Science.gov

Sample records for ganglia shape abnormalities

  1. Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…

  2. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  3. Shaping Action Sequences in Basal Ganglia Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Costa, Rui M

    2015-01-01

    Many behaviors necessary for organism survival are learned anew and become organized as complex sequences of actions. Recent studies suggest that cortico-basal ganglia circuits are important for chunking isolated movements into precise and robust action sequences that permit the achievement of particular goals. During sequence learning many neurons in the basal ganglia develop sequence-related activity - related to the initiation, execution, and termination of sequences - suggesting that action sequences are processed as action units. Corticostriatal plasticity is critical for the crystallization of action sequences, and for the development of sequence-related neural activity. Furthermore, this sequence-related activity is differentially expressed in direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways. These findings have implications for understanding the symptoms associated with movement and psychiatric disorders. PMID:26189204

  4. Differential diagnosis for bilateral abnormalities of the basal ganglia and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Amogh N; Mohan, Suyash; Lath, Narayan; Lim, C C Tchoyoson

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia and thalamus are paired deep gray matter structures that may be involved by a wide variety of disease entities. The basal ganglia are highly metabolically active and are symmetrically affected in toxic poisoning, metabolic abnormalities, and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Both the basal ganglia and thalamus may be affected by other systemic or metabolic disease, degenerative disease, and vascular conditions. Focal flavivirus infections, toxoplasmosis, and primary central nervous system lymphoma may also involve both deep gray matter structures. The thalamus is more typically affected alone by focal conditions than by systemic disease. Radiologists may detect bilateral abnormalities of the basal ganglia and thalamus in different acute and chronic clinical situations, and although magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for evaluation, the correct diagnosis can be made only by taking all relevant clinical and laboratory information into account. The neuroimaging diagnosis is influenced not only by detection of specific MR imaging features such as restricted diffusion and the presence of hemorrhage, but also by detection of abnormalities involving other parts of the brain, especially the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and white matter. Judicious use of confirmatory neuroimaging investigations, especially diffusion-weighted imaging, MR angiography, MR venography, and MR spectroscopy during the same examination, may help improve characterization of these abnormalities and help narrow the differential diagnosis.

  5. Abnormal responses to monetary outcomes in cortex, but not in the basal ganglia, in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Waltz, James A; Schweitzer, Julie B; Ross, Thomas J; Kurup, Pradeep K; Salmeron, Betty J; Rose, Emma J; Gold, James M; Stein, Elliot A

    2010-11-01

    Psychosis has been associated with aberrant brain activity concurrent with both the anticipation and integration of monetary outcomes. The extent to which abnormal reward-related neural signals can be observed in chronic, medicated patients with schizophrenia (SZ), however, is not clear. In an fMRI study involving 17 chronic outpatients with SZ and 17 matched controls, we used a monetary incentive delay (MID) task, in which different-colored shapes predicted gains, losses, or neutral outcomes. Subjects needed to respond to a target within a time window in order to receive the indicated gain or avoid the indicated loss. Group differences in blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses to cues and outcomes were assessed through voxel-wise whole-brain analyses and regions-of-interest analyses in the neostriatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Significant group by outcome valence interactions were observed in the medial and lateral PFC, lateral temporal cortex, and amygdalae, such that controls, but not patients, showed greater activation for gains, relative to losses. In the striatum, neural activity was modulated by outcome magnitude in both groups. Additionally, we found that ratings of negative symptoms in patients correlated with sensitivity to obtained losses in medial PFC, obtained gains in lateral PFC, and anticipated gains in left ventral striatum. Sensitivity to obtained gains in lateral PFC also correlated with positive symptom scores in patients. Our findings of systematic relationships between clinical symptoms and neural responses to stimuli associated with rewards and punishments offer promise that reward-related neural responses may provide sensitive probes of the effectiveness of treatments for negative symptoms. PMID:20720534

  6. SHAPE OF THE BASAL GANGLIA IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN IS ASSOCIATED WITH COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Curt A.; Head, Kevin; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Su, Lydia; Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi.

    2014-01-01

    Current studies support the belief that high levels of performance and intellectual abilities are associated with increased brain size or volume. With few exceptions, this conclusion is restricted to studies of post-adolescent subjects and to cerebral cortex. There is evidence that “bigger is better” may not pertain to children and further, that there are areas of the brain in which larger structures are associated with cognitive deficits. In 50 preadolescent children (21 girls) a structural survey of the brain (VBM) was conducted to determine and locate areas in which gray matter volume was associated with poor cognitive performance. Only increased gray matter volume in particular areas of the basal ganglia and specifically the putamen were significantly associated with poor performance on tests of memory, response speed and a general marker and subtests of intelligence. Based on the VBM findings, volumetric analysis of basal ganglia structures were performed using FSL/FIRST. However, no significant changes in total volume of putamen or other basal ganglia structures were detected with this analysis. The disagreement between measures of localized gray matter differences and volumetric analysis suggested that there might be local regional deformity rather than widespread volumetric changes of the putamen. Surface analysis with FSL/FIRST demonstrated that bilateral outward deformation of the putamen, but especially the left, was associated with poor performance on several cognitive tests. Expansion of the globus pallidus and caudate nucleus also was associated with poor performance. Moreover a significant association was detected between a reliable test of language-free intelligence and topographically distinct outward and inward deformation of the putamen. Expansion and contraction of the putamen as a predictor of intelligence may explain why this association was not observed with measures of total volume. These results suggest that deformity is a sensitive

  7. Knockdown of sodium channel NaV1.6 blocks mechanical pain and abnormal bursting activity of afferent neurons in inflamed sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith A; Ye, Ling; Mao, Ju-Xian; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2013-08-01

    Inflammatory processes in the sensory ganglia contribute to many forms of chronic pain. We previously showed that local inflammation of the lumbar sensory ganglia rapidly leads to prolonged mechanical pain behaviors and high levels of spontaneous bursting activity in myelinated cells. Abnormal spontaneous activity of sensory neurons occurs early in many preclinical pain models and initiates many other pathological changes, but its molecular basis is not well understood. The sodium channel isoform NaV1.6 can underlie repetitive firing and excitatory persistent and resurgent currents. We used in vivo knockdown of this channel via local injection of siRNA to examine its role in chronic pain after local inflammation of the rat lumbar sensory ganglia. In normal dorsal root ganglion (DRG), quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that cells capable of firing repetitively had significantly higher relative expression of NaV1.6. In inflamed DRG, spontaneously active bursting cells expressed high levels of NaV1.6 immunoreactivity. In vivo knockdown of NaV1.6 locally in the lumbar DRG at the time of DRG inflammation completely blocked development of pain behaviors and abnormal spontaneous activity, while having only minor effects on unmyelinated C cells. Current research on isoform-specific sodium channel blockers for chronic pain is largely focused on NaV1.8 because it is present primarily in unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors, or on NaV1.7 because lack of this channel causes congenital indifference to pain. However, the results suggest that NaV1.6 may be a useful therapeutic target for chronic pain and that some pain conditions may be mediated primarily by myelinated A fiber sensory neurons. PMID:23622763

  8. Knockdown of sodium channel NaV1.6 blocks mechanical pain and abnormal bursting activity of afferent neurons in inflamed sensory ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith A.; Ye, Ling; Mao, Ju-Xian; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory processes in the sensory ganglia contribute to many forms of chronic pain. We previously showed that local inflammation of the lumbar sensory ganglia rapidly leads to prolonged mechanical pain behaviors and high levels of spontaneous bursting activity in myelinated cells. Abnormal spontaneous activity of sensory neurons occurs early in many preclinical pain models, and initiates many other pathological changes, but its molecular basis is not well understood. The sodium channel isoform NaV1.6 can underlie repetitive firing and excitatory persistent and resurgent currents. We used in vivo knockdown of this channel via local injection of siRNA to examine its role in chronic pain following local inflammation of the rat lumbar sensory ganglia. In normal DRG, quantitative PCR showed that cells capable of firing repetitively had significantly higher relative expression of NaV1.6. In inflamed DRG, spontaneously active bursting cells expressed high levels of NaV1.6′ immunoreactivity. In vivo knockdown of NaV1.6 locally in the lumbar DRG at the time of DRG inflammation completely blocked development of pain behaviors and abnormal spontaneous activity, while having only minor effects on unmyelinated C-cells. Current research on isoform-specific sodium channel blockers for chronic pain is largely focused on NaV1.8, because it is present primarily in unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors, or on NaV1.7, because lack of this channel causes congenital indifference to pain. However, the results suggest that NaV1.6 may be a useful therapeutic target for chronic pain, and that some pain conditions may be primarily mediated by myelinated A-fiber sensory neurons. PMID:23622763

