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Sample records for ganado criollo limonero

  1. Normal bacterial flora from vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows.

    PubMed

    Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Boscán-Ocando, Julio; Nava, Jexenia

    2011-02-01

    In order to describe the normal bacterial flora in vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows, 51 healthy multiparous cows, at least 90-day postpartum, were selected. Duplicated swabs (N = 102) were taken from the vaginal fornix of cows to perform aerobic and anaerobic cultures as well as conventional biochemical tests. Out of 102 swabs, bacterial growth was obtained in 55 (53.9%) while the remaining 47 (46.1%) did not exhibited any bacterial growth. Of the 55 bacterial growths, 23 (41.8%) were aerobic whereas 32 (58.1%) were anaerobic. Likewise, 29 (52.72%) of bacterial growths were pure and 26 (47.27%) were mixed. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Gram positive bacteria were predominant (81.82% and 73.08%, respectively) over Gram negative bacteria (18.18% and 26.92%, respectively). Isolated bacteria were Arcanobacterium pyogenes (22.92%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.63%), Staphylococcus coagulase negative (17.71%), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (6.25%), Bacteroides spp. (13.54%), and Peptostreptococcus spp. (7.29%). In conclusion, normal vaginal bacterial flora of Criollo Limonero cows was predominantly Gram positive and included A. pyogenes, S. aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. rhusiopathiae, Bacteroides spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. In Criollo Limonero cattle, adaptive aspects such as development of humoral and physical mechanisms for defense, and bacterial adaptation to host deserve research attention.

  2. Variability of hair coat and skin traits as related to adaptation in Criollo Limonero cattle.

    PubMed

    Landaeta-Hernández, Antonio; Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Hernández-Fonseca, Juan P; Godoy, Rosario; Calles, Marcos; Iragorri, José L; Añez, Lauderys; Polanco, Miguel; Montero-Urdaneta, Merilio; Olson, Tim

    2011-03-01

    The variation in hair coat and skin histology traits of Criollo Limonero cattle was analyzed using 213 Criollo Limonero females. Skin biopsies were obtained from slick-haired (N=16) and normal-haired (N=14) animals. Measured traits included hair length (HL), color coat (CC), number of hair follicles per square centimeter (NHF), sweat glands per square centimeter (NSG), sweat glands size (SGS), sebaceous glands per square centimeter (NSBG), blood vessels per square centimeter (NBV), and thickness of epidermis (TE). Hair length differed (P<0.001) between slick- and normal-haired animals (4.9 ± 0.12 vs 10.9 ± 0.20, respectively). Differences (P<0.01) in CC (Bayo = 144/67.6% vs Red = 69/32.4%) and HL (slick-haired = 199/93.4% vs normal-haired = 14/6.5%) were found. Distribution of slick- and normal-haired animals differed (P<0.01) between bayo-coated and red-coated (139/62.2% vs 9/4.2%; respectively). Most (P<0.05) red-coated animals belonged to a single family. No differences (P>0.05) were found between slick-haired and normal-haired animals in NHF (637 ± 164 vs 587 ± 144, respectively), NSG (556 ± 134 vs 481 ± 118, respectively), NSBG (408 ± 87 vs 366 ± 77, respectively), NBV (1628 ± 393 vs 1541 ± 346, respectively), and TE (1.24 ± 0.14 vs 1.32 ± 0.12, respectively). However, SGS was greater (P<0.01) in slick-haired than normal-haired animals. In conclusion, Criollo Limonero cattle are predominantly bayo-coated, slick-haired, with a reduced number of hair follicles relative to Zebu cattle, sweat and sebaceous glands in proportion to hair follicle numbers, and with a high blood flow irrigating the skin. There is a sub-group of red-coated animals with yellow or cream skin, thicker epidermis, and with a higher frequency of normal-haired animals. It appears that the slick hair gene has been favored by natural selection in this breed.

  3. Reproduccion del ganado

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    La determination de prenez es una de las principales herramientas de manejo en el Ganado de came. Le habilidad de determiner prenez proporciona al productor un medio de tomar sus decsiones de seleccion y descartarte en momentos decisivos, enfocando los recursos de la operacion en reporductores confi...

  4. Increasing Reservation Attendance: Ganado's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Carl; And Others

    Based on recommendations of a District Attendance Task Force, in 1980 the Ganado School District (a Navajo Reservation District) formulated an Attendance Improvement Plan which decreased the primary school's absentee rate 37% over previous years and which dramatically increased Friday attendance. The primary school targeted "high risk"…

  5. Genetic analysis of the Venezuelan Criollo horse.

    PubMed

    Cothran, E G; Canelon, J L; Luis, C; Conant, E; Juras, R

    2011-10-07

    Various horse populations in the Americas have an origin in Spain; they are remnants of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). We evaluated genetic variability within the Venezuelan Criollo horse and its relationship with other horse breeds. We observed high levels of genetic diversity within the Criollo breed. Significant population differentiation was observed between all South American breeds. The Venezuelan Criollo horse showed high levels of genetic diversity, and from a conservation standpoint, there is no immediate danger of losing variation unless there is a large drop in population size.

  6. Educational Program Status Report. Ganado Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonigan, Richard F.

    Prepared as background information for a future long-range comprehensive plan, this status study was done to determine the scope and nature of the current educational program and facilities in the four schools operated by the Ganado Public School District. To accomplish the project, the staff of consultants followed a 5-part procedure: (1)…

  7. Aspirations: The Ganado Primary School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganado Public Schools, AZ.

    This document describes an elementary school curriculum implemented at the Ganado Primary School in Arizona. The curriculum is based on traditional Navajo teachings associated with the four cardinal directions. The goal is to help students live harmonious lives by developing a sound belief and value system, learning ways to make a living, learning…

  8. Abundant mtDNA diversity and ancestral admixture in Colombian criollo cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G; Bermudez, Nelson; Olivera-Angel, Martha; Estrada, Luzardo; Ossa, Jorge; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2003-01-01

    Various cattle populations in the Americas (known as criollo breeds) have an origin in some of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). These cattle constitute a potentially important genetic reserve as they are well adapted to local environments and show considerable variation in phenotype. To examine the genetic ancestry and diversity of Colombian criollo we obtained mitochondrial DNA control region sequence information for 110 individuals from seven breeds. Old World haplogroup T3 is the most commonly observed CR lineage in criollo (0.65), in agreement with a mostly European ancestry for these cattle. However, criollo also shows considerable frequencies of haplogroups T2 (0.9) and T1 (0.26), with T1 lineages in criollo being more diverse than those reported for West Africa. The distribution and diversity of Old World lineages suggest some North African ancestry for criollo, probably as a result of the Arab occupation of Iberia prior to the European migration to the New World. The mtDNA diversity of criollo is higher than that reported for European and African cattle and is consistent with a differentiated ancestry for some criollo breeds. PMID:14668394

  9. 75 FR 9114 - FM Table of Allotments, Markham, Ganado, and Victoria, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Markham, Ganado, and Victoria, Texas AGENCY: Federal... counterproposal filed by Fort Bend Broadcasting Company, licensee of Station KHTZ(FM), Ganado, Texas, to upgrade Station KHTZ(FM) from Channel 284C2 to Channel 235C and to modify its license accordingly....

  10. Genetic identification of Theobroma cacao L. trees with high Criollo ancestry in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Ovando, J A; Molina-Freaner, F; Nuñez-Farfán, J; Ovando-Medina, I; Salvador-Figueroa, M

    2014-12-12

    Criollo-type cacao trees are an important pool of genes with potential to be used in cacao breeding and selection programs. For that reason, we assessed the diversity and population structure of Criollo-type trees (108 cultivars with Criollo phenotypic characteristics and 10 Criollo references) using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Cultivars were selected from 7 demes in the Soconusco region of southern Mexico. SSRs amplified 74 alleles with an average of 3.6 alleles per population. The overall populations showed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.28, indicating heterozygote deficiency (average fixation index F = 0.50). However, moderate allelic diversity was found within populations (Shannon index for all populations I = 0.97). Bayesian method analysis determined 2 genetic clusters (K = 2) within individuals. In concordance, an assignment test grouped 37 multilocus genotypes (including 10 references) into a first cluster (Criollo), 54 into a second (presumably Amelonado), and 27 admixed individuals unassigned at the 90% threshold likely corresponding to the Trinitario genotype. This classification was supported by the principal coordinate analysis and analysis of molecular variance, which showed 12% of variation among populations (FST = 0.123, P < 0.0001). Sampled demes sites (1- 7) in the Soconusco region did not show any evidence of clustering by geographic location, and this was supported by the Mantel test (Rxy = 0.54, P = 0.120). Individuals with high Criollo lineage planted in Soconusco farms could be an important reservoir of genes for future breeding programs searching for fine, taste, flavor, and aroma cocoa.

  11. Vegetation selection by Angus crossbred vs. Raramuri Criollo nursing cows grazing Chihuauan Desert rangeland in summer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined vegetation selection patterns of nursing Angus X Hereford crossbred (AH) and Raramuri Criollo (RC) cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert vegetation during the growing season. Eleven cows of each group grazed separately in two large pastures (1190ha, 1165ha) from mid-July until mid-August 2015 (...

  12. Movement and spatial proximity patterns of rangeland-raised Raramuri Criollo cow-calf pairs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare movement patterns of nursing vs. nonnursing mature cows and to characterize cow-calf proximity patterns in two herds of Raramuri Criollo cattle. Herds grazed rangeland pastures in southern New Mexico (4355 ha) and west-central Chihuahua, Mexico (633 ha)'' A...

  13. Weight gain and behavior of Raramuri Criollo versus crossbred steers developed on Chihuahuan Desert rangeland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ranchers that raise Raramuri Criollo (RC) cattle must overcome the challenge of lack of markets for weaned calves. Growing and finishing RC or RC-crossbred steers on rangeland pastures is increasingly common; however, no data exist on their weight gains or grazing behavior. We tracked the weight a...

  14. Comparison of diet selection by Raramuri criollo and Angus crossbreds in the Chihuahuan Desert

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Raramuri Criollo (RC) is a cattle biotype that has undergone natural selection for the past 500 years in northern Mexico. No information exists on diet selection for this biotype. The objective of this study was to compare diet selection of RC and Angus x Hereford crossbreds (AH) typically found in ...

  15. The economics of Raramuri Criollo versus British crossbred cattle production in the Chihuahuan Desert

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preliminary research indicates Raramuri Criollo cattle may range significantly further and forage in areas where traditional breeds rarely venture. They are thought to impose a lighter environmental footprint compared to their mainstream British crossbred counterparts. These small-frame animals are ...

  16. Age at puberty in beef heifers: Criollo cattle versus british crossbred cattle.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Age at puberty is an important factor in estimating the potential productivity of the bovine female. A study was conducted at the ARS-USDA Jornada Experimental Range in 2006 and 2007 to compare onset of puberty, BW, and serum insulin in Criollo and Angus-Hereford crossbred heifers. In 2006, 7 Crioll...

  17. Roasting conditions for preserving cocoa flavan-3-ol monomers and oligomers: interesting behaviour of Criollo clones.

    PubMed

    De Taeye, Cédric; Bodart, Marie; Caullet, Gilles; Collin, Sonia

    2017-09-01

    Cocoa bean roasting is important for creating the typical chocolate aroma through Maillard reactions, but it is also a key step deleterious to the polyphenol content and profile. Compared with usual roasting at 150 °C, keeping the beans for 30 min at 120 °C or for 1 h at 90 °C proved much better for preventing strong degradation of native P1, P2 and P3 flavan-3-ols in cocoa (shown for Forastero, Trinitatio and Criollo cultivars). Surprisingly, Cuban, Mexican and Malagasy white-seeded beans behaved atypically when roasted for 30 min at 150 °C, releasing a pool of catechin. Enantiomeric chromatographic separation proved that this pool contained mainly (-)-catechin issued from (-)-epicatechin by epimerisation. As the (-)-epicatechin content remained relatively constant through Criollo bean roasting, flavan-3-ol monomers must have been regenerated from oligomers. This emergence of (-)-catechin in Criollo beans only, reported here for the first time, could be due to increased flavan-3-ol monomer stability in the absence of anthocyanidin-derived products. The degradation rate of flavan-3-ols through roasting is higher in cocoa beans containing anthocyani(di)ns. The liberation of a pool of (-)-catechin when submitted to roasting at 150 °C allows to distinguish white-seeded cultivars. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. A comparison of grazing behavior between desert adapted Mexican Criollo cattle and temperate british breeds using two diverse landscapes in New Mexico and Chihuahua.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed to test how grazing behaviors differ between desert adapted Mexican criollo cattle and temperate British beef breeds, to learn how each breed interacts with environments common to the southwestern US and northwestern Mexico. Additionally, criollo cattle may be a better breed ...

  19. Use of an unmanned aerial vehicle-mounted video camera to assess feeding behavior of Raramuri Criollo cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined the feasibility of using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) video monitoring to predict intake of discrete food items of rangeland-raised Raramuri Criollo non-nursing beef cows. Thirty-five cows were released into a 405-m2 rectangular dry lot, either in pairs (pilot tests) or individually (...

  20. Behavior of Raramuri Criollo vs. Angus-crossbred cows in relation to desert summer ambient heat conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle in the Chihuahuan Desert are exposed to extreme temperatures during certain times of year. We examined relationships between temperature and behavior for Angus Hereford (AH) and Raramuri Criollo (RC) cattle. We monitored 10 mature nursing cows of each breed that grazed separately in each of t...

  1. Mesquite seed density in fecal samples of Raramuri Criollo vs. Angus x Hereford cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was part of a larger project investigating breed-related differences in feeding habits of Raramuri Criollo (RC) versus Angus x Hereford (AH) cows. Seed densities in fecal samples collected in July and August 2015 were analyzed to compare presumed mesquite bean consumption of RC and AH cow...

  2. A Study of Parental Attitudes and Values Towards Education on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations. Part II, Parental Attitudes [Ganado].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglin, J. E.; And Others

    Objectives of this study were (1) to determine the parental attitudes of those parents who reside in the Chinle, Keams Canyon, Kayenta, Ganado, Window Rock, or Tuba City school district toward public education on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in the areas of teachers, curriculum, social behaviors of children, school services, school policies,…

  3. Ganado Public Schools Title VII Project 1976-1977: Saad Naaki Bee Olta (Bilingual Education). Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosier, Paul; Farella, Merilyn

    During the 1976-77 academic year the Ganado (Arizona) Title VII Bilingual Education Project operated within a Cooperative Teaching Model based on language roles. Each teacher was assigned a role based on language responsibility: English language teachers concentrated on teaching English as a second language, while Navajo language teachers taught…

  4. Carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and meat quality of Criollo Argentino and Braford steers raised on forage in a semi-tropical region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Carlos; Peña, F; García, A; Perea, J; Martos, J; Domenech, V; Acero, R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the carcass characteristics, cholesterol concentration, fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat, and meat quality of Criollo Argentino and Braford steers reared in an extensive system, without supplementation, and slaughtered at approximately 400kg live weight. The Braford steers had greater (P<0.05) carcass weight, yield, conformation score, marbling degree, fat thickness and fatness score than Criollo Argentino steers. The tissue composition of the 10th rib was: 68.1% vs. 63.6% muscle, 23.9% vs. 20.4% bone and 8.2% vs. 16.3% fat for the Criollo Argentino and Braford breeds, respectively. The meat of Longissimus muscle from Braford steers was lighter, redder, yellower and more tender than that from Criollo Argentino steers. The meat of Longissimus muscle from Braford steers had a higher fat content, similar protein and ash contents and a lower (P⩽0.001) cholesterol concentration than that from Criollo Argentino steers. The subcutaneous depot was the most saturated, while the intramuscular fat had the most polyunsaturated fatty acids. Intramuscular fat showed the highest ∑h fatty acids, and PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios and for MUFA/SFA, 16:0/18:0 and h/H ratios were not significantly different between adipose tissue depots. The influence of breed on the fatty acid profile varies among adipose tissues. In general, both intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat from Criollo steers contained more unsaturated fatty acids and less saturated fatty acids, than did fat from Braford steers.

