that are central in GaN light-emitting devices are not completely understood. We present first-principles calculations of carrier dynamics in GaN, focusing on electron-phonon (e-ph) scattering and the cooling and nanoscale dynamics of hot carriers. We find that e-ph scattering is significantly faster for holes compared to electrons and that for hot carriers with an initial 0.5-1 eV excess energy, holes take a significantly shorter time (∼0.1 ps) to relax to the band edge compared to electrons, which take ∼1 ps. The asymmetry in the hot carrier dynamics is shown to originate from the valence band degeneracy, the heavier effective mass of holes compared to electrons, and the details of the coupling to different phonon modes in the valence and conduction bands. We show that the slow cooling of hot electrons and their long ballistic mean free paths (over 3 nm at room temperature) are a possible cause of efficiency droop in GaN light-emitting diodes. Taken together, our work sheds light on the ultrafast dynamics of hot carriers in GaN and the nanoscale origin of efficiency droop.

  14. Strain engineering of atomic and electronic structures of few-monolayer-thick GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobov, A. V.; Fons, P.; Saito, Y.; Tominaga, J.; Hyot, B.; André, B.

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors possess the potential to ultimately minimize the size of devices and concomitantly drastically reduce the corresponding energy consumption. In addition, materials in their atomic-scale limit often possess properties different from their bulk counterparts paving the way to conceptually novel devices. While graphene and 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides remain the most studied materials, significant interest also exists in the fabrication of atomically thin structures from traditionally 3D semiconductors such as GaN. While in the monolayer limit GaN possesses a graphenelike structure and an indirect band gap, it was recently demonstrated that few-layer GaN acquires a Haeckelite structure in the direction of growth with an effectively direct gap. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of strain engineering of the atomic and electronic structure of few-monolayer-thick GaN structures, which opens new avenues for their practical application in flexible nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics. Our simulations further suggest that due to the weak van der Waals-like interaction between a substrate and an overlayer, the use of a MoS2 substrate may be a promising route to fabricate few-monolayer Haeckelite GaN experimentally.

  15. Defect analysis in GaN films of HEMT structure by cross-sectional cathodoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Yasuhiro; Hung, Hung; Oasa, Kohei; Ono, Tasuku; Onizawa, Takashi; Yoshioka, Akira; Takada, Yoshiharu; Saito, Yasunobu; Sugiyama, Naoharu; Tsuda, Kunio; Sugiyama, Toru; Mizushima, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    Defect analysis of GaN films in high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures by cross-sectional cathodoluminescence (X-CL) is demonstrated as a useful technique for improving the current collapse of GaN-HEMT devices, and the relationship between crystal quality and device characteristics is also investigated. The crystal quality of intrinsic-GaN (i-GaN) and carbon-doped GaN produced clearly different peak intensities of blue luminescence (BL), yellow luminescence (YL), and band-edge emission (BE), which is independently detected by X-CL. Current collapse in GaN-HEMT devices is found to be determined by the BL/BE and YL/BE ratios at the top of the i-GaN layer, which is close to the channel. Moreover, the i-GaN thickness required in order to minimize the BL/BE and YL/BE ratios and the thickness dependency of GaN for minimizing the BL/BE and YL/BE ratios depending on the growth conditions can be evaluated by X-CL. However, there is no correlation between current collapse in GaN-HEMT devices and the YL/BE ratio by conventional photoluminescence because HEMT devices consist of multiple GaN layers and the YL signal is detected from the carbon-doped GaN layer. Thus, the X-CL analysis method is a useful technique for device design in order to suppress current collapse.

  16. Individual GaN nanowires exhibit strong piezoelectricity in 3D.

    PubMed

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Bernal, Rodrigo A; Kuljanishvili, Irma; Parpoil, Victor; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2012-02-08

    Semiconductor GaN NWs are promising components in next generation nano- and optoelectronic systems. In addition to their direct band gap, they exhibit piezoelectricity, which renders them particularly attractive in energy harvesting applications for self-powered devices. Nanowires are often considered as one-dimensional nanostructures; however, the electromechanical coupling leads to a third rank tensor that for wurtzite crystals (GaN NWs) possesses three independent coefficients, d(33), d(13), and d(15). Therefore, the full piezoelectric characterization of individual GaN NWs requires application of electric fields in different directions and measurements of associated displacements on the order of several picometers. In this Letter, we present an experimental approach based on scanning probe microscopy to directly quantify the three-dimensional piezoelectric response of individual GaN NWs. Experimental results reveal that GaN NWs exhibit strong piezoelectricity in three dimensions, with up to six times the effect in bulk. Based on finite element modeling, this finding has major implication on the design of energy harvesting systems exhibiting unprecedented levels of power density production. The presented method is applicable to other piezoelectric NW materials as well as wires manufactured along different crystallographic orientations. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Growth of GaN on ZnO for solid state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nola; Park, Eun-Hyun; Huang, Yong; Wang, Shenjie; Valencia, Adriana; Nemeth, Bill; Nause, Jeff; Ferguson, Ian

    2006-08-01

    In this work, ZnO has been investigated as a substrate technology for GaN-based devices due to its close lattice match, stacking order match, and similar thermal expansion coefficient. Since MOCVD is the dominant growth technology for GaN-based materials and devices, there is a need to more fully explore this technique for ZnO substrates. Our aim is to grow low defect density GaN for efficient phosphor free white emitters. However, there are a number of issues that need to be addressed for the MOCVD growth of GaN on ZnO. The thermal stability of the ZnO substrate, out-diffusion of Zn from the ZnO into the GaN, and H II back etching into the substrate can cause growth of poor quality GaN. Cracks and pinholes were seen in the epilayers, leading to the epi-layer peeling off in some instances. These issues were addressed by the use of H II free growth and multiple buffer layers to remove the cracking and reduce the pinholes allowing for a high quality GaN growth on ZnO substrate.

  18. Hydrogen-surfactant-assisted coherent growth of GaN on ZnO substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Zhu, Junyi

    2018-01-01

    Heterostructures of wurtzite based devices have attracted great research interest because of the tremendous success of GaN in light emitting diodes (LED) industry. High-quality GaN thin films on inexpensive and lattice matched ZnO substrates are both commercially and technologically desirable. Intrinsic wetting conditions, however, forbid such heterostructures as the energy of ZnO polar surfaces is much lower than that of GaN polar surfaces, resulting in 3D growth mode and poor crystal quality. Based on first-principles calculations, we propose the use of surfactant hydrogen to dramatically alter the growth mode of the heterostructures. Stable H-involved surface configurations and interfaces are investigated with the help of our newly developed modelling techniques. The temperature and chemical potential dependence of our proposed strategy, which is critical in experiments, is predicted by applying the experimental Gibbs free energy of H2. Our thermodynamic wetting condition analysis is a crucial step for the growth of GaN on ZnO, and we find that introducing H will not degrade the stability of ZnO substrate. This approach will allow the growth of high-quality GaN thin films on ZnO substrates. We believe that our new strategy may reduce the manufactory cost, improve the crystal quality, and improve the efficiency of GaN-based devices.

  19. Strain-mediated electronic properties of pristine and Mn-doped GaN monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Venus; Srivastava, Sunita

    2018-04-01

    Graphene-like two-dimensional (2D) monolayer structures GaN has gained enormous amount of interest due to high thermal stability and inherent energy band gap for practical applications. First principles calculations are performed to investigate the electronic structure and strain-mediated electronic properties of pristine and Mn-doped GaN monolayer. Binding energy of Mn dopant at various adsorption site is found to be nearly same indicating these sites to be equally favorable for adsorption of foreign atom. Depending on the adsorption site, GaN monolayer can act as p-type or n-type magnetic semiconductor. The tensile strength of both pristine and doped GaN monolayer (∼24 GPa) at ultimate tensile strain of 34% is comparable with the tensile strength of graphene. The in-plane biaxial strain modulate the energy band gap of both pristine and doped-monolayer from direct to indirect gap semiconductor and finally retendered theme into metal at critical value of applied strain. These characteristics make GaN monolayer to be potential candidate for the future applications in tunable optoelectronics.

  20. Reduced MLH3 Expression in the Syndrome of Gan-Shen Yin Deficiency in Patients with Different Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Maofeng; Liu, Dong; Liang, Shufang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yani; Yin, Zifei; Wang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC) differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the characteristic genes of gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution in different diseases. Fifty primary liver cancer (PLC) patients, 94 hypertension (HBP) patients, and 100 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients were enrolled and classified into gan-shen Yin deficiency group and non-gan-shen Yin deficiency group according to the body constitution questionnaire to assess the clinical manifestation of patients. The mRNA expressions of 17 genes in PLC patients with gan-shen Yin deficiency were different from those without gan-shen Yin deficiency. However, considering all patients with PLC, HBP, and DM, only MLH3 was significantly lower in gan-shen Yin deficiency group than that in non-gen-shen Yin deficiency. By ROC analysis, the relationship between MLH3 and gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution was confirmed. Treatment of MLH3 (−/− and −/+) mice with Liuweidihuang wan, classical prescriptions for Yin deficiency, partly ameliorates the body constitution of Yin deficiency in MLH3 (−/+) mice, but not in MLH3 (−/−) mice. MLH3 might be one of material bases of gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution. PMID:29234393

  1. Reduced MLH3 Expression in the Syndrome of Gan-Shen Yin Deficiency in Patients with Different Diseases.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Zhong, Maofeng; Liu, Dong; Liang, Shufang; Liu, Xiaolin; Cheng, Binbin; Zhang, Yani; Yin, Zifei; Wang, Yuan; Ling, Changquan

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC) differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the characteristic genes of gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution in different diseases. Fifty primary liver cancer (PLC) patients, 94 hypertension (HBP) patients, and 100 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients were enrolled and classified into gan-shen Yin deficiency group and non-gan-shen Yin deficiency group according to the body constitution questionnaire to assess the clinical manifestation of patients. The mRNA expressions of 17 genes in PLC patients with gan-shen Yin deficiency were different from those without gan-shen Yin deficiency. However, considering all patients with PLC, HBP, and DM, only MLH3 was significantly lower in gan-shen Yin deficiency group than that in non-gen-shen Yin deficiency. By ROC analysis, the relationship between MLH3 and gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution was confirmed. Treatment of MLH3 (-/- and -/+) mice with Liuweidihuang wan, classical prescriptions for Yin deficiency, partly ameliorates the body constitution of Yin deficiency in MLH3 (-/+) mice, but not in MLH3 (-/-) mice. MLH3 might be one of material bases of gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution.

  2. Development of a high-sensitivity UV photocathode using GaN film that works in transmission mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigami, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Keisuke; Nagata, Takaaki; Kato, Kazumasa; Ihara, Tsuneo; Nakamura, Kimitsugu; Mizuno, Itaru; Matsuo, Tetsuji; Chino, Emiko; Kyushima, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    We developed a high-sensitivity GaN photocathode that works in transmission mode. It has 40.9 % quantum efficiency at 310 nm wavelength. Conventional GaN photocathodes, both transmission mode and reflection mode, are made on a sapphire substrate using metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). In reflection mode, a GaN photocathode has very high quantum efficiency (QE) of over 50 %. However, in transmission mode, the quantum efficiency of a GaN photocathode was about 25 % at 240 nm with this technique. Therefore, we developed a new GaN photocathode using a glass-bonding technique, where a GaN thin film was bonded to a glass face plate. We found out that constituting an Al- GaN layer on the light incidence side of the photocathode surface provided higher QE than a sole GaN layer type for transmission mode. We focused on the band bending of the photocathode, and analyzed QE for both transmission mode and reflection mode. We then verified the effectiveness of the AlGaN layer using the results from the analysis. The high-sensitivity UV photocathode will be used for flame detection, corona discharge observation, and other UV imaging.

  3. GaN MOSHEMT employing HfO2 as a gate dielectric with partially etched barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kefeng; Zhu, Lin

    2017-09-01

    In order to suppress the gate leakage current of a GaN high electron mobility transistor (GaN HEMT), a GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOSHEMT) is proposed, in which a metal-oxide-semiconductor gate with high-dielectric-constant HfO2 as an insulating dielectric is employed to replace the traditional GaN HEMT Schottky gate. A 0.5 μm gate length GaN MOSHEMT was fabricated based on the proposed structure, the {{{Al}}}0.28{{{Ga}}}0.72{{N}} barrier layer is partially etched to produce a higher transconductance without deteriorating the transport characteristics of the two-dimensional electron gas in the channel, the gate dielectric is HfO2 deposited by atomic layer deposition. Current-voltage characteristics and radio frequency characteristics are obtained after device preparation, the maximum current density of the device is 900 mA mm-1, the source-drain breakdown voltage is 75 V, gate current is significantly suppressed and the forward gate voltage swing range is about ten times higher than traditional GaN HEMTs, the GaN MOSHEMT also demonstrates radio frequency characteristics comparable to traditional GaN HEMTs with the same gate length.

  4. Interface dipole and band bending in the hybrid p -n heterojunction Mo S2/GaN (0001 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henck, Hugo; Ben Aziza, Zeineb; Zill, Olivia; Pierucci, Debora; Naylor, Carl H.; Silly, Mathieu G.; Gogneau, Noelle; Oehler, Fabrice; Collin, Stephane; Brault, Julien; Sirotti, Fausto; Bertran, François; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Berciaud, Stéphane; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Rault, Julien E.; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid heterostructures based on bulk GaN and two-dimensional (2D) materials offer novel paths toward nanoelectronic devices with engineered features. Here, we study the electronic properties of a mixed-dimensional heterostructure composed of intrinsic n -doped Mo S2 flakes transferred on p -doped GaN(0001) layers. Based on angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and high resolution x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HR-XPS), we investigate the electronic structure modification induced by the interlayer interactions in Mo S2/GaN heterostructure. In particular, a shift of the valence band with respect to the Fermi level for Mo S2/GaN heterostructure is observed, which is the signature of a charge transfer from the 2D monolayer Mo S2 to GaN. The ARPES and HR-XPS revealed an interface dipole associated with local charge transfer from the GaN layer to the Mo S2 monolayer. Valence and conduction band offsets between Mo S2 and GaN are determined to be 0.77 and -0.51 eV , respectively. Based on the measured work functions and band bendings, we establish the formation of an interface dipole between GaN and Mo S2 of 0.2 eV.

  5. Effect of H2O intentionally doping on photoelectric properties in MOVPE-growth GaN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaxin; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro

    2017-10-01

    GaN crystal growth requires higher purity of materials. Some contaminants in NH3 gas could be the causal factor of defects in GaN crystals. These atoms act as donor or acceptor. In order to clearly demonstrate the effect of gaseous impurities such as H2O on the properties of undoped-GaN layer, high purity NH3 (N70) was used as NH3 source. The concentration of H2O in NH3 was varied at 32, 49, 75, 142, 266, 489, and 899 ppb, respectively. Under the same recipe, we deposited undoped-GaN epitaxial layer with purifier, and H2O-doped GaN series layers. As similar to the results of CO and CO2-doped GaN series, the increase tendency of carrier density changing with increasing H2O concentration. The FWHMs of XRC around (0002) remain stable, witnessing that the crystal quality of GaN layer remain good. LT (15K) PL of undoped-GaN and H2O-doped GaN were measured, the D0X emission peak intensity of all H2O-doped GaN are decreased drastically compared with undoped-GaN. H2O impurity was doped into GaN layer, which not only effects electrical properties and but also effects the radiative emission and furthermore effects PL intensity, its mechanism is discussed.

  6. Intermediate Nucleation State of GaN Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L. X.; Xie, M. H.; Tong, S. Y.

    2001-03-01

    Homoexpitaxial nucleation of GaN during molecular-beam epitaxy is followed by scanning tunneling microcopy (STM). We observe a metastable nucleation state, which manifests as “ghost” islands in STM images. These “ghost” islands can be irreversibly driven into normal islands by continuous STM imaging. It is further established that the “ghost” island formation is related to the presence of excess Ga atoms on the surface: Normal islands are only seen under the N-rich or stoichiometric flux condition, whereas “ghost” islands are observed under Ga-rich conditions. For intermediate excess-Ga coverages, both normal and “ghost” islands are present, however, they show distinctly different sizes, suggesting different nucleation states for the two. A growth model is proposed to account for the formation of metastable, “ghost” islands. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation is carried out and main features of the surface are reproduced. We acknowledge financial support from HK RGC under grant Nos. 7396/00P, 7142/99P, and 7121/00P.

  7. Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwiliński, R.; Doradziński, R.; Garczyński, J.; Sierzputowski, L. P.; Puchalski, A.; Kanbara, Y.; Yagi, K.; Minakuchi, H.; Hayashi, H.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we are presenting the excellent structural parameters of truly bulk gallium nitride crystals, which were grown by using the AMMONO-Bulk Method. In the crystals grown using this method a low dislocation density in the order of 5×10 3 cm -2 is readily attainable. At the same time the lattice of ammonothermally grown crystals is extremely uniform. Regardless of the crystal size, the radius of lattice curvature is higher than 100 m, whereas in the best crystals it is higher than 1000 m. Exceptional crystallinity is also evident in a very narrow X-ray (0 0 0 2) rocking curves, with FWHM values of about 17 arcsec as measured by a standard Panalytical X'pert high-resolution diffractometer. Such excellent structural parameters of AMMONO-GaN crystals show clearly that truly bulk GaN can be grown by using a scalable method, which can be employed in mass production. The authors are convinced that crystals produced using their method will make a breakthrough in the manufacturing of high-power GaN-based devices.

  8. Algan/Gan Hemt By Magnetron Sputtering System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Perez, Roman

    In this thesis, the growth of the semiconductor materials AlGaN and GaN is achieved by magnetron sputtering for the fabrication of High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The study of the deposited nitrides is conducted by spectroscopy, diffraction, and submicron scale microscope methods. The preparation of the materials is performed using different parameters in terms of power, pressure, temperature, gas, and time. Silicon (Si) and Sapphire (Al2O3) wafers are used as substrates. The chemical composition and surface topography of the samples are analyzed to calculate the materials atomic percentages and to observe the devices surface. The instruments used for the semiconductors characterization are X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The project focused its attention on the reduction of impurities during the deposition, the controlled thicknesses of the thin-films, the atomic configuration of the alloy AlxGa1-xN, and the uniformity of the surfaces.

  9. Radiation Characterization of Commercial GaN Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Richard D.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Hoffman, James P.; Thrivikraman, Tushar; Jenabi, Masud; Gim, Yonggyu; Miyahira, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Radiative feedback from primordial protostars and final mass of the first star Commercially available devices fabricated from GaN are beginning to appear from a number of different suppliers. Based on previous materials and prototype device studies, it is expected that these commercial devices will be quite tolerant to the types of radiation encountered in space. This expectation needs to be verified and the study described herein was undertaken for that purpose. All of the parts discussed in this report are readily available commercially. The parts chosen for study are all targeted for RF applications. Three different studies were performed: 1) a preliminary DDD/TID test of a variety of part types was performed by irradiating with 50 MeV protons, 2) a detailed DDD/TID study of one particular part type was performed by irradiating with 50 MeV protons, and 3) a SEB/SEGR test was performed on a variety of part types by irradiating with heavy ions. No significant degradation was observed in the tests performed in this study.

  10. AMIE Gan Island Ancillary Disdrometer Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Oue, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), in January 2012 a disdrometer observation took place with the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2), the Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (SACR), the Texas A&M SMART-R C-band radar, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) dual wavelength S- and Ka-bands polarimetric (SPolKa) radar on Gan Island, Maldives. In order to measure raindrop size distributions, a disdrometer of Nagoya University, Japan, was set up close to the ARM Two-Dimensional (2D) Video Disdrometer (2DVD). The SMART-R and SPolKa radars performedmore » range-height-indicator scanning in the direction of the disdrometer site. Comparing the disdrometer data with 2DVD data, the raindrop size distribution data will be calibrated. Furthermore, the analysis of the raindrop size distribution and radar data will be expected to clarify the microphysics in tropical convective clouds.« less

  11. Repetition Priming Magnitude Depends on Affirmative Prime Responses: A Test of Two Congruity Explanations.

    PubMed

    Fiet, Paula; Sorensen, Linda; Mayne, Zachary; Corgiat, Damon; Woltz, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We conducted 2 experiments to evaluate the impact of positive prime responses on repetition priming effects while decoupling this impact from content congruity and specific evaluation operations. Our first experiment consisted of word-meaning comparison trials that required participants to evaluate synonyms or antonyms. A crossing of evaluation operation with semantic content allowed us to test the goal-content congruity hypothesis against the semantic congruity explanation for greater facilitation from positive response primes. Results suggested that operation-based priming is affected by goal-content congruity. A second experiment tested the observed effect of positive responses on repetition priming using mental rotation of irregular shapes, affording a test of the impact of congruity in evaluation goals and content in a nonverbal stimulus domain. Both experiments produced a pattern of results inconsistent with Schulman's (1974) semantic congruity account and instead implicated a different form of congruity that affects memory for prior operations rather than memory for semantic and episodic content.

  12. Prime time advertisements: repetition priming from faces seen on subject recruitment posters.

    PubMed

    Bruce, V; Carson, D; Burton, A M; Kelly, S

    1998-05-01

    Repetition priming is defined as a gain in item recognition after previous exposure. Repetition priming of face recognition has been shown to last for several months, despite contamination by everyday exposure to both experimental and control faces in the interval. Here we show that gains in face recognition in the laboratory are found from faces initially seen in a rather different context--on subject recruitment posters, even when the advertisements make no specific mention of experiments involving face recognition. The priming was greatest when identical pictures were shown in the posters and in the test phase, although different views of faces did give significant priming in one study. Follow-up studies revealed poor explicit memory for the faces shown on the posters. The results of these experiments are used to develop a model in which repetition priming reflects the process of updating representations of familiar faces.

  13. A Prime Example of the Maluma/Takete Effect? Testing for Sound Symbolic Priming.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M

    2017-09-01

    Certain nonwords, like maluma and takete, are associated with roundness and sharpness, respectively. However, this has typically been demonstrated using explicit tasks. We investigated whether this association would be detectable using a more implicit measure-a sequential priming task. We began with a replication of the standard Maluma/Takete effect (Experiments 1a and 1b) before examining whether round and sharp nonword primes facilitated the categorization of congruent shapes (Experiment 2). We found modest evidence of a priming effect in response accuracy. We next examined whether nonword primes affected categorization of ambiguous shapes, using visual (Experiment 3) and auditory primes (Experiment 4). We found that ambiguous shapes were categorized as round (sharp) more often following the presentation of a round (sharp) nonword. This suggests that phonemes may activate related shape information which then affects the processing of shapes, and that this association emerges even when participants are not explicitly searching for it. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. A computational approach to negative priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrobsdorff, H.; Ihrke, M.; Kabisch, B.; Behrendt, J.; Hasselhorn, M.; Herrmann, J. Michael

    2007-09-01

    Priming is characterized by a sensitivity of reaction times to the sequence of stimuli in psychophysical experiments. The reduction of the reaction time observed in positive priming is well-known and experimentally understood (Scarborough et al., J. Exp. Psycholol: Hum. Percept. Perform., 3, pp. 1-17, 1977). Negative priming—the opposite effect—is experimentally less tangible (Fox, Psychonom. Bull. Rev., 2, pp. 145-173, 1995). The dependence on subtle parameter changes (such as response-stimulus interval) usually varies. The sensitivity of the negative priming effect bears great potential for applications in research in fields such as memory, selective attention, and ageing effects. We develop and analyse a computational realization, CISAM, of a recent psychological model for action decision making, the ISAM (Kabisch, PhD thesis, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, 2003), which is sensitive to priming conditions. With the dynamical systems approach of the CISAM, we show that a single adaptive threshold mechanism is sufficient to explain both positive and negative priming effects. This is achieved by comparing results obtained by the computational modelling with experimental data from our laboratory. The implementation provides a rich base from which testable predictions can be derived, e.g. with respect to hitherto untested stimulus combinations (e.g. single-object trials).