  9. Shape Abnormalities of Subcortical and Ventricular Structures in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: Detecting, Quantifying, and Predicting

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M.; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the feasibility of using shape information to detect and quantify the subcortical and ventricular structural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. We first demonstrate structural shape abnormalities in MCI and AD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Exploring the development to AD, we then divide the MCI participants into two subgroups based on longitudinal clinical information: (1) MCI patients who remained stable; (2) MCI patients who converted to AD over time. We focus on seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricles) in 754 MR scans (210 HC, 369 MCI of which 151 converted to AD over time, and 175 AD). The hippocampus and amygdala were further subsegmented based on high field 0.8 mm isotropic 7.0T scans for finer exploration. For MCI and AD, prominent ventricular expansions were detected and we found that these patients had strongest hippocampal atrophy occurring at CA1 and strongest amygdala atrophy at the basolateral complex. Mild atrophy in basal ganglia structures was also detected in MCI and AD. Stronger atrophy in the amygdala and hippocampus, and greater expansion in ventricles was observed in MCI converters, relative to those MCI who remained stable. Furthermore, we performed principal component analysis on a linear shape space of each structure. A subsequent linear discriminant analysis on the principal component values of hippocampus, amygdala, and ventricle leads to correct classification of 88% HC subjects and 86% AD subjects. PMID:24443091

  10. Use of a Novel High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Neurography Protocol to Detect Abnormal Dorsal Root Ganglia in Sjögren Patients With Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C.; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional “stocking-and-glove” distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system—the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain. We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients

  11. Hippocampal Shape Abnormalities of Patients with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Their Unaffected Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sarah L. M.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Lalonde, Francois; Miller, Rachel; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The hippocampus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and hippocampal volume deficits have been a consistently reported abnormality, but the subregional specificity of the deficits remains unknown. The authors explored the nature and developmental trajectory of subregional shape abnormalities of the hippocampus in…

  12. Subcortical shape and volume abnormalities in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Benjamin S. C.; Valcour, Victor; Busovaca, Edgar; Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Wang, Yalin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Over 50% of HIV+ individuals show significant impairment in psychomotor functioning, processing speed, working memory and attention [1, 2]. Patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy may still have subcortical atrophy, but the profile of HIV-associated brain changes is poorly understood. With parametric surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ subjects (4 female; age=65.35 ± 2.21) and 31 uninfected elderly controls (2 female; age=64.68 ± 4.57) scanned with MRI as part of a San Francisco Bay Area study of elderly people with HIV. We also investigated whether morphometry was associated with nadir CD4+ (T-cell) counts, viral load and illness duration among HIV+ participants. FreeSurfer was used to segment the thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, brainstem, callosum and ventricles from brain MRI scans. To study subcortical shape, we analyzed: (1) the Jacobian determinant (JD) indexed over structures' surface coordinates and (2) radial distances (RD) of structure surfaces from a medial curve. A JD less than 1 reflects regional tissue atrophy and greater than 1 reflects expansion. The volumes of several subcortical regions were found to be associated with HIV status. No regional volumes showed detectable associations with CD4 counts, viral load or illness duration. The shapes of numerous subcortical regions were significantly linked to HIV status, detectability of viral RNA and illness duration. Our results show subcortical brain differences in HIV+ subjects in both shape and volumetric domains.

  13. Striatal shape abnormalities as novel neurodevelopmental endophenotypes in schizophrenia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Rapoport, Judith L; Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin; Shaw, Philip; Collins, D Louis; Lerch, Jason P; Gogtay, Nitin

    2015-04-01

    There are varying, often conflicting, reports with respect to altered striatal volume and morphometry in the major psychoses due to the influences of antipsychotic medications on striatal volume. Thus, disassociating disease effects from those of medication become exceedingly difficult. For the first time, using a longitudinally studied sample of structural magnetic resonance images from patients with childhood onset schizophrenia (COS; neurobiologically contiguous with the adult onset form of schizophrenia), their nonpsychotic siblings (COSSIBs), and novel shape mapping algorithms that are volume independent, we report the familial contribution of striatal morphology in schizophrenia. The results of our volumetric analyses demonstrate age-related increases in overall striatal volumes specific only to COS. However, both COS and COSSIBs showed overlapping shape differences in the striatal head, which normalized in COSSIBs by late adolescence. These results mirror previous studies from our group, demonstrating cortical thickness deficits in COS and COSSIBs as these deficits normalize in COSSIBs in the same age range as our striatal findings. Finally, there is a single region of nonoverlapping outward displacement in the dorsal aspect of the caudate body, potentially indicative of a response to medication. Striatal shape may be considered complimentary to volume as an endophenotype, and, in some cases may provide information that is not detectable using standard volumetric techniques. Our striatal shape findings demonstrate the striking localization of abnormalities in striatal the head. The neuroanatomical localization of these findings suggest the presence of abnormalities in the striatal-prefrontal circuits in schizophrenia and resilience mechanisms in COSSIBs with age dependent normalization.

  14. Thalamic shape and connectivity abnormalities in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shugao; Li, Xiaobo; Kimball, Ariane E; Kelly, Mary S; Lesser, Iris; Branch, Craig

    2012-11-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by widespread structural and functional abnormalities in the cortico-striato-thalmo-cortical (CSTC) loops that subserve attention and executive functions. In this study, we analyzed thalamic shape and its white matter connections using structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion (DTI) data acquired from children with ADHD (n=19) and controls (n=19). Shape morphology of the thalamus was assessed using shape-based analysis, while connectivity between the thalamus and other brain regions was determined using probabilistic diffusion tractography. Shape-based analysis indicated significant regional atrophy in the left thalamus in children with ADHD compared to controls. Group analyses of white matter connectivity measures showed significantly decreased mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and volume of the tracts between thalamus and striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal lobe in children with ADHD compared to controls. The structural abnormalities within the thalamus and the reduced integrity of the white matter tracks between the thalamus and other brain regions, as shown from the results of this study, may be the anatomical bases of the impaired cognitive performances in the attention and executive function domains in ADHD.

  15. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  16. Demonstration of sperm head shape abnormality and clastogenic potential of cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Gautam, A K; Agarwal, K R; Shah, B A; Saiyad, H N

    2004-04-01

    Adult male Swiss albino mice were administered ip. suspension solution of cypermethrin in 0.15% DMSO at the doses of 30 mg, 60 mg and 90 mg/kg b. wt. daily for 5 days. Another group of animals was injected cyclophosphamide ip. (60 mg/kg b. wt.) in similar manner which served as positive control. Effect of cypermethrin on body and testes weight and sperm head morphology was studied. Clastogenic potential of cypermethrin was studied by using modified Allium test. The cytological changes were studied in the root tip cells of Allium cepa after 3 days treatment with three different concentration of cypermethrin (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 microg/ml). The results revealed that body weight gain was considerably reduced in higher dose groups, but the testicular weight did not change significantly in any of the cypermethrin treated groups. However, a significant elevation in the number of abnormal shape of sperm head was noticed in higher dose groups as compared to control. It was observed that the abnormality in the shape of sperm head was dose-dependent. The cytological changes in the root tip cells of Allium cepa indicated that cypermethrin is having toxic effects on the root tip cells in the form of stickiness of chromosomes and also affect the mitotic activity. This study suggest that cypermethrin may have the potential to induce adverse effects on sperm head shape morphology of mouse as well as clastogenic effects on root tip cells of Allium cepa. PMID:15529877

  17. The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P; Burn, David J

    2014-08-01

    The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made.

  18. The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P; Burn, David J

    2014-08-01

    The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made. PMID:24954674

  19. Erythrocyte shape abnormalities, membrane oxidative damage, and β-actin alterations: an unrecognized triad in classical autism.

    PubMed

    Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Leoncini, Silvia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Signorini, Cinzia; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Guerranti, Roberto; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Gentile, Mariangela; Zollo, Gloria; Durand, Thierry; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory, where the search for biological markers is of paramount importance. Although red blood cells (RBCs) membrane lipidomics and rheological variables have been reported to be altered, with some suggestions indicating an increased lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane, to date no information exists on how the oxidative membrane damage may affect cytoskeletal membrane proteins and, ultimately, RBCs shape in autism. Here, we investigated RBC morphology by scanning electron microscopy in patients with classical autism, that is, the predominant ASDs phenotype (age range: 6-26 years), nonautistic neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., "positive controls"), and healthy controls (i.e., "negative controls"). A high percentage of altered RBCs shapes, predominantly elliptocytes, was observed in autistic patients, but not in both control groups. The RBCs altered morphology in autistic subjects was related to increased erythrocyte membrane F2-isoprostanes and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. In addition, an oxidative damage of the erythrocyte membrane β-actin protein was evidenced. Therefore, the combination of erythrocyte shape abnormalities, erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage, and β-actin alterations constitutes a previously unrecognized triad in classical autism and provides new biological markers in the diagnostic workup of ASDs.