  5. Medicinal Plant Diversity and Inter-Cultural Interactions between Indigenous Guarani, Criollos and Polish Migrants in the Subtropics of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma I.; Keller, Héctor A.; Gil, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies highlight the importance of phytotherapy for indigenous and non-indigenous people in different parts of the world. In this work we analyze the richness (number of species), diversity (plant identity and the number of illnesses for which it is used) and similarity of plant species and illnesses treated with them, in order to contribute new data and insight into the importance of plant medicines to the local medical systems of people living in Misiones province, in the subtropics of Argentina. Three sympatric groups were compared: Guarani Indians, Criollos (mestizos) and Polish migrants. Quantitative scrutiny was focused on both primary and secondary sources. The similarity and diversity of medicinal plants and uses between groups was calculated by applying the Sørensen quantitative coefficient and the Shannon-Wiener index, respectively. In order to identify the characteristic plant species used by each group, the Cultural Importance and Prevalence Value (CIPV) was calculated based on the species Indicator Value (IndVal), which combines a species relative abundance with its relative frequency of occurrence in the various groups, and modified according to the type of the analyzed data. The important finding is a great variation in the number of species used by the study groups. Altogether, 509 botanical species were registered: Guarani (397), Criollos (243) and Polish migrants (137). For all groups, the use of native medicinal plants prevailed. The Guarani appear to be the local experts in use of medicinal plants. There is the significant difference in the number of treated illnesses by each taxon among three groups. Criollos and Polish migrants exhibit the greatest similarity in illnesses treated with medicinal plants. These groups share a corpus of knowledge related to illness nosology, and have a symptomatic approach to illness treatment. The Guarani have an etiological approach to illness diagnosis and healing, which may be viewed as a barrier to

  6. Medicinal Plant Diversity and Inter-Cultural Interactions between Indigenous Guarani, Criollos and Polish Migrants in the Subtropics of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma I; Keller, Héctor A; Gil, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies highlight the importance of phytotherapy for indigenous and non-indigenous people in different parts of the world. In this work we analyze the richness (number of species), diversity (plant identity and the number of illnesses for which it is used) and similarity of plant species and illnesses treated with them, in order to contribute new data and insight into the importance of plant medicines to the local medical systems of people living in Misiones province, in the subtropics of Argentina. Three sympatric groups were compared: Guarani Indians, Criollos (mestizos) and Polish migrants. Quantitative scrutiny was focused on both primary and secondary sources. The similarity and diversity of medicinal plants and uses between groups was calculated by applying the Sørensen quantitative coefficient and the Shannon-Wiener index, respectively. In order to identify the characteristic plant species used by each group, the Cultural Importance and Prevalence Value (CIPV) was calculated based on the species Indicator Value (IndVal), which combines a species relative abundance with its relative frequency of occurrence in the various groups, and modified according to the type of the analyzed data. The important finding is a great variation in the number of species used by the study groups. Altogether, 509 botanical species were registered: Guarani (397), Criollos (243) and Polish migrants (137). For all groups, the use of native medicinal plants prevailed. The Guarani appear to be the local experts in use of medicinal plants. There is the significant difference in the number of treated illnesses by each taxon among three groups. Criollos and Polish migrants exhibit the greatest similarity in illnesses treated with medicinal plants. These groups share a corpus of knowledge related to illness nosology, and have a symptomatic approach to illness treatment. The Guarani have an etiological approach to illness diagnosis and healing, which may be viewed as a barrier to

  7. Inferring genetic parameters of lactation in Tropical Milking Criollo cattle with random regression test-day models.

    PubMed

    Santellano-Estrada, E; Becerril-Pérez, C M; de Alba, J; Chang, Y M; Gianola, D; Torres-Hernández, G; Ramírez-Valverde, R

    2008-11-01

    This study inferred genetic and permanent environmental variation of milk yield in Tropical Milking Criollo cattle and compared 5 random regression test-day models using Wilmink's function and Legendre polynomials. Data consisted of 15,377 test-day records from 467 Tropical Milking Criollo cows that calved between 1974 and 2006 in the tropical lowlands of the Gulf Coast of Mexico and in southern Nicaragua. Estimated heritabilities of test-day milk yields ranged from 0.18 to 0.45, and repeatabilities ranged from 0.35 to 0.68 for the period spanning from 6 to 400 d in milk. Genetic correlation between days in milk 10 and 400 was around 0.50 but greater than 0.90 for most pairs of test days. The model that used first-order Legendre polynomials for additive genetic effects and second-order Legendre polynomials for permanent environmental effects gave the smallest residual variance and was also favored by the Akaike information criterion and likelihood ratio tests.

  8. The relic Criollo cacao in Belize- genetic diversity and relationship with Trinitario and other cacao clones held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is native to the South American rainforest but it was domesticated in Mesoamerica. The relic Criollo cocoa in Belize has been well known in the premium chocolate market for its high-quality. Knowledge of genetic diversity in this variety is essential for efficient conserva...

  9. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. I. Reproduction and parturition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, t...

  10. Body condition and stage of seasonal anestrus interact to determine the ovulatory response after male biostimulation in anovulatory Criollo × Nubian goats.

    PubMed

    Vera-Avila, Hector R; Urrutia-Morales, Jorge; Espinosa-Martinez, Mario A; Gamez-Vazquez, Hector G; Jimenez-Severiano, Hector; Villagomez-Amezcua, Eugenio

    2017-06-01

    The effect of goat nutritional condition on the response to biostimulation with sexually active males during different stages of anestrus was determined. Fifty-eight Criollo × Nubian females on high and low body mass index (BMI) diets were used. Each BMI group was divided into two for biostimulation with sexually active males during May (mid-anestrus) or July (transition period). Ovulatory responses to biostimulation were characterized from serum progesterone, as well as the delay for response (first and second ovulations followed by a normal length luteal phase, O-WNLP). The percentage of goats showing one O-WNLP was greater in the high BMI group than in the low BMI group and greater during the transition period than in the mid-anestrus. However, the interaction between factors revealed that the difference between BMI groups was only significant in the transition period and the difference between stages was only significant in goats with high BMI. Occurrence of a second O-WNLP tended to be greater in the high BMI group than in the low BMI group. Response delay was shorter in the transition period than in mid-anestrus. In conclusion, female nutritional status interacting with the stage of anestrus determined the ovulatory response to male biostimulation in crossbred Criollo goats. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 ...

  12. The effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections during the rainy season in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Jacobs, D E; Aguilar-Caballero, A; Sandoval-Castro, C; May-Martinez, M; Cob-Galera, L A

    2004-10-05

    The objective was to determine the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of Criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections, when browsing native vegetation during the wet season in tropical Mexico. Thirty-four 2-month old Criollo kids, raised nematode free, were included at weaning in a 22-week trial. The kids were placed into four groups. Two groups of 8 kids were offered 100g/day soybean and sorghum meal (26%:74%, respectively fresh basis) (treated/supplemented (T-S) and infected/supplemented (I-S)). Two groups remained with no supplement for the duration of the trial (infected/non-supplemented (I-NS) (n = 10) and treated/non-supplemented (T-NS) (n = 8)). Kids in groups T-S and T-NS were drenched with 0.2mg of moxidectin/kg body weight orally (Cydectin, Fort Dodge) every 28 days. Groups I-S and I-NS were naturally infected with GIN. The animals browsed native vegetation (for an average of 7h/day) together with a herd of 120 naturally infected adult goats. Cumulative live weight gain (CLWG), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total plasma protein and plasma albumin were recorded every 14 days as measurements of resilience. Resistance parameters (faecal egg counts (FEC) and peripheral eosinophil counts (PEC)) were also measured. Bulk faecal cultures were made for each group every 28 days. Every month a new pair of tracer kids assessed the infectivity of the vegetation browsed by the animals. The T-S group had the highest CLWG, PCV and Hb compared to the other three groups (P < 0.001). The I-S and T-NS group had similar mean CLWG and PCV (P > 0.05), while the I-NS group had the poorest CLWG, PCV and Hb (P < 0.001). The PEC of supplemented kids (I-S and T-S) was higher than in the I-NS and T-NS kids (P < 0.05). No effect of supplementary feeding was found in the FEC. Tracer kids and faecal cultures showed that kids suffered mixed infections with Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and

  13. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida: I. Reproduction and parturition.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, the occurrence of calving difficulty, inadequate calf vigor at birth, and udder problems by cow breed groups. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, in all subsequent breeding seasons crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred to bulls of the other two breeds. Calving records (n = 1,484) from 2005 to 2011 were used to create calving and weaning rate and calving interval (excluding the interval between 2 and 3 yr of age). Final models for these traits included sire breed-dam breed interaction, cow age within year, and random animal effects. Heterosis estimates for Romosinuano-Brahman calving and weaning rate were 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P < 0.05); those for Brahman-Angus were twice as large (0.13 ± 0.03 and 0.14 ± 0.03, respectively; P < 0.001). Estimates of Brahman direct effects on calving and weaning rate were -0.12 ± 0.04 and -0.14 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05); however, Angus direct effects were beneficial for both traits (0.1 ± 0.05, P < 0.05). The effect of heterosis was to reduce calving interval by -49.2 ± 9.9 and -37.2 ± 9.7 d for Romosinuano-Brahman and Brahman-Angus, respectively (P < 0.001). Romosinuano and F1 cows sired by Romosinuano and out of Angus dams had the most occurrences of difficult births as a proportion of cows that calved (0.028 and 0.025, P = 0.04). Angus-sired crossbred cows and Brahman cows had the most occurrences of udder problems as a proportion of lactating cows (0.14 to 0.21, P < 0.04). There were more Brahman-sired cows that died or were culled as a proportion of those cows that began the project (0.1 to 0.28, P < 0.02) than cows in the

  14. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred in to bulls of the other 2 breeds. Calves were spring-born from 2005 through 2011. Evaluated calf (n = 1,254) traits included birth weight and weight, ADG, BCS, and hip height at weaning. Cow weight (n = 1,389) was recorded at weaning. Maternal efficiency traits evaluated included weaning weight per 100 kg cow weight, weaning weight per calving interval, and weaning weight per cow exposed to breeding (n = 1,442). Fixed effects and their interactions were investigated included sire and dam breed of cow, sire breed of calf, cow age, year, calf gender, and weaning age as a linear covariate (calf traits at weaning). Direct and maternal additive genetic effects were random in models for calf traits; only direct additive effects were modeled for cow traits. Cows sired by Angus bulls from outside the research herd had calves that were heavier at birth and weaning and greater ADG, BCS, and hip height (P < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis for weaning weight, BCS, and ADG ranged from 1.3 to 13.2% for all pairs of breeds (P < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis for birth weight (3.2 to 8.2%) and hip height (2.3%) were significant for Romosinuano-Angus and Brahman-Angus. Heterosis for cow weight was 65 ± 8 kg for Brahman-Angus (P < 0.001), and estimates for other pairs of breeds were approximately one-half that value. Heterosis for weaning weight/100 kg cow weight was 3.4 ± 0.75 kg for Romosinuano-Angus. Heterosis estimates for weaning weight/calving interval (P < 0.001) ranged from 0.08 ± 0.01 to 0.12 ± 0.01. Heterosis for weaning weight

  15. Criollo cattle: Heritage genetics for arid landscapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty cows and three bulls from the Chinipas region in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, were introduced onto the US Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service’s Jornada Experimental Range (JER) in 2005. Since then behavioral research has revealed these cattle, most accurately referre...

  16. Jesuit Neo-Scholasticism and "Criollo" Consciousness in Sor Juana's "El martir del sacramento, San Hermenegildo"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Much of the limited scholarship dedicated to Sor Juana's "autos sacramentales" tends to separate them from the "loas" that were meant to introduce them. Critics often exalt the "loas" for the sympathy that they express for indigenous beliefs, while neglecting the "autos" or viewing them as masterful…

  17. Jesuit Neo-Scholasticism and "Criollo" Consciousness in Sor Juana's "El martir del sacramento, San Hermenegildo"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Much of the limited scholarship dedicated to Sor Juana's "autos sacramentales" tends to separate them from the "loas" that were meant to introduce them. Critics often exalt the "loas" for the sympathy that they express for indigenous beliefs, while neglecting the "autos" or viewing them as masterful…

  18. Use of a UAV-mounted video camera to assess feeding behavior of Raramuri Criollo cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interest in use of unmanned aerial vehicles in science has increased in recent years. It is predicted that they will be a preferred remote sensing platform for applications that inform sustainable rangeland management in the future. The objective of this study was to determine whether UAV video moni...

  19. Can foraging behavior of Criollo cattle help increase agricultural production and reduce environmental impacts in the arid Southwest?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Longterm Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR) was formed to help the nation’s agricultural systems simultaneously increase production and reduce environmental impacts. Eighteen networked sites are conducting a Common Experiment to understand the environmental and economic problems associated wi...

  20. Criollo, mestizo, mulato, LatiNegro, indígena, white, or black? The US Hispanic/Latino population and multiple responses in the 2000 census.

    PubMed

    Amaro, H; Zambrana, R E

    2000-11-01

    Current dialogues on changes in collecting race and ethnicity data have not considered the complexity of tabulating multiple race responses among Hispanics. Racial and ethnic identification--and its public reporting--among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States is embedded in dynamic social factors. Ignoring these factors leads to significant problems in interpreting data and understanding the relationship of race, ethnicity, and health among Hispanics/Latinos. In the flurry of activity to resolve challenges posed by multiple race responses, we must remember the larger issue that looms in the foreground--the lack of adequate estimates of mortality and health conditions affecting Hispanics/Latinos. The implications are deemed important because Hispanics/Latinos will become the largest minority group in the United States within the next decade.

  1. Habitat use by Mexican criollo and British beef cattle breeds in arid-and semi-arid environments of New Mexico and Chihuahua

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background/Question/Methods Livestock grazing is the primary activity on rangelands that encompass nearly half of the Earth’s terrestrial surface and directly supports a quarter of the world’s population. With one person in t...

  2. Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas.

    PubMed

    Motamayor, J C; Risterucci, A M; Lopez, P A; Ortiz, C F; Moreno, A; Lanaud, C

    2002-11-01

    Criollo cacao (Theobroma cacao ssp. cacao) was cultivated by the Mayas over 1500 years ago. It has been suggested that Criollo cacao originated in Central America and that it evolved independently from the cacao populations in the Amazon basin. Cacao populations from the Amazon basin are included in the second morphogeographic group: Forastero, and assigned to T. cacao ssp. sphaerocarpum. To gain further insight into the origin and genetic basis of Criollo cacao from Central America, RFLP and microsatellite analyses were performed on a sample that avoided mixing pure Criollo individuals with individuals classified as Criollo but which might have been introgressed with Forastero genes. We distinguished these two types of individuals as Ancient and Modern Criollo. In contrast to previous studies, Ancient Criollo individuals formerly classified as 'wild', were found to form a closely related group together with Ancient Criollo individuals from South America. The Ancient Criollo trees were also closer to Colombian-Ecuadorian Forastero individuals than these Colombian-Ecuadorian trees were to other South American Forastero individuals. RFLP and microsatellite analyses revealed a high level of homozygosity and significantly low genetic diversity within the Ancient Criollo group. The results suggest that the Ancient Criollo individuals represent the original Criollo group. The results also implies that this group does not represent a separate subspecies and that it probably originated from a few individuals in South America that may have been spread by man within Central America.

  3. 16 de Septiembre, 1810 Module. Secondary Level. [16 of September, 1810 Module. Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal City Independent School District, TX.

    Independence for Mexico took 11 years to achieve. Before its independence Mexico was ruled by Spain and had a basic caste system of indios, mestizos, criollos, and gachupines. The gachupines and criollos ruled the government and exploited the indios and mestizos. When the criollos became dissatisfied with being secondary to the gachupines, they…

  4. Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in cattle and other food animals [Spanish][Epidemiología molecular de cryptosporidiosis en el ganado vacuno y en otros animales de abasto

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in cattle and other food animals Cryptosporidium is an enteric protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Cryptosporidial infection is known now as one of the most common causes of diarrhea in humans and livestock. Worldwide prevale...

  5. The legacy of Columbus in American horse populations assessed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Cortés, O; Dunner, S; Gama, L T; Martínez, A M; Delgado, J V; Ginja, C; Jiménez, L M; Jordana, J; Luis, C; Oom, M M; Sponenberg, D P; Zaragoza, P; Vega-Pla, J L

    2017-08-01

    Criollo horse populations descend from horses brought from the Iberian Peninsula over the period of colonization (15th to 17th century). They are spread throughout the Americas and have potentially undergone genetic hybridization with other breeds in the recent past. In this study, 25 autosomal microsatellites were genotyped in 50 horse breeds representing Criollo populations from 12 American countries (27 breeds), breeds from the Iberian Peninsula (19), one breed each from France and Morocco and two cosmopolitan horse breeds (Thoroughbred and Arabian). The genetic relationships among breeds identified five clusters: Celtic; Iberian; North American with Thoroughbred influence; most Colombian breeds; and nearly all other Criollo breeds. The group of "all other Criollo breeds" had the closest genetic relationship with breeds originating from the Iberian Peninsula, specifically with the Celtic group. For the whole set of Criollo breeds analysed, the estimated genetic contribution from other breeds was approximately 50%, 30% and 20% for the Celtic, Iberian and Arab-Thoroughbred groups, respectively. The spatial distribution of genetic diversity indicates that hotspots of genetic diversity are observed in populations from Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil, Paraguay and western United States, possibly indicating points of arrival and dispersion of Criollo horses in the American continent. These results indicate that Criollo breeds share a common ancestry, but that each breed has its own identity. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. The GLAD Project: Energizing Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund A.

    Recognizing the utility and limitations of traditional curriculum and of present language programming for its mostly Navajo population, the Ganado Public School District developed the GLAD (Ganado Language Arts Development) project, which aims to: develop literacy in kindergarten through third grade students; expand and enrich the pedagogical…

  7. The GLAD Project Evaluation Summary: 1994 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund A.

    This report evaluates the Ganado Learning Arts Development Project (GLAD), a program implemented at the Ganado Primary School in Arizona. The school serves K-2 students from the Navajo reservation and emphasizes integration of traditional Navajo teachings and culture with Western knowledge. The report covers the following data: (1) student average…

  8. Landscape distribution of desert cattle: effects of diet and vegetation type

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Livestock with heritage genetics may increase chances for simultaneously achieving conservation and agricultural production goals in the American Southwest. Past research shows that compared with conventional Angus x Hereford crossbreds (AH), heritage Raramuri Criollo (RC) typically distribute thems...