  15. Priming Intelligent Behavior: An Elusive Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, David R.; Newell, Ben R.; Lee, Eun Hee; Balakrishnan, Divya; Ekelund, Lisa; Cenac, Zarus; Kavvadia, Fragkiski; Moore, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal) influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained. PMID:23637732

  16. Lexical–semantic priming effects during infancy

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Plunkett, Kim

    2009-01-01

    When and how do infants develop a semantic system of words that are related to each other? We investigated word–word associations in early lexical development using an adaptation of the inter-modal preferential looking task where word pairs (as opposed to single target words) were used to direct infants’ attention towards a target picture. Two words (prime and target) were presented in quick succession after which infants were presented with a picture pair (target and distracter). Prime–target word pairs were either semantically and associatively related or unrelated; the targets were either named or unnamed. Experiment 1 demonstrated a lexical–semantic priming effect for 21-month olds but not for 18-month olds: unrelated prime words interfered with linguistic target identification for 21-month olds. Follow-up experiments confirmed the interfering effects of unrelated prime words and identified the existence of repetition priming effects as young as 18 months of age. The results of these experiments indicate that infants have begun to develop semantic–associative links between lexical items as early as 21 months of age. PMID:19933137

  17. Priming for novel object associations: Neural differences from object item priming and equivalent forms of recognition.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Mayes, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The neural substrates of associative and item priming and recognition were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study over two separate sessions. In the priming session, participants decided which object of a pair was bigger during both study and test phases. In the recognition session, participants saw different object pairs and performed the same size-judgement task followed by an associative recognition memory task. Associative priming was accompanied by reduced activity in the right middle occipital gyrus as well as in bilateral hippocampus. Object item priming was accompanied by reduced activity in extensive priming-related areas in the bilateral occipitotemporofrontal cortex, as well as in the perirhinal cortex, but not in the hippocampus. Associative recognition was characterized by activity increases in regions linked to recollection, such as the hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior medial frontal gyrus and posterior parahippocampal cortex. Item object priming and recognition recruited broadly overlapping regions (e.g., bilateral middle occipital and prefrontal cortices, left fusiform gyrus), even though the BOLD response was in opposite directions. These regions along with the precuneus, where both item priming and recognition were accompanied by activation, have been found to respond to object familiarity. The minimal structural overlap between object associative priming and recollection-based associative recognition suggests that they depend on largely different stimulus-related information and that the different directions of the effects indicate distinct retrieval mechanisms. In contrast, item priming and familiarity-based recognition seemed mainly based on common memory information, although the extent of common processing between priming and familiarity remains unclear. Further implications of these findings are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. One-step fabrication of porous GaN crystal membrane and its application in energy storage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shouzhi; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Sun, Changlong; Huo, Qin; Zhang, Baoguo; Hu, Haixiao; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2017-01-01

    Single-crystal gallium nitride (GaN) membranes have great potential for a variety of applications. However, fabrication of single-crystalline GaN membranes remains a challenge owing to its chemical inertness and mechanical hardness. This study prepares large-area, free-standing, and single-crystalline porous GaN membranes using a one-step high-temperature annealing technique for the first time. A promising separation model is proposed through a comprehensive study that combines thermodynamic theories analysis and experiments. Porous GaN crystal membrane is processed into supercapacitors, which exhibit stable cycling life, high-rate capability, and ultrahigh power density, to complete proof-of-concept demonstration of new energy storage application. Our results contribute to the study of GaN crystal membranes into a new stage related to the elelctrochemical energy storage application. PMID:28281562

  19. Effect of Ga seeding layer on formation of epitaxial Y-shaped GaN nanoparticles on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V. V.; Bolshakov, A. D.; Mozharov, A. M.; Sapunov, G. A.; Shtrom, I. V.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Mukhin, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    Silicon and aluminium nitrides, commonly used as buffer layers for GaN growth on Si are wide gap insulators, preventing barrier free charge-carrier transport across the heterojunction and limiting the functionality of GaN-on-silicon technology. In this work we explore possibility of direct growth of GaN on Si nano-heterostructures by PA-MBE with use of Ga-nanodroplets as seeds. It is demonstrated that use of seeding layer can result in formation of Y-shaped planar GaN nanoparticles (GaN tripods) along with commonly observed GaN nanowires. Growth mechanism, morphology and structural characterization of GaN/Si nano-heterostructures is discussed.

  20. One-step fabrication of porous GaN crystal membrane and its application in energy storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shouzhi; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Sun, Changlong; Huo, Qin; Zhang, Baoguo; Hu, Haixiao; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2017-03-10

    Single-crystal gallium nitride (GaN) membranes have great potential for a variety of applications. However, fabrication of single-crystalline GaN membranes remains a challenge owing to its chemical inertness and mechanical hardness. This study prepares large-area, free-standing, and single-crystalline porous GaN membranes using a one-step high-temperature annealing technique for the first time. A promising separation model is proposed through a comprehensive study that combines thermodynamic theories analysis and experiments. Porous GaN crystal membrane is processed into supercapacitors, which exhibit stable cycling life, high-rate capability, and ultrahigh power density, to complete proof-of-concept demonstration of new energy storage application. Our results contribute to the study of GaN crystal membranes into a new stage related to the elelctrochemical energy storage application.

  1. Characterization of vertical GaN p-n diodes and junction field-effect transistors on bulk GaN down to cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizilyalli, I. C.; Aktas, O.

    2015-12-01

    There is great interest in wide-bandgap semiconductor devices and most recently in vertical GaN structures for power electronic applications such as power supplies, solar inverters and motor drives. In this paper the temperature-dependent electrical behavior of vertical GaN p-n diodes and vertical junction field-effect transistors fabricated on bulk GaN substrates of low defect density (104 to 106 cm-2) is described. Homoepitaxial MOCVD growth of GaN on its native substrate and the ability to control the doping in the drift layers in GaN have allowed the realization of vertical device architectures with drift layer thicknesses of 6 to 40 μm and net carrier electron concentrations as low as 1 × 1015 cm-3. This parameter range is suitable for applications requiring breakdown voltages of 1.2 kV to 5 kV. Mg, which is used as a p-type dopant in GaN, is a relatively deep acceptor (E A ≈ 0.18 eV) and susceptible to freeze-out at temperatures below 200 K. The loss of holes in p-GaN has a deleterious effect on p-n junction behavior, p-GaN contacts and channel control in junction field-effect transistors at temperatures below 200 K. Impact ionization-based avalanche breakdown (BV > 1200 V) in GaN p-n junctions is characterized between 77 K and 423 K for the first time. At higher temperatures the p-n junction breakdown voltage improves due to increased phonon scattering. A positive temperature coefficient in the breakdown voltage is demonstrated down to 77 K; however, the device breakdown characteristics are not as abrupt at temperatures below 200 K. On the other hand, contact resistance to p-GaN is reduced dramatically above room temperature, improving the overall device performance in GaN p-n diodes in all cases except where the n-type drift region resistance dominates the total forward resistance. In this case, the electron mobility can be deconvolved and is found to decrease with T -3/2, consistent with a phonon scattering model. Also, normally-on vertical junction

  2. Molecular beam epitaxy of single crystalline GaN nanowires on a flexible Ti foil

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, Gabriele, E-mail: calabrese@pdi-berlin.de; Corfdir, Pierre; Gao, Guanhui

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrate the self-assembled growth of vertically aligned GaN nanowire ensembles on a flexible Ti foil by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The analysis of single nanowires by transmission electron microscopy reveals that they are single crystalline. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates that in comparison to standard GaN nanowires grown on Si, the nanowires prepared on the Ti foil exhibit an equivalent crystalline perfection, a higher density of basal-plane stacking faults, but a reduced density of inversion domain boundaries. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the nanowire ensemble is not influenced or degraded by the bending of the substrate. The present results pavemore » the way for the fabrication of flexible optoelectronic devices based on GaN nanowires on metal foils.« less

  3. Surface antireflection properties of GaN nanostructures with various effective refractive index profiles.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Zhao, Hongping

    2014-12-29

    GaN nanostructures with various effective refractive index profiles (Linear, Cubic, and Quintic functions) were numerically studied as broadband omnidirectional antireflection structures for concentrator photovoltaics by using three-dimensional finite difference time domain (3D-FDTD) method. Effective medium theory was used to design the surface structures corresponding to different refractive index profiles. Surface antireflection properties were calculated and analyzed for incident light with wavelength, polarization and angle dependences. The surface antireflection properties of GaN nanostructures based on six-sided pyramid with both uniform and non-uniform patterns were also investigated. Results indicate a significant dependence of the surface antireflection on the refractive index profiles of surface nanostructures as well as their pattern uniformity. The GaN nanostructures with linear refractive index profile show the best performance to be used as broadband omnidirectional antireflection structures.

  4. Semipolar AlN and GaN on Si(100): HVPE technology and layer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessolov, V.; Kalmykov, A.; Konenkova, E.; Kukushkin, S.; Myasoedov, A.; Poletaev, N.; Rodin, S.

    2017-01-01

    Hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) growth of semipolar AlN and GaN layers on planar Si(100) substrates with SiC nanolayer is investigated. It is shown experimentally that the solid-phase epitaxial formation of a specially oriented SiC nucleation layer followed by epitaxy of AlN layer by HVPE at low rates enables growth of aluminum and gallium nitrides in the semipolar direction. For the best GaN(20-23) layers obtained, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for the x-ray diffraction rocking curve is 24 arcmin. The photoluminescence spectrum of the semipolar GaN measured at 4 K exhibits bands related to basal-plane and prismatic stacking faults (BSF and PSF).

  5. Effect of Capping on Electrical and Optical Properties of GaN Layers Grown by HVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Usikov, A.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Puzyk, M. V.; Papchenko, B. P.

    2016-04-01

    Gallium nitride, grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and capped with a thin AlGaN layer, was studied by photoluminescence (PL) methods. The concentration of free electrons in GaN was found from the time-resolved PL data, and the concentrations of point defects were estimated from the steady-state PL measurements. The intensity of PL from GaN decreases moderately after capping it with Si-doped AlGaN, and it decreases dramatically after capping with Mg-doped AlGaN. At the same time, the concentration of free electrons and the concentrations of main radiative defects in GaN are not affected by the AlGaN capping. We demonstrate that PL is a powerful tool for nondestructive characterization of semiconductor layers buried under overlying device structures.

  6. The pyroelectric coefficient of free standing GaN grown by HVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jachalke, Sven; Hofmann, Patrick; Leibiger, Gunnar; Habel, Frank S.; Mehner, Erik; Leisegang, Tilmann; Meyer, Dirk C.; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The present study reports on the temperature dependent pyroelectric coefficient of free-standing and strain-free gallium nitride (GaN) grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The Sharp-Garn method is applied to extract the pyroelectric coefficient from the electrical current response of the crystals subjected to a sinusoidal temperature excitation in a range of 0 °C to 160 °C. To avoid compensation of the pyroelectric response by an internal conductivity, insulating GaN crystals were used by applying C, Mn, and Fe doping during HVPE growth. The different pyroelectric coefficients observed at room temperature due to the doping correlate well with the change of the lattice parameter c. The obtained data are compared to previously published theoretical and experimental values of thin film GaN and discussed in terms of a strained lattice.

  7. Study of GaN nanorods converted from β-Ga2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuewen; Xiong, Zening; Zhang, Dongdong; Xiu, Xiangqian; Liu, Duo; Wang, Shuang; Hua, Xuemei; Xie, Zili; Tao, Tao; Liu, Bin; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2018-05-01

    We report here high-quality β-Ga2O3 nanorods (NRs) grown on sapphire substrates by hydrothermal method. Ammoniating the β-Ga2O3 NRs results in strain-free wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) NRs. It was shown by XRD and Raman spectroscopy that β-Ga2O3 was partially converted to GaN/β-Ga2O3 at 1000 °C and then completely converted to GaN NRs at 1050 °C, as confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). There is no band-edge emission of β-Ga2O3 in the cathodoluminescence spectrum, and only a deep-level broad emission observed at 3.68-3.73 eV. The band edge emission (3.39 eV) of GaN NRs converted from β-Ga2O3 can also be observed.

  8. Molecular beam epitaxy of single crystalline GaN nanowires on a flexible Ti foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Gabriele; Corfdir, Pierre; Gao, Guanhui; Pfüller, Carsten; Trampert, Achim; Brandt, Oliver; Geelhaar, Lutz; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the self-assembled growth of vertically aligned GaN nanowire ensembles on a flexible Ti foil by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The analysis of single nanowires by transmission electron microscopy reveals that they are single crystalline. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates that in comparison to standard GaN nanowires grown on Si, the nanowires prepared on the Ti foil exhibit an equivalent crystalline perfection, a higher density of basal-plane stacking faults, but a reduced density of inversion domain boundaries. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the nanowire ensemble is not influenced or degraded by the bending of the substrate. The present results pave the way for the fabrication of flexible optoelectronic devices based on GaN nanowires on metal foils.

  9. Neutral anodic etching of GaN for vertical or crystallographic alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Mark J.; Han, Jung; Pfefferle, Lisa D.

    2015-06-01

    Etching of gallium nitride for various device applications has attracted much attention; however, previous reports have all been performed in acidic or basic etchant solutions. Herein, we demonstrate how neutral electrolytes such as NaNO3 or NaCl can be used to rapidly etch n-GaN electrochemically and achieve a porous structure that is either vertically aligned or faceted according to the GaN crystallography, in NaNO3 and NaCl, respectively. It is demonstrated that the etching properties of NaNO3 and HNO3 are very similar, showing that the etching process in this system is surprisingly insensitive to pH. This neutral-pH process enables safer and greener GaN etching, as well as opening up the possibility of crystallographic etching of GaN using an anodic process.

  10. Electron band bending of polar, semipolar and non-polar GaN surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoš, I.; Romanyuk, O., E-mail: romanyuk@fzu.cz; Houdkova, J.

    2016-03-14

    The magnitudes of the surface band bending have been determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for polar, semipolar, and non-polar surfaces of wurtzite GaN crystals. All surfaces have been prepared from crystalline GaN samples grown by the hydride-vapour phase epitaxy and separated from sapphire substrates. The Ga 3d core level peak shifts have been used for band bending determination. Small band bending magnitudes and also relatively small difference between the band bendings of the surfaces with opposite polarity have been found. These results point to the presence of electron surface states of different amounts and types on surfaces of different polaritymore » and confirm the important role of the electron surface states in compensation of the bound surface polarity charges in wurtzite GaN crystals.« less

  11. Development of UV image intensifier tube with GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, I.; Nihashi, T.; Nagai, T.; Niigaki, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shimano, K.; Katoh, K.; Ihara, T.; Okano, K.; Matsumoto, M.; Tachino, M.

    2008-04-01

    We developed an UV image intensifier tube with a GaN photocathode in semi-transparent mode. In UV spectroscopy and low-light-level UV-imaging applications, there are strong demands for improved detectors which have higher quantum efficiency, low dark current, sharper wavelength cut-off response, and stable and robust characteristics. III-Nitrides semiconductor is one of the promising candidate materials to meet these demands. We developed a GaN photocathode which is epitaxially grown by MOCVD method. It has flat and high quantum efficiency from 200 nm to 360 nm. The cathode is incorporated into an image intensifier tube, which shows good gating performance and fine imaging resolution. With these improved performances, the UV image intensifier tube with GaN photocathode will expand its application fields to include UV spectroscopy and UV-imaging in low light.

  12. Unstable behaviour of normally-off GaN E-HEMT under short-circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, P. J.; Maset, E.; Sanchis-Kilders, E.; Esteve, V.; Jordán, J.; Bta Ejea, J.; Ferreres, A.

    2018-04-01

    The short-circuit capability of power switching devices plays an important role in fault detection and the protection of power circuits. In this work, an experimental study on the short-circuit (SC) capability of commercial 600 V Gallium Nitride enhancement-mode high-electron-mobility transistors (E-HEMT) is presented. A different failure mechanism has been identified for commercial p-doped GaN gate (p-GaN) HEMT and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) HEMT. In addition to the well known thermal breakdown, a premature breakdown is shown on both GaN HEMTs, triggered by hot electron trapping at the surface, which demonstrates that current commercial GaN HEMTs has requirements for improving their SC ruggedness.

  13. Depletion-Mode GaN HEMT Q-Spoil Switches for MRI Coils

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jonathan Y.; Grafendorfer, Thomas; Zhang, Tao; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Robb, Fraser; Pauly, John M.; Scott, Greig C.

    2017-01-01

    Q-spoiling is the process of decoupling an MRI receive coil to protect the equipment and patient. Conventionally, Q-spoiling is performed using a PIN diode switch that draws significant current. In this work, a Q-spoiling technique using a depletion-mode Gallium Nitride HEMT device was developed for coil detuning at both 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. The circuits with conventional PIN diode Q-spoiling and the GaN HEMT device were implemented on surface coils. SNR was measured and compared for all surfaces coils. At both 1.5 T and 3 T, comparable SNR was achieved for all coils with the proposed technique and conventional Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device has significantly reduced the required power for Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device also provides useful safety features by detuning the coil when unpowered. PMID:27362895

  14. Prostate specific antigen detection using AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, B. S.; Wang, H. T.; Lele, T. P.; Tseng, Y.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Johnson, J. W.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J. C.; Piner, E. L.; Linthicum, K. J.

    2007-09-01

    Antibody-functionalized Au-gated AlGaN /GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were used to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA). The PSA antibody was anchored to the gate area through the formation of carboxylate succinimdyl ester bonds with immobilized thioglycolic acid. The AlGaN /GaN HEMT drain-source current showed a rapid response of less than 5s when target PSA in a buffer at clinical concentrations was added to the antibody-immobilized surface. The authors could detect a wide range of concentrations from 10pg/mlto1μg/ml. The lowest detectable concentration was two orders of magnitude lower than the cutoff value of PSA measurements for clinical detection of prostate cancer. These results clearly demonstrate the promise of portable electronic biological sensors based on AlGaN /GaN HEMTs for PSA screening.

  15. Depletion-Mode GaN HEMT Q-Spoil Switches for MRI Coils.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jonathan Y; Grafendorfer, Thomas; Zhang, Tao; Vasanawala, Shreyas; Robb, Fraser; Pauly, John M; Scott, Greig C

    2016-12-01

    Q-spoiling is the process of decoupling an MRI receive coil to protect the equipment and patient. Conventionally, Q-spoiling is performed using a PIN diode switch that draws significant current. In this work, a Q-spoiling technique using a depletion-mode Gallium Nitride HEMT device was developed for coil detuning at both 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. The circuits with conventional PIN diode Q-spoiling and the GaN HEMT device were implemented on surface coils. SNR was measured and compared for all surfaces coils. At both 1.5 T and 3 T, comparable SNR was achieved for all coils with the proposed technique and conventional Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device has significantly reduced the required power for Q-spoiling. The GaN HEMT device also provides useful safety features by detuning the coil when unpowered.

  16. Site-controlled GaN nanocolumns with InGaN insertions grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaev, D. V.; Semenov, A. N.; Koshelev, O. A.; Jmerik, V. N.; Davydov, V. Yu; Smirnov, A. N.; Pozina, G.; Shubina, T. V.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The site-controlled plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA MBE) has been developed to fabricate the regular array of GaN nanocolumns (NCs) with InGaN insertions on micro-cone patterned sapphire substrates (μ-CPSSs). Two-stage growth of GaN NCs, including a nucleation layer grown at metal-rich conditions and high temperature GaN growth in strong N-rich condition, has been developed to achieve the selective growth of the NCs. Microcathodoluminescence measurements have demonstrated pronounced emission from the InGaN insertions in 450-600 nm spectral range. The optically isolated NCs can be used as effective nano-emitters operating in the visible range.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of trimethylgallium decomposition during GaN metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Kazuki; Shirakawa, Hiroki; Chokawa, Kenta; Araidai, Masaaki; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    We analyzed the decomposition of Ga(CH3)3 (TMG) during the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of GaN on the basis of first-principles calculations and thermodynamic analysis. We performed activation energy calculations of TMG decomposition and determined the main reaction processes of TMG during GaN MOVPE. We found that TMG reacts with the H2 carrier gas and that (CH3)2GaH is generated after the desorption of the methyl group. Next, (CH3)2GaH decomposes into (CH3)GaH2 and this decomposes into GaH3. Finally, GaH3 becomes GaH. In the MOVPE growth of GaN, TMG decomposes into GaH by the successive desorption of its methyl groups. The results presented here concur with recent high-resolution mass spectroscopy results.

  18. Porosity-enhanced solar powered hydrogen generation in GaN photoelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Y.; Ahmed Syed, Z.; Jiu, L.; Bai, J.; Wang, T.

    2017-11-01

    Two types of GaN based photoelectrodes using either horizontally aligned or vertically aligned nanopores have been fabricated by means of using an electrochemical etching approach. The photoelectrodes based on such nanostructures have demonstrated an up to 5-fold enhancement in applied bias photon-to-current efficiency and incident photon-to-current efficiency in comparison with their planar counterpart, leading to a high Faradaic conversion efficiency which approaches 1. The GaN photoelectrodes with these nanopores also show excellent chemical stability in HBr solution as an electrolyte. The results presented reveal that the gas diffusion in the nanopores plays an important role in water splitting processes, which should be taken into account when designing a GaN photoelectrode with a nanopore structure.

  19. Control of GaN crystal habit by solution stirring in the Na-flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Kosuke; Imade, Mamoru; Imanishi, Masayuki; Honjo, Masatomo; Imabayashi, Hiroki; Matsuo, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kosuke; Maruyama, Mihoko; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    In our previous study, we succeeded in fabricating low-curvature GaN wafers with low dislocation density by the Na-flux coalescence growth technique. However, the crystals consisted of many pyramidal grains with (10\\bar{1}1) facets, leading to an increase in the oxygen concentration in the crystal, an increase in the lattice constant, and blackening. In this study, we attempted to improve the crystal habit of the GaN crystals by employing a solution-stirring technique in the coalescence growth on multipoint seeds. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that the c-face area became larger by increasing the stirring rate and growth period. We concluded that solution stirring in the Na-flux coalescence growth technique is an effective approach to improve the crystal habit and uniformize the lattice constant of GaN crystals.