  20. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Mierzewska, Hanna; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-05-01

    The term "basal ganglia" refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) - to a lesser degree - allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or - more frequently - bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic-ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive. PMID:23313708

  1. Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Ring, H; Serra-Mestres, J

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are important links between parts of the brain that have classically been considered to be related to emotional functioning and brain regions previously considered to have largely motor functions. The basal ganglia have a role in the development and integration of psychomotor behaviours, involving motor functions, memory and attentional mechanisms, and reward processes. PMID:11784818

  2. Automatic classification of squamosal abnormality in micro-CT images for the evaluation of rabbit fetal skull defects using active shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Antong; Dogdas, Belma; Mehta, Saurin; Bagchi, Ansuman; Wise, L. David; Winkelmann, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    High-throughput micro-CT imaging has been used in our laboratory to evaluate fetal skeletal morphology in developmental toxicology studies. Currently, the volume-rendered skeletal images are visually inspected and observed abnormalities are reported for compounds in development. To improve the efficiency and reduce human error of the evaluation, we implemented a framework to automate the evaluation process. The framework starts by dividing the skull into regions of interest and then measuring various geometrical characteristics. Normal/abnormal classification on the bone segments is performed based on identifying statistical outliers. In pilot experiments using rabbit fetal skulls, the majority of the skeletal abnormalities can be detected successfully in this manner. However, there are shape-based abnormalities that are relatively subtle and thereby difficult to identify using the geometrical features. To address this problem, we introduced a model-based approach and applied this strategy on the squamosal bone. We will provide details on this active shape model (ASM) strategy for the identification of squamosal abnormalities and show that this method improved the sensitivity of detecting squamosal-related abnormalities from 0.48 to 0.92.

  3. Ability of abnormally-shaped human spermatozoa to adhere to and penetrate zona-free hamster eggs: correlation with sperm morphology and postincubation motility.

    PubMed

    Bronson, Richard A; Bronson, Susan K; Oula, Lucila D

    2007-01-01

    A body of evidence indicates that morphologically abnormal human spermatozoa may exhibit impaired ability to fertilize. Yet teratospermia has widely varying etiologies, including associations with varicoceles, following fever, cigarette smoking, and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Abnormalities of sperm shape in mice have also been shown to be associated with autosomal gene mutations. These varying causes of teratospermia could have different molecular consequences reflected in altered sperm function. We studied the ability of morphologically abnormal human sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs as a measure of their ability to undergo an acrosome reaction and gamete membrane fusion. Motile sperm from ejaculates containing 15% normal sperm or less, as judged by World Health Organization (1999) criteria, were recovered by ISolate density centrifugation and capacitated by overnight incubation. Zona-free hamster eggs were inseminated with 1 x 10(6) motile capacitated cells and scored for sperm penetration after 3 hours of coincubation. A significant trend was found between the percent of abnormal spermatozoa within the ejaculate and impaired egg-penetrating ability, reflected in the percent of eggs penetrated, the number of penetrating sperm per egg, and the number of sperm adherent to the oolemma. Because only acrosome-reacted human spermatozoa adhere to the oolemma, these results support the notion that abnormally shaped sperm may exhibit an impaired ability to undergo an acrosome reaction. A correlation was also noted between the loss of motility of sperm following overnight incubation and impairment of their ability to undergo gamete membrane fusion. These results confirm prior findings at the level of the zona pellucida that abnormally shaped sperm exhibit functional abnormalities. However, a wide variation was observed between men in the behavior of such sperm, including occasionally high rates of egg penetration. These observations suggest that

  4. Synchronizing activity of basal ganglia and pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Heimer, G; Rivlin, M; Israel, Z; Bergman, H

    2006-01-01

    Early physiological studies emphasized changes in the discharge rate of basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas recent studies stressed the role of the abnormal oscillatory activity and neuronal synchronization of pallidal cells. However, human observations cast doubt on the synchronization hypothesis since increased synchronization may be an epi-phenomenon of the tremor or of independent oscillators with similar frequency. Here, we show that modern actor/ critic models of the basal ganglia predict the emergence of synchronized activity in PD and that significant non-oscillatory and oscillatory correlations are found in MPTP primates. We conclude that the normal fluctuation of basal ganglia dopamine levels combined with local cortico-striatal learning rules lead to noncorrelated activity in the pallidum. Dopamine depletion, as in PD, results in correlated pallidal activity, and reduced information capacity. We therefore suggest that future deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithms may be improved by desynchronizing pallidal activity. PMID:17017503

  5. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  6. Mirror-writing and reversed repetition of digits in a right-handed patient with left basal ganglia haematoma.

    PubMed Central

    Chia, L G; Kinsbourne, M

    1987-01-01

    A 57 year old right-handed Chinese man sustained a left basal ganglia haemorrhage resulting in speech disorder and right hemiplegia. He mirror-wrote with his left hand and during speech recovery repeated digits in reverse sequence. The abnormal right to left directionality possibly reflected release of right basal ganglia from left-sided control. Images PMID:3612156

  7. Number processing and basal ganglia dysfunction: a single case study.

    PubMed

    Delazer, Margarete; Domahs, Frank; Lochy, Aliette; Karner, Elfriede; Benke, Thomas; Poewe, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Numerical processing has never been investigated in a case of Fahr's disease (FD) and only rarely in cases of basal ganglia dysfunction. The study describes the cognitive decline of a pre-morbidly high-functioning patient (medical doctor) affected by FD and his difficulties in number processing. A MRI scan revealed bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia and a brain PET showed a massive reduction of glucose metabolism in the basal ganglia and both frontal lobes, but no other brain abnormalities. The patient's cognitive deficits included impairments in problem solving, in cognitive set shifting and in mental flexibility, as well as in verbal memory. These deficits are attributed to the disruption of the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit involving the basal ganglia. In number processing, the patient showed a severe deficit in the retrieval of multiplication facts, deficits in all tasks of numerical problem solving and in the execution of complex procedures. Importantly, he also showed a dense deficit in conceptual knowledge, which concerned all test conditions and all operations. The findings confirm the predictions of the triple code model in so far, as a disruption of cortico-subcortical loops involving the basal-ganglia may lead to specific deficits in fact retrieval. However, no verbal deficit, as assumed in the triple code model and reported in similar cases, could be observed. The present findings further add to current knowledge on numerical processing, showing how fronto-executive dysfunction may disrupt conceptual understanding of arithmetic. This study shows that not only parietal lesions may lead to severe deficits in conceptual understanding, but that basal ganglia lesions leading to frontal dysfunction may have a devastating effect. PMID:15093144

  8. Apathy and the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Levy, Richard; Czernecki, Virginie

    2006-12-01

    We should like to emphasize the following points: 1. Apathy is defined here as a quantified and observable behavioral syndrome consisting in a quantitative reduction of voluntary (or goal-directed) behaviors; 2. Therefore, apathy occurs when the systems that generate and control voluntary actions are altered; 3. These systems are mostly represented by the different subregions embedded in the Prefrontal cortex (PFC) and in the basal ganglia regions that are closely connected with the PFC; 4. In consequence, clinically, apathy is a prefrontal syndrome either due to direct lesions of the PFC or to lesions of basal ganglia areas that are closely related to the PFC; 5. Apathy is not a single entity but rather heterogeneous. Several different mechanisms may lead to apathy; Because there are several anatomical-functional prefrontal-basal ganglia circuits, the underlying mechanisms responsible for apathy may differ according to which prefrontal-basal ganglia circuit is affected; 6. In this context, apathy is the macroscopic results of the disruption of one or several elementary steps necessary for goal-directed behavior that are subserved by different prefrontal-basal ganglia circuits; 7. Intense apathy is related to caudate nucleus and GPi, disrupting associative and limbic pathways from/to the PFC; 8. in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and focal lesions (caudate nuclei, GPi), apathy may be due to a loss of PFC activation; 9. In Parkinson's disease (PD), apathy may be due to a loss of signal focalization; 10. More globally, we propose that apathy may be explained by the impact of lesions or dysfunctions of the BG, because these lesions or dysfunctions lead to a loss of amplification of the relevant signal and/or to a loss of temporal and spatial focalization, both of which result in a diminished extraction of the relevant signal within the frontal cortex, thereby inhibiting the capacity of the frontal cortex to select, initiate, maintain and shift programs of action.

