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  1. Mothers of Gang Members Give Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Gwendolyn; McEvoy, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Three mothers whose children were connected to Dallas (Texas) gangs told their stories at the Fourth Joint National Conference on Gangs, Schools, and Community. It is said that gang members come from dysfunctional families, usually from homes where fathers are not present or involved in children's upbringing. In spite of a great deal of research…

  2. Predictors and Consequences of Gang Membership: Comparing Gang Members, Gang Leaders, and Non-Gang-Affiliated Adjudicated Youth

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieva, Julia; Gibson, Lauren; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex; Fagan, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This 7-year study of 1,170 male adjudicated youth examined how self-esteem, psychopathy, and psychosocial maturity relate to gang status (low-level member, leader, and non-gang member). Low temperance, perspective, and responsibility predicted being a low-level gang member, whereas only lower temperance predicted being a gang leader. Low self-esteem predicted gang membership (low-level and high-level) at a younger age (i.e., during adolescence). However, higher self-esteem and grandiose-manipulative traits predicted being a gang leader during young adulthood. Over time, low-level members became more psychopathic and less psychosocially mature. Gang leaders also became more psychopathic and undercontrolled (as indicted by lower temperance). However, their perspective and responsibility aspects of psychosocial maturity were not affected. PMID:27087767

  3. Neighborhood Variation in Gang Member Concentrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Charles M.; Schnebly, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighborhood structure, violent crime, and concentrations of gang members at the neighborhood level. We rely on official police gang list data, police crime data, and two waves of decennial census data characterizing the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of 93 neighborhoods in Mesa, Arizona.…

  4. Pride and prejudice in high school gang members.

    PubMed

    Wang, A Y

    1994-01-01

    This study compared gang versus nongang high school students along measures of self-esteem, racial attitudes, and their self-professed role models. A total of 78 Caucasian (65 nongang and 13 gang members) and 77 African-American students (41 nongang and 36 gang members) participated. Results indicated that gang members had significantly lower levels of self-esteem compared to their nongang peers. All students, regardless of ethnicity, manifested negative racial stereotyping toward racial outgroups; gang members were not more racially prejudiced compared to other students. The role model data revealed that overall, gang members could name fewer role models than did their nongang peers. African-American students who were not gang members were much more likely to mention a parent or teacher as a role model. A regression analysis indicated that the absence of parental or teacher roles models was the best predictor of gang membership. These results are conceptualized within the framework provided by social identity theory.

  5. DIFFERENT STROKES FOR DIFFERENT GANGS? AN ANALYSIS OF CAPITAL AMONG LATINO AND ASIAN GANG MEMBERS

    PubMed Central

    PIH, KAY KEI-HO; DE LA ROSA, MARIO; RUGH, DOUGLAS; MAO, KUORAY

    2009-01-01

    Gang activity and membership were noted to be significantly related to financial rewards. As such, gang membership and gang activity should also be understood from an economic perspective. In this article, Pierre Bourdieu's framework of capital is used to analyze two separate samples of Latino and Asian gang members. Stark contrasts in socioeconomic backgrounds are recorded among the two samples of gang members, and gang membership and activities are also noticeably dissimilar. Accessibility to economic, cultural, and social capital is argued to affect gang membership and activities. The results suggest that the availability of legitimate and illegitimate capital greatly affects the trajectory and the length of gang involvement. Also, gangs provide significant material and social capital for the respondents of the study. PMID:19578563

  6. Becoming a Gang Member: Youth Life and Gang Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morch, Sven; Andersen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding the growth in youth gangs and gang behaviour. The paper builds on a youth theory perspective and describes how the social conditions work with or are against the young individual in such a way that gangs seem to be an option or an answer for some young people when faced with…

  7. Gender differences in juvenile gang members: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hayward, R Anna; Honegger, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, gang membership within the United States has continued to rise and has spread from urban centers to suburban and rural areas. Juvenile gang membership is of particular concern because of the relationship between early gang involvement and later adolescent and adult criminal behavior and incarceration. Female gang membership and affiliation are receiving increased attention as female crime and incarceration rates outpace those of their male counterparts. This study explores gender differences between male and female juveniles who have verified gang membership in one suburban jurisdiction. Findings suggest important differences between males and females, and implications for research and practice are discussed.

  8. Treatment of gang members can reduce recidivism and institutional misconduct.

    PubMed

    Di Placido, Chantal; Simon, Terri L; Witte, Treena D; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2006-02-01

    Gang violence creates serious safety and security concerns in the community and prisons. Treated gang and nongang members recidivated significantly less in a 24-month follow-up than their untreated matched controls. Treatment consisted of high intensity cognitive-behavioral programs that follow the risk, need, and responsivity principles (Andrews & Bonta, 2003). The treated gang members who recidivated violently after treatment received significantly shorter sentences (i.e. they committed less serious offences) than their untreated matched controls. Untreated gang members had significantly higher rates of major (but not minor) institutional offences than the other three groups. Correctional treatment that follows the risk, need and responsivity principles appears able to reduce recidivism and major institutional misconduct. Effective correctional treatment should be considered as one of the approaches in the management and rehabilitation of incarcerated gang members.

  9. The Road to Gang Membership: Characteristics of Male Gang and Nongang Members from Ages 10 to 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Wendy M.; Vitaro, Frank; Gagnon, Claude; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined stability of gang membership in early adolescence, concurrent behaviors, family characteristics, friendships, and school attitudes of stable and unstable gang and nongang members. Found that stable gang members, compared to nongang members, had higher teacher ratings of fighting behavior, hyperactivity, inattention and oppositional…

  10. Mentoring Siblings of Gang Members: A Template for Reaching Families of Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Juanjo; Ralphs, Robert; Aldridge, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Mentoring has become a popular model of intervention to reduce the risk of offending, and has been proposed as an effective tool to tackle the risk of gang membership. This paper reviews the existing literature on mentoring and reports on a qualitative evaluation of a mentoring programme targeted at young people "at risk" of gang membership in an…

  11. "Getting High and Getting By": Dimensions of Drug Selling Behaviors among American Mexican Gang Members in South Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members' drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and…

  12. Drug use and treatment success among gang and non-gang members in El Salvador: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article focuses on examining drug abuse treatment (DAT) in El Salvador highlighting gang vs. non-gang membership differences in drug use and treatment outcomes. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs were employed to examine the study aims. The 19 centers that met the study’s inclusion criteria of one year or less in planned treatment offered varying treatment services: individual, group, family, and vocational therapy, dual diagnosis treatment, psychological testing, 12-step program, and outreach and re-entry aftercare. Most directors describe their treatment approach as “spiritual.” Data were collected from 625 patients, directors, and staff from the 19 centers at baseline, of which 34 patients were former gang members. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the former patients (448) were re-interviewed six-months after leaving treatment and 48% were randomly tested for drug use. Results Eighty-nine percent (89%) of the DAT patients at baseline were classified as heavy alcohol users and 40% were using illegal drugs, i.e., crack, marijuana, cocaine, tranquilizers, opiates, and amphetamines. There were large decreases after treatment in heavy alcohol and illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activities. Gang members reported illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activity more than non-gang members, yet only 5% of the study participants were gang members; further, positive change in treatment outcomes among gang members were the same or larger as compared to non-gang members. Conclusions Alcohol use is the drug of choice among DAT patients in El Salvador with gang member patients having used illegal drugs more than non-gang members. The study shows that DAT centers successfully reduced the use of illegal drugs and alcohol among gang and non-gang members. Although our study could not include a control group, we believe that the DAT treatment centers in El Salvador contributed to producing this treatment success among

  13. THE PATH AND PROMISE OF FATHERHOOD FOR GANG MEMBERS

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Molly; MacKenzie, Kathleen; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2009-01-01

    While an increase in research on criminal desistance has occurred in recent years, little research has been applied to the gang field. Using qualitative interview data, this article examines fatherhood as a potential turning point in the lives of 91 gang members in the San Francisco Bay Area. Fatherhood initiated important subjective and affective transformations that led to changes in outlook, priorities and future orientation. However, these subjective changes were not sufficient unless accompanied by two additional features: first, changes in the amount of time spent on the streets and, second, an ability to support oneself or one’s family with legal income. Though fatherhood is no panacea, becoming a father did act as an important turning point toward desistance and motivator for change for some. PMID:20046970

  14. “GETTING HIGH AND GETTING BY”: DIMENSIONS OF DRUG SELLING BEHAVIORS AMONG AMERICAN MEXICAN GANG MEMBERS IN SOUTH TEXAS

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This article discerns the role that Mexican American gang members play in drug markets, and the relationship between gang members’drug use and drug selling in South Texas. A four-part typology based on the two dimensions of gang type and gang member emerged from this qualitative analysis of 160 male gang members: Homeboys, Hustlers, Slangers, and Ballers. Major findings include the following: (1) many gang members are user/sellers and are not profit-oriented dealers, (2) gangs commonly do extend “protection” to drug-selling members, and (3) proximity to Mexican drug markets, adult prison gangs, and criminal family members may play important roles in whether these gang members have access and the profit potential to actually deal drugs. This research contributes to our complex intersections between gangs, drug using, and drug selling. PMID:21218191

  15. Assessing the Validity of Self-Reports by Gang Members: Results from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Vincent J.; Katz, Charles M.; Decker, Scott H.

    2006-01-01

    Scholars who study criminal and delinquent behavior rely on the self-report method for measuring crime and delinquency. Gang researchers also rely on the self-report method for determining gang involvement and measuring criminal and delinquent behavior of gang members. This study examines disclosure rates of recent drug use by gang members in…

  16. Epidemiological criminology: drug use among African American gang members.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''

  17. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  18. Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

  19. 76 FR 61279 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 212, 247, and 252 RIN 0750-AG25 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Member (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD is adopting...

  20. 75 FR 65437 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 212, 247, and 252 RIN 0750-AG81 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Cargo Riding Gang Members (DFARS Case 2007-D002) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Interim rule with request for...

  1. "Deterrability" among Gang and Nongang Juvenile Offenders: Are Gang Members More (or Less) Deterrable than Other Juvenile Offenders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxson, Cheryl L.; Matsuda, Kristy N.; Hennigan, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the threat of legal sanctions on intentions to commit three types of offenses with a representative sample of 744 officially adjudicated youth with varying histories of offenses and gang involvement. In a departure from previous research, the authors find small severity effects for property crimes that are not…

  2. Modern-Day Youth Gangs. OJJDP, Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Gleason, Debra K.

    This report draws on data from the 1996 and 1998 National Youth Gang Surveys to compare the characteristics of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions with later onset of gang problems with those of gangs and gang members with earlier onset of gang problems. The survey asked respondents from law enforcement agencies to describe when gangs began to…

  3. Life-Course Events, Social Networks, and the Emergence of Violence among Female Gang Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisher, Mark S.; Krienert, Jessie L.

    2004-01-01

    Using data gathered from a multi-year field study, this article identifies specific life-course events shared by gang-affiliated women. Gangs emerge as a cultural adaptation or pro-social community response to poverty and racial isolation. Through the use of a social-network approach, data show that violence dramatically increases in the period…

  4. Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

  5. Resource Brief: Gangs. Inquiry Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2013-01-01

    After a period of decline, gang membership and gang activity are on the increase in the United States. Recent Department of Justice figures indicate that there are currently over 26,000 gangs involving over 800,000 members active in virtually every community in the nation. No longer territorial, gang activity extends from the most impoverished and…

  6. Combating Gangs: Better Coordination and Performance Measurement Would Help Clarify Roles of Federal Agencies and Strengthen Assessment of Efforts. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-09-708

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Justice (DOJ) estimates that the United States has about a million gang members. While state and local agencies have primary responsibility for combating gang crime, the federal government has key roles to enforce laws and help fund programs to provide alternatives to gang membership for at-risk youth. GAO was asked to examine…

  7. A Comparison between Mexican American Youth Who Are in Gangs and Those Who Are Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Hugo A.; Kinnier, Richard T.; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study compares the differences between 43 Mexican American gang members and 43 Mexican American adolescents who are not members of a gang on several demographic, educational, familial, cultural, and psychological variables. Differences were analyzed using "t" tests and chi-square analyses. discussion focuses on implications for…

  8. Implications of agricultural land use change to ecosystem services in the Ganges delta.

    PubMed

    Islam, G M Tarekul; Islam, A K M Saiful; Shopan, Ahsan Azhar; Rahman, Md Munsur; Lázár, Attila N; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban

    2015-09-15

    Ecosystems provide the basis for human civilization and natural capital for green economy and sustainable development. Ecosystem services may range from crops, fish, freshwater to those that are harder to see such as erosion regulation, carbon sequestration, and pest control. Land use changes have been identified as the main sources of coastal and marine pollution in Bangladesh. This paper explores the temporal variation of agricultural land use change and its implications with ecosystem services in the Ganges delta. With time agricultural lands have been decreased and wetlands have been increased at a very high rate mainly due to the growing popularity of saltwater shrimp farming. In a span of 28 years, the agricultural lands have been reduced by approximately 50%, while the wetlands have been increased by over 500%. A large portion (nearly 40%) of the study area is covered by the Sundarbans which remained almost constant which can be attributed to the strict regulatory intervention to preserve the Sundarbans. The settlement & others land use type has also been increased to nearly 5%. There is a gradual uptrend of shrimp and fish production in the study area. The findings suggest that there are significant linkages between agricultural land use change and ecosystem services in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh. The continuous decline of agricultural land (due to salinization) and an increase of wetland have been attributed to the conversion of agricultural land into shrimp farming in the study area. Such land use change requires significant capital, therefore, only investors and wealthier land owners can get the higher profit from the land conversion while the poor people is left with the environmental consequences that affect their long-term lives and livelihood. An environmental management plan is proposed for sustainable land use in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh.

  9. Gangs, clubs, and alcohol: The effect of organizational membership on adolescent drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael

    2016-07-01

    How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations. PMID:27194666

  10. The Origins of Navajo Youth Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Eric; Kunitz, Stephen J.; Levy, Jerrold E.

    1999-01-01

    Extended interviews with 50 Navajo men, aged 21 to 45, provided information on peer relationships and gang formation among male Navajo youth in the 1960s through the 1980s. Results suggest that gangs are an extreme example of traditional hell-raising among young Navajo men and that most gang members "age out" of their gangs. Suggestions for gang…

  11. Highlights of the 2007 National Youth Gang Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egley, Jr., Arlen; O'Donnell, Christina E.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents findings from the 2007 National Youth Gang Survey. Data on the number of gangs, gang members, and gang-related homicides in larger cities, suburban counties, smaller cities, and rural counties are provided to accurately reflect youth gang activity in the United States. Based on survey results, it is estimated that nearly 3,550…

  12. The Impact of Gang Formation on Local Patterns of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tita, George; Ridgeway, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that even after controlling for individual level attributes, individuals who join gangs commit more crimes than do nongang members. Furthermore, the offending level of gang members is higher when they report being active members of the gang. Therefore, gang membership clearly facilitates offending above and beyond…

  13. Youth Gang Membership and Serious Violent Victimization: The Importance of Lifestyles and Routine Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Youth gangs have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. Although most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, recent studies have examined the victimization of youth gang members relative to their non-gang peers. Gang members generally have been found to be at…

  14. National Youth Gang Survey, 1998. OJJDP Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Tallahassee, FL. National Youth Gang Center.

    This summary provides results from the 1998 National Youth Gang Survey, administered to a representative sample of city and county police and sheriff's departments nationwide. Results indicate that the percentage of jurisdictions reporting active youth gangs decreased from 51 percent in 1997 to 48 percent in 1998. About 780,200 gang members were…

  15. Understanding the Black Box of Gang Organization: Implications for Involvement in Violent Crime, Drug Sales, and Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott H.; Katz, Charles M.; Webb, Vincent J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of gang organization on several behavioral measures. Using interview data from juvenile detention facilities in three Arizona sites, this article examines the relationship between gang organizational structure and involvement in violent crime, drug sales, victimization, and arrest. The gang literature suggests…

  16. Female Gangs: A Focus on Research. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Joan; Hagedorn, John

    This report summarizes past and current research on female gangs, noting programmatic and research needs. Seven sections include: "Early Reports: A History of Stereotypes"; "Number of Female Gang Members"; "Being in a Gang: The Background" (economic and ethnic forces, family pressure, and sex stereotyping and victimization); "Delinquency and…

  17. Homicidal Events Among Mexican American Street Gangs

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Kaplan, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complexity of street gang homicides and focuses on situational factors that lead to gang members’ susceptibility to this violent behavior within the context of a disadvantaged minority community. This study is based on an analysis of 28 homicides involving Mexican American gang members. The absence of immigrant youth involvement in these types of violent crimes is discussed. Findings demonstrate how locally embedded social processes associated with specific gang types, ecology, drugs, circumstances, and motives unfold into homicidal events. These findings may contribute to the development of street-based social programs focused on gang mediation, dispute resolution, and crisis intervention. PMID:21218188

  18. Gang membership of California middle school students: behaviors and attitudes as mediators of school violence.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2013-08-01

    Empirical evidence examining how risk and protective behaviors may possibly mediate the association between gang membership and school violence is limited. This study utilizes a statewide representative sample of 152 023 Latino, Black and White seventh graders from California to examine a theoretical model of how school risk (e.g. truancy, school substance use and risky peer approval) and protective (e.g. connectedness, support and safety) behaviors and attitudes mediate the effects of gang membership on school violence behaviors. The dataset was collected in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 academic school years using the ongoing large-scale California Healthy Kids Survey conducted by WestEd for the State of California. Approximately 9.5% of the sample considered themselves to be a member of a gang. The findings indicate that school risk behaviors and attitudes mediate the association between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Although the direct negative association between gang membership and school violence perpetration is weak, the positive indirect effect mediated by school risks behaviors and attitudes is strong. This indicates that when gang members engage in school risk behaviors, they are much more likely to be school violence perpetrators. Implications for further research, theory and practice for both gang and school violence researchers are discussed.

  19. Gang Membership and Pathways to Maladaptive Parenting.

    PubMed

    Augustyn, Megan Bears; Thornberry, Terence P; Krohn, Marvin D

    2014-06-01

    A limited amount of research examines the short-term consequences of gang membership. Rarer, though, is the examination of more distal consequences of gang membership. This is unfortunate because it understates the true detrimental effect of gang membership across the life course, as well as the effects it may have on children of former gang members. Using data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, this work investigates the impact of gang membership in adolescence (ages 12-18) on a particularly problematic style of parenting, child maltreatment. Using discrete time survival analysis, this study finds that gang membership increases the likelihood of child maltreatment and this relationship is mediated by the more proximal outcomes of gang membership during adolescence, precocious transitions to adulthood.

  20. Gang Membership and Pathways to Maladaptive Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Augustyn, Megan Bears; Thornberry, Terence P.; Krohn, Marvin D.

    2014-01-01

    A limited amount of research examines the short-term consequences of gang membership. Rarer, though, is the examination of more distal consequences of gang membership. This is unfortunate because it understates the true detrimental effect of gang membership across the life course, as well as the effects it may have on children of former gang members. Using data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, this work investigates the impact of gang membership in adolescence (ages 12-18) on a particularly problematic style of parenting, child maltreatment. Using discrete time survival analysis, this study finds that gang membership increases the likelihood of child maltreatment and this relationship is mediated by the more proximal outcomes of gang membership during adolescence, precocious transitions to adulthood. PMID:24883000

  1. RESPECT: Gang Mediation at Albuquerque, New Mexico's Washington Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabish, Kenneth R.; Orell, Linda Henry

    1996-01-01

    Presents conflict resolution and mediation techniques used to resolve conflicts among rival gangs at Washington Middle School, an inner-city school in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Discusses formal mediation techniques and mediation for both male and female gang members. Focuses on preserving self-respect and dignity for gang members in all conflict…

  2. Predicting involvement in prison gang activity: street gang membership, social and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jane L; Alleyne, Emma; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether street gang membership, psychological factors, and social factors such as preprison experiences could predict young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Data were collected via individual interviews with 188 young offenders held in a Young Offenders Institution in the United Kingdom. Results showed that psychological factors such as the value individuals attached to social status, a social dominance orientation, and antiauthority attitudes were important in predicting young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Further important predictors included preimprisonment events such as levels of threat, levels of individual delinquency, and levels of involvement in group crime. Longer current sentences also predicted involvement in prison gang activity. However, street gang membership was not an important predictor of involvement in prison gang activity. These findings have implications for identifying prisoners involved in prison gang activity and for considering the role of psychological factors and group processes in gang research.

  3. Confronting youth gangs in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang violence has continued its upward trend nationwide. It was once thought that gangs convened only in selected areas, which left churches, schools, and hospitals as "neutral" territory. Unfortunately, this is a fallacy. The results of gang violence pour into hospitals and into intensive care units regularly. The media portrays California as having a gang violence problem; however, throughout the United States, gang violence has risen more than 35% in the past year. Youth gang violence continues to rise dramatically with more and more of our youth deciding to join gangs each day. Sadly, every state has gangs, and the problem is getting much worse in areas that would never have thought about gangs a year ago. These "new generation" of gang members is younger, much more violent, and staying in the gang longer. Gangs are not just an urban problem. Gang activity is a suburban and rural problem too. There are more than 25 500 gangs in the United States, with a total gang membership of 850 000. Ninety-four percent of gang members are male and 6% are female. The ethnic composition nationwide includes 47% Latino, 31% African American, 13% White, 7% Asian, and 2% "mixed," according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result of the ongoing proliferation of youth street gangs in our communities, it is imperative that critical care nurses and others involved with the direct care become educated about how to identify gang members, their activities, and understand their motivations. Such education and knowledge will help provide solutions to families and the youth themselves, help eradicate the problem of gang violence, and keep health care professionals safe.

  4. The simulated drinking gang: an experimental model for the study of a systems approach to alcoholism. II. Findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Steinglass, P

    1975-08-01

    Data analysis involved data from three different sources, the Cooperative Task Device (CTD), the commodity dispensing machine, and a Stephenson Breathalyzer (for blood alcohol determinations). Data were analyzed on three different levels: individual, dyadic, and whole group. Results are presented for work performance, role performance, commodity purchase patterns, comparisons of work and purchase patterns, and correlations of work time with work efficiency and blood alcohol levels. Marked discrepancies in individual and dyadic work performance were found in all three groups and there was no relationship between chips earned and chips spent. The "drinking gangs" seemed quite willing to tolerate "freeloading" when it occurred. Role performance at the CTD was inconsistent; individuals for the most part fluctuated in their role performance rather than remaining in a stable role, e.g., leader. There was no demonstrable correlation between work time at the CTD and either work efficiency or blood alcohol levels. Lastly, dyadic formation vis-à-vis work performance showed considerable fluctuation over time. Group members did not pair off into consistent and stable dyads when playing the CTD. These findings are discussed from the point of view of the series of alternative hypotheses presented in part I. It is maintained that the data are inconsistent with all of these hypotheses, but that they do help to substantiate and are consistent with the concept of the "drinking system."

  5. Gang Membership as a Risk Factor for Adolescent Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Terrance J.; Peterson, Dana; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Freng, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Youth gangs and violence have received substantial scholarly and public attention during the past two decades. While most of the extant research on youth gang members has focused on their offending behaviors, few quantitative studies have been conducted to examine the link between gang membership and violent victimization. The current study uses…

  6. Working Together To Erase Gangs in Our Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consortium on Alternatives for Youth at Risk, Inc., Sarasota, FL.

    A common misconception about gangs is that they resemble past images of motorcycle riders. Society is now faced with what are called "hybrid" gangs whose members are usually 14 to 16 years of age, who dress conservatively, who display subtle gang identifiers, and who are motivated by a combination of profit and poor family life. This booklet…

  7. Youth Gangs, Delinquency and Drug Use: A Test of the Selection, Facilitation, and Enhancement Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Uberto; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; McDuff, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Background: Three different explanations have been given for the observation that adolescent gang members report more delinquent behaviour than their counterparts who do not affiliate with gangs: a) adolescents who commit more crimes join gangs (selection hypothesis); b) gang membership facilitates deviant behaviour (facilitation hypothesis); c)…

  8. Guidelines for School and Community Cooperation: Implementation on a Gang Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ronnie; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Youth gangs are not a new phenomena in the United States; however, in the past decade the number of gang members has increased dramatically. Gang prevention-intervention programs are a necessary part of every school's curriculum. Students join gangs for a variety of reasons ranging from boredom to intent on criminal behavior. One characteristic…

  9. Ganges Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a high resolution view of portions of the lobes of several landslide deposits in Ganges Chasma. Dark material near the bottom (south) end of the image is windblown sand.

    Location near: 8.2oS, 44.3oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  10. Ganges Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03681 Ganges Landslide

    Two large landslides dominate this image of part of Ganges Chasma. The eroded surface of an old landslide covers the north half of the image, while a more recent landslide occurs to the south.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7N, Longitude 310.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. D-TAG: erasing the tag of gang membership.

    PubMed

    Gurke, B; Armstrong, M L

    1997-04-01

    Gangs are noted for establishing their territory, flaunting gang affiliation, intimidating nonmembers, and documenting their "services performed." These examples are a few reasons for the practice of "tagging," the labeling of an area, person, or object with gang-related graffiti or markings, such as tattoos. This article describes a school nurse's response to gang "tagging" and her efforts to assist former gang members who request removal of their tattoos, to get them removed-in essence to D-TAG themselves from their gang affiliation. D-TAG is a volunteer rehabilitation program utilizing family and community interaction to support gang tattoo removal and direct activities away from gang affiliations toward alternative educational programs and life styles.

  12. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, M. S.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951-2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well

  13. Spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins to ENSO and Indian Ocean dipole modes: implications for flooding and drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffry M.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the spatial and seasonal responses of precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins as modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) modes using Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) full data reanalysis of monthly global land-surface precipitation data from 1901 to 2010 with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The GPCC monthly total precipitation climatology targeting the period 1951–2000 was used to compute gridded monthly anomalies for the entire time period. The gridded monthly anomalies were averaged for the years influenced by combinations of climate modes. Occurrences of El Niño alone significantly reduce (88% of the long-term average (LTA)) precipitation during the monsoon months in the western and southeastern Ganges Basin. In contrast, occurrences of La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events significantly enhance (110 and 109% of LTA in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Basin, respectively) precipitation across both basins. When El Niño co-occurs with positive IOD events, the impacts of El Niño on the basins' precipitation diminishes. When there is no active ENSO or IOD events (occurring in 41 out of 110 years), precipitation remains below average (95% of LTA) in the agriculturally intensive areas of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Western Nepal in the Ganges Basin, whereas precipitation remains average to above average (104% of LTA) across the Brahmaputra Basin. This pattern implies that a regular water deficit is likely, especially in the Ganges Basin, with implications for the agriculture sector due to its reliance on consistent rainfall for successful production. Historically, major droughts occurred during El Niño and co-occurrences of El Niño and positive IOD events, while major flooding occurred during La Niña and co-occurrences of La Niña and negative IOD events in the basins. This observational analysis will facilitate well

  14. Ganges Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA06373 Ganges Chasma

    This image was collected December 8, 2002 during southern winter season. The local time at the image location was about 4:45 pm. The image shows an area of the floor of Ganges Chasma and shows dark dunes and brighter wind sculpted hills of unknown origin.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.7N, Longitude 313.3E (46.7 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary

  15. Gender and Gang Membership: A Contrast of Rural and Urban Youth on Attitudes and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of gender and gang membership to latent variables of psychosocial characteristics, drug use, delinquency, weapons possession, and fear within rural and urban Colorado school districts. Surveys of 1,669 self-reported gang members and 1,742 non-gang members indicated that gender was related more strongly to the latent…

  16. Gangs and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Richard; Erickson, Edsel

    This book explores the U.S. gang problem, based on the author's 35 years of experience as a high school and junior high school teacher, principal, and community organizer in Oakland and Los Angeles (California). Chapters discuss the subculture of gang worlds, reasons why youth are attracted to gangs, how educators can reach out to students, the…

  17. The Professor of Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh

    1993-01-01

    Martin Sanchez Jankowski conducted a 10-year study of gangs of varying ethnicity in three major cities, with a focus on New York City and Los Angeles (California). The center of his research has been in low-income areas, where gangs have been an institution for more than 150 years. Jankowski acquired experience by living with gangs from a variety…

  18. The Gang Intervention Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P., Ed.; Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides overviews and evaluations of current juvenile-gang-intervention programs and recommends approaches that have been effective in both prevention and rehabilitation. Its three parts, composed of individual essays, examine patterns of ganging and gang intervention, explore the value of psychology-based interventions, and discuss the…

  19. Gang Identifiers and Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails. Also…

  20. MEXICAN AMERICAN YOUTH AND ADULT PRISON GANGS IN A CHANGING HEROIN MARKET

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community’s drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to extensions of the adult prison gangs or their demise. Data was collected from 160 members of 26 Mexican American youth gangs and key informants in San Antonio. Findings focus on organizational rules, drug market transformations, consequences on members, and the impact of heroin on the gang’s organization. Discussed is how the dominance of prison gangs is related to the increased incarceration and recidivism rates of Mexican Americans and declining economic opportunities for urban minorities. PMID:21614143

  1. The Developmental Dynamics of Joining a Gang in Adolescence: Patterns and Predictors of Gang Membership.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Amanda B; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David; Howell, James C; Kosterman, Rick

    2014-06-01

    Researchers have examined the predictors of adolescent gang membership, finding significant factors in the neighborhood, family, school, peers, and individual domains. However, little is known about whether risk and protective factors differ in predictive salience at different developmental periods. The present study examines predictors of joining a gang, tests whether these factors have different effects at different ages, and whether they differ by gender using the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) sample (n=808). By age 19, 173 participants had joined a gang. Using survival analysis, results showed that unique predictors of gang membership onset included living with a gang member, antisocial neighborhood, and antisocial peer influences in the previous year. No time or gender interactions with predictors were statistically significant.

  2. Combating Gangs: Federal Agencies Have Implemented a Central American Gang Strategy, but Could Strengthen Oversight and Measurement of Efforts. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-395

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larence, Eileen R.

    2010-01-01

    Thousands of gang members in the United States belong to gangs such as MS-13 and 18th Street that are also active in Central American countries. Federal entities with responsibilities for addressing Central American gangs include the National Security Council (NSC); the Departments of Homeland Security (DHS), Justice (DOJ), and State; and the U.S.…

  3. Gang truce for violence prevention, El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, EC; Amaya, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the effects on homicide rates of the gang truce that was brokered in El Salvador in 2012. Methods Mathematical models based on municipal-level census, crime and gang-intelligence data were used to estimate the effect of the truce on homicide rates. One model estimated the overall effect after accounting for the linear trend and seasonality in the homicide rate. In a moderated-effect model, we investigated the relationship between the truce effect and the numbers of MS13 (Mara Salvatrucha 13) and Eighteenth-Street gang members imprisoned per 100 000 population. We then ran each of these two models with additional control variables. We compared values before the truce – 1 January 2010 to 29 February 2012 – with those after the truce – 1 March 2012 to 31 December 2013. Findings The overall-effect models with and without additional control variables indicated a homicide rate after the truce that was significantly lower than the value before the truce, giving rate ratios of 0.55 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.49–0.63) and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.54–0.69), respectively. For any given municipality, the effectiveness of the truce appeared to increase as the number of MS13 gang members imprisoned per 100 000 population increased. We did not observe the same significant relationship for imprisoned Eighteenth-Street gang members. Conclusion In the 22 months following the establishment of a national gang truce, the homicide rate was about 40% lower than in the preceding 26 months. The truce’s impact appeared particularly strong in municipalities with relatively high numbers of imprisoned MS13 gang members per 100 000 population. PMID:27708471

  4. Lithium isotope fractionation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain and implications for groundwater impact on seawater isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagard, Marie-Laure; West, A. Joshua; Newman, Karla; Basu, Asish R.

    2015-12-01

    Lithium isotopes are a promising proxy for reconstructing past weathering processes, but unraveling the seawater record requires a comprehensive understanding of the magnitude and isotopic composition of Li fluxes to the oceans, and of how these change over time. Little information is available on the role of floodplain sediments and groundwater systems in setting the Li isotope signature of the dissolved flux delivered from the continents to the oceans. Here we investigate the Li dissolved fluxes of river waters and groundwaters in the Ganges-Brahmaputra floodplain. The data suggest that a maximum of 3.1 ×108 and 1.5 ×108 moles Li/yr are carried to the Bay of Bengal by Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers and groundwaters, respectively. The riverine flux has a significantly heavier Li isotope composition (average δ7Li: 26‰) than the groundwater flux (average δ7Li: 16‰) and increases downstream across the floodplain. δ7Li in both river waters and shallow groundwater can be explained by Li scavenging by Quaternary floodplain sediments following a Rayleigh fractionation process, with preferential removal of 6Li. On the other hand, deep groundwaters (>40 m) contributing to submarine groundwater discharge to the Bay of Bengal are enriched in 6Li at depth, likely due to the dissolution of floodplain sediments releasing Li with a light isotope composition. Similarly low δ7Li has been reported in other large sedimentary aquifers. The deep groundwater values are close to the average isotope composition of the global Li inputs to the ocean (∼15‰), so groundwater submarine discharge has only a minor influence on the assessment of the modern Li isotope budget of the ocean. Our analysis further suggests that groundwater discharge of Li has probably played at most a small and secondary role in past changes in the isotope composition of the total continental flux of Li to the ocean.

  5. Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerregaard, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…

  6. Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth; Anderson, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    Positive individual and social behaviors were assessed among male gang members and males involved in community-based organizations aimed at promoting positive youth development. Correlations of attribute scores were more often significant for the gang than for the nongang youth. Approximately one-quarter of the gang youth had total positive…

  7. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gang Involvement among Urban African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Pack, Robert; Harris, Carole; Cottrell, Lesley; Burns, James

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed data about urban African American youth to explore whether differences in exposure to violence, resilience, and distress symptoms between gang members and nonmembers resulted from risk behaviors in which youths participated or from gang membership itself. Results indicated that gang membership itself related to increased risk and…

  8. The Core Ideals of the Mexican American Gang Living the Presentation of Defiance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Current approaches to designing antigang policies overemphasize the notion that criminality is the defining characteristic of gangs and that solutions require a get-tough approach. As an ex-gang member, I conducted a five-year ethnographic study and a fourteen-year informal study of Mexican American street gangs in two Southwestern states to…

  9. Are the risk and protective factors similar for gang-involved, pressured-to-join, and non-gang-involved youth? A social-ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Merrin, Gabriel J; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the risk and protective factors for gang involvement among subgroups of youth (i.e., current or former gang members, youth who resisted gang membership, and non-gang-involved youth) using the social-ecological framework. Middle and high school students (N = 17,366) from school districts in a large Midwestern county participated. Results indicated that males were more likely than females to be involved in gangs. For the individual context, our findings indicate that racial and ethnic minorities, females, and youth with depression/suicidal ideation are likely to be at risk for gang involvement. For the family context, we found that having gang-involved family members and family dysfunction are related to youth gang involvement. For the peer context, peers' alcohol and drug use and bullying were significantly associated with gang involvement. For the school context, as our results demonstrate, youth who perceived fair treatment from teachers and other adults in school and those with a sense of belonging in school are more likely to avoid gang membership. For the neighborhood context, we found that presence of adult support in the neighborhood and perceived neighborhood safety are negatively associated with gang membership. Findings suggest that gang prevention efforts need to target multiple ecologies that surround and influence youth. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Are the risk and protective factors similar for gang-involved, pressured-to-join, and non-gang-involved youth? A social-ecological analysis.

    PubMed

    Merrin, Gabriel J; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the risk and protective factors for gang involvement among subgroups of youth (i.e., current or former gang members, youth who resisted gang membership, and non-gang-involved youth) using the social-ecological framework. Middle and high school students (N = 17,366) from school districts in a large Midwestern county participated. Results indicated that males were more likely than females to be involved in gangs. For the individual context, our findings indicate that racial and ethnic minorities, females, and youth with depression/suicidal ideation are likely to be at risk for gang involvement. For the family context, we found that having gang-involved family members and family dysfunction are related to youth gang involvement. For the peer context, peers' alcohol and drug use and bullying were significantly associated with gang involvement. For the school context, as our results demonstrate, youth who perceived fair treatment from teachers and other adults in school and those with a sense of belonging in school are more likely to avoid gang membership. For the neighborhood context, we found that presence of adult support in the neighborhood and perceived neighborhood safety are negatively associated with gang membership. Findings suggest that gang prevention efforts need to target multiple ecologies that surround and influence youth. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26594921

  11. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates of use for a variety of illegal substances (De La Rosa, Rugh, & Rice, 2006; Hagedorn, Torres, & Giglio, 1998; Hunt, Jo-Laidler, & Evans, 2002; Mata et al., 2002; Valdez, Kaplan, & Cepeda, 2006). Gang youth, however, have differential attitudes towards the use of various illegal drugs. Marijuana, for instance, has remained a staple within gang culture, but the use of other drugs has been heavily stigmatized, especially heroin, methamphetamine, and crack cocaine (MacKenzie, Hunt, & Joe-Laidler, 2005; Moore, 1978; Taylor, 1990; Waldorf, 1993). Perspectives with good explanatory power should be flexible enough to elucidate these distinctions regarding illicit substance use patterns and preferences. PMID:25221432

  12. A Second's Chance: Gang Violence Task Force prevention program.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K Michael; Griner, Devan; Guarino, Michelle; Drabik-Medeiros, Bernie; Williams, Kristy

    2012-01-01

    We describe a gang violence intervention and define targets for prevention. At-risk youths were identified through courts, public schools, and law enforcement regarding gang-related activities. They participated in "A Second's Chance," a true-to-life mock emergency department resuscitation and death of a gang member provided over an 18-month period. A questionnaire was completed by each participant. Forty-nine youths identified as at risk for gang involvement participated (37 male and 12 female, P < 0.001). Average age was 14.5 years (range, 10 to 19 years); 32 were black, 9 Hispanic, 6 white, and 2 other (P < 0.05). Seventeen (35%) had prior arrests (P = 0.059), 13 (77%) of whom had multiple arrests (P < 0.05). Forty-one (84%) reported a family member jailed (P < 0.001). Forty-two (86%) witnessed neighborhood criminal drug activity (P < 0.001). Household leadership was predominately maternal (24 [49%], (P < 0.05). Forty-four (90%) participants provided positive meaningful responses to the intervention (P < 0.001). Gang violence prevention should be channeled through maternal family members. History of incarcerated relatives, acquaintances, and neighborhood exposure to drugs and crime may represent additional risk factors for gang-related involvement. Demonstrations of gang violence scenarios raise awareness to consequences of gang-related activities. Family and neighborhood characteristics should be included in development of intervention scenarios.

  13. A Second's Chance: Gang Violence Task Force prevention program.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K Michael; Griner, Devan; Guarino, Michelle; Drabik-Medeiros, Bernie; Williams, Kristy

    2012-01-01

    We describe a gang violence intervention and define targets for prevention. At-risk youths were identified through courts, public schools, and law enforcement regarding gang-related activities. They participated in "A Second's Chance," a true-to-life mock emergency department resuscitation and death of a gang member provided over an 18-month period. A questionnaire was completed by each participant. Forty-nine youths identified as at risk for gang involvement participated (37 male and 12 female, P < 0.001). Average age was 14.5 years (range, 10 to 19 years); 32 were black, 9 Hispanic, 6 white, and 2 other (P < 0.05). Seventeen (35%) had prior arrests (P = 0.059), 13 (77%) of whom had multiple arrests (P < 0.05). Forty-one (84%) reported a family member jailed (P < 0.001). Forty-two (86%) witnessed neighborhood criminal drug activity (P < 0.001). Household leadership was predominately maternal (24 [49%], (P < 0.05). Forty-four (90%) participants provided positive meaningful responses to the intervention (P < 0.001). Gang violence prevention should be channeled through maternal family members. History of incarcerated relatives, acquaintances, and neighborhood exposure to drugs and crime may represent additional risk factors for gang-related involvement. Demonstrations of gang violence scenarios raise awareness to consequences of gang-related activities. Family and neighborhood characteristics should be included in development of intervention scenarios. PMID:22273322

  14. Cults as Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Considers cults as gangs, but also distinguishes cults from gangs by the cult's reference to and insistence on allegiance to single higher authority, usually spirit figure or spiritual leader. Examines Satanism, identifies Satanic holidays and symbols, and describes characteristics of cult-influenced youth. Includes list of organizations and books…

  15. Ganges valley aerosol experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, V.R.; Satheesh, S.K.

    2011-08-01

    In June 2011, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective of this field campaign is to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region.

  16. Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    This Bulletin provides the reader with information to understand the complexity of the juvenile gang problem, and it provides information to dispel common gang stereotypes. After describing the key characteristics of youth gangs, the Bulletin examines risk factors for gang membership, including individual and family demographics, personal…

  17. Sexual risk, substance use, mental health, and trauma experiences of gang-involved homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Petering, Robin

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the associations of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, mental health, and trauma with varying levels of gang involvement in a sample of Los Angeles-based homeless youths. Data were collected from 505 homeless youths who self-reported various health information and whether they have ever identified as or been closely affiliated with a gang member. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations of lifetime gang involvement with risk taking behaviors and negative health outcomes. Results revealed seventeen percent of youths have ever identified as a gang member and 46% as gang affiliated. Both gang members and affiliates were at greater risk of many negative behaviors than non-gang involved youths. Gang members and affiliates were more likely to report recent methamphetamine use, cocaine use, chronic marijuana use, having sex while intoxicated, and symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. They were also more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse and witnessing family violence. Gang members were more likely to ever attempt suicide, experience recent partner violence, and report physical abuse during childhood. Results suggest that lifetime gang involvement is related to a trajectory of negative outcomes and amplified risk for youths experiencing homelessness. Additionally, being closely connected to a gang member appears to have just as much as an impact on risk as personally identifying as a gang member. Given the lack of knowledge regarding the intersection between youth homelessness and gang involvement, future research is needed to inform policies and programs that can address the specific needs of this population.