  20. Defect reduction in GaN on dome-shaped patterned-sapphire substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Hsun; Su, Vin-Cent; Wu, Shang-Hsuan; Lin, Ray-Ming; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung

    2018-02-01

    This paper demonstrates the behavior of defect reduction in un-doped GaN (u-GaN) grown on a commercial dome-shaped patterned-sapphire substrate (CDPSS). Residual strain inside the u-GaN grown on the CDPSS have been investigated as well. As verified by the experimentally measured data, the limited growth rate of the u-GaN on the sidewall of the CDPSS enhances the lateral growth of the GaN on the trench region while increasing the growth time. This subsequently contributes to improve the crystalline quality of the GaN on the CDPSS. The more prominent dislocations occur in the u-GaN epilayers on the CDPSS after reaching the summit of the accumulated strain inside the epilayers. Such prominent bent dislocations improve their blocking abilities, followed by the achievement of the better crystalline quality for the growth of the u-GaN on the CDPSS.

  1. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies.

  2. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language

    PubMed Central

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications. PMID:26938446

  3. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language.

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications.

  4. Semantic priming effect of metaphor constituent terms.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Keiko

    2003-02-01

    Camac and Glucksberg reported there was no priming effect between constituent terms of a metaphor and argued that there was no prior similarity or association between the constituents. However, their study had several limitations. An important one was that they neglected the asymmetry of metaphor constituent terms. The purpose of this study is to replicate their experiment under the condition in which one of the constituents preceded the other. The experiment was conducted with Japanese participants using Japanese metaphoric sentences as stimuli. The results showed that the decision was facilitated if the vehicle served as prime and the topic served as target. In contrast, if the topic preceded the vehicle, no priming effect was found. These results are discussed in terms of the class inclusion model proposed earlier by Glucksberg and Keysar.

  5. Axial p-n junction and space charge limited current in single GaN nanowire.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhihua; Donatini, Fabrice; Daudin, Bruno; Pernot, Julien

    2018-01-05

    The electrical characterizations of individual basic GaN nanostructures, such as axial nanowire (NW) p-n junctions, are becoming indispensable and crucial for the fully controlled realization of GaN NW based devices. In this study, electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurements were performed on two single axial GaN p-n junction NWs grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. I-V characteristics revealed that both ohmic and space charge limited current (SCLC) regimes occur in GaN p-n junction NW. Thanks to an improved contact process, both the electric field induced by the p-n junction and the SCLC in the p-part of GaN NW were disclosed and delineated by EBIC signals under different biases. Analyzing the EBIC profiles in the vicinity of the p-n junction under 0 V and reverse bias, we deduced a depletion width in the range of 116-125 nm. Following our previous work, the acceptor N a doping level was estimated to be 2-3 × 10 17 at cm -3 assuming a donor level N d of 2-3 × 10 18 at cm -3 . The hole diffusion length in n-GaN was determined to be 75 nm for NW #1 and 43 nm for NW #2, demonstrating a low surface recombination velocity at the m-plane facet of n-GaN NW. Under forward bias, EBIC imaging visualized the electric field induced by the SCLC close to p-side contact, in agreement with unusual SCLC previously reported in GaN NWs.

  6. Hybrid density functional theory studies of AlN and GaN under uniaxial strain.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lixia; Duan, Yifeng; Shi, Hongliang; Shi, Liwei; Tang, Gang

    2013-01-30

    The structural stability, spontaneous polarization, piezoelectric response, and electronic structure of AlN and GaN under uniaxial strain along the [0001] direction are systematically investigated using HSE06 range-separated hybrid functionals. Our results exhibit interesting behavior. (i) AlN and GaN share the same structural transition from wurtzite to a graphite-like phase at very large compressive strains, similarly to other wurtzite semiconductors. Our calculations further reveal that this well-known phase transition is driven by the transverse-acoustic soft phonon mode associated with elastic instabilities. (ii) The applied tensile strain can either drastically suppress or strongly enhance the polarization and piezoelectricity, based on the value of the strain. Furthermore, large enhancements of polarization and piezoelectricity close to the phase-transition regions at large compressive strains are predicted, similar to those previously predicted in ferroelectric fields. Our calculations indicate that such colossal enhancements are strongly correlated to phase transitions when large atomic displacements are generated by external strains. (iii) Under the same strain, AlN and GaN have significantly different electronic properties: both wurtzite and graphite-like AlN always display direct band structures, while the the bandgap of wurtzite GaN is always direct and that of graphite-like GaN always indirect. Furthermore, the bandgap of graphite-like AlN is greatly enhanced by large compressive strain, but that of wurtzite GaN is not sensitive to compressive strain. Our results are drastically different from those for equibiaxial strain (Duan et al 2012 Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 022104).

  7. Prime Contract Awards by State, FY 1978.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    FLOOD CONTROL,, AND RIVERS AND HARBORS WORK DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PRIME CONTRACT AWARDS BY STATE CONTENTS PAGE MILITARY PRIME CONTRACT AWARDS TABLE 1I...89.2 a..s1,issassfaa= ufssa3 x s88811==181 .= flaH fl 8=a8 ==S==s NOT OISTRIBUTEO 6T STATE Cj r.Si4tl18 2,986.561 19714.269 1,692,942 1.391,953 STATE...Functions of the Army Corps of Engineers for flood control and rivers and barbors work. Civil Functions data are shown separately, and are not

  8. Ku and K band GaN High Power Amplifier MMICs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-20

    Ku- and K -band GaN High Power Amplifier MMICs Val Kaper, Scott Harris, Keith Kessler Raytheon, Andover MA 01810 vkaper@raytheon.com Abstract: This...paper describes development and characteri- zation of three Ku- and K -band GaN High Power Amplifier (HPA) MMICs. The circuits are implemented in...delivers 25 Watts of output power with 45% PAE. A K -band HPA operates from 19.5 to 22 GHz and delivers 18 Watts of output power with 29% PAE

  9. Characterization of GaN microstructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Ikai; Pang, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Yu-Chi

    2013-06-15

    The characterization of GaN microstructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on LiAlO{sub 2} substrate was studied by cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence measurements. We demonstrated that the cathodoluminescence from oblique semi-polar surfaces of mushroom-shaped GaN was much brighter than that from top polar surface due to the reduction of polarization field on the oblique semi-polar surfaces. It implies that the oblique semi-polar surface is superior for the light-emitting surface of wurtzite nano-devices.

  10. Doping Induced Structural Stability and Electronic Properties of GaN Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Irfan; Tyagi, Neha; Swaroop Khare, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    The present paper discusses the effect of manganese doping on the structural stability and electronic band gap of chiral (2, 1), armchair (3, 3), and zigzag ((6, 0) and (10, 0)) single walled GaN nanotube by using density functional theory based Atomistix Toolkit (ATK) Virtual NanoLab (VNL). The structural stability has been analyzed in terms of minimum ground state total energy, binding, and formation energy. As an effect of Mn doping (1–4 atoms), all the GaN nanotubes taken into consideration show semiconducting to metallic transition first and after certain level of Mn doping changes its trend. PMID:24707225

  11. Germanium-catalyzed growth of single-crystal GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Umar; Wang, Hong; Peyrot, David; Olivier, Aurélien; Zhang, Jun; Coquet, Philippe; Ng, Serene Lay Geok

    2016-04-01

    We report the use of Germanium (Ge) as catalyst for Gallium Nitride (GaN) nanowires growth. High-yield growth has been achieved with Ge nanoparticles obtained by dewetting a thin layer of Ge on a Si (100) substrate. The nanowires are long and grow straight with very little curvature. The GaN nanowires are single-crystalline and show a Wurtzite structure growing along the [0001] axis. The growth follows a metal-free Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism, further allowing a CMOS technology compatibility. The synthesis of nanowires has been done using an industrial Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) system.

  12. Simulations of Operation Dynamics of Different Type GaN Particle Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Vysniauskas, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    The operation dynamics of the capacitor-type and PIN diode type detectors based on GaN have been simulated using the dynamic and drift-diffusion models. The drift-diffusion current simulations have been implemented by employing the software package Synopsys TCAD Sentaurus. The monopolar and bipolar drift regimes have been analyzed by using dynamic models based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem. The carrier multiplication processes determined by impact ionization have been considered in order to compensate carrier lifetime reduction due to introduction of radiation defects into GaN detector material. PMID:25751080

  13. Study on high-speed deep etching of GaN film by UV laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Sugioka, K.; Wada, S.; Tashiro, H.; Midorikawa, K.

    1998-06-01

    High-speed deep etching of GaN thin films by UV (266 nm) laser ablation followed by a treatment in HCl solution, was achieved. The etch rate was as high as 50 nm/pulse. Scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy measurement results indicate that the surface of the etched films was structurally well-defined and cleanly patterned. Micro-photoluminescence measurements of ablated samples revealed no severe damage to the optical properties or the crystal structure. In addition, coupling with VUV (133-184 nm) laser beams, the etch quality of GaN was markedly improved. The etch rate was 55 nm/pulse

  14. Amphoteric Be in GaN: Experimental Evidence for Switching between Substitutional and Interstitial Lattice Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomisto, Filip; Prozheeva, Vera; Makkonen, Ilja; Myers, Thomas H.; Bockowski, Michal; Teisseyre, Henryk

    2017-11-01

    We show that Be exhibits amphoteric behavior in GaN, involving switching between substitutional and interstitial positions in the lattice. This behavior is observed through the dominance of BeGa in the positron annihilation signals in Be-doped GaN, while the emergence of VGa at high temperatures is a consequence of the Be impurities being driven to interstitial positions. The similarity of this behavior to that found for Na and Li in ZnO suggests that this could be a universal property of light dopants substituting for heavy cations in compound semiconductors.

  15. Reliability improvement in GaN HEMT power device using a field plate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-Hao; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Chin, Ping-Chieh; Hsu, Chia-Chieh; Lee, Jin-Hwa; Liu, Shih-Chien; Maa, Jer-shen; Iwai, Hiroshi; Chang, Edward Yi; Hsu, Heng-Tung

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of implementing a field plate on a GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) to improve power device reliability. The results indicate that the field plate structure reduces the peak electrical field and interface traps in the device, resulting in higher breakdown voltage, lower leakage current, smaller current collapse, and better threshold voltage control. Furthermore, after high voltage stress, steady dynamic on-resistance and gate capacitance degradation improvement were observed for the device with the field plate. This demonstrates that GaN device reliability can be improved by using the field plate approach.

  16. Correlation between threading dislocations in highly mismatched GaN heteroepitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanitan, Cosmin

    2017-12-01

    A simple model that establishes a quantitative measure for the positional correlation degree of threading dislocations (TDs) in heteroepitaxial layers is proposed. Accordingly, analyzing the linewidth of the Gaussian fit that follows the experimental rocking curve (RC), we obtained the correlation degree of screw and edge TDs in GaN epitaxial layers grown on sapphire substrate. Calculating the numerical integral using both the standard Wilkens correlation parameter, M, and the new one, S, and comparing the numerical results with the experimental diffraction patterns for three samples of GaN epitaxial films with different thicknesses, we demonstrate that the newly determined correlation parameter is correct.

  17. MOVPE growth of cubic GaN on GaAs using dimethylhydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, S.; Onabe, K.; Ohkouchi, N.; Yaguchi, H.; Ito, R.; Fukatsu, S.; Shiraki, Y.

    1992-11-01

    High-quality cubic GaN epitaxial films have been successfully grown on (100) GaAs sunstrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (DMHy) as the nitrogen source material. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the X-ray diffraction profile of 0.65° has been obtained, which is the narrowest reported to date. The grown films were found to be made up of ridges with (111)B facets, with increasing film thickness. Raman peak characteristic of cubic symmetry has been obtained for the first time, showing that GaN films were of excellent quality.

  18. Growth of Single Crystals and Fabrication of GaN and AlN Wafers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Unlimited ABSTRACT Gallium nitride (GaN) thin films were grown on (0001) sapphire substrates at 1050’C by controlled evaporation of gallium (Ga) metal and...was used to determine the crystallinity of deposited films and revealed a full-width at half-maximum (FWIM) of 0.6 deg. for the (0002) GaN peak. EDX...bulk or thick film growth, many advantages of growth via vapor phase transport have been reported including the use of the simplest source species and

  19. Separation of Ga-polar GaN layer from Si substrate by wet chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, K. Yu; Berezovskaya, T. N.; Mokhov, D. V.; Mizerov, A. M.; Nikitina, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    In this work the effects of H3PO4:CH3COOH:HNO3:HF etching solution taken with different concentrations to the Ga-polar GaN/SixNy/Si(111) epitaxial structures is investigated. Possibility of at least partial separation of Ga-polar GaN film from the silicon substrate without any GaN surface morphology changes by the selected etchants is demonstrated. The etching process mechanism is shown. Resistivity of the photoresist mask to etchants used in the experiments is found.

  20. N-Face GaN Electronics for Heteroepitaxial and Bonded Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    material system, such as GaN, which supports higher breakdown limits, then the trade-off can be overcome. An III-Arsenide (III-As)/III- Nitride (III-N...Investigations may then start by forming a heterostructure comprising both III- Arsenide (III-As) and III- Nitride (III-N) material systems. But such formation is...doping is high and δ-doped at an interface between the InGaN and GaN layers. A relationship between polarization of III- Nitride region of the BAVET

  1. Interface roughness scattering in ultra-thin N-polar GaN quantum well channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singisetti, Uttam; Hoi Wong, Man; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2012-07-01

    In this Letter, we report experimental and theoretical investigations on the effect of the channel thickness on the low-field electron mobility in N-polar GaN quantum well channels. From temperature dependent Hall mobility data and numerical modeling of the mobility, the interface roughness is identified as a strong factor in determining the low field mobility as the channel thickness is scaled down. In the graded AlGaN back-barrier N-polar GaN field effect transistor structures studied here, the roughness leads to localization of electrons at a channel thickness of 3.5 nm leading to extremely low mobility.

  2. Room temperature ferromagnetism in thermally diffused Cr in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suggisetti, P.; Banerjee, D.; Adari, R.; Pande, N.; Patil, T.; Ganguly, S.; Saha, D.

    2013-03-01

    We report room temperature ferromagnetism in crystalline GaCrN prepared by Cr deposition and drive-in diffusion with Curie temperature much above 300 K. The Curie temperature increases with increasing active Cr concentration. Cr doped GaN acts as an n-type material with significant increase in electron carrier concentration due to the presence of Cr. Optical property of GaCrN is found to be very similar to GaN with an additional peak at 3.29 eV due to Cr. The hysteresis measurements show that the ferromagnetic ordering is maintained up to 300 K with no significant change in saturation magnetization.

  3. 2 dimensional electron gas uniformity of GaN HFET layers on SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, D. J.; Wright, P. J.; Soley, D. E. J.; Koker, L.; Uren, M. J.; Martin, T.

    2012-01-01

    As GaN power transistor technology matures it is increasingly important to understand any links between substrate "quality", epi-layer growth and electrical characteristics of the 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), which forms the active part of devices. We present a study, which makes use of full wafer mapping techniques to examine these relationships. Substrate off-cut is shown to be an important parameter in controlling the uniformity of GaN HFET device layers on SiC substrates.

  4. You prime what you code: The fAIM model of priming of pop-out

    PubMed Central

    Meeter, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Our visual brain makes use of recent experience to interact with the visual world, and efficiently select relevant information. This is exemplified by speeded search when target- and distractor features repeat across trials versus when they switch, a phenomenon referred to as intertrial priming. Here, we present fAIM, a computational model that demonstrates how priming can be explained by a simple feature-weighting mechanism integrated into an established model of bottom-up vision. In fAIM, such modulations in feature gains are widespread and not just restricted to one or a few features. Consequentially, priming effects result from the overall tuning of visual features to the task at hand. Such tuning allows the model to reproduce priming for different types of stimuli, including for typical stimulus dimensions such as ‘color’ and for less obvious dimensions such as ‘spikiness’ of shapes. Moreover, the model explains some puzzling findings from the literature: it shows how priming can be found for target-distractor stimulus relations rather than for their absolute stimulus values per se, without an explicit representation of relations. Similarly, it simulates effects that have been taken to reflect a modulation of priming by an observers’ goals—without any representation of goals in the model. We conclude that priming is best considered as a consequence of a general adaptation of the brain to visual input, and not as a peculiarity of visual search. PMID:29166386

  5. Orbitally driven low thermal conductivity of monolayer gallium nitride (GaN) with planar honeycomb structure: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhenzhen; Qin, Guangzhao; Zuo, Xu; Xiong, Zhihua; Hu, Ming

    2017-03-23

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with graphene as a representative have been intensively studied for a long time. Recently, monolayer gallium nitride (ML GaN) with honeycomb structure was successfully fabricated in experiments, generating enormous research interest for its promising applications in nano- and opto-electronics. Considering all these applications are inevitably involved with thermal transport, systematic investigation of the phonon transport properties of 2D GaN is in demand. In this paper, by solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) based on first-principles calculations, we performed a comprehensive study of the phonon transport properties of ML GaN, with detailed comparison to bulk GaN, 2D graphene, silicene and ML BN with similar honeycomb structure. Considering the similar planar structure of ML GaN to graphene, it is quite intriguing to find that the thermal conductivity (κ) of ML GaN (14.93 W mK -1 ) is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of graphene and is even lower than that of silicene with a buckled structure. Systematic analysis is performed based on the study of the contribution from phonon branches, comparison among the mode level phonon group velocity and lifetime, the detailed process and channels of phonon-phonon scattering, and phonon anharmonicity with potential energy well. We found that, different from graphene and ML BN, the phonon-phonon scattering selection rule in 2D GaN is slightly broken by the lowered symmetry due to the large difference in the atomic radius and mass between Ga and N atoms. Further deep insight is gained from the electronic structure. Resulting from the special sp orbital hybridization mediated by the Ga-d orbital in ML GaN, the strongly polarized Ga-N bond, localized charge density, and its inhomogeneous distribution induce large phonon anharmonicity and lead to the intrinsic low κ of ML GaN. The orbitally driven low κ of ML GaN unraveled in this work would make 2D GaN prospective for

  6. Development of high-performance gan-based power transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Liang

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study on the development of GaN-based high-power transistors. First, selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, a technology developed by our group for Ohmic contact improvement, is utilized to fabricate large-periphery AlGaN / GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for high current operation. A novel Ti / Al multi-layered contact scheme is then introduced to further reduce the contact resistance by inhibiting the Al diffusion during Ohmic contact annealing. Second, to reduce the gate leakage current and enhance the breakdown voltage, gate-SiO 2 deposited by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering is investigated. The routinely occurring degradation of the two-dimensional electron gas properties due to the sputtering-induced surface damage is effectively removed by a buffer layer protection or a post-annealing treatment. A metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-HEMT with sputtered-gate-SiO2 is demonstrated for the first time, which exhibits a record high breakdown voltage density. Furthermore, the sputtered-SiO2, together with the atomic-layer-deposited-Al 2O3, forms a bimodal-gate-oxide scheme, which is combined with the fluoride-plasma treatment to realize high-performance enhancement-mode MOSHEMT. Finally, a new transfer printing approach is developed to fabricate flexible hybrid inductorcapacitor (LC) filters via the pre-etched silicon-on-insulator wafer. The selectively patterned semi-stable Si-supporting membranes are sufficiently robust to support the entire device fabrication process, yet flexible enough to facilitate the subsequent transfer printing via adhesive stamp. The flexible hybrid LC filter has the potential to be incorporated into GaN-MOSHEMTbased high power DC-DC converters.

  7. The Sandwich Priming Paradigm Does Not Reduce Lexical Competitor Effects.

    PubMed

    Trifonova, Iliyana V; Adelman, James S

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the mechanisms underlying sandwich priming, a procedure in which a brief preprime target presentation precedes the conventional mask-prime-target sequence, used to study orthographic similarity. Lupker and Davis (2009) showed the sandwich paradigm enhances orthographic priming effects: With primes moderately related to targets, sandwich priming produced significant facilitation, but conventional priming did not. They argued that unlike conventional priming, sandwich priming is not susceptible to an uncontrolled counteractive inhibitory process, lexical competition, that cancels out moderate facilitation effects. They suggest lexical competition is eliminated by preactivating the target's representation, privileging the target over similar lexical units (competitors). As such, it better measures orthographic relatedness between primes and targets, a key purpose of many priming studies. We tested whether elimination of lexical competition could indeed account for the observed orthographic priming boost with sandwich priming. In three lexical decision experiments and accompanying simulations with a competitive network model, we compared priming effects in three preprime procedures: no preprime (conventional), identity (target) preprime (sandwich), and competitor preprime (included to exacerbate lexical competition). The related prime conditions consisted of replaced-letters, shared neighbor (one-letter-different from both competitor preprime and target), and transposed-all-letter nonword primes. Contrary to the model's predictions, the competitor preprime did not attenuate (Experiment 1) or even reverse the priming effect (Experiment 2). Moreover, the competitor enabled facilitatory priming that was absent with no preprime (Experiment 3). These data suggested that the sandwich orthographic boost could not be attributed to reduced lexical competition but rather to prelexical processes in word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all

  8. Isolating shape from semantics in haptic-visual priming.

    PubMed

    Pesquita, Ana; Brennan, Allison A; Enns, James T; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2013-06-01

    The exploration of a familiar object by hand can benefit its identification by eye. What is unclear is how much this multisensory cross-talk reflects shared shape representations versus generic semantic associations. Here, we compare several simultaneous priming conditions to isolate the potential contributions of shape and semantics in haptic-to-visual priming. Participants explored a familiar object manually (haptic prime) while trying to name a visual object that was gradually revealed in increments of spatial resolution. Shape priming was isolated in a comparison of identity priming (shared semantic category and shape) with category priming (same category, but different shapes). Semantic priming was indexed by the comparisons of category priming with unrelated haptic primes. The results showed that both factors mediated priming, but that their relative weights depended on the reliability of the visual information. Semantic priming dominated in Experiment 1, when participants were free to use high-resolution visual information, but shape priming played a stronger role in Experiment 2, when participants were forced to respond with less reliable visual information. These results support the structural description hypothesis of haptic-visual priming (Reales and Ballesteros in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 25:644-663, 1999) and are also consistent with the optimal integration theory (Ernst and Banks in Nature 415:429-433, 2002), which proposes a close coupling between the reliability of sensory signals and their weight in decision making.