  9. Basal ganglia intensity indices and diffusion weighted imaging in manganese-exposed welders

    PubMed Central

    Criswell, Susan R; Perlmutter, Joel S; Huang, John L; Golchin, Nima; Flores, Hubert P; Hobson, Angela; Aschner, Michael; Erikson, Keith M; Checkoway, Harvey; Racette, Brad A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Manganese exposure leads to diffuse cerebral metal deposition with the highest concentration in the globus pallidus associated with increased T1-weighted MRI signal. T1 signal intensity in extra-pallidal basal ganglia (caudate and putamen) has not been studied in occupationally exposed workers. Diffusion weighted imaging is a non-invasive measure of neuronal damage and may provide a quantification of neurotoxicity associated with welding and manganese exposure. This study investigated extra-pallidal T1 basal ganglia signal intensity as a marker of manganese exposure and basal ganglia diffusion weighted imaging abnormalities as a potential marker of neurotoxicity. Methods A 3T MR case:control imaging study was performed on 18 welders and 18 age- and gender-matched controls. Basal ganglia regions of interest were identified for each subject. T1-weighted intensity indices and apparent diffusion coefficients were generated for each region. Results All regional indices were higher in welders than controls (p≤0.05). Combined basal ganglia (ρ=0.610), caudate (ρ=0.645), anterior (ρ=0.595) and posterior putamen (ρ=0.511) indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal (ρ=0.484) index. Welder apparent diffusion coefficient values were lower than controls for globus pallidus (p=0.03) and anterior putamen (p=0.004). Conclusions Welders demonstrated elevated T1 indices throughout the basal ganglia. Combined basal ganglia, caudate and putamen indices were more correlated with exposure than pallidal index suggesting more inclusive basal ganglia sampling results in better exposure markers. Elevated indices were associated with diffusion weighted abnormalities in the pallidum and anterior putamen suggesting neurotoxicity in these regions. PMID:22447645

  10. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901

  11. Basal ganglia correlates of fatigue in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Shinada, Takamitsu; Maruyama, Tsukasa; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Magistro, Daniele; Sakaki, Kohei; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sasaki, Yukako; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of chronic fatigue is approximately 20% in healthy individuals, there are no studies of brain structure that elucidate the neural correlates of fatigue outside of clinical subjects. We hypothesized that fatigue without evidence of disease might be related to changes in the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex and be implicated in fatigue with disease. We aimed to identify the white matter structures of fatigue in young subjects without disease using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Healthy young adults (n = 883; 489 males and 394 females) were recruited. As expected, the degrees of fatigue and motivation were associated with larger mean diffusivity (MD) in the right putamen, pallidus and caudate. Furthermore, the degree of physical activity was associated with a larger MD only in the right putamen. Accordingly, motivation was the best candidate for widespread basal ganglia, whereas physical activity might be the best candidate for the putamen. A plausible mechanism of fatigue may involve abnormal function of the motor system, as well as areas of the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia that are associated with motivation and reward. PMID:26893077

  12. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders of Basal Ganglia Origin: Restoring Function or Functionality?

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is highly effective for both hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. The clinical use of DBS is, in part, empiric, based on the experience with prior surgical ablative therapies for these disorders, and, in part, driven by scientific discoveries made decades ago. In this review, we consider anatomical and functional concepts of the basal ganglia relevant to our understanding of DBS mechanisms, as well as our current understanding of the pathophysiology of two of the most commonly DBS-treated conditions, Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Finally, we discuss the proposed mechanism(s) of action of DBS in restoring function in patients with movement disorders. The signs and symptoms of the various disorders appear to result from signature disordered activity in the basal ganglia output, which disrupts the activity in thalamocortical and brainstem networks. The available evidence suggests that the effects of DBS are strongly dependent on targeting sensorimotor portions of specific nodes of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, that is, the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the globus pallidus. There is little evidence to suggest that DBS in patients with movement disorders restores normal basal ganglia functions (e.g., their role in movement or reinforcement learning). Instead, it appears that high-frequency DBS replaces the abnormal basal ganglia output with a more tolerable pattern, which helps to restore the functionality of downstream networks. PMID:26956115

  13. Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Yen M; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. "What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia?" and "how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?" are the main questions addressed in this review.

  14. The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  15. Dopaminergic Control of the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-Off via the Basal Ganglia.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Mark D; Khamassi, Mehdi; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We continuously face the dilemma of choosing between actions that gather new information or actions that exploit existing knowledge. This "exploration-exploitation" trade-off depends on the environment: stability favors exploiting knowledge to maximize gains; volatility favors exploring new options and discovering new outcomes. Here we set out to reconcile recent evidence for dopamine's involvement in the exploration-exploitation trade-off with the existing evidence for basal ganglia control of action selection, by testing the hypothesis that tonic dopamine in the striatum, the basal ganglia's input nucleus, sets the current exploration-exploitation trade-off. We first advance the idea of interpreting the basal ganglia output as a probability distribution function for action selection. Using computational models of the full basal ganglia circuit, we showed that, under this interpretation, the actions of dopamine within the striatum change the basal ganglia's output to favor the level of exploration or exploitation encoded in the probability distribution. We also found that our models predict striatal dopamine controls the exploration-exploitation trade-off if we instead read-out the probability distribution from the target nuclei of the basal ganglia, where their inhibitory input shapes the cortical input to these nuclei. Finally, by integrating the basal ganglia within a reinforcement learning model, we showed how dopamine's effect on the exploration-exploitation trade-off could be measurable in a forced two-choice task. These simulations also showed how tonic dopamine can appear to affect learning while only directly altering the trade-off. Thus, our models support the hypothesis that changes in tonic dopamine within the striatum can alter the exploration-exploitation trade-off by modulating the output of the basal ganglia.

  16. Action, time and the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Henry H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to control the speed of movement is compromised in neurological disorders involving the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical cerebral nuclei that receive prominent dopaminergic projections from the midbrain. For example, bradykinesia, slowness of movement, is a major symptom of Parkinson's disease, whereas rapid tics are observed in patients with Tourette syndrome. Recent experimental work has also implicated dopamine (DA) and the basal ganglia in action timing. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the basal ganglia control the rate of change in kinaesthetic perceptual variables. In particular, the sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia network implements a feedback circuit for the control of movement velocity. By modulating activity in this network, DA can change the gain of velocity reference signals. The lack of DA thus reduces the output of the velocity control system which specifies the rate of change in body configurations, slowing the transition from one body configuration to another. PMID:24446506

  17. Global dysrhythmia of cerebro-basal ganglia-cerebellar networks underlies motor tics following striatal disinhibition.

    PubMed

    McCairn, Kevin W; Iriki, Atsushi; Isoda, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Motor tics, a cardinal symptom of Tourette syndrome (TS), are hypothesized to arise from abnormalities within cerebro-basal ganglia circuits. Yet noninvasive neuroimaging of TS has previously identified robust activation in the cerebellum. To date, electrophysiological properties of cerebellar activation and its role in basal ganglia-mediated tic expression remain unknown. We performed multisite, multielectrode recordings of single-unit activity and local field potentials from the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and primary motor cortex using a pharmacologic monkey model of motor tics/TS. Following microinjections of bicuculline into the sensorimotor putamen, periodic tics occurred predominantly in the orofacial region, and a sizable number of cerebellar neurons showed phasic changes in activity associated with tic episodes. Specifically, 64% of the recorded cerebellar cortex neurons exhibited increases in activity, and 85% of the dentate nucleus neurons displayed excitatory, inhibitory, or multiphasic responses. Critically, abnormal discharges of cerebellar cortex neurons and excitatory-type dentate neurons mostly preceded behavioral tic onset, indicating their central origins. Latencies of pathological activity in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex substantially overlapped, suggesting that aberrant signals may be traveling along divergent pathways to these structures from the basal ganglia. Furthermore, the occurrence of tic movement was most closely associated with local field potential spikes in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex, implying that these structures may function as a gate to release overt tic movements. These findings indicate that tic-generating networks in basal ganglia mediated tic disorders extend beyond classical cerebro-basal ganglia circuits, leading to global network dysrhythmia including cerebellar circuits.