  18. Sexual risk, substance use, mental health, and trauma experiences of gang-involved homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Petering, Robin

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the associations of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, mental health, and trauma with varying levels of gang involvement in a sample of Los Angeles-based homeless youths. Data were collected from 505 homeless youths who self-reported various health information and whether they have ever identified as or been closely affiliated with a gang member. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations of lifetime gang involvement with risk taking behaviors and negative health outcomes. Results revealed seventeen percent of youths have ever identified as a gang member and 46% as gang affiliated. Both gang members and affiliates were at greater risk of many negative behaviors than non-gang involved youths. Gang members and affiliates were more likely to report recent methamphetamine use, cocaine use, chronic marijuana use, having sex while intoxicated, and symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. They were also more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse and witnessing family violence. Gang members were more likely to ever attempt suicide, experience recent partner violence, and report physical abuse during childhood. Results suggest that lifetime gang involvement is related to a trajectory of negative outcomes and amplified risk for youths experiencing homelessness. Additionally, being closely connected to a gang member appears to have just as much as an impact on risk as personally identifying as a gang member. Given the lack of knowledge regarding the intersection between youth homelessness and gang involvement, future research is needed to inform policies and programs that can address the specific needs of this population. PMID:26897432

  19. Risk Behaviors among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative research examined risk-taking behavior among Mexican American adolescent girls who are not formal gang members but are associated with male gangs. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime vary according to the girl's relationship with the male gang and status within the…

  20. Hydrodynamic Properties of a Large Tidal Channel on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Bangladesh, with Implications for Channel Morphology and Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, R. L.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Hale, R. P.; Reed, M. J.; Best, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta hosts a dense network of tidal channels extending inland as far as 100 kilometers from the coast. With semidiurnal tides up to 6.7 meters in amplitude, this setting is ideal for testing hypotheses related to tidal meander morphology, intertidal sediment transport, and channel-platform linkages. We present results from two field surveys in March and September 2015, corresponding to the dry and monsoon seasons, respectively. Comparing acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data and pressure sensor measurements from the Sibsa River in southwest Bangladesh reveals a phase lag of as much as 1 hour between maximum discharge and mean water level. Variations in this phase lag at different points along the channel allow us to test an existing conceptual model of cuspate tidal meander formation. To address a related but separate question, we observe that the ratio of cumulative discharges Qin/Qout is approximately equal during both spring and neap tides at a strategically-placed ADCP transect south of the study area. In contrast, ADCP data obtained north of the study area shows that Qin/Qout=1.4 during spring tides and 0.85 during neap tides. We examine the degree to which this phenomenon is controlled by the establishment of a hydraulic gradient between the Sibsa and a parallel tidal channel, the Pussur, versus the exchange of water between the channel and the tidal flats during the ebb-flood cycle. These results have implications for identifying loci of sediment erosion and deposition within the network.

  1. Youth Gangs in Nicaragua: Gang Membership as Structured Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclure, Richard; Sotelo, Melvin

    2004-01-01

    In Nicaragua the rise of urban youth gangs has led the government to adopt a crime-control approach that focuses on containing adolescent violence. Yet efforts to foil youth gangs have been ineffectual, largely because the nature of gang membership is little understood. This article presents the results of a qualitative study of youth gang…

  2. From Gangs to the Academy: Scholars Emerge by Reaching Back through Critical Ethnography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, June A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how one college professor incorporated the voices of marginalized students into her course, "Race, Culture, and Class." Ex-gang member students were invited to participate in an ethnographic research project in which they interviewed gang members from their communities and shared findings with their more privileged classmates. The…

  3. Literacy and Advocacy in Adolescent Family, Gang, School, and Juvenile Court Communities: "Crip 4 Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debra; Whitmore, Kathryn F.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this book is to encourage educators and researchers to understand the complexities of adolescent gang members' lives in order to rethink their assumptions about these students in school. The particular objective is to situate four gang members as literate, caring students from loving families whose identities and literacy keep them on…

  4. Gang awareness for healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Hall-McGee, P

    1999-01-01

    All healthcare facilities--not just urban ones--need to train their staff and be equipped to handle gangs and gang-related crime and violence, says the author. This article discusses the various aspects of the ongoing training program in gang awareness for Durham Regional Hospital's Security Department--including types of gangs, their mindsets and what motivates them, and how to identify them as well as their graffiti, colors, hand signals, and tattoos.

  5. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed.

  6. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. PMID:25880890

  7. Youth Gangs in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen Jr.; Howell, James C.; Mendenhall, Barbara; Armstrong, Troy

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has surveyed law enforcement agencies across the nation about youth gang activity. Because tribal police departments were not included in earlier surveys, however, youth gang activities in Indian country have been largely absent from survey findings. This Bulletin describes the nature and makeup…

  8. Youth Maltreatment and Gang Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kevin M.; Braaten-Antrim, Rhonda

    1998-01-01

    Examines whether physical and sexual maltreatment raises the risk of gang involvement among secondary school students. Findings show that maltreatment increases the probability of gang involvement, independent of demographic factors. When youth are physically and sexually abused their odds of gang involvement are four times higher than those who…

  9. Youth Gangs and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Few schools escape dynamics and behaviors that are associated with gangs. Think, for example, about bullying, disruptive intergroup conflicts, drug sales and abuse, and vandalism such as theft, graffiti, and other forms of property damage. From both a policy and practice perspective, it is essential for schools to understand and address…

  10. Victory Junction Gang Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Victory Junction Gang Camp, a not-for-profit, NASCAR-themed camp for children with chronic medical conditions that serves 24 different disease groups. The mission of the camp is to give children life-changing camping experiences that are exciting, fun, and empowering in a safe and medically sound environment. While doing…

  11. Ganges Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 May 2004 Mariner 9 images acquired in 1972 first revealed a large, light-toned, layered mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a higher-resolution view of these rocks than was achieved by Mariner 9 or Viking, and higher than can be obtained by Mars Odyssey or Mars Express. The image, with a resolution of about 3.7 meters (12 feet) per pixel, shows eroded layered rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma. These rocks record a history of events that occurred either in Ganges Chasma, or in the rocks brought to the surface by the opening of Ganges Chasma. Either way, the story they might tell could be as fascinating and unprecedented as the story told by sedimentary rocks investigated this year in Meridiani Planum by the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover ... no one knows. The image is located near 7.3oS, 48.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  12. Highlights of the 2012 National Youth Gang Survey. Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Howell, James C.; Harris, Meena

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the nation's gang problem and summarizes findings from the 2012 survey. Of the 2,538 survey recipients, 2,199 (87 percent) responded to the survey. In 2012, there were an estimated 30,700 gangs (an increase from 29,900 in 2011) and 850,000 gang members (an increase from 782,500 in 2011) throughout 3,100…

  13. Adaptation to Transition: Implications for Working with Cult Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Beth; Bradley, Loretta J.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that because individuals experiencing transitions seem to be particularly susceptible to cult membership, developing insight and resources to cope with transition must be an integral part of strategies to prevent cult membership. Discusses interventions focusing on treatment of former cult members are . (Author/MKA)

  14. California Prison Gang Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Eric

    A project investigated the cultural life, ideology, and education systems of particular prison gangs. It focused on recent changes in the gang system regarding gang education, organizational structure, and the balance of power in prisons and in relations with street gangs. Finally, the project assessed California's response to its prison gangs, in…

  15. Ganges River Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ganges River forms an extensive delta where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. The delta is largely covered with a swamp forest known as the Sunderbans, which is home to the Royal Bengal Tiger. It is also home to most of Bangladesh, one of the world's most densely populated countries. Roughly 120 million people live on the Ganges Delta under threat of repeated catastrophic floods due to heavy runoff of meltwater from the Himalayas, and due to the intense rainfall during the monsoon season. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on February 28, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using green, infrared, and blue wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  16. Canadian Female Gang Inmates: Risk, Needs, and the Potential for Prison Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terri-Lynne; Ruddell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of the characteristics of 337 Canadian adult female gang offenders with a matched sample of women offenders showed that they were more likely to have been sentenced for violent offenses, had a greater number of prior youth and criminal convictions, and served prior terms of incarceration. Gang members were also assessed as having…

  17. Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Anderson, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    To explore potential bases of positive development among gang youth, attributes of positive individual and social behavior were assessed in individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males from the same communities but involved in community-based…

  18. Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, C. Ronald

    A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs…

  19. Any of them will do: In-group identification, out-group entitativity, and gang membership as predictors of group-based retribution.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Wenborne, Lisa; Peers, Madeline; Alleyne, Emma; Ellis, Kirsty

    2015-05-01

    In non-gang populations, the degree of identification with an in-group and perceptions of out-group entitativity, the perception of an out-group as bonded or unified, are important contributors to group-based aggression or vicarious retribution. The link between these factors and group-based aggression, however, has not been examined in the context of street gangs. The current study assessed the relationship among in-group identification, perceptions of out-group entitativity, and the willingness to retaliate against members of rival groups who did not themselves attack the in-group among juvenile gang and non-gang members in London. Our results showed the predicted membership (gang/non-gang) × in-group identification × entitativity interaction. Decomposition of the three-way interaction by membership revealed a significant identification × entitativity interaction for gang, but not for non-gang members. More specifically, gang members who identify more strongly with their gang and perceived a rival group as high on entitativity were more willing to retaliate against any of them. In addition, entitativity was a significant predictor of group-based aggression after controlling for gender, in-group identification, and gang membership. Our results are consistent with socio-psychological theories of group-based aggression and support the proposal that such theories are applicable for understanding gang-related violence. Aggr. Behav. 41:242-252, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Any of them will do: In-group identification, out-group entitativity, and gang membership as predictors of group-based retribution.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Wenborne, Lisa; Peers, Madeline; Alleyne, Emma; Ellis, Kirsty

    2015-05-01

    In non-gang populations, the degree of identification with an in-group and perceptions of out-group entitativity, the perception of an out-group as bonded or unified, are important contributors to group-based aggression or vicarious retribution. The link between these factors and group-based aggression, however, has not been examined in the context of street gangs. The current study assessed the relationship among in-group identification, perceptions of out-group entitativity, and the willingness to retaliate against members of rival groups who did not themselves attack the in-group among juvenile gang and non-gang members in London. Our results showed the predicted membership (gang/non-gang) × in-group identification × entitativity interaction. Decomposition of the three-way interaction by membership revealed a significant identification × entitativity interaction for gang, but not for non-gang members. More specifically, gang members who identify more strongly with their gang and perceived a rival group as high on entitativity were more willing to retaliate against any of them. In addition, entitativity was a significant predictor of group-based aggression after controlling for gender, in-group identification, and gang membership. Our results are consistent with socio-psychological theories of group-based aggression and support the proposal that such theories are applicable for understanding gang-related violence. Aggr. Behav. 41:242-252, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27541602

  1. Associations Between Long-Term Gang Membership and Informal Social Control Processes, Drug Use, and Delinquent Behavior Among Mexican American Youth.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Alice; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Valdez, Avelardo

    2016-10-01

    Research has found that among juveniles weak ties to informal social control entities such as parents, school, and conventional peers increase the probability of the initiation and continuation of deviant behaviors such as drug use and crime. Given the weak ties of formal social control mechanisms in highly disadvantaged communities, informal social control mechanisms are often an important deterrent that reduce or moderate engagement in deviant behaviors among serious and persistent offenders. This analysis examines the association between long-term gang membership and adolescent informal social control processes, drug use, and delinquency. This research is based on data from a study of 160 Mexican American male gang members between the ages of 16 and 20. Findings suggest that among gang members in this context, commonly studied informal control mechanisms such as the family and schools do not function to deter long-term gang membership that is associated with serious criminal and violent behavior and drug use. The implications for future research on desistance or continuation of antisocial behavior across the life course are discussed.

  2. Associations Between Long-Term Gang Membership and Informal Social Control Processes, Drug Use, and Delinquent Behavior Among Mexican American Youth.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Alice; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Valdez, Avelardo

    2016-10-01

    Research has found that among juveniles weak ties to informal social control entities such as parents, school, and conventional peers increase the probability of the initiation and continuation of deviant behaviors such as drug use and crime. Given the weak ties of formal social control mechanisms in highly disadvantaged communities, informal social control mechanisms are often an important deterrent that reduce or moderate engagement in deviant behaviors among serious and persistent offenders. This analysis examines the association between long-term gang membership and adolescent informal social control processes, drug use, and delinquency. This research is based on data from a study of 160 Mexican American male gang members between the ages of 16 and 20. Findings suggest that among gang members in this context, commonly studied informal control mechanisms such as the family and schools do not function to deter long-term gang membership that is associated with serious criminal and violent behavior and drug use. The implications for future research on desistance or continuation of antisocial behavior across the life course are discussed. PMID:25979430

  3. Views on sex and sex education among gang-involved Latino youth in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kassab, Veronica A; Acevedo-Polakovich, Ignacio D; Grzybowski, Megan M; Stout, Stacy; Richards, Allyn E; Barnett, Miya L; Guerra-Morales, Aileen; Bell, Katrina M; Crider, Elizabeth A; Beck, Kara L; Brookins-Fisher, Jodi; Alfaro, Mario; Saxena, Suchita R

    2014-05-01

    Although gang-involved Latino youth in the United States are uniquely at risk of adverse consequences from sexual behavior, little research is available that can guide those who wish to develop interventions to reduce sexual risk among these youth. To facilitate the development of effective interventions, we identified cultural and contextual factors that influence sexual behavior and sex education among gang-involved Latino youth in one U.S. community. By analyzing transcripts from interviews and focus groups with three different groups of key stakeholders--gang-experienced Latino youth, the parents of gang-experienced Latino youth, and the personnel of a program providing comprehensive human services for gang-involved Latino youth--we identified three domains to be considered in developing sexual risk-reduction interventions for gang-involved U.S. Latino youth. The focus of our discussion is on the implications of these findings for future development or adaptation of interventions.

  4. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  5. Sedimentary Rocks in Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    13 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows portions of two massifs composed of light-toned, sedimentary rock in Ganges Chasma, part of the Valles Marineris trough system. On the steeper slopes in this vista, dry talus shed from the outcrop has formed a series of dark fans. Surrounded by dark, windblown sand, these landforms are located near 8.6oS, 46.8oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  6. Ganges Rocks and Sand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 January 2004 The top half of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded remnants of sedimentary rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The lower half shows a thick accumulation of dark, windblown sand. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. These features are located near 7.6oS, 49.4oW.

  7. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors.

  8. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492

  9. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492

  10. Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Winifred L., Ed.; Decker, Scott H., Ed.

    This collection of papers presents a representative selection of the National Institute of Justice's portfolio of gang-related research. The 10 papers are: (1) "A Decade of Gang Research: Findings of the National Institute of Justice Gang Portfolio" (Scott H. Decker); (2) "The Evolution of Street Gangs: An Examination of Form and Variation"…

  11. Gangs in Schools: Signs, Symbols, and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P.; Kodluboy, Donald W.

    The first part of this book describes juvenile gangs in schools and provides information to help recognize gang presence. The second part focuses on effective interventions to deal with the gang problem. An introduction describes the history and current status of youth gangs in the United States to set the stage for the subsequent exploration of…

  12. Risk Behaviors Among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on young Mexican American girls who are not formal gang members yet participate in street-based activities of male gangs and engage in risk behaviors. These females comprise a larger proportion associated with male gangs in inner-city neighborhoods than actual female gang members. Using a qualitative design, the article presents a typology of Mexican American females that reveals a hierarchy based on exposure to four risk-related activities: sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with these activities vary according to the girl’s relationship to the male gang and status within the community. Also, regardless of their relationship to the gang, participation in these activities resulted in different degrees of negative outcomes. The study concludes that problems associated with these females must go beyond being viewed as individual problems but rather seen within the social, cultural, and economic conditions of their environment. PMID:21218177

  13. Risk Behaviors Among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Partying, Substance Use, and Crime.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

    2003-01-01

    This research focuses on young Mexican American girls who are not formal gang members yet participate in street-based activities of male gangs and engage in risk behaviors. These females comprise a larger proportion associated with male gangs in inner-city neighborhoods than actual female gang members. Using a qualitative design, the article presents a typology of Mexican American females that reveals a hierarchy based on exposure to four risk-related activities: sexual relations, partying, substance use, and crime. Findings illustrate how outcomes associated with these activities vary according to the girl's relationship to the male gang and status within the community. Also, regardless of their relationship to the gang, participation in these activities resulted in different degrees of negative outcomes. The study concludes that problems associated with these females must go beyond being viewed as individual problems but rather seen within the social, cultural, and economic conditions of their environment. PMID:21218177

  14. Gang scheduling a parallel machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III.

    1991-03-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processors. User program and their gangs of processors are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantums are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Eyes of Ganges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, light-toned layered rock outcrops on the side of a large mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Perhaps a testament to the inherent human (and primate) ability to pick out faces where partially hidden from view (even when a face is not really there) -- near the top of this picture are two features, each a product of erosion, resembling a pair of human eyes. This picture was acquired in late November 2005.

    Location near: 7.1oS, 49.4oW Image width: width: 0.55 km (0.3 mi) Illumination from: left/lower left Season: Southern Summer

  16. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Rachel A; Rowe, Hillary L; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P

    2014-06-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency.

  17. Serious Delinquency and Gang Participation: Combining and Specializing in Drug Selling, Theft and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Rowe, Hillary L.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene Raskin; Farrington, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Using Pittsburgh Youth Study data, we examined the extent to which over 600 gang members and non-gang involved young men specialized in drug selling, serious theft, or serious violence or engaged simultaneously in these serious delinquent behaviors, throughout the 1990s. We found that the increase in delinquency associated with gang membership was concentrated in two combinations: serious violence and drug selling; serious violence, drug selling, and serious theft. Several covariates were similarly associated with multi-type serious delinquency and gang membership (age, historical time, Black race, and residential mobility), suggesting that these behaviors may share common developmental, familial, and contextual risks. We encourage future research to further examine the association of gang membership with engagement in particular configurations of serious delinquency. PMID:24954999

  18. Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2014-01-01

    There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school…

  19. Ganges Chasma Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 01 April 2002) This image shows a spectacular landslide along a portion of the southern wall of Ganges Chasma within Valles Marineris. Landslides have very characteristic morphologies on Earth, which they also display on Mars. These morphologies include a distinctive escarpment at the uppermost part of the landslide--called a head scarp (seen at the bottom of this image), a down-dropped block of material below that escarpment that dropped almost vertically, and a deposit of debris that moved away from the escarpment at high speed. In this example, the wall rock displayed in the upper part of the cliff is layered, with spurs and chutes created by differing amounts of erosion. Below the steep scarp is a smoother, steep slope of material with small, narrow tongues of debris that have eroded off of the escarpment since the landslide occurred (a talus slope). The actual landslide deposit, visible in the upper half of this image, shows striations that form by differences in the side-by-side motion during high velocity emplacement. This immense landslide traveled some 70 km at speeds that probably exceeded 100 kilometers per hour (60 miles per hour) before coming to rest, forming abrupt, terminal fronts (upper right corner of image). Even at these high speeds, this massive landslide was moving for nearly an hour before it came to rest.

  20. Ganges Chasma Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    8 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark, windblown sand in the form of dunes and a broad, relatively flat, sand sheet in Ganges Chasma, part of the eastern Valles Marineris trough complex. The winds responsible for these dunes blew largely from the north. Sand dunes on Mars, unlike their Earthly counterparts, are usually dark in tone. This is a reflection of their composition, which includes minerals that are more rich in iron and magnesium than the common silica-rich dunes of Earth. Similar dark sands on Earth are found in volcanic regions such as Iceland and Hawaii. A large dune field of iron/magnesium-rich grains, in the form fragments of the volcanic rock, basalt, occurs south of Moses Lake, Washington, in the U.S.

    Location near: 7.7oS, 45.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  1. Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Parenting on Gang Involvement and Gang Delinquency: A Longitudinal, Hierarchical Linear Modeling Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency among ninth-graders. Found that gang involvement decreased over the school year, with average levels of gang delinquency remaining constant. Gang involvement and gang-related delinquency were most strongly predicted by…

  2. The Drugs-Violence Nexus Among Mexican-American Gang Members†

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D.; Cepeda, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This study examines hypotheses and builds models to help clarify the causal connections between drugs and violence outcomes among Mexican-American male gang members. The study uses cross-sectional data of 160 male gang members sampled from 26 gangs in a Southwestern city. A life-history/intensive interview using closed and open-ended questions and a violence risk psychometric test (PFAV) also employed 10 scenario questions to elicit self-produced accounts of the participant’s last fight. Gang member participant’s ages ranged from 14 to 25 years with a mean age of 18.5 years. The study concludes that drug use interacts with an individual gang member’s risk for violence to affect violent behavior outcomes. Furthermore, an important situational variable explaining violent outcomes among respondents scoring high on the violence risk measure was whether the rival was using drugs that resulted in high intoxicatiion levels. The study concludes that drugs have a modulating and mediating influence on violence that is conditioned by situational and individual level variables among members of these adolescent street gangs. PMID:16903450

  3. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica).

    PubMed

    Paudel, Shambhu; Levesque, Juan C; Saavedra, Camilo; Pita, Cristina; Pal, Prabhat

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal's Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27) and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets). Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam/irrigation developments were

  4. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica)

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Juan C.; Saavedra, Camilo; Pita, Cristina; Pal, Prabhat

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal’s Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27) and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets). Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam/irrigation developments were

  5. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in river and ground/drinking water of the Ganges River basin: Emissions and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Larssen, Thorjørn; Bečanová, Jitka; Karásková, Pavlína; Whitehead, Paul G; Futter, Martyn N; Butterfield, Dan; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Many perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been widely used in production processes and daily-use products or may result from degradation of precursor compounds in products or the environment. India, with its developing industrialization and population moving from traditional to contemporary lifestyles, represents an interesting case study to investigate PFAS emission and exposure along steep environmental and socioeconomic gradients. This study assesses PFAS concentrations in river and groundwater (used in this region as drinking water) from several locations along the Ganges River and estimates direct emissions, specifically for PFOS and PFOA. 15 PFAS were frequently detected in the river with the highest concentrations observed for PFHxA (0.4-4.7 ng L(-1)) and PFBS (

  6. Indigenous Youth and Gangs as Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which Indigenous young people experience gang activity as stemming from family membership and family obligations. Based on recent gang research in Australia, the paper provides firsthand accounts of what "life in the gang/life in the family" means for Indigenous young people.

  7. Youth Gangs in Schools. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.; Lynch, James P.

    A report issued by the U.S. Department of Education (Chandler et al., 1998) analyzed the findings of the 1989 and 1995 School Crime Supplements to the National Crime Victim Survey, each of which was distributed to approximately 10,000 students. Findings of these surveys and other data sources show that gangs are very prevalent in schools, with 37%…

  8. Rumination and the displacement of aggression in United Kingdom gang-affiliated youth.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Osman, Sarah; Wood, Jane L

    2012-01-01

    The concept of gang aggression oftentimes elicits images of brutal intergang violence. In reality, gang-related aggression can vary widely, can have various motivations and causal factors, and includes interpersonal as well as intergroup aggression. This study examined the tendency of UK youth to engage in displaced aggression (aggression aimed at undeserving targets) and examined the relationship among gang affiliation, ruminative thought, and aggression levels. Students in three London schools were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed levels of gang affiliation, rumination about aversive events, and a tendency to engage in displaced aggression. Our analyses found a three-way interaction between gang affiliation, rumination, and gender, such that males who were high in affiliation and rumination had the greatest tendency to displace aggression toward innocent others. Additionally, it was shown that rumination could account for a significant part of the correlation between gang affiliation and displaced aggression. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that even after controlling for trait aggression, anger, hostility, and irritability, rumination remained a significant predictor of displaced aggression. The implications for understanding gang-related aggression and for conducting future research in this area were discussed.

  9. Gangs in Schools. Breaking Up Is Hard To Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

    This handbook offers the latest information on gangs and practical advice on preventing or reducing gang encroachment in schools. Gang experts believe that establishing codes of conduct, diligent awareness of gang rivalries, prevention courses, and community and parental involvement can make an impact in keeping gangs away from campus. Chapter 1,…

  10. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A; Brodine, Stephanie K; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P; Garfein, Richard S; Viidai Team

    2013-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess 'exposure to gang violence' and 'drug-scene familiarity', as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.67-0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11-1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07-1.12) and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95% CI=2.39-10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented.

  11. Drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents in a rural farming community in Baja California, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Tyson; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie K.; Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Cepeda, Alice; Elder, John P.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined drug-scene familiarity and exposure to gang violence among residents of a migrant farming community in rural Baja California, Mexico. In October 2010, 164 members of a single colonia (community) underwent an interviewer-administered survey to assess ‘exposure to gang violence’ and ‘drug-scene familiarity’, as well as other health indicators. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of exposure to gang violence. Overall, 20% of participants were male, the median age was 27 years, 24% spoke an indigenous language, 42% reported exposure to gang violence, and 39% reported drug-scene familiarity. Factors independently associated with exposure to gang violence included being younger (AOR=0.80 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=0.67–0.96), living in the community longer (AOR=1.47 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.11–1.72), higher educational attainment (AOR=1.70 per 5-year increase, 95% CI=1.07–1.12), and drug-scene familiarity (AOR=5.10, 95%CI=2.39–10.89). Exposure to gang violence was very common in this community and was associated with drug-scene familiarity, suggesting a close relationship between drugs and gang violence in this rural community. In a region characterised by mass migration from poorer parts of Mexico, where drugs and gangs have not been previously reported, emerging social harms may affect these communities unless interventions are implemented. PMID:23072623

  12. Highlights of the 2011 National Youth Gang Survey

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3,500). • Gang activity was concentrated primarily in urban areas, especially larger cities. • Gang-related homicides declined ... suggest that gang activity is concentrated primarily in urban areas, especially larger cities. NYGS 2011 results indicate ...

  13. Ganged series potentiometer mixer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A ganged potentiometer with the interesting property of a constant 10k ohm or greater series impedance for all rotations of the shaft was rediscovered. The device provided a versatile passive mixer circuit when used with most signal sources and can be used as a variable series input summing resistor in operational amplifier networks. The potentiometer gave simple solutions to missing problems with a single control knob.

  14. Handbook on Gangs in Schools: Strategies To Reduce Gang-Related Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Shirley R.; And Others

    This handbook shares some practical and conceptual knowledge about gangs in schools and suggests some strategies for coping with gang problems in schools. A radical approach is proposed which advocates assimilating gangs into the fabric of daily school life. The strategies were derived from two formal studies conducted from 1982 to 1990 on Los…

  15. Teaching Responsibility to Gang-Affiliated Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckle, Michael E.; Walsh, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching youths who affiliate with a gang can be a daunting task. Risk factors for gang membership often compound across life domains and affect pro-social connectedness, cause feelings of marginalization, and hinder life-skill development. Sports and physical activities that are structured within a positive youth-development framework provide an…

  16. Gender and Gangs: A Quantitative Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Kerryn E.

    2009-01-01

    Research and theory about female gang involvement remain scarce. Drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study addresses whether males and females differ in risk factors associated with gang membership (e.g., community characteristics, parent-child relationships, associations with deviant friends). Integrating theory…

  17. Puerto Rican Gangs: A Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Rivera, Edil; Phan, Loan T.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the problem of gangs on the island of Puerto Rico from a historical, economical, and political perspective. Some Puerto Rican historians are convinced that the gang problem in Puerto Rico is due to the political ambiguity and human rights violations of prison inmates (F. Pico, 1998). Some social scientists believe that gangs…

  18. Gangs, My Town and the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Norman; Erickson, Edsel

    The nature of youth gangs is explored, with suggestions for gang prevention and intervention. The emphasis is on organizing citizens, especially at the neighborhood level, to affect all community institutions. Suggestions are offered for citizens' groups to look at critical areas in schooling, incarceration, law enforcement, community programs,…

  19. A modified predator–prey model for the interaction of police and gangs

    PubMed Central

    Sooknanan, J.; Bhatt, B.

    2016-01-01

    A modified predator–prey model with transmissible disease in both the predator and prey species is proposed and analysed, with infected prey being more vulnerable to predation and infected predators hunting at a reduced rate. Here, the predators are the police and the prey the gang members. In this system, we examine whether police control of gangs is possible. The system is analysed with the help of stability analyses and numerical simulations. The system has five steady states—four of which involve no core gang members and one in which all the populations coexist. Thresholds are identified which determine when the predator and prey populations survive and when the disease remains endemic. For parameter values where the spread of disease among the police officers is greater than the death of the police officers, the diseased predator population survives, when it would otherwise become extinct. PMID:27703682

  20. Gang Activity on Campus: A Crisis Response Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Mahauganee; Meaney, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This case study challenges readers to consider a contemporary issue for campus threat assessment and emergency preparedness: gang presence on college campuses. A body of research examining the presence of gangs and gang activity on college campuses has developed, revealing that gangs pose a viable threat for institutions of higher education. The…

  1. The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.; Decker, Scott H.

    This bulletin addresses questions about the interrelatedness of youth gangs, drugs, and violent crime, discussing whether drug trafficking is a main cause of violence in youth gangs or only a correlate, and noting whether there are other important sources of gang violence. Section 1 presents a historical overview of gang drug use and trafficking,…

  2. A Prompt/Reward Technique to Elicit Socially Acceptable Behavior with Chicano Gang Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Alan C.

    The effect of general and subject-specific prompts in eliciting a zero- or low-probability behavior in three Hispanic gang members, selected because of their artistic or writing abilities, was examined by monitoring their behavior in submitting any original work, written or pictorial, that could be published in a community newsletter. Dependent…

  3. A new member of the GP138 multigene family implicated in cell interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Hata, T; Yamaguchi, N; Tanaka, Y; Urushihara, H

    1999-06-01

    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum reproduces sexually under submerged and dark conditions. Its mating system is polymorphic and particularly interesting with respect to mechanisms of cell recognition. The cell-surface glycoprotein gp138 has been implicated in sexual cell interactions, as it was identified as a target molecule for the antibodies that block sexual cell fusion in D. discoideum. Two mutually homologous genes, GP138A and GP138B, have been cloned, but gene disruption experiments to clarify their functional relationships suggested that there is at least one more gene for gp138. Further protein analysis including peptide mapping also revealed that gp138 exists as three isoforms, DdFRP1, DdFRP2, and DdFRP3. GP138A encodes DdFRP2 and GP138B, DdFRP3, and the presence of a third gp138 gene encoding DdFRP1 was suggested. Here, we isolated and characterized a third GP138 gene, GP138C. Although the deduced amino acid sequences of GP138C matched completely with those of peptide fragments of DdFRP1 in the N-terminal half, the rest did not give complete matches. Overexpression of GP138C caused an increase in the intensity of DdFRP1, but disruption of this gene did not diminish DdFRP1. Our results indicate that GP138C encodes a protein very similar to but distinct from DdFRP1. The GP138 multigene family is thus composed of more members than previously expected, and their functional relationships are of special interest. PMID:10462174

  4. Gang scheduling a parallel machine. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.; Brooks, E.D. III

    1991-12-01

    Program development on parallel machines can be a nightmare of scheduling headaches. We have developed a portable time sharing mechanism to handle the problem of scheduling gangs of processes. User programs and their gangs of processes are put to sleep and awakened by the gang scheduler to provide a time sharing environment. Time quantum are adjusted according to priority queues and a system of fair share accounting. The initial platform for this software is the 128 processor BBN TC2000 in use in the Massively Parallel Computing Initiative at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  5. Gang membership and substance use: guilt as a gendered causal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Donna L.; Melde, Chris; Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examine whether anticipated guilt for substance use is a gendered mechanism underlying the noted enhancement effect of gang membership on illegal drug use. We also demonstrate a method for making stronger causal inferences when assessing mediation in the presence of moderation and time-varying confounding. Methods We estimate a series of inverse propensity weighted models to obtain unbiased estimates of mediation in the presence of confounding of the exposure (i.e., gang membership) and mediator (i.e., anticipated guilt) using three waves of data from a multi-site panel study of a law-related education program for youth (N=1,113). Results The onset of gang membership significantly decreased anticipated substance use guilt among both male and female respondents. This reduction was significantly associated with increased frequency of substance use only for female respondents, however, suggesting that gender moderates the mechanism through which gang membership influences substance use. Conclusions Criminologists are often concerned with identifying causal pathways for antisocial and/or delinquent behavior, but confounders of the exposure, mediator, and outcome often interfere with efforts to assess mediation. Many new approaches have been proposed for strengthening causal inference for mediation effects. After controlling for confounding using inverse propensity weighting, our results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing substance use by current and former female gang members should focus on the normative aspects of these behaviors. PMID:26190954

  6. Implications of Leader-Member Exchange Theory and Research for Human Resource Development Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Janet Z.; Otte, Fred L.

    1999-01-01

    Leader/member exchange theory is proposed as an alternate approach to the study of organizational leadership. Recent research supports the theory but additional development work is needed. The theory seeks to explain how leader/member relationships develop and the behavioral components of leadership relations. Contains 74 references. (Author/JOW)

  7. Gang Problems and Gang Programs in a National Sample of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Gary D.; Gottfredson, Denise C.

    This report describes approaches used by schools to prevent or reduce gang involvement among schools. The study of gang prevention and intervention builds on a large-scale National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools. A sample of 1,279 schools participated in the study. Overall, 7.6% of the male and 3.8% of the female secondary students…

  8. 48 CFR 252.247-7027 - Riding gang member requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (c)(1) of this clause must pass a DoD background check before going aboard the vessel. (i) The... contract for the purposes of conducting a background check; and (B) Deny access or immediately remove...

  9. 48 CFR 252.247-7027 - Riding gang member requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (c)(1) of this clause must pass a DoD background check before going aboard the vessel. With regard to... information for a background check to the approving official specified in the contract. The head of...

  10. 48 CFR 252.247-7027 - Riding gang member requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (c)(1) of this clause must pass a DoD background check before going aboard the vessel. (i) The... contract for the purposes of conducting a background check; and (B) Deny access or immediately remove...

  11. 48 CFR 252.247-7027 - Riding gang member requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (c)(1) of this clause must pass a DoD background check before going aboard the vessel. (i) The... contract for the purposes of conducting a background check; and (B) Deny access or immediately remove...

  12. The Development and Implications of Peer Emotional Support for Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Barry, Adam E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid

    2013-01-01

    Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian counterparts and be at risk for social isolation. The present study compared the development and implications of emotional support from peers among 199 student service members/veterans and 181 civilian students through 3 distinct occasions over the course of 1 calendar year. Data were collected via electronic survey. Measured constructs included perceived emotional support from university friends, mental health, alcohol use, and academic functioning. A series of multilevel models revealed that student service members/veterans reported less emotional support from their peers compared with their civilian counterparts; yet, emotional support from peers increased similarly for both groups over time. Although, increasing peer emotional support was generally related to better academic and mental health outcomes for both groups, the links between emotional support and mental health were stronger for civilian students. Results suggest that mental health practitioners, particularly those on college campuses, should be prepared to deal with veteran-specific experiences that occur before and during college. PMID:23421774

  13. Ring Enlargement of Three-Membered Boron Heterocycles upon Reaction with Organic π Systems: Implications for the Trapping of Borylenes.

    PubMed

    Krasowska, Małgorzata; Bettinger, Holger F

    2016-07-18

    New low-energy pathways for the reaction between substituted boriranes and borirenes with unsaturated hydrocarbons (ethyne or ethene) were discovered using density functional and coupled cluster theory. The interaction between the π bond of the hydrocarbon and the empty p orbital of the boron center leads to ring expansion of the three-membered to a five-membered boron heterocycle. The reactions are strongly exothermic and have low or even no barriers. They involve intermediates with a pentacoordinate boron center with two hydrocarbon molecules coordinating to boron akin to metal-olefin complexes. These borylene complexes are shallow minima on the potential energy surfaces. But significantly higher barriers for ring formation are computed for 1,5-cyclooctadiene and dibenzocyclooctatetraene complexes of borylenes, making these complexes likely detectable under appropriate experimental conditions. Our computational findings have implications for the interpretation of trapping experiments of thermally generated small borylenes with excess of small π systems. Because of very low barriers for reactions of three-membered boron heterocycles with π systems and the at least locally large excess of the latter under such conditions, formation of five-membered boron heterocycles should be considered. PMID:27305278

  14. The development and implications of peer emotional support for student service members/veterans and civilian college students.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Barry, Adam E; Mroczek, Daniel K; Macdermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-04-01

    Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian counterparts and be at risk for social isolation. The present study compared the development and implications of emotional support from peers among 199 student service members/veterans and 181 civilian students through 3 distinct occasions over the course of 1 calendar year. Data were collected via electronic survey. Measured constructs included perceived emotional support from university friends, mental health, alcohol use, and academic functioning. A series of multilevel models revealed that student service members/veterans reported less emotional support from their peers compared with their civilian counterparts; yet, emotional support from peers increased similarly for both groups over time. Although, increasing peer emotional support was generally related to better academic and mental health outcomes for both groups, the links between emotional support and mental health were stronger for civilian students. Results suggest that mental health practitioners, particularly those on college campuses, should be prepared to deal with veteran-specific experiences that occur before and during college.

  15. Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Gangs and Crews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Edward M.; Wishard, Alison; Gallimore, Ronald; Rivera, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Controversies around definitions and perceptions of gangs are heightened by the scarcity of research on crews. In an open-ended interview, 77 Latino 10th graders from a random longitudinal sample provided information about gangs and crews. Although less than 10% reported having been in gangs or crews, 84% reported having personal contact with…

  16. Improved utilization and responsiveness with gang scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Feitelson, D.G.,; Jette, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Most commercial multicomputers use space-slicing schemes in which each scheduling decision has an unknown impact on the future: should a job be scheduled, risking that it will block other larger jobs later, or should the processors be left idle for now in anticipation of future arrivals? This dilemma is solved by using gang scheduling, because then the impact of each decision is limited to its time slice, and future arrivals can be accommodated in other time slices. This added flexibility is shown to improve overall system utilization and responsiveness. Empirical evidence from using gang scheduling on a Cray T3D installed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab corroborates these results, and shows conclusively that gang scheduling can be very effective with current technology. 29 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Members of the uncultured bacterial candidate division WWE1 are implicated in anaerobic digestion of cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Limam, Rim Driss; Chouari, Rakia; Mazéas, Laurent; Wu, Ting-Di; Li, Tianlun; Grossin-Debattista, Julien; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sghir, Abdelghani; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-01-01

    Clones of the WWE1 (Waste Water of Evry 1) candidate division were retrieved during the exploration of the bacterial diversity of an anaerobic mesophilic (35 ± 0.5°C) digester. In order to investigate the metabolic function of WWE1 members, a 16S rRNA gene-based stable isotope probing (SIP) method was used. Eighty-seven percent of 16S r rRNA gene sequences affiliated to WWE1 candidate division were retrieved in a clone library obtained after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of enriched DNA fraction from anaerobic municipal solid waste samples incubated with 13C-cellulose, at the end of the incubation (day 63) using a Pla46F-1390R primer pair. The design of a specific WWE1 probe associated with the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique corroborated the abundant representation of WWE1 members in our 13C-cellulose incubations. Secondary ion mass spectrometry–in situ hybridization (SIMSISH) using an iodine-labeled oligonucleotide probe combined with high-resolution nanometer-scale SIMS (NanoSIMS) observation confirmed the isotopic enrichment of members of WWE1 candidate division. The 13C apparent isotopic composition of hybridized WWE1 cells reached the value of about 40% early during the cellulose degradation process, suggesting that these bacteria play a role either in an extracellular cellulose hydrolysis process and/or in the uptake fermentation products. PMID:24497501

  18. Nonlinear effects of team tenure on team psychological safety climate and climate strength: Implications for average team member performance.

    PubMed

    Koopmann, Jaclyn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Wang, Mo; Zhou, Le; Shi, Junqi

    2016-07-01

    The teams literature suggests that team tenure improves team psychological safety climate and climate strength in a linear fashion, but the empirical findings to date have been mixed. Alternatively, theories of group formation suggest that new and longer tenured teams experience greater team psychological safety climate than moderately tenured teams. Adopting this second perspective, we used a sample of 115 research and development teams and found that team tenure had a curvilinear relationship with team psychological safety climate and climate strength. Supporting group formation theories, team psychological safety climate and climate strength were higher in new and longer tenured teams compared with moderately tenured teams. Moreover, we found a curvilinear relationship between team tenure and average team member creative performance as partially mediated by team psychological safety climate. Team psychological safety climate improved average team member task performance only when team psychological safety climate was strong. Likewise, team tenure influenced average team member task performance in a curvilinear manner via team psychological safety climate only when team psychological safety climate was strong. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and offer several directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Nonlinear effects of team tenure on team psychological safety climate and climate strength: Implications for average team member performance.