  9. Influence of Partial Dam Removal on Change of Channel Morphology and Physical Habitats: A Case Study of Yu-Sheng River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao Weng, Chung; Yeh, Chao Hsien

    2017-04-01

    The rivers in Taiwan have the characteristic of large slope gradient and fast flow velocity caused by rugged terrain. And Taiwan often aces many typhoons which will bring large rainfall in the summer. In early Taiwan, river management was more focus on flood control, flood protection and disaster reduction. In recent years, the rise of ecological conservation awareness for the precious fish species brings spotlight on the Taiwan salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus) which lives in the river section of this study. In order to make sure ecological corridor continuing, dam removal is the frequently discussed measure in recent years and its impact on environmental is also highly concerned. Since the dam removal may causes severe changes to the river channel, the action of dam removal needs careful evaluation. As one of the endangered species, Taiwan salmon is considered a national treasure of Taiwan and it was originally an offshore migration of the Pacific salmon. After the ice age and geographical isolation, it becomes as an unique subspecies of Taiwan and evolved into landlocked salmon. Now the Taiwan salmon habitats only exists in few upstream creeks and the total number of wild Taiwan salmon in 2015 was about 4,300. In order to expand the connectivity of the fish habitats in Chi-Jia-Wan creek basin, several dam removal projects had completed with good results. Therefore, this paper focuses on the dam removal of Yu-Sheng creek dam. In this paper, a digital elevation model (DEM) of about 1 kilometer channel of the Yu-Sheng creek dam is obtained by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Using CCHE2D model, the simulation of dam removal will reveal the impact on channel morphology. After model parameter identification and verification, this study simulated the scenarios of three historical typhoon events with recurrence interval of two years, fifteen years, and three decades under four different patterns of dam removal to identify the the head erosion, flow pattern, and

  10. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  11. Repetition Priming and Hyperpriming in Semantic Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, T. B.; Graham, K. S.; Patterson, K.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence from neurologically normal subjects suggests that repetition priming (RP) is independent of semantic processing. Therefore, we may expect patients with a selective deficit to conceptual knowledge to exhibit RP for words regardless of the integrity of their semantic representations. We tested six patients with semantic dementia (SD) on a…

  12. Effective prime coats for compacted pavement bases.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-08-01

    Prime coats have long been used to seal the surface pores in the base, thus reducing the migration of moisture : and absorption of the first application of surface treatment binder, strengthen the granular base near its : surface by binding the finer...

  13. Predicting the Unbeaten Path through Syntactic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Manabu; Nakamura, Chie; Mazuka, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    A number of previous studies showed that comprehenders make use of lexically based constraints such as subcategorization frequency in processing structurally ambiguous sentences. One piece of such evidence is lexically specific syntactic priming in comprehension; following the costly processing of a temporarily ambiguous sentence, comprehenders…

  14. Attentional Control and Asymmetric Associative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Keith A.; Heap, Shelly J.; Neely, James H.; Thomas, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Participants completed a battery of 3 attentional control (AC) tasks (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop, as in Hutchison, 2007) and performed a lexical decision task with symmetrically associated (e.g., "sister-brother") and asymmetrically related primes and targets presented in both the forward (e.g., "atom-bomb") and backward…

  15. Priming involuntary autobiographical memories in the lab.

    PubMed

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka

    2018-02-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) are recollections of personal past that frequently and spontaneously occur in daily life. Initial studies by Mace (2005) showed that deliberately reminiscing about a certain lifetime period (e.g., high school) significantly increased the number of different IAMs from the same period in subsequent days, suggesting that priming may play a significant role in the retrieval of IAMs in everyday life. In the present study, we used a modified experimental paradigm, originally used by Schlagman and Kvavilashvili (2008), to study IAMs under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Participants completed a monotonous vigilance task twice and reported the occurrence of any spontaneous thoughts that were later classed as IAMs or other thoughts. Priming was manipulated by having experimental participants reminiscing about high school period between the two vigilance tasks and control participants playing simple games. Results showed that participants in the experimental group reported IAMs relating to high school period more frequently during the second vigilance task than those in the control group. In the experimental group, the number of high school memories was marginally higher in the second vigilance task compared to the first vigilance task with the medium effect size, but this within subjects effect was not significant in the control group. Finally, priming also enhanced the retrieval of more remote IAMs in the experimental group compared to the control group. These results suggest that priming may play a significant role in the activation and recall of IAMs and open up interesting avenues for future research.

  16. Vibrational and [ital K][sup [prime

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliano, N.; Cruzan, J.D.; Loeser, J.G.

    1993-05-01

    Using tunable far infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, 12 vibration--rotation-tunneling (VRT) subbands, consisting of approximately 230 transitions have been measured and analyzed for an 82.6 cm[sup [minus]1] intermolecular vibration of the water dimer-[ital d][sub 4]. Each of the VRT subbands originate from [ital K][sup [double prime

  17. DNA polymerase preference determines PCR priming efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wenjing; Byrne-Steele, Miranda; Wang, Chunlin; Lu, Stanley; Clemmons, Scott; Zahorchak, Robert J; Han, Jian

    2014-01-30

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most important developments in modern biotechnology. However, PCR is known to introduce biases, especially during multiplex reactions. Recent studies have implicated the DNA polymerase as the primary source of bias, particularly initiation of polymerization on the template strand. In our study, amplification from a synthetic library containing a 12 nucleotide random portion was used to provide an in-depth characterization of DNA polymerase priming bias. The synthetic library was amplified with three commercially available DNA polymerases using an anchored primer with a random 3' hexamer end. After normalization, the next generation sequencing (NGS) results of the amplified libraries were directly compared to the unamplified synthetic library. Here, high throughput sequencing was used to systematically demonstrate and characterize DNA polymerase priming bias. We demonstrate that certain sequence motifs are preferred over others as primers where the six nucleotide sequences at the 3' end of the primer, as well as the sequences four base pairs downstream of the priming site, may influence priming efficiencies. DNA polymerases in the same family from two different commercial vendors prefer similar motifs, while another commercially available enzyme from a different DNA polymerase family prefers different motifs. Furthermore, the preferred priming motifs are GC-rich. The DNA polymerase preference for certain sequence motifs was verified by amplification from single-primer templates. We incorporated the observed DNA polymerase preference into a primer-design program that guides the placement of the primer to an optimal location on the template. DNA polymerase priming bias was characterized using a synthetic library amplification system and NGS. The characterization of DNA polymerase priming bias was then utilized to guide the primer-design process and demonstrate varying amplification efficiencies among three commercially

  18. InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ting-Wei; Lin, Yen-Ting; Stewart, Lawrence S; Dapkus, P Daniel; Sarkissian, Raymond; O'Brien, John D; Ahn, Byungmin; Nutt, Steven R

    2012-06-13

    Uniform GaN nanorod arrays are grown vertically by selective area growth on (left angle bracket 0001 right angle bracket) substrates. The GaN nanorods present six nonpolar {1⁻100} facets, which serve as growth surfaces for InGaN-based light-emitting diode quantum well active regions. Compared to growth on the polar {0001} plane, the piezoelectric fields in the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) can be eliminated when they are grown on nonpolar planes. The capability of growing ordered GaN nanorod arrays with different rod densities is demonstrated. Light emission from InGaN/GaN MQWs grown on the nonpolar facets is investigated by photoluminescence. Local emission from MQWs grown on different regions of GaN nanorods is studied by cathodoluminescence (CL). The core-shell structure of MQWs grown on GaN nanorods is investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy in both axial and radial directions. The results show that the active MQWs are predominantly grown on nonpolar planes of GaN nanorods, consistent with the observations from CL. The results suggest that GaN nanorod arrays are suitable growth templates for efficient light-emitting diodes.

  19. Kinetics of optically excited charge carriers at the GaN surface: Influence of catalytic Pt nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Winnerl, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.winnerl@wsi.tum.de; Pereira, Rui N.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2015-10-21

    In this work, we use GaN with different deposited Pt nanostructures as a controllable model system to investigate the kinetics of photo-generated charge carriers in hybrid photocatalysts. We combine conductance and contact potential difference measurements to investigate the influence of Pt on the processes involved in the capture and decay of photo-generated charge carriers at and close to the GaN surface. We found that in the presence of Pt nanostructures the photo-excitation processes are similar to those found in Pt free GaN. However, in GaN with Pt nanostructures, photo-generated holes are preferentially trapped in surface states of the GaN coveredmore » with Pt and/or in electronic states of the Pt and lead to an accumulation of positive charge there, whereas negative charge is accumulated in localized states in a shallow defect band of the GaN covered with Pt. This preferential accumulation of photo-generated electrons close to the surface is responsible for a dramatic acceleration of the turn-off charge transfer kinetics and a stronger dependence of the surface photovoltage on light intensity when compared to a Pt free GaN surface. Our study shows that in hybrid photocatalysts, the metal nanostructures induce a spatially inhomogeneous surface band bending of the semiconductor that promotes a lateral drift of photogenerated charges towards the catalytic nanostructures.« less

  20. Potential study of the enhanced breakdown voltage GaN MISFET based on partial AlN buried layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xin-Xing; Wang, Ying; Luo, Xin; Cao, Fei; Yu, Cheng-Hao

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a new structure for GaN MISFET is proposed to enhance its breakdown voltage. The proposed structure uses an Aluminum nitride (AlN) buried layer embedded inside the GaN buffer layer. The AlN buried layer is employed to reduce the peak electric field strength near the gate, introducing a high electric field peak in the GaN buffer layer. The GaN/AlN heterojunction formed by the GaN buffer layer and the AlN buried layer introduces two electric field peaks, and enhances the uniformity of the electric field distribution in the GaN buffer layer. Simulation results of the proposed structure show that the breakdown voltage is enhanced by 78% when compared to the conventional GaN MISFET. Moreover, the specific on-resistance (Ron,sp) is improved since the AlN buried layer provides two-dimensional electron gases in the GaN buffer which can cause the charge to increase.

  1. Semantic priming without association: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Lucas, M

    2000-12-01

    A meta-analysis of 26 studies indicated that automatic semantic priming can occur without association. Priming did not vary substantially with differences in variables that affect automatic versus strategic processing, such as time spent processing the prime and target, relationship proportion, and task (except that average effects were smaller in the naming task). Although category coordinates were investigated in the majority of studies, synonyms, antonyms, and script relations also demonstrated priming; functional relations showed greater priming, and essential and perceptual relations showed less. The average effect size for semantic priming was smaller than that for associative priming, suggesting that there is an "associative boost" from adding an associative relationship to a semantic one. The implications of these findings for the modularity thesis and for models of semantic priming are discussed.

  2. Comparison of affective and semantic priming in different SOA.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongqing; Qu, Yuhong; Xiao, Yanli; Wu, Qi; Xia, Likun; Li, Wenhui; Liu, Ying

    2016-11-01

    Researchers have been at odds on whether affective or semantic priming is faster or stronger. The present study selects a series of facial expression photos and words, which have definite emotional meaning or gender meaning, to set up experiment including both affective and semantic priming. The intensity of emotion and gender information in the prime as well as the strength of emotional or semantic (in gender) relationship between the prime and the target is matched. Three groups of participants are employed separately in our experiment varied with stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) as 50, 250 or 500 ms. The results show that the difference between two types of priming effect is revealed when the SOA is at 50 ms, in which the affective priming effect is presented when the prime has negative emotion. It indicates that SOA can affect the comparison between the affective and semantic priming, and the former takes the priority in the automatic processing level.

  3. Transposed-Letter Priming Across Inflectional Morpheme Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Ehsan Shafiee; Witzel, Naoko

    2017-02-01

    This study reports findings from two experiments testing whether a transposed-letter (TL) priming effect can be obtained when the transposition occurs across morphological boundaries. Previous studies have primarily tested derivationally complex words or compound words, but have not examined a more rule-based and productive morphological structure, i.e., inflectionally complex words, using masked priming. Experiment 1 tested TL priming with nonword primes and inflected targets (FOCUSING). Nonword primes were formed by transposing letters either within the root morpheme (fcousing) or across two morphemes (focuisng). Experiment 2 used the same nonword primes, but had the root words as targets (FOCUS). Both experiments showed similar TL priming effects for within-morpheme and across-boundary positions, indicating that morphological decomposition takes place only after letter positions in a word have been assigned. This finding provides additional evidence to previous research testing derived and compound words showing TL priming regardless of the position of transposition.

  4. Priming effects on cooperative behavior in social dilemmas: considering the prime and the person.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Mike; Sheldon, Kennon M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. We test whether people with a relatively more intrinsic vs. extrinsic value orientation (RIEVO) are particularly likely to enact cooperative behavior in resource dilemmas when they are primed with relatedness goals. In Study 1, high RIEVO participants primed with relatedness exhibited more restrained fishing behavior in a resource dilemma than their unprimed counterparts or participants low in RIEVO. Study 2 replicated this effect and further showed that the prime must signal the possibility of satisfying a valued goal (relatedness satisfaction) in order to elicit the value-consistent behavior. We discuss these results in the context of recent process models of goal priming, and also discuss how these findings contribute to our understanding of cooperative behavior and the predictive power of value constructs more broadly.

  5. Hydride-vapor-phase epitaxial growth of highly pure GaN layers with smooth as-grown surfaces on freestanding GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikura, Hajime; Konno, Taichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Horikiri, Fumimasa

    2017-08-01

    Thick (20-30 µm) layers of highly pure GaN with device-quality smooth as-grown surfaces were prepared on freestanding GaN substrates by using our advanced hydride-vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) system. Removal of quartz parts from the HVPE system markedly reduced concentrations of residual impurities to below the limits of detection by secondary-ion mass spectrometry. Appropriate gas-flow management in the HVPE system realized device-quality, smooth, as-grown surfaces with an excellent uniformity of thickness. The undoped GaN layer showed insulating properties. By Si doping, the electron concentration could be controlled over a wide range, down to 2 × 1014 cm-3, with a maximum mobility of 1150 cm2·V-1·s-1. The concentration of residual deep levels in lightly Si-doped layers was in the 1014 cm-3 range or less throughout the entire 2-in. wafer surface. These achievements clearly demonstrate the potential of HVPE as a tool for epitaxial growth of power-device structures.

  6. Emission dynamics of hybrid plasmonic gold/organic GaN nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, F.; Schmitzer, H.; Kunert, G.; Hommel, D.; Ge, J.; Duscher, G.; Langbein, W.; Wagner, H. P.

    2017-12-01

    We studied the emission of bare and aluminum quinoline (Alq3)/gold coated wurtzite GaN nanorods by temperature- and intensity-dependent time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). The GaN nanorods of ˜1.5 μm length and ˜250 nm diameter were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Gold/Alq3 coated GaN nanorods were synthesized by organic molecular beam deposition. The near band-edge and donor-acceptor pair luminescence was investigated in bare GaN nanorods and compared with multilevel model calculations providing the dynamical parameters for electron-hole pairs, excitons, impurity bound excitons, donors and acceptors. Subsequently, the influence of a 10 nm gold coating without and with an Alq3 spacer layer was studied and the experimental results were analyzed with the multilevel model. Without a spacer layer, a significant PL quenching and lifetime reduction of the near band-edge emission is found. The behavior is attributed to surface band-bending and Förster energy transfer from excitons to surface plasmons in the gold layer. Inserting a 5 nm Alq3 spacer layer reduces the PL quenching and lifetime reduction which is consistent with a reduced band-bending and Förster energy transfer. Increasing the spacer layer to 30 nm results in lifetimes which are similar to uncoated structures, showing a significantly decreased influence of the gold coating on the excitonic dynamics.

  7. Efficient Incorporation of Mg in Solution Grown GaN Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-11

    large area GaN wafers. Presently, only hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and ammonothermal growth methods have produced commercial quality substrates.1–3...Cd laser line. The sample was sandwiched between cupper mashes and aluminum foils to allow sequential measurement of both faces. The scale bar is

  8. Fabrications and application of single crystalline GaN for high-performance deep UV photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, R.; Aldalbahi, A.; Rivera, M.; Feng, P.

    2016-08-01

    High-quality single crystalline Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor has been synthesized using molecule beam epitaxy (MBE) technique for development of high-performance deep ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. Thickness of the films was estimated by using surface profile meter and scanning electron microscope. Electronic states and elemental composition of the films were obtained using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The orientation, crystal structure and phase purity of the films were examined using a Siemens x-ray diffractometer radiation. The surface microstructure was studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two types of metal pairs: Al-Al, Al-Cu or Cu-Cu were used for interdigital electrodes on GaN film in order to examine the Schottky properties of the GaN based photodetector. The characterizations of the fabricated prototype include the stability, responsivity, response and recovery times. Typical time dependent photoresponsivity by switching different UV light source on and off five times for each 240 seconds at a bias of 2V, respectively, have been obtained. The detector appears to be highly sensitive to various UV wavelengths of light with very stable baseline and repeatability. The obtained photoresponsivity was up to 354 mA/W at the bias 2V. Higher photoresponsivity could be obtained if higher bias was applied but it would unavoidably result in a higher dark current. Thermal effect on the fabricated GaN based prototype was discussed.

  9. Ultrafast growth of horizontal GaN nanowires by HVPE through flipping the substrate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoteng; Wang, Liancheng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Yi, Xiaoyan; Huang, Yang; Yang, Chao; Wei, Tongbo; Yan, Jianchang; Yuan, Guodong; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2018-03-09

    Recently, horizontal nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention due to their increased compatibility with NW-based integrated nanoelectronic and nanophotonic systems. However, it still remains challenging to synthesize horizontal NWs efficiently. Here we introduce a novel method towards controllable growth of horizontal GaN NWs using HVPE with an Au/Ni thin film as the catalyst. By simply flipping the substrate, horizontal GaN NWs with various growth directions and cross sections have been obtained on a sapphire substrate with various facet orientations. Benefiting from the high decomposition frequency of GaCl precursors, the growth rate for the horizontal NWs is as fast as 400 μ h -1 . Our results show that the facing orientation of the loaded substrate affects the flow of the local precursor, which determines the growth mode of the GaN NWs, i.e., no matter whether the substrate is facing downward or upwards. Photoluminescence measurements of the horizontal NWs show a finite blue shift of the band edge-related emission. It indicates the presence of compressed stress and is confirmed by the geometrical phase analysis (GPA) further. Our work opens up a new route and sheds light on the horizontal GaN NWs and will advance the development of horizontal NW-based nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices and systems.

  10. Radiative defects in GaN nanocolumns: Correlation with growth conditions and sample morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, P.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Grandal, J.

    2011-02-21

    Low-temperature photoluminescence is studied in detail in GaN nanocolumns (NCs) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under various conditions (substrate temperature and impinging Ga/N flux ratio). The relative intensities of the different emission lines, in particular those related to structural defects, appear to be correlated with the growth conditions, and clearly linked to the NC sample morphology. We demonstrate, in particular, that all lines comprised between 3.10 and 3.42 eV rapidly lose intensity when the growth conditions are such that the NC coalescence is reduced. The well-known line around 3.45 eV, characteristic of GaN NC samples, shows, however, a behaviormore » that is exactly the opposite of the other lines, namely, for growth conditions leading to reduced NC coalescence, this line tends to become more prominent, thus proving to be intrinsic to individual GaN NCs.« less

  11. Tunnel-injection GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jai; Kandaswamy, Prem Kumar; Protasenko, Vladimir

    2013-01-28

    We demonstrate a GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diode that uses tunnel injection of carriers through AlN barriers into the active region. The quantum dot heterostructure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN templates. The large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN favors the formation of GaN quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Carrier injection by tunneling can mitigate losses incurred in hot-carrier injection in light emitting heterostructures. To achieve tunnel injection, relatively low composition AlGaN is used for n- and p-type layers to simultaneously take advantage of effective band alignment and efficient doping. The small height ofmore » the quantum dots results in short-wavelength emission and are simultaneously an effective tool to fight the reduction of oscillator strength from quantum-confined Stark effect due to polarization fields. The strong quantum confinement results in room-temperature electroluminescence peaks at 261 and 340 nm, well above the 365 nm bandgap of bulk GaN. The demonstration opens the doorway to exploit many varied features of quantum dot physics to realize high-efficiency short-wavelength light sources.« less

  12. Mechanical Deformation Behavior of Nonpolar GaN Thick Films by Berkovich Nanoindentation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the deformation mechanisms of nonpolar GaN thick films grown on m-sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) are investigated using nanoindentation with a Berkovich indenter, cathodoluminescence (CL), and Raman microscopy. Results show that nonpolar GaN is more susceptible to plastic deformation and has lower hardness thanc-plane GaN. After indentation, lateral cracks emerge on the nonpolar GaN surface and preferentially propagate parallel to the orientation due to anisotropic defect-related stresses. Moreover, the quenching of CL luminescence can be observed to extend exclusively out from the center of the indentations along the orientation, a trend which is consistent with the evolution of cracks. The recrystallization process happens in the indented regions for the load of 500 mN. Raman area mapping indicates that the distribution of strain field coincides well with the profile of defect-expanded dark regions, while the enhanced compressive stress mainly concentrates in the facets of the indentation. PMID:20596453

  13. The controlled growth of GaN microrods on Si(111) substrates by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foltynski, Bartosz; Garro, Nuria; Vallo, Martin; Finken, Matthias; Giesen, Christoph; Kalisch, Holger; Vescan, Andrei; Cantarero, Andrés; Heuken, Michael

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a selective area growth (SAG) approach for growing GaN microrods on patterned SiNx/Si(111) substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is studied. The surface morphology, optical and structural properties of vertical GaN microrods terminated by pyramidal shaped facets (six { 10 1 bar 1} planes) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Measurements revealed high-quality GaN microcolumns grown with silane support. Characterized structures were grown nearly strain-free (central frequency of Raman peak of 567±1 cm-1) with crystal quality comparable to bulk crystals (FWHM=4.2±1 cm-1). Such GaN microrods might be used as a next-generation device concept for solid-state lighting (SSL) applications by realizing core-shell InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) on the n-GaN rod base.

  14. Structural and luminescence properties of GaN nanowires grown using cobalt phthalocyanine as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Shivesh; Rodríguez-Fernández, Carlos; de Lima, Mauricio M.; Cantarero, Andres; Dhar, Subhabrata

    2015-12-01

    Catalyst free methods have usually been employed to avoid any catalyst induced contamination for the synthesis of GaN nanowires with better transport and optical properties. Here, we have used a catalytic route to grow GaN nanowires, which show good optical quality. Structural and luminescence properties of GaN nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid technique using cobalt phthalocyanine as catalyst are systematically investigated as a function of various growth parameters such as the growth temperature and III/V ratio. The study reveals that most of the nanowires, which are several tens of microns long, grow along [ 10 1 ¯ 0 ] direction. Interestingly, the average wire diameter has been found to decrease with the increase in III/V ratio. It has also been observed that in these samples, defect related broad luminescence features, which are often present in GaN, are completely suppressed. At all temperatures, photoluminescence spectrum is found to be dominated only by a band edge feature, which comprises of free and bound excitonic transitions. Our study furthermore reveals that the bound excitonic feature is associated with excitons trapped in certain deep level defects, which result from the deficiency of nitrogen during growth. This transition has a strong coupling with the localized vibrational modes of the defects.