  9. Index of Stations - Surface-Water Data-Collection Network of Texas, September 1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Tex. 29°03󈧻" 96°40󈧞" DQp San Antonio 08164450 Sandy Creek near Ganado , Tex. 29°09󈧨" 96°32󈧲" DQp San Antonio Mustang Creek: 08164503 West...Mustang Creek near Ganado , Tex. 29°04󈧕" 96°28󈧅" DQp San Antonio 08164504 East Mustang Creek at Farm Road 647 near Ganado , Tex. 29°04󈧒" 96°25󈧅" DQp

  10. Arizona TeleMedicine Network: Segment Specifications--Tuba City via Mt. Elden, Phoenix; Keams Canyon, Second Mesa, Low Mountain; Phoenix, San Carlos, Bylas; Keams Canyon via Ganado Mesa, Ft. Defiance; Tuba City via Black Mesa, Ft. Defiance; and Budgetary Cost Information--Pinal Peak via San Xavier, Tucson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlantic Research Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    The communication links of five different segments of the Arizona TeleMedicine Network (a telecommunication system designed to provide health services for American Indians in rurally isolated areas) and budgetary cost information for Pinal Peak via San Xavier and Tucson are described in this document. The five communication links are identified…

  11. Conservation priorities of Iberoamerican pig breeds and their ancestors based on microsatellite information.

    PubMed

    Cortés, O; Martinez, A M; Cañon, J; Sevane, N; Gama, L T; Ginja, C; Landi, V; Zaragoza, P; Carolino, N; Vicente, A; Sponenberg, P; Delgado, J V

    2016-07-01

    Criollo pig breeds are descendants from pigs brought to the American continent starting with Columbus second trip in 1493. Pigs currently play a key role in social economy and community cultural identity in Latin America. The aim of this study was to establish conservation priorities among a comprehensive group of Criollo pig breeds based on a set of 24 microsatellite markers and using different criteria. Spain and Portugal pig breeds, wild boar populations of different European geographic origins and commercial pig breeds were included in the analysis as potential genetic influences in the development of Criollo pig breeds. Different methods, differing in the weight given to within- and between-breed genetic variability, were used in order to estimate the contribution of each breed to global genetic diversity. As expected, the partial contribution to total heterozygosity gave high priority to Criollo pig breeds, whereas Weitzman procedures prioritized Iberian Peninsula breeds. With the combined within- and between-breed approaches, different conservation priorities were achieved. The Core Set methodologies highly prioritized Criollo pig breeds (Cr. Boliviano, Cr. Pacifico, Cr. Cubano and Cr. Guadalupe). However, weighing the between- and within-breed components with FST and 1-FST, respectively, resulted in higher contributions of Iberian breeds. In spite of the different conservation priorities according to the methodology used, other factors in addition to genetic information also need to be considered in conservation programmes, such as the economic, cultural or historical value of the breeds involved.

  12. Conservation priorities of Iberoamerican pig breeds and their ancestors based on microsatellite information

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, O; Martinez, A M; Cañon, J; Sevane, N; Gama, L T; Ginja, C; Landi, V; Zaragoza, P; Carolino, N; Vicente, A; Sponenberg, P; Delgado, J V

    2016-01-01

    Criollo pig breeds are descendants from pigs brought to the American continent starting with Columbus second trip in 1493. Pigs currently play a key role in social economy and community cultural identity in Latin America. The aim of this study was to establish conservation priorities among a comprehensive group of Criollo pig breeds based on a set of 24 microsatellite markers and using different criteria. Spain and Portugal pig breeds, wild boar populations of different European geographic origins and commercial pig breeds were included in the analysis as potential genetic influences in the development of Criollo pig breeds. Different methods, differing in the weight given to within- and between-breed genetic variability, were used in order to estimate the contribution of each breed to global genetic diversity. As expected, the partial contribution to total heterozygosity gave high priority to Criollo pig breeds, whereas Weitzman procedures prioritized Iberian Peninsula breeds. With the combined within- and between-breed approaches, different conservation priorities were achieved. The Core Set methodologies highly prioritized Criollo pig breeds (Cr. Boliviano, Cr. Pacifico, Cr. Cubano and Cr. Guadalupe). However, weighing the between- and within-breed components with FST and 1-FST, respectively, resulted in higher contributions of Iberian breeds. In spite of the different conservation priorities according to the methodology used, other factors in addition to genetic information also need to be considered in conservation programmes, such as the economic, cultural or historical value of the breeds involved. PMID:27025169

  13. Supporting Emergent Literacy Is Everyone's Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund A.; Muri, Donna H.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the reading program at Ganado Primary School (selected as exemplary at the 1993 annual International Reading Association convention), part of a schoolwide literate environment that encourages children to become self-actualizing and self-assured learners. (SR)

  14. Completing the Circle: Nursing Education in the Navajo Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upvall, Michele J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the baccalaureate nursing program for Native Americans in Ganado, Arizona. Closed in 1951, it is reopening with an emphasis on community health. The program, run by Northern Arizona University, is the first school of nursing for Native Americans. (JOW)

  15. FNF Construction, Inc. General Air Quality Permit in Indian Country

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents related to the FNF Construction, Inc. Request for Coverage under the General Air Quality Permit for New or Modified Minor Source Hot Mix Asphalt Plants in Indian Country to be Located near Ganado, Arizona on the Navajo Nation.

  16. Manuel Gonzalez Prada and Rigoberta Menchu: Measuring "Indigenismo" through Indigenous Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about "indianismo" and "indigenismo" and their literary and social meaning, but rarely have these two "criollo" movements been positioned face to face with actual Indigenous expression. This article attempts a preliminary pass at just such an approach by comparing four indigenous themes…

  17. In Pursuit of the "Faerie Folk": Identity, Self-Determination, and Multiculturalism in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul; Lee, Dayna Bowker

    2009-01-01

    What is "Creole"? The textbook answer is that the word derives from the Portuguese "crioulo" or Spanish "criollo," from the verb "to create." The term developed out of the colonial experience, and was used as a way to identify those people and things born in the New World from Old World stock. Hence, second generation French or Spanish colonial…

  18. The identification of a putative mutation for SLICK hair coat in Senepol cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted, Criollo-derived cattle breeds. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-tolerance and subsequent increased productivity. The goal of thi...

  19. Integrating genomics into an applied cacao breeding program.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Theobroma cacao L. is an understory tree from the Amazon basin whose beans are the basic component of cocoa and chocolate. Four main genetic groups of cacao are traditionally described: Criollo, Trinitario, and lower and upper Amazon Forastero. Production of cacao in tropical America has been severe...

  20. In Pursuit of the "Faerie Folk": Identity, Self-Determination, and Multiculturalism in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul; Lee, Dayna Bowker

    2009-01-01

    What is "Creole"? The textbook answer is that the word derives from the Portuguese "crioulo" or Spanish "criollo," from the verb "to create." The term developed out of the colonial experience, and was used as a way to identify those people and things born in the New World from Old World stock. Hence, second generation French or Spanish colonial…

  1. Evaluation of physiological and blood serum differences in heat tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle for determination of markers of sensitivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two Bos taurus breeds with known differences in heat tolerance were tested under controlled conditions to establish distinctive heat tolerance characteristics. Romosinuano (RO) is a tropically adapted, Criollo breed recognized for its heat tolerance. Nine Angus (304 ± 7 Kg BW; AG) and nine RO (285 ±...

  2. Foraging behavior of heritage versus recently introduced herbivores on desert landscapes of the American Southwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since the 1800s managed grasslands and shrublands of the arid American Southwest have been grazed predominantly by cattle originally bred for temperate climates in northern Europe. A heritage breed, the criollo cattle, has survived in northern Mexico for more than 400 years under desert-like conditi...

  3. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes accross warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production in the southeastern U.S. offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Other breeds, such as the Criollo breed Romosinuano, may provide similar adaptative characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate Romosinuano...

  4. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-t...

  5. El nombre 'Forastero' no más: A new protocol for meaningful cacao germplasm classification.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The title of this article (The name ‘Forastero’ no more) is to convey an attempt in this paper to try to convince the cacao scientific community not to use the term Forastero to identify cacao germplasm of non-Criollo origin. The term Forastero originated in Latin America to differentiate the intro...

  6. Analysis of Population Substructure in Two Sympatric Populations of Gran Chaco, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sevini, Federica; Yao, Daniele Yang; Lomartire, Laura; Barbieri, Annalaura; Vianello, Dario; Ferri, Gianmarco; Moretti, Edgardo; Dasso, Maria Cristina; Garagnani, Paolo; Pettener, Davide; Franceschi, Claudio; Luiselli, Donata; Franceschi, Zelda Alice

    2013-01-01

    Sub-population structure and intricate kinship dynamics might introduce biases in molecular anthropology studies and could invalidate the efforts to understand diseases in highly admixed populations. In order to clarify the previously observed distribution pattern and morbidity of Chagas disease in Gran Chaco, Argentina, we studied two populations (Wichí and Criollos) recruited following an innovative bio-cultural model considering their complex cultural interactions. By reconstructing the genetic background and the structure of these two culturally different populations, the pattern of admixture, the correspondence between genealogical and genetic relationships, this integrated perspective had the power to validate data and to link the gap usually relying on a singular discipline. Although Wichí and Criollos share the same area, these sympatric populations are differentiated from the genetic point of view as revealed by Non Recombinant Y Chromosome genotyping resulting in significantly high Fst values and in a lower genetic variability in the Wichí population. Surprisingly, the Amerindian and the European components emerged with comparable amounts (20%) among Criollos and Wichí respectively. The detailed analysis of mitochondrial DNA showed that the two populations have as much as 87% of private haplotypes. Moreover, from the maternal perspective, despite a common Amerindian origin, an Andean and an Amazonian component emerged in Criollos and in Wichí respectively. Our approach allowed us to highlight that quite frequently there is a discrepancy between self-reported and genetic kinship. Indeed, if self-reported identity and kinship are usually utilized in population genetics as a reliable proxy for genetic identity and parental relationship, in our model populations appear to be the result not only and not simply of the genetic background but also of complex cultural determinants. This integrated approach paves the way to a rigorous reconstruction of

  7. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 1998

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Ganado 160 U T A H A R I Z O N A C O...111°30’ 111° 30’ 110° 109°30’ 30’ 36° 35°30’ Ganado Keams CanyonHopi HighSchool Rough Rock U T A H A R I Z O N A C O C O N IN O C O . N A V A JO C O...8217 110° 109°30’ 30’ 36° 35°30’ Chinle Ganado Kykotsmovi Keams Canyon Rough Rock U T A H A R I Z O N A C O C O N IN O C O . N A V A JO C O . C hinle V

  8. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona--2001-02

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Ganado C O C O...Shonto Kayenta Page 37° 111°30’ 111° 30’ 110° 109°30’ 30’ 36° 35°30’ Ganado Keams CanyonHopi HighSchool Rough Rock U T A H A R I Z O N A C O C O N IN O...bi ai O r Mo koen pi sha W La C W ash h i e nl guna Cre ek Shonto Kayenta Page 37° 111°30’ 111° 30’ 110° 109°30’ 30’ 36° 35°30’ Chinle Ganado

  9. Developing an Effective School Budget in the Reservation School: PPBS and the School Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund A.; Loganbill, Judith

    Having a sound budget based on an effective school philosophy is one way to provide for quality programming in reservation schools. The Ganado Unified School District, located on the Arizona part of the Navajo Reservation, attempted to decentralize the budget-making process and to study whether the current budget effectively supported the school's…

  10. The Career Ladder Program as a Catalyst for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stropko, Susan; And Others

    This report describes the Career Ladder Program at Ganado Unified School District 20, which serves approximately 2,000 students in grades K-12 in the Navajo Nation in rural northeastern Arizona. A committee of teachers and principals developed a model that influenced the evolution of the district and school system from conventional management to a…

  11. The Sun is Shining in my Eyes: The Navajo Child Enters Kindergarten Expecting to Write and He Can.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund A.; Jenness, Diana

    The Ganado (Arizona) Primary School, located on the Navajo Reservation, instituted a successful English writing project for kindergarten children that illustrated that young children should be allowed and expected to develop as writers because they are capable of real writing. Teachers encouraged children to complete drawings and writings in…

  12. The Navajo Way: Arizona's Tale of Two CTE Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfman, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Arizona has begun an organized effort at career planning designed to create graduates who know who they are, know where they are going and know how they are going to get there. The Navajos are well on their way to achieving these kinds of student outcomes. This article focuses on two Navajo schools: Ganado High School, a comprehensive high school…

  13. Combating Student Absenteeism: Strategies for Raising Attendance and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund A.; Lincoln, Dorothea C.

    Ganado Primary School on the Navajo Reservation has formulated and implemented an attendance improvement plan which has provided encouraging results. Formulation and implementation of the attendance improvement plan were initiated after reviewing the 1980 attendance registers which indicated the average length of enrollment had been 169 days with…

  14. The possible dream: the Navajo Nation Health Foundation.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E

    1979-10-16

    The dream of high-quality health care for the Navajo began in Ganado, AZ, some 70 years ago. Now it has gone a step further through the work of the only hospital and clinic system in the United States that is owned and operated by American Indians.

  15. Revitalizing Hispanic and Native American Communities: Four Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Paul; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes locally controlled economic development strategies used by Native American and Hispanic cooperatives and organizations: Ganados del Valle, Madera Forest Products Association, Seventh Generation Fund, and Ramah Navajo Weavers Association. Discusses the issues of cultural and economic survival in isolated rural communities. (SV)

  16. Apologize or Analyze: Measuring Academic Achievement in the Reservation School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund A.; Varrati, Richard

    1983-01-01

    A 1982 study of students at Ganado schools (Navajo reservation) showed students with higher achievement test scores were those who had consistently remained within the district and had best attendance averages; this enabled administrators to develop public relations programs stressing school quality and need for stability and regular attendance.…

  17. A Study of Parental Attitudes and Values Towards Education on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations. Part II, Parental Attitudes [Kayenta].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglin, J. E.; And Others

    Objectives of this study were (1) to determine the parental attitudes of those parents who reside in the Chinle, Keams Canyon, Kayenta, Ganado, Window Rock, or Tuba City school district toward public education on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in the areas of teachers, curriculum, social behaviors of children, school services, school policies,…

  18. Just Beyond Your Fingertips: American Indian Children Participating in Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund; And Others

    This publication describes the development, implementation, and success of the Ganado Language Arts Development (GLAD) Project on the Navajo reservation in northeastern Arizona which develops the foundation for literacy in each student, expands and enriches pedogogical competencies of staff in teaching language arts, and develops/strenghtens…

  19. A Study of Parental Attitudes and Values Towards Education on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations. Part II, Parental Attitudes [Keams Canyon].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglin, J. E.; And Others

    Objectives of this study were (1) to determine the parental attitudes of those parents who reside in the Chinle, Keams Canyon, Kayenta, Ganado, Window Rock, or Tuba City school district toward public education on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in the areas of teachers, curriculum, social behaviors of children, school services, school policies,…

  20. A Study of Parental Attitudes and Values Towards Education on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations. Part II, Parental Attitudes [Window Rock].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglin, J. E.; And Others

    Objectives of this study were (1) to determine the parental attitudes of those parents who reside in the Chinle, Keams Canyon, Kayenta, Ganado, Window Rock, or Tuba City school district toward public education on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in the areas of teachers, curriculum, social behaviors of children, school services, school policies,…

  1. Making a Difference in Children's Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund

    1995-01-01

    The principal of Ganado Primary School on the Navajo Reservation relates his educational experience as the child of Polish immigrants to stress the important role of teachers in the intellectual and spiritual development of children. Through his poetry, the principal illustrates the relationship between teachers and students and how teachers can…

  2. A Study of Parental Attitudes and Values Towards Education on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations. Part II, Parental Attitudes [Tuba City].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglin, J. E.; And Others

    Objectives of this study were (1) to determine the parental attitudes of those parents who reside in the Chinle, Keams Canyon, Kayenta, Ganado, Window Rock, or Tuba City school district toward public education on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in the areas of teachers, curriculum, social behaviors of children, school services, school policies,…

  3. Apologize or Analyze: Measuring Academic Achievement in the Reservation School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund A.; Varrati, Richard

    Three variables--student attendance, stability of enrollment, and socioeconomic status--can affect reservation students' performance on standardized tests as significantly as the quality of instruction. To test the impact of the three variables on academic achievement, the Ganado (Arizona) Unified School District No. 20 analyzed available…

  4. A Study of Parental Attitudes and Values Towards Education on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations. Part II, Parental Attitudes [Chinle].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglin, J. E.; And Others

    Objectives of this study were (1) to determine the parental attitudes of those parents who reside in the Chinle, Keams Canyon, Kayenta, Ganado, Window Rock, or Tuba City school district toward public education on the Navajo and Hopi reservations in the areas of teachers, curriculum, social behaviors of children, school services, school policies,…

  5. The Sun is Shining in My Eyes: The Navajo Child Enters Kindergarten Expecting to Write and He Can.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund A.; Jenness, Diana

    1984-01-01

    Describes a successful English writing program for Navajo kindergarten children in Ganado Primary School (Arizona), which encourages children to draw and write in journals. Indicates that many Navajo students enter school with the capacity to move directly into daily writing and have already formed strong concepts about written language. (MH)

  6. Language Energized, Participation Maximized: The Growth of a Writing Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund A.; Loughrin, Patricia L.

    First implemented in 1980, the Ganado Language Arts Development (GLAD) Project is a kindergarten through grade 3 writing program that has published 31 volumes of student writing. Three primary goals guide the project: (1) to develop the foundation for literacy in each of its students, (2) to expand and enrich the pedagogical competencies of each…

  7. Combating Student Absenteeism: Strategies for Raising Attendance and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund A.; Lincoln, Dorothea C.

    1983-01-01

    Ganado Primary School located on the Navajo Reservation--in its attempt to decrease absenteeism--has formulated and implemented an attendance improvement plan which has provided encouraging results show positive implications for its adaptation into similar programing in other schools. (ERB)

  8. When You Don't Know What's Important: Revitalizing Decision-Making in the Native American School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund A.; Brutz, Ronald A.