    PubMed

    Koopmann, Jaclyn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Wang, Mo; Zhou, Le; Shi, Junqi

    2016-07-01

    The teams literature suggests that team tenure improves team psychological safety climate and climate strength in a linear fashion, but the empirical findings to date have been mixed. Alternatively, theories of group formation suggest that new and longer tenured teams experience greater team psychological safety climate than moderately tenured teams. Adopting this second perspective, we used a sample of 115 research and development teams and found that team tenure had a curvilinear relationship with team psychological safety climate and climate strength. Supporting group formation theories, team psychological safety climate and climate strength were higher in new and longer tenured teams compared with moderately tenured teams. Moreover, we found a curvilinear relationship between team tenure and average team member creative performance as partially mediated by team psychological safety climate. Team psychological safety climate improved average team member task performance only when team psychological safety climate was strong. Likewise, team tenure influenced average team member task performance in a curvilinear manner via team psychological safety climate only when team psychological safety climate was strong. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and offer several directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26949818

  20. LA's Gang-Busters--Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Regarded as the nation's gang violence capital, Los Angeles' politicians and law enforcement and school administrators are using knowledge from lost battles to win the war. Solutions include targeting younger children, teaching self-esteem and communication skills, as well as organizing group graffiti cleanups. (SI)

  1. Gangs, Marginalised Youth and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deuchar, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are routinely demonised by politicians and the media.Ross Deuchar's compelling research into the views of some of the toughest--youths who are growing up in socially deprived urban areas of Glasgow in Scotland--reveals the true facts. They talked to him about their lives, gang culture and territorialiity and he passes on their words…

  2. Hepatic trematodiasis in a Ganges River dolphin.

    PubMed

    Migaki, G; Lagios, M D; Herald, E S; Dempster, R P

    1979-11-01

    Hepatic trematodiasis caused by Cyclorchis campula was diagnosed in a juvenile Ganges River dolphin that had been in captivity at an aquarium for approximately 1 year. Histopathologic findings were severe chronic suppurative cholangitis, hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium, and periductal fibrosis associated with fluke infection of the large bile ducts. PMID:521375

  3. DSM-5 Criteria and Its Implications for Diagnosing PTSD in Military Service Members and Veterans.

    PubMed

    Guina, Jeffrey; Welton, Randon S; Broderick, Pamela J; Correll, Terry L; Peirson, Ryan P

    2016-05-01

    This review addresses how changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria has the potential to affect the care and careers of those who have served in the military, where the diagnosis often determines fitness for duty and veterans' benefits. PTSD criteria changes were intended to integrate new knowledge acquired since previous DSM editions. Many believe the changes will improve diagnosis and treatment, but some worry these could have negative clinical, occupational, and legal consequences. We analyze the changes in classification, trauma definition, symptoms, symptom clusters, and subtypes and possible impacts on the military (e.g., over- and under-diagnosis, "drone" video exposure, subthreshold PTSD, and secondary PTSD). We also discuss critiques and proposals for future changes. Our objectives are to improve the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of those service members who have survived trauma and to improve policies related to the military mental healthcare and disability systems. PMID:26971499

  4. DSM-5 Criteria and Its Implications for Diagnosing PTSD in Military Service Members and Veterans.

    PubMed

    Guina, Jeffrey; Welton, Randon S; Broderick, Pamela J; Correll, Terry L; Peirson, Ryan P

    2016-05-01

    This review addresses how changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria has the potential to affect the care and careers of those who have served in the military, where the diagnosis often determines fitness for duty and veterans' benefits. PTSD criteria changes were intended to integrate new knowledge acquired since previous DSM editions. Many believe the changes will improve diagnosis and treatment, but some worry these could have negative clinical, occupational, and legal consequences. We analyze the changes in classification, trauma definition, symptoms, symptom clusters, and subtypes and possible impacts on the military (e.g., over- and under-diagnosis, "drone" video exposure, subthreshold PTSD, and secondary PTSD). We also discuss critiques and proposals for future changes. Our objectives are to improve the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of those service members who have survived trauma and to improve policies related to the military mental healthcare and disability systems.

  5. Are There Gangs in Schools?: It Depends upon Whom You Ask

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naber, Patricia A.; May, David C.; Decker, Scott H.; Minor, Kevin I.; Wells, James B.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, juvenile gang researchers have focused primarily on the characteristics of gangs and the prevalence of gangs in communities and schools. One of the greatest limitations of this research, however, surrounds the lack of agreement on the definition of a gang and, consequently, the prevalence of gangs in the community and in schools. In…

  6. Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…

  7. Intracellular localization of the BCL-2 family member BOK and functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Echeverry, N; Bachmann, D; Ke, F; Strasser, A; Simon, H U; Kaufmann, T

    2013-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BOK is widely expressed and resembles the multi-BH domain proteins BAX and BAK based on its amino acid sequence. The genomic region encoding BOK was reported to be frequently deleted in human cancer and it has therefore been hypothesized that BOK functions as a tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the molecular functions of BOK. We show that enforced expression of BOK activates the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway in BAX/BAK-proficient cells but fails to kill cells lacking both BAX and BAK or sensitize them to cytotoxic insults. Interestingly, major portions of endogenous BOK are localized to and partially inserted into the membranes of the Golgi apparatus as well as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associated membranes. The C-terminal transmembrane domain of BOK thereby constitutes a ‘tail-anchor' specific for targeting to the Golgi and ER. Overexpression of full-length BOK causes early fragmentation of ER and Golgi compartments. A role for BOK on the Golgi apparatus and the ER is supported by an abnormal response of Bok-deficient cells to the Golgi/ER stressor brefeldin A. Based on these results, we propose that major functions of BOK are exerted at the Golgi and ER membranes and that BOK induces apoptosis in a manner dependent on BAX and BAK. PMID:23429263

  8. Identification and characterization of new family members in the tautomerase superfamily: analysis and implications.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, Jamison P; Burks, Elizabeth A; Whitman, Christian P

    2014-12-15

    Tautomerase superfamily members are characterized by a β-α-β building block and a catalytic amino terminal proline. 4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) and malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase (MSAD) are the title enzymes of two of the five known families in the superfamily. Two recent developments in these families indicate that there might be more metabolic diversity in the tautomerase superfamily than previously thought. 4-OT homologues have been identified in three biosynthetic pathways, whereas all previously characterized 4-OTs are found in catabolic pathways. In the MSAD family, homologues have been characterized that lack decarboxylase activity, but have a modest hydratase activity using 2-oxo-3-pentynoate. This observation stands in contrast to the first characterized MSAD, which is a proficient decarboxylase and a less efficient hydratase. The hydratase activity was thought to be a vestigial and promiscuous activity. However, this recent discovery suggests that the hydratase activity might reflect a new activity in the MSAD family for an unknown substrate. These discoveries open up new avenues of research in the tautomerase superfamily.

  9. Identification and Characterization of New Family Members in the Tautomerase Superfamily: Analysis and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jamison P.; Burks, Elizabeth A.; Whitman, Christian P.

    2014-01-01

    Tautomerase superfamily members are characterized by a β–α–β building block and a catalytic amino terminal proline. 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) and malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase (MSAD) are the title enzymes of two of the five known families in the superfamily. Two recent developments in these families indicate that there might be more metabolic diversity in the tautomerase superfamily than previously thought. 4-OT homologues have been identified in three biosynthetic pathways, whereas all previously characterized 4-OTs are found in catabolic pathways. In the MSAD family, homologues have been characterized that lack decarboxylase activity, but have a modest hydratase activity using 2-oxo-3-pentynoate. This observation stands in contrast to the first characterized MSAD, which is a proficient decarboxylase and a less efficient hydratase. The hydratase activity was thought to be a vestigial and promiscuous activity. However, this recent discovery suggests that the hydratase activity might reflect a new activity in the MSAD family for an unknown substrate. These discoveries open up new avenues of research in the tautomerase superfamily. PMID:25219626

  10. Silicate weathering in the Ganges alluvial plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, Patrick J.; Clymans, Wim; Fontorbe, Guillaume; Gray, William; Chakrapani, Govind J.; Conley, Daniel J.; De La Rocha, Christina

    2015-10-01

    The Ganges is one of the world's largest rivers and lies at the heart of a body of literature that investigates the interaction between mountain orogeny, weathering and global climate change. Three regions can be recognised in the Ganges basin, with the Himalayan orogeny to the north and the plateaus of peninsular India to the south together delimiting the Ganges alluvial plain. Despite constituting approximately 80% of the basin, weathering processes in the peninsula and alluvial plain have received little attention. Here we present an analysis of 51 water samples along a transect of the alluvial plain, including all major tributaries. We focus on the geochemistry of silicon and its isotopes. Area normalised dissolved Si yields are approximately twice as high in rivers of Himalaya origin than the plain and peninsular tributaries (82, 51 and 32 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, respectively). Such dissolved Si fluxes are not widely used as weathering rate indicators because a large but variable fraction of the DSi mobilised during the initial weathering process is retained in secondary clay minerals. However, the silicon isotopic composition of dissolved Si (expressed as δ30Si) varies from + 0.8 ‰ in the Ganges mainstem at the Himalaya front to + 3.0 ‰ in alluvial plain streams and appears to be controlled by weathering congruency, i.e. by the degree of incorporation of Si into secondary phases. The higher δ30Si values therefore reflect decreasing weathering congruency in the lowland river catchments. This is exploited to quantify the degree of removal using a Rayleigh isotope mass balance model, and consequently derive initial silica mobilisation rates of 200, 150 and 107 kmol SiO2 km-2 yr-1, for the Himalaya, peninsular India and the alluvial plain, respectively. Because the non-Himalayan regions dominate the catchment area, the majority of initial silica mobilisation from primary minerals occurs in the alluvial plain and peninsular catchment (41% and 34%, respectively).

  11. Monitoring ARC services with GangliARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, D.; Karpenko, D.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring of Grid services is essential to provide a smooth experience for users and provide fast and easy to understand diagnostics for administrators running the services. GangliARC makes use of the widely-used Ganglia monitoring tool to present web-based graphical metrics of the ARC computing element. These include statistics of running and finished jobs, data transfer metrics, as well as showing the availability of the computing element and hardware information such as free disk space left in the ARC cache. Ganglia presents metrics as graphs of the value of the metric over time and shows an easily-digestable summary of how the system is performing, and enables quick and easy diagnosis of common problems. This paper describes how GangliARC works and shows numerous examples of how the generated data can quickly be used by an administrator to investigate problems. It also presents possibilities of combining GangliARC with other commonly-used monitoring tools such as Nagios to easily integrate ARC monitoring into the regular monitoring infrastructure of any site or computing centre.

  12. Gangs in Our Schools: Identifying Gang Indicators in Our School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struyk, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Although teachers used to teach in the communities where they resided, they now commute to schools in other districts. For teachers who teach in districts that are culturally or ethnically different than their own, it may be a new experience of which to become aware or identify issues such as dealing with gang behavior. For other teachers, there…

  13. Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

  14. 59 FR- National Gang Violence Prevention Week, 1994

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-09-13

    ... States of America the two hundred and nineteenth. (Presidential Sig.) > [FR Doc. 94-22846 Filed 9-12-94... Proclamation 6717-- National Gang Violence Prevention Week, 1994 Presidential Documents Federal Register Vol..., 1994 National Gang Violence Prevention Week, 1994 By the President of the United States of America...

  15. Predicting early adolescent gang involvement from middle school adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Nelson, Sarah E; Yasui, Miwa

    2005-03-01

    This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations in 6th grade were used to predict multiple measures of gang involvement by 8th grade. The multiple measures of gang involvement included self-, peer, teacher, and counselor reports. Unexpectedly, self-report measures of gang involvement did not correlate highly with peer and school staff reports. The results, however, were similar for other and self-report measures of gang involvement. Mean level analyses revealed statistically reliable differences in 8th-grade gang involvement as a function of the youth gender and ethnicity. Structural equation prediction models revealed that peer nominations of rejection, acceptance, academic failure, and antisocial behavior were predictive of gang involvement for most youth. These findings suggest that the youth level of problem behavior and the school ecology (e.g., peer rejection, school failure) require attention in the design of interventions to prevent the formation of gangs among high-risk young adolescents.

  16. Learning from Gangs: The Mexican American Experience. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, James Diego

    Gangs have become a fixture in the Mexican American populations of southern California and other regions, spreading from low-income neighborhoods in the Southwest to working class and lower-middle class suburban areas. The development and institutionalization of gangs have involved many factors, including racial discrimination and economic…

  17. Reconsidering Hispanic Gang Membership and Acculturation in a Multivariate Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Holly Ventura; Barnes, J. C.; Hartley, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous qualitative research has suggested that Hispanic gang membership is linked to the process of acculturation. Specifically, studies have indicated that those who are less assimilated into mainstream American or "Anglo" society are at greater risk for joining gangs. Building on these observations, this study examines the relationship between…

  18. A Statewide Study of Gang Membership in California Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is a paucity of empirical evidence that examines gang membership in schools. Using statewide data of 7th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade students from California, this study focuses on the prevalence of gang membership by county, region, ethnicity, and grade level. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed with…

  19. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarasinghe, U. A.; Mutuwatte, L.; Surinaidu, L.; Anand, S.; Jain, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    The Ganges River Basin may have a major pending water crisis. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3-4 months of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8-9 months of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River Basin is problematic. A range of interventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface-subsurface water exchange, have long been known as the "Ganges Water Machine". One approach for providing such SSS is through additional pumping prior to the onset of the monsoon season. An important necessary condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. This paper highlights that an unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 119 Bm3 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide Rabi and hot weather season irrigation to the entire cropped area. This paper shows that SSS can enhance water supply, and provide benefits for irrigation and other water use sectors. In addition, it can buffer the inherent variability in water supply and mitigate extreme flooding, especially in the downstream parts of the basin. It can also increase river flow during low-flow months via baseflow or enable the re-allocation of irrigation canal water. Importantly, SSS can mitigate the negative effects of both flooding and water scarcity in the same year, which often affects the most vulnerable segments of society - women and children, the poor and other disadvantaged social groups.

  20. Expanding symmetric multiprocessor capability through gang scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M.A.

    1998-03-01

    Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) systems normally provide both space- sharing and time-sharing to insure high system utilization and good responsiveness. However the prevailing lack of concurrent scheduling for parallel programs precludes SMP use in addressing many large-scale problems. Tightly synchronized communications are impractical and normal time-sharing reduces the benefit of cache memory. Evidence gathered at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) indicates that gang scheduling can increase the capability of SMP systems and parallel program performance without adverse impact upon system utilization or responsiveness.

  1. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarasinghe, Upali Ananda; Muthuwatta, Lal; Surinaidu, Lagudu; Anand, Sumit; Jain, Sharad Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The Ganges River basin faces severe water challenges related to a mismatch between supply and demand. Although the basin has abundant surface water and groundwater resources, the seasonal monsoon causes a mismatch between supply and demand as well as flooding. Water availability and flood potential is high during the 3-4 months (June-September) of the monsoon season. Yet, the highest demands occur during the 8-9 months (October-May) of the non-monsoon period. Addressing this mismatch, which is likely to increase with increasing demand, requires substantial additional storage for both flood reduction and improvements in water supply. Due to hydrogeological, environmental, and social constraints, expansion of surface storage in the Ganges River basin is problematic. A range of interventions that focus more on the use of subsurface storage (SSS), and on the acceleration of surface-subsurface water exchange, has long been known as the Ganges Water Machine (GWM). The approach of the GWM for providing such SSS is through additional pumping and depleting of the groundwater resources prior to the onset of the monsoon season and recharging the SSS through monsoon surface runoff. An important condition for creating such SSS is the degree of unmet water demand. The paper shows that the potential unmet water demand ranging from 59 to 124 Bm3 year-1 exists under two different irrigation water use scenarios: (i) to increase irrigation in the Rabi (November-March) and hot weather (April-May) seasons in India, and the Aman (July-November) and Boro (December-May) seasons in Bangladesh, to the entire irrigable area, and (ii) to provide irrigation to Rabi and the hot weather season in India and the Aman and Boro seasons in Bangladesh to the entire cropped area. However, the potential for realizing the unmet irrigation demand is high only in 7 sub-basins in the northern and eastern parts, is moderate to low in 11 sub-basins in the middle, and has little or no potential in 4 sub

  2. 2000 Survey of Youth Gangs in Indian Country. NYGC Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen, Jr.

    In 2001, the National Youth Gang Center conducted a survey of youth gangs in Indian country. Three hundred of the 577 federally recognized tribal communities responded to the survey. Twenty-three percent of Indian communities reported active youth gangs during 2000. The extent of the gang problem varied considerably among communities, with many…

  3. U.S. Juvenile Arrests: Gang Membership, Social Class, and Labeling Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the link between gang membership and arrest frequency, exploring the Gang x Socioeconomic status interaction on those arrests. Notoriously poor, delinquent, and often well-known to police, America's gang youth should have very high odds of arrest. Yet it is unclear whether mere membership in a gang increases the risk of arrest…

  4. Self-Definitions of Gang Membership and Involvement in Delinquent Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerregaard, Beth

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between various methods of operationalizing gang membership and delinquency. Surveys of inner city adolescents indicated that teens reporting membership in organized gangs were far more likely to believe their gangs possessed characteristics typically associated with traditional street gangs. Teens who considered…

  5. Perceptions of Risk Factors for Female Gang Involvement among African American and Hispanic Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Female minority students at an urban alternative high school completed interviews regarding perceptions of risk factors for female gang involvement. Peer pressure was the largest influence on female gang involvement. Respondents believed girls might turn to gangs for protection from neighborhood crime, abusive families, and other gangs. Lack of…

  6. Water resources management in the Ganges Basin: a comparison of three strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Yu, Winston; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult water resources management challenge in the Ganges Basin is the imbalance between water demand and seasonal availability. More than 80 % of the annual flow in the Ganges River occurs during the 4-month monsoon, resulting in widespread flooding. During the rest of the year, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystems suffer because of water scarcity. Storage of monsoonal flow for utilization during the dry season is one approach to mitigating these problems. Three conjunctive use management strategies involving subsurface water storage are evaluated in this study: Ganges Water Machine (GWM), Pumping Along Canals (PAC), and Distributed Pumping and Recharge (DPR). Numerical models are used to determine the efficacy of these strategies. Results for the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh (UP) indicate that these strategies create seasonal subsurface storage from 6 to 37 % of the yearly average monsoonal flow in the Ganges exiting UP over the considered range of conditions. This has clear implications for flood reduction, and each strategy has the potential to provide irrigation water and to reduce soil waterlogging. However, GWM and PAC require significant public investment in infrastructure and management, as well as major shifts in existing water use practices; these also involve spatially-concentrated pumping, which may induce land subsidence. DPR also requires investment and management, but the distributed pumping is less costly and can be more easily implemented via adaptation of existing water use practices in the basin.

  7. Integrating seepage heterogeneity with the use of ganged seepage meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    The usefulness of standard half-barrel seepage meters for measurement of fluxes between groundwater, and surface water is limited by the small bed area that each measurement represents and the relatively large associated labor costs. Standard half-barrel cylinders were ganged together to allow one measurement of the summed seepage through all of the meters, reducing labor cost and increasing the representative area of measurement. Comparisons of ganged versus individual-meter measurements at two lakes, under both inseepage and outseepage conditions, indicate little loss of efficiency resulting from routing seepage water through the ganging system. Differences between summed and ganged seepage rates were not significant for all but the fastest rates of seepage. At flow rates greater than about 250 mL min-1, ganged values were as low as 80% of summed values. Ganged-meter head losses also were calculated to determine their significance relative to hydraulic-head gradients measured at the field sites. The calculated reduction in hydraulic gradient beneath the seepage meters was significant only for the largest measured seepage rates. A calibration tank was used to determine single-meter and ganged-meter efficiencies compared to known seepage rates. Single-cylinder seepage meters required an average correction factor of 1.05 to convert measured to actual values, whereas the ganged measurements made in the tank required a larger correction factor of 1.14. Although manual measurements were used in these tests, the concept of ganging seepage cylinders also would be useful when used in conjunction with automated flowmeters. ?? 2005, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  8. The Trauma Response Team: a Community Intervention for Gang Violence.

    PubMed

    Jennings-Bey, Timothy; Lane, Sandra D; Rubinstein, Robert A; Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Haygood-El, Arnett; Hudson, Helen; Sanchez, Shaundel; Fowler, Frank L

    2015-10-01

    While violent crime has decreased in many cities in the USA, gang-related violence remains a serious problem in impoverished inner city neighborhoods. In Syracuse, New York, gang-related murders and gun shots have topped other New York state cities. Residents of the high-murder neighborhoods suffer trauma similar to those living in civil conflict zones. The Trauma Response Team was established in 2010, in collaboration with the Police Department, health care institutions, and emergency response teams and with the research support of Syracuse University faculty. Since its inception, gang-related homicides and gun shots have decreased in the most severely affected census tracts.

  9. The Trauma Response Team: a Community Intervention for Gang Violence.

    PubMed

    Jennings-Bey, Timothy; Lane, Sandra D; Rubinstein, Robert A; Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Haygood-El, Arnett; Hudson, Helen; Sanchez, Shaundel; Fowler, Frank L

    2015-10-01

    While violent crime has decreased in many cities in the USA, gang-related violence remains a serious problem in impoverished inner city neighborhoods. In Syracuse, New York, gang-related murders and gun shots have topped other New York state cities. Residents of the high-murder neighborhoods suffer trauma similar to those living in civil conflict zones. The Trauma Response Team was established in 2010, in collaboration with the Police Department, health care institutions, and emergency response teams and with the research support of Syracuse University faculty. Since its inception, gang-related homicides and gun shots have decreased in the most severely affected census tracts. PMID:26282564

  10. Towards a National Gang Strategy: A Meta-Policy Analysis of Leadership, Learning, and Organizational Change within the Law Enforcement Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Maurice V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the process of change within law enforcement, focusing on the leadership, learning, and organizational change required to reduce crime, violence, and social disruption caused by criminal street gangs. The study tests the viability, results, and implications of a new policing model, the trans-jurisdictional task force, through…

  11. 65 FR 42728 - Program Announcements for OJJDP's Fiscal Year 2000 Gang-Free Schools and Communities Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-07-11

    ... Gang-Free Schools and Communities Initiative AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile... programs to address the youth gang problem and one new evaluation program under its Fiscal Year 2000 Gang.... The two new programs are the Gang-Free Communities Program and the Comprehensive Gang Model:...

  12. Susceptibility of members of the family Legionellaceae to thermal stress: implications for heat eradication methods in water distribution systems.

    PubMed Central

    Stout, J E; Best, M G; Yu, V L

    1986-01-01

    To ascertain the feasibility of heat inactivation as an eradication method applicable to all members of the family Legionellaceae, we tested the heat resistance of 75 isolates which represented 19 members of this family of organisms. The ranges of thermal death times at 60, 70, and 80 degrees C were 1.3 to 10.6, 0.7 to 2.6, and 0.3 to 0.7 min, respectively. These data suggest that the method of heat eradication will be effective against all members of the family Legionellaceae. PMID:3752999

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)

    DOE Data Explorer

    In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

  14. Diagenesis and fracture development in the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin; implications for reservoir quality in the middle member

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, Janet K.; Price, Leigh C.; LeFever, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    The middle member of the Bakken Formation is an attractive petroleum exploration target in the deeper part of the Williston Basin because it is favorably positioned with respect to source and seal units. Progressive rates of burial and minor uplift and erosion of this member led to a stable thermal regime and, consequently, minor variations in diagenesis across much of the basin. The simple diagenetic history recorded in sandstones and siltstones in the middle member can, in part, be attributed to the closed, low-permeability nature of the Bakken petroleum system during most of its burial history. Most diagenesis ceased in the middle member when oil entered the sandstones and siltstones in the Late Cretaceous. Most oil in the Bakken Formation resides in open, horizontal fractures in the middle member. Core analysis reveals that sandstones and siltstones associated with thick mature shales typically have a greater density of fractures than sandstones and siltstones associated with thin mature shales. Fractures were caused by superlithostatic pressures that formed in response to increased fluid volumes in the source rocks during hydrocarbon generation

  15. People and Folks. Gangs, Crime and the Underclass in a Rustbelt City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, John M.; Macon, Perry

    Minority gangs of the 1980s are examined as groups of juveniles and young adults and as a fraction of the forming underclass. Gangs today no longer disappear as their ethnic groups rises socially. Instead, gangs are becoming institutionalized in the central cities. This discussion of prior research in Los Angeles (California) and more recent…

  16. 66 FR 34733 - The Gang Resistance Education and Training Program: Availability of Financial Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-06-29

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms The Gang Resistance Education and Training Program: Availability... assistance to State and local law enforcement agencies providing or desiring to provide the Gang Resistance... the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program. This notice also sets forth...

  17. 64 FR 28026 - The Gang Resistance and Education Training Program: Availability of Financial Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-05-24

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms The Gang Resistance and Education Training Program: Availability... assistance to State and local law enforcement agencies providing or desiring to provide the Gang Resistance... the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program. This notice also sets forth...

  18. 68 FR 60709 - The Gang Resistance Education and Training Program: Availability of Financial Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-10-23

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives The Gang Resistance Education and Training Program..., Firearms and Explosives (ATF), Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of availability of funds for the Gang... State and local law enforcement agencies to assist them in providing the Gang Resistance Education...

  19. 67 FR 49738 - The Gang Resistance Education And Training Program: Availability of Financial Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-07-31

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms The Gang Resistance Education And Training Program: Availability... Firearms (ATF), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of availability of funds for the Gang Resistance Education and... agencies to assist them in providing the Gang Resistance Education And Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program...

  20. 63 FR 41891 - The Gang Resistance and Education Training Program: Availability of Financial Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-08-05

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms The Gang Resistance and Education Training Program: Availability... assistance to State and local law enforcement agencies providing or desiring to provide the Gang Resistance... the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program. This notice also sets forth...

  1. 65 FR 37207 - The Gang Resistance Education and Training Program: Availability of Financial Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-06-13

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms The Gang Resistance Education and Training Program: Availability... assistance to State and local law enforcement agencies providing or desiring to provide the Gang Resistance... the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program. This notice also sets forth...

  2. Highlights of the 2004 National Youth Gang Survey. OJJDP Fact Sheet. FS-200601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egley, Arlen, Jr.; Ritz, Christina E.

    2006-01-01

    Annually since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has conducted the National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS) of law enforcement agencies across the United States regarding the presences and characteristics of local gang problems. This Fact Sheet summarizes NYGS findings from the 2004 survey. The nationally representative sample included the…

  3. Developmental Influences and Gang Awareness among African-American Inner City Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadwallader, Tom W.; Cairns, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 489 African American first-, fourth-, and seventh-grade students examined children's knowledge of gangs. Findings indicated that students are well aware of gang activities in their neighborhoods and can readily name the groups present in their inner-city environment. Students' awareness of gangs increases with age and may represent a…

  4. Divergent Perceptions of Group Delinquency in a Midwestern Community: Racine's Gang Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Susan R.; Zevitz, Richard G.

    1990-01-01

    Compares the perceptions of 534 adults and 458 secondary school students in Racine (Wisconsin) about gang activity in the community. Finds that adults perceive gangs as formalized, highly organized, structured groups, while youth perceive gangs as more informal, loosely organized, and amorphous groups. (FMW)

  5. Understanding Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Jail Inmates: Testing the Effects of Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang…

  6. A Systemic Analysis of the Dynamics and Organization of Urban Street Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, William L.; Ruble, Nikki M.

    2000-01-01

    Looks at the organization of street gangs and suggests that some of the same concepts used to describe family systems may be applied to them. States that the complex organization of gangs forms a web of interconnectedness, and that in order to provide effective intervention plans, gangs must be viewed from a systematic and holistic perspective.…

  7. Petrology, sedimentology and stratigraphic implications of Black Dragon Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.A. ); Ochs, S.

    1990-01-01

    Deposition was partly controlled by paleotopographic relief of underlying Permian strata. Triassic Black Dragon sediments filled lowlands on an erosion surface (unconformity) cut into the Permian White Rim Sandstone and Kaibab Limestone. The Black Dragon Member consists of four distinct facies containing a wide variety of sedimentary structures that characterize both fluvial and tidal environments. The facies are: (1) a Chert Pebble Conglomerate (CPC) facies, characterized by calcite-cemented channel-fills of nodular and banded chert pebbles; (2) an Interbedded Sandstone, Siltstone, and Shale (SSS) facies, containing oscillation ripples and flaser bedding; (3) a large-scale Trough Cross-Stratified Sandstone (TXS) facies, consisting of 6.6-13.1 ft (2-4 m) thick sets of fine- to medium-grained sandstone; and (4) an Oolitic and Algal Limestone (OAL) facies, with cross-stratified oolitic beds, fenestral fabric, and laminated algal rip-up clasts. The CPC facies and the TXS facies were deposited by braided streams when the shoreline lay west of the San Rafael Swell. Rivers drained off and eroded localized Permian highlands, located most likely within a 62 mi (100 km) distance to the south and southeast of the study area. The SSS facies which constitutes the bulk of the Black Dragon Member, and the OAL facies are inter- and supratidal deposits formed during relative sea level highstands, when the shoreline lay within or east of the San Rafael Swell. A decrease in continent-derived sand supply and a corresponding increase in carbonate production within the OAL facies characterizes the end of Black Dragon deposition and the gradation into the overlying Sinbad Limestone Member.

  8. Physics analysis of the gang partial rod drive event

    SciTech Connect

    Boman, C.; Frost, R.L.

    1992-08-01

    During the routine positioning of partial-length control rods in Gang 3 on the afternoon of Monday, July 27, 1992, the partial-length rods continued to drive into the reactor even after the operator released the controlling toggle switch. In response to this occurrence, the Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group (SAEG) requested that the Applied Physics Group (APG) analyze the gang partial rod drive event. Although similar accident scenarios were considered in analysis for Chapter 15 of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), APG and SAEG conferred and agreed that this particular type of gang partial-length rod motion event was not included in the SAR. This report details this analysis.

  9. Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

  10. Performance characteristics of gang scheduling in multiprogrammed environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gang scheduling provides both space-slicing and time-slicing of computer resources for parallel programs. Each thread of execution from a parallel job is concurrently scheduled on an independent processor in order to achieve an optimal level of program performance. Time-slicing of parallel jobs provides for better overall system responsiveness and utilization than otherwise possible. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has deployed three generations of its gang scheduler on a variety of computing platforms. Results indicate the potential benefits of this technology to parallel processing are no less significant than time-sharing was in the 1960`s.

  11. Who Needs Enemies with Friends like These? The Importance of Place for Young People Living in Known Gang Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralphs, Robert; Medina, Juanjo; Aldridge, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Despite a growing concern about gangs in Britain, academic research that focuses on gangs remains scarce. Drawing on data from the ESRC-funded ethnographic research YOGEC (Youth Gangs in an English City) project, this paper explores the negotiation of space and place by young people living in inner-city areas affected by gangs. Using a combination…

  12. Discipline and punish? Youth gangs' response to "zero-tolerance" policies in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Lirio Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    The response of youth gangs to "zero tolerance" policing in Honduras are examined with respect to territoriality. Focusing on two main gangs, the Mara Salvatrucha and the 18th Street Gang, the ways in which state authority is challenged are assessed from an analysis of body territoriality, the respatialisation of organisational structures across urban neighbourhoods, and the production of new enclosed spaces of gang territoriality. These redefinitions of group territoriality strengthen the emotional bonds and sense of belonging towards the gang, enabling the emergence of a transnational/imagined community.

  13. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    PubMed

    Gebo, Erika

    2016-12-01

    There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence. PMID:27547719

  14. Is autism a member of a family of diseases resulting from genetic/cultural mismatches? Implications for treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Bilbo, Staci D; Jones, John P; Parker, William

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support the view that autism is a typical member of a large family of immune-related, noninfectious, chronic diseases associated with postindustrial society. This family of diseases includes a wide range of inflammatory, allergic, and autoimmune diseases and results from consequences of genetic/culture mismatches which profoundly destabilize the immune system. Principle among these consequences is depletion of important components, particularly helminths, from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome. Autism shares a wide range of features in common with this family of diseases, including the contribution of genetics/epigenetics, the identification of disease-inducing triggers, the apparent role of immunity in pathogenesis, high prevalence, complex etiologies and manifestations, and potentially some aspects of epidemiology. Fortunately, using available resources and technology, modern medicine has the potential to effectively reconstitute the human biome, thus treating or even avoiding altogether the consequences of genetic/cultural mismatches which underpin this entire family of disease. Thus, if indeed autism is an epidemic of postindustrial society associated with immune hypersensitivity, we can expect that the disease is readily preventable.

  15. Chain Gang: A Framegame for Teaching Algorithms and Heuristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiagarajan, Sivasailam; Pasigna, Aida L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes basic structure of a framegame, Chain Gang, in which self-instructional modules teach a cognitive skill. Procedures are presented for loading new content into the game's basic framework to teach algorithms or heuristics and for game modification to suit different situations. Handouts used in the basic game are appended. (MBR)

  16. Predicting Early Adolescent Gang Involvement from Middle School Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; Yasui, Miwa

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations…

  17. Moving into Motherhood: Gang Girls and Controlled Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen; MacKenzie, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of research challenges the popular characterization that young mothers are bad mothers. This article focuses on a group of girls and young women who were pregnant or mothers and who were engaged in a risky lifestyle through their heavy involvement in gangs, partying, and drinking. The authors examine the impact of the process of…

  18. Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi

    2011-01-01

    The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths' involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major…

  19. Get Past Denial, Then Tackle Your Gang Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Rick

    1996-01-01

    A Tucson principal learned that denial and traditional administrative strategies cannot mitigate evolving gang activity. He recommends that school leaders use respect; provide relevant programs; establish a zero-tolerance policy for weapons, drugs, and violence; create parent patrols; keep video records; regulate attire; welcome police; support…

  20. Molecular heterogeneity in the choroid plexus epithelium: the 22-member γ-protocadherin family is differentially expressed, apically localized, and implicated in CSF regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lobas, Mark A.; Helsper, Lindsey; Vernon, Claire G.; Schreiner, Dietmar; Zhang, Yong; Holtzman, Michael J.; Thedens, Daniel R.; Weiner, Joshua A.

    2011-01-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium develops from the ependyma that lines the ventricular system, and plays a critical role in the development and function of the brain. In addition to being the primary site of CSF production, the CP maintains the blood-CSF barrier via apical tight junctions between epithelial cells. Here we show that the 22-member γ-Protocadherin (γ-Pcdh) family of cell adhesion molecules, which we have implicated previously in synaptogenesis and neuronal survival, is highly expressed by both CP epithelial and ependymal cells, in which γ-Pcdh protein localization is, surprisingly, tightly restricted to the apical membrane. Multi-label immunostaining demonstrates that γ-Pcdhs are excluded from tight junctions, basolateral adherens junctions, and apical cilia tufts. RT-PCR analysis indicates that, as a whole, the CP expresses most members of the Pcdh-γ gene family. Immunostaining using novel monoclonal antibodies specific for single γ-Pcdh proteins shows that individual epithelial cells differ in their apically-localized γ-Pcdh repertoire. Restricted mutation of the Pcdh-γ locus in the choroid plexus and ependyma leads to significant reductions in ventricular volume, without obvious disruptions of epithelial apical-basal polarity. Together, these results suggest an unsuspected role for the γ-Pcdhs in CSF production and demonstrate a surprising molecular heterogeneity in the CP epithelium. PMID:22092001

  1. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  2. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  3. Outlaw motorcycle gangs: aspects of the one-percenter culture for emergency department personnel to consider.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Quinn, James F; Peterson, Todd B; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-07-01

    Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker's identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s.

  4. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider

    PubMed Central

    Bosmia, Anand N.; Quinn, James F.; Peterson, Todd B.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2014-01-01

    Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762

  5. The silicon isotopic composition of the Ganges and its tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontorbe, Guillaume; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Bickle, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    The silicon isotopic composition (δSi30) of the headwaters of the Ganges River, in the Himalaya, ranged from +0.49±0.01‰ to +2.17±0.04‰ at dissolved silicon (DSi) concentrations of 38 to 239 μM. Both the concentration and isotopic composition of DSi in the tributaries increased between the highest elevations to where the Ganges leaves the Himalayas at Rishikesh. The tributaries exhibit a linear correlation between δSi30 and DSi that may represent mixing between a low DSi, low δSi30 (e.g., 40 μM, +0.5‰) component potentially reflecting fractionation during adsorption of a small fraction of silicon onto iron oxides and a high DSi, high δSi30 component (e.g., 240 μM, +1.7‰) produced during higher intensity weathering with a greater proportional sequestration of weathered silicon into secondary minerals or biogenic silica. On the Ganges alluvial plain, in the Ganges and the Yamuna, Gomati, and their tributaries, DSi ranged from 122 to 218 μM while δSi30 ranged from +1.03±0.03‰ to +2.46±0.06‰. Highest values of δSi30 occurred in the Gomati and its tributaries. In general, the lower DSi and higher δSi30 of DSi in these rivers suggests control of both by removal of DSi by secondary mineral formation and/or biogenic silica production. A simple 1-dimensional model with flow through a porous medium is introduced and provides a useful framework for understanding these results.

  6. GANG INVOLVEMENT AMONG STREET-INVOLVED YOUTH IN A CANADIAN SETTING: A GENDER-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon DL; DeBeck, Kora; Simo, Annick; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Evidence suggests that gang involvement is associated with adverse health outcomes among high-risk youth. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence and correlates of gang affiliation among this population, particularly in Canada. We examined the relationship between self-reported gang involvement and early childhood traumatic experiences, social factors, and other behaviors in a study of drug-using, street-involved youth. Study Design Cross-Sectional Study Methods Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Between June 2009 and May 2011, participants were asked questions ascertaining lifetime gang involvement and gang affiliation in one’s social network. We examined the gender-specific correlates of gang involvement using stratified log-binomial regression analyses. Results Among 435 eligible participants, 94 (21.6%) reported gang involvement and 206 (47.4%) reported having friends in a gang. In gender-stratified models, males involved in gangs were more likely to be of Aboriginal ancestry (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09 – 2.44), have grown up in government care (PR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.32 – 3.12), dealt drugs (PR = 2.52, 95%CI: 1.66 – 3.85), and been incarcerated (PR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.29 – 2.80). Women involved in gangs were more likely to have reported a history of childhood sexual abuse (PR = 3.08, 95%CI: 1.15 – 8.27). Conclusions These results suggest that a variety of adverse experiences in early life are associated with an increased risk of gang affiliation among street-involved youth. Primary prevention strategies aiming to avert gang initiation among high-risk youth should seek to address childhood abuse and other traumatic experiences commonly experienced by this population. PMID:25542743

  7. 59 FR- Administration on Children, Youth and Families; Youth Gang Drug Prevention Program; Availability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-07-12

    ... and Families published a program announcement in the Federal Register (59 FR 23867). The announcement...; Youth Gang Drug Prevention Program; Availability of Fiscal Year 1994 Funds and Request for Applications... (ACF); HHS. ACTION: Extension of closing date for submittal of applications under the Youth Gang...

  8. Multiculturalism as a Policy for Disarming Gang Violence in Communities at Large and in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christine; Jenkins, Morris

    Those who try to deal with violence in U.S. communities and schools have tended to concentrate on suppression of violence, rather than real prevention, particularly as violence is associated with youth gangs. This discussion focuses on multiculturalism as a policy for reducing gang violence, rather than strategies that have been used to deal with…

  9. Cognitive and Social Influences on Gang Involvement among Delinquents in Three Chinese Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

    2007-01-01

    Inasmuch as research has held the increase in youth gang activities responsible for the escalating level of crime and delinquency in Chinese societies, ascertaining risk or protective factors of gang involvement among Chinese youths is crucial. The factors include those associated with social control, social learning, and cognitive development. To…

  10. Gangkill: An Exploratory Empirical Assessment of Gang Membership, Homicide Offending, and Prison Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…

  11. Gang Membership and Subsequent Engagement into a Drug Free Therapeutic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widlitz, Michelle; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; Bunt, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of history of gang involvement to engagement in Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment. Residents (N = 222) at two Daytop facilities completed a survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, prior gang involvement and multiple aspects of TC functioning. Residents with prior gang…

  12. Adolescent gang involvement: The role of individual, family, peer, and school factors in a multilevel perspective.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Michela; Sharkey, Jill; Vieno, Alessio; Mayworm, Ashley; Dougherty, Danielle; Nylund-Gibson, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Youth gang involvement is a serious public health challenge as adolescents involved in gangs are more likely than others to engage in violence and aggression. To better understand gang involvement, we examined the role of protective (empathy and parental support) and risk (peer deviance and lack of safety at school) factors, as well as their interactions, in predicting adolescent gang affiliation. The study involved a sample of 26,232 students (53.4% females; mean age = 14.62, SD = 1.69) participating in the California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS), a survey investigating a wide range of youth health and risk behaviors administered in all California schools every 2 years. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), findings indicated that high levels of empathy and parental support were associated with a lower likelihood of affiliating with a gang. Associating with deviant peers and perceiving the school as unsafe were positively correlated with gang membership. At the school level, lack of safety and type of school (special education, vocational, or alternative school vs. comprehensive schools) were associated with greater probability of gang membership. Empathy mitigated the association between deviant peers and gang membership.