  15. Low loss GaN waveguides at the visible spectral wavelengths for integrated photonics applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Fu, Houqiang; Huang, Xuanqi; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yang, Tsung-Han; Montes, Jossue A; Baranowski, Izak; Zhao, Yuji

    2017-12-11

    We perform comprehensive studies on the fundamental loss mechanisms in III-nitride waveguides in the visible spectral region. Theoretical analysis shows that free carrier loss dominates for GaN under low photon power injection. When optical power increases, the two photon absorption loss becomes important and eventually dominates when photon energy above half-bandgap of GaN. When the dimensions of the waveguides reduce, the sidewall scattering loss will start to dominate. To verify the theoretical results, a high performance GaN-on-sapphire waveguide was fabricated and characterized. Experimental results are consistent with the theoretical findings, showing that under high power injection the optical loss changed significantly for GaN waveguides. A low optical loss ~2 dB/cm was achieved on the GaN waveguide, which is the lowest value ever reported for the visible spectral range. The results and fabrication processes developed in this work pave the way for the development of III-nitride integrated photonics in the visible and potentially ultraviolet spectral range for nonlinear optics and quantum photonics applications.

  16. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Bajaj, Sanyam, E-mail: bajaj.10@osu.edu; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung

    2015-10-12

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}. An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity showsmore » that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.« less

  17. Simulation of electrical characteristics of GaN vertical Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukasiak, Lidia; Jasiński, Jakub; Jakubowski, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Reverse current of GaN vertical Schottky diodes is simulated using Silvaco ATLAS to optimize the geometry for the best performance. Several physical quantities and phenomena, such as carrier mobility and tunneling mechanism are studied to select the most realistic models. Breakdown voltage is qualitatively estimated based on the maximum electric field in the structure.

  18. GaN nanostructure-based light emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Annamraju Kasi

    2014-02-01

    GaN and related materials have received a lot of attention because of their applications in a number of semiconductor devices such as LEDs, laser diodes, field effect transistors, photodetectors etc. An introduction to optical phenomena in semiconductors, light emission in p-n junctions, evolution of LED technology, bandgaps of various semiconductors that are suitable for the development of LEDs are discussed first. The detailed discussion on photoluminescence of GaN nanostructures is made, since this is crucial to develop optical devices. Fabrication technology of many nanostructures of GaN such as nanowires, nanorods, nanodots, nanoparticles, nanofilms and their luminescence properties are given. Then the optical processes including ultrafast phenomena, radiative, non-radiative recombination, quantum efficiency, lifetimes of excitons in InGaN quantum well are described. The LED structures based on InGaN that give various important colors of red, blue, green, and their design considerations to optimize the output were highlighted. The recent efforts in GaN technology are updated. Finally the present challenges and future directions in this field are also pointed out.

  19. Fabrications and application of single crystalline GaN for high-performance deep UV photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Velazquez, R.; Rivera, M.; Feng, P., E-mail: p.feng@upr.edu

    2016-08-15

    High-quality single crystalline Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor has been synthesized using molecule beam epitaxy (MBE) technique for development of high-performance deep ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. Thickness of the films was estimated by using surface profile meter and scanning electron microscope. Electronic states and elemental composition of the films were obtained using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The orientation, crystal structure and phase purity of the films were examined using a Siemens x-ray diffractometer radiation. The surface microstructure was studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two types of metal pairs: Al-Al, Al-Cu or Cu-Cu were used for interdigital electrodes on GaN filmmore » in order to examine the Schottky properties of the GaN based photodetector. The characterizations of the fabricated prototype include the stability, responsivity, response and recovery times. Typical time dependent photoresponsivity by switching different UV light source on and off five times for each 240 seconds at a bias of 2V, respectively, have been obtained. The detector appears to be highly sensitive to various UV wavelengths of light with very stable baseline and repeatability. The obtained photoresponsivity was up to 354 mA/W at the bias 2V. Higher photoresponsivity could be obtained if higher bias was applied but it would unavoidably result in a higher dark current. Thermal effect on the fabricated GaN based prototype was discussed.« less

  20. Coaxial InGaN epitaxy around GaN micro-tubes: Tracing the signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikry, M.; Ren, Z.; Madel, M.; Tischer, I.; Thonke, K.; Scholz, F.

    2013-05-01

    This work focuses on investigations of the luminescence properties of coaxial InGaN layers grown around single GaN micro and sub-micron tubes on top of GaN micro-pyramids. The tube structure was formed after the controlled desorption of ZnO nano-pillar templates during the coaxial GaN epitaxy. A thin layer near the area around the inner diameter of the micro-tube is believed to be heavily doped with Zn impurities leading to an intense and broad photoluminescence (PL) peak centered around 2.85 eV that quenches the luminescence from coaxial InGaN quantum wells (QWs). When the thickness of the GaN tube wall before the QW growth was doubled, a clear indication of In incorporation in low temperature PL was observed via an intense peak around 3.1 eV. Moreover, as the temperature of the QW growth was changed from 830 °C to 780 °C, a shift of the peak corresponding to an increase in In incorporation from 3.5% to 7.5% was noticed.

  1. Injection Laser Using Rare Earth Doped GaN Thin Films for Visible and Infrared Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Steckl, M. Garter, R. Birkhahn, and J. Scofield , "Green electroluminescence from Er-doped GaN Schottky barrier diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 73, p...2450, 1998. - 32 - [15] M. Garter, J. Scofield , R. Birkhahn, and A. J. Steckl, "Visible and infrared rare-earth-activated electroluminescence from

  2. Epitaxial GaN layers formed on langasite substrates by the plasma-assisted MBE method

    SciTech Connect

    Lobanov, D. N., E-mail: dima@ipmras.ru; Novikov, A. V.; Yunin, P. A.

    2016-11-15

    In this publication, the results of development of the technology of the epitaxial growth of GaN on single-crystal langasite substrates La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14} (0001) by the plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy (PA MBE) method are reported. An investigation of the effect of the growth temperature at the initial stage of deposition on the crystal quality and morphology of the obtained GaN layer is performed. It is demonstrated that the optimal temperature for deposition of the initial GaN layer onto the langasite substrate is about ~520°C. A decrease in the growth temperature to this value allows the suppression of oxygen diffusion frommore » langasite into the growing layer and a decrease in the dislocation density in the main GaN layer upon its subsequent high-temperature deposition (~700°C). Further lowering of the growth temperature of the nucleation layer leads to sharp degradation of the GaN/LGS layer crystal quality. As a result of the performed research, an epitaxial GaN/LGS layer with a dislocation density of ~10{sup 11} cm{sup –2} and low surface roughness (<2 nm) is obtained.« less

  3. Design of Low Inductance Switching Power Cell for GaN HEMT Based Inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Gurpinar, Emre; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-11-23

    Here in this paper, an ultra-low inductance power cell is designed for a three-Level Active Neutral Point Clamped (3LANPC) based on 650 V gallium nitride (GaN) HEMT devices. The 3L-ANPC topology with GaN HEMT devices and the selected modulation scheme suitable for wide-bandgap (WBG) devices are presented. The commutation loops, which mainly contribute to voltage overshoots and increase of switching losses, are discussed. The ultra-low inductance power cell design based on a fourlayer Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with the aim to maximize the switching performance of GaN HEMTs is explained. The design of gate drivers for the GaN HEMT devicesmore » is presented. Parasitic inductance and resistance of the proposed design are extracted with finite element analysis and discussed. Common mode behaviours based on the SPICE model of the converter are analyzed. Experimental results on the designed 3L-ANPC with the output power of up to 1 kW are presented, which verifies the performance of the proposed design in terms of ultra-low inductance.« less

  4. CFD and reaction computational analysis of the growth of GaN by HVPE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempisty, P.; Łucznik, B.; Pastuszka, B.; Grzegory, I.; Boćkowski, M.; Krukowski, S.; Porowski, S.

    2006-10-01

    GaCl synthesis reaction during hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) growth of GaN in horizontal flow reactor has been analyzed using computerized fluid dynamics (CFD) and molecular estimates of the reaction rates. Finite element code FIDAP (commercially available from Fluent Inc.) [Fidap User Manual, Fluent Inc. [1

  5. Aversive priming: cognitive processing of threatening stimuli is facilitated by aversive primes.

    PubMed

    Huertas, Evelio

    2012-11-01

    It would be reasonable to expect that our previous experience regarding a stimulus that predicts harm would make the subsequent identification of that stimulus easier when harm happens again. Forty-eight volunteers were submitted to both phases of this sequence of events: learning of the predictive relationship and later priming. A face with neutral expression (CS+) was paired with a moderately aversive electric shock and another (CS-) with a neutral tone. Subsequently, these two faces, as well as other known and new faces, were presented for familiarity judgments. Both the CS+ and the CS- faces were preceded by an aversive stimulus (aversive prime) in one occasion and by a neutral stimulus (neutral prime) in another. The familiarity judgment regarding the CS+ was faster after the aversive prime than after the neutral prime, but there was no difference regarding the CS-. The differential effect of the aversive prime over the CS+ and the CS- showed a significant but small correlation with the differential skin conductance response to CS+ and CS- (signal learning), and with the differential evaluation of those stimuli in terms of like-dislike (evaluative learning). The scope of these results, as well as the usefulness of this methodological model, is discussed.

  6. Cross-structural priming: prepositional phrase attachment primes relative clause attachment.

    PubMed

    Loncke, Maaike; Van Laere, Sébastien M J; Desmet, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that attachment height (high vs. low attachment) of a modifier to a complex noun phrase (CNP; e.g., "the servant of the actress"), can be primed between dissimilar syntactic structures. In a sentence completion experiment, we found that the attachment height of a prepositional phrase (PP) in the prime sentence primed the attachment height of a relative clause (RC) in the target sentence. This cross-structural priming effect cannot be explained in terms of the priming of specific phrase-structure rules or even sequences of specific phrase-structure rules (Scheepers, 2003), because the attachment of a PP to a CNP is generated by a different phrase-structure rule than the attachment of an RC. However, the present data suggest that the location at which the RC is attached to the CNP is mentally represented, independent of the specific phrase-structure rule that is attached, or by extension, that the abstract hierarchical configuration of the full CNP and the attached RC is represented (Desmet & Declercq, 2006). This is the first demonstration of a cross-structural priming effect that cannot be captured by phrase-structure rules.

  7. It Takes Time to Prime: Semantic Priming in the Ocular Lexical Decision Task

    PubMed Central

    Hoedemaker, Renske S.; Gordon, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted in which the manual response mode typically used in lexical decision tasks (LDT) was replaced with an eye-movement response through a sequence of three words. This ocular LDT combines the explicit control of task goals found in LDTs with the highly practiced ocular response used in reading text. In Experiment 1, forward saccades indicated an affirmative LD on each word in the triplet. In Experiment 2, LD responses were delayed until all three letter strings had been read. The goal of the study was to evaluate the contribution of task goals and response mode to semantic priming. Semantic priming is very robust in tasks that involve recognition of words in isolation, such as LDT, while limited during text reading as measured using eye movements. Gaze durations in both experiments showed robust semantic priming even though ocular response times were much shorter than manual LDs for the same words in the English Lexicon Project. Ex-Gaussian distribution fits revealed that the priming effect was concentrated in estimates of τ, meaning that priming was most pronounced in the slow tail of the distribution. This pattern shows differential use of the prime information, which may be more heavily recruited in cases where the LD is difficult as indicated by longer response times. Compared to the manual LD responses, ocular LDs provide a more sensitive measure of this task-related influence on word recognition as measured by the LDT. PMID:25181368

  8. Detection and identification of Huo-Xue-Hua-Yu decoction (HXHYD) using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weiwei; Lin, Jia; Chen, Rong; Feng, Shangyuan; Yu, Yun; Lin, Duo; Huang, Meizhen; Shi, Hong; Huang, Hao

    2015-04-01

    We have evaluated the capabilities of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technology for analyzing two Huo-Xue-Hua-Yu decoctions (HXHYDs) prepared according to different prescriptions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of SERS technology applied to decoction of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). HXHYD I was prepared according to the original prescription; the same preparation method was used for the HXHYD II, except for the crudeweight ratio described in the original prescription. There was no Raman signal in conventional Raman spectra of HXHYDs. Silver nanoparticles were directly mixed with HXHYDs to enhance the Raman scattering of biochemical constituents, and high quality SERS spectra were obtained. Significant differences in SERS spectra between HXHYD I and II can be observed, which showed special changes in the percentage of biochemical constituents in different decoctions. Principal components analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to generate diagnostic algorithms for classification of SERS spectra of two HXHYDs, and showed that a diagnostic accuracy of 100% can be achieved. This work demonstrated that the SERS technique has potential for spectral characteristic detection for decoction of TCM with high sensitivity, and that this technique, combined with PCA-LDA, can be used for quality control of the extracted decoction of TCM and production management of Chinese herbal preparations.

  9. Yu Ping Feng San reverses cisplatin-induced multi-drug resistance in lung cancer cells via regulating drug transporters and p62/TRAF6 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jian-Shu; Yan, Lu; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Chan, Gallant K. L.; Wu, Qi-Yun; Liu, Yun-Le; Huang, Yun; Yao, Ping; Du, Crystal Y. Q.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2016-01-01

    Yu Ping Feng San (YPFS), an ancient Chinese herbal decoction composed of Astragali Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Saposhnikoviae Radix, has been used in the clinic for treating immune deficiency. In cancer therapy, YPFS is being combined with chemotherapy drugs to achieve improved efficacy; however, scientific evidence to illustrate this combination effect is lacking. The present study aims to demonstrate the anti-drug resistance of YPFS in cisplatin (DDP)-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549/DDP). The application of YPFS exhibited a synergistic enhancement of DDP-induced cytotoxicity as well as of the apoptotic signalling molecules. DDP-induced expression of the multi-drug-resistance efflux transporters was markedly reduced in the presence of YPFS, resulting in a higher intracellular concentration of DDP. In addition, the application of YPFS increased DDP-induced ROS accumulation and MMP depletion, decreased p62/TRAF6 signalling in DDP-treated A549/DDP cells. The co-treatment of DDP and YPFS in tumour-bearing mice reduced the tumour size robustly (by more than 80%), which was much better than the effect of DDP alone. These results indicate that YPFS can notably improve the DDP-suppressed cancer effect, which may be a consequence of the elevation of intracellular DDP via the drug transporters as well as the down regulation of p62/TRAF6 signalling. PMID:27558312

  10. Yu Ping Feng San, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Saposhnikoviae Radix, Regulates the Release of Cytokines in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Du, Crystal Y. Q.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Lau, David T. W.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Yu Ping Feng San (YPFS), a Chinese herbal decoction, is composed of Astragali Radix (AR; Huangqi), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR; Baizhu) and Saposhnikoviae Radix (SR; Fangfeng) in a weight ratio of 1∶2∶1. Clinically, YPFS has been widely used to regulate immune functions; however, the action mechanism of it is not known. Here, we addressed this issue by providing detail analyses of chemical and biological properties of YPFS. By using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, fifteen chemicals deriving from different herbs of YPFS were determined, and which served as a control for the standardization of the herbal extract of YPFS. In general, the amounts of chosen chemical markers were higher in a preparation of YPFS as compared to that of single herb or two-herb compositions. In order to reveal the immune functions of YPFS, the standardized extract was applied onto cultured murine macrophages. The treatment of YPFS stimulated the mRNA and protein expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines via activation of NF-κB by enhancing IκBα degradation. In contrast, the application of YPFS suppressed the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chronic inflammation model. In addition, YPFS could up regulate the phagocytic activity in cultured macrophages. These results therefore supported the bi-directional immune-modulatory roles of YPFS in regulating the releases of cytokines from macrophages. PMID:24244327

  11. Records of sunspots and aurora candidates in the Chinese official histories of the Yuán and Míng dynasties during 1261-1644

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Miyahara, Hiroko; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Aoyama, Tadanobu; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    Records of observations of sunspots and auroras in pre-telescopic historical documents provide useful information about past solar activity both in long-term trends and short-term space weather events. In this study, we present the results of a comprehensive survey of the records of sunspots and aurora candidates in the Yuánshĭ and Míngshĭ, Chinese Official Histories spanning 1261-1368 and 1368-1644, based on continuous observations with well-formatted reportds conducted by contemporary professional astronomers. We then provide a brief comparison of these data with Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) as an indicator of the solar activity during the corresponding periods to show significant active phases between the 1350s-80s and 1610s-30s. We then compared the former with contemporary Russian reports concerning naked-eye sunspots and the latter with contemporary sunspot drawings based on Western telescopic observations. Especially some of the latter are consistent with nitrate signals preserved in ice cores. These results show us some insights on and beyond minima and maxima of solar activity during the 13th-17th centuries.

  12. Topical problems of the theory of Transcendental numbers: Development of approaches to their solution in the works of Yu. V. Nesterenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirskii, V. G.

    2017-04-01

    The present paper is a survey of a part of the theory devoted to certain problems concerning the algebraic independence of the values of analytic functions, to quantitative results on estimates for the measure of transcendence or the measure of algebraic independence of numbers, to functional analogs of these results on the algebraic independence of solutions of algebraic differential equations, and estimates for the multiplicities of zeros for polynomials in these solutions, which play an important role in the proof of numerical results. This choice is related to the fact that, in December 2016, the head of the Department of Number Theory of Moscow State University, Corresponding Member of the RAS Yu.V. Nesterenko, who did a lot to develop these directions of the theory Transcendental numbers and whose works are marked by many awards, became seventy. He is a laureate of the Markov RAS Prize, 2006, of the Ostrovsky international prize, 1997, of the Hardy-Ramanujan Society Prize, 1997, and the Alexander von Humboldt Prize, 2003. Since the article is dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the birth of Yurii Valentinovich, we preface the scientific part with a brief biography.

  13. Leakage current reduction of vertical GaN junction barrier Schottky diodes using dual-anode process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, Tetsuro; Nanjo, Takuma; Furukawa, Akihiko; Watahiki, Tatsuro; Yamamuka, Mikio

    2018-04-01

    The origin of the leakage current of a trench-type vertical GaN diode was discussed. We found that the edge of p-GaN is the main leakage spot. To reduce the reverse leakage current at the edge of p-GaN, a dual-anode process was proposed. As a result, the reverse blocking voltage defined at the leakage current density of 1 mA/cm2 of a vertical GaN junction barrier Schottky (JBS) diode was improved from 780 to 1,190 V, which is the highest value ever reported for vertical GaN Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs).

  14. Suppression of the self-heating effect in GaN HEMT by few-layer graphene heat spreading elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volcheck, V. S.; Stempitsky, V. R.

    2017-11-01

    Self-heating has an adverse effect on characteristics of gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Various solutions to the problem have been proposed, however, a temperature rise due to dissipated electrical power still hinders the production of high power and high speed GaN devices. In this paper, thermal management of GaN HEMT via few-layer graphene (FLG) heat spreading elements is investigated. It is shown that integration of the FLG elements on top of the device structure considerably reduces the maximum temperature and improves the DC and small signal AC performance.

  15. Australia's First Prime Ministerial Library: Past and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman-Brown, Lesley; Henderson, Kandy-Jane; Wallace, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    In creating Australia's first prime ministerial library, a new cultural institution was developed which blends professional practice from the fields of librarianship, education, archives, journalism and museums. The John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library honours the contribution of wartime prime minister John Curtin, works towards the advancement…

  16. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence of Syntactic Priming in Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Kristen M.; Traxler, Matthew J.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2009-01-01

    Event-related potentials and eye tracking were used to investigate the nature of priming effects in sentence comprehension. Participants read 2 sentences (a prime sentence and a target sentence), both of which had a difficult and ambiguous sentence structure. The prime and target sentences contained either the same verb or verbs that were very…

  17. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  18. Give and Take: Syntactic Priming during Spoken Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Syntactic priming during language production is pervasive and well-studied. Hearing, reading, speaking or writing a sentence with a given structure increases the probability of subsequently producing the same structure, regardless of whether the prime and target share lexical content. In contrast, syntactic priming during comprehension has proven…

  19. 46 CFR 111.12-1 - Prime movers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prime movers. 111.12-1 Section 111.12-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-1 Prime movers. (a) Prime movers must meet section 58...

  20. 46 CFR 111.12-1 - Prime movers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prime movers. 111.12-1 Section 111.12-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-1 Prime movers. (a) Prime movers must meet section 58...

  1. 46 CFR 111.12-1 - Prime movers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prime movers. 111.12-1 Section 111.12-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-1 Prime movers. (a) Prime movers must meet section 58...

  2. 46 CFR 111.12-1 - Prime movers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prime movers. 111.12-1 Section 111.12-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Generator Construction and Circuits § 111.12-1 Prime movers. (a) Prime movers must meet section 58...

  3. The Role of Polysemy in Masked Semantic and Translation Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbeiner, Matthew; Forster, Kenneth; Nicol, Janet; Nakamura, Kumiko

    2004-01-01

    A well-known asymmetry exists in the bilingual masked priming literature in which lexical decision is used: namely, masked primes in the dominant language (L1) facilitate decision times on targets in the less dominant language (L2), but not vice versa. In semantic categorization, on the other hand, priming is symmetrical. In Experiments 1-3 we…

  4. Masked Translation Priming with Semantic Categorization: Testing the Sense Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xin; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments are reported which were designed to test hypotheses concerning the asymmetry of masked translation priming. Experiment 1 confirmed the presence of L2-L1 priming with a semantic categorization task and demonstrated that this effect was restricted to exemplars. Experiment 2 showed that the translation priming effect was not due to…

  5. A Statistical Argument for the Weak Twin Primes Conjecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Certain definitions introduce appropriate concepts, among which are the definitions of the counting functions of the primes and twin primes, along with definitions of the correlation coefficient in a bivariate sample space. It is argued conjecturally that the characteristic functions of the prime "p" and of the quantity "p"+2 are highly…

  6. Attentional Control and the Relatedness Proportion Effect in Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants completed both an attentional control battery (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop tasks) and a modified semantic priming task. The priming task measured relatedness proportion (RP) effects within subjects, with the color of the prime indicating the probability that the to-be-named target would be related. In Experiment…

  7. Prospective and Retrospective Processing in Associative Mediated Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lara L.