    In the Ganado Public School District (K-12, 1,650 students), in the northeast corner of the Navajo Reservation, an administrative retreat structure has been used for 4 years to promote the team management concept and maintain the District's formal direction. Building from a comprehensive needs assessment by and for the District's Navajo…

  9. THE USE OF TOYS IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANGDON, GRACE; STOUT, IRVING W.

    A STUDY WAS MADE OVER A 4-YEAR PERIOD WITH 478 NONENGLISH SPEAKING CHILDREN, BOYS AND GIRLS, AGES 5-13, OF NAVAJO INDIAN BACKGROUND, IN GANADO PUBLIC SCHOOL, ARIZONA. TOYS FOR THE PROJECT BY THE 72 PARTICIPATING TOY MANUFACTURERS. FINDINGS INDICATE THAT WHILE THE USE OF TOYS CAN NOT BE CONSIDERED A PANACEA FOR ALL TEACHING ILLS, THEIR USE IN…

  10. Distribution and persistence of sterile screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae) released at the Panama-Colombia border

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sterile insect technique is currently used by the Comisión Panamá - Estados Unidos para la Erradicación y Prevención del Gusano Barrenador del Ganado (COPEG) to maintain a barrier at the border between Panama and Colombia that prevents screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), from South A...

  11. Restructuring Partnership--Central Office and School Site Collaboration for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stropko, Susan; And Others

    Located within the Navajo Nation, Ganado Public Schools are committed to improving educational services through a long-term district restructuring process. This process involves: (1) strategic planning and envisioning sessions that generate concrete details of future schools; (2) reorganization of personnel to support curriculum development and…

  12. Walking on Sacred Ground: A Navajo School-within-a-School Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloz, Sigmund A.; Blessing, Christian

    Teachers at the Ganado Primary School in rural Arizona established an instructional team to form a "School-within-a-School" (SWAS). The school is located on the Navajo reservation and serves 450 K-2 students who are predominately "at risk" and limited-English-proficient. Over a period of 8 months, the faculty researched and…

  13. Revitalizing Hispanic and Native American Communities: Four Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Paul; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes locally controlled economic development strategies used by Native American and Hispanic cooperatives and organizations: Ganados del Valle, Madera Forest Products Association, Seventh Generation Fund, and Ramah Navajo Weavers Association. Discusses the issues of cultural and economic survival in isolated rural communities. (SV)

  14. Ethnoastronomy in the Multicultural Context of the Agricultural Colonies in Northern Santa Fe Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrik, Armando

    In this paper, we present a study about cultural astronomy among European colonists and their Argentinean descendants, in the context of a complex interaction between criollos, aboriginals and European colonists from different origins and religions, who settled in the northern area of the Argentinean province of Santa Fe, which is part of the southern Gran Chaco. These colonists arrived among waves of immigration occurring in Argentina in the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. Through ethnographic field research among these immigrants and their descendants, we carried out a survey of their astronomical representations and practices, and the connections of these with their social life and farming tasks. Through this we gained an insight as to how the astronomical ideas of immigrants, criollos and aboriginal groups influenced each other, generating a variety of new relations with the celestial realm.

  15. 31 CFR Appendix B to Chapter V - Alphabetical Listing of Vessels That Are the Property of Blocked Persons or Specially Designated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigation Corp., Panama CRIOLLO CUBA Cuba Tug NA 181 CL2257 Samir de Navegacion S.A. DAMASCUS IRAQ Iraq Tug... State Org. of Iraqi Ports fka ALKADISIYAH MAR AZUL CUBA Cuba Tug NA 212 CL2192 Samir de Navegacion S.A... PAMIT C THEEQAR IRAQ Iraq Tug 220 YIAC State Org. of Iraqi Ports TIFON CUBA Cuba Tug NA 164 CL2059 Samir...

  16. Isolation and partial characterization of mango (Magnifera indica L.) starch: morphological, physicochemical and functional studies.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Aparicio-Saguilán, A; Méndez-Montealvo, G; Solorza-Feria, J; Flores-Huicochea, E

    2005-03-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. The aim of this work was to isolate the starch from two varieties of mango highly consumed in Mexico ("criollo" and "manila"), and to evaluate its chemical composition, along with some morphological, physicochemical and functional properties. Mango starch had an amylose content of about 13%, the fat content of "criollo" variety starch (0.1-0.12%), was similar to that of commercial corn starch used as control (0.2%); both mango starches had higher ash amount (0.2-0.4%) than corn starch. Mango starches presented a smaller granule size (10 microm) than corn starch (15 microm), along with an A-type X-ray diffraction pattern with slight tendency to a C-type. All values of water retention capacity (WRC) increased with the temperature. When the temperature increased, solubility and swelling values increased and in general, mango starches had higher values than corn starch. Both mango starches had gelatinization temperatures lower than the control, but "criollo" variety starch presented higher enthalpy values than "manila" variety and corn starches. Overall, it was concluded that due to its morphological, physicochemical and functional properties, mango starches could be a feasible starch source with adequate properties, suitable for using in the food industry.

  17. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona-1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Ganado 160 U T A H A R I Z O N A C O C O N IN O C O . N A V A JO C O . C hinle V al ley E c h o C lif fs Navajo Creek Little C...111°30’ 111° 30’ 110° 109°30’ 30’ 36° 35°30’ Ganado Keams CanyonHopi HighSchool Rough Rock U T A H A R I Z O N A C O C O N IN O C O . N A V A JO C...connected.Hydrologic Data 11 Shonto Kayenta Page 37° 111°30’ 111° 30’ 110° 109°30’ 30’ 36° 35°30’ Chinle

  18. The genome sequence of the most widely cultivated cacao type and its use to identify candidate genes regulating pod color.

    PubMed

    Motamayor, Juan C; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Schmutz, Jeremy; Haiminen, Niina; Livingstone, Donald; Cornejo, Omar; Findley, Seth D; Zheng, Ping; Utro, Filippo; Royaert, Stefan; Saski, Christopher; Jenkins, Jerry; Podicheti, Ram; Zhao, Meixia; Scheffler, Brian E; Stack, Joseph C; Feltus, Frank A; Mustiga, Guiliana M; Amores, Freddy; Phillips, Wilbert; Marelli, Jean Philippe; May, Gregory D; Shapiro, Howard; Ma, Jianxin; Bustamante, Carlos D; Schnell, Raymond J; Main, Dorrie; Gilbert, Don; Parida, Laxmi; Kuhn, David N

    2013-06-03

    Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6 belongs to the most cultivated cacao type. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders. We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6. The genome of the Matina 1-6 cultivar is 445 Mbp, which is significantly larger than a sequenced Criollo cultivar, and more typical of other cultivars. The chromosome-scale assembly, version 1.1, contains 711 scaffolds covering 346.0 Mbp, with a contig N50 of 84.4 kbp, a scaffold N50 of 34.4 Mbp, and an evidence-based gene set of 29,408 loci. Version 1.1 has 10x the scaffold N50 and 4x the contig N50 as Criollo, and includes 111 Mb more anchored sequence. The version 1.1 assembly has 4.4% gap sequence, while Criollo has 10.9%. Through a combination of haplotype, association mapping and gene expression analyses, we leverage this robust reference genome to identify a promising candidate gene responsible for pod color variation. We demonstrate that green/red pod color in cacao is likely regulated by the R2R3 MYB transcription factor TcMYB113, homologs of which determine pigmentation in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Brassicaceae. One SNP within the target site for a highly conserved trans-acting siRNA in dicots, found within TcMYB113, seems to affect transcript levels of this gene and therefore pod color variation. We report a high-quality sequence and annotation of Theobroma cacao L. and demonstrate its utility in identifying candidate genes regulating traits.

  19. The genome sequence of the most widely cultivated cacao type and its use to identify candidate genes regulating pod color

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6 belongs to the most cultivated cacao type. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders. Results We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6. The genome of the Matina 1-6 cultivar is 445 Mbp, which is significantly larger than a sequenced Criollo cultivar, and more typical of other cultivars. The chromosome-scale assembly, version 1.1, contains 711 scaffolds covering 346.0 Mbp, with a contig N50 of 84.4 kbp, a scaffold N50 of 34.4 Mbp, and an evidence-based gene set of 29,408 loci. Version 1.1 has 10x the scaffold N50 and 4x the contig N50 as Criollo, and includes 111 Mb more anchored sequence. The version 1.1 assembly has 4.4% gap sequence, while Criollo has 10.9%. Through a combination of haplotype, association mapping and gene expression analyses, we leverage this robust reference genome to identify a promising candidate gene responsible for pod color variation. We demonstrate that green/red pod color in cacao is likely regulated by the R2R3 MYB transcription factor TcMYB113, homologs of which determine pigmentation in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Brassicaceae. One SNP within the target site for a highly conserved trans-acting siRNA in dicots, found within TcMYB113, seems to affect transcript levels of this gene and therefore pod color variation. Conclusions We report a high-quality sequence and annotation of Theobroma cacao L. and demonstrate its utility in identifying candidate genes regulating traits. PMID:23731509

  20. 1H NMR study of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    PubMed

    Caligiani, Augusta; Acquotti, Domenico; Cirlini, Martina; Palla, Gerardo

    2010-12-08

    This study reports for the first time the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans using the (1)H NMR technique applied to polar extracts of fermented cocoa beans. The simultaneous detection and quantification of amino acids, polyalcohols, organic acids, sugars, methylxanthines, catechins, and phenols were obtained by assigning the major signals of the spectra for different varieties of cocoa beans (Forastero, Criollo, and Trinitario) from different countries (Ecuador, Ghana, Grenada, and Trinidad). The data set obtained, representative of all classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was useful to characterize the fermented cocoa beans as a function of the variety and geographic origin.

  1. Propagation and conservation of native forest genetic resources of medicinal use by means of in vitro and ex vitro techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharry, Sandra; Adema, Marina; Basiglio Cordal, María A; Villarreal, Blanca; Nikoloff, Noelia; Briones, Valentina; Abedini, Walter

    2011-07-01

    In Argentina, there are numerous native species which are an important source of natural products and which are traditionally used in medicinal applications. Some of these species are going through an intense extraction process in their natural habitat which may affect their genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to establish vegetative propagation systems for three native forestal species of medicinal interest. This will allow the rapid obtainment of plants to preserve the germplasm. This study included the following species which are widely used in folk medicine and its applications: Erythrina crista-galli or "seibo" (astringent, used for its cicatrizant properties and for bronchiolitic problems); Acacia caven or "espinillo" (antirheumatic, digestive, diuretic and with cicatrizant properties) and Salix humboldtiana or "sauce criollo" (antipyretic, sedative, antispasmodic, astringent). The methodology included the micropropagation of seibo, macro and micropropagation of Salix humboldtiana and the somatic embryogenesis of Acacia caven. The protocol for seibo regeneration was adjusted from nodal sections of seedlings which were obtained from seeds germinated in vitro. The macropropagation through rooted cuttings of "sauce criollo" was achieved and complete plants of this same species were obtained through both direct and indirect organogenesis using in vitro cultures. The somatic embryogenesis for Acacia caven was optimized and this led to obtain a high percentage of embryos in different stages of development. We are able to support the conservation of native forest resources of medicinal use by means of vegetative propagation techniques.

  2. Effect of Resin Ducts and Sap Content on Infestation and Development of Immature Stages of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Four Mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Larissa; Adaime, Ricardo; Birke, Andrea; Velázquez, Olinda; Angeles, Guillermo; Ortega, Fernando; Ruíz, Eliel; Aluja, Martín

    2017-01-10

    We determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (Criollo, Manila, Ataulfo, and Tommy Atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in Mexico: Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). We performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) assessment of mango physicochemical features including fruit sap content, and 3) a forced infestation trial under field conditions using enclosed fruit-bearing branches to expose mangoes to gravid A. ludens or A. obliqua females. Infestation rates, development time from egg to prepupae and pupae, pupal weight, and percent of adult emergence, were assessed. 'Ataulfo' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars exhibited the highest resin duct density and sap content, the lowest infestation rate, and had a negative effect on immature development and pupal weight. In sharp contrast, 'Manila' and 'Criollo' cultivars, with the lowest resin duct density and sap content, were highly susceptible to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. We conclude that sap content and the number, size, and distribution of resin ducts as well as firmness in mango fruit exocarp are all involved in the resistance of mango to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack.

  3. [Tannins, phytic phosphorus, phytase activity in the seed of 12 sorghum grain hybrids (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench)].

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Alvaro; Frías, Amarayma; González, Rafael; Linares, Zoraida; Pizzani, Pablo

    2010-03-01

    In order to evaluate the variability in concentration of secondary metabolites among grains from different sorghum hybrids (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) and provide some information for rational use in animal feeds, grain samples were collected from 12 hybrids (Criollo 1, Criollo 27, Chaguaramas III, Chaguaramas VII, Cristiani Burkard H-8046-2, Guanipa 95, Himeca 101, Himeca 400, Pioneer 81-G67, Pioneer 83-G88, Pioneer 86-P42 y Tecsem 120) sowed on 2008 in the Turén municipality, Portuguesa State-Venezuela. Using standardized analytical methods, hybrids showed polyphenolics compounds contents (0.92 +/- 0.37% TaE), total (0.61 +/- 0.29% TaE) and condensed tannins (0.95 +/- 0.65% LeuE), phytic phosphorus (0.17 +/- 0.03%) and intrinsic phytase activity (12.3 +/- 6.74 U/kg) in the ranges described in the literature, with an important variation among hybrids that must be considered for their inclusion levels in the formulation of balanced feeds, as well as plant breeding programs.

  4. Food Fingerprinting: Characterization of the Ecuadorean Type CCN-51 of Theobroma cacao L. Using Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Luise; Felbinger, Christine; Haase, Ilka; Rudolph, Barbara; Biermann, Bernhard; Fischer, Markus

    2015-05-13

    The cocoa type "Colección Castro Naranjal 51" (CCN-51) is known for its resistance to specific climate conditions and its high yield, but it shows a weaker flavor profile and therefore is marketed as bulk cocoa. In a previous study, the two cocoa types Arriba and CCN-51 could easily be distinguished, but differences among the CCN-51 samples were observed. This was unexpected, as CCN-51 is reported to be a clone. To confirm whether CCN-51 is a pure clone, 10 simple sequence repeats (SSR) located on the nuclear genome were used to analyze various CCN-51 samples in comparison to the cocoa varieties Arriba and Criollo. As expected, there are differences in the SSR pattern among CCN-51, Arriba, and Criollo, but a variability within the CCN-51 sample set was detected as well. The previously described sequence variation in the chloroplast genome was confirmed by a variability in the microsatellite loci of the nuclear genome for a comprehensive cultivar collection of CCN-51 of both bean and leaf samples. In summary, beneath somaclonal variation, misidentification of plant collections and also sexual reproduction of CCN-51 can be suggested.

  5. [Pharmacoeconomic study of the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Vivancos-Matellano, F; Garcia-Ruiz, A J; Garcia-Agua Soler, N

    2016-12-16

    Introduccion. Cuando el tratamiento farmacologico oral o transdermico de la enfermedad de Parkinson pierde eficacia, se dispone de tres terapias mediante dispositivos asistidos que pueden reducir las complicaciones motoras y no motoras: la apomorfina en infusion subcutanea (ASBI), la bomba de infusion duodenal continua de levodopa/carbidopa (IDL) y la estimulacion cerebral profunda (ECP). Objetivo. Efectuar un analisis farmacoeconomico comparativo del uso de ASBI con IDL y ECP; como objetivo secundario, discutir el perfil del candidato ideal para cada una de las tecnicas. Pacientes y metodos. Se extrajo informacion sobre datos de años de vida ganados y años de vida ganados ajustados por calidad (AVAC) segun la escala de Hoehn y Yahr, e informacion sobre costes y consumo de recursos para cada alternativa. La perspectiva del analisis fue la del Sistema Nacional de Salud, y el horizonte temporal fue de cinco años para los costes y toda la vida del paciente para las utilidades. Las medidas de resultado utilizadas fueron los años de vida ganados y AVAC, y en su comparacion se uso la ratio coste-utilidad incremental. Resultados. El coste-utilidad obtenido para cada opcion fue: 31.956 euros/AVAC para la ECP, 38.249 euros/AVAC para la ASBI y 75.206 euros/AVAC para la IDL. Conclusiones. Los resultados permiten evaluar la efectividad y utilidad de los diferentes tratamientos para la enfermedad de Parkinson avanzada, pues se presentan en ganancias de años vividos en plena salud. Los datos obtenidos contribuyen a la toma de decisiones que determinen la planificacion y gestion de cada caso, sin olvidar las preferencias del paciente y del neurologo, asi como las limitaciones presupuestarias.

  6. Growth response of maize plantlets inoculated with Enterobacter spp., as a model for alternative agriculture.

    PubMed

    Morales-García, Yolanda E; Juárez-Hernández, Dalia; Aragón-Hernández, Celia; Mascarua-Esparza, Miguel A; Bustillos-Cristales, María R; Fuentes-Ramírez, Luis E; Martinez-Contreras, Rebeca D; Munoz-Rojas, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    A maize rhizosphere isolate was phenotypically and genotypically characterized and identified as Enterobacter spp. bacterium. Germinated seeds were inoculated, the plantlets were sown in vermiculite and in soil and grown under laboratory and field conditions, respectively. The adherence, colonization and plant growth promotion capability of Enterobacter sp. UAPS03001 was evaluated in "Rojo-Criollo" maize under laboratory conditions. Twenty days after inoculation, the treated plantlets showed larger biomass than non-inoculated ones. In field grown plants, the kernel biomass was also greater in inoculated than in non-inoculated plants. The inoculation of maize sprouts with plant growth- promoting bacteria before their sowing in the field would be an alternative practice for achieving successful yield in temporal agriculture.