  18. Changes in basal ganglia processing of cortical input following magnetic stimulation in Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Hadass; Moran, Anan; Belelovsky, Katya; Bronfeld, Maya; Korngreen, Alon; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2012-12-01

    Parkinsonism is associated with major changes in neuronal activity throughout the cortico-basal ganglia loop. Current measures quantify changes in baseline neuronal and network activity but do not capture alterations in information propagation throughout the system. Here, we applied a novel non-invasive magnetic stimulation approach using a custom-made mini-coil that enabled us to study transmission of neuronal activity throughout the cortico-basal ganglia loop in both normal and parkinsonian primates. By magnetically perturbing cortical activity while simultaneously recording neuronal responses along the cortico-basal ganglia loop, we were able to directly investigate modifications in descending cortical activity transmission. We found that in both the normal and parkinsonian states, cortical neurons displayed similar multi-phase firing rate modulations in response to magnetic stimulation. However, in the basal ganglia, large synaptically driven stereotypic neuronal modulation was present in the parkinsonian state that was mostly absent in the normal state. The stimulation-induced neuronal activity pattern highlights the change in information propagation along the cortico-basal ganglia loop. Our findings thus point to the role of abnormal dynamic activity transmission rather than changes in baseline activity as a major component in parkinsonian pathophysiology. Moreover, our results hint that the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in human patients of different disorders may result in different neuronal effects than the one induced in normal subjects. PMID:22885186

  19. Strain differences in the toxicity of cadmium to trigeminal ganglia in mice.

    PubMed

    Habeebu, S S; Liu, Y; Park, J D; Klaassen, C D

    2001-12-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to sensory ganglia in many animal species. Cadmium uptake is low in the central nervous system, but it distributes preferentially to peripheral sensory and autonomic ganglia. Strain differences have been demonstrated in the sensitivity of mice to Cd-induced hepatotoxicity, testicular toxicity, and teratogenicity. To study the sensitivity of different mouse strains to Cd toxicity in sensory ganglia, eight strains of mice (four sensitive to testicular toxicity: 129/SVIM, AKR/J, DBA/1J, and C57BR/J; and four resistant: Balb/C, C3H/HeJ, A/J, and C57BL/6J) were given 15 micromol CdCl(2)/kg iv. Trigeminal ganglia (TG) were harvested 24 h later and examined by light microscopy for pathologic lesions. Cadmium induced degeneration of ganglion cells in five strains, namely 129/SVIM, AKR/J, DBA/1J, C57BR/J, and C3H/HeJ mice. These are the same strains that show sensitivity to testicular toxicity, except for C3H/HeJ, which is resistant to testicular toxicity. Cd also induced focal hemorrhages around the ganglion cells and nerve fibers in two of these strains (129/SVIM and AKR/J) and scattered foci of necrosis in C3H/HeJ and 129/SVIM strains. There was no morphologic abnormality in three strains, namely Balb/C, A/J, and C57BL/6J. To examine the mechanism of these strain differences in toxicity, all eight strains of mice were given a nontoxic dose of Cd (0.4 micromol CdCl(2)/kg, 20 microCi (109)Cd/kg iv). Cadmium distribution to the brain and trigeminal ganglia was determined 30 min later by gamma scintillation spectrometry. Cadmium content in the brain was very low and did not differ among the eight strains. In contrast, Cd content was higher in trigeminal ganglia of four of the five strains showing trigeminal ganglia sensitivity than in the three strains showing resistance. In conclusion, the toxicity of Cd to trigeminal ganglia is different among various strains of mice. This strain difference in toxicity appears to be due, at least in part, to

  20. Numerical deficits in a single case of basal ganglia dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zamarian, L; Bodner, T; Revkin, S K; Benke, T; Boesch, S; Donnemiller, E; Delazer, M

    2009-10-01

    The present investigation assesses specific numerical difficulties in a patient (SJ) with basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction. While previous studies on number processing in BG disorders typically tested arithmetic facts by production tasks, the present study uses production, recognition (verification, multiple-choice) and indirect (number-matching) arithmetic tasks. Patient SJ was severely impaired in production and to a lesser extent in verification and multiple-choice tasks. In number-matching, an abnormal latency pattern was found. This study extends previous research by indicating that BG dysfunction may not only affect production processes and sequencing, as was found in previous investigations, but may lead to a breakdown of semantic relationships of arithmetic facts. PMID:19370479

  1. The basal ganglia: anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Tisch, Stephen; Silberstein, Paul; Limousin-Dowsey, Patricia; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2004-12-01

    The basal ganglia are perceived as important nodes in cortico-subcortical networks involved in the transfer, convergence, and processing of information in motor, cognitive, and limbic domains. How this integration might occur remains a matter of some debate, particularly given the consistent finding in anatomic and physiologic studies of functional segregation in cortico-subcortical loops. More recent theories, however, have raised the notion that modality-specific information might be integrated not spatially, but rather temporally, by coincident processing in discrete neuronal populations. Basal ganglia neurotransmitters, given their diverse roles in motor performance, learning, working memory, and reward-related activity are also likely to play an important role in the integration of cerebral activity. Further work will elucidate this to a greater extent, but for now, it is clear that the basal ganglia form an important nexus in the binding of cognitive, limbic, and motor information into thought and action. PMID:15550292

  2. Anomalous basal ganglia connectivity and obsessive–compulsive behaviour in patients with Prader Willi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Jesus; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Esteba-Castillo, Susanna; Caixàs, Assumpta; Harrison, Ben J.; Bueno, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rigla, Mercedes; Macià, Dídac; Llorente-Onaindia, Jone; Novell-Alsina, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Background Prader Willi syndrome is a genetic disorder with a behavioural expression characterized by the presence of obsessive–compulsive phenomena ranging from elaborate obsessive eating behaviour to repetitive skin picking. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has been recently associated with abnormal functional coupling between the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. We have tested the potential association of functional connectivity anomalies in basal ganglia circuits with obsessive–compulsive behaviour in patients with Prader Willi syndrome. Methods We analyzed resting-state functional MRI in adult patients and healthy controls. Whole-brain functional connectivity maps were generated for the dorsal and ventral aspects of the caudate nucleus and putamen. A selected obsessive–compulsive behaviour assessment included typical OCD compulsions, self picking and obsessive eating behaviour. Results We included 24 adults with Prader Willi syndrome and 29 controls in our study. Patients with Prader Willi syndrome showed abnormal functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia and within subcortical structures that correlated with the presence and severity of obsessive–compulsive behaviours. In addition, abnormally heightened functional connectivity was identified in the primary sensorimotor cortex–putamen loop, which was strongly associated with self picking. Finally, obsessive eating behaviour correlated with abnormal functional connectivity both within the basal ganglia loops and between the striatum and the hypothalamus and the amygdala. Limitations Limitations of the study include the difficulty in evaluating the nature of content of obsessions in patients with Prader Willi Syndrome and the risk of excessive head motion artifact on brain imaging. Conclusion Patients with Prader Willi syndrome showed broad functional connectivity anomalies combining prefrontal loop alterations characteristic of OCD with 1) enhanced coupling in the

  3. Basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity in LGI1-autoantibody faciobrachial dystonic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Kotsenas, Amy L.; Britton, Jeffrey W.; McKeon, Andrew; Watson, Robert E.; Klein, Christopher J.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Lowe, Val; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Shin, Cheolsu; Boes, Christopher J.; Crum, Brian A.; Laughlin, Ruple S.; Pittock, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the clinical features and MRI abnormalities of leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1)-autoantibody (Ab) faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). Methods: Forty-eight patients with LGI1-Ab encephalopathy were retrospectively identified by searching our clinical and serologic database from January 1, 2002, to June 1, 2015. Of these, 26 met inclusion criteria for this case series: LGI1-Ab seropositivity and FBDS. In a separate analysis of all 48 patients initially identified, the MRIs of patients with (n = 26) and without (n = 22) FBDS were compared by 2 neuroradiologists blinded to the clinical details. Results: The median age of the 26 included patients was 62.5 years (range 37–78); 65% were men. FBDS involved arm (26), face (22), and leg (12). Ten were previously diagnosed as psychogenic. Ictal EEGs were normal in 20 of 23 assessed. Basal ganglia T1 and T2 signal abnormalities were detected in 11 patients (42%), with excellent agreement between neuroradiologists (κ scores of 0.86 and 0.93, respectively), and included T1 hyperintensity alone (2), T2 hyperintensity alone (1), or both (8). The T1 hyperintensities persisted longer than the T2 hyperintensities (median 11 weeks vs 1 week, p = 0.02). Improvement with immunotherapy (18/18) was more frequent than with antiepileptic medications (10/24). A separate analysis of all 48 patients initially identified with LGI1-Ab encephalopathy showed that basal ganglia MRI abnormalities were present in 11 of 26 with FBDS but not present in those without FBDS (0/22) (p < 0.001). In contrast, mesial temporal MRI abnormalities were less common among those with FBDS (42%) than those without (91%) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity is a clinically useful MRI biomarker of LGI1-Ab FBDS and suggests a basal ganglia localization. PMID:26468474