    2012-01-01

    Mediated priming refers to the faster word recognition of a target (e.g., milk) following presentation of a prime (e.g., pasture) that is related indirectly via a connecting "mediator" (e.g., cow). Association strength may be an important factor in whether mediated priming occurs prospectively (with target activation prior to its presentation) or…

  8. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  9. Gemini 8 prime and backup crews during press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-02-26

    S66-24380 (26 Feb. 1966) --- Gemini-8 prime and backup crews during press conference. Left to right are astronauts David R. Scott, prime crew pilot; Neil A. Armstrong, prime crew command pilot; Charles Conrad Jr., backup crew command pilot; and Richard F. Gordon Jr., backup crew pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  10. High Efficiency m-plane LEDs on Low Defect Density Bulk GaN Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    David, Aurelien

    2012-10-15

    Solid-state lighting is a key technology for reduction of energy consumption in the US and worldwide. In principle, by replacing standard incandescent bulbs and other light sources with sources based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs), ultimate energy efficiency can be achieved. The efficiency of LEDs has improved tremendously over the past two decades, however further progress is required for solid- state lighting to reach its full potential. The ability of an LED at converting electricity to light is quantified by its internal quantum efficiency (IQE). The material of choice for visible LEDs is Gallium Nitride (GaN), which is at the basismore » of blue-emitting LEDs. A key factor limiting the performance of GaN LEDs is the so-called efficiency droop, whereby the IQE of the LED decreases significantly at high current density. Despite decades of research, efficiency droop remains a major issue. Since high-current operation is necessary for practical lighting applications, reducing droop is a major challenge for the scientific community and the LED industry. Our approach to solving the droop issue is the use of newly available low-defect-density bulk GaN non-polar substrates. In contrast to the standard foreign substrates (sapphire, silicon carbide, silicon) used in the industry, we have employed native bulk GaN substrates with very low defect density, thus ensuring exquisite material quality and high IQE. Whereas all commercial LEDs are grown along the c-plane crystal direction of GaN, we have used m-plane non-polar substrates; these drastically modify the physical properties of the LED and enable a reduction of droop. With this approach, we have demonstrated very high IQE performance and low droop. Our results focused on violet and blue LEDs. For these, we have demonstrated very high peak IQEs and current droops of 6% and 10% respectively (up to a high current density of 200A.cm-2). All these results were obtained under electrical operation. These high IQE and low

  11. Ion Beam Assisted Deposition of Thin Epitaxial GaN Films

    PubMed Central

    Rauschenbach, Bernd; Lotnyk, Andriy; Neumann, Lena; Poppitz, David; Gerlach, Jürgen W.

    2017-01-01

    The assistance of thin film deposition with low-energy ion bombardment influences their final properties significantly. Especially, the application of so-called hyperthermal ions (energy <100 eV) is capable to modify the characteristics of the growing film without generating a large number of irradiation induced defects. The nitrogen ion beam assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ion energy <25 eV) is used to deposit GaN thin films on (0001)-oriented 6H-SiC substrates at 700 °C. The films are studied in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction, ex situ by X-ray diffraction, scanning tunnelling microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that the film growth mode can be controlled by varying the ion to atom ratio, where 2D films are characterized by a smooth topography, a high crystalline quality, low biaxial stress, and low defect density. Typical structural defects in the GaN thin films were identified as basal plane stacking faults, low-angle grain boundaries forming between w-GaN and z-GaN and twin boundaries. The misfit strain between the GaN thin films and substrates is relieved by the generation of edge dislocations in the first and second monolayers of GaN thin films and of misfit interfacial dislocations. It can be demonstrated that the low-energy nitrogen ion assisted molecular beam epitaxy is a technique to produce thin GaN films of high crystalline quality. PMID:28773052

  12. A new system for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN. Part I: System development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Dollen, Paul; Pimputkar, Siddha; Alreesh, Mohammed Abo; Albrithen, Hamad; Suihkonen, Sami; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.

    2016-12-01

    Though several methods exist to produce bulk crystals of gallium nitride (GaN), none have been commercialized on a large scale. The sodium flux method, which involves precipitation of GaN from a sodium-gallium melt supersaturated with nitrogen, offers potentially lower cost production due to relatively mild process conditions while maintaining high crystal quality. We successfully developed a novel apparatus for conducting crystal growth of bulk GaN using the sodium flux method which has advantages with respect to prior reports. A key task was to prevent sodium loss or migration from the growth environment while permitting N2 to access the growing crystal. We accomplished this by implementing a reflux condensing stem along with a reusable capsule containing a hermetic seal. The reflux condensing stem also enabled direct monitoring of the melt temperature, which has not been previously reported for the sodium flux method. Furthermore, we identified and utilized molybdenum and the molybdenum alloy TZM as a material capable of directly containing the corrosive sodium-gallium melt. This allowed implementation of a crucible-free system, which may improve process control and potentially lower crystal impurity levels. Nucleation and growth of parasitic GaN ("PolyGaN") on non-seed surfaces occurred in early designs. However, the addition of carbon in later designs suppressed PolyGaN formation and allowed growth of single crystal GaN. Growth rates for the (0001) Ga face (+c-plane) were up to 14 μm/h while X-ray omega rocking (ω-XRC) curve full width half-max values were 731″ for crystals grown using a later system design. Oxygen levels were high, >1019 atoms/cm3, possibly due to reactor cleaning and handling procedures.

  13. Heteroepitaxial VO2 thin films on GaN: Structure and metal-insulator transition characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, You; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2012-10-01

    Monolithic integration of correlated oxide and nitride semiconductors may open up new opportunities in solid-state electronics and opto-electronics that combine desirable functional properties of both classes of materials. Here, we report on epitaxial growth and phase transition-related electrical properties of vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films on GaN epitaxial layers on c-sapphire. The epitaxial relation is determined to be (010)vo2‖(0001)GaN‖(0001)A12O3 and [100]vo2‖[1¯21¯0]A12O3 from x-ray diffraction. VO2 heteroepitaxial growth and lattice mismatch are analyzed by comparing the GaN basal plane (0001) with the almost close packed corrugated oxygen plane in vanadium dioxide and an experimental stereographic projection describing the orientation relationship is established. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests a slightly oxygen rich composition at the surface, while Raman scattering measurements suggests that the quality of GaN layer is not significantly degraded by the high-temperature deposition of VO2. Electrical characterization of VO2 films on GaN indicates that the resistance changes by about four orders of magnitude upon heating, similar to epitaxial VO2 films grown directly on c-sapphire. It is shown that the metal-insulator transition could also be voltage-triggered at room temperature and the transition threshold voltage scaling variation with temperature is analyzed in the framework of a current-driven Joule heating model. The ability to synthesize high quality correlated oxide films on GaN with sharp phase transition could enable new directions in semiconductor-photonic integrated devices.

  14. A review of gigaxonin mutations in giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, James J; Liu, Isabelle Y; Wang, Marilene B; Srivatsan, Eri S

    2016-07-01

    Gigaxonin, the product of GAN gene localized to chromosome 16, is associated with the early onset neuronal degeneration disease giant axonal neuropathy (GAN). Gigaxonin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor protein involved in intermediate filament processing in neural cells, and vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. Mutations of the gene cause pre-neural filaments to accumulate and form giant axons resulting in the inhibition of neural cell signaling. Analysis of the catalog of somatic mutations in cancer, driver DB and IDGC data portal databases containing 21,000 tumor genomic sequences has identified GAN patient mutations in cancer cell lines and primary tumors. The database search has also shown the presence of identical missense and nonsense gigaxonin mutations in GAN and colon cancer. These mutations frequently occur in the domains associated with protein homodimerization and substrate interaction such as Broad-Complex, Tramtrack and Bric a brac (BTB), BTB associated C-terminal KELCH (BACK), and KELCH repeats. Analysis of the International HapMap Project database containing 1200 normal genomic sequences has identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2608555, in exon 8 of the gigaxonin sequence. While this SNP is present in >40 % of Caucasian population, it is present in less than 10 % of Japanese and Chinese populations. Although the role of gigaxonin polymorphism is not yet known, CFTR and MDR1 gene studies have shown that silent mutations play a role in the instability and aberrant splicing and folding of mRNAs. We believe that molecular and functional investigation of gigaxonin mutations including the exon 8 polymorphism could lead to an improved understanding of the relationship between GAN and cancer.

  15. Prime Number: an Experiment Rabin-Miller and Fast Exponentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Robbi; Winata, Hendryan; Zulkarnain, Iskandar; Jaya, Hendra

    2017-12-01

    Prime number is one of the most widely used names for various security purposes, especially in the process of encryption and decryption for asymmetric algorithms, the speed in determining prime number becomes one of the most important things, Rabin-Miller algorithm is used to test a number whether including prime or not, speed in determining prime number is very important and technique that could be using is fast exponentiation, this research get significant result in testing prime number with length of variation number.

  16. The elimination of positive priming with increasing prime duration reflects a transition from perceptual fluency to disfluency rather than bias against primed words.

    PubMed

    Potter, Kevin W; Donkin, Chris; Huber, David E

    2018-03-01

    With immediate repetition priming of forced choice perceptual identification, short prime durations produce positive priming (i.e., priming the target leads to higher accuracy, while priming the foil leads to lower accuracy). Many theories explain positive priming following short duration primes as reflecting increased perceptual fluency for the primed target (i.e., decreased identification latency). However, most studies only examine either accuracy or response times, rather than considering the joint constraints of response times and accuracy to properly address the role of decision biases and response caution. This is a critical oversight because several theories propose that the transition to negative priming following a long duration prime reflects a decision strategy to compensate for the effect of increased perceptual fluency. In contrast, the nROUSE model of Huber and O'Reilly (2003) explains this transition as reflecting perceptual habituation, and thus a change to perceptual disfluency. We confirmed this prediction by applying a sequential sampling model (the diffusion race model) to accuracy and response time distributions from a new single item same-different version of the priming task. In this way, we measured strategic biases and perceptual fluency in each condition for each subject. The nROUSE model was only applied to accuracy from the original forced-choice version of the priming task. This application of nROUSE produced separate predictions for each subject regarding the degree of fluency and disfluency in each condition, and these predictions were confirmed by the drift rate parameters (i.e., fluency) from the response time model in contrast to the threshold parameters (i.e., bias). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Repetition priming and hyperpriming in semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Cumming, T B; Graham, K S; Patterson, K

    2006-08-01

    Evidence from neurologically normal subjects suggests that repetition priming (RP) is independent of semantic processing. Therefore, we may expect patients with a selective deficit to conceptual knowledge to exhibit RP for words regardless of the integrity of their semantic representations. We tested six patients with semantic dementia (SD) on a lexical decision task that incorporated four different lags between first (baseline) and second (primed) presentation of repeated words. The patients exhibited significant RP that was greater for words that were categorised as semantically 'degraded' than for words categorised as 'known.' This RP advantage for semantically degraded words declined as lag increased. The patients also demonstrated hyperpriming, and a significant correlation was identified between baseline response time and RP in SD but not in controls. These findings indicate that level of semantic knowledge about a word influences both baseline lexical decision performance and RP of that word. The observed hyperpriming can be parsimoniously explained by a cognitive slowing account.

  18. Detecting Prime Numbers via Roots of Polynomials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    It is proved that an integer n [greater than or equal] 2 is a prime (resp., composite) number if and only if there exists exactly one (resp., more than one) nth-degree monic polynomial f with coefficients in Z[subscript n], the ring of integers modulo n, such that each element of Z[subscript n] is a root of f. This classroom note could find use in…

  19. SKYLAB PRIME CREW IN BLDG. 5

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-03-19

    S73-20236 (1 March 1973) --- The three members of the prime crew of the first manned Skylab mission dine on specially prepared Skylab space food in the wardroom of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer during Skylab training at the Johnson Space Center. They are, left to right, scientist-astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, science pilot; astronaut Paul J. Weitz, pilot; and astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander. Photo credit: NASA

  20. The Priming Effect in Task Design Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    CONTRACTORS Dr. Clayton P . Alderfer Yale University School of Organization and Management New Haven, Connecticut 06520 Dr. Janet L. Barnes-Farrell...Task Perceptions and Responses: An Integrative Framework and Empirical Investigation. November 1984. . %.4 " b & & ::.;:-:.".?.: t,:,.-,....-h. TR-ONR...Interdependencies: An Empirical Study. March 1985. TR-ONR-DG-14 Thomas C. Head, Valerie L. Yates, Ricky W. Griffin, and Thomas S. Bateman. The Priming Effect in

  1. Automatic response activation in sequential affective priming: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Leuthold, Hartmut; Rothermund, Klaus; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2012-01-01

    Affective priming effects denote faster responses when two successively presented affective stimuli match in valence than when they mismatch. Two mechanisms have been proposed for their explanation: (i) Priming of affective information within a semantic network or distributed memory system (semantic priming). (ii) Automatic activation of the evaluative response through the affective prime (response priming). In this experiment, we sought more direct evidence for prime-induced response activations with measurement of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP). Onset of the stimulus-locked LRP was earlier in affectively congruent trials than in incongruent trials. In addition, priming modulated the LRP-amplitude of slow responses, indicating greater activation of the incorrect response hand in affectively incongruent trials. Onset of the response-locked LRP and peak latency of the P300 component were not modulated by priming but the amplitude of the N400 component was. In combination, these results suggest that both, semantic priming and response priming constitute affective priming effects in the evaluative categorization task. PMID:21642351

  2. The effect of unimodal affective priming on dichotic emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Myles, Daniel

    2017-11-15

    The present report concerns two experiments extending to unimodal priming the cross-modal priming effects observed with auditory emotions by Harding and Voyer [(2016). Laterality effects in cross-modal affective priming. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 21, 585-605]. Experiment 1 used binaural targets to establish the presence of the priming effect and Experiment 2 used dichotically presented targets to examine auditory asymmetries. In Experiment 1, 82 university students completed a task in which binaural targets consisting of one of 4 English words inflected in one of 4 emotional tones were preceded by binaural primes consisting of one of 4 Mandarin words pronounced in the same (congruent) or different (incongruent) emotional tones. Trials where the prime emotion was congruent with the target emotion showed faster responses and higher accuracy in identifying the target emotion. In Experiment 2, 60 undergraduate students participated and the target was presented dichotically instead of binaurally. Primes congruent with the left ear produced a large left ear advantage, whereas right congruent primes produced a right ear advantage. These results indicate that unimodal priming produces stronger effects than those observed under cross-modal priming. The findings suggest that priming should likely be considered a strong top-down influence on laterality effects.

  3. The frequency attenuation effect in identity and associative priming.

    PubMed

    Nievas, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Three lexical decision experiments were carried out, where the masked priming paradigm is used to study the role of the frequency attenuation effect (more priming in low-frequency target words than in high-frequency target words) in repetition and associative priming, manipulating Prime Duration (PD) and Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA). A new concept was introduced, Minimum Time Threshold (MTT), this is, the minimum time interval of exposure to the masked word in order to become aware of it. Results support the notion that MTT is a key to the appearance of the frequency attenuation effect when enough word processing time is allowed. Results do not support the unified explanation of masked priming and long-term priming as proposed by Bodner and Masson (2001). Moreover, information feedback from the semantic level was not the reason for the frequency attenuation effect in repetition priming.

  4. Lexical semantic and associative priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Glosser, G; Friedman, R B; Grugan, P K; Lee, J H; Grossman, M

    1998-04-01

    Semantic memory impairment was investigated in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) using a threshold oral word reading task to assess priming of different lexical relationships. Healthy elderly controls showed significant priming for associatively related nouns (tempest-teapot) and also for nouns semantically related either because both designate basic-level exemplars of a common superordinate category (cousin-nephew) or because the target names the superordinate category of the prime (daughter-relative). AD patients, in contrast, showed preserved priming of lexical associates but impaired priming of certain semantic relationships. They showed no priming between words designating coordinate exemplars within a category, despite preserved priming of the superordinate category label. Findings are consistent with the view that at least part of the semantic deficit in AD is due to disruption of semantic knowledge that affects relationships among basic-level concepts, more than the relationships between these concepts and their corresponding superordinate category of membership.

  5. Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and non-words do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris and Kinoshita, 2008), and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access. PMID:22675316

  6. Free-standing GaN grating couplers and rib waveguide for planar photonics at telecommunication wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qifa; Wang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) free-standing planar photonic device at telecommunication wavelength based on GaN-on-silicon platform was presented. The free-standing structure was realized by particular double-side fabrication process, which combining GaN front patterning, Si substrate back releasing and GaN slab etching. The actual device parameters were identified via the physical characterizations employing scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and reflectance spectra testing. High coupling efficiency and good light confinement properties of the gratings and rib waveguide at telecommunication wavelength range were verified by finite element method (FEM) simulation. This work illustrates the potential of new GaN photonic structure which will enable new functions for planar photonics in communication and sensing applications, and is favorable for the realization of integrated optical circuit.

  7. Doping of free-standing zinc-blende GaN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, S. V.; Powell, R. E. L.; Staddon, C. R.; Kent, A. J.; Foxon, C. T.

    2014-10-01

    Currently there is high level of interest in developing of vertical device structures based on the group III nitrides. We have studied n- and p-doping of free-standing zinc-blende GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). Si was used as the n-dopant and Mg as the p-dopant for zinc-blende GaN. Controllable levels of doping with Si and Mg in free-standing zinc-blende GaN have been achieved by PA-MBE. The Si and Mg doping depth uniformity through the zinc-blende GaN layers have been confirmed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Controllable Si and Mg doping makes PA-MBE a promising method for the growth of conducting group III-nitrides bulk crystals.

  8. Fine optical spectroscopy of the 3.45 eV emission line in GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam-Giao, D.; Mata, R.; Tourbot, G.; Renard, J.; Wysmolek, A.; Daudin, B.; Gayral, B.

    2013-01-01

    GaN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are of excellent optical quality, their optical signature being characteristic of homogeneous strain-free GaN. There are however discrepancies between the low temperature luminescence spectra of GaN thin films and nanowires, in particular, a strong emission line around 3.45 eV in nanowires is not found with such a large intensity in thin film GaN. The origin of this emission line in nanowires is still debated; in this article, we shed new light on this debate notably by polarization-resolved luminescence and magneto-luminescence experiments. Our findings demonstrate, in particular, that this line cannot be attributed to a two-electron satellite of the donor bound exciton transition.

  9. First-Principle Study of the Optical Properties of Dilute-P GaN1-xPx Alloys.

    PubMed

    Borovac, Damir; Tan, Chee-Keong; Tansu, Nelson

    2018-04-16

    An investigation on the optical properties of dilute-P GaN 1-x P x alloys by First-Principle Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods is presented, for phosphorus (P) content varying from 0% up to 12.5%. Findings on the imaginary and real part of the dielectric function are analyzed and the results are compared with previously reported theoretical works on GaN. The complex refractive index, normal-incidence reflectivity and birefringence are presented and a difference in the refractive index in the visible regime between GaN and GaNP alloys of ~0.3 can be engineered by adding minute amounts of phosphorus, indicating strong potential for refractive index tunability. The optical properties of the GaN 1-x P x alloys indicate their strong potential for implementation in various III-nitride-based photonic waveguide applications and Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBR).

  10. Trans-generational immune priming in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Hernández López, Javier; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Crailsheim, Karl; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike

    2014-06-22

    Maternal immune experience acquired during pathogen exposure and passed on to progeny to enhance resistance to infection is called trans-generational immune priming (TgIP). In eusocial insects like honeybees, TgIP would result in a significant improvement of health at individual and colony level. Demonstrated in invertebrates other than honeybees, TgIP has not yet been fully elucidated in terms of intensity and molecular mechanisms underlying this response. Here, we immune-stimulated honeybee queens with Paenibacillus larvae (Pl), a spore-forming bacterium causing American Foulbrood, the most deadly bee brood disease worldwide. Subsequently, offspring of stimulated queens were exposed to spores of Pl and mortality rates were measured to evaluate maternal transfer of immunity. Our data substantiate the existence of TgIP effects in honeybees by direct evaluation of offspring resistance to bacterial infection. A further aspect of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between immune priming responses and prohaemocytes-haemocyte differentiation processes in larvae. The results point out that a priming effect triggers differentiation of prohaemocytes to haemocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying TgIP responses are still elusive and require future investigation.

  11. Hydrothermal syntheses, crystal structures and luminescence properties of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) coordination polymers based on bifunctional 3,2 Prime :6 Prime ,3 Prime Prime -terpyridine-4 Prime -carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Na; Guo, Hui-Lin; Hu, Huai-Ming, E-mail: ChemHu1@NWU.EDU.CN

    2013-02-15

    Five new coordination polymers, [Zn{sub 2}(ctpy){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]{sub n} (1), [Zn{sub 2}(ctpy){sub 2}(ox)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (2), [Zn{sub 2}(ctpy)(3-btc)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}{center_dot}0.5nH{sub 2}O (3), [Cd(ctpy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4), [Cd{sub 4}(ctpy){sub 2}(2-btc){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}2nH{sub 2}O (5), (Hctpy=3,2 Prime :6 Prime ,3 Prime Prime -terpyridine-4 Prime -carboxylic acid, H{sub 2}ox=oxalic acid, H{sub 3}(3-btc)=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, H{sub 3}(2-btc)=1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-2 are a one-dimensional chain with weak interactions to form 3D supramolecular structures. Compound 3 is a 4-nodal 3D topology framework comprised of binuclear zincmore » units and (ctpy){sup -} anions. Compound 4 shows two dimensional net. Compound 5 is a (4,5,6)-connected framework with {l_brace}4{sup 4}{center_dot}6{sup 2}{r_brace}{l_brace}4{sup 6}{center_dot}6{sup 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}4{sup 9}{center_dot}6{sup 6}{r_brace} topology. In addition, the thermal stabilities and photoluminescence properties of 1-5 were also studied in the solid state. - Graphical abstract: Five new Zn/Cd compounds with 3,2 Prime :6 Prime ,3 Prime Prime -terpyridine-4 Prime -carboxylic acid were prepared. The photoluminescence and thermal stabilities properties of 1-5 were investigated in the solid state. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five new zinc/cadmium metal-organic frameworks have been hydrothermal synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural variation is attributed to the diverse metal ions and auxiliary ligand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 1-5 exhibit 1D ring chain, 2D layer and 3D open-framework, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These compounds exhibit strong solid state luminescence emission at room temperature.« less

  12. Semantic Priming from Letter-Searched Primes Occurs for Low- but Not High-Frequency Targets: Automatic Semantic Access May Not Be a Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Neely, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Letter-search (LS) within a prime often eliminates semantic priming. In 2 lexical decision experiments, the authors found that priming from LS primes occurred for low-frequency (LF) but not high-frequency (HF) targets whether the target's word frequency was manipulated between or within participants and whether the prime-target pairs were…

  13. Primed interference: the cognitive and behavioral costs of an incongruity between chronic and primed motivational orientations.

    PubMed

    Lisjak, Monika; Molden, Daniel C; Lee, Angela Y

    2012-05-01

    Research has shown that temporarily primed motivational orientations have essentially the same effects on how people pursue their goals as their chronic orientations. This article shows that, despite the interchangeability of temporary and chronic motivations, primed motivational orientations that are incongruent with chronic orientations create interference, requiring the deployment of cognitive resources and thus undermining performance on subsequent tasks that rely on these resources. Across 6 studies, we primed motivational orientations that were either congruent or incongruent with participants' chronic orientations and then assessed their performance on subsequent tasks that required cognitive resources. Consistent with the primed interference hypothesis, we found that incongruity between temporary and chronic motivational orientations undermined participants' (a) inhibition of incorrect but highly accessible responses, (b) mental arithmetic, (c) analytical reasoning, and (d) resistance to temptation. These results--which were observed following the activation of motivations for promotion or prevention (Studies 1-2 and 5-6), high or low need for belonging (Study 3), and high or low power orientations (Study 4)--illustrate the broad implications of holding incongruent chronic and primed orientations.