  13. Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

  14. Intervening in Children's Involvement in Gangs: Views of Cape Town's Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Catherine L.; Bakhuis, Karlijn

    2010-01-01

    Gangs have a long history in Cape Town and children tend to begin involvement around age 12. Children's views on causes of children's involvement in gangs and appropriate interventions, were sought for inclusion in policy recommendations. Thirty focus group discussions were held with in- and out-of-school youth in different communities.…

  15. Acculturative Stress and Gang Involvement among Latinos: U.S.-Born versus Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Alice N.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Lewis, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    Gang involvement is an increasing issue among Latino youth, yet nuanced research on its potential causes is scarce. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to explore links between acculturative stress and gang involvement among immigrant and U.S.-born Latino middle school students (N = 199). Regression analyses showed that U.S.-born youths…

  16. The Gang's All Here: Grammar Goes Global for Purdue, Unisa and Adelaide University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Andrea; Spangenberg, Brady; Carter, Susanna; Miller, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The University of South Australia and Purdue University (Indiana) launched the "Grammar Gang Blog" in June 2008, as a collaborative forum for talking about language. The blog reaches a far-flung community of learners from Australia to the United States, Brisbane to Bangalore and Ghana to Germany. The Grammar Gang--where Owls meet Possums--started…

  17. "Designing Out" Gang Homicides and Street Assaults. National Institute of Justice Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, James

    This brief discusses the use of traffic barriers to block automobile access to streets as a way to reduce gang violence. The tactic was used in a crime-plagued area of Los Angeles, California, that had experienced a high level of drive-by shootings, gang homicides, and street assaults. The program, Operation Cul de Sac (OCDS), was evaluated as a…

  18. Individual and Familial Characteristics of Youths Involved in Street Corner Gangs in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, C.; Sim, K.; Teoh, J.; Tian, C. S.; Ng, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    Study compares 36 youths involved in street corner gangs in Singapore with 91 age-matched controls on measures of self-esteem, aggression, dysfunctional parenting and parent-adolescent communication. Results revealed that gang youths had lower self-esteem and higher levels of aggression than controls. Findings diverge from anticipated familial…

  19. Precursors of Gang Involvement among Ninth Grade Students: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Barnes, Chanequa J.; Mason, Craig A.; Arrue, Rafael Martinez

    This study examines the relative influence of peer and parenting behavior on changes in adolescent gang involvement and gang-related delinquency. An ethnically diverse sample of 300 urban ninth-grade students was recruited and assessed on 8 occasions during the school year. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. Results…

  20. A Critical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Administrative Rules for Gang-Related Activities in Middle and High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiprany, David Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse reported that 35 percent of middle school students and 45 percent of high school students say that there are students who are affiliated with gangs or who consider themselves to be affiliated with gangs in their schools (Arciaga, Sakamoto, & Jones, 2010). Gangs are increasingly violent and…

  1. Can Education Play a Role in the Prevention of Youth Gangs in Indian Country? One Tribe's Approach. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Arturo

    Traditionally an urban problem, gang involvement is growing on Native American reservations. This digest examines common factors in gang development and one tribe's response through a Native-centric education and juvenile justice system. The sum of handicaps associated with gang involvement has been termed "multiple marginality," and reservation…

  2. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile

  3. Supporting Gang Violence Prevention Efforts: A Public Health Approach for Nurses.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Dawn D; Logan, J E; Schneiderman, Janet U

    2014-01-31

    The impact of gang violence on a youth's risk for death or injury is tremendous. Prevention of complex societal problems, such as gang violence, requires a substantial effort and commitment from many sectors and disciplines. Nurses are uniquely positioned to help lead such efforts. Understanding the public health perspective to gang violence may be an important tool for nurses attempting to prevent this problem. The public health approach has four key components: defining and monitoring the problem; identifying risk, protective, and promoting factors; developing and evaluating interventions; and dissemination. This article outlines these components, current research on gang violence, and concludes by summarizing critical challenges for nurses to consider as they contribute to public health initiatives to prevent gang violence.

  4. Supporting Gang Violence Prevention Efforts: A Public Health Approach for Nurses

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Dawn D.; Logan, J.E.; Schneiderman, Janet U.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of gang violence on a youth’s risk for death or injury is tremendous. Prevention of complex societal problems, such as gang violence, requires a substantial effort and commitment from many sectors and disciplines. Nurses are uniquely positioned to help lead such efforts. Understanding the public health perspective to gang violence may be an important tool for nurses attempting to prevent this problem. The public health approach has four key components: defining and monitoring the problem; identifying risk, protective, and promoting factors; developing and evaluating interventions; and dissemination. This article outlines these components, current research on gang violence, and concludes by summarizing critical challenges for nurses to consider as they contribute to public health initiatives to prevent gang violence. PMID:26752944

  5. Reality check. Evaluating a school-based gang prevention model.

    PubMed

    Sellers, C S; Taylor, T J; Esbensen, F A

    1998-10-01

    The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program is a school-based gang prevention initiative developed in 1991 through the collaborative efforts of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, and the Phoenix Police Department. Uniformed law enforcement officers, certified as G.R.E.A.T. instructors, teach the 9-week curriculum to middle students. In 1994, the National Institute of Justice funded a national evaluation of the G.R.E.A.T. program. The process evaluation component of this larger study is reported. First, results of on-site observations of the G.R.E.A.T. Officer Training program, including an overview of the training activities, and the authors' assessment of the training process are reported. Second, observations of the implementation of the program by officers at six sites are reported. Of primary concern was whether the program delivered to students was similar to the program taught to the officers during the G.R.E.A.T. Officer Training. PMID:10186895

  6. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1985-01-01

    An energy storage device (10) is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member (16) disposed within a tubular housing (14), which elastomeric member (16) is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member (16) is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section (74), and transition end sections (76, 78), attached to rigid end piece assemblies (22, 24) of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections (76, 78) are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member (16), a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing (14). Each of the transition sections (76, 78) are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve (26, 28) having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve (26, 28) also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond therebetween. During manufacture, the sleeves (26, 28) are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section (76, 78) to provide the correct profile and helix angle.

  7. Elastomeric member

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1985-07-30

    An energy storage device is disclosed consisting of a stretched elongated elastomeric member disposed within a tubular housing, which elastomeric member is adapted to be torsionally stressed to store energy. The elastomeric member is configured in the relaxed state with a uniform diameter body section, and transition end sections, attached to rigid end piece assemblies of a lesser diameter. The profile and deflection characteristic of the transition sections are such that upon stretching of the elastomeric member, a substantially uniform diameter assembly results, to minimize the required volume of the surrounding housing. Each of the transition sections are received within and bonded to a woven wire mesh sleeve having helical windings at a particular helix angle to control the deflection of the transition section. Each sleeve also contracts with the contraction of the associated transition section to maintain the bond there between. During manufacture, the sleeves are forced against a forming surface and bonded to the associated transition section to provide the correct profile and helix angle. 12 figs.

  8. Supporting members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Life Supporting Members L. Thomas Aldrich Thomas D. Barrow Hugh J . A. Chivers Allan V. Cox Samuel S. Goldich Pembroke J. Hart A. Ivan Johnson Helmut E. Landsberg Paolo Lanzano Murli H. Manghnani L. L. Nettleton Charles B. Officer Hyman Orlin Ned A. Ostenso Erick O. Schonstedt Waldo E. Smith Athelstan Spilhaus A. F. Spilhaus, Jr. John W. Townsend, Jr. James A. Van Allen Leonard W. Weis Charles A. Whitten J. Tuzo Wilson

  9. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2013-12-01

    In general, the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) as well as the and the tropical monsoon climate is influenced by a wide range of factors. Under various climate change scenarios, temperatures over land and into the mid troposphere are expected to increase, intensifying the summer pressure gradient differential between land and ocean and thus strengthening the ISM. However, increasing aerosol concentration, air pollution, and deforestation result in changes to surface albedo and insolation, potentially leading to low monsoon rainfall. Clear evidence points to increasing aerosol concentrations over the Indian subcontinent with time, and several hypotheses regarding the effect on monsoons have been offered. The Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) field study aimed to provide critical data to address these hypotheses and contribute to developing better parameterizations for tropical clouds, convection, and aerosol-cloud interactions. The primary science questions for the mission were as follows:

  10. Climatic Forcing of Organic-Carbon-Export Dynamics from the Ganges-Brahmaputra River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, V.; Hein, C. J.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are modulated by exchanges between atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial reservoirs of carbon, which in turn are driven by changes in the residence times of carbon within each of these pools, as well as the transport efficiencies between them. This study employs inorganic proxies of sediment composition and delivery, coupled with compound-specific stable-isotope and radiocarbon (Δ14C) measurements of terrestrial biomarkers delivered to the Bay of Bengal since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to investigate how changing climate has affected the timescales and dynamics of terrestrial organic-carbon export from the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system. Specifically, this study seeks to reconstruct variations in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon, in paleo-vegetation and in the residence time of organic carbon delivered to the Bengal Fan by the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers, as recorded in compound-specific Δ14C measurements. At the LGM, reduced differential heating between the Indian Ocean and the Asian continent weakened summer circulation and produced cooler, drier conditions over Asia and across the Himalayas. Increasing Northern Hemisphere insolation during deglaciation and until the Holocene Climatic Optima (HCO; 9-5 ka) corresponded with an increase in atmospheric CO2, mean effective moisture and monsoonal activity in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. These variations were manifested as a large decline of C4 plants in the basin and a general decrease in salinity in the northern Bay of Bengal; these trends have reversed as monsoon strength has weakened since the mid-Holocene. Preliminary compound-specific measurements of long-chain n-alkanoic (fatty) acids from a series of cores capturing the last 20,000 years of sedimentation in the Bay of Bengal record a 30 ‰ shift in δD between the LGM and HCO, indicating a change from weaker to stronger monsoon conditions over this time period. Likewise, compound-specific fatty-acid

  11. Risky Sexual Behaviors among a Sample of Gang-identified Youth in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are at an increased likelihood of participating in unsafe sexual behaviors and at an elevated risk of exposure to sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including HIV. This manuscript presents quantitative and qualitative data on sexual behaviors among a sample of predominately heterosexual, male gang youth aged 16 to 25 years interviewed in Los Angeles between 2006 and 2007 (n = 60). In particular, sexual identity, initiation and frequency of sex, and number of sexual partners; use of condoms, children, and other pregnancies; group sex; and STIs and sex with drug users. We argue that gang youth are a particular public health concern, due to their heightened risky sexual activity, and that behavioral interventions targeting gang youth need to include a component on reducing sexual risks and promoting safe sexual health. PMID:21949598

  12. Long-Term Consequences of Adolescent Gang Membership for Adult Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the possible public health consequences of adolescent gang membership for adult functioning. Methods. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study focusing on the development of positive and problem outcomes. Using propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses, we assessed the effects of adolescent gang membership on illegal behavior, educational and occupational attainment, and physical and mental health at the ages of 27, 30, and 33 years. Results. In comparison with their nongang peers, who had been matched on 23 confounding risk variables known to be related to selection into gang membership, those who had joined a gang in adolescence had poorer outcomes in multiple areas of adult functioning, including higher rates of self-reported crime, receipt of illegal income, incarceration, drug abuse or dependence, poor general health, and welfare receipt and lower rates of high school graduation. Conclusions. The finding that adolescent gang membership has significant consequences in adulthood beyond criminal behavior indicates the public health importance of the development of effective gang prevention programs. PMID:24625155

  13. Education and information needs identified by patients and key family members prior to surgery for a skull base neoplasm: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Durity, M B; Wyness, A; Durity, F; Ratel, M

    2000-09-01

    Many patients with extensive skull base neoplasms poorly understand the nature of their problems. Therefore, education of patients and family members is an important component of care. Research has established the benefits of pre-operative education for other types of surgery and information seeking as an important method of coping. Yet in 184 references on skull base surgery (1996-1999), no case-based or research data that examined education and information needs prior to hospitalization for surgery was found. The investigators present findings from Phase 1 of a descriptive research study designed to determine the education and information needs perceived by patients and family members at their initial visit to the neurosurgeon and on admission to hospital. Data was collected, using interviews and a questionnaire, from 18 patients with skull base neoplasms and 15 key family members. The study findings provide insight into the experience of patients and families during a time period (prehospitalization) that has not been explored. Results indicate that key education needs of participants are related to the brain tumour and surgery. Findings reveal patient participants in contrast to family members had little in the way of information needs. Underlying and impacting the education and information needs is the theme of 'Hearing the News'. Relevance of the results to nursing practice in the pre-operative phase is addressed. PMID:11901493

  14. A study of a structured exercise program with members of an ICCD Certified Clubhouse: program design, benefits, and implications for feasibility.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, John R; Nguyen, Meeta; Bradley, Kevin; Johnsen, Matthew; McKay, Colleen

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) have significantly greater risk of comorbid health problems and premature death, and there is need for interventions that can improve physical fitness and overall health. Accordingly, a study was conducted which evaluated the effectiveness of a structured physical exercise program that was developed as part of a wellness project in an ICCD Certified Clubhouse. Seventeen clubhouse members completed a 16-week program with evidence of significant improvement in aerobic capacity and perceived mental health as well as positive trends in perceived improvements in physical and social functioning. Qualitative data indicated satisfaction with the program by all participants, especially the value of group support, while also highlighting the need for greater attention to nutrition as part of a future program. Moreover, the study found that a structured exercise program can be successfully provided to members of an ICCD Certified Clubhouse.

  15. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS.

  16. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS. PMID:25873685

  17. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS. PMID:25873685

  18. Putting in Work: Qualitative Research on Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Gang Youth in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use. PMID:20222782

  19. Paleomagnetism of the Marble Bar Chert Member, Western Australia: Implications for apparent polar wander path for Pilbara craton during Archean time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Yusuke; Hamano, Yozo; Niitsuma, Sachiko; Hoashi, Masamichi; Hisamitsu, Toshio; Niitsuma, Nobuaki; Kodama, Kazuto; Nedachi, Munetomo

    2006-12-01

    The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) drilled a continuous 270 m long oriented core from the Towers Formation, which includes the Marble Bar Chert Member (3456.1-3476.0 Ma) in the Pilbara craton, northwestern Australia. A paleomagnetic study of 261 discrete specimens, collected from a 158.5 to 182.0 m section of the Marble Bar Chert Member, revealed two distinct magnetic components (LT and MT). The MT component yields seven different mean paleomagnetic directions clustered as MB1 to MB7. These, together with the published paleomagnetic poles of early Archean rocks from the Pilbara craton, draw a continuous paleomagnetic pole path, which likely to be regarded as the early to late Archean apparent polar wander path (APWP) for the Pilbara craton. The APWP implies that the Pilbara craton underwent a latitudinal drift of about 21° during the interval when the magnetization of the Marble Bar Chert Member was acquired. The estimated speed of the lateral drift is 12-112 cm/yr (120-1120 km/Myr), which is large compared with current plate motion velocities, suggesting that continents might have moved during the Archean faster than in the Phanerozoic.

  20. Comparing and contrasting observed adaptations in three deltas: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra, Mahanadi and Volta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Suckall, N.; Mensah, A.; Mondal, S.; Dey, S.; Hazra, S.

    2015-12-01

    In low and middle-income countries, many deltaic communities directly depend on the natural environment for income and well-being. Current environmental concerns that threaten deltaic communities, such as increasing salinity, sedimentation, erosion and subsidence are likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability, for example sea-level rise, increased storminess and rising temperatures. Such changes, along with other social and environmental stressors, mean that communities must adapt. This paper outlines findings of a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature that examines observed adaptations in three deltas of differing sizes in various geographical contexts: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra in India and Bangladesh, the Mahanadi in India, and the Volta in Ghana. It compares and contrasts various elements of observed adaptations, including who is driving the adaptation, the beneficiaries, barriers to participation and evidence for maladaptation. The predominant drivers of adaptation vary from government (at state level in India and national level in Bangladesh) and NGOs (in Ghana). Autonomous adaptations are not widely reported in the literature from any of the deltas. In all three deltas there is a focus on supporting adaptation in farming rather than fishing; despite the fact that fisheries contribute to local food security as well as national economies. Lack of access to financial, natural, physical and human capital are common barriers to adaptation in all three deltas. Additionally the Indian literature in particular highlights the lack of coordination between different government departments, coupled with an excessively top-down (state-driven) approach to adaptation. Maladaptation is most commonly reported in the literature from Bangladesh, for example, loss of employment of inland fishermen in embanked areas. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the implications of these findings for adaptation policy in deltas.

  1. Murder by structure: dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide.

    PubMed

    Papachristos, Andrew V

    2009-07-01

    Most sociological theories consider murder an outcome of the differential distribution of individual, neighborhood, or social characteristics. And while such studies explain variation in aggregate homicide rates, they do not explain the social order of murder, that is, who kills whom, when, where, and for what reason. This article argues that gang murder is best understood not by searching for its individual determinants but by examining the social networks of action and reaction that create it. In short, the social structure of gang murder is defined by the manner in which social networks are constructed and by people's placement in them. The author uses a network approach and incident-level homicide records to recreate and analyze the structure of gang murders in Chicago. Findings demonstrate that individual murders between gangs create an institutionalized network of group conflict, net of any individual's participation or motive. Within this network, murders spread through an epidemic-like process of social contagion as gangs evaluate the highly visible actions of others in their local networks and negotiate dominance considerations that arise during violent incidents.

  2. Uranium removal during low discharge in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.; Moore, W.S. )

    1993-11-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system supplies more dissolved uranium to the ocean than any other system in the world (Sarin et al., 1990; Sackett et al., 1973). However, there have been no investigations to determine whether riverine supplies of uranium are altered by geochemical reactions in the river-ocean mixing zone. In this study, uranium and salinity data were collected in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low river discharge. The uranium distribution with salinity shows that in waters <12 ppt salinity, uranium activities are significantly lower than predicted from conservative mixing of river and seawater. This suggests that uranium is being removed within the mixing zone. The behavior of uranium in the Ganges-Brahmaputra is in sharp contrast to its behavior in the Amazon mixing zone where McKee et al. (1978) found uranium activities significantly higher than predicted from conservative mixing. The contrasting behaviors for uranium in these systems are due to the different locations where mixing between river and seawater occurs. For the Amazon, mixing takes place on the continental shelf whereas for the Ganges-Brahmaputra, mixing occurs within shoreline sedimentary environments. The physiochemical processes controlling uranium removal to sediment deposits in the Amazon are partly known. The authors discuss mechanisms which may be removing uranium to suspended and mangrove sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra.

  3. The association between gang involvement and sexual behaviours among detained adolescent males

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, D; Salazar, L; Crosby, R; DiClemente, R; Yarber, W; Staples-Horne, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Data were collected from 270 detained male adolescents (aged 14–18 years) to determine the association between ever having been in a gang and a range of sexual behaviours such as sexual activity, male condom use, sex with multiple partners, and drug use during sex. Methods: Participants answered survey questions using audio computer assisted self interviewing (A-CASI) procedures, which assessed demographic, family factors, history of gang membership, and sexual behaviours. Results: Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for demographic, socioeconomic status, and family factors, indicated that adolescents who reported having been in a gang, relative to their peers reporting no gang involvement, were 5.7 times more likely to have had sex, 3.2 times more likely to have got a girl pregnant, and almost four times more likely to have been "high" on alcohol or other drugs during sexual intercourse, have had sex with a partner who was "high" on alcohol or other drugs, or have had sex with multiple partners concurrently. Conclusions: Findings suggest that having been in a gang can discriminate between levels of STI associated risk behaviours among an otherwise high risk population—detained adolescent males. PMID:15572610

  4. Evaluation and Evolution of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Peterson, Dana; Taylor, Terrance J.; Freng, Adrienne; Osgood, D. Wayne; Carson, Dena C.; Matsuda, Kristy N.

    2011-01-01

    The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program is a gang- and delinquency-prevention program delivered by law enforcement officers within a school setting. Originally designed in 1991 by Phoenix-area law enforcement agencies to address local needs, the program quickly spread across the United States. In this article, we describe…

  5. Navigating the Thin Line between Education and Incarceration: An Action Research Case Study on Gang-Associated Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines data collected from an ethnographic research project conducted with 56 gang-associated Latino youths ages 15 to 21 from 2007 to 2009. The objectives of the study were to examine how poor Latino gang-associated youths perceived schooling and policing and to find out if the research process could promote educational aspirations…

  6. Brotherhood or Brothers in the "Hood"? Debunking the "Educated Gang" Thesis as Black Fraternity and Sorority Slander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughey, Matthew W.

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author explores the controversial thesis that African American Collegiate Fraternities and Sororities, also known as Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLOs), are "educated gangs". First, the author examines this polemic as a "truth claim" and compares BGLOs and gangs through: (1) hazing; (2) rape and substance abuse; (3)…

  7. Enabling Prosecutors To Address Drug, Gang, and Youth Violence. Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants (JAIBG) Program Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramckow, Heike P.; Tompkins, Elena

    This bulletin offers data on recent trends in juvenile violence, juvenile drug offenses, and gang-related juvenile offending, and describes prosecutorial responses to such offenses. Examples of promising prosecutor-led programs combating the illicit use of guns, violence, drugs, and gangs are also provided. These examples provide a range of ideas…

  8. Young Mother (in the) Hood: Gang Girls’ Negotiation of New Identities

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Molly; Joe-Laidler, Karen; McKenzie, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of young women in street gangs who become mothers. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 65 young women in the San Francisco, CA, Bay Area, we examine their narratives about the transition to motherhood. In particular, we focus on the ways these young women negotiate femininities and attempt to reconcile their identities as young mothers and gang girls—both stigmatized identities. For many of the young women, motherhood entails a retreat from the street and a renewed emphasis on time spent in the home. While many receive (financial and childcare) support from their families, this also often means a diminution of the autonomy they experienced while more heavily involved in the gang. Issues of respect and respectability remain important for the young women, but the dimensions on which these are based change. PMID:21116461

  9. Clumped Isotopes, trace elements, and δ18O of stromatolites from the Laney Member of the Green River Formation (Eocene): Implications for paleoenvironments during the Eocene Climatic Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsetti, F. A.; Miller, H. M.; Asangba, A. E.; Johannessen, K. C.; Wang, D. T.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Tripati, A.; Shapiro, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Green River Formation, a large lacustrine deposit located across parts of Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming, was deposited during the Eocene Climatic Optimum (~50 Ma), a period of sustained high temperatures and high atmospheric CO2 levels that may provide a geologic analog for future climate scenarios. Large variations in basin hydrology, water chemistry, and paleotemperatures occurring on time scales of tens of thousands of years or longer have been documented in the sedimentary record. Here, we use stromatolites to investigate much finer-scale resolution of paleoenvironmental changes in the Green River Formation and paleo-Lake Gosiute. We studied the lower LaClede Bed, the base of the Laney Member of the Green River Formation, comprised of cyclic layers of oil shale and carbonate. The lower LaClede Bed represents the filling of the lake following an extended period of closure during deposition of the underlying Wilkins Peak Member. To characterize fluctuations in water chemistry and lake level at greater temporal resolution, we conducted micro-stratigraphic and chemostratigraphic analyses on 24 distinct mm-scale laminae in a single 10 cm carbonate stromatolite bed, including δ13C, δ18O, and trace elemental analyses (Mg, Mn, Fe, Si, K, Na, Al, Sr). Sub-cm-scale correlations between petrographic analyses, elemental composition, and carbonate δ13C and δ18O suggest that this stromatolite records both hydrologically-closed and -open periods in the history of Lake Gosiute. During periods of apparent basin closure, we used two models to investigate lake volume change: 1) a Rayleigh distillation model of water evaporation to estimate lake depth variations and 2) a conservative ion model based on Na incorporation into the stromatolites. In both models, lake depth fluctuated by up to 8 m; this represents up to 40km of shoreline change in Lake Gosiute during the deposition of this stromatolite layer. Interestingly, the modern Great Salt Lake experienced similar

  10. Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade.

  11. Tumor suppression in mice lacking GABARAP, an Atg8/LC3 family member implicated in autophagy, is associated with alterations in cytokine secretion and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Salah, F S; Ebbinghaus, M; Muley, V Y; Zhou, Z; Al-Saadi, K R D; Pacyna-Gengelbach, M; O'Sullivan, G A; Betz, H; König, R; Wang, Z-Q; Bräuer, R; Petersen, I

    2016-01-01

    GABARAP belongs to an evolutionary highly conserved gene family that has a fundamental role in autophagy. There is ample evidence for a crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis as well as the immune response. However, the molecular details for these interactions are not fully characterized. Here, we report that the ablation of murine GABARAP, a member of the Atg8/LC3 family that is central to autophagosome formation, suppresses the incidence of tumor formation mediated by the carcinogen DMBA and results in an enhancement of the immune response through increased secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2 and IFN-γ from stimulated macrophages and lymphocytes. In contrast, TGF-β1 was significantly reduced in the serum of these knockout mice. Further, DMBA treatment of these GABARAP knockout mice reduced the cellularity of the spleen and the growth of mammary glands through the induction of apoptosis. Gene expression profiling of mammary glands revealed significantly elevated levels of Xaf1, an apoptotic inducer and tumor-suppressor gene, in knockout mice. Furthermore, DMBA treatment triggered the upregulation of pro-apoptotic (Bid, Apaf1, Bax), cell death (Tnfrsf10b, Ripk1) and cell cycle inhibitor (Cdkn1a, Cdkn2c) genes in the mammary glands. Finally, tumor growth of B16 melanoma cells after subcutaneous inoculation was inhibited in GABARAP-deficient mice. Together, these data provide strong evidence for the involvement of GABARAP in tumorigenesis in vivo by delaying cell death and its associated immune-related response. PMID:27124579

  12. Tumor suppression in mice lacking GABARAP, an Atg8/LC3 family member implicated in autophagy, is associated with alterations in cytokine secretion and cell death.

    PubMed

    Salah, F S; Ebbinghaus, M; Muley, V Y; Zhou, Z; Al-Saadi, K R D; Pacyna-Gengelbach, M; O'Sullivan, G A; Betz, H; König, R; Wang, Z-Q; Bräuer, R; Petersen, I

    2016-01-01

    GABARAP belongs to an evolutionary highly conserved gene family that has a fundamental role in autophagy. There is ample evidence for a crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis as well as the immune response. However, the molecular details for these interactions are not fully characterized. Here, we report that the ablation of murine GABARAP, a member of the Atg8/LC3 family that is central to autophagosome formation, suppresses the incidence of tumor formation mediated by the carcinogen DMBA and results in an enhancement of the immune response through increased secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2 and IFN-γ from stimulated macrophages and lymphocytes. In contrast, TGF-β1 was significantly reduced in the serum of these knockout mice. Further, DMBA treatment of these GABARAP knockout mice reduced the cellularity of the spleen and the growth of mammary glands through the induction of apoptosis. Gene expression profiling of mammary glands revealed significantly elevated levels of Xaf1, an apoptotic inducer and tumor-suppressor gene, in knockout mice. Furthermore, DMBA treatment triggered the upregulation of pro-apoptotic (Bid, Apaf1, Bax), cell death (Tnfrsf10b, Ripk1) and cell cycle inhibitor (Cdkn1a, Cdkn2c) genes in the mammary glands. Finally, tumor growth of B16 melanoma cells after subcutaneous inoculation was inhibited in GABARAP-deficient mice. Together, these data provide strong evidence for the involvement of GABARAP in tumorigenesis in vivo by delaying cell death and its associated immune-related response. PMID:27124579

  13. Conjugate fracture pairs in the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation, Piceance basin, Colorado: Implications for fracture origins and hydrocarbon production/exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.

    1997-05-01

    The sandstones of the Molina Member of the Wasatch Formation in the Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contain a suite of fractures that have a conjugate-pair geometry. The fractures are vertical and intersect at an acute angle of between 20 and 40 degrees. Although direct evidence of shear is rare, the fracture surfaces commonly display small steps. The fracture geometries suggest that the maximum compressive stress during fracturing was in the plane of the acute angle of the conjugate fractures: the steps are interpreted as broken-face manifestations of very low angle en echelon fractures, formed within exceptionally narrow zones of incipient shear. In contrast to the highly anisotropic permeability enhancement created by subparallel vertical extension fractures in the underlying Mesaverde Formation, the conjugate pairs in the Molina sandstones should create a well connected and relatively isotropic mesh of fracture conductivity. Increases in stress magnitudes and anisotropy during production drawdown of reservoir pressures should cause shear offsets along the fractures, initially enhancing permeability.

  14. Implications of high-/low-context communication for target audience member interpretation of messages in the Nimechill abstinence campaign in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muraya, Julie Gathoni; Neville Miller, Ann; Mjomba, Leonard

    2011-09-01

    Although it ran on multiple mass media for the better part of a year, end line evaluation of the Nimechill youth abstinence campaign in Kenya indicated that exposure to the campaign had no relationship to youth decisions to defer sexual debut. One possible explanation of this lack of association could be that target audience members derived inconsistent and confusing meanings from visuals as opposed to text in the campaign. Employing Hall's concept of high- and low-context communication, we assessed target population interpretation of four campaign posters via 12 focus-group discussions and four individual in-depth interviews with Nairobi youth. We found that although participants endorsed and recognized campaign objectives, contextual cues in some campaign visuals were interpreted by participants as being contradictory to the abstinence message in the poster texts. In addition noticeable differences arose between the low-income and middle-/high-income groups in interpretation of one of the posters. We conclude with recommendations regarding use of visuals in high-context cultures and involvement of youth from various socioeconomic strata in campaign planning. PMID:21480020

  15. Location-aware gang graffiti acquisition and browsing on a mobile device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Albert; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we describe a mobile-based system that allows first responders to identify and track gang graffiti by combining the use of image analysis and location-based-services. The gang graffiti image and metadata (geoposition, date and time) obtained automatically are transferred to a server and uploaded to a database of graffiti images. The database can then be queried with the matched results sent back to the mobile device where the user can then review the results and provide extra inputs to refine the information.

  16. Therapeutic implications of a human neutralizing antibody to the macrophage-stimulating protein receptor tyrosine kinase (RON), a c-MET family member.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Jennifer M; Rabenau, Karen E; Burns, Kerri; Lu, Dan; Mangalampalli, Venkat; Balderes, Paul; Covino, Nicole; Bassi, Rajiv; Prewett, Marie; Gottfredsen, Kimberly J; Thobe, Megan N; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Yiwen; Hicklin, Daniel J; Zhu, Zhenping; Waltz, Susan E; Hayman, Michael J; Ludwig, Dale L; Pereira, Daniel S

    2006-09-15

    RON is a member of the c-MET receptor tyrosine kinase family. Like c-MET, RON is expressed by a variety of epithelial-derived tumors and cancer cell lines and it is thought to play a functional role in tumorigenesis. To date, antagonists of RON activity have not been tested in vivo to validate RON as a potential cancer target. In this report, we used an antibody phage display library to generate IMC-41A10, a human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody that binds with high affinity (ED50 = 0.15 nmol/L) to RON and effectively blocks interaction with its ligand, macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP; IC50 = 2 nmol/L). We found IMC-41A10 to be a potent inhibitor of receptor and downstream signaling, cell migration, and tumorigenesis. It antagonized MSP-induced phosphorylation of RON, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and AKT in several cancer cell lines. In HT-29 colon, NCI-H292 lung, and BXPC-3 pancreatic cancer xenograft tumor models, IMC-41A10 inhibited tumor growth by 50% to 60% as a single agent, and in BXPC-3 xenografts, it led to tumor regressions when combined with Erbitux. Western blot analyses of HT-29 and NCI-H292 xenograft tumors treated with IMC-41A10 revealed a decrease in MAPK phosphorylation compared with control IgG-treated tumors, suggesting that inhibition of MAPK activity may be required for the antitumor activity of IMC-41A10. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that a RON antagonist and specifically an inhibitory antibody of RON negatively affects tumorigenesis. Another major contribution of this report is an extensive analysis of RON expression in approximately 100 cancer cell lines and approximately 300 patient tumor samples representing 10 major cancer types. Taken together, our results highlight the potential therapeutic usefulness of RON activity inhibition in human cancers.

  17. Single-Cell Genome and Group-Specific dsrAB Sequencing Implicate Marine Members of the Class Dehalococcoidia (Phylum Chloroflexi) in Sulfur Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Myriel; Schreiber, Lars; Lloyd, Karen G.; Baker, Brett J.; Petersen, Dorthe G.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Reinhardt, Richard; Schramm, Andreas; Loy, Alexander; Adrian, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The marine subsurface sediment biosphere is widely inhabited by bacteria affiliated with the class Dehalococcoidia (DEH), phylum Chloroflexi, and yet little is known regarding their metabolisms. In this report, genomic content from a single DEH cell (DEH-C11) with a 16S rRNA gene that was affiliated with a diverse cluster of 16S rRNA gene sequences prevalent in marine sediments was obtained from sediments of Aarhus Bay, Denmark. The distinctive gene content of this cell suggests metabolic characteristics that differ from those of known DEH and Chloroflexi. The presence of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr) suggests that DEH could respire oxidized sulfur compounds, although Chloroflexi have never been implicated in this mode of sulfur cycling. Using long-range PCR assays targeting DEH dsr loci, dsrAB genes were amplified and sequenced from various marine sediments. Many of the amplified dsrAB sequences were affiliated with the DEH Dsr clade, which we propose equates to a family-level clade. This provides supporting evidence for the potential for sulfite reduction by diverse DEH species. DEH-C11 also harbored genes encoding reductases for arsenate, dimethyl sulfoxide, and halogenated organics. The reductive dehalogenase homolog (RdhA) forms a monophyletic clade along with RdhA sequences from various DEH-derived contigs retrieved from available metagenomes. Multiple facts indicate that this RdhA may not be a terminal reductase. The presence of other genes indicated that nutrients and energy may be derived from the oxidation of substituted homocyclic and heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Together, these results suggest that marine DEH play a previously unrecognized role in sulfur cycling and reveal the potential for expanded catabolic and respiratory functions among subsurface DEH. PMID:27143384

  18. A Microbiological Water Quality Evaluation of Ganges River Deltaic Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerby, C. J.; Gragg, S. E.; Page, J.; Leavens, J.; Bhattacharya, P.; Harrington, J.; Datta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial natural contamination from trace elements (like arsenic) and pathogens make Ganges Deltaic aquifers an area of utmost concern. Following millions of cases of chronic arsenic poisoning from the groundwaters of the region, numerous residents are still knowingly ingesting water from shallow to intermediate accessible depth drinking water wells. Added to the calamity of arsenic is the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in these waters. The increasing frequency of gastroenteritis signifies the need to quantify the magnitude and extensiveness of health degrading agents--bacterial pathogens (i.e. Salmonella) and non-pathogens (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) --within the water supply in accessible Gangetic aquifers. To assess the dissolved microbiological quality in the region, present study sampling locations are along defined piezometer nests in an area in SE Asia (Bangladesh). Every nest contains samples from wells at varying depths covering shallow to deep aquifers. To date, 17 of the 76 water samples were analyzed for Salmonella, generic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms. Briefly, samples were plated in duplicate onto E. coli/Coliform petrifilm and incubated at 370C for 48 hours. Next, each sample was enriched in buffered peptone water and incubated at 370C for 18 hours. Bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using a qPCR machine. Amplification plots were analyzed to determine presence/absence of microorganisms. All water samples (n=~76) are analyzed for Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp. and Shigella. Pathogen populations of PCR-positive water samples are enumerated using the agar direct plate method. Non-pathogenic bacterial indicator organisms (i.e. Enterobacteriaceae) will also be enumerated. Over the course of the experiment, we hypothesize that shallower wells will 1)have a higher pathogen prevalence and 2)harbor pathogens and nonpathogens at higher concentrations. While the 17 samples analyzed to date were negative for Salmonella

  19. Layered Deposits on the floor of Ganges Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 29 March 2002) The Science The Story These layered deposits are located on the floor of a large canyon called Ganges Chasma which is a part of the Valles Marineris. Dramatic layering can be seen throughout the deposit. Different styles of erosion are manifest in these different layers and at different locations within the layered material. For example, the southern portion of these deposits have a pronounced fluting, whereas in other areas the same layers are more intact. Relatively dark dunes and sand sheets can be observed surrounding the relatively brighter layered material in the upper right and lower portions of the image. Darker material also appears to mantle select areas of the layered deposits. The formation of the dunes is influenced by topography; this influence is best illustrated in the upper left of the image where a small hillock has interfered with the local wind flow. Impact craters of all sizes are noticeably absent in this image, indicating a relatively young age for this surface. This image is approximately 22 km wide and 60 km in length; north is toward the top. The Story If this wonderfully textured landform were on Earth, it would have to be designated as a 'national park,' much like the popular canyon parklands of the American Southwest. Look for the oblong plateau at the center right of this image, and see how the terrain descends from it on all sides. The southerly canyon wall (bottom third of the image) displays a visually beautiful canyon slope, with descending erosional flutes that cut pathways through the differently hued rock and mineral layers. While the northern side of the plateau might not look as dramatic, don't miss the dark-colored sand dunes that lie at the base of the canyon. Why did they form in just that place? To find out, look for the small hillock in the top left of the image that has interfered with the wind's flow, causing the ripply dunes to form. With so many interesting and physically stunning features

  20. Advantages of Group Therapy for Adolescent Participants in the Same Gang Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgar, Talia; Prager, Keren Ganot

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of including in the same therapeutic group in a prison setting two (or more) young people who participated in the same gang rape. We provide a background for group therapy with adolescent sex offenders and point out the characteristics of group rape. In addition, we describe the uniqueness of working in a prison as…

  1. 68 FR 61555 - The Gang Resistance Education and Training Program: Availability of Financial Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 68, No. 208 / Tuesday, October 28, 2003 / CORRECTIONS#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives The Gang Resistance Education and Training Program: Availability...

  2. "American" Abjection: "Chicanos," Gangs, and Mexican/Migrant Transnationality in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Genova, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Crime and street violence often evoke racialized discourses about urban space. In this ethnographic research in Chicago, however, the disdain that many Mexican migrants articulated about street gangs principally concerned issues "internal" to the Mexican/Chicano community, notably a profound ambivalence about U.S.-born Mexicans and a highly…

  3. School Counselors' and Principals' Perceptions of Violence: Guns, Gangs and Drugs in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Rosemary; VanZommeren, Wayne; Young, Clark; Holtman, Paula

    2001-01-01

    Research investigating perceptions of guns, gangs, drugs, and violence in rural schools surveyed 266 principals and counselors in rural elementary, middle, and high schools in northern Missouri. Smaller schools and elementary schools had fewer problems than larger and middle/high schools. Community collaboration is essential to solving…

  4. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  5. The Role of Professional School Counselors in Working with Students in Gangs: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…

  6. The Little Village Project: A Community Approach to the Gang Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spergel, Irving A.; Grossman, Susan F.

    1997-01-01

    Reports preliminary evidence on an innovative approach to gang violence which relies on community mobilization, social intervention, suppression, opportunities provision, organizational development, and targeting. Describes program processes and outcomes. The project involved teams of community youth workers, tactical police officers, adult…

  7. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  8. Bullies, Gangs, Drugs, and School: Understanding the Overlap and the Role of Ethnicity and Urbanicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2013-01-01

    Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as…

  9. Paradoxical Outcomes in an Educational Drama about Gang Rape: Ethical Responsibilities of Practitioners and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2005-01-01

    Educational drama has been embraced as a promising way to address sensitive and highly-charged issues among youth. An Israeli drama, "Backyard Games", about gang rape, based on an actual case in a kibbutz [a communal settlement] called Shomrat, is considered the definitive work on the subject in Israeli theatre. Written by Edna Mazya and directed…

  10. School Dress Code Law in the 90's: "Tinkering" with Fashion and Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kenneth E.; Richardson, Michael D.

    Dress codes directed at gang attire present school officials with the dilemma of ensuring the safety of the students in a school environment versus the First Amendment rights of students to express themselves. A review of some of the court decisions limited to freedom of expression and general dress code cases serves as a foundation from which to…

  11. Coffeyville, Kansas: The Town That Stopped the Dalton Gang. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Kathleen

    By 1890 the legendary outlaws of the 1870s and 1880s were mostly dead or in prison. When Luther Perkins erected his new bank building in Coffeyville, Kansas, a bank robbery was the farthest thing from his mind. But the Dalton cousins, former Coffeyville residents, were interested in the bank because they wanted to outdo the James gang by using the…

  12. Principals' Leadership Behaviors in Gang-Impacted High Schools and Their Effects on Pupil Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Audrey J.

    Although viable leadership models for schools with differing social contexts are in great demand, empirical studies of high school principals have not produced consistent results. This paper summarizes part of a larger project designed to identify leadership behaviors of principals in "gang-impacted" and other secondary schools. The research was…

  13. An Adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Gang-Affiliated Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Parrish, Danielle; Horowitz, Rosalind; Kaplan, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of an adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) intervention for gang-affiliated Mexican American adolescents and their parents. Methods: A total of 200 adolescents and their family caregivers were randomized to either a treatment or a control condition. Outcomes included adolescent substance…

  14. Evaluating a School-Based Gang-Prevention Program: A Theoretical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that the Gang Resistance Education and Training Program, developed by the Phoenix (Arizona) police department and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, consisted of pedagogical elements with strong conceptual and operational ties to social learning and self-control theories, and two mainstream criminological theories. (SLD)

  15. Chemical and sediment mass transfer in the Yamuna River — A tributary of the Ganges system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, P. K.; Subramanian, V.; Sitasawad, R.