  4. Coupling in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit is aberrant in the ketamine model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cordon, Ivan; Nicolás, María Jesús; Arrieta, Sandra; Lopetegui, Eneko; López-Azcárate, Jon; Alegre, Manuel; Artieda, Julio; Valencia, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested the implication of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To investigate this hypothesis, here we have used the ketamine model of schizophrenia to determine the oscillatory abnormalities induced in the rat motor circuit of the basal ganglia. The activity of free moving rats was recorded in different structures of the cortico-basal ganglia circuit before and after an injection of a subanesthesic dose of ketamine (10mg/kg). Spectral estimates of the oscillatory activity, phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling interactions (CFC) and imaginary event-related coherence together with animals׳ behavior were analyzed. Oscillatory patterns in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit were highly altered by the effect of ketamine. CFC between the phases of low-frequency activities (delta, 1-4; theta 4-8Hz) and the amplitude of high-gamma (~80Hz) and high-frequency oscillations (HFO) (~150Hz) increased dramatically and correlated with the movement increment shown by the animals. Between-structure analyses revealed that ketamine had also a massive effect in the low-frequency mediated synchronization of the HFO's across the whole circuit. Our findings suggest that ketamine administration results in an aberrant hypersynchronization of the whole cortico-basal circuit where the tandem theta/HFO seems to act as the main actor in the hyperlocomotion shown by the animals. Here we stress the importance of the basal ganglia circuitry in the ketamine model of schizophrenia and leave the door open to further investigations devoted to elucidate to what extent these abnormalities also reflect the prominent neurophysiological deficits observed in schizophrenic patients.

  5. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  6. Basal ganglia orient eyes to reward.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Nakamura, Kae; Nakahara, Hiroyuki

    2006-02-01

    Expectation of reward motivates our behaviors and influences our decisions. Indeed, neuronal activity in many brain areas is modulated by expected reward. However, it is still unclear where and how the reward-dependent modulation of neuronal activity occurs and how the reward-modulated signal is transformed into motor outputs. Recent studies suggest an important role of the basal ganglia. Sensorimotor/cognitive activities of neurons in the basal ganglia are strongly modulated by expected reward. Through their abundant outputs to the brain stem motor areas and the thalamocortical circuits, the basal ganglia appear capable of producing body movements based on expected reward. A good behavioral measure to test this hypothesis is saccadic eye movement because its brain stem mechanism has been extensively studied. Studies from our laboratory suggest that the basal ganglia play a key role in guiding the gaze to the location where reward is available. Neurons in the caudate nucleus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata are extremely sensitive to the positional difference in expected reward, which leads to a bias in excitability between the superior colliculi such that the saccade to the to-be-rewarded position occurs more quickly. It is suggested that the reward modulation occurs in the caudate where cortical inputs carrying spatial signals and dopaminergic inputs carrying reward-related signals are integrated. These data support a specific form of reinforcement learning theories, but also suggest further refinement of the theory.

  7. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  8. Basal ganglia germinoma with progressive cerebral hemiatrophy.

    PubMed

    Liu, E; Robertson, R L; du Plessis, A; Pomeroy, S L

    1999-04-01

    The authors describe a 7-year-old Chinese-American female with a germinoma of the basal ganglia who presented with progressive hemiparesis and cerebral hemiatrophy. The additional finding of markedly elevated antiphospholipid antibodies suggests the possibility of an autoimmune pathogenesis for the progressive cerebral atrophy, as well as the later development of cognitive decline, tics, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors. PMID:10328283

  9. Radiographic association of schwannomas with sensory ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Tryggvason, Geir; Barnett, Andrew; Kim, John; Soken, Hakan; Maley, Joan; Hansen, Marlan R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Clinical experience suggests that the majority of schwannomas arise within sensory ganglia, suggesting that intraganglionic glial cells represent a potential cell of origin for schwannomas. To support this clinical impression, we reviewed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies performed over a 5 year period at our institution to determine the relationship of cranial and spinal nerve schwannomas with the ganglia of the associated nerves. Study design Retrospective cohort study Setting Tertiary referral center Patients Patients undergoing imaging study at our institution over a 5 year period. Intervention(s) Radiographical images at our institution were reviewed as well as published studies to determine the anatomic location of schwannomas. Main outcome measure(s) Anatomical location of schwannomas Results A total of 372 patients were found over the 5-year study period, 31 of those were diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Vestibular schwannomas comprised the greatest number of schwannomas, followed by spinal schwannomas. In NF2 patients, spinal schwannomas were the most common tumor, followed by vestibular schwannomas. In NF2 patients and those with sporadic schwannomas, the overwhelming majority of tumors arose in nerves with a sensory component and were associated with sensory ganglia of the nerves (562/607, 92.6%). Very few tumors arose from pure motor nerves. This is supported by review of published articles on anatomic location of schwannomas. Conclusions Schwannomas are strongly associated anatomically with ganglia of sensory nerves. These findings raise the possibility that intraganglionic glial cells give rise to the majority of schwannomas. PMID:22858714

  10. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. PMID:23293672

  11. Blocking protein farnesylation improves nuclear shape abnormalities in keratinocytes of mice expressing the prelamin A variant in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexia; Östlund, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an accelerated aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA leading to expression of a truncated prelamin A variant termed progerin. Whereas a farnesylated polypeptide is normally removed from the carboxyl-terminus of prelamin A during endoproteolytic processing to lamin A, progerin lacks the cleavage site and remains farnesylated. Cultured cells from human subjects with HGPS and genetically modified mice expressing progerin have nuclear morphological abnormalities, which are reversed by inhibitors of protein farnesylation. In addition, treatment with protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors improves whole animal phenotypes in mouse models of HGPS. However, improvement in nuclear morphology in tissues after treatment of animals has not been demonstrated. We therefore treated transgenic mice that express progerin in epidermis with the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-276 or a combination of pravastatin and zoledronate to determine if they reversed nuclear morphological abnormalities in tissue. Immunofluorescence microscopy and “blinded” electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that systemic administration of FTI-276 or pravastatin plus zoledronate significantly improved nuclear morphological abnormalities in keratinocytes of transgenic mice. These results show that pharmacological blockade of protein prenylation reverses nuclear morphological abnormalities that occur in HGPS in vivo. They further suggest that skin biopsy may be useful to determine if protein farnesylation inhibitors are exerting effects in subjects with HGPS in clinical trials. PMID:21326826

  12. Blocking protein farnesylation improves nuclear shape abnormalities in keratinocytes of mice expressing the prelamin A variant in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuexia; Ostlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J

    2010-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an accelerated aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA leading to expression of a truncated prelamin A variant termed progerin. Whereas a farnesylated polypeptide is normally removed from the carboxyl-terminus of prelamin A during endoproteolytic processing to lamin A, progerin lacks the cleavage site and remains farnesylated. Cultured cells from human subjects with HGPS and genetically modified mice expressing progerin have nuclear morphological abnormalities, which are reversed by inhibitors of protein farnesylation. In addition, treatment with protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors improves whole animal phenotypes in mouse models of HGPS. However, improvement in nuclear morphology in tissues after treatment of animals has not been demonstrated. We therefore treated transgenic mice that express progerin in epidermis with the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-276 or a combination of pravastatin and zoledronate to determine if they reversed nuclear morphological abnormalities in tissue. Immunofluorescence microscopy and "blinded" electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that systemic administration of FTI-276 or pravastatin plus zoledronate significantly improved nuclear morphological abnormalities in keratinocytes of transgenic mice. These results show that pharmacological blockade of protein prenylation reverses nuclear morphological abnormalities that occur in HGPS in vivo. They further suggest that skin biopsy may be useful to determine if protein farnesylation inhibitors are exerting effects in subjects with HGPS in clinical trials.