  7. Effect of rootstock on mango fruit susceptibility to infestation by Anastrepha obliqua.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Luna, A; Rivera-Cabrera, F; Perez-Flores, L J; Diaz-Sobac, R

    2011-12-01

    The effect of the use of rootstock Criollo on the susceptibility of Manila mango fruit to infestation by Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) was determined in the present investigation. Growth, quality parameters (Soluble solids content (%), citric acid content (%), firmness, monoterpene volatiles (3-carene, limonene, alpha-pinene, and beta-myrcene), main flavonoids content (milligrams/100 g fresh pulp), and larvicidal activity of methanolic extracts, as well as the degree of infestation during preharvest development of the fruits were analyzed. The results indicated that the rootstock did not have any significant effect on growth, soluble solids content, or citric acid content; although it increased firmness as well as 3-carene levels and main flavonoids content, resulting in a greater resistance to infestation by A. obliqua. The obtained results support the use of this rootstock because of the beneficial effects observed on the resistance of mango fruit to infestation by this fruit fly.

  8. Honey-based mixtures used in home medicine by nonindigenous population of misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Monika; Zamudio, Fernando; Hilgert, Norma I

    2012-01-01

    Honey-based mixtures used in home medicine by nonindigenous population of Misiones, Argentina. Medicinal mixtures are an underinvestigated issue in ethnomedical literature concerning Misiones, one of the most bioculturally diverse province of Argentina. The new culturally sensitive politics of the Provincial Health System is a response to cultural practices based on the medicinal use of plant and animal products in the home medicine of the local population. Honey-based medicinal formulas were investigated through interviews with 39 farmers of mixed cultural (Criollos) and Polish origins in northern Misiones. Fifty plant species and 8 animal products are employed in honey-based medicines. Plants are the most dominant and variable elements of mixtures. Most of the mixtures are food medicines. The role of honey in more than 90% of formulas is perceived as therapeutic. The ecological distribution of taxa and the cultural aspects of mixtures are discussed, particularly the European and American influences that have shaped the character of multispecies medicinal recipes.

  9. Adding value to cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm information with domestication history and admixture mapping.

    PubMed

    Marcano, Maria; Pugh, Tatiana; Cros, Emile; Morales, Sonia; Portillo Páez, Elvis A; Courtois, Brigitte; Glaszmann, Jean Christophe; Engels, Jan M M; Phillips, Wilbert; Astorga, Carlos; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Fouet, Olivier; González, Ventura; Rosenberg, Kai; Vallat, Isabelle; Dagert, Manuel; Lanaud, Claire

    2007-03-01

    A sound understanding of crop history can provide the basis for deriving novel genetic information through admixture mapping. We confirmed this, by using characterization data from an international collection of cocoa, collected 25 years ago, and from a contemporary plantation. We focus on the trees derived from three centuries of admixture between Meso-American Criollo and South American Forastero genomes. In both cacao sets of individuals, linkage disequilibrium extended over long genetic distances along chromosome regions, as expected in populations derived from recent admixture. Based on loose genome scans, genomic regions involved in useful traits were identified. Fifteen genomic regions involved in seed and fruit weight variation were highlighted. They correspond to ten previously identified QTLs and five novel ones. Admixture mapping can help to add value to genetic resources and thus, help to encourage investment in their conservation.

  10. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle

    PubMed Central

    Huson, Heather J.; Kim, Eui-Soo; Godfrey, Robert W.; Olson, Timothy A.; McClure, Matthew C.; Chase, Chad C.; Rizzi, Rita; O'Brien, Ana M. P.; Van Tassell, Curt P.; Garcia, José F.; Sonstegard, Tad S.

    2014-01-01

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-tolerance and subsequent increased productivity. Previous studies localized the SLICK locus to a 4 cM region on chromosome (BTA) 20 and identified signatures of selection in this region derived from Senepol cattle. The current study compares three slick-haired Criollo-derived breeds including Senepol, Carora, and Romosinuano and three additional slick-haired cross-bred lineages to non-slick ancestral breeds. Genome-wide association (GWA), haplotype analysis, signatures of selection, runs of homozygosity (ROH), and identity by state (IBS) calculations were used to identify a 0.8 Mb (37.7–38.5 Mb) consensus region for the SLICK locus on BTA20 in which contains SKP2 and SPEF2 as possible candidate genes. Three specific haplotype patterns are identified in slick individuals, all with zero frequency in non-slick individuals. Admixture analysis identified common genetic patterns between the three slick breeds at the SLICK locus. Principal component analysis (PCA) and admixture results show Senepol and Romosinuano sharing a higher degree of genetic similarity to one another with a much lesser degree of similarity to Carora. Variation in GWA, haplotype analysis, and IBS calculations with accompanying population structure information supports potentially two mutations, one common to Senepol and Romosinuano and another in Carora, effecting genes contained within our refined location for the SLICK locus. PMID:24808908

  11. Improving resilience against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing kids during the dry season in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Jacobs, D E; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Sandoval-Castro, C; Cob-Galera, L; May-Martínez, M

    2006-01-30

    The objective was to determine the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of Criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections, when browsing native vegetation during the dry season in tropical Mexico. Thirty-three two-month-old Criollo kids, raised nematode free, were included at weaning in a 20-week trial. The kids were placed into four groups. Two groups of eight kids were offered 100g/day soybean and sorghum meal (26%:74% respectively fresh basis) (treated/supplemented (T-S) and infected/supplemented (I-S)). Two groups remained with no supplement for the duration of the trial (infected/non-supplemented (I-NS) (n=9) and treated/non-supplemented (T-NS) (n=8)). Kids in groups T-S and T-NS were drenched with 0.2mg of moxidectin/kg body weight orally (Cydectin, Fort Dodge) every 28 days. Groups I-S and I-NS were naturally infected with GIN. The animals browsed native vegetation for an average of 7h/day together with a herd of 120 naturally infected adult goats. Cumulative live weight gain (CLWG), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total plasma protein and plasma albumin were recorded every 14 days as measurements of resilience. Resistance parameters (faecal egg counts (FEC) and peripheral eosinophil counts (PEC)) were also measured. Bulk faecal cultures were made for each group every 28 days. Every month a new pair of initially worm-free tracer kids assessed the infectivity of the vegetation browsed by the animals. Tracer kids and faecal cultures showed that kids faced low mixed infections (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Oesophagostomum columbianum). Under conditions of scarce vegetation, such as those in the present study, supplemented groups (I-S and T-S) had higher growth rates compared to the non-supplemented groups independently of the control of GIN infection with anthelmintic (AH) treatment (P<0.001). Supplementary feeding did not affect FEC or PEC. In the absence of

  12. Evidence of a major gene influencing hair length and heat tolerance in Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    Olson, T A; Lucena, C; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C

    2003-01-01

    Evidence was found that supports the existence of a major gene (designated as the slick hair gene), dominant in mode of inheritance, that is responsible for producing a very short, sleek hair coat. Cattle with slick hair were observed to maintain lower rectal temperatures (RT). The gene is found in Senepol cattle and criollo (Spanish origin) breeds in Central and South America. This gene is also found in a Venezuelan composite breed, the Carora, formed from the Brown Swiss and a Venezuelan criollo breed. Two sets of backcross matings of normal-haired sire breeds to Senepol crossbred dams assumed to be heterozygous for the slick hair gene resulted in ratios of slick to normal-haired progeny that did not significantly differ from 1:1. Data from Carora x Holstein crossbred cows in Venezuela also support the concept of a major gene that is responsible for the slick hair coat of the Carora breed. Cows that were 75% Holstein: 25% Carora in breed composition segregated with a ratio that did not differ from 1:1, as would be expected from a backcross matinginvolving a dominant gene. The effect of the slick hair gene on RT depended on the degree of heat stress and appeared to be affected by age and/or lactation status. The decreased RT observed for slick-haired crossbred calves compared to normal-haired contemporaries ranged from 0.18 to 0.4 degrees C. An even larger decrease in RT (0.61 degrees C; P < 0.01) was observed in lactating Carora x Holstein F1 crossbred cows, even though it did not appear that these cows were under severe heat stress. The improved thermotolerance of crossbred calves due to their slick hair coats did not result in increased weaning weights, possibly because both the slick and normal-haired calves were being nursed by slick-haired dams. There were indications that the slick-haired calves grew faster immediately following weaning and that their growth during the cooler months of the year was not compromised significantly by their reduced quantity of

  13. A survey of DNA polymorphism within the genus Capsicum and the fingerprinting of pepper cultivars.

    PubMed

    Prince, J P; Lackney, V K; Angeles, C; Blauth, J R; Kyle, M M

    1995-04-01

    Interspecific genetic variation was examined in the genus Capsicum based on shared restriction fragments in Southern analyses. Four distinct clusters were delineated among 21 accessions of cultivated and wild pepper (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chacoense, C. chinense, and C. frutescens). Three tight clusters comprised of accessions belonging to C. annuum, C. frutescens, and C. baccatum, respectively, were formed, along with a fourth cluster comprised of one accession each of C. chinense and C. chacoense. All accessions were differentiated by this technique, and the clusters corresponded closely to previous morphology-based classification. Sufficient DNA polymorphism exists among these accessions that segregating populations useful for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) mapping could be constructed using any two pepper accessions as parents. Regression analysis indicates that genetic distance is a good predictor (R2 = 0.872) of the level of mappable DNA polymorphism in Capsicum. Intraspecific variability was examined among four C. annuum cultivars (NuMex R Naky, Jupiter, Perennial, and Criollo de Morelos 334) using both RFLPs and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), allowing a comparative evaluation of the two techniques. Seventeen percent of the clones used singly in RFLP analyses were sufficient for the differentiation of these varieties, as were 12.5% of the RAPD PCR amplifications. Dendrograms constructed from RFLP and RAPD analyses of the intraspecific data are similar but not identical. Southern analysis and RAPD PCR should be useful for DNA fingerprinting and the discrimination of closely related C. annuum genotypes.

  14. Interactions of Phytophthora capsici with Resistant and Susceptible Pepper Roots and Stems.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Amara R; Smart, Christine D

    2015-10-01

    Using host resistance is an important strategy for managing pepper root and crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. An isolate of P. capsici constitutively expressing a gene for green fluorescent protein was used to investigate pathogen interactions with roots, crowns, and stems of Phytophthora-susceptible bell pepper 'Red Knight', Phytophthora-resistant bell pepper 'Paladin', and Phytophthora-resistant landrace Criollos de Morelos 334 (CM-334). In this study, the same number of zoospores attached to and germinated on roots of all cultivars 30 and 120 min postinoculation (pi), respectively. At 3 days pi, significantly more secondary roots had necrotic lesions on Red Knight than on Paladin and CM-334 plants. By 4 days pi, necrotic lesions had formed on the taproot of Red Knight but not Paladin or CM-334 plants. Although hyphae were visible in the crowns and stems of all Red Knight plants observed at 4 days pi, hyphae were observed in crowns of only a few Paladin and in no CM-334 plants, and never in stems of either resistant cultivar at 4 days pi. These results improve our understanding of how P. capsici infects plants and may contribute to the use of resistant pepper cultivars for disease management and the development of new cultivars.

  15. Ancestral matrilineages and mitochondrial DNA diversity of the Lidia cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Cortés, O; Tupac-Yupanqui, I; Dunner, S; García-Atance, M A; García, D; Fernández, J; Cañón, J

    2008-12-01

    To clarify the genetic ancestry and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of the Lidia cattle breed, a 521-bp D-loop fragment was sequenced in 527 animals belonging to 70 herds distributed across 29 lineages. The mtDNA diversity recorded was similar to that seen for Middle Eastern breeds and greater than that recorded for the majority of European breeds. Haplotype T3 was the most common (81%), followed by the African T1 haplotype (17%); very low frequencies were recorded for haplotypes T and T2. The results agree with there being two major ancestral lines for the Lidia breed, European and African, similar to that seen for other Mediterranean breeds. A wide range of variation in haplotype frequencies was seen between the examined lineages. Haplotype T3 was present in all those analysed; in five it was the only one present, and in only one lineage (Miura) was its frequency lower than that of T1. T1*, a haplotype reported in Criollo breeds and to date in only a single European breed (the Retinta breed from Spain), was found in a single animal belonging to the Concha y Sierra lineage. Network analysis of the Lidia breed revealed the presence of two major haplotypes: T3 and T1. The Lidia breed appears to be more closely related to prehistoric Iberian and Italian than to British aurochs.

  16. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    PubMed

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper.

  17. Genetic diversity and differentiation of five Cuban cattle breeds using 30 microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Acosta, A C; Uffo, O; Sanz, A; Ronda, R; Osta, R; Rodellar, C; Martin-Burriel, I; Zaragoza, P

    2013-02-01

    Conservation and improvement strategies in farm animals should be based on a combination of genetic and phenotypic characteristics. Genotype data from 30 microsatellites were used to assess the genetic diversity and relationships among five Cuban cattle breeds (Siboney de Cuba, Criollo Cubano, Cebú Cubano, Mambí de Cuba and Taíno de Cuba). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.67 ± 0.02 in the Taíno de Cuba breed to 0.75 ± 0.02 in the Mambí de Cuba breed, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.66 ± 0.03 in the Cebú Cubano breed to 0.73 ± 0.02 in the Siboney de Cuba breed. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p < 0.01) based on the infinitesimal model (F(ST)). The exact test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within breeds showed a significant deviation in each breed (p < 0.0003) for one or more loci. The genetic distance and structure analysis showed that a significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle population and that all breeds studied could be considered genetically distinct. The Siboney de Cuba and Mambí de Cuba breeds seem to be the most genetically related among the studied five breeds. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Evolutionary process of Bos taurus cattle in favourable versus unfavourable environments and its implications for genetic selection

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Christopher J; Swain, David L; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that have enabled Bos taurus cattle to establish around the globe are at the core to the future success of livestock production. Our study focuses on the history of cattle domestication including the last 60 years of B. taurus breeding programmes in both favourable and unfavourable environments and its consequences on evolution and fitness of cattle. We discuss the emergence of ‘production diseases’ in temperate production systems and consider the evolutionary genetics of tropical adaptation in cattle and conclude that the Senepol, N'Dama, Adaptaur and Criollo breeds, among others with similar evolutionary trajectories, would possess genes capable of improving the productivity of cattle in challenging environments. Using our own experimental evidence from northern Australia, we review the evolution of the Adaptaur cattle breed which has become resistant to cattle tick. We emphasize that the knowledge of interactions between genotype, environment and management in the livestock systems will be required to generate genotypes for efficient livestock production that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. Livestock producers in the 21st century will have less reliance on infrastructure and veterinary products to alleviate environmental stress and more on the animal's ability to achieve fitness in a given production environment. PMID:25567936

  19. Honey-Based Mixtures Used in Home Medicine by Nonindigenous Population of Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Kujawska, Monika; Zamudio, Fernando; Hilgert, Norma I.

    2012-01-01

    Honey-based mixtures used in home medicine by nonindigenous population of Misiones, Argentina. Medicinal mixtures are an underinvestigated issue in ethnomedical literature concerning Misiones, one of the most bioculturally diverse province of Argentina. The new culturally sensitive politics of the Provincial Health System is a response to cultural practices based on the medicinal use of plant and animal products in the home medicine of the local population. Honey-based medicinal formulas were investigated through interviews with 39 farmers of mixed cultural (Criollos) and Polish origins in northern Misiones. Fifty plant species and 8 animal products are employed in honey-based medicines. Plants are the most dominant and variable elements of mixtures. Most of the mixtures are food medicines. The role of honey in more than 90% of formulas is perceived as therapeutic. The ecological distribution of taxa and the cultural aspects of mixtures are discussed, particularly the European and American influences that have shaped the character of multispecies medicinal recipes. PMID:22315632

  20. Evolutionary process of Bos taurus cattle in favourable versus unfavourable environments and its implications for genetic selection.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Christopher J; Swain, David L; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2010-09-01

    The evolutionary processes that have enabled Bos taurus cattle to establish around the globe are at the core to the future success of livestock production. Our study focuses on the history of cattle domestication including the last 60 years of B. taurus breeding programmes in both favourable and unfavourable environments and its consequences on evolution and fitness of cattle. We discuss the emergence of 'production diseases' in temperate production systems and consider the evolutionary genetics of tropical adaptation in cattle and conclude that the Senepol, N'Dama, Adaptaur and Criollo breeds, among others with similar evolutionary trajectories, would possess genes capable of improving the productivity of cattle in challenging environments. Using our own experimental evidence from northern Australia, we review the evolution of the Adaptaur cattle breed which has become resistant to cattle tick. We emphasize that the knowledge of interactions between genotype, environment and management in the livestock systems will be required to generate genotypes for efficient livestock production that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. Livestock producers in the 21st century will have less reliance on infrastructure and veterinary products to alleviate environmental stress and more on the animal's ability to achieve fitness in a given production environment.

  1. [Peroral endoscopic full and partial-thickness myotomy. A viability study in an animal model].