    1988-12-01

    Maximum mass transfer, in the Yamuna River takes place during the monsoon season. The sediment load constitutes 58-86% of the total load carried by the river depending upon the sites. Tributaries are chemically more active than the mainstream. The total load of the river seems to be controlled by lithology. At Allahabad, the Yamuna carries 42 × 10 6t dissolved chemical load and 64 × 10 6t sediment load to the Ganges river. The TSM/TDS ratio shows that upstream physical weathering is more dominant than chemical weathering. The negative relation between basin area and total erosion rate and the positive relation between the chemical and sediment erosion in the Yamuna basin is in agreement with the global trend. The average chemical erosion rate (165 t km -2yr -1) of the Yamuna is much higher than that of the Ganges and the Indian average. The total erosion rate (973 t km -2yr -1) is 1.7 times greater than that of the Ganges. Upstream the Yamuna removes 1.04 mm yr -1 of the basin surface; the removal rate decreases downstream to 0.19 mm yr -1 at Allahabad, the point of confluence with the Ganges.

  16. Behavior Modification in the Treatment and Prevention of Inter-Barrio Gang Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Alan

    A nomothetic assessment of the drive-by shooting in inter-barrio gang violence was conducted. Available data on drive-by shootings were organized using the model of behavioral assessment suggested by Kanfer and Saslow (1969). The model included seven areas of analysis: initial assessment, clarification of the problem, motivation, development,…

  17. Evaluating G.R.E.A.T.: A School-Based Gang Prevention Program. Research for Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    2004-01-01

    The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program differs from typical efforts to reduce gang involvement in that the G.R.E.A.T. program does not target at-risk youth but rather targets its classroom-based program at all middle school students. The three main objectives of the 9-hour curriculum taught by uniformed officers are to:…

  18. Valley of the Brahmaputra, India, and Mouths of the Ganges, Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this true-color MODIS image from October 23, 2001, the semi-arid Tibetan Plateau (upper left) meets up with the Himalayas to the south. From the heights of the Himalayas, snow-covered on their northern flanks, and lush with vegetation to the south, numerous rivers, brown with churned up sediment, flow into the valley of the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India. The Brahmaputra turns southward at the border of Bangladesh and is soon joined by the Ganges River, flowing in from image left. The mighty river splits into numerous channels as it runs out toward the Bay of Bengal, giving the region the name 'Mouths of the Ganges.' Vast amounts of sediment are being emptied into the Bay by the river, and greenish blue swirls could be a mixture of sediment and phytoplankton.

  19. Ganges River dolphin: an overview of biology, ecology, and conservation status in India.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ravindra K; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-12-01

    Ganges River dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica, is one of the three obligatory freshwater dolphins in the world and is distributed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Sangu-Karnaphuli River systems in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh. This species is facing considerable threats to its survival, and its population has dwindled from 4000 to 5000 in the early 1980s to 3500 in 2014 in the distribution range. This article reviews current status of the sub-species, habitat use, and the potential threats that the dolphins face for their survival (details of taxonomic status and genetics, evolutionary adaptations and anatomical peculiarities, physical adaptation, primitive characteristics, biology, behavior, surfacing behavior and dive times, mating and birth, and life span/age have been placed as Electronic Supplementary Materials). Recommendations have been made for the protection and developing strategies for the conservation of this Endangered and endemic sub-species.

  20. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  1. Commitment language and homework completion in a behavioral employment program for gang-affiliated youth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caitlin; Huey, Stanley J; McDaniel, Dawn D

    2015-05-01

    Research with substance-abusing samples suggests that eliciting commitment language during treatment may improve motivation to change, increase treatment engagement, and promote positive treatment outcomes. However, the relationship between in-session client language and treatment success is not well-understood for youth offender populations. This study evaluated the relationship between commitment language, treatment engagement (i.e., homework completion), and weekly employment outcomes for six gang-affiliated juvenile offenders participating in an employment counseling intervention. Weekly counseling sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for commitment language strength. Multilevel models were fit to the data to examine the relationship between commitment language and counseling homework or employment outcomes within participants over time. Commitment language strength predicted subsequent homework completion but not weekly employment. These findings imply that gang-affiliated delinquent youth who express motivation to change during employment counseling will be more likely to comply with counselor-initiated homework. Further research on counselor techniques for promoting commitment language among juvenile gang offenders is needed.

  2. Contribution of Sediment Compaction/Loading to the Ganges-Bangladesh Delta Subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpytchev, Mikhail; Krien, Yann; Ballu, Valerie; Becker, Melanie; Calmant, Stephane; Spada, Giorgio; Guo, Junyi; Khan, Zahirul; Shum, Ck

    2016-04-01

    A pronounced spatial variability characterizes the subsidence/uplift rates in the Ganges-Bangladesh delta estimated from both sediment cores and modern geodetic techniques. The large variability of the subsidence rates suggests an interplay of different natural and anthropogenic processes including tectonics, sediment loading and sediment compaction, groundwater extaction among many others drivers of the delta vertical land movements.In this study, we focus on estimating the subsidence rates due to the sediments transported by the Ganges-Brahmaputra since the last 18 000 years. The delta subsidence induced by the sediment loading and the resulting sea level changes are modelled by the TABOO and SELEN software (Spada, 2003; Stocchi and Spada, 2007) in the framework of a gravitationally self-consistent Earth model. The loading history was obtained from available sediment cores and from the isopach map of Goodbread and Kuehl (2000). The results demonstrate that the delta loading enhanced by the Holocene sedimention can be responsable for a regular subsidence across the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta with an amplitude of 1-5 mm/yr along the Bengal coast. These estimates demonstrate that the contribution of the Holocene as well as modern sediment loading should be taken into account in climate change mitigation politicy for Bangladesh.

  3. Development of seasonal flow outlook model for Ganges-Brahmaputra Basins in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Sazzad; Haque Khan, Raihanul; Gautum, Dilip Kumar; Karmaker, Ripon; Hossain, Amirul

    2016-10-01

    Bangladesh is crisscrossed by the branches and tributaries of three main river systems, the Ganges, Bramaputra and Meghna (GBM). The temporal variation of water availability of those rivers has an impact on the different water usages such as irrigation, urban water supply, hydropower generation, navigation etc. Thus, seasonal flow outlook can play important role in various aspects of water management. The Flood Forecasting and Warning Center (FFWC) in Bangladesh provides short term and medium term flood forecast, and there is a wide demand from end-users about seasonal flow outlook for agricultural purposes. The objective of this study is to develop a seasonal flow outlook model in Bangladesh based on rainfall forecast. It uses European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) seasonal precipitation, temperature forecast to simulate HYDROMAD hydrological model. Present study is limited for Ganges and Brahmaputra River Basins. ARIMA correction is applied to correct the model error. The performance of the model is evaluated using coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE). The model result shows good performance with R2 value of 0.78 and NSE of 0.61 for the Brahmaputra River Basin, and R2 value of 0.72 and NSE of 0.59 for the Ganges River Basin for the period of May to July 2015. The result of the study indicates strong potential to make seasonal outlook to be operationalized.

  4. Heavy metals distribution in the sediments of Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, V. ); Van Grieken, R.; Van't Dack, L. )

    1987-01-01

    Bed sediments were collected from the entire region of the Ganges basin and some parts of the Brahmaputra. In addition, selected stations were sampled for suspended sediments as well. The samples were analyzed for a number of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, and Zn) by the thin-film energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. There are pronounced temporal and spatial variations in the heavy metals distributions. Suspended sediments are 5-10 times richer than the bed sediments. None of the tributaries contribute significant heavy metal load, but around urban areas in Yamuna (tributary of Ganges), very high levels due to the distribution from the drainage network are observed. Compared to the Brahmaputra, the distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in the Ganges sediments are more erratic and highly variable. All the metals considered show high correlation among themselves. Given the high flux of suspended sediments from the Himalayan rivers (nearly 20% of the global flux), the worldwide budget for heavy metal transport may need to be suitable revised.

  5. Heavy metals distribution in the sediments of ganges and Brahmaputra rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, V.; van Grieken, R.; van't Dack, L.

    1987-06-01

    Bed sediments were collected from the entire region of the Ganges basin and some parts of the Brahmaputra. In addition, selected stations were sampled for suspended sediments as well. The samples were analysed for a number of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cu, and Zn) by the thin-film energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. There are pronounced temporal and spatial variations in the heavy metals distributions. Suspended sediments are 5-10 times richer than the bed sediments. None of the tributaries contribute significant heavy metal load, but around urban areas in Yamuna (tributary of Ganges), very high levels due to the distribution from the drainage network are observed. Compared to the Brahmaputra, the distribution and fractionation of heavy metals in the Ganges sediments are more erratic and highly variable. All the metals considered show high correlation among themselves. Given the high flux of suspended sediments from the Himalayan rivers (nearly 20% of the global flux), the worldwide budget for heavy metal transport may need to be suitably revised.

  6. Homies with aspirations and positive peer network ties: associations with reduced frequent substance use among gang-affiliated Latino youth.

    PubMed

    van Dommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Deardorff, Julianna; Herd, Denise; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2015-04-01

    In marginalized urban neighborhoods across the USA, Latino youth are disproportionately represented among the growing number of youth gangs. Substance use among gang-involved youth poses both immediate and long-term health risks and can threaten educational engagement, future socioeconomic stability, and desistance. Conventional assessments of gang-affiliated youth and their peer network overlook the possibility that positive peer ties may exist and can foster health promoting behavior norms. Drawing on a positive deviance framework, in this study, we examine the relationship between positive peer network characteristics tied to post-secondary educational aspirations and frequent alcohol and marijuana use among Latino, gang-affiliated youth from a neighborhood in San Francisco. Using generalized estimating equations regression models across 72 peer network clusters (162 youth), we found that having close friends who plan to go to a 4-year college was associated with a lower odds of frequent marijuana and alcohol use (OR 0.27, p = 0.02; OR 0.29, p = 0.14, respectively) and that this association persisted when adjusting for risk characteristics (OR 0.19, p < 0.01; OR 0.25, p = 0.12). Public health can advance gang intervention efforts by identifying protective and risk factors associated with non-criminal health outcomes to inform participatory research approaches and asset-based interventions that contribute to building healthy communities.

  7. Homies with aspirations and positive peer network ties: associations with reduced frequent substance use among gang-affiliated Latino youth.

    PubMed

    van Dommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Deardorff, Julianna; Herd, Denise; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2015-04-01

    In marginalized urban neighborhoods across the USA, Latino youth are disproportionately represented among the growing number of youth gangs. Substance use among gang-involved youth poses both immediate and long-term health risks and can threaten educational engagement, future socioeconomic stability, and desistance. Conventional assessments of gang-affiliated youth and their peer network overlook the possibility that positive peer ties may exist and can foster health promoting behavior norms. Drawing on a positive deviance framework, in this study, we examine the relationship between positive peer network characteristics tied to post-secondary educational aspirations and frequent alcohol and marijuana use among Latino, gang-affiliated youth from a neighborhood in San Francisco. Using generalized estimating equations regression models across 72 peer network clusters (162 youth), we found that having close friends who plan to go to a 4-year college was associated with a lower odds of frequent marijuana and alcohol use (OR 0.27, p = 0.02; OR 0.29, p = 0.14, respectively) and that this association persisted when adjusting for risk characteristics (OR 0.19, p < 0.01; OR 0.25, p = 0.12). Public health can advance gang intervention efforts by identifying protective and risk factors associated with non-criminal health outcomes to inform participatory research approaches and asset-based interventions that contribute to building healthy communities. PMID:25649980

  8. Impact of a Comprehensive Whole Child Intervention and Prevention Program among Youths at Risk of Gang Involvement and Other Forms of Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Stephen; Ray, Alice; Berg, Sarah; Covington, Larry; Albarran, Nadine M.; Vasquez, Max

    2009-01-01

    Youths in gang-ridden neighborhoods are at risk for trauma-related mental health disorders, which are early indicators of likely school failure and delinquency. Such youths rarely seek out services for these problems. The Juvenile Intervention and Prevention Program (JIPP), a school-based gang intervention and prevention program in Los Angeles,…

  9. Assessing School-Based Gang Prevention Efforts in Urban Centers: Are These Programs Reaching Those Students Who May Benefit the Most?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Hector

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, schools have become a focal point for general delinquency and gang prevention programs for a variety of reasons. One premise behind this approach is that schools can serve as ideal settings for providing delinquency and intervention services because youths spend so much time there. School-based gang prevention efforts are supposed…

  10. Gang Exposure and Pregnancy Incidence among Female Adolescents in San Francisco: Evidence for the Need to Integrate Reproductive Health with Violence Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Minnis, AM; Moore, JG; Doherty, IA; Rodas, C; Auerswald, C; Shiboski, S; Padian, NS

    2014-01-01

    Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14–19 recruited from community venues in a predominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco we examined the relationship between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over two years of follow-up. Using discrete-time survival analysis we investigated whether individual and partner gang membership were associated with pregnancy incidence and determined whether partnership characteristics, contraceptive behaviors and pregnancy intentions mediated the relationship between gang membership and pregnancy. Pregnancy incidence was determined by urine-based testing and self-report. Seventy-seven percent of participants were Latinas, with one in five born outside the U.S. One-quarter (27.4%) became pregnant over follow-up. Participants’ gang membership had no significant effect on pregnancy incidence (Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.54, 3.45); however, having partners who were in gangs was associated with pregnancy (HR=1.90; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.32). Perceived male partner’s pregnancy intentions and having a partner in detention each mediated the effect of partner’s gang membership on pregnancy risk. Increased pregnancy incidence among young women with gang-involved partners highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health prevention into programs for gang-involved youth. In addition, high pregnancy rates indicate a heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:18308693

  11. Gang exposure and pregnancy incidence among female adolescents in San Francisco: evidence for the need to integrate reproductive health with violence prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Minnis, A M; Moore, J G; Doherty, I A; Rodas, C; Auerswald, C; Shiboski, S; Padian, N S

    2008-05-01

    Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14-19 years recruited from community venues in a predominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco, California, the authors examined the relation between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over 2 years of follow-up between 2001 and 2004. Using discrete-time survival analysis, they investigated whether gang membership by individuals and partners was associated with pregnancy incidence and determined whether partnership characteristics, contraceptive behaviors, and pregnancy intentions mediated the relation between gang membership and pregnancy. Pregnancy incidence was determined by urine-based testing and self-report. Latinas represented 77% of participants, with one in five born outside the United States. One quarter (27.4%) became pregnant over follow-up. Participants' gang membership had no significant effect on pregnancy incidence (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 3.45); however, having partners who were in gangs was associated with pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.32). The male partner's perceived pregnancy intentions and having a partner in detention each mediated the effect of partner's gang membership on pregnancy risk. Increased pregnancy incidence among young women with gang-involved partners highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health prevention into programs for gang-involved youth. In addition, high pregnancy rates indicate a heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:18308693

  12. Hydrodynamic controls on the downstream elimination of gravel, and implications for fluvial-deltaic stratigraphy: two end-member case studies from the Selenga River, Russia, and the Mississippi River, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The downstream termination of gravel is measured for two fluvial-deltaic systems: the Selenga and Mississippi rivers. These end-members vary by an order of magnitude for slope, water and sediment discharge, and delta area. Moreover, the contrast between the tectonic regimes of the receiving basins is stark: the Selenga delta is located along the deep-water margin of Lake Baikal, which is an active half-graben rift basin, while the Mississippi discharges onto a passive margin with little tectonic influence. Nevertheless, the two rivers share a striking sedimentological similarity: near the delta apex, gravel is eliminated from the downstream dispersal system, and so sediment reaching the land-water interface is exclusively sand and mud. Field data for both rivers, including sediment samples and water discharge and flow velocity measurements, are used to validate morphodynamic models that assess the downstream changes in fluid stress and gravel transport. The analyses show that there are two distinct mechanisms that drive gravel deposition and prohibit dispersal throughout the delta. For the Selenga, water partitioning among bifurcating channels produces a non-linear reduction in shear stress and gravel deposition. For the Mississippi, backwater flow arrests the downstream movement of gravel during low and moderate water discharges, and although floods overcome backwater and produce uniform flow to the outlet, the duration of floods is too short to disperse gravel throughout the delta. Given sufficient time, model results indicate that both rivers should approach morphodynamic equilibrium, whereby aggradation due to sediment deposition raises local bed slope and sediment transport capacity, thereby facilitating downstream gravel movement. However, both systems possess unique characteristics that prevent this process from occurring. For the Selenga, tectonically induced movements regularly down drop portions of the delta below base level, forcing renewed delta

  13. The Challenges of Gangs and Youth Violence in the Schools. Fourth CCBD Mini-Library Series: Addressing the Diverse Needs of Children and Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders--Programs That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Sharon H.; Van Acker, Richard

    Review of the current knowledge concerning youth violence and gang behavior considers risk factors for violence and gang formation, functions served by violence and gang membership, and strategies that have been empirically validated to be either beneficial or ineffective. Following an introductory chapter, the first chapter looks at the nature of…

  14. Differential heating in the Indian Ocean differentially modulates precipitation in the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature dynamics play a prominent role in Asian summer monsoon variability. Two interactive climate modes of the Indo-Pacific—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole mode—modulate the amount of precipitation over India, in addition to precipitation over Africa, Indonesia, and Australia. However, this modulation is not spatially uniform. The precipitation in southern India is strongly forced by the Indian Ocean dipole mode and ENSO. In contrast, across northern India, encompassing the Ganges and Brahmaputra basins, the climate mode influence on precipitation is much less. Understanding the forcing of precipitation in these river basins is vital for food security and ecosystem services for over half a billion people. Using 28 years of remote sensing observations, we demonstrate that (i) the tropical west-east differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Ganges precipitation and (ii) the north-south differential heating in the Indian Ocean influences the Brahmaputra precipitation. The El Niño phase induces warming in the warm pool of the Indian Ocean and exerts more influence on Ganges precipitation than Brahmaputra precipitation. The analyses indicate that both the magnitude and position of the sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean are important drivers for precipitation dynamics that can be effectively summarized using two new indices, one tuned for each basin. These new indices have the potential to aid forecasting of drought and flooding, to contextualize land cover and land use change, and to assess the regional impacts of climate change.

  15. Flexible Strategies for Coping with Rainfall Variability: Seasonal Adjustments in Cropped Area in the Ganges Basin.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul E V; van Ierland, Ekko C; Kabat, Pavel; Hellegers, Petra J G J

    2016-01-01

    One of the main manifestations of climate change will be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific strategy for coping with rainfall variability. Such adjustments are not incorporated in hydro-meteorological crop models commonly used for food security analyses. Our paper contributes to the literature by making a comprehensive model assessment of inter-annual variability in crop production, including both variations in crop yield and cropped area. The Ganges basin is used as a case study. First, we assessed the contribution of cropped area variability to overall variability in rice and wheat production by applying hierarchical partitioning on time-series of agricultural statistics. We then introduced cropped area as an endogenous decision variable in a hydro-economic optimization model (WaterWise), coupled to a hydrology-vegetation model (LPJmL), and analyzed to what extent its performance in the estimation of inter-annual variability in crop production improved. From the statistics, we found that in the period 1999-2009 seasonal adjustment in cropped area can explain almost 50% of variability in wheat production and 40% of variability in rice production in the Indian part of the Ganges basin. Our improved model was well capable of mimicking existing variability at different spatial aggregation levels, especially for wheat. The value of flexibility, i.e. the foregone costs of choosing not to crop in years when water is scarce, was quantified at 4% of gross margin of wheat in the Indian part of the Ganges basin and as high as 34% of gross margin of wheat in the drought-prone state of Rajasthan. We argue that flexibility in land use is an important coping strategy to rainfall variability in water stressed regions.

  16. Flexible Strategies for Coping with Rainfall Variability: Seasonal Adjustments in Cropped Area in the Ganges Basin.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul E V; van Ierland, Ekko C; Kabat, Pavel; Hellegers, Petra J G J

    2016-01-01

    One of the main manifestations of climate change will be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific strategy for coping with rainfall variability. Such adjustments are not incorporated in hydro-meteorological crop models commonly used for food security analyses. Our paper contributes to the literature by making a comprehensive model assessment of inter-annual variability in crop production, including both variations in crop yield and cropped area. The Ganges basin is used as a case study. First, we assessed the contribution of cropped area variability to overall variability in rice and wheat production by applying hierarchical partitioning on time-series of agricultural statistics. We then introduced cropped area as an endogenous decision variable in a hydro-economic optimization model (WaterWise), coupled to a hydrology-vegetation model (LPJmL), and analyzed to what extent its performance in the estimation of inter-annual variability in crop production improved. From the statistics, we found that in the period 1999-2009 seasonal adjustment in cropped area can explain almost 50% of variability in wheat production and 40% of variability in rice production in the Indian part of the Ganges basin. Our improved model was well capable of mimicking existing variability at different spatial aggregation levels, especially for wheat. The value of flexibility, i.e. the foregone costs of choosing not to crop in years when water is scarce, was quantified at 4% of gross margin of wheat in the Indian part of the Ganges basin and as high as 34% of gross margin of wheat in the drought-prone state of Rajasthan. We argue that flexibility in land use is an important coping strategy to rainfall variability in water stressed regions. PMID:26934389

  17. Flexible Strategies for Coping with Rainfall Variability: Seasonal Adjustments in Cropped Area in the Ganges Basin

    PubMed Central

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul E. V.; van Ierland, Ekko C.; Kabat, Pavel; Hellegers, Petra J. G. J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main manifestations of climate change will be increased rainfall variability. How to deal with this in agriculture will be a major societal challenge. In this paper we explore flexibility in land use, through deliberate seasonal adjustments in cropped area, as a specific strategy for coping with rainfall variability. Such adjustments are not incorporated in hydro-meteorological crop models commonly used for food security analyses. Our paper contributes to the literature by making a comprehensive model assessment of inter-annual variability in crop production, including both variations in crop yield and cropped area. The Ganges basin is used as a case study. First, we assessed the contribution of cropped area variability to overall variability in rice and wheat production by applying hierarchical partitioning on time-series of agricultural statistics. We then introduced cropped area as an endogenous decision variable in a hydro-economic optimization model (WaterWise), coupled to a hydrology-vegetation model (LPJmL), and analyzed to what extent its performance in the estimation of inter-annual variability in crop production improved. From the statistics, we found that in the period 1999–2009 seasonal adjustment in cropped area can explain almost 50% of variability in wheat production and 40% of variability in rice production in the Indian part of the Ganges basin. Our improved model was well capable of mimicking existing variability at different spatial aggregation levels, especially for wheat. The value of flexibility, i.e. the foregone costs of choosing not to crop in years when water is scarce, was quantified at 4% of gross margin of wheat in the Indian part of the Ganges basin and as high as 34% of gross margin of wheat in the drought-prone state of Rajasthan. We argue that flexibility in land use is an important coping strategy to rainfall variability in water stressed regions. PMID:26934389

  18. Benchmarking wide swath altimetry-based river discharge estimation algorithms for the Ganges river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnema, Matthew G.; Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal; Durand, Michael; Gleason, Colin J.; Bjerklie, David M.

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of three algorithms that estimate discharge from remotely sensed observables (river width, water surface height, and water surface slope) in anticipation of the forthcoming NASA/CNES Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. SWOT promises to provide these measurements simultaneously, and the river discharge algorithms included here are designed to work with these data. Two algorithms were built around Manning's equation, the Metropolis Manning (MetroMan) method, and the Mean Flow and Geomorphology (MFG) method, and one approach uses hydraulic geometry to estimate discharge, the at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) method. A well-calibrated and ground-truthed hydrodynamic model of the Ganges river system (HEC-RAS) was used as reference for three rivers from the Ganges River Delta: the main stem of Ganges, the Arial-Khan, and the Mohananda Rivers. The high seasonal variability of these rivers due to the Monsoon presented a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess the discharge algorithms in light of typical monsoon regime rivers. It was found that the MFG method provides the most accurate discharge estimations in most cases, with an average relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE) across all three reaches of 35.5%. It is followed closely by the Metropolis Manning algorithm, with an average RRMSE of 51.5%. However, the MFG method's reliance on knowledge of prior river discharge limits its application on ungauged rivers. In terms of input data requirement at ungauged regions with no prior records, the Metropolis Manning algorithm provides a more practical alternative over a region that is lacking in historical observations as the algorithm requires less ancillary data. The AMHG algorithm, while requiring the least prior river data, provided the least accurate discharge measurements with an average wet and dry season RRMSE of 79.8% and 119.1%, respectively, across all rivers studied. This poor

  19. Bank robberies by an Asian gang: an assessment of the routine activities theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, John Z

    2002-10-01

    It was reported for the first time that a series of bank robberies were committed by an Asian gang group in a major southern city. The bank robberies showed a variety of operational methods. The purpose of this descriptive study is to apply the routine activities theory to explain the causal factors of the robberies. The analysis shows that the six Asian bank robberies resulted from a supply of motivated offenders, the availability of suitable targets, and a low level of capable guardians against crime. Findings suggest that crime-specific measures are an appropriate method for examining the merits of the routine activities theory.

  20. PSI Member Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

    A survey of 2,700 of the 27,000 members of Professional Secretaries International received 755 responses yielding the following profile of secretarial workers: (1) the average member is female, about 45 years old, married with no dependents living at home, and owns a single-family home in the suburbs; (2) most respondents have worked in office or…

  1. Collapsable seal member

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1983-12-08

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  2. Collapsable seal member

    DOEpatents

    Sherrell, Dennis L.

    1990-01-01

    A hollow, collapsable seal member normally disposed in a natural expanded state offering fail-safe pressure sealing against a seating surface and adapted to be evacuated by a vacuum force for collapsing the seal member to disengage the same from said seating surface.

  3. Impacts of climate change and socio-economic scenarios on flow and water quality of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river systems: low flow and flood statistics.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Barbour, E; Futter, M N; Sarkar, S; Rodda, H; Caesar, J; Butterfield, D; Jin, L; Sinha, R; Nicholls, R; Salehin, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential impacts of climate change and socio-economic change on flow and water quality in rivers worldwide is a key area of interest. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) is one of the largest river basins in the world serving a population of over 650 million, and is of vital concern to India and Bangladesh as it provides fresh water for people, agriculture, industry, conservation and for the delta system downstream. This paper seeks to assess future changes in flow and water quality utilising a modelling approach as a means of assessment in a very complex system. The INCA-N model has been applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems to simulate flow and water quality along the rivers under a range of future climate conditions. Three model realisations of the Met Office Hadley Centre global and regional climate models were selected from 17 perturbed model runs to evaluate a range of potential futures in climate. In addition, the models have also been evaluated using socio-economic scenarios, comprising (1) a business as usual future, (2) a more sustainable future, and (3) a less sustainable future. Model results for the 2050s and the 2090s indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates, with enhanced flood potential. Low flows are predicted to fall with extended drought periods, which could have impacts on water and sediment supply, irrigated agriculture and saline intrusion. In contrast, the socio-economic changes had relatively little impact on flows, except under the low flow regimes where increased irrigation could further reduce water availability. However, should large scale water transfers upstream of Bangladesh be constructed, these have the potential to reduce flows and divert water away from the delta region depending on the volume and timing of the transfers. This could have significant implications for the delta in terms of saline intrusion, water supply, agriculture and maintaining crucial ecosystems such

  4. Impacts of climate change and socio-economic scenarios on flow and water quality of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river systems: low flow and flood statistics.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Barbour, E; Futter, M N; Sarkar, S; Rodda, H; Caesar, J; Butterfield, D; Jin, L; Sinha, R; Nicholls, R; Salehin, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential impacts of climate change and socio-economic change on flow and water quality in rivers worldwide is a key area of interest. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) is one of the largest river basins in the world serving a population of over 650 million, and is of vital concern to India and Bangladesh as it provides fresh water for people, agriculture, industry, conservation and for the delta system downstream. This paper seeks to assess future changes in flow and water quality utilising a modelling approach as a means of assessment in a very complex system. The INCA-N model has been applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems to simulate flow and water quality along the rivers under a range of future climate conditions. Three model realisations of the Met Office Hadley Centre global and regional climate models were selected from 17 perturbed model runs to evaluate a range of potential futures in climate. In addition, the models have also been evaluated using socio-economic scenarios, comprising (1) a business as usual future, (2) a more sustainable future, and (3) a less sustainable future. Model results for the 2050s and the 2090s indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates, with enhanced flood potential. Low flows are predicted to fall with extended drought periods, which could have impacts on water and sediment supply, irrigated agriculture and saline intrusion. In contrast, the socio-economic changes had relatively little impact on flows, except under the low flow regimes where increased irrigation could further reduce water availability. However, should large scale water transfers upstream of Bangladesh be constructed, these have the potential to reduce flows and divert water away from the delta region depending on the volume and timing of the transfers. This could have significant implications for the delta in terms of saline intrusion, water supply, agriculture and maintaining crucial ecosystems such

  5. Natural selection in a bangladeshi population from the cholera-endemic ganges river delta.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Elinor K; Harris, Jason B; Tabrizi, Shervin; Rahman, Atiqur; Shlyakhter, Ilya; Patterson, Nick; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Schaffner, Stephen F; Gupta, Sameer; Chowdhury, Fahima; Sheikh, Alaullah; Shin, Ok Sarah; Ellis, Crystal; Becker, Christine E; Stuart, Lynda M; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi; Sabeti, Pardis C; Larocque, Regina C

    2013-07-01

    As an ancient disease with high fatality, cholera has likely exerted strong selective pressure on affected human populations. We performed a genome-wide study of natural selection in a population from the Ganges River Delta, the historic geographic epicenter of cholera. We identified 305 candidate selected regions using the composite of multiple signals (CMS) method. The regions were enriched for potassium channel genes involved in cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated chloride secretion and for components of the innate immune system involved in nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling. We demonstrate that a number of these strongly selected genes are associated with cholera susceptibility in two separate cohorts. We further identify repeated examples of selection and association in an NF-κB/inflammasome-dependent pathway that is activated in vitro by Vibrio cholerae. Our findings shed light on the genetic basis of cholera resistance in a population from the Ganges River Delta and present a promising approach for identifying genetic factors influencing susceptibility to infectious diseases.

  6. Hydropower Ambitions of South Asian Nations: Ganges and Brahmaputra River basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizanur Rahaman, Muhammad

    2010-05-01

    This paper analyses the current status of hydropower development in two major river basins in South Asia, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. The total drainage area of the basins is about 1660,000 km2 shared by China, Nepal, India, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. The basins are blessed with ample water resources and huge hydropower potential. Hydropower development is strongly linked with the overall development framework of the region. The abundant hydropower potential of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra can help give riparian countries a safer energy future that is the key driving force behind the prospect of potential cooperation in the field of water. Based on four years research studies (2005-2009), this paper analyse the hydropower development plans and ambitions of riparian nations with special focus on China and India. The finding suggests that it is essential to develop an integrated hydropower development approach involving all riparian nations intended to foster regional development and overcome the prospect of severe conflict because of unilateral hydropower ambitions of China and India. The hydropower development cooperation between China and India could also become the positive turning point in the integration of South and South-East Asia.

  7. Ganges Chasma Landing Site: Access to Sand Sheets, Wall Rock and Layered Mesa Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, James W., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    The floor of Ganges Chasma offers an ideal landing site for the MSP 2001 lander. This site is exquisite both in terms of engineering constraints and science objectives. The floor of Ganges Chasma is mantled with an extensive sand sheet. Sand sheets develop in conditions which are unfavorable for dune formation. These may include a high water table, periodic flooding, surface cementation, and coarse grained sands. The most extensive sand sheets on Earth are located in the eastern Sahara. These sheets have a relief of less than 1 m over wide areas and total thickness ranges from a few cm to 10 m. The surfaces of sand sheets are composed of granule to pebbly lag deposits. Sand sheets provide an extremely safe landing site and have very low relief. The safety concerns regarding slopes, rocks, and dust would be alleviated by the sand sheet. Furthermore, this vast sand sheet would allow the Marie Curie Rover to cover great distances. Rover navigability would be very easily compared to the tedious rock avoidance maneuvers that Sojourner had to accomplish. This exercise would be an important precursor test for the more capable Athena Rover which will execute longer traverses. Moreover, the Rover has already been "field tested" on sand at the JPL Mars sandbox. Dust should not be a problem: Thermal inertia is 7.7 to 8.9 cgs units. This site satisfies all engineering constraints.

  8. Headward growth of chasmata by volatile outbursts, collapse, and drainage: Evidence from ganges chaos, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Kargel, J.; Crown, D.A.; Bleamaster, L. F.; Tanaka, K.L.; Baker, V.; Miyamoto, H.; Dohm, J.M.; Sasaki, S.; Komatsu, G.

    2006-01-01

    The nature and significance of collapse processes in Capri, Eos, and Ganges Chasmata remain poorly understood. Using Ganges Chasma as a type locality, these chasmata are interpreted to be the result of clustering and assimilation of multiple chaotic terrains, which primarily formed by localized depressurization-induced or thermally-triggered dissociation of buried gas clathrate hydrates and explosive eruption of gas-saturated ground water. Such crustal destabilization could have been triggered by (1) deep fracture propagation from the Martian surface, (2) magmatic intrusions and associated heating and inflation-induced terrain fracturing, and/or (3) climatic thaw and thinning/weakening of the permafrost over the clathrate and gas-rich groundwater zones. Volume increases associated with release of gases contributed to the xpulsion of groundwater and fluidized sediments at the surface, thereby carving the higher outflow channels peripheral to the chasmata and the lower outflow channel floors of the chasmata and outflow channels. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Natural Selection in a Bangladeshi Population from the Cholera-Endemic Ganges River Delta

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Elinor K.; Harris, Jason B.; Tabrizi, Shervin; Rahman, Atiqur; Shlyakhter, Ilya; Patterson, Nick; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Gupta, Sameer; Chowdhury, Fahima; Sheikh, Alaullah; Shin, Ok Sarah; Ellis, Crystal; Becker, Christine E.; Stuart, Lynda M.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Sabeti, Pardis C.; LaRocque, Regina C.

    2015-01-01

    As an ancient disease with high fatality, cholera has likely exerted strong selective pressure on affected human populations. We performed a genome-wide study of natural selection in a population from the Ganges River Delta, the historic geographic epicenter of cholera. We identified 305 candidate selected regions using the Composite of Multiple Signals (CMS) method. The regions were enriched for potassium channel genes involved in cyclic AMP-mediated chloride secretion and for components of the innate immune system involved in NF-κB signaling. We demonstrate that a number of these strongly selected genes are associated with cholera susceptibility in two separate cohorts. We further identify repeated examples of selection and association in an NF-kB / inflammasome-dependent pathway that is activated in vitro by Vibrio cholerae. Our findings shed light on the genetic basis of cholera resistance in a population from the Ganges River Delta and present a promising approach for identifying genetic factors influencing susceptibility to infectious diseases. PMID:23825302

  10. User Working Group Members

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    ... Charles Ichoku Member NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) charles.ichoku@nasa.gov Brian Kahn ... Hal Maring SMD Representative NASA Headquarters Program Scientist hal.maring@nasa.gov   ASDC ...

  11. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  12. Dual Trajectories of Gang Affiliation and Delinquent Peer Association During Adolescence: An Examination of Long-Term Offending Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Beidi; Krohn, Marvin D

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that both adolescent gang affiliation and perceived delinquent peer association are important predictors of individual offending. A crucial question is whether and how youth gang affiliation contributes to a spectrum of criminal acts above and beyond the influence of associating with delinquent peers. Using 14 waves of data from the Rochester Youth Developmental Study, an ongoing longitudinal panel study aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of delinquency and drug use in an urban sample of adolescents, the current study employs a relatively new modeling technique-dual trajectory analysis-to illustrate the dynamic relationship between these two measures among 666 male youth. The results suggest that the two measures, while overlapping, may constitute distinct concepts that operate in different ways. The most convincing evidence of gang effects, above and beyond the influence of perceived peer delinquency, is for violent behavior and by extension police arrest. Our findings contribute to developmental research and provide information that informs future gang control efforts. PMID:26748922

  13. Dual Trajectories of Gang Affiliation and Delinquent Peer Association During Adolescence: An Examination of Long-Term Offending Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Beidi; Krohn, Marvin D

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that both adolescent gang affiliation and perceived delinquent peer association are important predictors of individual offending. A crucial question is whether and how youth gang affiliation contributes to a spectrum of criminal acts above and beyond the influence of associating with delinquent peers. Using 14 waves of data from the Rochester Youth Developmental Study, an ongoing longitudinal panel study aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of delinquency and drug use in an urban sample of adolescents, the current study employs a relatively new modeling technique-dual trajectory analysis-to illustrate the dynamic relationship between these two measures among 666 male youth. The results suggest that the two measures, while overlapping, may constitute distinct concepts that operate in different ways. The most convincing evidence of gang effects, above and beyond the influence of perceived peer delinquency, is for violent behavior and by extension police arrest. Our findings contribute to developmental research and provide information that informs future gang control efforts.

  14. Youth Violence and Gangs. Hearing on the Status of the Juvenile Justice System in America, Focusing on Activities of Youth Gangs and Their Access to Guns, and How Programs Can Help Prevent the Violence Associated with Youth Gangs, before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, (November 26, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    The text of a Senate hearing on the status of youth gangs and their access to guns, and of violence prevention programs is provided in this document. Statements from Senators Herbert Kohl, Paul Simon, and Dennis DeConcini are presented. Testimony and prepared statements from these witnesses is included: (1) James Gabarino, president, Erikson…

  15. Climatic variation and runoff from partially-glacierised Himalayan tributary basins of the Ganges.

    PubMed

    Collins, David N; Davenport, Joshua L; Stoffel, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Climate records for locations across the southern slope of the Himalaya between 77°E and 91°E were selected together with discharge measurements from gauging stations on rivers draining partially-glacierised basins tributary to the Ganges, with a view to assessing impacts of climatic fluctuations on year-to-year variations of runoff during a sustained period of glacier decline. The aims were to describe temporal patterns of variation of glaciologically- and hydrologically-relevant climatic variables and of river flows from basins with differing percentages of ice-cover. Monthly precipitation and air temperature records, starting in the mid-nineteenth century at high elevation sites and minimising data gaps, were selected from stations in the Global Historical Climatology Network and CRUTEM3. Discharge data availability was limited to post 1960 for stations in Nepal and at Khab in the adjacent Sutlej basin. Strengths of climate-runoff relationships were assessed by correlation between overlapping portions of annual data records. Summer monsoon precipitation dominates runoff across the central Himalaya. Flow in tributaries of the Ganges in Nepal fluctuated from year to year but the general background level of flow was usually maintained from the 1960s to 2000s. Flow in the Sutlej, however, declined by 32% between the 1970s and 1990s, reflecting substantially reduced summer precipitation. Over the north-west Ganges-upper Sutlej area, monsoon precipitation declined by 30-40% from the 1960s to 2000s. Mean May-September air temperatures along the southern slope of the central Himalayas dipped from the 1960s, after a long period of slow warming or sustained temperatures, before rising rapidly from the mid-1970s so that in the 2000s summer air temperatures reached those achieved in earlier warmer periods. There are few measurements of runoff from highly-glacierised Himalayan headwater basins; runoff from one of which, Langtang Khola, was less than that of the monsoon

  16. Chain Gang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters.

    Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  17. The outlook is G.R.E.A.T.: What educators say about school-based prevention and the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dana; Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    2004-06-01

    This article reports on a survey of administrators, counselors, and teachers from middle schools involved in the National Evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program. This survey was part of a multisite evaluation that also elicited the responses of students, parents, and officers teaching the G.R.E.A.T. program. School personnel provide their views about important current issues, including their perceptions of school safety, the role of law enforcement officers in schools, and the role and effectiveness of school-based prevention programs in general and the G.R.E.A.T. program in particular. Results from this survey have important implications for the plethora of prevention programs currently located in American schools.

  18. Mistakes Board Members Make.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Nicholas D., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Board members should avoid 10 common errors: losing patience, behaving badly, challenging the board after a vote, acting like inspectors, micromanaging school administrators, springing surprise questions at meetings, putting politics before children, representing special interests, violating executive session, and putting the board before family…

  19. Human group formation in online guilds and offline gangs driven by a common team dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Zhenyuan; Ducheneaut, Nicolas; Yee, Nicholas; Tita, George; Hui, Pak Ming

    2009-06-01

    Quantifying human group dynamics represents a unique challenge. Unlike animals and other biological systems, humans form groups in both real (offline) and virtual (online) spaces—from potentially dangerous street gangs populated mostly by disaffected male youths to the massive global guilds in online role-playing games for which membership currently exceeds tens of millions of people from all possible backgrounds, age groups, and genders. We have compiled and analyzed data for these two seemingly unrelated offline and online human activities and have uncovered an unexpected quantitative link between them. Although their overall dynamics differ visibly, we find that a common team-based model can accurately reproduce the quantitative features of each simply by adjusting the average tolerance level and attribute range for each population. By contrast, we find no evidence to support a version of the model based on like-seeking-like (i.e., kinship or “homophily”).