  13. Dopaminergic Control of the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-Off via the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Mark D.; Khamassi, Mehdi; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We continuously face the dilemma of choosing between actions that gather new information or actions that exploit existing knowledge. This “exploration-exploitation” trade-off depends on the environment: stability favors exploiting knowledge to maximize gains; volatility favors exploring new options and discovering new outcomes. Here we set out to reconcile recent evidence for dopamine’s involvement in the exploration-exploitation trade-off with the existing evidence for basal ganglia control of action selection, by testing the hypothesis that tonic dopamine in the striatum, the basal ganglia’s input nucleus, sets the current exploration-exploitation trade-off. We first advance the idea of interpreting the basal ganglia output as a probability distribution function for action selection. Using computational models of the full basal ganglia circuit, we showed that, under this interpretation, the actions of dopamine within the striatum change the basal ganglia’s output to favor the level of exploration or exploitation encoded in the probability distribution. We also found that our models predict striatal dopamine controls the exploration-exploitation trade-off if we instead read-out the probability distribution from the target nuclei of the basal ganglia, where their inhibitory input shapes the cortical input to these nuclei. Finally, by integrating the basal ganglia within a reinforcement learning model, we showed how dopamine’s effect on the exploration-exploitation trade-off could be measurable in a forced two-choice task. These simulations also showed how tonic dopamine can appear to affect learning while only directly altering the trade-off. Thus, our models support the hypothesis that changes in tonic dopamine within the striatum can alter the exploration-exploitation trade-off by modulating the output of the basal ganglia. PMID:22347155

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Reactivates from Autonomic Ciliary Ganglia Independently from Sensory Trigeminal Ganglia To Cause Recurrent Ocular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungseok; Ives, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 establish latency in sensory and autonomic neurons after ocular or genital infection, but their recurrence patterns differ. HSV-1 reactivates from latency to cause recurrent orofacial disease, and while HSV-1 also causes genital lesions, HSV-2 recurs more efficiently in the genital region and rarely causes ocular disease. The mechanisms regulating these anatomical preferences are unclear. To determine whether differences in latent infection and reactivation in autonomic ganglia contribute to differences in HSV-1 and HSV-2 anatomical preferences for recurrent disease, we compared HSV-1 and HSV-2 clinical disease, acute and latent viral loads, and viral gene expression in sensory trigeminal and autonomic superior cervical and ciliary ganglia in a guinea pig ocular infection model. HSV-2 produced more severe acute disease, correlating with higher viral DNA loads in sensory and autonomic ganglia, as well as higher levels of thymidine kinase expression, a marker of productive infection, in autonomic ganglia. HSV-1 reactivated in ciliary ganglia, independently from trigeminal ganglia, to cause more frequent recurrent symptoms, while HSV-2 replicated simultaneously in autonomic and sensory ganglia to cause more persistent disease. While both HSV-1 and HSV-2 expressed the latency-associated transcript (LAT) in the trigeminal and superior cervical ganglia, only HSV-1 expressed LAT in ciliary ganglia, suggesting that HSV-2 is not reactivation competent or does not fully establish latency in ciliary ganglia. Thus, differences in replication and viral gene expression in autonomic ganglia may contribute to differences in HSV-1 and HSV-2 acute and recurrent clinical disease. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 establish latent infections, from which the viruses reactivate to cause recurrent disease throughout the life of the host. However, the viruses exhibit different manifestations and frequencies of recurrent

  15. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mikhael, John G; Bogacz, Rafal

    2016-09-01

    Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid) options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing) the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions. PMID:27589489

  17. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Bogacz, Rafal

    2016-01-01

    Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid) options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing) the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions. PMID:27589489

  18. Basal ganglia hyperechogenicity does not distinguish between patients with primary dystonia and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hagenah, Johann; König, Inke R; Kötter, Charlotte; Seidel, Günter; Klein, Christine; Brüggemann, Norbert

    2011-04-01

    Transcranial sonography (TCS) of the basal ganglia is a non-invasive tool to study movement disorders. Very few studies have addressed the question of whether TCS may detect specific echofeatures in patients with primary dystonia. The basal ganglia including the substantia nigra (SN) and the ventricular system were investigated by TCS in 84 primary dystonia patients and 43 neurologically healthy controls. Any hyperechogenicity of the lenticular nucleus was present in 57.5% of the patients and in 50.0% of the controls (p = 0.453). While marked hyperechogenicity was more frequently present in the patients (17.8 vs. 7.9%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.227). No differences in the occurrence of hyperechogenicity were detectable either in the caudate nucleus (21.6 vs. 39.5%, p = 0.122) or the thalamus (4.1 vs. 0%, p = 0.199). Marked hyperechogenicity of the caudate nucleus was rare in dystonia (4.1%) and absent in controls. There was no relationship between the side of basal ganglia hyperechogenicity and the clinically affected side of cervical dystonia. The area of SN echogenicity was similar in patients and controls (0.19 ± 0.14 vs. 0.20 ± 0.13 cm(2)), but correlated negatively with increasing disease duration in the dystonia patients (ρ = -0.257, p = 0.028). Width of the third ventricle correlated with increasing age (ρ = 0.511, p = 0.000) and, in patients, with disease duration (ρ = 0.244, p = 0.034) and severity of cervical dystonia (ρ = 0.281, p = 0.038). No characteristic abnormalities were found in the basal ganglia of primary dystonia patients. It remains to be explored whether this is due to a true absence of signal alterations in the basal ganglia of dystonia patients or to limitations of the current technology used.

  19. The endogenous opioid system in neurological disorders of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R

    1985-11-01

    The endogenous opioid peptides have for some time been implicated in the regulation of motor behavior in animals. Recently, however, there is increased evidence to suggest a role for these peptides in the control of human motor functions as well as in the pathophysiology of abnormal movement disorders. Degeneration of opioid peptide-containing neurons in the basal ganglia has been demonstrated in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's chorea, but the clinical significance of these findings is largely unknown. On the other hand, there is evidence that excessive opioid activity may be important in the pathophysiology of some movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia, progressive supra-nuclear palsy, and a subgroup of Tourette's patients. These findings indicate that diseases of the basal ganglia are possibly associated with alterations in opioid peptide activity, and that these alterations may be useful in designing experimental therapeutic strategies in these conditions. PMID:2865665

  20. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  1. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  2. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  3. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  4. Eyeblink Conditioning Deficits Indicate Timing and Cerebellar Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, S.M.; Kieffaber, P.D.; Carroll, C.A.; Vohs, J.L.; Tracy, J.A.; Shekhar, A.; O'Donnell, B.F.; Steinmetz, J.E.; Hetrick, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia manifest abnormalities in structures (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine) linked to internal-timing processes. A single-cue tone delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm comprised of 100 learning and 50 extinction trials was used to examine cerebellar…

  5. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Kopáni, Martin; Boča, Roman

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  6. Dorsal root ganglia microenvironment of female BB Wistar diabetic rats with mild neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zochodne, D W; Ho, L T; Allison, J A

    1994-12-01

    Abnormalities in the microenvironment of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) might play a role in the pathogenesis of sensory abnormalities in human diabetic neuropathy. We examined aspects of DRG microenvironment by measuring local blood flow and oxygen tension in the L4 dorsal root ganglia of female BB Wistar (BBW) diabetic rats with mild neuropathy. The findings were compared with concurrent measurements of local sciatic endoneurial blood flow and oxygen tension. Diabetic rats were treated with insulin and underwent electrophysiological, blood flow and oxygen tension measurements at either 7-11 or 17-23 weeks after the development of glycosuria. Nondiabetic female BB Wistar rats from the same colony served as controls. At both ages, BBW diabetic rats had significant abnormalities in sensory, but not motor conduction compared to nondiabetic controls. Sciatic endoneurial blood flow in the diabetic rats of both ages was similar to control values, but the older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW diabetic rats had a selective reduction in DRG blood flow. Sciatic endoneurial oxygen tensions were not significantly altered in the diabetic rats. DRG oxygen tension appeared lowered in younger (7-11 week diabetic) but not older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW rats. Our findings indicate that there are important changes in the DRG microenvironment of diabetic rats with selective sensory neuropathy. PMID:7699389

  7. Dorsal root ganglia microenvironment of female BB Wistar diabetic rats with mild neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zochodne, D W; Ho, L T; Allison, J A

    1994-12-01

    Abnormalities in the microenvironment of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) might play a role in the pathogenesis of sensory abnormalities in human diabetic neuropathy. We examined aspects of DRG microenvironment by measuring local blood flow and oxygen tension in the L4 dorsal root ganglia of female BB Wistar (BBW) diabetic rats with mild neuropathy. The findings were compared with concurrent measurements of local sciatic endoneurial blood flow and oxygen tension. Diabetic rats were treated with insulin and underwent electrophysiological, blood flow and oxygen tension measurements at either 7-11 or 17-23 weeks after the development of glycosuria. Nondiabetic female BB Wistar rats from the same colony served as controls. At both ages, BBW diabetic rats had significant abnormalities in sensory, but not motor conduction compared to nondiabetic controls. Sciatic endoneurial blood flow in the diabetic rats of both ages was similar to control values, but the older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW diabetic rats had a selective reduction in DRG blood flow. Sciatic endoneurial oxygen tensions were not significantly altered in the diabetic rats. DRG oxygen tension appeared lowered in younger (7-11 week diabetic) but not older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW rats. Our findings indicate that there are important changes in the DRG microenvironment of diabetic rats with selective sensory neuropathy.