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Guadarrama, C D; Rojano-Rodríguez, M; Herrera-Esquivel, J J; de la Concha-Bermejillo, F; Romero-Loera, L S; Estrada-Moscoso, I; Del Rio-Suarez, I; Morales-Vargas, J M; Torres-Ruiz, M F; Gonzalez-Angulo, J A; Beristain-Hernandez, J L; Alonso-Lárraga, J; Cárdenas-Lailson, E; Moreno-Portillo, M

    2013-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy has recently been developed and performed on patients with good results. To evaluate the technical feasibility of peroral endoscopic full-thickness and partial thickness myotomy in a porcine model. Eighteen criollo pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group A (partial-thickness myotomy) and group B (full-thickness myotomy). The mucosal defect proximal to the myotomy site was left open. On the seventh postoperative day the pig was euthanized and follow-up surgical exploration was performed. The duration of each procedure, postoperative progression of the animal, complications, and anatomopathologic findings were registered. The procedure was viable in all the pigs. The mean surgery duration was 81±35.3min (group A 51.11±11.12, group B 111±22.61; P<.05). The main complication during myotomy was subcutaneous emphysema (16%). The histopathologic study of the group A surgical specimens reported complete circular myotomy in all cases, and complete circular and longitudinal myotomy was reported in 100% of the group B sample. The endoscopic myotomy technique is feasible. Endoscopic partial-thickness myotomy was associated with shorter surgery duration and better results during the intraoperative period and the 7-day follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. P450-aromatase mRNA is expressed in the corpus luteum (CL) of the non-pregnant sheep and goat: the expression of the enzyme is present throughout pregnancy in the goat CL.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, J A; Miranda, C; García-Mena, J; Ocádiz-Delgado, R; Gariglio, P; Romano, M C

    2013-02-01

    In most mammals, the corpus luteum (CL) and placenta are the major sources of progesterone. The goat pregnancy depends on the presence of CL after mid-gestation, while sheep pregnancy does not. The expression and distribution of P450-aromatase (P450-Aro) mRNA throughout gestation has not been investigated in the goat CL and partially in the sheep CL. The present research was designed to characterize the expression of P450-Aro mRNA in small ruminant CL with emphasis in the goat. For this purpose, ovaries from Criollo goats and Pelibuey sheeps were analysed using in situ reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the histological detection of P450-Aro transcripts. In addition, P450-Aro expression was determined by in vitro RT-PCR. In situ RT-PCR studies showed that the goat and sheep CL were rich in cells positive for P450-Aro mRNA. We have also found in vitro RT-PCR expression of P450-Aro mRNA in goat CL at 1, 3 and 4 months of gestation. This study shows that the goat CL expresses P450-Aro mRNA along gestation, suggesting that this structure is capable to produce oestrogens up to the end of gestation.

  3. Discovery and mapping of a new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat panel for large-scale genetic studies and breeding of Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed Central

    Allegre, Mathilde; Argout, Xavier; Boccara, Michel; Fouet, Olivier; Roguet, Yolande; Bérard, Aurélie; Thévenin, Jean Marc; Chauveau, Aurélie; Rivallan, Ronan; Clement, Didier; Courtois, Brigitte; Gramacho, Karina; Boland-Augé, Anne; Tahi, Mathias; Umaharan, Pathmanathan; Brunel, Dominique; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is an economically important tree of several tropical countries. Its genetic improvement is essential to provide protection against major diseases and improve chocolate quality. We discovered and mapped new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism (EST-SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and constructed a high-density genetic map. By screening 149 650 ESTs, 5246 SNPs were detected in silico, of which 1536 corresponded to genes with a putative function, while 851 had a clear polymorphic pattern across a collection of genetic resources. In addition, 409 new SSR markers were detected on the Criollo genome. Lastly, 681 new EST-SNPs and 163 new SSRs were added to the pre-existing 418 co-dominant markers to construct a large consensus genetic map. This high-density map and the set of new genetic markers identified in this study are a milestone in cocoa genomics and for marker-assisted breeding. The data are available at http://tropgenedb.cirad.fr. PMID:22210604

  4. Biochemical polymorphisms in Spanish Avileña-Negra Iberica cattle.

    PubMed

    Arranz, J J; Bayón, Y; Medjugorac, I; Primitivo, F

    1994-01-12

    Thirteen biochemical blood polymorphisms were analysed in a population of 149 Spanish Avileña-Negra Ibérica cattle. The study revealed variation at the following nine loci: HBB, CA, NP, CP, AMY1, ALB, GC, TF and PTF2. The following systems were monomorphic: CAT, DIA1, MDH1 and ME1. Using polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, a slow, migrating pair of bands was found in the GC protein system. This pattern is probably controlled by the GC(C) allele, described in only a few cases in cattle. Furthermore, starch-gel electrophoresis allowed the detection of a variant with intermediate mobility between the ALB(A) and the ALB(B) alleles at the albumin locus. A variant with a similar electrophoretic pattern has occasionally been reported in cattle. However, utilizing IEF under denaturing conditions, such a variant could not be differentiated from the ALB(A) allele and thus its significance is not clear. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Biochemischer Polymorphismus in spanischen Avileña-Negra Iberica Rindern Insgesamt 13 biochemische Systeme wurden in einer Population von 149 spanischen Avilena-Negra-Iberika-Rindern hinsichtlich Polymorphismus analysiert. Es zeigten sich Varianten bei folgenden Loci: HBB, CA, NP, CP, AMY1, ANB, GC, TF und BTF2, während CAT, DEA, MDH1 und ME1 monomorph sind. Bei stärke Gel-Elektrophorese wurde im Albumin-Locus eine Variante mit intermediärer Mobilität zwischen ALB(A) und ÄLB(B) Allel entdeckt. Eine solche Variante wurde bisher nur sehr selten bei Rindern beobachtet. Darüber hinaus wurde bei Polyacrylamid-Gel-Elektrophorese ein langsam wanderndes Paar von Bändern im GC-Proteinsystem gefunden. Dieses Muster ist wahrscheinlich von dem selten vorkommenden GC(C) -Allel verursacht. RESUMEN: Se analizaron trece polimorfismos bioquímicos sanguíneos en una población de 149 animales de la raza Avileña-Negra Ibérica de ganado vacuno. El estudio reveló la existencia de variación en los nueve loci siguientes: HBB, CA, NP, CP, AMY1, ALB, GC, TF y PTF2

  5. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 From House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) and Dairy Samples in North Central Florida1.

    PubMed

    Burrus, Roxanne G; Hogsette, Jerome A; Kaufman, Phillip E; Maruniak, James E; Simonne, Amy H; Mai, Volker

    2017-05-01

    La detección de Escherichia coli O157:H7 en las lecherías es importante para mejorar la seguridad de los productos lácteos, y se ha llevado a cabo principalmente mediante el aislamiento de las bacterias a partir de las muestras de estiércol. Sin embargo, los componentes biliares presentes en el estiércol complica la identificación genética utilizando la técnica del PCR, y el aislamiento microbiológico se dificulta por la presencia de bacterias competidoras que comparten características microbiológicas similares. El aislamiento de E. coli O157:H7 a partir de la mosca doméstica evita las dificultades asociadas con el estiércol del ganado. El aislamiento de patógenos a partir de las moscas domésticas proporciona información adicional sobre el potencial impacto epidemiológico de la dispersión de la mosca doméstica en la distribución de patógenos, ya que las moscas domésticas se dispersan desde las lecherías donde la E. coli O157:H7 existe en forma endémica en el ganado. En este estudio, se encontró que las moscas domésticas son 2,6 veces más sensibles para la detección de E. coli O157:H7 en las lecherías. Las moscas son más fáciles de capturar y manejar que el estiércol, y deberían ser utilizadas en cualquier ensayo para detectar E. coli O157:H7 en las lecherías y otros establecimientos. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Knowledge, perceptions, and practices with respect to the prevention of dengue in a mid-Pacific coastal village of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Egedus, Victoria L; Ortega, José Morales; Obando, Anabelle Alfaro

    2014-09-01

    Dengue fever is the fastest spreading, most prevalent and deadly arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide, present in over 125 countries. In 2013, Costa Rica is experiencing the highest number of Dengue infections since the virus's reintroduction to the country in 1993. This study evaluated the Dengue-related knowledge of 320 community members, and polled opinions on how to better educate and mobilize the community on Dengue prevention in Quebrada Ganado, Costa Rica during March-May, 2013. In addition, property inspections were used to find relationships between knowledge or opinions and presence ofAedes breeding sites. Results showed that while citizens knew the virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that reproduce near water, they lacked knowledge on Aedes habits and confused it with other mosquitoes. Eighty-one percent of respondents assumed some responsibility for dengue prevention. Suggestions for improved education included consistent and continual information on the risks and dangers dengue poses to an individual. Characteristics relating to households with more positive breeding sites were: lower education level, higher prevalence of dengue infections in the household, lesser knowledge of dengue symptoms, a lower rating on the dangers of dengue and a lower rating on the importance of preventative actions. While a range of prevention methods are implemented, active community involvement is highly important for successful Dengue prevention. Continual evaluation is necessary to make more immediate, long-term behavioral societal changes, and to maximize the economic resources spent on Dengue prevention.

  7. Differences in heat tolerance between preimplantation embryos from Brahman, Romosinuano, and Angus breeds.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cerón, J; Chase, C C; Hansen, P J

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to 41 degrees C reduces development of embryos of heat-sensitive breeds (Holstein and Angus) more than for embryos of the heat-tolerant Brahman breed. Here it was tested whether embryonic resistance to heat shock occurs for a thermotolerant breed of different genetic origin than the Brahman. In particular, the thermal sensitivity of in vitro produced embryos of the Romosinuano, a Bos taurus, Criollo-derived breed, was compared to that for in vitro produced Brahman and Angus embryos. At d 4 after insemination, embryos > or = 8 cells were randomly assigned to control (38.5 degrees C) or heat shock (41 degrees C for 6 h) treatments. Heat shock reduced the proportion of embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage on d 8 after insemination. At 38.5 degrees C, there were no significant differences in development between breeds. Among embryos exposed to 41 degrees C, however, development was lower for Angus embryos than for Brahman and Romosinuano embryos. Furthermore, an Angus vs. (Brahman + Romosinuano) x temperature interaction occurred because heat shock reduced development more in Angus (30.3 +/- 4.6% at 38.5 degrees C vs. 4.9 +/- 4.6% at 41 degrees C) than in Brahman (25.1 +/- 4.6% vs. 13.6 +/- 4.6%) and Romosinuano (28.3 +/- 4.1% vs. 17.5 +/- 4.1%). Results demonstrate that embryos from Brahman and Romosinuano breeds are more resistant to elevated temperature than embryos from Angus. Thus, the process of adaptation of Brahman and Romosinuano breeds to hot environments resulted in both cases in selection of genes controlling thermotolerance at the cellular level.

  8. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaomei; Chao, Juan; Cheng, Xueli; Wang, Rui; Sun, Baojuan; Wang, Hengming; Luo, Shaobo; Xu, Xiaowan; Wu, Tingquan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399) were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3) was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away) and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM). A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene. PMID:26992080

  9. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomei; Chao, Juan; Cheng, Xueli; Wang, Rui; Sun, Baojuan; Wang, Hengming; Luo, Shaobo; Xu, Xiaowan; Wu, Tingquan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399) were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3) was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away) and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM). A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  10. Antiquity and geographic distribution of cranial modification among the prehistoric groups of Fuego-Patagonia, Chile.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Durrruty, Marta P; Giles, Bretton T; Misarti, Nicole; San Roman, Manuel; Morello, Flavia

    2015-12-01

    Nineteenth and twentieth century documents testify that four ethnic groups, generally classified as terrestrial hunters or canoe nomads, inhabited Fuego-Patagonia. Archaeologically, however, their presence and temporal depth remains unknown. This study analyzes the antiquity and geographic distribution of cranial modification, a highly visible symbol of social identity, in Fuego-Patagonia, Chile, to assess whether it expressed ethnic affiliation. A total of 60 adult skulls from Southern Patagonia (n = 32; 53.3%) and Tierra del Fuego (n = 28; 46.7%) were examined for age-at-death, sex and cranial modification with standard methods. Individuals were further categorized as terrestrial (n = 26; 43.3%), marine (n = 21; 35%) or indetermined hunter-gatherers (n = 13; 21.7%) based on the archaeological site's characteristics, geographic location, and isotopic information. Thirty percent (n = 18) of the skulls in this study were modified, and most of the modified skulls (n = 15) presented a tabular-erect shape. No statistically significant differences were identified between Fuegians and Patagonians, males or females, or between the different types of adaptation and geographic locations. Thus, this Late Holocene, widely distributed practice, was not a reflection of ethnicity, but a material expression of information circulation and the complex social relations that these small-size groups had with one another. These results suggest that the emergence of modern ethnic identities in the region is a historic process that resulted from the interaction of local groups with European and Criollos. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Genetic population structure of cacao plantings within a young production area in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-14

    Mayan, 'ancient Criollo' cacao.

  12. Differential Host Plant-Associated Genetic Variation Between Sympatric Mite Species of the Genus Oligonychus (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Guzman-Valencia, Stephanie; Santillán-Galicia, Ma Teresa; Guzmán-Franco, Ariel W; Vega-Muñoz, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Adaptation to different host plants can lead to host-associated differentiation (HAD). The mites Oligonychus perseae and Oligonychus punicae have a broad range of host plants, but, to date, records of them coexisting sympatrically had only been reported on avocado. However, our field observations showed both species coexisting on host plants other than avocado. The lack of previous records of these mites on the host plants studied here suggests only recent divergence to new host plant species. Previous studies showed that O. punicae had a limited migration capacity compared with O. perseae, suggesting that O. punicae is more likely to develop a close host plant relationship leading to HAD. Adults of both species were collected from trees hosting both mite species. Three genera of host plants considered were Persea, Salix, and Alnus; two species within one genus were Alnus jorullensis and Alnus acuminata; and three varieties within one species were Persea americana var. Fuerte, var. Hass, and var. Criollo, a noncommercial variety. Using sequence data from a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I, the phylogenetic relationships and genetic population structure of both mite species in relation to the host plant were determined. Oligonychus perseae populations showed a significant population structure in relation to host plant at the species and genus level, but there was no effect of variety. In contrast, host plant explained none of the genetic variation among O. punicae populations. The potential role of coexistence mechanisms in the contrasting genetic population structure of both mite species is discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Cognition, culture and utility: plant classification by Paraguayan immigrant farmers in Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Monika; Jiménez-Escobar, N David; Nolan, Justin M; Arias-Mutis, Daniel

    2017-07-25

    This study was conducted in three rural communities of small farmers of Paraguayan origin living in the province of Misiones, Argentina. These Criollos (Mestizos) hail chiefly from departments located in the east of Paraguay, where the climate and flora have similar characteristics as those in Misiones. These ecological features contribute to the continuation and maintenance of knowledge and practices related to the use of plants. Fieldwork was conducted between September 2014 and August 2015. Forty five informants from three rural localities situated along the Parana River participated in an ethno-classification task. For the classification event, photographs of 30 medicinal and edible plants were chosen, specifically those yielding the highest frequency of mention among the members of that community (based on data obtained in the first stage of research in 2014). Variation in local plant classifications was examined and compared using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. We found that people classify plants according to application or use (primarily medicinal, to a lesser extent as edible). Morphology is rarely taken into account, even for very similar and closely-related species such as varieties of palms. In light of our findings, we highlight a dominant functionality model at work in the process of plant cognition and classification among farmers of Paraguayan origin. Salient cultural beliefs and practices associated with rural Paraguayan plant-based medicine are described. Additionally, the manner by which residents' concepts of plants articulate with local folk epistemology is discussed. Culturally constructed use patterns ultimately override morphological variables in rural Paraguayans' ethnobotanical classification.

  14. Comparing different maize supplementation strategies to improve resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing goats

    PubMed Central

    Gárate-Gallardo, Leslie; Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesús; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Cámara-Sarmiento, Ramón; Canul-Ku, Hilda Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The effect of maize grain supplementation on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo goat kids against gastrointestinal nematodes was evaluated. Five-month-old kids (n = 42), raised worm-free, were allocated to five groups: infected + not supplemented (I-NS; n = 10), infected + maize supplement at 108 g/d (I-S108; n = 8), maize supplement at 1% of body weight (BW) (I-S1%; n = 8), maize supplement at 1.5% BW (I-S1.5%; n = 8), or infected + supplemented (maize supplement 1.5% BW) + moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg BW subcutaneously every 28 d) (T-S1.5%; n = 8). Kids browsed daily (7 h) in a tropical forest for 112 days during the rainy season. Kids were weighed weekly to adjust supplementary feeding. Hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and eggs per gram of feces were determined fortnightly. On day 112, five goat kids were slaughtered per group to determine worm burdens. Kids of the I-S1.5% group showed similar body-weight change, Ht and Hb, compared to kids without gastrointestinal nematodes (T-S1.5%), as well as lower eggs per gram of feces and Trichostrongylus colubriformis worm burden compared to the I-NS group (P > 0.05). Thus, among the supplement levels tested, increasing maize supplementation at 1.5% BW of kids was the best strategy to improve their resilience and resistance against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections under the conditions of forage from the tropical forest. PMID:26071051

  15. Worldwide Patterns of Ancestry, Divergence, and Admixture in Domesticated Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Jared E.; McKay, Stephanie D.; Rolf, Megan M.; Kim, JaeWoo; Molina Alcalá, Antonio; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Hanotte, Olivier; Götherström, Anders; Seabury, Christopher M.; Praharani, Lisa; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Correia de Almeida Regitano, Luciana; Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Heaton, Michael P.; Liu, Wan-Sheng; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Reecy, James M.; Saif-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.

    2014-01-01

    The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation. PMID:24675901

  16. Dietary inclusion of fish oil changes the semen lipid composition but does not improve the post-thaw semen quality of ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Rommy; Torres, Mariana A; Paz, Erwin; Quiñones, John; Bravo, Silvana; Farías, Jorge G; Sepúlveda, Néstor

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary fish oil (FO) time-response on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol levels and sperm cryosurvival in ram semen. Criollo Araucano rams were randomly assigned to two groups (n=4) according to the type of supplementation: a control group without FO and a supplemented group fed a diet with 3% FO for 8 weeks. The semen lipid profile and post-thaw sperm quality were analyzed at weeks 0 (pre-supplementation), 4, 8, 12 and 16 (post-supplementation) to evaluate the effects of FO supplementation by time interaction. Post-thaw sperm quality was determined by CASA and flow cytometry. In spermatozoa, the supplemented group increased the linoleic acid (C18:2n6c) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n3) with levels higher at week 16 (P<0.05). The effect of FO on cholesterol concentration in sperm was significant at the end of the experiment (week 16). In seminal plasma, statistical differences of butyric acid (C4:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3) and DHA were observed at week 12. The cholesterol concentration was not affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). However, the post-thaw sperm quality of the FO treatment group decreased. Motility percentage decreased 50% and spermatozoa with permeable plasma membrane and reacted acrosome were higher (63%) at week 16 than the control group. These results showed that DHA was effectively incorporated into semen through dietary supplementation with FO, but evaluations of post-thaw sperm quality confirm alteration specificity related to the structure of the lipid bilayer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing different maize supplementation strategies to improve resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing goats.