  20. Complex Floor Deposits Within Western Ganges Chasma, Valles Marineris - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows a remarkable landscape of ridges and troughs that very closely resemble folded and warped sediments on Earth. This is the first time such warped beds have been seen on Mars, and neither their origin nor their occurrence within Ganges Chasma is understood. It is possible these are beds folded by a large landslide, but that would be very unusual. Alternatively, these may be folded sedimentary beds, similar to horizontal beds seen elsewhere in Ganges Chasma. However, what forces then folded these particular beds while leaving the others undeformed is unknown. Future imaging within this and the other Valles Marineris will be used to address such issues.

    Launched on November 7, 1996, Mars Global Surveyor entered Mars orbit on Thursday, September 11, 1997. The original mission plan called for using friction with the planet's atmosphere to reduce the orbital energy, leading to a two-year mapping mission from close, circular orbit (beginning in March 1998). Owing to difficulties with one of the two solar panels, aerobraking was suspended in mid-October and resumed in November 8. Many of the original objectives of the mission, and in particular those of the camera, are likely to be accomplished as the mission progresses.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  1. Paradigm for Distributive & Procedural Justice in Equitable Apportionment of Transboundary Ganges Waters Under Changing Climate & Landuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.; Anand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers have no regard for human demarcated boundaries. Besides, ever increasing demand-supply gap & vested riparian interests, fuel transboundary water conflicts. For resolving such disputes, appropriation doctrines advocating equity & fairness have received endorsement in the Helsinki Rules-1966 & UN Convention-1997. Thus, current study proposes the principle of equitable apportionment for sharing Ganges waters as it balances the interests & deservedness of all stakeholders, namely, India & its 11 states, Bangladesh, Nepal, & China. The study endeavors to derive a reasonable share of each co-basin state by operationalizing the vague concepts of fairness & equity through an objective & quantitative framework encompassing proportionality & egalitarianism for distributive & procedural justice. Equal weightage factors reflecting hydrology, geography & water use potential are chosen for fair share computation, wherein each contender ranks these factors to maximize his entitlement. If cumulative claims exceed the water availability, each claimant puts forth next ranked factor & this process continues till the claims match availability. Due to inter-annual variability in few factors, scenarios for Rabi & Kharif seasons are considered apart from cases for maximum, upper quartile, median, lower quartile & minimum. Possibility of spatial homogeneity & heterogeneity in factors is also recognized. Sometimes lack of technical information hinders transboundary dispute resolution via legal mechanisms. Hence, the study also attempts to bridge this gap between law & technology through GIS-based SWAT hydrologic model by estimating the Ganges water yield, & consequent share of each riparian for range of flows incorporating e-flows as well, under present & future climate & landuse scenarios. 82% of India's territory lies within interstate rivers, & therefore this research is very pertinent as it can facilitate the decision makers in effective interstate water conflict resolution.

  2. Drought Characteristics Based on the Retrieved Paleoprecipitation in Indus and Ganges River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davtalabsabet, R.; Wang, D.; Zhu, T.; Ringler, C.

    2014-12-01

    Indus and Ganges River basins (IGRB), which cover the major parts of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan, are considered as the most important socio-economic regions in South Asia. IGRB support the food security of hundreds of millions people in South Asia. The food production in IGRB strictly relies on the magnitude and spatiotemporal pattern of monsoon precipitation. Due to severe drought during the last decades and food production failure in IGRB, several studies have focused on understanding the main drivers for south Asia monsoon failures and drought characteristics based on the historical data. However, the period of available historical data is not enough to address the full characteristic of drought under a changing climate. In this study, an inverse Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) model is developed to retrieve the paleoprecipitation back to 700 years in the region, taking the inputs of available soil water capacity, temperature, and previous reconstructed PDSI based on tree-ring analysis at 2.5 degree resolution. Based on the retrieved paleoprecipitation, drought frequency and intensity are quantified for two periods of 1300-1899 (the reconstruction period) and 1900-2010 (the instrumental period). Previous studies have shown that in IGRB, a severe drought occurs when the annual precipitation deficit, compared with the long-term average precipitation, is greater than 10%. Climatic drought frequency is calculated as the percentage of years with predefined severe droughts. Drought intensity is defined as the average precipitation deficit during all of the years identified as severe droughts. Results show that the drought frequency, as well as the spatial extent, has significantly increased from the reconstruction period to the instrumental period. The drought frequency in the Indus River basin is higher than that in the Ganges River basin. Several mega-droughts are identified during the reconstruction period.

  3. Detecting Long-term Trend of Water Quality Indices of Dong-gang River, Taiwan Using Quantile Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Shiau, J.

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRACT BODY: Abstract Surface water quality is an essential issue in water-supply for human uses and sustaining healthy ecosystem of rivers. However, water quality of rivers is easily influenced by anthropogenic activities such as urban development and wastewater disposal. Long-term monitoring of water quality can assess whether water quality of rivers deteriorates or not. Taiwan is a population-dense area and heavily depends on surface water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. Dong-gang River is one of major resources in southern Taiwan for agricultural requirements. The water-quality data of four monitoring stations of the Dong-gang River for the period of 2000-2012 are selected for trend analysis. The parameters used to characterize water quality of rivers include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). These four water-quality parameters are integrated into an index called river pollution index (RPI) to indicate the pollution level of rivers. Although widely used non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and linear regression exhibit computational efficiency to identify trends of water-quality indices, limitations of such approaches include sensitive to outliers and estimations of conditional mean only. Quantile regression, capable of identifying changes over time of any percentile values, is employed in this study to detect long-term trend of water-quality indices for the Dong-gang River located in southern Taiwan. The results show that Dong-gang River 4 stations from 2000 to 2012 monthly long-term trends in water quality.To analyze s Dong-gang River long-term water quality trends and pollution characteristics. The results showed that the bridge measuring ammonia Long-dong, BOD5 measure in that station on a downward trend, DO, and SS is on the rise, River Pollution Index (RPI) on a downward trend. The results form Chau-Jhou station also ahowed simialar trends .more and more near the

  4. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  5. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    Thank you! Over the past 20 months AGU has received a record 22,159 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from four federal agencies (NASA, NOAA, EPA, and USGS). Together their generosity has benefited AGU non-revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000+) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($250-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$249). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are recognized as our most loyal Supporters.

  6. [Comment on] BOSP members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

  7. Clicking in Shallow Rivers: Short-Range Echolocation of Irrawaddy and Ganges River Dolphins in a Shallow, Acoustically Complex Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Frants H.; Rocco, Alice; Mansur, Rubaiyat M.; Smith, Brian D.; Janik, Vincent M.; Madsen, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Toothed whales (Cetacea, odontoceti) use biosonar to navigate their environment and to find and catch prey. All studied toothed whale species have evolved highly directional, high-amplitude ultrasonic clicks suited for long-range echolocation of prey in open water. Little is known about the biosonar signals of toothed whale species inhabiting freshwater habitats such as endangered river dolphins. To address the evolutionary pressures shaping the echolocation signal parameters of non-marine toothed whales, we investigated the biosonar source parameters of Ganges river dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) within the river systems of the Sundarban mangrove forest. Both Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins produced echolocation clicks with a high repetition rate and low source level compared to marine species. Irrawaddy dolphins, inhabiting coastal and riverine habitats, produced a mean source level of 195 dB (max 203 dB) re 1 µPapp whereas Ganges river dolphins, living exclusively upriver, produced a mean source level of 184 dB (max 191) re 1 µPapp. These source levels are 1–2 orders of magnitude lower than those of similar sized marine delphinids and may reflect an adaptation to a shallow, acoustically complex freshwater habitat with high reverberation and acoustic clutter. The centroid frequency of Ganges river dolphin clicks are an octave lower than predicted from scaling, but with an estimated beamwidth comparable to that of porpoises. The unique bony maxillary crests found in the Platanista forehead may help achieve a higher directionality than expected using clicks nearly an octave lower than similar sized odontocetes. PMID:23573197

  8. Cryogenic support member

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.; Nicol, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    A cryogenic support member is comprised of a non-metallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

  9. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships. PMID:27427801

  10. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships.

  11. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers (edited by Mickey Sarquis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collard, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Science in Our World, Vol. 5. Mickey Sarquis, series editor. Terrific Science Press: Middletown, OH, 1995. xiv + 149 pp. ISBN 1-883822-13-0. Spiral-bound, $13.95. Our familiarity with plastics makes polymers ideal examples of chemicals for discussion in K-12 science classes. Most importantly, polymers can be used as examples of chemicals that are safe to handle and of obvious use to society. The structures of polymers are easily represented by a number of models. These simple models go a long way in explaining the familiar physical properties of plastics. However, the introduction of polymers in the classroom relies on the availability of teaching material, experiments, and demonstrations that illustrate concepts in the current science curriculum. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers, one of the Science in Our World series published by the Center for Chemical Education at Miami University-Middletown (Ohio), will serve as a great resource for teachers interested in providing their students with a series of activities that can be related to their everyday experiences with these ubiquitous chemicals. After a brief introduction to some basic concepts, the book presents a series of 23 experiments. The collection of experiments presented here spans illustrations of chemistry, physical properties, analysis, and processing. Each experiment is recommended as either a hands-on activity or demonstration for various grade levels. A guide for the teacher suggests how the experiment can be used to illustrate topics in the science curriculum. The materials required for each activity are listed in detail, with quantities and sources (all materials are available from Flinn Scientific or hardware stores). There are detailed instructions for preparation of each experiment and how to introduce the experiment to students, and step-by-step instructions for activity. Very importantly, safety and disposal issues are clearly presented. Suggestions for cross-curriculum integration are also

  12. Interior Layered Deposits on Mars: Insights from elevation, image- and spectral data of Ganges Mensa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowe, M.; Roach, L. H.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Mustard, J. L.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Interior Layered Deposits (ILDs) are exposed at various locations on Mars. They differ from their surroundings by their higher albedo, morphology, and fine layering. Their origin (sedimentary or volcanic) is well discussed [e.g. 1-3] but Fe-oxides and hydrated minerals such as sulfates [4-6] have been detected on ILD surfaces suggesting an aquatic environment. Here we present some features of Ganges Mensa. We looked at HRSC elevation data [7], THEMIS brightness-temperature and CRISM data to understand differences in morphology and composition. Ganges Mensa observations This ILD shows sub-horizontal layering and mesa morphology (flat top and steep slopes). Its stairstepped morphology is shown on Fig. 3 and does not appear in ILDs occurring in the eastern chaotic terrains (Iani, Aureum, Aram, and Arsinoes Chaos) but in other ILDs in Valles Marineris (e.g. Hebes). Ganges Mensa features fresh-eroded light-toned layers appearing competent, forming steep scarps and having high surface temperatures as well as thermal inertia. The dark material corresponds to accumulations of wind-transported matter that covers flatter slopes and shows lower brightness-temperatures. Analyses of CRISM and image data (HRSC, MOC, HiRISE) indicate that there are differences in texture and mineralogical composition as well. CRISM observations show that the lower sequence of the ILD (consisting of many layers) has a strong kieserite signature as observed by [8]. Exposed windblown dark material on its surface has no olivine, pyroxene, or ferric oxide spectral features. This unit comprises an approximate thickness of ~1.6 km out of 3.5 km for the whole ILD and is very rough and coarse looking. There, the surface temperatures (Fig. 2) as well as thermal inertia values are much higher which is in agreement with [8]. A transition zone characterized by a discrete layer at an elevation of about -1.9 km marks the beginning of the upper unit (Fig. 1-3). In the upper unit, weak polyhydrated

  13. Decades of Change on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta; Rivers, Coastlines, Agriculture and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, C.; Sousa, D.; Chiu, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Mia, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra delta (GBD) is formed by the convergence of two great rivers, superlative in both size and geologic activity. The GBD is home to > 150 million people with a mean population density of more than 1000 people/km2. The fertile soils, abundant water and favorable climate also make the delta one of the most agriculturally diverse and productive areas on Earth. We seek to better understand the coupled natural and anthropogenic dynamics of the delta through a number of cross-disciplinary field studies of the contributing geophysical, biophysical and anthropogenic processes. To provide a synoptic multitemporal perspective for these studies, we use a variety of remotely sensed observations collected over the delta since 1988. In this overview we provide a synthesis of recent results from studies of 4 interrelated processes; river channel migration, coastal erosion and deposition, co-evolution of agriculture and aquaculture, and economic development. In each study we use multi-sensor spatiotemporal analysis of remotely sensed imagery spanning more than 2 decades to observe and quantify a variety of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales. MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) composites provide 16 day temporal and 250m spatial resolution of the entire delta from 2000 to present. This image time series captures not only agricultural phenology over the entire delta but also the development of aquaculture on the lower delta and interannual fluvial dynamics on both the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI allow us to represent land cover as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrate, vegetation and dark surfaces (water and shadow) throughout the delta since 1988. Despite its irregular temporal sampling, Landsat's 30 m pixels better resolve both natural and anthropogenic land cover units and its longer time series extends retrospective analyses back to 1988. More recent sensors like Ikonos, Quickbird, GeoEye and World

  14. Between Sunda subduction and Himalayan collision: fertility, people and earthquakes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Gale, J.; McHugh, C. M.; Ferguson, E. K.; Mondal, D. R.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    A foreland (Ganges) and a suture (Brahmaputra) river, which both drain the Himalaya, have coalesced to form Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), the world's largest. The GBD progrades along the continental margin, coupled with an advancing subduction to collision transition, deforming the delta as it grows. A better understanding of this time-transgressive system is urgent now that humans are increasing their forcing of the system and exposure to environmental hazards. Among these, earthquake risk is rapidly growing as people move from rural settings into expanding cities, creating unprecedented exposure. The megathrust 1950 M8.7 earthquake in Assam occurred during the monsoon and released 10x the annual sediment load, causing progradation at the coast and a pulse of river widening that propagated downstream. The 1762 M8.8(?) along the Arakan coast extended into the shelf of the delta where coastal tsunami deposits have been identified recently. These events bracket a segment with no credible historic megathrust earthquakes, but could affect far more people. Geodetic and geologic data along this 300 km boundary facing the GBD show oblique contraction. The subaerial accretionary prism (Burma Ranges) is up to 250 km wide with a blind thrust front that reaches ½ way across the delta. The GPS convergence rate of 14 mm/y is consistent with large displacements and long interseismic times, which can account for lack of historic ruptures, but also the potential for catastrophic events. Active folds and shallow thrust earthquakes point to an additional threat from upper-plate seismicity. Much of the current seismicity is in the lower-plate and reaches as far west as Dhaka; it may pose an immediate threat. The folds, and the uplift and subsidence patterns also influence the courses of the rivers. North of the delta, the Shillong plateau is a huge basement cored anticline bounded by the north-dipping Dauki thrust fault. 7 mm/y of N-S shortening and 5 km of structural relief here

  15. Projections of the Ganges-Brahmaputra precipitation: downscaled from GCM predictors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Henebry, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Downscaling Global Climate Model (GCM) projections of future climate is critical for impact studies. Downscaling enables use of GCM experiments for regional scale impact studies by generating regionally specific forecasts connecting global scale predictions and regional scale dynamics. We employed the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale 21st century precipitation for two data-sparse hydrologically challenging river basins in South Asia—the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. We used CGCM3.1 by Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis version 3.1 predictors in downscaling the precipitation. Downscaling was performed on the basis of established relationships between historical Global Summary of Day observed precipitation records from 43 stations and National Center for Environmental Prediction re-analysis large scale atmospheric predictors. Although the selection of predictors was challenging during the set-up of SDSM, they were found to be indicative of important physical forcings in the basins. The precipitation of both basins was largely influenced by geopotential height: the Ganges precipitation was modulated by the U component of the wind and specific humidity at 500 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels; whereas, the Brahmaputra precipitation was modulated by the V component of the wind at 850 and 1000 h Pa pressure levels. The evaluation of the SDSM performance indicated that model accuracy for reproducing precipitation at the monthly scale was acceptable, but at the daily scale the model inadequately simulated some daily extreme precipitation events. Therefore, while the downscaled precipitation may not be the suitable input to analyze future extreme flooding or drought events, it could be adequate for analysis of future freshwater availability. Analysis of the CGCM3.1 downscaled precipitation projection with respect to observed precipitation reveals that the precipitation regime in each basin may be significantly impacted by climate change

  16. TEOS reaction rates on SiO{sub 2} at 1000K: Zero-order dependence on hydroxyl coverage and implications for reactions with three-membered siloxane rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, M.E.; Moffat, H.K.

    1995-12-01

    We have determined key kinetic parameters for the reaction of TEOS (tetraethylorthosilicate) on SiO{sub 2}. This was accomplished under conditions (20 to 500 mTorr at 1000 K) that pertain directly to TEOS-based CVD (chemical vapor deposition) processes. TEOS reactions were carried out using deuterated silanols (SiOD) on the initial SiO{sub 2} surface. This allowed FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) measurements to distinguish the consumption of SiOD by TEOS from the concurrent formation of SiOH which results from TEOS decomposition at 1000 K. While SiOD consumption did exhibit a first-order dependence on SiOD coverage, SiOH formation exhibited a zero-order dependence on the total coverage of hydroxyl groups. This suggests that reactions with hydroxyl groups alone can not account for all of the TEOS decomposition reactions at 1000 K. Since the low coverage of two-membered siloxane ((Si-O){sub 2}) rings was consumed during the initial TEOS exposure, siloxane (Si-O-Si) bridges in three-membered siloxane ((Si-O){sub 3}) rings may be the additional species responsible for the constant rate of TEOS decomposition. However, it is not conclusive that this type of site-specific mechanism controls the chemistry. The data may also be explained with a site-independent mechanism in which intramolecular decomposition of TEOS on the surface provides a common rate-determining step for subsequent consumption of hydroxyls and siloxane bridges on SiO{sub 2}. Regardless of the specific mechanism, our results predict that deposition rates will be insensitive to the relative coverages of siloxane bridges and hydroxyls on SiO{sub 2}. Therefore, a precise knowledge of the coverages of these species on SiO{sub 2} is not essential for modeling thermal TEOS decomposition rates.

  17. 21. Typical lower chord tension member and diagonal tension member ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Typical lower chord tension member and diagonal tension member pinning. View is of north side of 3rd span looking west. - Cleves Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River on U.S. Highway 50, Cleves, Hamilton County, OH

  18. Melt containment member

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

    2014-09-09

    A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

  19. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples at Varanasi, India.

    PubMed

    Soni, Dharmendra K; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Durg V; Dubey, Suresh K

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, serotype identification, detection of virulence genes and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. All isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin, except two isolates, and showed variable resistance to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. Of the 20 isolates found positive for pathogens, seven (four human and three water isolates) belong to serogroups 4b, 4d and 4e; six (one human and five water isolates) belong to serogroups 1/2c and 3c; four milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2b and 3b; and three milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2a and 3a. Two water isolates, all human isolates, except one (Pb1) lacking inlJ gene, and three milk isolates possess inlA, inlC, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA and iap genes. The remaining water and milk isolates showed variable presence of inlJ, plcA, prfA, and iap genes. ERIC- and REP-PCR based analyses collectively indicated that isolates of human clinical samples belong to identical or similar clone and isolates of water and milk samples belong to different clones. Overall study demonstrates the prevalence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes species in the environmental and clinical samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. PMID:23201044

  20. Bullies, gangs, drugs, and school: understanding the overlap and the role of ethnicity and urbanicity.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Goldweber, Asha; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2013-02-01

    Recent media attention has increased interest in behavioral, mental health, and academic correlates of involvement in bullying. Yet, there has not been much interest in investigating the co-occurrence of other health-risk behaviors, such as gang membership, weapon carrying, and substance use. The potential influence of contextual factors, such as youth ethnicity, urbanicity, and school characteristics, also has been overlooked in previous research. The current study examined different subtypes of involvement in bullying-as primarily a victim, as primarily a bully, as both a victim and bully, and no involvement-and the association with significant health-risk behaviors, including engaging in violence and substance use, as well as academic problems. The analyses use self-report data from 16,302 adolescents (50.3 % female, 62.2 % Caucasian, 37.8 % African American) enrolled in 52 high schools. A series of three-level HLM analyses revealed that bullies and bully/victims were generally at greatest of risk of being involved in violence, engaging in multiple types of substance use, and having academic problems. These findings extend prior research by emphasizing a potential link between involvement in bullying and multiple health-risk behaviors, particularly among urban and African American high school youth.

  1. The impact of inter-annual rainfall variability on food production in the Ganges basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siderius, Christian; Biemans, Hester; van Walsum, Paul; hellegers, Petra; van Ierland, Ekko; Kabat, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall variability is expected to increase in the coming decades as the world warms. Especially in regions already water stressed, a higher rainfall variability will jeopardize food security. Recently, the impact of inter-annual rainfall variability has received increasing attention in regional to global analysis on water availability and food security. But the description of the dynamics behind it is still incomplete in most models. Contemporary land surface and hydrological models used for such analyses describe variability in production primarily as a function of yield, a process driven by biophysical parameters, thereby neglecting yearly variations in cropped area, a process driven largely by management decisions. Agricultural statistics for northern India show that the latter process could explain up to 40% of the observed inter-annual variation in food production in various states. We added a simple dynamic land use decision module to a land surface model (LPJmL) and analyzed to what extent this improved the estimation of variability in food production. Using this improved modelling framework we then assessed if and at which scale rainfall variability affects meeting the food self-sufficiency threshold. Early results for the Ganges Basin indicate that, while on basin level variability in crop production is still relatively low, several districts and states are highly affected (RSTD > 50%). Such insight can contribute to better recommendations on the most effective measures, at the most appropriate scale, to buffer variability in food production.

  2. Organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of Ganges river (India)

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.; Ajmal, M.; Nomani, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    Organochlorine(OC) insecticides have been extensively used in India since 1954 in agriculture as well as public health sector. The use of OCs which are banned or restricted in most developed countries are still being used in this country. The major factors responsible for detrimental effects on the environment from use of these chemicals are that they are very persistent, extremely toxic to fish, used more as preventive measures rather than cure in controlling insects and some of them were found to biomagnify in organisms. Their accumulation about 26 mg DDT in their body through food items. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic compounds but may also be synthesized by some bacteria, algae and plants. PAHs are on the USEPA and EC priority pollutants list since some PAHs are known or suspected carcinogens/mutagens. In surface waters, they are known to be strongly adsorbed on sediment clays and other particles while their degradation in sediment also occur. Therefore, during low stream flow, fluvial materials settle down and may contain concentrations of OCs and PAHs. Hence, it is necessary to include sediment in the determination of organic contaminants in surface waters. This paper refers to a monitoring programme for screening the OCs and PAHs concentrations in the Ganges river sediments. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A statistical comparison of four precipitation climate datasets in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenton, James

    There are 630 million people that live within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River basin (GBM) who depend on these rivers for their livelihood (Frenken, 2011). These rivers greatly depend upon the precipitation and rain fall to contribute to their flows. Researchers and end-users in the GBM basin depend on climate precipitation datasets to help them study the impact precipitation has the hydrology and agricultural. To properly utilize a dataset, the source input data, the algorithms used to merge the data, and the final temporal and spatial resolution of the dataset all need to be properly understood. The goal for this study is to statistically compare four climate precipitation datasets, GPCP, CMAP, CHIRPS and APHRODITE, in the GBM basin to identify significant differences among them. Their respective data will be compared and, the evaluations will be shared with the SERVIR science team and the hydrologists at ICIMOD. Then, SERVIR and ICIMOD can better aid decision makers in the GBM Basin by improving their knowledge and interpretation of precipitation datasets and how it will affect the people of the GBM Basin.

  4. Construction and maintenance of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta: linking process, morphology, and stratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Carol A; Goodbred, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of the processes, morphology, and stratigraphy of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), including insights gained from detailed elevation data. The review shows that the GBMD is best characterized as a composite system, with different regions having morphologic and stratigraphic attributes of an upland fluvial fan delta; a lowland, backwater-reach delta; a downdrift tidal delta plain; and an offshore subaqueous-delta clinoform. These distinct areas of upland and lowland fluvial reaches and tidal dominance vary in time and space, and we distinguish late-Holocene phases of delta construction, maintenance, and decline similar to delta-lobe cycling in other systems. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region. However, we do identify portions of the delta that are in decline and losing elevation relative to sea level owing to insufficient sediment delivery. These areas, some of which are well inland of the coast, represent those most at risk to the continued effect of sea-level rise.

  5. Hydrogeochemistry and arsenic contamination of groundwater in the Ganges Delta Plain, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Halim, M A; Majumder, R K; Nessa, S A; Hiroshiro, Y; Uddin, M J; Shimada, J; Jinno, K

    2009-05-30

    Geochemical composition and the level of Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Ganges Delta Plain, southwestern Bangladesh were elucidated. Hydrogeochemical data of tube well samples suggested that the groundwater is mostly Ca-Mg-HCO(3) type with bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) as the dominant anion, though other type waters are also observed. In contrast, the elevated EC, Cl(-) and high content of Na(+) relative to Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+) in six groundwater samples suggest their saline origin. Low concentrations of NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-), and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), HCO(3)(-) and PO(4)(3-) indicate the reducing conditions of subsurface aquifer where sediments are deposited with abundant organic matter. The total As concentration in the analyzed samples is very high (0.0431-1.352 mg/L) along with high Fe (2.791-17.058 mg/L) and relatively low Mn (0.134-1.972 mg/L) at different depths. Distinct relationship of As with Fe and Mn, and strong correlation with DOC suggests that the biodegradation of organic matter and reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxide is considered to be the dominant processes to release As in aquifers. Moreover, negative correlation between As and SO(4)(2-) demonstrates the As may not be directly mobilized from sulfide minerals like arsenopyrite.

  6. Construction and maintenance of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta: linking process, morphology, and stratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Carol A; Goodbred, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of the processes, morphology, and stratigraphy of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), including insights gained from detailed elevation data. The review shows that the GBMD is best characterized as a composite system, with different regions having morphologic and stratigraphic attributes of an upland fluvial fan delta; a lowland, backwater-reach delta; a downdrift tidal delta plain; and an offshore subaqueous-delta clinoform. These distinct areas of upland and lowland fluvial reaches and tidal dominance vary in time and space, and we distinguish late-Holocene phases of delta construction, maintenance, and decline similar to delta-lobe cycling in other systems. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region. However, we do identify portions of the delta that are in decline and losing elevation relative to sea level owing to insufficient sediment delivery. These areas, some of which are well inland of the coast, represent those most at risk to the continued effect of sea-level rise. PMID:25251271

  7. Flood risk of natural and embanked landscapes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra tidal delta plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, L. W.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Mondal, D. R.; Wilson, C. A.; Ahmed, K. R.; Roy, K.; Steckler, M. S.; Small, C.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B. A.

    2015-02-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river delta, with 170 million people and a vast, low-lying coastal plain, is perceived to be at great risk of increased flooding and submergence from sea-level rise. However, human alteration of the landscape can create similar risks to sea-level rise. Here, we report that islands in southwest Bangladesh, enclosed by embankments in the 1960s, have lost 1.0-1.5 m of elevation, whereas the neighbouring Sundarban mangrove forest has remained comparatively stable. We attribute this elevation loss to interruption of sedimentation inside the embankments, combined with accelerated compaction, removal of forest biomass, and a regionally increased tidal range. One major consequence of this elevation loss occurred in 2009 when the embankments of several large islands failed during Cyclone Aila, leaving large areas of land tidally inundated for up to two years until embankments were repaired. Despite sustained human suffering during this time, the newly reconnected landscape received tens of centimetres of tidally deposited sediment, equivalent to decades’ worth of normal sedimentation. Although many areas still lie well below mean high water and remain at risk of severe flooding, we conclude that elevation recovery may be possible through controlled embankment breaches.

  8. Land atmosphere feedbacks and their role in the water resources of the Ganges basin.

    PubMed

    Harding, R J; Blyth, E M; Tuinenburg, O A; Wiltshire, A

    2013-12-01

    The northern Indian subcontinent has frequently been identified as a hotspot for land atmosphere interactions. It is also a region with the highest concentration of irrigated land and highest (and increasing) population density in the world. The available water in the region with which to grow food depends on the Asian monsoon, groundwater and melt from Himalayan snows. Any changes or disruptions to these sources of water could threaten the food supply. It is therefore essential to understand how the land surface, and in particular irrigated land, interacts with the atmosphere. It is anticipated that the interactions will occur on many scales. To an extent the magnitude and form of these will depend on the depth of the atmosphere which is affected. Thus at the local, or micro, scale it is the surface layer (some 10 s m deep) which is cooled and moistened by the evaporation of irrigated water, at the meso-scale the Planetary boundary layer (up to 1 or 2 km) will be modified - with possible atmospheric moistening, increased cloud and rain formation and at very large scales the whole dynamics of the south Asian Monsoon will be affected. This illustrates a strong interaction between the Asian monsoon and the regional topography. Of considerable significance is the finding in this paper that up to 60% of the evaporation from irrigated areas in the summer months is ultimately recycled to Himalayan rainfall and so feedbacks to river flows in the Ganges.

  9. Structures of three members of Pfam PF02663 (FmdE) implicated in microbial methanogenesis reveal a conserved α+β core domain and an auxiliary C-terminal treble-clef zinc finger

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Herbert L.; Das, Debanu; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W.; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Examination of the genomic context for members of the FmdE Pfam family (PF02663), such as the protein encoded by the fmdE gene from the methanogenic archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, indicates that 13 of them are co-transcribed with genes encoding subunits of molybdenum formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.99.5), an enzyme that is involved in microbial methane production. Here, the first crystal structures from PF02663 are described, representing two bacterial and one archaeal species: B8FYU2_DESHY from the anaerobic dehalogenating bacterium Desulfito­bacterium hafniense DCB-2, Q2LQ23_SYNAS from the syntrophic bacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus SB and Q9HJ63_THEAC from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum. Two of these proteins, Q9HJ63_THEAC and Q2LQ23_SYNAS, contain two domains: an N-terminal thioredoxin-like α+β core domain (NTD) consisting of a five-stranded, mixed β-sheet flanked by several α-helices and a C-terminal zinc-finger domain (CTD). B8FYU2_DESHY, on the other hand, is composed solely of the NTD. The CTD of Q9HJ63_THEAC and Q2LQ23_SYNAS is best characterized as a treble-clef zinc finger. Two significant structural differences between Q9HJ63_THEAC and Q2LQ23_SYNAS involve their metal binding. First, zinc is bound to the putative active site on the NTD of Q9HJ63_THEAC, but is absent from the NTD of Q2LQ23_SYNAS. Second, whereas the structure of the CTD of Q2LQ23_SYNAS shows four Cys side chains within coordination distance of the Zn atom, the structure of Q9HJ63_THEAC is atypical for a treble-cleft zinc finger in that three Cys side chains and an Asp side chain are within coordination distance of the zinc. PMID:20944230

  10. Linking process, morphology, and stratigraphy in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Sincavage, R.; Steckler, M. S.; Pickering, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD) is characterized as a composite system with an upland fluvial fan delta, a lowland, backwater-reach delta, a downdrift tidal delta plain, and an offshore subaqueous-delta, reflecting the respective dominance of fluvial, tidal, and marine processes. Topographic transitions, coupled with surface morphology and underlying stratigraphy define the temporally and spatially integrated patterns of river behavior and sediment dispersal that characterize the delta system. These play important roles in the scale of natural hazards, such as flooding and storm surges, affecting the 150 million inhabitants of the GBMD. Within the upland fan delta, aggradation of mobile braided channels within the active rivers support the wide-scale distribution of bed- and suspended-load sands that constitute nearly the entire underlying architecture of upper GBMD stratigraphy. Finer silt-dominated facies form on the floodplain from overbank deposition during waning stages of flow; however preservation is very low and localized because of the persistent lateral migration of braided channels. A differentiation in stream morphology and channel behavior is associated with a sharp decrease in stream gradient, channel avulsion and abandonment, and the transition across the backwater. Deposition and preservation of fine-grained mud and organic-rich successions are concentrated within broad interdistributary basins of the lowland fluvial plain or within tectonically subsiding Sylhet Basin. While ~15% of the 1 x 109 t yr-1 sediment load carried by the rivers is advected along shore and inland via tidal activity, a rapidly prograding subaqueous clinoform and the adjacent Swatch of No Ground canyon system offshore receive ~50% of the modern sediment load. The overall stability of the GBMD landform, relative to many deltas, reflects the efficient, widespread dispersal of sediment by the large monsoon discharge and high-energy tides that affect this region

  11. Streamflow model of the six-country transboundary Ganges-Bhramaputra and Meghna river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, K.; Lehmann, A.; Dennedy-Frank, P. J.; Gorelick, S.

    2014-12-01

    Extremely large-scale river basin modelling remains a challenge for water resources planning in the developing world. Such planning is particularly difficult in the developing world because of the lack of data on both natural (climatological, hydrological) processes and complex anthropological influences. We simulate three enormous river basins located in south Asia. The Ganges-Bhramaputra and Meghna (GBM) River Basins cover an area of 1.75 million km2 associated with 6 different countries, including the Bengal delta, which is the most densely populated delta in the world with ~600 million people. We target this developing region to better understand the hydrological system and improve water management planning in these transboundary watersheds. This effort uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate streamflow in the GBM River Basins and assess the use of global climatological datasets for such large scale river modeling. We evaluate the utility of three global rainfall datasets to reproduce measured river discharge: the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) from NASA, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, and the World Metrological Organization (WMO) reanalysis. We use global datasets for spatial information as well: 90m DEM from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission, 300m GlobCover land use maps, and 1000 km FAO soil map. We find that SWAT discharge estimates match the observed streamflow well (NSE=0.40-0.66, R2=0.60-0.70) when using meteorological estimates from the NCEP reanalysis. However, SWAT estimates diverge from observed discharge when using meteorological estimates from TRMM and the WMO reanalysis.

  12. InSAR measurements of compaction and subsidence in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Stephanie A.; Overeem, Irina; Steckler, Michael S.; Syvitski, James P. M.; Seeber, Leonardo; Akhter, S. Humayun

    2014-08-01

    Many of the world's largest river deltas are sinking due to sediment loading, compaction, and tectonics but also recently because of groundwater extraction, hydrocarbon extraction, and reduced aggradation. Little is known, however, about the full spatial variability of subsidence rates in complex delta systems. This study reconstructs subsidence rates in the eastern portion of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), Bangladesh, covering more than 10,000 km2 at a high spatial resolution of 100 m. The map was produced using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) covering the period 2007 to 2011. Eighteen Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased-Array L-band SAR scenes were used to generate 30 interferograms calibrated with GPS. Interferograms were stacked to yield average subsidence rates over the study period. Small Baseline Subset-InSAR was then applied to validate the results against an additional GPS record from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Land subsidence of 0 to > 10 mm/yr is seen in Dhaka, with variability likely related to local variations in shallow subsurface sediment properties. Outside of the city, rates vary from 0 to > 18 mm/yr, with the lowest rates appearing primarily in Pleistocene Madhupur Clay and the highest rates in Holocene organic-rich muds. Results demonstrate that subsidence in this delta is primarily controlled by local stratigraphy, with rates varying by more than an order of magnitude depending on lithology. The ability of L-band InSAR to differentiate between stratigraphic units in this humid, vegetated subtropical river delta demonstrates the power of interferometry as a tool for studying the subsurface in deltaic environments.

  13. Nature of distribution of mercury in the sediments of the river Yamuna (tributary of the Ganges), India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N; Saxena, Rajinder; Lundin, Lars-Christer

    2003-06-01

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), surface (bed sediments) and short length cores of sediments collected from the largest tributary of the river Ganges, namely the river Yamuna, were analysed for total mercury as well as its fractionation in various size and chemical sites in the sediments following standard procedures. Also, attempts were made to determine the vertical distribution in sediments in relation to the recent timescale of a few decades. Our observations indicate that the SPM in general showed higher levels of total mercury compared to the surface sediments while at places the enhancement could be by a factor of 10, say around 25 microg g(-1) in the downstream region that integrates the industrial midstream and agricultural downstream terrain near its confluence with the Ganges. Surface sediments in the upstream direction near the Himalayan foothills and SPM in the lower reaches showed significant high Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) as defined by Müller. Size fractionation studies indicate that the finer fraction preferentially showed higher levels of mercury while in the lower reaches of the river, the total mercury is equitably distributed among all size fractions. The proportion of the residual fraction of mercury in relation to mobile fractions, in general decreases downstream towards its confluence with the Ganges river. In sediment cores, the vertical distribution show systematic peaks of mercury indicating that addition of this toxic metal to the aquatic system is in direct proportion to the increase in various types of human activities such as thermal power plants, land use changes (urbanisation) in the midstream region and intensive fertiliser application in lower reaches of this vast river basin. PMID:12833986

  14. Nature of distribution of mercury in the sediments of the river Yamuna (tributary of the Ganges), India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N; Saxena, Rajinder; Lundin, Lars-Christer

    2003-06-01

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), surface (bed sediments) and short length cores of sediments collected from the largest tributary of the river Ganges, namely the river Yamuna, were analysed for total mercury as well as its fractionation in various size and chemical sites in the sediments following standard procedures. Also, attempts were made to determine the vertical distribution in sediments in relation to the recent timescale of a few decades. Our observations indicate that the SPM in general showed higher levels of total mercury compared to the surface sediments while at places the enhancement could be by a factor of 10, say around 25 microg g(-1) in the downstream region that integrates the industrial midstream and agricultural downstream terrain near its confluence with the Ganges. Surface sediments in the upstream direction near the Himalayan foothills and SPM in the lower reaches showed significant high Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) as defined by Müller. Size fractionation studies indicate that the finer fraction preferentially showed higher levels of mercury while in the lower reaches of the river, the total mercury is equitably distributed among all size fractions. The proportion of the residual fraction of mercury in relation to mobile fractions, in general decreases downstream towards its confluence with the Ganges river. In sediment cores, the vertical distribution show systematic peaks of mercury indicating that addition of this toxic metal to the aquatic system is in direct proportion to the increase in various types of human activities such as thermal power plants, land use changes (urbanisation) in the midstream region and intensive fertiliser application in lower reaches of this vast river basin.

  15. Air Pollution Over the Ganges Basin and Northwest Bay of Bengal in the Early Postmonsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2014-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office. This reanalysis is based on a version of the Goddard Earth Observing System-5 (GEOS-5) model radiatively coupled with Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. In October over the period 2002-2009, MERRAero showed that AOT was lower over the east of the Ganges basin than over the northwest of the Ganges basin: this was despite the fact that the east of the Ganges basin should have produced higher anthropogenic aerosol emissions because of higher population density, increased industrial output, and transportation. This is evidence that higher aerosol emissions do not always correspond to higher AOT over the areas where the effects of meteorological factors on AOT dominate those of aerosol emissions. MODIS AOT assimilation was essential for correcting modeled AOT mainly over the northwest of the Ganges basin, where AOT increments were maximal. Over the east of the Ganges basin and northwest Bay of Bengal (BoB), AOT increments were low and MODIS AOT assimilation did not contribute significantly to modeled AOT. Our analysis showed that increasing AOT trends over northwest BoB (exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin) were reproduced by GEOS-5, not because of MODIS AOT assimilation butmainly because of the model capability of reproducing meteorological factors contributing to AOT trends. Moreover, vertically integrated aerosol mass flux was sensitive to wind convergence causing aerosol accumulation over northwest BoB.

  16. Drug Sales, Gender, and Risk: Notions of Risk From the Perspective of Gang-Involved Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2015-01-01

    We examine gender and meanings of risk in interviews (2007–2010) with gang-involved young men and women (n = 253) engaged in illicit drug sales in San Francisco, California. The in-depth interviews from this NIDA-funded study were coded using the software NVivo to identify patterns and themes. We examine their interpretations of the risks of drug-selling and their narratives about gender differences in these risks. We find distinct discourses regarding the role of femininities and masculinities and male and female bodies in shaping risk as well as the nexus between gender, family, and risk for female drug sellers. PMID:25774919

  17. Increased waterborne blaNDM-1 resistance gene abundances associated with seasonal human pilgrimages to the upper ganges river.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Z S; Sreekrishnan, T R; Hands, C L; Knapp, C W; Graham, D W

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1)); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg(-1))) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1))), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor's wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the

  18. Drug Sales, Gender, and Risk: Notions of Risk From the Perspective of Gang-Involved Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2015-05-01

    We examine gender and meanings of risk in interviews (2007-2010) with gang-involved young men and women (n = 253) engaged in illicit drug sales in San Francisco, California. The in-depth interviews from this NIDA-funded study were coded using the software NVivo to identify patterns and themes. We examine their interpretations of the risks of drug-selling and their narratives about gender differences in these risks. We find distinct discourses regarding the role of femininities and masculinities and male and female bodies in shaping risk as well as the nexus between gender, family, and risk for female drug sellers.