  14. Dislocation confinement in the growth of Na flux GaN on metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, S.; Asazu, H.; Imanishi, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Imade, M.; Mori, Y.; Sakai, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have demonstrated a GaN growth technique in the Na flux method to confine c-, (a+c)-, and a-type dislocations around the interface between a Na flux GaN crystal and a GaN layer grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on a (0001) sapphire substrate. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) clearly revealed detailed interface structures and dislocation behaviors that reduced the density of vertically aligned dislocations threading to the Na flux GaN surface. Submicron-scale voids were formed at the interface above the dislocations with a c component in MOCVD-GaN, while no such voids were formed above the a-type dislocations. The penetration of the dislocations with a c component into Na flux GaN was, in most cases, effectively blocked by the presence of the voids. Although some dislocations with a c component in the MOCVD-GaN penetrated into the Na flux GaN, their propagation direction changed laterally through the voids. On the other hand, the a-type dislocations propagated laterally and collectively near the interface, when these dislocations in the MOCVD-GaN penetrated into the Na flux GaN. These results indicated that the dislocation propagation behavior was highly sensitive to the type of dislocation, but all types of dislocations were confined to within several micrometers region of the Na flux GaN from the interface. The cause of void formation, the role of voids in controlling the dislocation behavior, and the mechanism of lateral and collective dislocation propagation are discussed on the basis of TEM results.

  15. Dislocation confinement in the growth of Na flux GaN on metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, S., E-mail: takeuchi@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Asazu, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    2015-12-28

    We have demonstrated a GaN growth technique in the Na flux method to confine c-, (a+c)-, and a-type dislocations around the interface between a Na flux GaN crystal and a GaN layer grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on a (0001) sapphire substrate. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) clearly revealed detailed interface structures and dislocation behaviors that reduced the density of vertically aligned dislocations threading to the Na flux GaN surface. Submicron-scale voids were formed at the interface above the dislocations with a c component in MOCVD-GaN, while no such voids were formed above the a-type dislocations. The penetration ofmore » the dislocations with a c component into Na flux GaN was, in most cases, effectively blocked by the presence of the voids. Although some dislocations with a c component in the MOCVD-GaN penetrated into the Na flux GaN, their propagation direction changed laterally through the voids. On the other hand, the a-type dislocations propagated laterally and collectively near the interface, when these dislocations in the MOCVD-GaN penetrated into the Na flux GaN. These results indicated that the dislocation propagation behavior was highly sensitive to the type of dislocation, but all types of dislocations were confined to within several micrometers region of the Na flux GaN from the interface. The cause of void formation, the role of voids in controlling the dislocation behavior, and the mechanism of lateral and collective dislocation propagation are discussed on the basis of TEM results.« less

  16. The Functional Study of a Chinese Herbal Compounded Antidepressant Medicine – Jie Yu Chu Fan Capsule on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Guo, Hongliang; Yuan, Junliang; Li, Shujuan; Hu, Wenli; Golden, Teresa; Wu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Jie Yu Chu Fan capsule (JYCF) is a new compounded Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of depression. The present study was designed to explore the antidepressant effects and the possible mechanisms of JYCF by using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mouse model and comparing results to that of fluoxetine. Behavioral tests including an open field test, sucrose preference test and forced swim test were performed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of JYCF. The concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolic products including norepinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). The results show that a successful mouse CUMS model was established through 5 weeks of continuous unpredictable stimulation, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose preference and locomotor activity and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Chronic treatment of JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) and fluoxetine (20mg/kg) significantly reversed the CUMS-induced behavioral abnormalities. JYCF (1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg) significantly increased NE in CUMS mouse prefrontal cortex (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05 respectively) and 5-HT in hippocampus (P < 0.05). In summary, our findings suggest that JYCF exerts comparable antidepressant-like effects to that of fluoxetine in CUMS mice. Besides, the antidepressant-like effect of JYCF is mediated by the increase of monoaminergic transmitters including 5-HT and NE. PMID:26186537

  17. Mechanisms of masked evaluative priming: task sets modulate behavioral and electrophysiological priming for picture and words differentially

    PubMed Central

    Liegel, Nathalie; Zovko, Monika; Wentura, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Research with the evaluative priming paradigm has shown that affective evaluation processes reliably influence cognition and behavior, even when triggered outside awareness. However, the precise mechanisms underlying such subliminal evaluative priming effects, response activation vs semantic processing, are matter of a debate. In this study, we determined the relative contribution of semantic processing and response activation to masked evaluative priming with pictures and words. To this end, we investigated the modulation of masked pictorial vs verbal priming by previously activated perceptual vs semantic task sets and assessed the electrophysiological correlates of priming using event-related potential (ERP) recordings. Behavioral and electrophysiological effects showed a differential modulation of pictorial and verbal subliminal priming by previously activated task sets: Pictorial priming was only observed during the perceptual but not during the semantic task set. Verbal priming, in contrast, was found when either task set was activated. Furthermore, only verbal priming was associated with a modulation of the N400 ERP component, an index of semantic processing, whereas a priming-related modulation of earlier ERPs, indexing visuo-motor S-R activation, was found for both picture and words. The results thus demonstrate that different neuro-cognitive processes contribute to unconscious evaluative priming depending on the stimulus format. PMID:27998994

  18. Mechanisms of masked evaluative priming: task sets modulate behavioral and electrophysiological priming for picture and words differentially.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Markus; Liegel, Nathalie; Zovko, Monika; Wentura, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Research with the evaluative priming paradigm has shown that affective evaluation processes reliably influence cognition and behavior, even when triggered outside awareness. However, the precise mechanisms underlying such subliminal evaluative priming effects, response activation vs semantic processing, are matter of a debate. In this study, we determined the relative contribution of semantic processing and response activation to masked evaluative priming with pictures and words. To this end, we investigated the modulation of masked pictorial vs verbal priming by previously activated perceptual vs semantic task sets and assessed the electrophysiological correlates of priming using event-related potential (ERP) recordings. Behavioral and electrophysiological effects showed a differential modulation of pictorial and verbal subliminal priming by previously activated task sets: Pictorial priming was only observed during the perceptual but not during the semantic task set. Verbal priming, in contrast, was found when either task set was activated. Furthermore, only verbal priming was associated with a modulation of the N400 ERP component, an index of semantic processing, whereas a priming-related modulation of earlier ERPs, indexing visuo-motor S-R activation, was found for both picture and words. The results thus demonstrate that different neuro-cognitive processes contribute to unconscious evaluative priming depending on the stimulus format. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Retraction: Yu et al. Retraction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Teng; Zhang, Ying-Dong; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2016-05-02

    We request to retract our Letter to the Editor entitled "DNAJC6 variants in Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". We inappropriately used discoveries from PDGene and ALSGene public databases and claimed them as our own. We also = improperly used their figure without attribution. We understand that this is unacceptable, and deeply apologize to Drs. Lill and Bertram as well as to the readers and editors of the Annals of Neurology for this action. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  20. Non-destructive assessment of the polarity of GaN nanowire ensembles using low-energy electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Romanyuk, O., E-mail: romanyuk@fzu.cz; Jiříček, P.; Bartoš, I.

    2015-01-12

    We investigate GaN nanowire ensembles spontaneously formed in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy by non-destructive low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD). We show that GaN nanowire ensembles prepared on AlN-buffered 6H-SiC(0001{sup ¯}) substrates with well-defined N polarity exhibit similar LEED intensity-voltage curves and angular distribution of photo-emitted electrons as N-polar free-standing GaN layers. Therefore, as in the case of GaN layers, LEED and XPD are found to be suitable techniques to assess the polarity of GaN nanowire ensembles on a macroscopic scale. The analysis of GaN nanowire ensembles prepared on bare Si(111) allows us to conclude that, onmore » this non-polar substrate, the majority of nanowires is also N-polar.« less

  1. Vacancy-type defects in Al2O3/GaN structure probed by monoenergetic positron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uedono, Akira; Nabatame, Toshihide; Egger, Werner; Koschine, Tönjes; Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Dickmann, Marcel; Sumiya, Masatomo; Ishibashi, Shoji

    2018-04-01

    Defects in the Al2O3(25 nm)/GaN structure were probed by using monoenergetic positron beams. Al2O3 films were deposited on GaN by atomic layer deposition at 300 °C. Temperature treatment above 800 °C leads to the introduction of vacancy-type defects in GaN due to outdiffusion of atoms from GaN into Al2O3. The width of the damaged region was determined to be 40-50 nm from the Al2O3/GaN interface, and some of the vacancies were identified to act as electron trapping centers. In the Al2O3 film before and after annealing treatment at 300-900 °C, open spaces with three different sizes were found to coexist. The density of medium-sized open spaces started to decrease above 800 °C, which was associated with the interaction between GaN and Al2O3. Effects of the electron trapping/detrapping processes of interface states on the flat band voltage and the defects in GaN were also discussed.

  2. Leakage currents and Fermi-level shifts in GaN layers upon iron and carbon-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fariza, A.; Lesnik, A.; Neugebauer, S.; Wieneke, M.; Hennig, J.; Bläsing, J.; Witte, H.; Dadgar, A.; Strittmatter, A.

    2017-07-01

    Semi-insulating GaN is a prerequisite for lateral high frequency and high power electronic devices to isolate the device region from parasitic conductive channels. The commonly used dopants for achieving semi-insulating GaN, Fe, and C cause distinct properties of GaN layers since the Fermi-level is located either above (Fe) or below (C) the midgap position. In this study, precursor-based doping of GaN in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is used at otherwise identical growth conditions to control the dopant concentrations in the layer. Using electric force microscopy, we have investigated the contact potentials of Fe- and C-doped samples with respect to a cobalt metal probe tip in dependence of on the dopant concentration. While in Fe-doped samples the sign of the contact potential is constant, a change from positive to negative contact potential values is observed at high carbon concentrations, indicating the shift of the Fermi-level below the midgap position. In vertical transport measurements, C-doped GaN layers with a dopant concentration of 4.6 × 1018 cm-3 exhibit up to 5 orders of magnitude lower dark current at room temperature and significantly lower temperature dependence than Fe-doped samples with a similar dopant concentration. Therefore, precursor-based carbon doping is the superior doping technique to achieve semi-insulating GaN.

  3. The possibly important role played by Ga2O3 during the activation of GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Honggang; Zhang, Junju; Li, Zhiming; Cui, Shiyao; Zhang, Lejuan

    2015-08-01

    Three different chemical solutions are used to remove the possible contamination on GaN surface, while Ga2O3 is still found at the surface. After thermal annealing at 710 °C in the ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber and activated with Cs/O, all the GaN samples are successfully activated to the effective negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathodes. Among all samples, the GaN sample with the highest content of Ga2O3 after chemical cleaning obtains the highest quantum efficiency. By analyzing the property of Ga2O3, the surface processing results, and electron affinity variations during Cs and Cs/O2 deposition on GaN of other groups, it is suggested that before the adsorption of Cs, Ga2O3 is not completely removed from GaN surface in our samples, which will combine with Cs and lead to a large decrease in electron affinity. Furthermore, the effective NEA is formed for GaN photocathode, along with the surface downward band bending. Based on this assumption, a new dipole model Ga2O3-Cs is suggested, and the experimental effects are explained and discussed.

  4. X-ray probe of GaN thin films grown on InGaN compliant substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yang; Liu, Jianming; Wei, Hongyuan; Liu, Xianglin; Yang, Shaoyan; Wang, Zhanguo; Wang, Huanhua

    2013-04-01

    GaN thin films grown on InGaN compliant substrates were characterized by several X-ray technologies: X-ray reciprocal space mapping (RSM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), and X-ray photoemission spectrum (XPS). Narrow Lorentz broadening and stress free state were observed for GaN grown on InGaN compliant substrate, while mosaic structure and large tensile stress were observed at the presence of residual indium atoms. RSM disclosed the mosaicity, and the GIXRD was conducted to investigate the depth dependences of crystal quality and strain states. XPS depth profile of indium contents indicated that residual indium atoms deteriorated the crystal quality of GaN not only by producing lattice mismatch at the interface of InGaN and GaN but also by diffusing into GaN overlayers. Accordingly, two solutions were proposed to improve the efficiency of self-patterned lateral epitaxial overgrowth method. This research goes a further step in resolving the urgent substrate problem in GaN fabrication.

  5. GAN: a platform of genomics and genetics analysis and application in Nicotiana

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuai; Zhang, Xingwei; Li, Huayang; Chen, Yudong

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Nicotiana is an important Solanaceae genus, and plays a significant role in modern biological research. Massive Nicotiana biological data have emerged from in-depth genomics and genetics studies. From big data to big discovery, large-scale analysis and application with new platforms is critical. Based on data accumulation, a comprehensive platform of Genomics and Genetics Analysis and Application in Nicotiana (GAN) has been developed, and is publicly available at http://biodb.sdau.edu.cn/gan/. GAN consists of four main sections: (i) Sources, a total of 5267 germplasm lines, along with detailed descriptions of associated characteristics, are all available on the Germplasm page, which can be queried using eight different inquiry modes. Seven fully sequenced species with accompanying sequences and detailed genomic annotation are available on the Genomics page. (ii) Genetics, detailed descriptions of 10 genetic linkage maps, constructed by different parents, 2239 KEGG metabolic pathway maps and 209 945 gene families across all catalogued genes, along with two co-linearity maps combining N. tabacum with available tomato and potato linkage maps are available here. Furthermore, 3 963 119 genome-SSRs, 10 621 016 SNPs, 12 388 PIPs and 102 895 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction primers, are all available to be used and searched on the Markers page. (iii) Tools, the genome browser JBrowse and five useful online bioinformatics softwares, Blast, Primer3, SSR-detect, Nucl-Protein and E-PCR, are provided on the JBrowse and Tools pages. (iv) Auxiliary, all the datasets are shown on a Statistics page, and are available for download on a Download page. In addition, the user’s manual is provided on a Manual page in English and Chinese languages. GAN provides a user-friendly Web interface for searching, browsing and downloading the genomics and genetics datasets in Nicotiana. As far as we can ascertain, GAN is the most comprehensive source of bio-data available

  6. Coating MCPs with AlN and GaN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensaoula, Abdelhakim; Starikov, David; Boney, Chris

    2006-01-01

    A development effort underway at the time of reporting the information for this article is devoted to increasing the sensitivity of microchannel plates (MCPs) as detectors of photons and ions by coating the MCPs with nitrides of elements in period III of the periodic table. Conventional MCPs are relatively insensitive to slowly moving, large-mass ions for example, ions of biomolecules under analysis in mass spectrometers. The idea underlying this development is to coat an MCP to reduce its work function (decrease its electron affinity) in order to increase both (1) the emission of electrons in response to impingement of low-energy, large-mass ions and (2) the multiplying effect of secondary electron emission. Of particular interest as coating materials having appropriately low or even negative electron affinities are gallium nitride, aluminum nitride, and ternary alloys of general composition Al(x)Ga(1-x)N (where 0GaN both undoped and doped with Si were deposited on commercial MCPs by radio-frequency molecular-beam epitaxy (also known as plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy) at temperatures <200 C. This deposition technique is particularly suitable because (1) MCPs cannot withstand the higher deposition-substrate temperatures used to decompose constituent compounds in some other deposition techniques and (2) in this technique, the constituent Al, Ga, and N

  7. Non-D Anti-D Decays of the psi-prime-prime (3770)

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, W.A.

    2004-06-02

    A search for inclusive non-D{bar B} decays of the {Psi}{double_prime}(3770) is performed in a sample of 9.56 {+-} 0.48 pb{sup -1} collected by the Mark III detector at the SPEAR storage ring, at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. To be more specific, a search for inclusive {bar p}, {bar {Lambda}}, and {phi} decay modes of the {Psi}{double_prime}(3770) is performed in this data sample. Backgrounds due to the decays of the radiatively produced {Psi}{prime}(3686) are subtracted. Also backgrounds due to the production of the same final state by nonresonant e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation are subtracted. After further background subtractions from Dmore » meson decays and particle misidentification and efficiency corrections no events are seen and upper limits are placed for each one of these decay channels.« less

  8. The masked priming toolbox: an open-source MATLAB toolbox for masked priming researchers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew D; Tresilian, James; Schlaghecken, Friederike

    2011-03-01

    The Masked Priming Toolbox is an open-source collection of MATLAB functions that utilizes the free third-party PsychToolbox-3 (PTB3: Brainard, Spatial Vision, 10, 433-436, 1997; Kleiner, Brainard & Pelli, Perception, 36, 2007; Pelli, Spatial Vision, 10, 437-442, 1997). It is designed to allow a researcher to run masked (and unmasked) priming experiments using a variety of response devices (including keyboards, graphics tablets and force transducers). Very little knowledge of MATLAB is required; experiments are generated by creating a text file with the required parameters, and raw and analyzed data are output to Excel (as well as MATLAB) files for further analysis. The toolbox implements a variety of stimuli for use as primes and targets, as well as a variety of masks. Timing, size, location, and orientation of stimuli are all parameterizable. The code is open-source and made available on the Web under a Creative Commons License.

  9. Priming healthy eating. You can't prime all the people all of the time☆

    PubMed Central

    Forwood, Suzanna E.; Ahern, Amy L.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the context of a food purchasing environment filled with advertising and promotions, and an increased desire from policy makers to guide individuals toward choosing healthier foods, this study tests whether priming methods that use healthy food adverts to increase preference for healthier food generalize to a representative population. MethodsIn two studies (Study 1 n = 143; Study 2 n = 764), participants were randomly allocated to a prime condition, where they viewed fruit and vegetable advertisements, or a control condition, with no advertisements. A subsequent forced choice task assessed preference between fruits and other sweet snacks. Additional measures included current hunger and thirst, dietary restraint, age, gender, education and self-reported weight and height. ResultsIn Study 1, hunger reduced preferences for fruits (OR (95% CI) = 0.38 (0.26–0.56), p < 0.0001), an effect countered by the prime (OR (95% CI) = 2.29 (1.33–3.96), p = 0.003). In Study 2, the effect of the prime did not generalize to a representative population. More educated participants, as used in Study 1, chose more fruit when hungry and primed (OR (95% CI) = 1.42 (1.13–1.79), p = 0.003), while less educated participants' fruit choice was unaffected by hunger or the prime. ConclusionThis study provides preliminary evidence that the effects of adverts on healthy eating choices depend on key individual traits (education level) and states (hunger), do not generalize to a broader population and have the potential to increase health inequalities arising from food choice. PMID:25636234

  10. Properties of Si-doped GaN and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by RF-MBE on high resistivity Fe-doped GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliopoulos, E.; Zervos, M.; Adikimenakis, A.; Tsagaraki, K.; Georgakilas, A.

    2006-10-01

    Silicon-doped GaN epilayers and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures were developed by nitrogen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on high resistivity iron-doped GaN (0001) templates and their properties were investigated by atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Hall effect measurements. In the case of high electron mobility transistors heterostructures, the AlN mole fraction and the thickness of the AlGaN barrier employed were in the range of from 0.17 to 0.36 and from 7.5 to 30 nm, respectively. All structures were capped with a 2 nm GaN layer. Despite the absence of Ga droplets formation on the surface, growth of both GaN and AlGaN by RF-MBE on the GaN (0001) surfaces followed a step-flow growth mode resulting in low surface roughness and very abrupt heterointerfaces, as revealed by XRD. Reciprocal space maps around the (101¯5) reciprocal space point reveal that the AlGaN barriers are fully coherent with the GaN layer. GaN layers, n-doped with silicon in the range from 10 15 to 10 19 cm -3 exhibited state of the art electrical properties, consistent with a low unintentional background doping level and low compensation ratio. The carrier concentration versus silicon cell temperatures followed an Arhenius behaviour in the whole investigated doping range. The degenerate 2DEG, at the AlGaN/GaN heteroiterfaces, exhibited high Hall mobilities reaching 1860 cm 2/V s at 300 K and 10 220 cm 2/V s at 77 K for a sheet carrier density of 9.6E12 cm -2. The two dimensional degenerate electron gas concentration in the GaN capped AlGaN/GaN structures was also calculated by self-consistent solving the Schrödinger-Poisson equations. Comparison with the experimental measured values reveals a Fermi level pinning of the GaN (0001) surface at about 0.8 eV below the GaN conduction band.

  11. Selective impairment of masked priming in dual-task performance.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rico; Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried; Schubert, Torsten

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the impact of divided attention on masked priming. In a dual-task setting, two tasks had to be carried out in close temporal succession: a tone discrimination task and a masked priming task. The order of the tasks was varied between experiments, and attention was always allocated to the first task-that is, the first task was prioritized. The priming task was the second (nonprioritized) task in Experiment 1 and the first (prioritized) task in Experiment 2. In both experiments, "novel" prime stimuli associated with semantic processing were essentially ineffective. However, there was intact priming by another type of prime stimuli associated with response priming. Experiment 3 showed that all these prime stimuli can reveal significant priming effects during a task-switching paradigm in which both tasks were performed consecutively. We conclude that dual-task specific interference processes (e.g., the simultaneous coordination of multiple stimulus-response rules) selectively impair priming that is assumed to rely on semantic processing.

  12. The nature of affective priming in music and speech.

    PubMed

    Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Witteman, Jurriaan; Schiller, Niels O; Van Heuven, Vincent J; Aleman, André; Martens, Sander

    2012-08-01

    The phenomenon of affective priming has caught scientific interest for over 30 years, yet the nature of the affective priming effect remains elusive. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of cross-modal affective priming and the influence of affective incongruence in music and speech on negativities in the N400 time-window. In Experiment 1, participants judged the valence of affective targets (affective categorization). We found that music and speech targets were evaluated faster when preceded by affectively congruent visual word primes, and vice versa. This affective priming effect was accompanied by a significantly larger N400-like effect following incongruent targets. In this experiment, both spreading of activation and response competition could underlie the affective priming effect. In Experiment 2, participants categorized the same affective targets based on nonaffective characteristics. However, as prime valence was irrelevant to the response dimension, affective priming effects could no longer be attributable to response competition. In Experiment 2, affective priming effects were observed neither at the behavioral nor electrophysiological level. The results of this study indicate that both affective music and speech prosody can prime the processing of visual words with emotional connotations, and vice versa. Affective incongruence seems to be associated with N400-like effects during evaluative categorization. The present data further suggest a role of response competition during the affective categorization of music, prosody, and words with emotional connotations.

  13. Influence of vicinal sapphire substrate on the properties of N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhiyu; Zhang, Jincheng, E-mail: jchzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Xu, Shengrui

    2014-08-25

    The influence of vicinal sapphire substrates on the growth of N-polar GaN films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is investigated. Smooth GaN films without hexagonal surface feature are obtained on vicinal substrate. Transmission electron microscope results reveal that basal-plane stacking faults are formed in GaN on vicinal substrate, leading to a reduction in threading dislocation density. Furthermore, it has been found that there is a weaker yellow luminescence in GaN on vicinal substrate than that on (0001) substrate, which might be explained by the different trends of the carbon impurity incorporation.