    PubMed

    Gárate-Gallardo, Leslie; Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesús; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Cámara-Sarmiento, Ramón; Canul-Ku, Hilda Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The effect of maize grain supplementation on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo goat kids against gastrointestinal nematodes was evaluated. Five-month-old kids (n = 42), raised worm-free, were allocated to five groups: infected + not supplemented (I-NS; n = 10), infected + maize supplement at 108 g/d (I-S108; n = 8), maize supplement at 1% of body weight (BW) (I-S1%; n = 8), maize supplement at 1.5% BW (I-S1.5%; n = 8), or infected + supplemented (maize supplement 1.5% BW) + moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg BW subcutaneously every 28 d) (T-S1.5%; n = 8). Kids browsed daily (7 h) in a tropical forest for 112 days during the rainy season. Kids were weighed weekly to adjust supplementary feeding. Hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and eggs per gram of feces were determined fortnightly. On day 112, five goat kids were slaughtered per group to determine worm burdens. Kids of the I-S1.5% group showed similar body-weight change, Ht and Hb, compared to kids without gastrointestinal nematodes (T-S1.5%), as well as lower eggs per gram of feces and Trichostrongylus colubriformis worm burden compared to the I-NS group (P > 0.05). Thus, among the supplement levels tested, increasing maize supplementation at 1.5% BW of kids was the best strategy to improve their resilience and resistance against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections under the conditions of forage from the tropical forest.

  18. The mitochondrial DNA history of a former native American village in northern Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Sans, Mónica; Mones, Pablo; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Barreto, Isabel; Motti, Josefina M B; Coble, Michael D; Bravi, Claudio M; Hidalgo, Pedro C

    2015-01-01

    In 1828, between 8,000 and 15,000 Indians from the Jesuit Missions were brought to Uruguay. There, they were settled in a village, presently named Bella Unión, in the northwest corner of the country. According to historic sources, the Indians abandoned the settlement shortly thereafter, with the village subsequently repopulated by "criollos" and immigrants from abroad. As a first approach to reconstruct the genetic history of the population, data about the living population genetic structure will be used. Based on the analysis of the maternal lineages of the inhabitants of Bella Unión, and of those from two nearby villages, we expect to partially answer what happened with the first and subsequent inhabitants. We analyzed the maternal lineages of the present inhabitants of Bella Unión and neighboring localities through the sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA control region. A total of 64.3%, 5.7%, and 30% of the mtDNAs were of Native, African, and West Eurasian origin, respectively. These figures are quite similar to that of the population of Tacuarembó, which is located in northeastern Uruguay. The four main Native American founding haplogroups were detected, with B2 being the most frequent, while some rare subhaplogroups (B2h, C1b2, D1f1) were also found. When compared with other Native American sequences, near- matches most consistently pointed to an Amazonian Indian origin which, when considered with historical evidence, suggested a probable Guaraní-Missionary-related origin. The data support the existence of a relationship between the historic and present inhabitants of the extreme northwest Uruguay, with a strong contribution of Native Americans to the mitochondrial DNA diversity observed there. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The distribution of potassium and sodium concentrations in the erythrocytes of some breeds of cattle.

    PubMed

    Arranz, J J; Bayón, Y; Primitivo, F

    1994-01-12

    The distribution of erythrocyte potassium and sodium concentrations was studied in Sayaguesa (n = 150), Brown Swiss (n = 163) and two populations of Avileña-Negra Ibérica cattle (n = 141 and 141 respectively). No polymorphism was detected for red-cell cation content in any of the breeds investigated. Mean values of potassium concentrations varied between 21.42 and 24.92 mmol/l red cells, those of sodium contents ranging from 77.50-93.44 mmol/1. The cattle studied can thus be considered as belonging to the 'low potassium' (LK) type. Significant differences were found both in potassium and sodium concentrations between one of the populations of Avileña-Negra Ibérica and the other groups examined. Mean values of sodium levels in Brown Swiss were also significantly different from the other groups. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Verteilung von Kalium- und Natriumblutspiegelwerten in Erythrozyten einiger Rinderrassen Die Verteilung von Kalium- und Natriumkonzentrationen in Erythrozyten wurde in vier Gruppen untersucht: Sayaguesa (n = 150), Braunvieh (n = 163) und zwei Gruppen von Avileña-Negra Ibérica Rindern (n = 141). In keiner der untersuchten Gruppen wurde Polymorphismus für den Cationenspiegel gefunden. Mittelwerte für Kaliumkonzentration schwankten zwischen 21,4 und 24,9 mmol/l roter Zellen, die für Natriumgehalt zwischen 77,5 und 93,4 mmol/1. Die Rinder könnten daher als 'niedrigere Kalium' Type bezeichnet werden. Signifikante Unterschiede wurden sowohl für den Kalium-als auch für der Natriumspiegel zwischen den beiden Avileña-Negra Ibérica Gruppen gefunden. Die Mittelwerte für Natriumspiegel in Braunvieh waren ebenfalls significant unterscniedlich im Vergleich zu den anderen. RESUMEN: Distributión del potasio y sodio eritrocitarios en algunas razas de ganado vacuno Se estudió la distribución de las concentraciones de potasio y sodio eritrocitarios en cuatro grupos de ganado vacuno: Sayaguesa (n = 150), Pardo Alpina (n = 163) y dos poblaciones de Avile

  20. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of Belimumab in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Spain].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cerezo, Silvia; García-Aparicio, Ángel María; Parrondo, Javier; Vallejo-Aparicio, Laura Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Estimar el coste-efectividad (CE) de belimumab en aquellos pacientes con biomarcadores positivos y enfermedad activa a pesar del tratamiento estandar (TE) desde la perspectiva social espanola. Métodos: A partir de un modelo de microsimulacion, que permite simular la evolucion natural de la enfermedad, se estimo el CE de belimumab + TE vs. TE. Se considero una duracion del tratamiento de dos anos y un horizonte temporal de toda la vida. La extrapolacion de eficacia a largo plazo se baso en los ensayos clinicos de belimumab y en la cohorte de pacientes John Hopkins de Estados Unidos; los datos de utilidades se obtuvieron de la literatura. Se calcularon costes directos e indirectos en base a datos espanoles publicados (€, 2014), aplicando una tasa de descuento (TD) del 3% tanto a costes como a efectos. Los resultados se expresaron como ratio coste- efectividad incremental (ICER) en terminos de anos de vida ganados (AVG) y anos de vida ajustados por calidad (AVAC). Se realizaron analisis de sensibilidad deterministicos (TD al 0% y 5%, duracion de tratamiento 5 anos y exclusion de costes indirectos) asi como probabilisticos (PSA). Resultados: El ICER de belimumab + TE vs. TE fue de 16.647€/ AVG y 23.158€/AVAC respectivamente. La variacion de la TD supuso la mayor variacion de los resultados respecto al escenario base. En el 68% de los escenarios simulados en el PSA, belimumab fue una alternativa coste-efectiva considerando como umbral 30.000€/AVAC. Conclusiones: Belimumab puede considerarse una alternativa coste-efectiva desde la perspectiva social espanola.

  1. Distribution and Persistence of Sterile Screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Released at the Panama-Colombia Border.

    PubMed

    Skoda, Steven R; Phillips, Pamela L; Sagel, Agustin; Chaudhury, Muhammad F

    2017-04-01

    The sterile insect technique is used by the Comisión Panamá - Estados Unidos para la Erradicación y Prevención del Gusano Barrenador del Ganado (COPEG) to maintain a barrier at the border of Panama and Colombia to prevent screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), from South America reinfesting North America. Before studying the distribution and persistence of sterilized, mass-produced screwworms released in the barrier zone, the utility of applying fluorescent dust (∼1.0 mg/fly) to pupae and to newly emerged adults was evaluated to determine the potential effect on fly survival. The flight ability of flies collected from two adult emergence/collection systems (enclosed towers and open chambers) and treated with low (∼0.20 mg/fly) or high (∼1.0 mg/fly) amounts of fluorescent powder was compared. The distribution and persistence of sterile screwworms marked with fluorescent powder (∼0.20 mg/fly), after collection from the same two adult emergence/collection systems, was compared after their release in the barrier zone. The results demonstrated that: 1) fluorescent dust did not negatively affect sterile screwworm longevity or flight ability; 2) no differences were detected between sterile flies collected from the two emergence systems; and 3) sterile screwworms distributed evenly in the barrier zone and persisted for > 6 d. This information was useful in implementing the use of a new sterile fly emergence/collection system and deploying a new strain by COPEG for the barrier zone maintenance program; it will be valuable for evaluating alternative release strategies of sterile screwworms by the eradication and barrier maintenance program. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. [Effectiveness of a ketogenic diet in children with refractory epilepsy: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Araya-Quintanilla, F; Celis-Rosati, A; Rodriguez-Leiva, C; Silva-Navarro, C; Silva-Pinto, Y; Toro-Jeria, B

    2016-05-16

    Introduccion. La epilepsia es una patologia cerebral que afecta tanto a niños como a adultos. Desde los años veinte, la dieta cetogenica ha ganado prestigio como otra opcion de tratamiento en pacientes con epilepsia refractaria. Sujetos y metodos. Se realiza una sintesis de la evidencia a traves de una revision sistematica de ensayos clinicos aleatorizados que hayan comparado una dieta cetogenica sola con otros tipos de dieta para el tratamiento de estos pacientes. Objetivo. Determinar la efectividad de la dieta cetogenica en la disminucion de los episodios de convulsiones en pacientes con epilepsia refractaria. La estrategia de busqueda incluyo ensayos clinicos aleatorizados y ensayos clinicos controlados. Las bases de datos usadas fueron: Medline, LILACS, Central y CINAHL. Resultados. Se obtuvieron seis articulos que cumplian con los criterios de elegibilidad. Conclusiones. Existe evidencia limitada de que la dieta cetogenica en comparacion con la dieta de trigliceridos de cadena media es mas efectiva en disminuir la frecuencia de las convulsiones. Existe evidencia moderada de que la dieta cetogenica clasica en comparacion con la dieta gradual (2,5:1 y 3:1) es mas efectiva para disminuir las crisis epilepticas. Existe evidencia moderada de que la dieta cetogenica clasica en comparacion con la dieta Atkins es mas efectiva para disminuir la frecuencia de convulsiones en tres meses. La decision de aplicar este tipo de dietas tambien debe basarse en costes, preferencias y seguridad del tratamiento. Ademas, debe considerarse la probabilidad de que algunos estudios, por problemas de indizacion, hayan quedado fuera de la revision.

  3. Bedrock and surficial geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles, Navajo and Apache Counties, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amoroso, Lee; Priest, Susan S.; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The geologic map of the Satan Butte and Greasewood 7.5’ quadrangles is the result of a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Navajo Nation to provide regional geologic information for management and planning officials. This map provides geologic information useful for range management, plant and animal studies, flood control, water resource investigations, and natural hazards associated with sand-dune mobility. The map provides connectivity to the regional geologic framework of the Grand Canyon area of northern Arizona. The map area encompasses approximately 314 km2 (123 mi2) within Navajo and Apache Counties of northern Arizona and is bounded by lat 35°37'30" to 35°30' N., long 109°45' to 110° W. The quadrangles lie within the southern Colorado Plateau geologic province and within the northeastern portion of the Hopi Buttes (Tsézhin Bií). Large ephemeral drainages, Pueblo Colorado Wash and Steamboat Wash, originate north of the map area on the Defiance Plateau and Balakai Mesa respectively. Elevations range from 1,930 m (6,330 ft) at the top of Satan Butte to about 1,787 m (5,860 ft) at Pueblo Colorado Wash where it exits the southwest corner of the Greasewood quadrangle. The only settlement within the map area is Greasewood, Arizona, on the north side of Pueblo Colorado Wash. Navajo Highway 15 crosses both quadrangles and joins State Highway 264 northwest of Ganado. Unimproved dirt roads provide access to remote parts of the Navajo Reservation.

  4. The Potential of the MAGIC TOM Parental Accessions to Explore the Genetic Variability in Tomato Acclimation to Repeated Cycles of Water Deficit and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Ripoll, Julie; Urban, Laurent; Bertin, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Episodes of water deficit (WD) during the crop cycle of tomato may negatively impact plant growth and fruit yield, but they may also improve fruit quality. Moreover, a moderate WD may induce a plant “memory effect” which is known to stimulate plant acclimation and defenses for upcoming stress episodes. The objective of this study was to analyze the positive and negative impacts of repeated episodes of WD at the plant and fruit levels. Three episodes of WD (–38, –45, and –55% of water supply) followed by three periods of recovery (“WD treatments”), were applied to the eight parents of the Multi-Parent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross population which offers the largest allelic variability observed in tomato. Predawn and midday water potentials, chlorophyll a fluorescence, growth and fruit quality traits [contents in sugars, acids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid (AsA)] were measured throughout the experiment. Important genotypic variations were observed both at the plant and fruit levels and variations in fruit and leaf traits were found not to be correlated. Overall, the WD treatments were at the origin of important osmotic regulations, reduction of leaf growth, acclimation of photosynthetic functioning, notably through an increase in the chlorophyll content and in the quantum yield of the electron transport flux until PSI acceptors (J0RE1/JABS). The effects on fruit sugar, acid, carotenoid and AsA contents on a dry matter basis ranged from negative to positive to nil depending on genotypes and stress intensity. Three small fruit size accessions were richer in AsA on a fresh matter basis, due to concentration effects. So, fruit quality was improved under WD mainly through concentration effects. On the whole, two accessions, LA1420 and Criollo appeared as interesting genetic resources, cumulating adaptive traits both at the leaf and fruit levels. Our observations show that the complexity involved in plant responses, when considering a broad range of

  5. Antispasmodic effects and composition of the essential oils from two South American chemotypes of Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Marcos A; Colareda, Germán A; van Baren, Catalina; Bandoni, Arnaldo L; Ringuelet, Jorge; Consolini, Alicia E

    2013-10-07

    Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae) is an aromatic species used in Central and South America as eupeptic for indigestion. In Argentina, it is used by the "criollos" from the Chaco province. There are several chemotypes which differ in the chemical composition of the essential oils. Nowadays, it is experimentally cultivated in some countries of the region, including Argentina. To compare the chemical composition and pharmacology of the essential oils from two chemotypes: "citral" (CEO) and "linalool" (LEO), in isolated rat duodenum and ileum. Contractile concentration-response curves (CRC) of acetylcholine (ACh) and calcium in 40mM K(+)-medium (Ca(2+)-CRC) were done in isolated intestine portions, in the absence and presence of CEO or LEO at different concentrations. Likewise verapamil, CEO and LEO induced a non-competitive inhibition of the ACh-CRC, with IC50 of 7.0±0.3mg CEO/mL and 37.2±4.2mg LEO/mL. l-NAME, a NO-synthase blocker, increased the IC50 of CEO to 26.1±8.7mg CEO/mL. Likewise verapamil, CEO and LEO non-competitively inhibited the Ca(2+)-CRC, with IC50 of 6.3±1.7mg CEO/mL, 7.0±2.5mg LEO/mL and 0.24±0.04mg verapamil/mL (pIC50: 6.28). CEO was proved to possess limonene, neral, geranial and (-)-carvone as the major components, while LEO was rich in linalool. Results suggest that CEO has five times more potency than LEO to inhibit muscarinic contractions. The essential oils of both chemotypes interfered with the Ca(2+)-influx, but with an IC50 about 28 times higher than that of verapamil. Moreover, CEO partially stimulated the NO production. These results show the medicinal usefulness of both Lippia alba chemotypes, thus validating its traditional use, potency and mechanism of action. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Sensory attribute preservation in extra virgin olive oil with addition of oregano essential oil as natural antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2012-09-01

    Four commercial varieties of oregano are farmed in Argentina: "Compacto,"Cordobes,"Criollo," y "Mendocino." Oregano essential oil is known for antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the intensities of positive and negative attributes in extra virgin olive oil with addition of essential oil obtained from the 4 Argentinean oregano types. Oregano essential oil was added into olive oil at 0.05% w/w. The samples were stored in darkness and light exposure during 126 d at room temperature. The intensity ratings of fruity, pungency, bitterness, oregano flavor, and rancid flavor were evaluated every 21 d by a trained sensory panel. In general, samples with addition of oregano essential oil in olive oil exhibited higher and lower intensity ratings of positive and negative attributes, respectively, during storage compared with the control samples. The first 2 principal components explained 72.3% of the variability in the olive oil samples. In general, positive attributes of olive oil were highly associated with the addition of oregano essential oil in darkness, whereas rancid flavor was negatively associated with them. Olive oil with oregano "Cordobes" essential oil was oppositely associated with light exposure treatments and negative attribute (rancid flavor) suggesting better performance as natural antioxidant of this essential oil in olive oil. The result of this study showed that the presence of oregano essential oil, specially "Cordobes" type, preserve sensory quality of extra virgin olive oil prolonging the shelf life of this product. Extra virgin olive oil is highly appreciated for its health benefits, taste, and aroma. These properties are an important aspect in this product quality and need to be preserved. The addition of natural additives instead of synthetic ones covers the present trend in food technology. This research showed that the addition of oregano essential oil preserved the intensity ratings of positive attributes