  19. Drug Sales, Gender, and Risk: Notions of Risk From the Perspective of Gang-Involved Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Molly; Hunt, Geoffrey; Joe-Laidler, Karen

    2015-05-01

    We examine gender and meanings of risk in interviews (2007-2010) with gang-involved young men and women (n = 253) engaged in illicit drug sales in San Francisco, California. The in-depth interviews from this NIDA-funded study were coded using the software NVivo to identify patterns and themes. We examine their interpretations of the risks of drug-selling and their narratives about gender differences in these risks. We find distinct discourses regarding the role of femininities and masculinities and male and female bodies in shaping risk as well as the nexus between gender, family, and risk for female drug sellers. PMID:25774919

  20. Increased waterborne blaNDM-1 resistance gene abundances associated with seasonal human pilgrimages to the upper ganges river.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Z S; Sreekrishnan, T R; Hands, C L; Knapp, C W; Graham, D W

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1)); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg(-1))) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1))), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor's wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the

  1. Increased Waterborne blaNDM-1 Resistance Gene Abundances Associated with Seasonal Human Pilgrimages to the Upper Ganges River

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL–1); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg–1)) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL–1)), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor’s wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the

  2. Lay REC members: patient or public?

    PubMed

    Staley, Kristina

    2013-12-01

    In practice, the role of lay members of research ethics committees (RECs) often involves checking the accessibility of written materials, checking that the practical needs of participants have been considered and ensuring that a lay summary of the research will be produced. In this brief report, I argue that all these tasks would be more effectively carried out through a process of patient involvement (PI) in research projects prior to ethical review. Involving patients with direct experience of the topic under investigation brings added value beyond the contributions typically made by lay REC members, who are often not patients themselves. This is because PI tailors the design and conduct of research to the specific interests and concerns of the people who will actually take part in a project and make use of its findings. If a project has PI in its early stages, then a similar input from lay REC members could at best result in duplication of effort and at worst create the potential for conflict. The rationale for lay REC membership will therefore need to change from 'contributing a patient perspective' to 'ensuring transparency and public accountability in REC decisions'. This has implications for addressing more strategic questions about lay REC membership, including who is best recruited to the role and how they should be expected to contribute in practice.

  3. Latch ring for connecting tubular member

    SciTech Connect

    Milberger, L.J.

    1991-06-04

    This patent describes a device for releasably locking an inner member well bore of a tubular outer member, comprising a combination of a grooved inner member profile formed on the exterior of the inner member; a grooved outer member profile formed in the bore of the outer member; a split ring carried by the inner member the ring having a grooved outer profile on its exterior mates with the outer member profile; and the inner member being axially movable.

  4. Profile Report: ASHA Member Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Armin D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The American School Health Association (ASHA) surveyed its members who were nurses to identify their needs for improved member programs and services. Recommendations include that the needs of both school-based nurses and those with administrative roles be considered independently for annual meeting programs. (JN)

  5. Who Are Extension Council Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Wayne H.

    1970-01-01

    Many Extension Council members were recommended by associates or friends, a procedure that contributed to homogeneity in council membership. Such homogeneity may make it difficult for council members to perceive problems of clientele with characteristics or attitudes different from their own. (DM)

  6. Qualitative analysis and quantitative simulation on Yin-Huang water salinization mechanism in Bei-Da-Gang Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-yu; Wang, Qi-shan; Wu, Li-bo; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xiao-qin

    2005-01-01

    Yellow River water transfer for Tianjin is important in solving the water shortage in Tianjin, which facilitate economic development and social progress for many years. Fresh water drawn from Yellow River (i.e., Yin-Huang water) becomes saltier and saltier when being stored in the Bei-Da-Gang reservoir. We qualitatively analyze the water salinization mechanism based on mass transfer theory. The main factors are salinity transfer of saline soil, evaporation concentrating, and the agitation of wind. A simulative experimental pond and an evaporation pond were built beside the Bei-Da-Gang reservoir to quantitatively investigate the water salinization based on water and solute balance in the simulative pond. 80% of increased [Cl-] is due to the salinity transfer of the saline soil and the other 20% is due to evaporation concentrating, so the former is the most important factor. We found that the salinization of Yin-Huang water can be described with a zero-dimension linear model.

  7. Metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy of narrow-band distributed Bragg reflectors realized by GaN:Ge modulation doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Christoph; Lesnik, Andreas; Zettler, Thomas; Schmidt, Gordon; Veit, Peter; Dadgar, Armin; Bläsing, Jürgen; Christen, Jürgen; Strittmatter, André

    2016-04-01

    We report on metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) applying a periodic modulation of the GaN doping concentration only. The doping modulation changes the refractive index of GaN via the Burstein-Moss-effect. MOVPE growth of highly doped GaN:Ge and modulation of the dopant concentration by at least two orders of magnitude within few nanometers is required to achieve a refractive index contrast of 2-3%. Such modulation characteristic is achieved despite the presence of Ge memory effects and incorporation delay. We realized DBRs with up to 100 layer pairs by combining GaN:Ge with a nominal doping concentration of 1.6×1020 cm-3 as low-refractive index material with unintentionally doped GaN as high-refractive index layer. Scanning transmission electron microscope images reveal DBR structures with abrupt interfaces and homogenous layer thicknesses in lateral and vertical direction. Reflectance measurements of DBRs designed for the blue and near UV-spectral region show a narrow stopband with a maximum reflectivity of 85% at 418 nm and even 95% at 370 nm. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well structures grown on top of such DBRs exhibit narrow emission spectra with linewidths below 3 nm and significantly increased emission intensity.

  8. Analysis of some heavy metals in the riverine water, sediments and fish from river Ganges at Allahabad.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aradhna; Rai, Devendra K; Pandey, Ravi S; Sharma, Bechan

    2009-10-01

    The river Ganges has been one of the major recipients of industrial effluents in India. The present paper deals with the study related to occurrence and bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn) in the riverine water, sediment, and the muscles of two cat fish species, Channa punctatus (C. punctatus) and Aorichthys aor (A. aor) procured from the river Ganges at Allahabad. The data obtained after water analysis reflected the order of occurrence of heavy metals to be Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Cd, respectively. The analysis of heavy metals in sediment indicated that among the five heavy metals tested; Zn was maximally accumulated followed by Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd. The trend of heavy metals accumulation in fish muscles was found to be similar to that observed in sediment and water such as Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Cd. Data indicated that Zn accumulated maximally in the sediment as well as muscles of both of the fish species in comparison to other metals. PMID:18850290

  9. Agricultural Land Cover Dynamics on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: 1988-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, D.; Chiu, S.; Mondal, D. R.; Small, C.

    2014-12-01

    We seek to understand spatiotemporal (ST) patterns of agricultural land cover dynamics on the lower Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD). Recent availability of accurately coregistered, radiometrically intercalibrated Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI imagery collected since 1988 allows for synoptic scale ST analyses of vegetation phenology. We use multitemporal spectral mixture analysis of exoatmospheric reflectance to represent land cover and water bodies as continuous fields of soil and sediment substrates (S), vegetation (V), and dark surfaces (D; water & shadow). This study analyses 61 cloud-free Landsat acquisitions across two geographic scenes to identify ST patterns of winter cropping and interconversion between agricultural fields and ponds used for aquaculture. We also use MODIS 16-day EVI composite time series post-2000 and high spatial resolution imagery to extend and vicariously validate the Landsat-derived observations. We use temporal moment spaces (derived from temporal mean, standard deviation, and skewness) and temporal feature spaces (derived from spatial Principal Components) to characterize the full range of phenological patterns observed at 30 m scales throughout the lower delta. For each year with sufficient cloud-free coverage, we distinguish between areas with a high likelihood of use for aquaculture versus areas with a high likelihood of use for agriculture based on a combination of reflectance and phenology. From changes in these patterns we infer changes in land use on seasonal to interannual timescales. Many of the phenological patterns we observe occur on the scale of individual polders, suggesting decision making at community scales. While there appears to be considerable loss of agricultural land to aquaculture in many areas of the lower delta, we also observe intensification of dry season cropping in other areas. MODIS reveals frequent instances of both gradual and abrupt decreases in seasonal peak EVI as well as many localized instances of abrupt

  10. Modeling of GPS velocities across the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta - Burma Arc oblique subduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, M. S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Feng, L.; Gale, J.; Howe, M.; Masson, F.; Maurin, T.; Rangin, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Burma Arc is the northward continuation of the Sumatra-Anadaman subduction zone that gave rise to the 2004 M9.3 earthquake and tsunami. Near its northern end, it is colliding with the thick sediments of the Bengal Basin. The sediments of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta are folded and faulted, creating a subaerial 250-km wide accretionary prism. The deformation front is blind and reaches ½ way across the delta. Whether subduction is still occurring at this highly oblique plate boundary has been hotly debated. To investigate this, we combined our 25 continuous GPS receivers in Bangladesh with the campaign network in Myanmar, processing them together with GAMIT/GLOBK. We combined this data with 28 mostly campaign GPS sites in India (Gahalaut et al., 2012) by processing using the same IGS sites and performing a Helmert transformation to place all the data in same reference frame within ITRF2008. Published Indian plate poles yield a systematic residual for Bangladeshi sites believed to be on stable India. We estimated a new pole by combining 13 Indian stations (Mahesh et al., 2013) with 2 of our stations. Due to the rapid growth of the accretionary prism and the overthrusting by the Shillong Plateau, the Burma Arc changes shape from the backstop to the front folds. To project the GPS velocities into a profile, we have experimented with several projections that vary across the foldbelt, using the arc of the earthquakes and the topography as a guide. Strike-slip is mostly absorbed by the Sagaing and CMF faults, and some additional shear is distributed over the region. The best fitting suite of models for the shortening component yield 13-15 mm/y of shortening across the arc on a shallow-dipping megathrust. Additional shortening of ~4 mm/y is absorbed in the vicinity of the Kabaw Fault, where coverage is sparse. The dip of the megathrust and the depth of its downdip end trade off with one another in the different projections. The low range of dips of 6-10° is consistent

  11. Subsidence and human influences in mega deltas: The case of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna.

    PubMed

    Brown, S; Nicholls, R J

    2015-09-15

    Relative sea/land level changes are fundamental to people living in deltas. Net subsidence is complex and attributed to tectonics, compaction, sedimentation and anthropogenic causes. It can have severe impacts and needs to be quantified and where possible (for subsidence due to anthropogenic causes) avoided. For the highly populated Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, a large range of net subsidence rates are described in the literature, yet the reasons behind this wide range of values are poorly understood. This paper documents and analyses rates of subsidence (for publications until 2014) and relates these findings to human influences (development). 205 point measurements of net subsidence were found, reported in 24 studies. Reported measurements were often repetitive in multiple journals, with some lacking detail as to precise location, cause and method, questioning reliability of the rate of subsidence. Rates differed by locality, methodology and period of measurement. Ten different measurement methods were recorded, with radio-carbon dating being the most common. Temporal and spatially, rates varied between -1.1mm/yr (i.e. uplift) and 43.8mm/yr. The overall mean reported rate was 5.6mm/yr, and the overall median 2.9 mm/yr, with 7.3mm/yr representing one standard deviation. These rates were reduced if inaccurate or vague records were omitted. The highest rates were recorded in the Sylhet Plateau, Dhaka and Kolkata. Highest rates were recorded in the last 1000 years, where the mean increased to 8.8mm/yr and a standard deviation of 7.5mm/yr. This could be partly due to shorter-term measurement records, or anthropogenic influence as multiple high rates are often found in urban settings. Continued development may cause rates to locally increase (e.g. due to groundwater abstraction and/or drainage). Improved monitoring is required over a wider area, to determine long-term trends, particularly as short-term records are highly variable. Focus in regions where wide spread

  12. Deducing Weathering Processes Using Silicon Isotopes in the Ganges Alluvial Plain, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, P.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Fontorbe, G.; Chakrapani, G.; Clymans, W.; Conley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ganges Alluvial Plain ('GAP') is the sedimentary infill of the foreland basin created during Himalayan orogeny. Freshly eroded material from the Himalaya and southern cratonic tributaries is deposited into a system with long water-sediment interaction times, creating potential for further generation of river weathering fluxes. To quantify weathering processes in the GAP, 51 sites including all major tributaries were sampled in a September 2013 campaign and analysed for major and minor ions, Ge/Si ratios and δ30Si, δ13C and δ18O. Net dissolved Si (DSi) and major cation yields are 2 to 5 times lower in the GAP than the Himalaya, and at a whole basin scale approximate the global average, indicating that the plain apparently moderates the efficiency of Himalayan weathering rates. Mainstem δ30Si spans 0.81 to 1.93‰ (see figure) and gives the impression of a system buffered to moderate DSi and δ30Si. Ge/Si ratios (µmol/mol) are higher than expected in the Himalaya (>3), reflecting input of Ge-enriched water from hot springs, and decline to ~1.4 in the GAP. For the Himalayan sourced rivers, δ30Si increases with distance from the Himalayan front, and can not be explained entirely by conservative mixing with higher δ30Si peninsular and GAP streams. To a first degree, the δ30Si data suggest incorporation of Si into secondary minerals as the key fractionating process, and that this occurs both in situ during initial weathering and progressively in the GAP. Partitioning of solutes between sources is complicated in the GAP. Consistent with previous work, carbonate weathering dominates the ion fluxes, but with substantial contributions from saline/alkaline soil salts, the chlorination of wastewater and highly variable rainfall chemistry. Due to these contributions, precisely inferring the input from silicate weathering is difficult. We introduce a novel method to infer silicate-weathering rates that exploits the fractionation of Si during clay formation to account

  13. Strategies for transdisciplinary research on peri-urban groundwater management in the Ganges delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, Leon; Thissen, Wil; Gomes, Sharlene; Banerjee, Poulomi; Narain, Vishal; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Hasan, Rezaul; Barua, Anamika; Alam Khan, Shah; Bhattacharya, Samir; Kempers, Remi; Banerjee, Parthasarathi; Hossain, Zakir; Majumdar, Binoy; Hossain, Riad

    2016-04-01

    Transdisciplinary science transcends disciplinary boundaries. The reasons to engage in transdisciplinary science are many and include the desire to nurture a more direct relationship between science and society, as well as the desire to explain phenomena that cannot be explained by any of the existing disciplinary bodies of knowledge in isolation. Both reasons also reinforce each other, as reality often features a level of complexity that demands and inspires the combination of scientific knowledge from various disciplines. The challenge in transdisciplinary science, however, is not so much to cross disciplinary boundaries, but to ensure an effective connection between disciplines. This contribution reports on the strategy used in a transdisciplinary research project to address groundwater management in peri-urban areas in the Ganges delta. Groundwater management in peri-urban areas in rapidly urbanizing deltas is affected by diverse forces such as rapid population growth, increased economic activity and changing livelihood patterns, and other forces which result in a growing pressure on available groundwater resources. Understanding the intervention possibilities for a more sustainable groundwater management in these peri-urban areas requires an understanding of the dynamic interplay between various sub-systems, such as the physical groundwater system, the water using activities in households and livelihoods, and the institutional system of formal and informal rules that are used by various parties to access groundwater resources and to distribute the associated societal and economic costs and benefits. The ambition in the reported project is to contribute both new scientific knowledge, as well as build capacity with peri-urban stakeholders to improve the sustainability and equitability of local groundwater management. This is done by combining science and development activities, led by different organizations. The scientific component further consists of three

  14. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of River Channel Migration on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: 2000-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, C.; Chiu, S.; Sousa, D.; Mondal, D. R.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Mia, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    We use multitemporal multiscale satellite remote sensing to complement field observations and subsurface measurements to better understand the relationship between recent and historic fluvial dynamics on the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta. To provide regional context for the interannual changes in river channel geometry we conduct spatiotemporal (ST) analyses of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) imagery for 2000-2013 using a new method of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. We use EVI because it distinguishes water from wet and dry sediment on the basis of the spectral slope at VNIR wavelengths. Water has a negative slope while dry sediment has a small positive slope and vegetation has a large positive slope. To characterize the ST patterns associated with river channel migration we use iterative EOF analysis (iEOF). In iEOF we first conduct a single year EOF analysis for each year in the time series to identify the primary spatial principal component (PC1) for each year and separate this from the spatial structure of the subannual temporal patterns associated with vegetation phenology. We then construct a decadal time series of PC 1 for each single year and conduct a second EOF analysis of the time series of 13 individual year PCs. The standard EOFs of the full (312 images x 16 day) time series only resolve a decadal trend (EOF 8), but the iEOF clearly distinguishs the progressive decadal trend (EOF 2) from the cyclic component (EOF 3) of decadal changes in sediment reflectance. The temporal feature space constructed from PC 2 and PC 3 (corresponding to temporal EOFs 2 and 3) distinguishes pixels with progressive decadal increases and decreases in reflectance from pixels with cyclic changes. Evolution of the annual structure is animated at www.youtube.com/watch?v=UM1UYvdnYXk Despite significant differences in the 2 rivers'morphologies, and the considerable magnitude of flooding every year, we observe year-to-year continuity in the progressive

  15. Predicting Gang Fight Participation in a General Youth Sample via the HEW Youth Development Model's Community Program Impact Scales, Age, and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckenmiller, James L.

    The accurate prediction of violence has been in the spotlight of critical concern in recent years. To investigate the relative predictive power of peer pressure, youth perceived negative labeling, youth perceived access to educational and occupational roles, social alienation, self-esteem, sex, and age with regard to gang fight participation…

  16. The role of the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone in supplying barium and [sup 226]Ra to the Bay of Bengal

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J. Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks ); Falkner, K.K. CNES, Toulouse ); Brown, E.T. ); Moore, W.S. )

    1993-07-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system is ranked fourth among world rivers as a source of freshwater to the oceans and is believed to supply more sediment to the ocean than any other; 1.5 [times] 10[sup 12] kg/yr (Milliman and Meade, 1983). Barium and [sup 226]Ra are typically enriched in waters where sediment-laden rivers enter the ocean. As such, the Ganges-Brahmaputra is likely to produce globally significant barium and [sup 226]Ra fluxes to the ocean. Water samples for barium and [sup 226]Ra were collected within four major channels of the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low sediment and freshwater discharge. The data suggest that in addition to suspended sediments supplied directly from rivers, river sediments deposited during high discharge in mangroves and on islands are desorbing barium and [sup 226]Ra to seawater. The release of barium and [sup 226]Ra from these sediment deposits is out-of-phase with the direct supply of sediments from the rivers. Estimates of the annual fluxes of barium and [sup 226]Ra from the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone were also derived. The fluxes of barium and [sup 226]Ra are 5.3 [times] 10[sup 8] mol barium/yr and 9.5 [times] 10[sub 14] dpm radium/yr. The first silicate and phosphate mixing profiles for this system are reported. 29 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Relationships with Adults as Predictors of Substance Use, Gang Involvement, and Threats to Safety among Disadvantaged Urban High-School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Linda G.; Miller-Loessi, Karen; Nieri, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Using a resilience framework, the authors examined the protective effects of parental support, self-disclosure to parents, parent-initiated monitoring of adolescent behavior, and relationships with school personnel on three critical problems of adolescents: substance use, gang involvement, and perceived threats to safety at school. The sample…

  18. The role of water use patterns and sewage pollution in incidence of water-borne/enteric diseases along the Ganges river in Varanasi, India.

    PubMed

    Hamner, Steve; Tripathi, Anshuman; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar; Bouskill, Nik; Broadaway, Susan C; Pyle, Barry H; Ford, Timothy E

    2006-04-01

    In Varanasi, India, an estimated 200 million liters daily or more of untreated human sewage is discharged into the Ganges River. River water monitoring over the past 12 years has demonstrated faecal coliform counts up to 10(8) MPN (most probable number) per 100 ml and biological oxygen demand levels averaging over 40 mg/l in the most polluted part of the river in Varanasi. A questionnaire-based survey was used to estimate water-borne and enteric disease incidence and study river use among resident users of the Ganges River in Varanasi. The overall rate of water-borne/enteric disease incidence, including acute gastrointestinal disease, cholera, dysentery, hepatitis-A, and typhoid, was estimated to be about 66% during the one-year period prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis revealed significant associations between water-borne/enteric disease occurrence and the use of the river for bathing, laundry, washing eating utensils, and brushing teeth. Thirty-three cases of cholera were identified among families exposed to washing clothing or bathing in the Ganges while no cholera cases occurred in unexposed families. Other exposure factors such as lack of sewerage and toilets at residence, children defecating outdoors, poor sanitation, low income and low education levels also showed significant associations with enteric disease outcome. This study provides an estimate of water-borne/enteric disease incidence and identifies possible risk factors for residents who live by and use the Ganges River in Varanasi.

  19. On the Relationship between Bonding Theory and Youth Gang Resistance in U.S. 8th Graders: Competing Structural Equation Models with Latent Structure Indirect Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Horst, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    In a study of 5285 8th graders from the Gang Resistance and Education Training (G.R.E.A.T.) research, this study applied Travis Hirschi's social bonding theory to examine the curriculum's efficacy in increasing conventional bonding (friends with positive peers, succeeding at education etc.) and decreasing non-conventional bonding (drug…

  20. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive…

  1. Exploring the influence of precipitation extremes and human water use on total water storage (TWS) changes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandu; Forootan, Ehsan; Schumacher, Maike; Awange, Joseph L.; Müller Schmied, Hannes

    2016-03-01

    Climate extremes such as droughts and intense rainfall events are expected to strongly influence global/regional water resources in addition to the growing demands for freshwater. This study examines the impacts of precipitation extremes and human water usage on total water storage (TWS) over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River Basin in South Asia. Monthly TWS changes derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) (2002-2014) and soil moisture from three reanalyses (1979-2014) are used to estimate new extreme indices. These indices are applied in conjunction with standardized precipitation indices (SPI) to explore the impacts of precipitation extremes on TWS in the region. The results indicate that although long-term precipitation do not indicate any significant trends over the two subbasins (Ganges and Brahmaputra-Meghna), there is significant decline in rainfall (9.0 ± 4.0 mm/decade) over the Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin from 1998 to 2014. Both river basins exhibit a rapid decline of TWS from 2002 to 2014 (Ganges: 12.2 ± 3.4 km3/yr and Brahmaputra-Meghna: 9.1 ± 2.7 km3/yr). While the Ganges River Basin has been regaining TWS (5.4 ± 2.2 km3/yr) from 2010 onward, the Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin exhibits a further decline (13.0 ± 3.2 km3/yr) in TWS from 2011 onward. The impact of human water consumption on TWS appears to be considerably higher in Ganges compared to Brahmaputra-Meghna, where it is mainly concentrated over Bangladesh. The interannual water storage dynamics are found to be strongly associated with meteorological forcing data such as precipitation. In particular, extreme drought conditions, such as those of 2006 and 2009, had profound negative impacts on the TWS, where groundwater resources are already being unsustainably exploited.

  2. New insights on the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta Plain by using 2D multichannel seismic data, gravity and flexural modeling, BanglaPIRE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grall, C.; Pickering, J.; Steckler, M. S.; Spiess, V.; Seeber, L.; Paola, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Palamenghi, L.; Schwenk, T.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas can subside very fast, yet many deltas remain emergent over geologic time. A large sediment input is often enough to compensate for subsidence and rising sea level to keep many deltas at sea level. This implies a balance between subsidence and sedimentation, both of which may, however, be controlled by independent factors such as sediment supply, tectonic loads and sea-level change. We here examine the subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD). Located in the NE boundary of the Indian-Eurasian collision zone, the GBD is surrounded by active uplifts (Indo-Burma Fold Belt and the Shillong Massif). The pattern of subsidence from these tectonic loads can strongly vary depending on both loads and lithospheric flexural rigidity, both of which can vary in space and time. Sediment cover changes both the lithostatic pressure and the thermal properties and thus the rigidity of the lithosphere. While sediments are deposited cold, they also insulate the lithosphere, acting as a thermal blanket to increase lower crustal temperatures. These effects are a function of sedimentation rates and may be more important where the lithosphere is thin. At the massive GBD the impact of sedimentation should be considered for properly constraining flexural subsidence. The flexural rigidity of the lithosphere is here modeled by using a yield-stress envelope based on a thermomechanic model that includes geothermal changes associated with sedimentation. Models are constrained by using two different data sets, multichannel seismic data correlated to borehole stratigraphy, and gravity data. This approach allows us to determine the Holocene regional distribution of subsidence from the Hinge Zone to the Bengal Fan and the mass-anomalies associated with the flexural loading. Different end-member scenarios are explored for reproducing the observed land tilting and gravity anomalies. For all scenarios considered, data can be reproduced only if we consider an extremely weak lithosphere and

  3. Children's prosocial behavioural intentions towards outgroup members.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Van de Vyver, Julie; Pelletier, Joseph; Cameron, Lindsey

    2015-09-01

    When will children decide to help outgroup peers? We examined how intergroup competition, social perspective taking (SPT), and empathy influence children's (5-10 years, N = 287) prosocial intentions towards outgroup members. Study 1 showed that, in a minimal group situation, prosociality was lower in an intergroup competitive than in a non-competitive or interpersonal context. Study 2 revealed that, in a real groups situation involving intergroup competition, prosociality was associated with higher empathy and lower competitive motivation. In a subsequent non-competitive context, there were age differences in the impact of SPT and competitive motivation. With age, relationships strengthened between SPT and prosociality (positively) and between competitiveness and prosociality (negatively). Among older children, there was a carry-over effect whereby feelings of intergroup competitiveness aroused by the intergroup competitive context suppressed outgroup prosociality in the following non-competitive context. Theoretical and practical implications for improving children's intergroup relationships are discussed.

  4. Children's prosocial behavioural intentions towards outgroup members.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Van de Vyver, Julie; Pelletier, Joseph; Cameron, Lindsey

    2015-09-01

    When will children decide to help outgroup peers? We examined how intergroup competition, social perspective taking (SPT), and empathy influence children's (5-10 years, N = 287) prosocial intentions towards outgroup members. Study 1 showed that, in a minimal group situation, prosociality was lower in an intergroup competitive than in a non-competitive or interpersonal context. Study 2 revealed that, in a real groups situation involving intergroup competition, prosociality was associated with higher empathy and lower competitive motivation. In a subsequent non-competitive context, there were age differences in the impact of SPT and competitive motivation. With age, relationships strengthened between SPT and prosociality (positively) and between competitiveness and prosociality (negatively). Among older children, there was a carry-over effect whereby feelings of intergroup competitiveness aroused by the intergroup competitive context suppressed outgroup prosociality in the following non-competitive context. Theoretical and practical implications for improving children's intergroup relationships are discussed. PMID:25773274

  5. Evolution of the P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 'Gang of Four' Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This series of eight NASA Hubble Space Telescope 'snapshots' shows the evolution of the P-Q complex, also called the 'gang of four' region, of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9.

    The eight individual frames chronicle changes in the comet during the 12 months before colliding with Jupiter. The sequence shows that the relative separations of the various cometary fragments, thought to range in size from about 500 meters to almost 4 km (2.5 miles) across, changed dramatically over this period. The apparent separation of Q1 and Q2 was only about 1100 kilometers (680 miles) on 1 July 1993 and increased to 28,000 kilometers (17,400 miles) by 20 July 1994.

    The P-Q complex demonstrates that further fragmentation occurred after the breakup of the parent body in July 1992. Fragments Q1 and Q2 were probably together at some point in a single body. However, it is not clear how P1 and P2, and the P and Q objects are related.

    Between 24 January and 30 March 1994, the P2 nucleus broke-up into two separate fragments, one of which disappeared by late June. (It might be present in the mid-May image.) The P1 nucleus had a 'streaked' appearance on 24 January 1994 and then became a barely discernible 'puff' through mid-May. It was not detected in subsequent observations.

    Throughout the period, most nuclei were within a 4000 kilometer-wide (2500 miles) spherical cloud of dust, called a coma. However, shortly before impact, the coma around each nucleus became highly elongated along the comet's travel path due to 'stretching' by Jupiter's rapidly increasing gravity.

    This stretching is dramatic in the image of the Q-complex taken on 20 July 1994, just 10 hours before collision. Despite the coma's changes, HST images show that the core of each nucleus always remained concentrated. This shows that the nuclei were probably not catastrophically fragmenting, at least not up to 10 hours before impact.

    The first HST image was taken on 1 July 1993 with the Planetary Camera before the

  6. In the Balance: Natural v. Embanked Landscapes in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Tidal Delta Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace Auerbach, L.; Goodbred, S. L.; Mondal, D. R.; Wilson, C.; Ahmed, K.; Roy, K.; Steckler, M. S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Nooner, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Natural river deltas are defined by a balance of net aggradational processes that construct the delta platform, and marine processes that redistribute sediments and facilitate platform evolution. The future of deltas worldwide will be determined by this balance of sedimentation, subsidence and sea-level rise, in addition to human-caused perturbations. Among the world's delta systems the Ganges-Brahmaputra is perceived to be at great risk to degradation and submergence under multiple climate and sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. In particular, the lower delta plain in southwest Bangladesh is isolated from fluvial processes, yet still receives up to 1 cm of sediment accretion annually as sediments discharged at the river mouth are reworked by tides and deposited onto the lower delta plain. In the Sundarbans, a 10,000 km2 block of pristine mangrove forest in the region, this tidally supported sedimentation has been effective in maintaining a dynamic equilibrium with SLR that is augmented by local subsidence and shallow compaction. Adjacent to the Sundarbans, however, human modification has significantly impacted the landscape through embankment construction that occurred in the 1960s to increase arable land for rice production and famine relief. As a consequence, the embankments have locally inhibited sediment delivery to the landscape, decoupling these interacting systems. In the ensuing five decades the land has continued to subside and compact, and in the absence of sediment accretion has experienced a net elevation loss of more than 1 m since embankment construction. The acute effects of this elevation offset were felt in 2009 when the embankments of several large islands breached during Cyclone Aila. We are studying Polder 32, a 60 km2 island that was land tidally inundated for two years until its embankments were repaired. Despite sustained human suffering during this time, the newly reconnected landscape rebounded with tens of centimeters of tidally deposited

  7. Precocious transitions and long-term heroin use outcomes: A longitudinal study of gang-affiliated Mexican-American males.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Alice; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Frankeberger, Jessica; Valdez, Avelardo

    2016-09-01

    A longitudinal study (15years) investigates heroin use patterns following precocious transition experiences for gang-affiliated Mexican-American males (n=119) in San Antonio, Texas. Five precocious transitions are examined: cohabitation, early nest leaving, school dropout, teenage parenthood, and unemployment (while not in school). Half of these men used heroin over the follow-up period for an average of under 4years. Findings from a zero-inflated Poisson model indicate that while these transitions do not have a significant effect on initiation of heroin use, they do have an important influence on individual's drug trajectories once they have initiated. Early-nest leaving and teenage parenthood are protective factors for continued heroin use while dropping out of high school and cohabiting during this same period are risk factors. Findings are discussed within the context of these disadvantaged and marginalized communities. PMID:27092995

  8. Precocious transitions and long-term heroin use outcomes: A longitudinal study of gang-affiliated Mexican-American males.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Alice; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Frankeberger, Jessica; Valdez, Avelardo

    2016-09-01

    A longitudinal study (15years) investigates heroin use patterns following precocious transition experiences for gang-affiliated Mexican-American males (n=119) in San Antonio, Texas. Five precocious transitions are examined: cohabitation, early nest leaving, school dropout, teenage parenthood, and unemployment (while not in school). Half of these men used heroin over the follow-up period for an average of under 4years. Findings from a zero-inflated Poisson model indicate that while these transitions do not have a significant effect on initiation of heroin use, they do have an important influence on individual's drug trajectories once they have initiated. Early-nest leaving and teenage parenthood are protective factors for continued heroin use while dropping out of high school and cohabiting during this same period are risk factors. Findings are discussed within the context of these disadvantaged and marginalized communities.

  9. Stratigraphic Evolution of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Lower Delta Plain and its Relation to Groundwater Arsenic Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, M. G.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Gilligan, J. M.; Tasich, C. M.; Hossain, S.; Ahmed, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Bangladesh is plagued by high concentrations of naturally occurring arsenic (As) in the shallow groundwater of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD), leading to widespread poisoning of people in the region. Most of the 156 million people in Bangladesh obtain their drinking water through hand-pumped tube wells that often draw arsenic-contaminated water from shallow, Holocene-age aquifers of the delta. The distribution of arsenic within these aquifers is heterogeneous and linked with the complex stratigraphy of the GBMD through its controls on hydrogeology and aquifer biogeochemistry. This research investigates differences in the fluvio-deltaic deposits formed by the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, as well as differences in the tectonic setting across the lower delta plain. Furthermore, we investigate how these overarching controls influence stratigraphic architecture and the resulting aquifer systems, and ultimately the distribution of As within the shallow aquifers of the lower delta plain. To accomplish this, a transect of 55 sediment cores spanning the entire lower delta plain of Bangladesh was drilled to a depth of 90 m. In addition to knowledge of the stratigraphic architecture gained from borehole lithologs, samples from these cores were analyzed for provenance and grain size to determine source of the sediments and the depositional history of the rivers. Relating delta stratigraphy to As distribution was accomplished by measuring groundwater As in 10-20 tubewells within a 1 km radius of each borehole. This data was combined with groundwater data from the Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation Water Supply Project within 25 km of the transect. Statistical analysis of the groundwater data was then conducted using hierarchical regressions as well as a nearest neighbor algorithm. This study provides a better understanding of Holocene delta evolution and river behavior, as well as a more complete understanding of the geologic controls on As and the characteristics of

  10. Reviving the Ganges Water Machine: Accelerating surface water and groundwater interactions in the Ramganga sub-basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surinaidu, L.; Muthuwatta, L.; Amarasinghe, U. A.; Jain, S. K.; Ghosh, N. C.; Kumar, Sudhir; Singh, Surjeet

    2016-09-01

    Reviving the Ganges Water Machine (GWM), coined 40 years ago, is the most opportune solution for mitigating the impacts of recurrent droughts and floods in the Ganges River Basin in South Asia. GWM create subsurface storage (SSS) by pumping more groundwater from the aquifers before the monsoon for irrigation and other uses and recharge it during the monsoon. The present study uses fully processed and physically based numerical models, MODFLOW and SWAT, in a semi-coupled modelling framework to examine the technical feasibility of recharging the SSS. The aquifer was simulated as a two-layer system using hydrogeological and groundwater data, model was calibrated from 1999 to 2005 and validated from 2006 to 2010. It assesses the impacts of gradual increase of SSS in 10 years from the base year 2010 under two scenarios (increased rainfall or controlled pumping and recharge) to meet a potential unmet demand of 1.68 billion cubic meters (Bm3) in the Ramganga sub-basin with an area of 18,668 km2. The results show that 3-4 m of subsurface storage can be created by groundwater pumping of 0.25 Bm3/year by 2020. Under the controlled pumping and recharge scenario, groundwater recharge and river seepage could increase by 14% (4.21-4.80 Bm3) and 31% (1.10-1.44 Bm3), respectively. However, baseflow will decrease by 30% (0.18-0.12 Bm3) over the same time period. The results also show that recharge increased 44% (4.21-6.05 Bm3) under an increased rainfall scenario. Simultaneously, river seepage and baseflows would increase 36% (1.10-1.14 Bm3) and 11% (0.18-0.20 Bm3), respectively. A well-designed managed aquifer recharge program is required to eliminate the negative impact of river flows in the low flow season.

  11. 17 CFR 190.09 - Member property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Member property. 190.09... Member property. (a) Member property. “Member property” means, in connection with a clearing organization bankruptcy, the property which may be used to pay that portion of the net equity claim of a member which...

  12. Member Takes Action Against Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertholf, Deedrick

    1999-01-01

    An ASBO member and chair of New York's School Emergency Response to Violent Events (SERVE) explains how this program tackles violence and teen suicide. SERVE teaches the basic principles of hostage situations, uses a confidential reporting system, and advocates safety audits and risk-reduction strategies. (MLH)

  13. Family member interventions: research challenges.

    PubMed

    Leske, J S

    1991-07-01

    Numerous descriptive studies have provided a base for developing and testing interventions for family members after a critical illness event. The challenges of designing, conducting, and using research-based interventions for families are invitation for the researcher. Critical care nurses have much to offer and do make a difference with families. Accept the challenges! PMID:2071430

  14. Ethics: views from IACUC members.

    PubMed

    Houde, Lisa; Dumas, Claude; Leroux, Thérèse

    2009-07-01

    Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) members were interviewed on various ethical matters, including ethics, animal ethics, science and ethics, and the use of animals in research, in order to explore their implicit ethical framework. The results revealed that IACUC members entertain rich and diverse beliefs about ethics, that are part of an implicit ethical framework which relates to different domains of knowledge, such as biology (differences between human and animals), psychology (e.g. affective relationships with pets), and so on. The results also revealed that IACUC members hold quite a restrictive view on both animal ethics and animal use in research, and that they apply implicit ethical notions, such as respect and justice, to some elements (e.g. ethical rules) of the explicit ethical framework they are provided with when performing ethical evaluations of animal use. The study suggests that IACUC members should be provided with more up-to-date information on topics such as animal ethics and animal use in research.

  15. Kentucky Hispanic School Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2009-01-01

    The study was designed to provide information on Kentucky Hispanic school board members. The data was obtained from Kentucky school superintendents or their designees in the 174 public school districts through a survey mailed in the spring, 2009. The survey was mailed to Kentucky Superintendents on March 12, 2009. The follow-up survey was mailed…

  16. A School Board Member's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, Emily

    1991-01-01

    A veteran school board member and survivor of numerous restructuring efforts recounts the Leon County (Florida) School District's experience with strategic planning. Although the process was at time chaotic, Roger Kaufman's planning model helped the board create a climate for change and develop a definitive vision and realistic action plan. (MLH)

  17. Understanding the roles of NHS trust board members.

    PubMed

    Deffenbaugh, J

    1996-01-01

    The establishment of NHS trust boards on a business format was a recent innovation resulting from the NHS reforms. In order to realize benefits for patients, it is essential that boards operate effectively. Explores within the framework of corporate governance, the practical implications of board member roles. Drawing on experience of strategy formulation at board level, analyses and clarifies the roles, and presents recommendations to increase board effectiveness. PMID:10162758

  18. ASCLS members perceptions regarding research.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Lillian; Shanahan, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    One of the benchmarks of a profession is performing, publishing, and presenting research. However, in the Clinical Laboratory Science (CLS) profession, few manuscripts are submitted to the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS) journal, Clinical Laboratory Science, on a regular basis. The problem is that perceptions regarding research, and the role of laboratory professional as researchers, held by ASCLS members may be contributing to the low number of manuscript submissions. To assess these perceptions, an anonymous Likert-scale survey was developed and delivered online using Survey Monkey. Members of ASCLS, with email addresses, were chosen to participate in this survey because they may be most likely to contribute manuscripts for a journal by their own society. About 10% of the 7,000 members who were invited by email chose to participate in this study. Most participants agreed that 1) there is important information to be gathered from research on clinical laboratory specimen results (99.6%), 2) research contributes valuable information to the body of CLS knowledge (99.2%), and 3) conducting research is one of the benchmarks of a profession (92.4%). The majority of participants felt that there are inadequate resources (68.8%) and not enough time (83%) available to conduct research in the clinical laboratory setting. Most participants recognize that many laboratory activities constitute research (86.2%), but only a few are willing to publish research findings on their own (29.2%). Those who are the most likely to publish research findings include men, university faculty, and members who are over 60 years old. University faculty are the most likely to assist others in the writing process. These results show an opportunity exists for ASCLS to foster collaborations between bench technologists and educators willing to assist with the publication process.

  19. Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: Balance of Subsidence, Sea level and Sedimentation in a Tectonically-Active Delta (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L.; Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Reitz, M. D.; Paola, C.; Nooner, S. L.; DeWolf, S.; Ferguson, E. K.; Gale, J.; Hossain, S.; Howe, M.; Kim, W.; McHugh, C. M.; Mondal, D. R.; Petter, A. L.; Pickering, J.; Sincavage, R.; Williams, L. A.; Wilson, C.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Bangladesh is vulnerable to a host of short and long-term natural hazards - widespread seasonal flooding, river erosion and channel avulsions, permanent land loss from sea level rise, natural groundwater arsenic, recurrent cyclones, landslides and huge earthquakes. These hazards derive from active fluvial processes related to the growth of the delta and the tectonics at the India-Burma-Tibet plate junctions. The Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers drain 3/4 of the Himalayas and carry ~1 GT/y of sediment, 6-8% of the total world flux. In Bangladesh, these two great rivers combine with the Meghna River to form the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta (GBMD). The seasonality of the rivers' water and sediment discharge is a major influence causing widespread flooding during the summer monsoon. The mass of the water is so great that it causes 5-6 cm of seasonal elastic deformation of the delta discerned by our GPS data. Over the longer-term, the rivers are also dynamic. Two centuries ago, the Brahmaputra River avulsed westward up to 100 km and has since captured other rivers. The primary mouth of the Ganges has shifted 100s of km eastward from the Hooghly River over the last 400y, finally joining the Brahmaputra in the 19th century. These avulsions are influenced by the tectonics of the delta. On the east side of Bangladesh, the >16 km thick GBMD is being overridden by the Burma Arc where the attempted subduction of such a thick sediment pile has created a huge accretionary prism. The foldbelt is up to 250-km wide and its front is buried beneath the delta. The main Himalayan thrust front is <100 km north, but adjacent to the GBMD is the Shillong Massif, a 300-km long, 2-km high block of uplifted Indian basement that is overthrusting and depressing GBMD sediments to the south. The overthrusting Shillong Massif may represent a forward jump of the Himalayan front to a new plate boundary. This area ruptured in a ~M8 1897 earthquake. Subsidence from the tectonics and differential

  20. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.328 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Cotton Board § 1205.328 Alternate members. An alternate member of the... member from the same cotton-producing state or region to serve in such member's place and stead of...