  14. A new approach to epitaxially grow high-quality GaN films on Si substrates: the combination of MBE and PLD

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Weijia; Zhu, Yunnong; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    High-quality GaN epitaxial films have been grown on Si substrates with Al buffer layer by the combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technologies. MBE is used to grow Al buffer layer at first, and then PLD is deployed to grow GaN epitaxial films on the Al buffer layer. The surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown GaN epitaxial films on Si substrates are studied systematically. The as-grown ~300 nm-thick GaN epitaxial films grown at 850 °C with ~30 nm-thick Al buffer layer on Si substrates show high crystalline quality with the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for GaN(0002) and GaN(102) X-ray rocking curves of 0.45° and 0.61°, respectively; very flat GaN surface with the root-mean-square surface roughness of 2.5 nm; as well as the sharp and abrupt GaN/AlGaN/Al/Si hetero-interfaces. Furthermore, the corresponding growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial films grown on Si substrates with Al buffer layer by the combination of MBE and PLD is hence studied in depth. This work provides a novel and simple approach for the epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN epitaxial films on Si substrates. PMID:27101930

  15. Ambient-temperature diffusion and gettering of Pt atoms in GaN with surface defect region under 60Co gamma or MeV electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ruixiang; Li, Lei; Fang, Xin; Xie, Ziang; Li, Shuti; Song, Weidong; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Jicai; Huang, Zengli; Li, Qiangjie; Xu, Wanjing; Fu, Engang; Qin, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    Generally, the diffusion and gettering of impurities in GaN needs high temperature. Calculated with the ambient-temperature extrapolation value of the high temperature diffusivity of Pt atoms in GaN reported in literature, the time required for Pt atoms diffusing 1 nm in GaN at ambient temperature is about 19 years. Therefore, the ambient-temperature diffusion and gettering of Pt atoms in GaN can hardly be observed. In this work, the ambient-temperature diffusion and gettering of Pt atoms in GaN is reported for the first time. It is demonstrated by use of secondary ion mass spectroscopy that in the condition of introducing a defect region on the GaN film surface by plasma, and subsequently, irradiated by 60Co gamma-ray or 3 MeV electrons, the ambient-temperature diffusion and gettering of Pt atoms in GaN can be detected. It is more obvious with larger irradiation dose and higher plasma power. With a similar surface defect region, the ambient-temperature diffusion and gettering of Pt atoms in GaN stimulated by 3 MeV electron irradiation is more marked than that stimulated by gamma irradiation. The physical mechanism of ambient-temperature diffusion and gettering of Pt atoms in a GaN film with a surface defect region stimulated by gamma or MeV electron irradiation is discussed.

  16. Imaging the Impact of Proton Irradiation on Edge Terminations in Vertical GaN pin Diodes

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, Kimberlee C.; King, Michael P.; Dickerson, Jeramy R.; ...

    2017-05-29

    Devices based on GaN have shown great promise for high power electronics, including their potential use as radiation tolerant components. An important step to realizing high power diodes is the design and implementation of an edge termination to mitigate field crowding, which can lead to premature breakdown. However, little is known about the effects of radiation on edge termination functionality. We experimentally examine the effects of proton irradiation on multiple field ring edge terminations in high power vertical GaN pin diodes using in operando imaging with electron beam induced current (EBIC). We find that exposure to proton irradiation influences fieldmore » spreading in the edge termination as well as carrier transport near the anode. By using depth-dependent EBIC measurements of hole diffusion length in homoepitaxial n-GaN we demonstrate that the carrier transport effect is due to a reduction in hole diffusion length following proton irradiation.« less

  17. Determination of Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibility of GaN Films on Sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Takashi; Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Haraguchi, Masanobu; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Fukui, Masuo; Nakamura, Syuji

    2000-05-01

    The second-order nonlinear susceptibilities of GaN films on sapphire were determined by the Maker fringe technique. In deriving the second-harmonic intensity, the bound wave propagating from the GaN-air interface to the GaN-sapphire interface and that propagating in the opposite direction were taken into account. We obtained |χ(2)zxx|=14.7±0.2 pm/V, |χ(2)xzx|=14.4±0.2 pm/V and |χ(2)zzz|=29.7±0.7 pm/V for the GaN film with a thickness of 2.55 μm using fundamental light with a wavelength of 1.064 μm.

  18. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence spectroscopy of 3D-triangular GaN nano prism islands.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Pasha, S K; Shibin Krishna, T C; Singh, Avanish Pratap; Kumar, Pawan; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Gupta, Govind

    2014-08-21

    We report a strategy for fabrication of 3D triangular GaN nano prism islands (TGNPI) grown on Ga/Si(553) substrate at low temperature by N2(+) ions implantation using a sputtering gun technique. The annealing of Ga/Si(553) (600 °C) followed by nitridation (2 keV) shows the formation of high quality GaN TGNPI cross-section. TGNPI morphology has been confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, these nano prism islands exhibit prominent ultra-violet luminescence peaking at 366 nm upon 325 nm excitation wavelength along with a low intensity yellow luminescence broad peak at 545 nm which characterizes low defects density TGNPI. Furthermore, the time-resolved spectroscopy of luminescent TGNPI in nanoseconds holds promise for its futuristic application in next generation UV-based sensors as well as many portable optoelectronic devices.

  19. Modeling and simulation of GaN step-up power switched capacitor converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alateeq, Ayoob S.; Almalaq, Yasser A.; Matin, Mohammad A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper discusses a proposed DC-DC switched capacitor converter for low voltage electronic products. The proposed converter is a two-level power switched capacitor (PSC) which is a boost converter. The suitability to convert a voltage into four times higher than its input is one of the converter's objectives. Because of the proposed two-level PSC consist of eight switches and five capacitors, it occupies a small area of the electronic products. The eight switches were selected to be GaN transistors to maintain the efficiency at high rated power or high temperatures. The LTSpice simulator was used to test the proposed model. Since the design contains semiconductor elements such (GaN transistor), then 10% error is a reasonable variance between the mathematical and simulation results.

  20. Improved large-signal GaN HEMT model suitable for intermodulation distortion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin-Sheng; Luo, Ji

    2011-12-01

    In this article, a complete empirical large-signal model of GaN high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) is presented. The developed nonlinear model employs differentiable trigonometric function continuously to describe the drain-source current characteristic and its higher order derivatives, making itself suitable for the simulation of intermodulation distortion (IMD) in microwave circuits. Besides, an improved charge-conservative gate charge model is proposed to accurately trace the nonlinear gate-source and gate-drain capacitances. The model validity is demonstrated for different 0.25-µm gate-length GaN HEMTs. The simulation results of small-signal S-parameters, radio frequency (RF) large-signal power performances and two-tone IMD products show an excellent agreement with the measured data.

  1. Molecular Beam Epitaxy of GaN Nanowires on Epitaxial Graphene.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Garrido, Sergio; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Gao, Guanhui; Galves, Lauren A; Sharma, Bharat; Corfdir, Pierre; Calabrese, Gabriele; de Souza Schiaber, Ziani; Pfüller, Carsten; Trampert, Achim; Lopes, João Marcelo J; Brandt, Oliver; Geelhaar, Lutz

    2017-09-13

    We demonstrate an all-epitaxial and scalable growth approach to fabricate single-crystalline GaN nanowires on graphene by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. As substrate, we explore several types of epitaxial graphene layer structures synthesized on SiC. The different structures differ mainly in their total number of graphene layers. Because graphene is found to be etched under active N exposure, the direct growth of GaN nanowires on graphene is only achieved on multilayer graphene structures. The analysis of the nanowire ensembles prepared on multilayer graphene by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy reveals the presence of graphene underneath as well as in between nanowires, as desired for the use of this material as contact layer in nanowire-based devices. The nanowires nucleate preferentially at step edges, are vertical, well aligned, epitaxial, and of comparable structural quality as similar structures fabricated on conventional substrates.

  2. Vertical architecture for enhancement mode power transistors based on GaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Rümmler, D.; Hartmann, J.; Caccamo, L.; Schimpke, T.; Strassburg, M.; Gad, A. E.; Bakin, A.; Wehmann, H.-H.; Witzigmann, B.; Wasisto, H. S.; Waag, A.

    2016-05-01

    The demonstration of vertical GaN wrap-around gated field-effect transistors using GaN nanowires is reported. The nanowires with smooth a-plane sidewalls have hexagonal geometry made by top-down etching. A 7-nanowire transistor exhibits enhancement mode operation with threshold voltage of 1.2 V, on/off current ratio as high as 108, and subthreshold slope as small as 68 mV/dec. Although there is space charge limited current behavior at small source-drain voltages (Vds), the drain current (Id) and transconductance (gm) reach up to 314 mA/mm and 125 mS/mm, respectively, when normalized with hexagonal nanowire circumference. The measured breakdown voltage is around 140 V. This vertical approach provides a way to next-generation GaN-based power devices.

  3. Fabrication of high reflectivity nanoporous distributed Bragg reflectors by controlled electrochemical etching of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Min; Kang, Jin-Ho; Lee, June Key; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2016-09-01

    The nanoporous medium is a valuable feature of optical devices because of its variable optical refractive index with porosity. One important application is in a GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser having a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) composed of alternating nanoporous and bulk GaNs. However, optimization of the fabrication process for high reflectivity DBRs having wellcontrolled high reflection bands has not been studied yet. We used electrochemical etching to study the fabrication process of a nanoporous GaN DBR and analyzed the relationship between the morphology and optical reflectivity. Several electrolytes were examined for the formation of the optimized nanoporous structure. A highly reflective DBRs having reflectivity of ~100% were obtained over a wide wavelength range of 450-750 nm. Porosification of semiconductors into nanoporous layers could provide a high reflectivity DBR due to controlled index-contrast, which would be advantages for the construction of a high-Q optical cavity.

  4. High voltage and high current density vertical GaN power diodes

    DOE PAGES

    Fischer, A. J.; Dickerson, J. R.; Armstrong, A. M.; ...

    2016-01-01

    We report on the realization of a GaN high voltage vertical p-n diode operating at > 3.9 kV breakdown with a specific on-resistance < 0.9 mΩ.cm 2. Diodes achieved a forward current of 1 A for on-wafer, DC measurements, corresponding to a current density > 1.4 kA/cm 2. An effective critical electric field of 3.9 MV/cm was estimated for the devices from analysis of the forward and reverse current-voltage characteristics. Furthermore this suggests that the fundamental limit to the GaN critical electric field is significantly greater than previously believed.

  5. Mechanical responses of a-axis GaN nanowires under axial loads.

    PubMed

    Wang, R J; Wang, C Y; Feng, Y T; Tang, Chun

    2018-03-02

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) hold technological significance as functional components in emergent nano-piezotronics. However, the examination of their mechanical responses, especially the mechanistic understanding of behavior beyond elasticity (at failure) remains limited due to the constraints of in situ experimentation. We therefore performed simulations of the molecular dynamics (MD) of the mechanical behavior of [Formula: see text]-oriented GaN NWs subjected to tension or compression loading until failure. The mechanical properties and critical deformation processes are characterized in relation to NW sizes and loading conditions. Detailed examinations revealed that the failure mechanisms are size-dependent and controlled by the dislocation mobility on shuffle-set pyramidal planes. The size dependence of the elastic behavior is also examined in terms of the surface structure determined modification of Young's modulus. In addition, a comparison with c-axis NWs is made to show how size-effect trends vary with the growth orientation of NWs.

  6. High quantum efficiency of depth grade doping negative-electron-affinity GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiangyang; Wang, Xiaohui; Chang, Benkang; Zhang, Yijun; Gao, Pin

    2010-08-01

    A depth grade doping sample gallium nitride (GaN) photocathode was designed to obtain an extremely high quantum efficiency (QE). Two other uniform doping samples were prepared in the same procedure as contrast. The calibrated QE curves were achieved; by comparing theoretical calculated values with the experimental QE plots, the escape probability and diffusion length were fitted. The QE value of gradient doping sample is as high as 68.7% at 5.17 eV; the diffusion length of gradient doping sample is fitted to be 250 nm which is much higher than uniform doping samples. That explains why depth-grade-doping can improve the QE of GaN photocathode significantly.

  7. Resolution characteristics for reflection-mode exponential-doping GaN photocathode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honggang; Qian, Yunsheng; Du, Yujie; Xu, Yuan; Lu, Liubing; Chang, Benkang

    2014-01-20

    According to the expression for modulation transfer function obtained by solving the established 2D continuity equation, the resolution characteristics for reflection-mode exponential-doping and uniform-doping GaN photocathodes have been calculated and comparatively analyzed. These calculated results show that the exponential-doping structure can upgrade not only the resolution capability but also the quantum efficiency for a GaN photocathode. The improvement mechanism is different from the approach for high resolution applied by reducing Te and L(D) or increasing S(V), which leads to low quantum efficiency. The main contribution factor of this improvement is that the mechanism that transports electrons toward the NEA surface is facilitated by the built-in electric field formed by this exponential-doping structure, and the corresponding lateral diffusion is reduced.

  8. Migration mechanism of a GaN bicrystalline grain boundary as a model system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Bo; Yoo, Seung Jo; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Han, Heung Nam

    2016-05-23

    Using in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, we have explored migration mechanism of a grain boundary in a GaN bicrystal as a model system. During annealing at 500 °C, the grain-boundary region underwent a decrease in thickness, which occurred by decomposition or sublimation of GaN during annealing at 500 °C coupled with electron-beam sputtering. The decrease in thickness corresponds to an increase in the driving force for migration, because the migration of the grain boundary was driven by the surface energy difference. As the driving force increased with annealing time, the grain-boundary morphology turned from atomically smooth to rough, which is characterized by kinetic roughening. The observations indicate that a grain boundary exhibits a nonlinear relationship between driving force for migration and migration velocity, in discord with the general presumption that a grain boundary follows a linear relationship.

  9. GaN MOSFET with Boron Trichloride-Based Dry Recess Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Wang, Q. P.; Tamai, K.; Miyashita, T.; Motoyama, S.; Wang, D. J.; Ao, J. P.; Ohno, Y.

    2013-06-01

    The dry recessed-gate GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using boron trichloride (BCl3) as etching gas were fabricated and characterized. Etching with different etching power was conducted. Devices with silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) etching gas were also prepared for comparison. Field-effect mobility and interface state density were extracted from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. GaN MOSFETs on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure with BCl3 based dry recess achieved a high maximum electron mobility of 141.5 cm2V-1s-1 and a low interface state density.

  10. Dynamics of low temperature excitons in Fe-doped GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Zhou, T. F.; Zhang, Y. M.; Wang, W. Y.; Li, W.; Bai, Y.; Lian, K.; Wang, J. F.; Xu, K.

    2018-02-01

    The recombination processes of excitons in Fe-doped GaN have been characterized by time-resolved photoluminescence measurement. The photoluminescence shape at different excitation powers revealed that the hole capture process by Fe2+ centers has always existed in doped GaN. Decreasing of the fast component in the biexponential decay curves with increasing iron concentration indicates the enhancive contribution of the hole capture process. Furthermore, the structures of an iron-related acceptor and complex bound exciton were confirmed by the dependence of lifetime constants on the localization energy. Also, the extended wave function of the hole from the complex bound exciton will enable spin coupling between isolated iron ions.

  11. Optical and Structural Properties of Cr-Doped GaN Grown by HVPE Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huai-Yue; Xiu, Xiang-Qian; Hua, Xue-Mei; Liu, Zhan-Hui; Zhou, An; Zhang, Rong; Xie, Zi-Li; Han, Ping; Shi, Yi; Zheng, You-Dou

    2010-12-01

    Single crystalline Cr-doped GaN films are successfully grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The structure analysis indicates that the film is uniform without detectable Cr precipitates or clusters and the Cr atoms are substituted for Ga sites. The impurity modes in the range 510-530 cm-1 are observed by the Raman spectra. The modes are assigned to the host lattice defects caused by substitutional Cr. The donor-acceptor emission is found to locate at Ec - 0.20 eV by analyzing the photoluminescence spectrum obtained at different temperatures, and the emission is attributed to the structural defects caused by CrGa-VN complex. The superconductor quantum interference device results show that the Cr-doped GaN film without detectable Cr precipitates or clusters exhibits paramagnetic properties.

  12. Radar Waveform Pulse Analysis Measurement System for High-Power GaN Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrivikraman, Tushar; Perkovic-Martin, Dragana; Jenabi, Masud; Hoffman, James

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a measurement system to characterize the pulsed response of high-power GaN amplifiers for use in space-based SAR platforms that require very strict amplitude and phase stability. The measurement system is able to record and analyze data on three different time scales: fast, slow, and long, which allows for greater detail of the mechanisms that impact amplitude and phase stability. The system is fully automated through MATLAB, which offers both instrument control capability and in-situ data processing. To validate this system, a high-power GaN HEMT amplifier operated in saturation was characterized. The fast time results show that variations to the amplitude and phase are correlated to DC supply transients, while long time characteristics are correlated to temperature changes.

  13. Wideband Reconfigurable Harmonically Tuned GaN SSPA for Cognitive Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldstein, Seth W.; Barbosa Kortright, Miguel A.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the architecture of a wideband reconfigurable harmonically-tuned Gallium Nitrate (GaN) Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA) for cognitive radios. When interfaced with the physical layer of a cognitive communication system, this amplifier topology offers broadband high efficiency through the use of multiple tuned input/output matching networks. This feature enables the cognitive radio to reconfigure the operating frequency without sacrificing efficiency. This paper additionally presents as a proof-of-concept the design, fabrication, and test results for a GaN inverse class-F type amplifier operating at X-band (8.4 GHz) that achieves a maximum output power of 5.14-W, Power Added Efficiency (PAE) of 38.6, and Drain Efficiency (DE) of 48.9 under continuous wave (CW) operation.

  14. Efficiency droop in GaN LEDs at high injection levels: Role of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkareva, N. I.; Sheremet, I. A.; Shreter, Yu. G., E-mail: y.shreter@mail.ioffe.ru

    2016-10-15

    Point defects in GaN and, in particular, their manifestation in the photoluminescence, optical absorption, and recombination current in light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN quantum wells are analyzed. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the wide tail of defect states in the band gap of GaN facilitates the trap-assisted tunneling of thermally activated carriers into the quantum well, but simultaneously leads to a decrease in the nonradiative-recombination lifetime and to an efficiency droop as the quasi-Fermi levels intersect the defect states with increasing forward bias. The results reveal the dominant role of hydrogen in the recombination activity of defects with danglingmore » bonds and in the efficiency of GaN-based devices.« less

  15. Spectroscopic study of semipolar (112{sup ¯}2)-HVPE GaN exhibiting high oxygen incorporation

    SciTech Connect

    Schustek, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.schustek@gmail.com; Research Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu and Foundation Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, 08950, Barcelona; Hocker, Matthias

    2014-10-28

    Spatially resolved luminescence and Raman spectroscopy investigations are applied to a series of (112{sup ¯}2)-GaN samples grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) grown over an initial layer deposited by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on patterned sapphire substrates. Whereas these two differently grown GaN layers are crystallographically homogeneous, they differ largely in their doping level due to high unintentional oxygen uptake in the HVPE layer. This high doping shows up in luminescence spectra, which can be explained by a free-electron recombination band for which an analytical model considering the Burstein-Moss shift, conduction band tailing, and the bandgap renormalization ismore » included. Secondary ion mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and Hall measurements concordantly determine the electron density to be above 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}. In addition, the strain state is assessed by Raman spectroscopy and compared to a finite element analysis.« less

  16. Anisotropy of two-photon absorption and free-carrier effect in nonpolar GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yu; Zhou, Feng; Yang, Junyi

    2015-03-30

    We reported a systematic study about the anisotropic optical nonlinearities in bulk m-plane and a-plane GaN crystals by Z-scan and pump-probe with phase object methods under picosecond at 532 nm. The two-photon absorption coefficient, which was measured as a function of polarization angle, exhibited oscillation curves with a period of π/2, indicating a highly polarized optical third-order nonlinearity in both nonpolar GaN samples. Furthermore, free-carrier absorption revealed stronger hole-related absorption for E⊥c than for E//c probe polarization. In contrast, free-carrier refraction was found almost isotropic due to electron-related refraction in the isotropic conduction bands.

  17. Optical nonlinearities and carrier dynamics in Fe doped GaN single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yu; Yang, Junyi; Yang, Yong

    2014-10-20

    Optical nonlinearities and transient dynamics of Fe doped GaN (GaN:Fe) were studied by Z-scan and pump-probe with phase object techniques under picosecond and nanosecond at 532 nm. From the pump-probe results, an additional decay pathway subsequent to two photon excitation was observed due to the carrier trapping of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} deep acceptors. The trapping state in the band gap results in a pronounced modulation to nonlinear responses of GaN:Fe compared to that of undoped GaN. With an effective three-level model as well as carrier trapping effect we described the photo-physical dynamics in GaN:Fe unambiguously.

  18. MOVPE growth of violet GaN LEDs on β-Ga2O3 substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ding; Hoffmann, Veit; Richter, Eberhard; Tessaro, Thomas; Galazka, Zbigniew; Weyers, Markus; Tränkle, Günther

    2017-11-01

    We report that a H2-free atmosphere is essential for the initial stage of metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of GaN on β-Ga2O3 to prevent the surface from damage. A simple growth method is proposed that can easily transfer established GaN growth recipes from sapphire to β-Ga2O3 with both (-2 0 1) and (1 0 0) orientations. This method features a thin AlN nucleation layer grown below 900 °C in N2 atmosphere to protect the surface of β-Ga2O3 from deterioration during further growth under the H2 atmosphere. Based on this, we demonstrate working violet vertical light emitting diodes (VLEDs) on n-conductive β-Ga2O3 substrates.

  19. Identification of the gallium vacancy-oxygen pair defect in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Son, N. T.; Hemmingsson, C. G.; Janzen, E.

    2009-10-15

    Cation vacancies like V{sub Ga}, V{sub Al} and their complexes with oxygen are predicted to be abundant in III-nitrides and to play an important role in nonradiative recombination. Appearing in triple or double negatively charged states, they are not paramagnetic and have not so far been detected by magnetic resonance even under illumination. In this Brief Report, we demonstrate an efficient way to make cation vacancy defects in GaN detectable by electron paramagnetic resonance and present our identification of the V{sub Ga}O{sub N} pair in GaN which is the model material for the III-nitrides and their alloys.

  20. First-principles identification of optically active Er3+ centers in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Khang

    Rare-earth (RE) doped III-nitrides are of great interest for optoelectronic and spintronic applications. The identification of optically active RE centers in these materials has however been challenging, both in experimental and theoretical/computational studies. In this talk, we present a hybrid density functional study of the interaction between the erbium (Er) dopant and wurtzite GaN, including intrinsic point defects and other impurities that may be present in the host material. Particularly, we investigate the structure, energetics, and transition levels of the Er impurity and its complexes with N and Ga vacancies, substitutional C and O impurities, and H interstitials. In light of our results, we identify possible luminescent Er3+ centers in Er-doped GaN and discuss the role of these centers in the excitation of the Er 4f-electron core.