  7. De novo assembly of the pepper transcriptome (Capsicum annuum): a benchmark for in silico discovery of SNPs, SSRs and candidate genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Molecular breeding of pepper (Capsicum spp.) can be accelerated by developing DNA markers associated with transcriptomes in breeding germplasm. Before the advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, the majority of sequencing data were generated by the Sanger sequencing method. By leveraging Sanger EST data, we have generated a wealth of genetic information for pepper including thousands of SNPs and Single Position Polymorphic (SPP) markers. To complement and enhance these resources, we applied NGS to three pepper genotypes: Maor, Early Jalapeño and Criollo de Morelos-334 (CM334) to identify SNPs and SSRs in the assembly of these three genotypes. Results Two pepper transcriptome assemblies were developed with different purposes. The first reference sequence, assembled by CAP3 software, comprises 31,196 contigs from >125,000 Sanger-EST sequences that were mainly derived from a Korean F1-hybrid line, Bukang. Overlapping probes were designed for 30,815 unigenes to construct a pepper Affymetrix GeneChip® microarray for whole genome analyses. In addition, custom Python scripts were used to identify 4,236 SNPs in contigs of the assembly. A total of 2,489 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified from the assembly, and primers were designed for the SSRs. Annotation of contigs using Blast2GO software resulted in information for 60% of the unigenes in the assembly. The second transcriptome assembly was constructed from more than 200 million Illumina Genome Analyzer II reads (80–120 nt) using a combination of Velvet, CLC workbench and CAP3 software packages. BWA, SAMtools and in-house Perl scripts were used to identify SNPs among three pepper genotypes. The SNPs were filtered to be at least 50 bp from any intron-exon junctions as well as flanking SNPs. More than 22,000 high-quality putative SNPs were identified. Using the MISA software, 10,398 SSR markers were also identified within the Illumina transcriptome assembly and primers were

  8. De novo assembly of the pepper transcriptome (Capsicum annuum): a benchmark for in silico discovery of SNPs, SSRs and candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Hamid; Hill, Theresa; Stoffel, Kevin; Kozik, Alexander; Yao, Jiqiang; Chin-Wo, Sebastian Reyes; Van Deynze, Allen

    2012-10-30

    Molecular breeding of pepper (Capsicum spp.) can be accelerated by developing DNA markers associated with transcriptomes in breeding germplasm. Before the advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, the majority of sequencing data were generated by the Sanger sequencing method. By leveraging Sanger EST data, we have generated a wealth of genetic information for pepper including thousands of SNPs and Single Position Polymorphic (SPP) markers. To complement and enhance these resources, we applied NGS to three pepper genotypes: Maor, Early Jalapeño and Criollo de Morelos-334 (CM334) to identify SNPs and SSRs in the assembly of these three genotypes. Two pepper transcriptome assemblies were developed with different purposes. The first reference sequence, assembled by CAP3 software, comprises 31,196 contigs from >125,000 Sanger-EST sequences that were mainly derived from a Korean F1-hybrid line, Bukang. Overlapping probes were designed for 30,815 unigenes to construct a pepper Affymetrix GeneChip® microarray for whole genome analyses. In addition, custom Python scripts were used to identify 4,236 SNPs in contigs of the assembly. A total of 2,489 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified from the assembly, and primers were designed for the SSRs. Annotation of contigs using Blast2GO software resulted in information for 60% of the unigenes in the assembly. The second transcriptome assembly was constructed from more than 200 million Illumina Genome Analyzer II reads (80-120 nt) using a combination of Velvet, CLC workbench and CAP3 software packages. BWA, SAMtools and in-house Perl scripts were used to identify SNPs among three pepper genotypes. The SNPs were filtered to be at least 50 bp from any intron-exon junctions as well as flanking SNPs. More than 22,000 high-quality putative SNPs were identified. Using the MISA software, 10,398 SSR markers were also identified within the Illumina transcriptome assembly and primers were designed for the identified

  9. Analysis of Gene Expression and Physiological Responses in Three Mexican Maize Landraces under Drought Stress and Recovery Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Hayano-Kanashiro, Corina; Calderón-Vázquez, Carlos; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Simpson, June

    2009-01-01

    Background Drought is one of the major constraints for plant productivity worldwide. Different mechanisms of drought-tolerance have been reported for several plant species including maize. However, the differences in global gene expression between drought-tolerant and susceptible genotypes and their relationship to physiological adaptations to drought are largely unknown. The study of the differences in global gene expression between tolerant and susceptible genotypes could provide important information to design more efficient breeding programs to produce maize varieties better adapted to water limiting conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings Changes in physiological responses and gene expression patterns were studied under drought stress and recovery in three Mexican maize landraces which included two drought tolerant (Cajete criollo and Michoacán 21) and one susceptible (85-2) genotypes. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, soil and leaf water potentials were monitored throughout the experiment and microarray analysis was carried out on transcripts obtained at 10 and 17 days following application of stress and after recovery irrigation. The two tolerant genotypes show more drastic changes in global gene expression which correlate with different physiological mechanisms of adaptation to drought. Differences in the kinetics and number of up- and down-regulated genes were observed between the tolerant and susceptible maize genotypes, as well as differences between the two tolerant genotypes. Interestingly, the most dramatic differences between the tolerant and susceptible genotypes were observed during recovery irrigation, suggesting that the tolerant genotypes activate mechanisms that allow more efficient recovery after a severe drought. Conclusions/Significance A correlation between levels of photosynthesis and transcription under stress was observed and differences in the number, type and expression levels of transcription factor families were also

  10. A genetically anchored physical framework for Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6.

    PubMed

    Saski, Christopher A; Feltus, Frank A; Staton, Margaret E; Blackmon, Barbara P; Ficklin, Stephen P; Kuhn, David N; Schnell, Raymond J; Shapiro, Howard; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2011-08-16

    cultivars Matina 1-6 and Criollo indicates a high degree of collinearity in their genomes, yet rearrangements were also observed. The results presented in this study are a stand-alone resource for functional exploitation and enhancement of Theobroma cacao but are also expected to complement and augment ongoing genome-sequencing efforts. This resource will serve as a template for refinement of the T. cacao genome through gap-filling, targeted re-sequencing, and resolution of repetitive DNA arrays.

  11. A genetically anchored physical framework for Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    the two T. cacao cultivars Matina 1-6 and Criollo indicates a high degree of collinearity in their genomes, yet rearrangements were also observed. Conclusions The results presented in this study are a stand-alone resource for functional exploitation and enhancement of Theobroma cacao but are also expected to complement and augment ongoing genome-sequencing efforts. This resource will serve as a template for refinement of the T. cacao genome through gap-filling, targeted re-sequencing, and resolution of repetitive DNA arrays. PMID:21846342

  12. Effect of inbreeding depression on bull sperm quality and field fertility.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Jesús; Cid, Rosa Morales; Molina, Antonio; Hidalgo, Manuel; Ariza, Julia; Moreno-Millán, Miguel; Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastián

    2015-12-18

    The present study investigated the effect of inbreeding depression on sperm quality using automated and objective methods and subsequent effects on beef bull field fertility. Individual inbreeding coefficient (F) values and field fertility data were determined using a dataset of AI bulls belonging to the Spanish Retinta Breeders Association (Asociación Nacional de Criadores de Ganado Vacuno Selecto de Raza Retinta (ANCRE)). Animals were clustered in two groups according to the F values as follows: (1) a high inbreeding group (HI; F ≥ 13.5%, mean 16.3); and (2) a non-inbreeding group (NI; F = 0%). In total, 17 different assessments were performed in both experimental groups, including evaluation of sperm morphology, acrosomal and DNA status, sperm plasma membrane integrity and function (hypo-osmotic swelling test), 10 kinetic parameters and the structure of sperm subpopulations. Sperm morphology, acrosomal and DNA status and osmotic tolerance were similar in both groups. Three velocity parameters (curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity and average path velocity) and the amplitude of lateral head displacement were higher in HI (P < 0.05). Cluster analysis of kinematic parameters revealed three different sperm subpopulations (sP1, sP2 and sP3), with the proportion of the sP1 population (highly active but non-progressive spermatozoa) being significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the HI group. Field fertility was assessed using two calving record datasets. In a smaller database including only bulls evaluated in the present study, there was a significant increase in the calving interval of cows sired with HI bulls. Conversely, in an extended genetic analysis of the ANCRE database, inbreeding only explained a small part of the variation in calving interval, and the results of regression analysis were not significant among bulls. The findings of the present study suggest that high inbreeding levels have a moderate effect on bull semen quality, with an increased

  13. Intuitive eating: an emerging approach to eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Cadena-Schlam, Leslie; López-Guimerà, Gemma

    2014-10-03

    Introducción: Con la finalidad de tratar la obesidad, los profesionales en salud buscan, por medio de intervenciones dietéticas restrictivas y ejercicio, la pérdida de peso como objetivo principal del tratamiento. Aunque en algunos casos estas intervenciones inducen pérdida de peso a corto plazo, en el largo plazo la eficacia de estos tratamientos es, al menos, cuestionable. Investigaciones recientes han sugerido que los tratamientos dirigidos a la pérdida de peso basados en dietas restrictivas no resultan eficaces a largo plazo e incluso pueden comprometer la salud y el bienestar del paciente. En este sentido, algunos investigadores han considerado cambiar el enfoque del tratamiento de la obesidad a un paradigma centrado en la salud y no en la pérdida de peso. Entre los modelos derivados de este nuevo paradigma, Salud a Cualquier Talla (HAES, por sus siglas en inglés) es uno de los más referenciados. Como componente central de este paradigma se sitúa la ingesta intuitiva, la cual se refiere a la confianza en los mecanismos biológicos para regular la ingesta de alimentos (i.e., las señales internas de hambre y saciedad). Recientemente, la ingesta intuitiva ha ganado reconocimiento, pues se ha asociado a diversos parámetros de bienestar físico y psicológico, además, no se ha observado ningún efecto adverso en pacientes que la practican. Objetivo: El presente artículo revisa el concepto de la ingesta intuitiva, así como la evidencia que sustenta este nuevo enfoque. Además, se discute la implicación de cambiar el enfoque convencional de los tratamientos dietéticos a un paradigma centrado en la salud. Diseño: Revisión Narrativa Conclusiones: A pesar de la necesidad de ampliar la investigación de las intervenciones centradas en la salud, este enfoque podría ser una alternativa más prometedora y realista para el abordaje del sobrepeso y la obesidad que los tratamientos de pérdida de peso convencionales.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of apixaban compared to low-molecularweight heparins and vitamin k antagonists for treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Elías, Isabel; Oyagüez, Itziar; Alvarez-Sala, Luis Antonio; García-Bragado, Fernando; Navarro, Andrés; González, Paloma; De Andrés-Nogales, Fernando; Soto, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Objetivo: Analizar la relación coste-efectividad de 6 meses de tratamiento con apixaban (10 mg/12 h, 7 primeros días; 5 mg/12 h después) para el primer evento de tromboembolismo venoso (TEV) y prevención de recurrencias, frente a heparinas de bajo peso molecular/antagonistas de vitamina K (HBPM/ AVK). Material y métodos: Se ha empleado un modelo de Markov con 13 estados de salud que describen la evolución de la enfermedad a lo largo de la vida de los pacientes. Los datos de eficacia y seguridad se han obtenido de los ensayos clínicos AMPLIFY y AMPLIFY- EXT, calculándose los años de vida ganados (AVG) y los años de vida ajustados por calidad (AVAC) de las opciones terapéuticas evaluadas. En este análisis se adoptó la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS). El coste de la medicación, de las complicaciones y del manejo del TEV se obtuvo de distintas fuentes españolas (€, 2014). Se aplicó una tasa de descuento anual del 3% a costes y beneficios en salud. Se realizaron análisis de sensibilidad univariante y probabilístico (ASP) para evaluar la robustez de los resultados. Resultados: Apixaban generó mejores resultados en salud con 7,182 AVG y 5,865 AVAC, frente a 7,160 AVG y 5,838 AVAC para HBPM/AVK, y con menor coste total (13.374,70 € versus 13.738,30 €). El ASP confirmó la dominancia de apixaban (produce mejores resultados con menores costes asociados) en el 89% de las simulaciones. Conclusiones: Apixaban 5 mg/12 h versus HBPM/AVK fue una estrategia eficiente para el SNS en el tratamiento y prevención de recurrencias de TEV.

  15. [Effect of refeeding on the body composition of females with restrictive anorexia nervosa; anthropometry versus bioelectrical impedance].

    PubMed

    de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Redondo del Río, Paz; Camina Martín, Alicia; Soto Célix, María; Alonso Torre, Sara R; Miján de la Torre, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la composición corporal en un grupo de pacientes desnutridas con anorexia nerviosa, respecto de controles sanas, antes y después del soporte nutricional, mediante antropometría y bioimpedancia. Métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo. Se realizó una antropometría completa y un análisis de bioimpedancia a 12 mujeres con anorexia nerviosa restrictiva (24,5 años) al ingreso hospitalario y semanalmente durante la realimentación. El grupo control estuvo formado por 24 mujeres sanas (21 años). Se aplicaron los test t-Student, U-Mann-Whitney, t-Student para medidas repetidas o Wilcoxon. La concordancia entre antropometría y BIA se analizó mediante el coeficiente de correlación intraclase y Bland-Altman. Resultados: Las pacientes mejoraron significativamente todos los índices de composición corporal a lo largo de la estancia hospitalaria, aunque sus valores al alta siguieron siendo menores que los de las controles. La media de peso ganado fue 5,22 kg (DE: 1,42), de los que el 51,4% fueron masa grasa, con distribución central preferentemente. En las controles la ecuación de BIA que mejor concuerda con antropometría es la de Sun (CCI = 0,896); en las pacientes la concordancia fue más débil, al ingreso y al alta. Conclusiones: La realimentación produce una ganancia ponderal, fundamentalmente a expensas de masa grasa, con distribución central; no se consigue restablecer el estado nutricional. La concordancia entre antropometría y bioimpedancia para el estudio de la composición corporal es aceptable, especialmente en sujetos sanos. Se recomienda emplear antropometría, si no se dispone de BIA vectorial o algún método gold estandard para el análisis de la composición corporal, en casos de alteraciones importantes en la composición corporal y/o el balance hídrico.

  16. Economic evaluation in collaborative hospital drug evaluation reports.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Ana; Fraga, María Dolores; Marín-Gil, Roberto; Lopez-Briz, Eduardo; Puigventós, Francesc; Dranitsaris, George

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: la evaluación económica es un criterio fundamental en el posicionamiento de medicamentos. El método MADRE (Método de Ayuda para la toma de Decisiones y la Realización de Evaluaciones de medicamentos) es ampliamente utilizado en la evaluación de medicamentos. Fue desarrollado por el grupo GENESIS de la Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria (SEFH), e incluye una evaluación económica. Con objeto de mejorar los aspectos económicos de este método, analizaremos la experiencia previa con esta metodología y propondremos mejoras. Método: revisión retrospectiva de las evaluaciones económicas en los informes de evaluación de medicamentos realizados de forma colaborativa (como SEFH) con el método MADRE. Resultados: se revisaron 32 informes, el 87,5% incluían una evaluación económica realizada por los autores y un 65,6% una publicada. El 90,6% incluían un análisis de impacto presupuestario. 14 informes incluían el coste por año de vida o por año de vida ganado ajustado por calidad. 23 informes recibieron alegaciones relacionadas con la evaluación económica. Las principales dificultades fueron: baja calidad de la evidencia en la población diana, falta de estudios comparativos con el comparador relevante, resultados finales no evaluados, falta de datos de calidad de vida, precio del medicamento no fijado, incertidumbre en la dosis y diferentes precios del medicamento. Conclusiones: mejoras propuestas: incorporar ayudas para inclusión de costes no farmacológicos, estimación de la supervivencia y adaptación de evaluaciones económicas publicadas; establecer criterios para: selección de precios, toma de decisiones en condiciones de incertidumbre o evidencia pobre, cálculo de dosis y umbrales de coste-efectividad en diferentes situaciones.

  17. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( < 0.05). Romosinuano direct effects (of the cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( < 0.05) for calves of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( < 0.05) than other groups. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( < 0.05) at all times but had more weight loss in late lactation. Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to

  18. Effects of Wind Energy Development on Nesting Ecology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Fragmented Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    McNew, Lance B; Hunt, Lyla M; Gregory, Andrew J; Wisely, Samantha M; Sandercock, Brett K

    2014-01-01

    ólica sobre la ecología reproductiva de las gallinas en un estudio de 5 años. Ubicamos 59 y 185 nidos antes y después del desarrollo, respectivamente, de una instalación de energía eólica de 201 MW en el hábitat de anidación de las gallinas y estudiamos la selección de sitio de anidación y la supervivencia de nidos en relación con la proximidad a la infraestructura y las condiciones de hábitat. La proximidad con las turbinas no afectó negativamente a la selección de sitios de anidación (β = -0.3, 95% CI = -0.6–0.1). En su lugar, la selección de sitios de anidación y la supervivencia estuvieron fuertemente relacionadas con la cobertura vegetal y otras condiciones locales determinadas por el manejo de la producción de ganado. La integración de los resultados de nuestro proyecto con reportes previos de la evitación conductual de instalaciones de petróleo y gas por otras especies de pastizales sugiere nuevas vías para que la investigación mitigue los impactos del desarrollo energético. PMID:24628394

  19. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    destaca la importancia de estudios de las enfermedades del ganado en pueblos de pastores nómadas porque pueden revelar fenómenos biológicos aún desconocidos y merecen ser investigados. PMID:23305273