  3. 7 CFR 930.28 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... alternate member may not act in the place and stead of such member. In the event a member and his or her... group (grower or handler) as the member. In the event of the death, removal, resignation...

  4. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  5. National Guard service members' perceptions of informal and formal supports: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Amanda R; Kobayashi, Rie

    2015-01-01

    Much of the research on military families has focused on active duty service members. Little is known about informal and formal supports that National Guard service members use. Using an ecological systems perspective, this exploratory pilot study assessed awareness, access, use, satisfaction, and perceptions of effectiveness of informal and formal supports in a small group of National Guard service members. Results indicate that although service members are aware of many formal and informal supports, use of many of the supports is limited. Additionally, satisfaction and perceptions of effectiveness of many supports is neutral. The implications of these results are discussed.

  6. CE: Military Sexual Trauma in Male Service Members.

    PubMed

    Eckerlin, Denise M; Kovalesky, Andrea; Jakupcak, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    : The experience of military sexual trauma (MST), which can result from assault, battery, or harassment of a sexual nature, may jeopardize the mental health of service members as well as that of their family members, colleagues, and community members. Although a greater proportion of female than male service members are subjected to MST, the Department of Defense estimates that the absolute numbers of affected men and women, across all ranks and branches of military service, are nearly equal because roughly 85% of military members are men. Little research has explored the effects of MST on men. This article discusses the unique ways in which men may experience MST, and examines how social stereotypes of masculinity, myths surrounding sexual assault, and military culture and structure often influence a man's interpretation of an attack and his likelihood of reporting the incident or seeking treatment. It describes current treatments for MST-related mental health conditions and addresses implications for nurses and other health care professionals. PMID:27513073

  7. LRP receptor family member associated bone disease.

    PubMed

    Lara-Castillo, N; Johnson, M L

    2015-06-01

    A dozen years ago the identification of causal mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene involved in two rare bone disorders propelled research in the bone field in totally new directions. Since then, there have been an explosion in the number of reports that highlight the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the regulation of bone homeostasis. In this review we discuss some of the most recent reports (in the past 2 years) highlighting the involvement of the members of the LRP family (LRP5, LRP6, LRP4, and more recently LRP8) in the maintenance of bone and their implications in bone diseases. These reports include records of new single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes that suggest variants in these genes can contribute to subtle variation in bone traits to mutations that give rise to extreme bone phenotypes. All of these serve to further support and reinforce the importance of this tightly regulated pathway in bone. Furthermore, we discuss provocative reports suggesting novel approaches through inhibitors of this pathway to treat rarer diseases such as Osteoporosis-Pseudoglioma Syndrome (OPPG), Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), and Sclerosteosis/Van Buchem disease. It is hoped that by understanding the role of each component of the pathway and their involvement in bone diseases that this knowledge will allow us to develop new, more effective therapeutic approaches for more common diseases such as post-menopausal osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis as well as these rarer bone diseases.

  8. To see or not to see: investigating detectability of Ganges River dolphins using a combined visual-acoustic survey.

    PubMed

    Richman, Nadia I; Gibbons, James M; Turvey, Samuel T; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Ahmed, Benazir; Mahabub, Emile; Smith, Brian D; Jones, Julia P G

    2014-01-01

    Detection of animals during visual surveys is rarely perfect or constant, and failure to account for imperfect detectability affects the accuracy of abundance estimates. Freshwater cetaceans are among the most threatened group of mammals, and visual surveys are a commonly employed method for estimating population size despite concerns over imperfect and unquantified detectability. We used a combined visual-acoustic survey to estimate detectability of Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in four waterways of southern Bangladesh. The combined visual-acoustic survey resulted in consistently higher detectability than a single observer-team visual survey, thereby improving power to detect trends. Visual detectability was particularly low for dolphins close to meanders where these habitat features temporarily block the view of the preceding river surface. This systematic bias in detectability during visual-only surveys may lead researchers to underestimate the importance of heavily meandering river reaches. Although the benefits of acoustic surveys are increasingly recognised for marine cetaceans, they have not been widely used for monitoring abundance of freshwater cetaceans due to perceived costs and technical skill requirements. We show that acoustic surveys are in fact a relatively cost-effective approach for surveying freshwater cetaceans, once it is acknowledged that methods that do not account for imperfect detectability are of limited value for monitoring.

  9. Modeling complex flow dynamics of fluvial floods exacerbated by sea level rise in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Kiguchi, Masashi; Koirala, Sujan; Nagano, Takanori; Kotera, Akihiko; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2015-12-01

    Global warming is likely to exacerbate future fluvial floods in the world’s mega-delta regions due to both changing climate and rising sea levels. However, the effects of sea level rise (SLR) on fluvial floods in such regions have not been taken into account in current global assessments of future flood risk, due to the difficulties in modeling channel bifurcation and the backwater effect. We used a state-of-the-art global river routing model to demonstrate how these complexities contribute to future flood hazard associated with changing climate and SLR in the world’s largest mega-delta region, the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta. The model demonstrated that flood water in the main channels flows into tributaries through bifurcation channels, which resulted in an increase in inundation depth in deltaic regions. We found that there were large areas that experienced an increase in inundation depth and period not directly from the SLR itself but from the backwater effect of SLR, and the effect propagated upstream to locations far from the river mouth. Projections under future climate scenarios as well as SLR indicated that exposure to fluvial floods will increase in the last part of the 21st century, and both SLR and channel bifurcation make meaningful contributions.

  10. Geochemical fractionation of trace elements in sediments of Hugli River (Ganges) and Sundarban wetland (West Bengal, India).

    PubMed

    Massolo, Serena; Bignasca, Antonello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Chatterjee, Mousumi; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar Deb; Alam, Aftab

    2012-12-01

    A sequential extraction procedure was carried out to determinate the concentrations of 11 elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in different geochemical phases of sediments collected along the Hugli (Ganges) River Estuary and in the Sundarban mangrove wetland, eastern coastal part of India. The chemical speciation of elements was determined using the three-step sequential extraction procedure described by the European Community Bureau of Reference. Total metal concentration was determined using a microwave-assisted acid digestion procedure. Metal concentrations were near the background level except for As for which a moderate pollution can be hypothesized. The mobility order of the metals was: Cd > Mn > Cu > Zn > As > Co > Pb > Ni > Fe > Cr > Al. The highest percentage of Cd (>60%) was found in the most labile phase. Residual fraction was prevailing for Fe, Cr and Al, while Pb was mainly associated with the reducible fraction. Data were compared with Sediment Quality Guidelines to estimate the relationship between element concentrations and adverse biological effects on benthic community, finding the possibility of some toxic effects due to the presence of As in the entire studied area and Cd, only in Calcutta. PMID:22270595

  11. To See or Not to See: Investigating Detectability of Ganges River Dolphins Using a Combined Visual-Acoustic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Nadia I.; Gibbons, James M.; Turvey, Samuel T.; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Ahmed, Benazir; Mahabub, Emile; Smith, Brian D.; Jones, Julia P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of animals during visual surveys is rarely perfect or constant, and failure to account for imperfect detectability affects the accuracy of abundance estimates. Freshwater cetaceans are among the most threatened group of mammals, and visual surveys are a commonly employed method for estimating population size despite concerns over imperfect and unquantified detectability. We used a combined visual-acoustic survey to estimate detectability of Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in four waterways of southern Bangladesh. The combined visual-acoustic survey resulted in consistently higher detectability than a single observer-team visual survey, thereby improving power to detect trends. Visual detectability was particularly low for dolphins close to meanders where these habitat features temporarily block the view of the preceding river surface. This systematic bias in detectability during visual-only surveys may lead researchers to underestimate the importance of heavily meandering river reaches. Although the benefits of acoustic surveys are increasingly recognised for marine cetaceans, they have not been widely used for monitoring abundance of freshwater cetaceans due to perceived costs and technical skill requirements. We show that acoustic surveys are in fact a relatively cost-effective approach for surveying freshwater cetaceans, once it is acknowledged that methods that do not account for imperfect detectability are of limited value for monitoring. PMID:24805782

  12. Contamination of nitrate and fluoride in ground water along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini; Sharma, Ajit Kumar; Iyengar, Leela

    2008-11-01

    Nitrate-N and Fluoride concentrations were analyzed in shallow and unconfined ground water aquifers of Kanpur district along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Northern India. Kanpur district was divided into three zones namely, Bithore, Kanpur City and Beyond Jajmau and sampling was carried out three seasons (summer, monsoon and winter). The data set consisted of the results of water samples from around 99 India Mark II hand Pumps, which were analyzed for summer monsoon and winter seasons. In Bithore zone, 19% of the samples exceeded the BIS (Bureau of India Standards) limit 10.2 mg/l as nitrate-N and as high as 166 mg/l as nitrate-N was observed. 10% and 7% samples in Kanpur city and beyond Jajmau zone respectively, exceeded the BIS limit. The Frequency distribution histogram of nitrate-N revealed a skewed (non-normal) distribution. Both point and non-point sources contribute to the ground water contamination. Especially in Bithore zone, the point sources could be attributed to the animal wastes derived from cows and buffaloes and non point sources could be due to the extensive agricultural activity prevalent in that area. Fluoride concentration in most samples was within the BIS maximum permissible level of 1.5 mg/l. No significant seasonal variation in water quality parameters was observed.

  13. Device for inserting tubular members together

    SciTech Connect

    Milberger, L.J.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes a well, a lower tubular member with a sealing surface located in the well, an upper tubular member which inserts into engagement with the lower tubular member during running in, the upper and lower tubular members being exposed to well fluid pressure, an improved means for sliding the upper tubular member into engagement with the lower tubular member. It comprises the upper tubular member having a first side and a second side, the second side having a sealing section which mates with the sealing surface of the lower tubular sidewall; axially spaced apart seal means located on the running tool sidewall for sealingly engaging the first side of the upper tubular member above and below the sealing section during running in, for defining a low pressure area between the running tool and the first side which is isolated from the well fluid pressure; the sealing section of the upper tubular member being exposed to well fluid pressure during running in, resulting in a pressure difference across the upper tubular member between the first side of the tubular member and the sealing section, means for eliminating the pressure difference across the upper tubular member between the first side and the sealing section after the upper tubular member has reached its engaged position with the lower tubular member, allowing the sealing section to move radially into engagement with the sealing surface. This patent also describes a method for sliding an upper tubular member into engagement with a sealing surface of a lower tubular member in a well having well fluid pressure, comprising in combination: providing the upper tubular member with a first side and a second side and providing the second side with a sealing section for mating with the sealing surface of the lower tubular member.

  14. Violence in street culture: cross-cultural comparison of youth groups and criminal gangs.

    PubMed

    Zdun, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Violence is a widespread phenomenon in juvenile street culture. But the questions of whether this relationship is a deterministic one, and if not, which are the contributing factors, are largely unanswered. This article focuses on the role of public space, starting with a comparison of the meaning of deviant behavior and crime in street culture in Brazil, Russia, and Germany. Focusing on street culture norms and their relevance for youth groups in everyday life, the author shows that there are worldwide similarities, and these are most likely to be seen in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The article deals not only with the question of how people act in conflicts but also focuses on a social order in which the reputation of men is based mainly on questions of masculinity, honor, and power expressed through aggressive behavior. The results are based on more than one hundred semistructured qualitative interviews with street culture youth, prison inmates, adult family members, social workers, police, and researchers that were conducted in recent years in the three countries.The study also describes a typology of conflict behavior among male street culture youth that helps in understanding why even juveniles who were socialized in the milieu of the street culture can reject violence and do not have to turn to violence in all conflicts. The article examines the similarities in the reasons for violence and fear of violence, as well as the differences in frequency and intensity between violent countries (such as Brazil and the Russian Federation) and less violent countries (for example, Germany).

  15. The Gang Problem in America: Formulating an Effective Federal Response. Hearing To Examine How the Federal Government Can Establish Effective Programs To Deter Youth Violence in America before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    The Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary convened to discuss the federal role in combating juvenile participation in gangs. A proposed amendment to the crime bill being developed, described at the hearing by Senator Orrin G. Hatch (Utah), makes it a federal offense to engage in gang-related crime and subjects…

  16. 7 CFR 1208.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.44 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Council, during...

  17. 7 CFR 1208.44 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCESSED RASPBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Processed Raspberry Council § 1208.44 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Council, during...

  18. 7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE... member's absence, (b) in the event of the member's death, removal, resignation, or...

  19. Chapter VIII: New Members and Deceased Members at the General Assemby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-08-01

    The following lists give the names of the 1008 new Individual Members admitted at the XVIIIth General Assembly, ordered by National Member. New National Members are indicated by an asterisk (Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea).

  20. International Focus: Highlighting APPA Members Worldwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Comp.

    2011-01-01

    While most APPA member institutions are located in the United States and Canada, there are also 45 of member institutions located internationally--from Australia and New Zealand to Southeast Asia to the Middle East to Europe. This article focuses on four of its international members: (1) American University of Kuwait (AUK); (2) American University…

  1. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Board, during the absence of the member for the primary...

  2. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Board, during the absence of the member for the primary...

  3. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  4. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  5. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  6. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  7. 7 CFR 946.23 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... such member's absence. In the event of the death, removal, resignation, or disqualification of a member... the event that both a member and his or her alternate are unable to attend a Committee meeting,...

  8. 7 CFR 923.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... event of the death, removal, resignation, or disqualification of a member, his alternate shall act for him until a successor for such member is selected and has qualified. In the event both a member of...

  9. 7 CFR 959.31 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... designated to do so by the member for whom he is an alternate. In the event both a member of the committee... or grower) to serve in such member's place and stead. In the event of the death, removal,...

  10. 7 CFR 953.23 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate members. 953.23 Section 953.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... member's absence. In the event of death, removal, resignation, or disqualification of a member,...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.207 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... attend meetings of the Board as a voting member upon the following circumstances: (1) A member of the... meetings in an official capacity, shall have the rights, duties and obligations of a Board member. ... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.207 Alternate...

  12. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Board, during the absence of the member for the primary...

  13. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Board, during the absence of the member for the primary...

  14. 7 CFR 1216.45 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.45 Alternate members. An alternate member of the Board, during the absence of the member for the primary...

  15. A Telehealth Case Study of Videophone Use Between Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Brian K.; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Willis, Lia

    2006-01-01

    This case study extends beyond the institution-centric provider-patient dyad to examine telehealth communication between a nursing home resident and a geographically distant family member. The participants communicated regularly for three months by videophone. They found technical performance and usability acceptable and were generally satisfied with this application of telehealth technology. They assumed a strong role in self-remedying technical and usability problems they experienced. Potential implications associated with such use of telehealth technology by residence-based patients and their significant others, and the self-directedness displayed by participants in this case study, are discussed. PMID:17238567

  16. LRP Receptor Family Member Associated Bone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Castillo, N; Johnson, ML

    2015-01-01

    A dozen years ago the identification of causal mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene involved in two rare bone disorders propelled research in the bone field in totally new directions. Since then, there have been an explosion in the number of reports that highlight the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the regulation of bone homeostasis. In this review we discuss some of the most recent reports (in the past 2 years) highlighting the involvement of the members of the LRP family (LRP5, LRP6, LRP4, and more recently LRP8) in the maintenance of bone and their implications in bone diseases. These reports include records of new single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes that suggest variants in these genes can contribute to subtle variation in bone traits to mutations that give rise to extreme bone phenotypes. All of these serve to further support and reinforce the importance of this tightly regulated pathway in bone. Furthermore, we discuss provocative reports suggesting novel approaches through inhibitors of this pathway to treat rarer diseases such as Osteoporosis-Pseudoglioma Syndrome (OPPG), Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), and Sclerosteosis/Van Buchem disease. It is hoped that by understanding the role of each component of the pathway and their involvement in bone diseases that this knowledge will allow us to develop new, more effective therapeutic approaches for more common diseases such as post-menopausal osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis as well as these rarer bone diseases. PMID:26048454

  17. SEALING MEANS FOR RELATIVELY ROTATABLE MEMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.S.

    1960-10-25

    A sealing means is offered for maintaining a seal between a pair of relatively rotatable members, panticularly between a rotating shaft and a stationary member surrounding the shaft. The sealing is accomplished by means of a flange extending outward radially on each of a plurality of sealing rings mounted on the rotating member which fit into annular grooves in the stationary member and are held in sealing relation therewith by means of spring rings. In addition, means are provided for passing a sealing gas through the seal sunfaces to prevent accumulation of lubricant and for scavenging any gas which may have leaked from the internal member into the seal area.

  18. Member end releases in framed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallings, J. M.

    1993-02-01

    Discontinuities such as internal hinges are commonly encountered in framed structures. A general method of including discontinuities in stiffness method analyses of planar frames by the release of member end forces is developed. Modifications are made to the member stiffness matrix and equivalent joint load vector to account for the released end forces. A FORTRAN algorithm is given that makes the necessary modifications to the member stiffness matrix and equivalent joint load vector for the standard planar frame member. The algorithm allows combinations of up to three member end forces to be released (specified at zero or nonzero values). An algorithm is also given that calculates the unknown member end displacements at the released member end forces. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the uses and capabilities of the algorithms.

  19. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Returning members, employees, and family members... THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects...

  20. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Returning members, employees, and family members... THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects...

  1. Justice, leader-member exchange, and job performance: are their relationships mediated by organizational culture?

    PubMed

    Tziner, Aharon; Shultz, Tamar; Fisher, Tom

    2008-10-01

    The hypothesis that organizational justice is linked to leader-member exchange, which in turn affects job performance, was examined. It was predicted that two dimensions of organizational culture, employee supportiveness and attention to detail, would affect both leader-member exchange and organizational justice. Results from a sample of 75 employees of a public service organization found solid support for the predicted model. Contrary to expectations, however, the two aspects of organizational culture were found to play a mediating role: they were affected by organizational justice and in turn affected leader-member exchange. The theoretical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:19102476

  2. One member, two leaders: extending leader-member exchange theory to a dual leadership context.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Erdogan, Berrin; Anand, Smriti; Liden, Robert C; Chaudhry, Anjali

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we develop and test a model that extends leader-member exchange (LMX) theory to a dual leadership context. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, we assert that when employees work for 2 leaders, each relationship exists within the context of the other relationship. Thus, the level of alignment or misalignment between the 2 relationships has implications for employees' job satisfaction and voluntary turnover. Employing polynomial regression on time-lagged data gathered from 159 information technology consultants nested in 26 client projects, we found that employee outcomes are affected by the quality of the relationship with both agency and client leaders, such that the degree of alignment between the 2 LMXs explained variance in outcomes beyond that explained by both LMXs. Results also revealed that a lack of alignment in the 2 LMXs led to asymmetric effects on outcomes, such that the relationship with agency leader mattered more than the relationship with one's client leader. Finally, frequency of communication with the agency leader determined the degree to which agency LMX affected job satisfaction in the low client LMX condition.

  3. One member, two leaders: extending leader-member exchange theory to a dual leadership context.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Erdogan, Berrin; Anand, Smriti; Liden, Robert C; Chaudhry, Anjali

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we develop and test a model that extends leader-member exchange (LMX) theory to a dual leadership context. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, we assert that when employees work for 2 leaders, each relationship exists within the context of the other relationship. Thus, the level of alignment or misalignment between the 2 relationships has implications for employees' job satisfaction and voluntary turnover. Employing polynomial regression on time-lagged data gathered from 159 information technology consultants nested in 26 client projects, we found that employee outcomes are affected by the quality of the relationship with both agency and client leaders, such that the degree of alignment between the 2 LMXs explained variance in outcomes beyond that explained by both LMXs. Results also revealed that a lack of alignment in the 2 LMXs led to asymmetric effects on outcomes, such that the relationship with agency leader mattered more than the relationship with one's client leader. Finally, frequency of communication with the agency leader determined the degree to which agency LMX affected job satisfaction in the low client LMX condition. PMID:24417554

  4. Vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil profile in a seasonally waterlogging agriculture field in Eastern Ganges Basin.

    PubMed

    Rajmohan, N; Prathapar, S A; Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and water is a serious concern due to their persistence and toxicity. This study investigated the vertical distribution of heavy metals, possible sources and their relation with soil texture in a soil profile from seasonally waterlogged agriculture fields of Eastern Ganges basin. Fifteen samples were collected at ~0.90-m interval during drilling of 13.11 mbgl and analysed for physical parameters (moisture content and grain size parameters: sand, silt, clay ratio) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni and Cd). The average metal content was in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Cd. Vertical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni shows more or less similar trends, and clay zone records high concentration of heavy metals. The enrichment of heavy metals in clay zone with alkaline pH strongly implies that the heavy metal distributions in the study site are effectively regulated by soil texture and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. Correlation coefficient analysis indicates that most of the metals correlate with Fe, Mn and soil texture (clay and silt). Soil quality assessment was carried out using geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF). The enrichment factor values were ranged between 0.66 (Mn) and 2.34 (Co) for the studied metals, and the contamination factor values varied between 0.79 (Mn) and 2.55 (Co). Results suggest that the elements such as Cu and Co are categorized as moderate to moderately severe contamination, which are further confirmed by I(geo) values (0.69 for Cu and 0.78 for Co). The concentration of Ni exceeded the effects-range median values, and the biological adverse effect of this metal is 87%. The average concentration of heavy metals was compared with published data such as concentration of heavy metals in Ganga River sediments, Ganga Delta sediments and upper continental crust (UCC

  5. Vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil profile in a seasonally waterlogging agriculture field in Eastern Ganges Basin.

    PubMed

    Rajmohan, N; Prathapar, S A; Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and water is a serious concern due to their persistence and toxicity. This study investigated the vertical distribution of heavy metals, possible sources and their relation with soil texture in a soil profile from seasonally waterlogged agriculture fields of Eastern Ganges basin. Fifteen samples were collected at ~0.90-m interval during drilling of 13.11 mbgl and analysed for physical parameters (moisture content and grain size parameters: sand, silt, clay ratio) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni and Cd). The average metal content was in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Cd. Vertical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni shows more or less similar trends, and clay zone records high concentration of heavy metals. The enrichment of heavy metals in clay zone with alkaline pH strongly implies that the heavy metal distributions in the study site are effectively regulated by soil texture and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. Correlation coefficient analysis indicates that most of the metals correlate with Fe, Mn and soil texture (clay and silt). Soil quality assessment was carried out using geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF). The enrichment factor values were ranged between 0.66 (Mn) and 2.34 (Co) for the studied metals, and the contamination factor values varied between 0.79 (Mn) and 2.55 (Co). Results suggest that the elements such as Cu and Co are categorized as moderate to moderately severe contamination, which are further confirmed by I(geo) values (0.69 for Cu and 0.78 for Co). The concentration of Ni exceeded the effects-range median values, and the biological adverse effect of this metal is 87%. The average concentration of heavy metals was compared with published data such as concentration of heavy metals in Ganga River sediments, Ganga Delta sediments and upper continental crust (UCC

  6. Delta Morphodynamics Matters! Ecosystem Services, Poverty and Morphodynamic Change in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Mega-Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Adger, N.; Allan, A.; Darby, S. E.; Hutton, C.; Matthews, Z.; Rahman, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Wolf, J.

    2013-12-01

    The world's deltas are probably the most vulnerable type of coastal environment, and they face multiple stresses in the coming decades. These stresses include, amongst others, local drivers due to land subsidence, population growth and urbanisation within the deltas, regional drivers due to changes in catchment management (e.g. upstream land use and dam construction), as well as global climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. At the same time, the ecosystem services of river deltas support high population densities, with around 14% of the global population inhabiting deltas. A large proportion of these people experience extremes of poverty and they are therefore severely exposed to vulnerability from environmental and ecological stress and degradation. In areas close to or below the poverty boundary, both subsistence and cash elements of the economy tend to rely disproportionately heavily on ecosystem services which underpin livelihoods. Therefore, to sustainably manage delta environments they must be viewed as complex social-environmental systems where change is only partially driven by physical drivers such as sea level rise and climate change, and human-induced development activities are also critical. Here we outline a new conceptual framework for the development of methods to understand and characterise the key drivers of change in ecosystem services that affect the environment and economic status of populous deltas, focusing specifically on the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The GBM delta is characterised by densely populated coastal lowlands with significant poverty, with livelihoods supported to a large extent by natural ecosystems such as the Sunderbahns (the largest mangrove forest in the world). However, the GBM delta is under severe development pressure due to many growing cities. At present the importance of ecosystems services to poverty and livelihoods is poorly understood. This is due to due to the complexity of interactions

  7. Converting virtual community members into online buyers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sumeet; Kim, Hee-Woong; Shin, Seon-Jin

    2010-10-01

    Although many online vendors have sponsored virtual communities (VCs) in the hope of reaping commercial benefits from it, not many have been successful in reaping commercial benefits from their VC. Online vendors can benefit greatly from having a VC, if the VC members can be converted into online buyers. This study examines the conversion of a VC member into an online buyer. Using a classical-conditioning approach, this study finds that members' committed participation in the VC is the springboard for online vendors to convert VC members into online buyers.

  8. Quantum oblivious set-member decision protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Zhang, Shun

    2015-08-01

    We present and define a privacy-preserving problem called the oblivious set-member decision problem, which allows a server to decide whether a private secret of a user is a member of his private set in an oblivious manner. Namely, if the secret belongs to his private set, he does not know which member it is. We propose a quantum solution to the oblivious set-member decision problem. Compared to classical solutions, the proposed quantum protocol achieves an exponential reduction in communication complexity, since it only needs O (1 ) communication cost.

  9. End member models for Andean Plateau uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, J. B.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    Diverse techniques have been applied over the past decade to quantify the uplift history of the central Andean Plateau (AP). In this study, opposing models for surface uplift are evaluated including: a rapid rise of ˜ 2.5 km ˜ 10-6 Ma and a slow and steady rise since ˜ 40 Ma. These end member models are evaluated by synthesizing observations of the AP lithosphere and the history of deformation, sedimentation, exhumation, magmatism, uplift, and fluvial incision. Structural and geophysical studies estimate variable shortening magnitudes (˜ 530-150 km) involving cover-to-basement rocks, an isostatically-compensated thick crust (˜ 80-65 km), high heat flow, and zones of variable velocity and attenuation in the crust and mantle. These observations have invoked interpretations such as a hot/weak lithosphere, partial melt, crustal flow, and perhaps current, localized delamination, but do not provide strong support for massive delamination required by the rapid uplift model. Deformation and associated exhumation began ˜ 60-40 Ma and generally migrated eastward with consistent long-term average shortening rates (˜ 12-8 mm/yr) in Bolivia, favoring the slow uplift model. Volcanic and helium isotope evidence show an AP-wide zone of shallow mantle melting and thin lithosphere that has existed since ˜ 25 Ma, which is inconsistent with the rapid rise model that suggests lithospheric thinning occurred 10-6 Ma. Paleoaltimetry data suggest a rapid ˜ 2.5 km elevation gain 10 to 6 Ma, but are equally consistent within error with a linear rise since ≥ 25 Ma. Widespread fluvial incision (2.5-1 km) occurred along the western flank since ˜ 11-8 Ma and may be associated with surface uplift as proposed by the rapid rise model. However, the paleoaltimetry and incision data can also be explained by regional climate change associated with plateau uplift. Implications of these results for reconstructions of AP evolution are that: (1) substantial deformation of a weak lithosphere is

  10. Comparative integromics on VEGF family members.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-06-01

    VEGF, Hedgehog, FGF, Notch, and WNT signaling pathways network together for vascular remodeling during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and carcinogenesis. VEGFA (VEGF), VEGFB, VEGFC, VEGFD (FIGF) and PGF (PlGF) are VEGF family ligands for receptor tyrosine kinases, including VEGFR1 (FLT1), VEGFR2 (KDR) and VEGFR3 (FLT4). Bevacizumab (Avastin), Sunitinib (Sutent) and Sorafenib (Nexavar) are anti-cancer drugs targeted to VEGF signaling pathway. TCF/LEF binding sites within the promoter region of human VEGF family members were searched for by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). Because four TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within the 5'-promoter region of human VEGFD gene within AC095351.5 genome sequence, comparative genomics analyses on VEGFD orthologs were further performed. ASB9-ASB11-VEGFD locus at human chromosome Xp22.2 and ASB5-VEGFC locus at human chromosome 4q34 were paralogous regions within the human genome. Human VEGFD mRNA was expressed in lung, small intestine, uterus, breast, neural tissues, and neuroblastoma. Mouse Vegfd mRNA was expressed in kidney, pregnant oviduct, and neural tissues. Chimpanzee VEGFD promoter, cow Vegfd promoter, mouse Vegfd promoter and rat Vegfd promoter were identified within NW_121675.1, AC161065.2, AL732475.6 and AC130036.3 genome sequences, respectively. Three out of four TCF/LEF-binding sites within human VEGFD promoter were conserved in chimpanzee VEGFD promoter, and one in cow Vegfd promoter. TCF/LEF-binding site, not conserved in human VEGFD promoter, occurred in cow, mouse and rat Vegfd promoters. At least five out of six bHLH-binding sites within human VEGFD proximal promoter region were conserved in chimpanzee VEGFD proximal promoter region, while only one in cow Vegfd proximal promoter region. Together these facts indicate that relatively significant promoter evolution occurred among mammalian VEGFD orthologs. Human VEGFD was characterized as a potent target gene of WNT

  11. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member business. 1425.14 Section 1425.14 Agriculture... business. (a) At least 50 percent of a crop of an authorized commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA... not be considered in determining the volume of member or nonmember business....

  12. Educational Faculty Members' Perceptions on Multicultural Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günay, Rafet; Aslan, Dolgun

    2016-01-01

    This purpose of this study is to determine how the perceptions of teaching personnel members were conceptualized through use of metaphorical images with regard to the multicultural teacher. In this study, a phenomenological design, a type of qualitative research design was used. A total of 323 teaching personnel members employed at 71 educational…

  13. Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

  14. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Member business. 1425.14 Section 1425.14 Agriculture... business. (a) At least 50 percent of a crop of an authorized commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA... not be considered in determining the volume of member or nonmember business....

  15. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Member business. 1425.14 Section 1425.14 Agriculture... business. (a) At least 50 percent of a crop of an authorized commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA... not be considered in determining the volume of member or nonmember business....

  16. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Member business. 1425.14 Section 1425.14 Agriculture... business. (a) At least 50 percent of a crop of an authorized commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA... not be considered in determining the volume of member or nonmember business....

  17. 7 CFR 1425.14 - Member business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Member business. 1425.14 Section 1425.14 Agriculture... business. (a) At least 50 percent of a crop of an authorized commodity acquired by, or delivered to, a CMA... not be considered in determining the volume of member or nonmember business....

  18. Understanding and Limiting School Board Member Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Terry; Jones, Stephanie; Purvis, Mary L.; Rubin, David B.; Thrasher, Doralee; Underwood, Julie; Watkins, W. David

    This book is a primer on board-member liability issues and is intended for both board members and school attorneys. The first chapter, "The Legal System," examines federal sources of legal authority, state and local sources of legal authority, and federal and state judicial structures. Liability under state tort law is the subject of chapter 2,…

  19. Legal Liability of Individual Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leverett, E. Freeman

    Twenty-five years ago, law suits seeking recovery against the individual resources of school board members were virtually unheard of. Now, personal judgments impacting upon the individual resources of board members are commonplace. The legal developments that have contributed to this rather sudden change of circumstances are explained in this…

  20. 77 FR 71873 - Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... AFFAIRS Performance Review Board Members AGENCY: Corporate Senior Executive Management Office, Department... are required to publish a notice in the Federal Register of the appointment of ] Performance Review Board (PRB) members. This notice announces the appointment of persons to serve on the Performance...

  1. Hispanic Faculty Members in Texas Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anthony; Joyner, Sheila; Slate, John

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which Hispanic faculty members employed at all Texas community colleges had changed from 2000 to 2008 is examined. Both the number and percentage of Hispanic faculty members employed full-time at Texas community colleges had increased from 2000 to the 2008 school year. Though a statistically significant increase was present, the…

  2. 7 CFR 906.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... the event both a member and his alternate are unable to attend a committee meeting, the committee... the extent practical, independent, or co-op) to serve in such member's place and stead. In the...

  3. 7 CFR 916.27 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... member and perform such other duties as assigned. In the event of the death, removal, resignation, or... qualified. In the event both a member of the committee and his alternate are unable to attend a...

  4. 7 CFR 966.31 - Alternate members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate members. 966.31 Section 966.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... event of the death, removal, resignation, or disqualification of a member, his alternate shall act...

  5. Ruminations of a Former School Board Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The author describes his initial introduction to school board service. The historical context in which the author became a school board member is described as a means of highlighting the challenges that he faced as a new board member as well as the challenges that public education faced in the early and mid 1980s in a southern state. Stories and…

  6. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... individual and leases, loans or gives equipment, land or labor to such an individual; and (b) Such family... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective...

  7. 75 FR 72872 - Performance Review Board Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... AFFAIRS Performance Review Board Members AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Register of the appointment of Performance Review Board (PRB) members. This notice updates the VA Performance Review Board of the Department of Veterans Affairs that was published in the Federal Register...

  8. Managing Non-Productive University Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, John; Muir, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Examines how chairpersons of physical education departments in North American universities identify and manage their marginal faculty members, in the context of an exploratory model suggested by O'Reilly and Wietz (1980). Up to 15% of faculty members are perceived as being nonproductive or marginal, but very few are ever dismissed. Proposes some…

  9. School Law Primer for New Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullaly, Paula A.

    School board members from 50 states have in common the United States Constitution and the legal principles announced by the federal courts in response to that Constitution. New board members are usually concerned with the rights of teachers, parents, and students. Starting with student rights, student conduct that involves freedom of expression…

  10. 18 CFR 701.55 - Associate Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Associate Members. 701.55 Section 701.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.55 Associate Members. (a) The Chairman, with concurrence of...

  11. 18 CFR 701.55 - Associate Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Associate Members. 701.55 Section 701.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.55 Associate Members. (a) The Chairman, with concurrence of...

  12. 18 CFR 701.55 - Associate Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Associate Members. 701.55 Section 701.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.55 Associate Members. (a) The Chairman, with concurrence of...

  13. 18 CFR 701.55 - Associate Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Associate Members. 701.55 Section 701.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.55 Associate Members. (a) The Chairman, with concurrence of...

  14. 18 CFR 701.55 - Associate Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Associate Members. 701.55 Section 701.55 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.55 Associate Members. (a) The Chairman, with concurrence of...

  15. A first look at the influence of anthropogenic climate change on the future delivery of fluvial sediment to the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta.

    PubMed

    Darby, Stephen E; Dunn, Frances E; Nicholls, Robert J; Rahman, Munsur; Riddy, Liam

    2015-09-01

    We employ a climate-driven hydrological water balance and sediment transport model (HydroTrend) to simulate future climate-driven sediment loads flowing into the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The model was parameterised using high-quality topographic data and forced with daily temperature and precipitation data obtained from downscaled Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations for the period 1971-2100. Three perturbed RCM model runs were selected to quantify the potential range of future climate conditions associated with the SRES A1B scenario. Fluvial sediment delivery rates to the GBM delta associated with these climate data sets are projected to increase under the influence of anthropogenic climate change, albeit with the magnitude of the increase varying across the two catchments. Of the two study basins, the Brahmaputra's fluvial sediment load is predicted to be more sensitive to future climate change. Specifically, by the middle part of the 21(st) century, our model results suggest that sediment loads increase (relative to the 1981-2000 baseline period) over a range of between 16% and 18% (depending on climate model run) for the Ganges, but by between 25% and 28% for the Brahmaputra. The simulated increase in sediment flux emanating from the two catchments further increases towards the end of the 21(st) century, reaching between 34% and 37% for the Ganges and between 52% and 60% for the Brahmaputra by the 2090s. The variability in these changes across the three climate change simulations is small compared to the changes, suggesting they represent a significant increase. The new data obtained in this study offer the first estimate of whether and how anthropogenic climate change may affect the delivery of fluvial sediment to the GBM delta, informing assessments of the future sustainability and resilience of one of the world's most vulnerable mega-deltas. Specifically, such significant increases in future sediment loads could increase the resilience

  16. A first look at the influence of anthropogenic climate change on the future delivery of fluvial sediment to the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta.

    PubMed

    Darby, Stephen E; Dunn, Frances E; Nicholls, Robert J; Rahman, Munsur; Riddy, Liam

    2015-09-01

    We employ a climate-driven hydrological water balance and sediment transport model (HydroTrend) to simulate future climate-driven sediment loads flowing into the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) mega-delta. The model was parameterised using high-quality topographic data and forced with daily temperature and precipitation data obtained from downscaled Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations for the period 1971-2100. Three perturbed RCM model runs were selected to quantify the potential range of future climate conditions associated with the SRES A1B scenario. Fluvial sediment delivery rates to the GBM delta associated with these climate data sets are projected to increase under the influence of anthropogenic climate change, albeit with the magnitude of the increase varying across the two catchments. Of the two study basins, the Brahmaputra's fluvial sediment load is predicted to be more sensitive to future climate change. Specifically, by the middle part of the 21(st) century, our model results suggest that sediment loads increase (relative to the 1981-2000 baseline period) over a range of between 16% and 18% (depending on climate model run) for the Ganges, but by between 25% and 28% for the Brahmaputra. The simulated increase in sediment flux emanating from the two catchments further increases towards the end of the 21(st) century, reaching between 34% and 37% for the Ganges and between 52% and 60% for the Brahmaputra by the 2090s. The variability in these changes across the three climate change simulations is small compared to the changes, suggesting they represent a significant increase. The new data obtained in this study offer the first estimate of whether and how anthropogenic climate change may affect the delivery of fluvial sediment to the GBM delta, informing assessments of the future sustainability and resilience of one of the world's most vulnerable mega-deltas. Specifically, such significant increases in future sediment loads could increase the resilience

  17. The simulated drinking gang: an experimental model for the study of a systems approach to alcoholism. I. Description of the model.

    PubMed

    Steinglass, P

    1975-08-01

    This two-part paper deals with an experimental model for studying interactional behavior from a systems point of view. The experimental model incorporates a research strategy utilizing both a token economy and the simulation of a naturally occurring clinical phenomenon, the alcoholic drinking gang. The model is primarily geared to do two things: a) study the changes in clinical behavior that occur when experimental conditions are manipulated to facilitate the formation of the behavioral "system" as opposed to experimental conditions which interfere with system formation; and b) build into the model tasks which produce measurable performance data as a method of monitoring behavior deemed essential for the successful development of an operational system. The experimental model involved admitting up to six alcoholic individuals to a research ward specifically designed for studies utilizing experimentally induced intoxication. Each study was divided into a 7-day predrinking period, a 10- to 14-day drinking period, during which time alcohol was available to research subjects, and a 5- to 7-day withdrawal period. A token economy was established which allowed for the following essential features to be present: a) a group of chronic alcoholic individuals who desire to go through a drinking experience together; b) the pooling of resources in order to purchase alcohol; c) rules established by the group for the sharing of whatever alcohol becomes available to the group; and d) the opportunity to earn money for the purchase of additional alcohol after the initial supply runs out, in order to keep the group drinking experience going. All "money", or tokens, could be earned only via successful performance at the Cooperative Task Device (CTD), a cooperative, two-person game, and tokens could be utilized to purchase three types of commodities from an automated dispensing machine, alcohol, cigarettes, and television time. Automated data recording provided detailed data about CTD

  18. How Not to Be a Terrible School Board Member: Lessons for School Administrators and Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Veteran school board member, Richard E. Mayer, takes a humorous but substantive approach to the serious relationship between school administrators and board members. While the overwhelming majority of school board members have good motives, even people who mean well can make bad moves. This book shows how to prevent good intentions from creating…

  19. 7 CFR 7.15 - Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members, and delegates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., community committee members, and delegates. 7.15 Section 7.15 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.15 Eligibility requirements of county committee members, community committee members,...

  20. Geomorphology and Landscape Evolution Model for the natural and human-impacted regions of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L.; Wallace Auerbach, L.; Ahmed, K.; Paola, C.; Reitz, M. D.; Pickering, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD) in south Asia is generally considered a tide-dominated system, but much of the subaerial delta plain is geomorphically similar to river-dominated systems such as the Mississippi River delta, with a well-developed distributary network separated by low-lying, organic-rich interdistributary basins. By contrast, the lower GBMD is dominated by tidal processes and comprises a 100-km wide coastal plain with dense, interconnected tidal channels that are amalgamated to the seaward edge of the river-dominated portion of the delta. These distinct river- and tide-dominated geomorphic regions are simultaneously sustained by the enormous sediment load of the GBM rivers and its efficient dispersal via the distributary channel network and onshore advection by tides. Together these processes have resulted in the ability of the GBMD to keep pace with sea-level rise throughout the Holocene, with comparatively little shoreline transgression. However, topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) highlight low-lying regions of the delta that are located at the interface of the river- and tide-dominated portions of the delta, where the transport energy of small distributaries and the upper tidal zone go to zero. As a result, these are the most sediment-starved regions of the delta and those most at risk to flooding by the summer monsoon and storm surges. Compounding the slow rates of sedimentation and high local organic content, these regions have been strongly affected by the construction of embankments (polders) that artificially de-water the soils and accelerate organic decomposition during the dry season, and further starve the land surface of sediment. Here, we present an integrated conceptual model for the geomorphic evolution of the GBMD that incorporates river- and tide-dominated regions in conjunction with channel-avulsion processes and delta-lobe construction. Each of these is also overprinted by tectonic