  8. Basal Ganglia MR Relaxometry in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: T2 Depends Upon Age of Symptom Onset

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Emily; Hassenstab, Jason; Yip, Agustin; Vymazal, Josef; Herynek, Vit; Giedd, Jay; Murphy, Dennis L.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

    2010-01-01

    Dysfunction in circuits linking frontal cortex and basal ganglia (BG) is strongly implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). On MRI studies, neuropsychiatric disorders with known BG pathology have abnormally short T2 relaxation values (a putative biomarker of elevated iron) in this region. We asked if BG T2 values are abnormal in OCD. We measured volume and T2 and T1 relaxation rates in BG of 32 adults with OCD and 33 matched controls. There were no group differences in volume or T1 values in caudate, putamen, or globus pallidus (GP). The OCD group had lower T2 values (suggesting higher iron content) in the right GP, with a trend in the same direction for the left GP. This effect was driven by patients whose OCD symptoms began from around adolescence to early adulthood. The results suggest a possible relationship between age of OCD onset and iron deposition in the basal ganglia. PMID:20503112

  9. Unilateral germinomas involving the basal ganglia and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Kageyama, N; Kida, Y; Yoshida, J; Shibuya, N; Okamura, K

    1981-07-01

    Clinical characteristics of six cases of germinoma involving a unilateral basal ganglion and thalamus are summarized. The incidence was estimated as 10% of all intracranial germinomas. The average age at the onset was 10.5 years. The sex incidence showed a male dominance. The clinical course was slowly progressive, and the average duration between onset and diagnosis was 2 years 5 months. Common symptoms and signs were hemiparesis in all cases, fever of unknown origin and eye symptoms in most, mental deterioration and psychiatric signs in three, and convulsions, pubertas praecox, and diabetes insipidus in two. Signs of increased intracranial pressure were found in only two cases in the later state of the disease. Early diagnosis is difficult because of nonspecific symptomatology and slow progression. Carotid angiography and pneumoencephalography showed abnormal findings compatible with basal ganglia and thalamic tumors, but not specific to germinoma. Ipsilateral cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation might be significant findings. Radioisotope scanning was useful. Computerized tomography scans were the best method of detecting the location and nature of this tumor, and repeat scans showed response to radiation therapy. PMID:7241216

  10. Acoustically enhanced multicomponent NAPL ganglia dissolution in water saturated packed columns.

    PubMed

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V; Vogler, Eric T

    2004-05-15

    The impact of acoustic pressure waves on multicomponent nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) ganglia dissolution in water saturated columns packed with glass beads was investigated. Laboratory data from dissolution experiments with two and three component NAPL mixtures suggested that acoustic waves significantly enhance ganglia dissolution due to the imposed oscillatory interstitial water velocity. The dissolution enhancement was shown to be directly proportional to the acoustic wave frequency. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the greatest dissolution enhancement in the presence of acoustic waves is associated with the component of the NAPL mixture having the smallest equilibrium aqueous solubility. Finally, square shaped acoustic waves were shown to lead to greater NAPL dissolution enhancement compared to sinusoidal and triangular acoustic waves. The results of this study suggested that aquifer remediation using acoustic waves is a promising method particularly for aquifers contaminated with NAPLs containing components with very low equilibrium aqueous solubilities.

  11. Gait function in high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder : evidence for basal-ganglia and cerebellar involvement?

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Nicole J; Tonge, Bruce J; Bradshaw, John L; Iansek, Robert; Enticott, Peter G; McGinley, Jenny

    2006-08-01

    Gait abnormalities have been widely reported in individuals with autism and Asperger's disorder. There is controversy as to whether the cerebellum or the basal-ganglia frontostriatal regions underpin these abnormalities. This is the first direct comparison of gait and upper-body postural features in autism and Asperger's disorder. Clinical and control groups were matched according to age, height, weight, performance, and full scale IQ. Consistent with Hallet's (1993) cerebellar-gait hypothesis, the autistic group showed significantly increased stride-length variability in their gait in comparison to control and Asperger's disorder participants. No quantitative gait deficits were found for the Asperger's disorder group. In support of Damasio and Maurer's (1982) basal-ganglia frontostriatal-gait hypothesis, both clinical groups were rated as showing abnormal arm posturing, however, only the Asperger's group were rated as significantly different from controls in terms of head and trunk posturing. While DSM-IV-TR suggests that Asperger's disorder, but not autism, is associated with motoric clumsiness, our data suggest that both clinical groups are uncoordinated and lacking in motor smoothness. Gait differences in autism and Asperger's disorder were suggested to reflect differential involvement of the cerebellum, with commonalities reflecting similar involvement of the basal-ganglia frontostriatal region.

  12. [The Anatomical Method of Isolating Central Ganglia from Oncomelania hupensis].

    PubMed

    TAN, Ping; YU, Zhi-jun

    2015-10-01

    In this experiment the soft tissue of Oncomelania hupensis was obtained by breaking the shell with a hemostat. The central ganglia of 0. hupensis were then collected from the fresh soft tissue under a dissecting microscope. This method lays a base for studying the effects of molluscicides or various biological and physicochemical factors on the central ganglia of 0. hupensis. PMID:26931039

  13. Calcium Signaling in Intact Dorsal Root Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Gemes, Geza; Rigaud, Marcel; Koopmeiners, Andrew S.; Poroli, Mark J.; Zoga, Vasiliki; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ca2+ is the dominant second messenger in primary sensory neurons. In addition, disrupted Ca2+ signaling is a prominent feature in pain models involving peripheral nerve injury. Standard cytoplasmic Ca2+ recording techniques use high K+ or field stimulation and dissociated neurons. To compare findings in intact dorsal root ganglia, we used a method of simultaneous electrophysiologic and microfluorimetric recording. Methods Dissociated neurons were loaded by bath-applied Fura-2-AM and subjected to field stimulation. Alternatively, we adapted a technique in which neuronal somata of intact ganglia were loaded with Fura-2 through an intracellular microelectrode that provided simultaneous membrane potential recording during activation by action potentials (APs) conducted from attached dorsal roots. Results Field stimulation at levels necessary to activate neurons generated bath pH changes through electrolysis and failed to predictably drive neurons with AP trains. In the intact ganglion technique, single APs produced measurable Ca2+ transients that were fourfold larger in presumed nociceptive C-type neurons than in nonnociceptive Aβ-type neurons. Unitary Ca2+ transients summated during AP trains, forming transients with amplitudes that were highly dependent on stimulation frequency. Each neuron was tuned to a preferred frequency at which transient amplitude was maximal. Transients predominantly exhibited monoexponential recovery and had sustained plateaus during recovery only with trains of more than 100 APs. Nerve injury decreased Ca2+ transients in C-type neurons, but increased transients in Aβ-type neurons. Conclusions Refined observation of Ca2+ signaling is possible through natural activation by conducted APs in undissociated sensory neurons and reveals features distinct to neuronal types and injury state. PMID:20526180

  14. Anatomic study of human laryngeal ganglia: number and distribution.

    PubMed

    Maranillo, Eva; Vazquez, Teresa; Ibanez, Marta; Hurtado, Miguel; Pascual-Font, Aran; McHanwell, Stephen; Valderrama-Canales, Francisco; Sanudo, Jose

    2008-10-01

    We have studied 12 laryngeal nerves: six internal branches of the superior laryngeal nerve (ILN) and six recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN) from three human adult larynges (two males and one female). After dissection of each individual laryngeal nerve using a surgical microscope, the nerves were preserved in 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin wax, serially sectioned transversely at a thickness of 10 microm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. We found 2-4 ganglia associated with the ILN. At least two ganglia were always present (six out of six cases), the largest one being associated with the branch of the nerve innervating the vestibule and the smallest one associated with the branch innervating the aryepiglottic fold. Other ganglia were found associated with the branches for the glosso-epiglottic fold and vallecula (four out of six cases) and interarytenoid muscle (three out of six cases). The RLN showed from two to six ganglia, all of them located in its anterior terminal division. Two of the ganglia were located in the part of the nerve between the origin of the branches for the interarytenoid and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles (three out of six cases). The remaining ganglia were located close to or at the origin of the muscular branches innervating the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. The cytology of the ganglia reported suggests that they were all autonomic in nature, probably parasympathetic.

  15. The role of the autonomic ganglia in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Stavrakis, Stavros; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Po, Sunny S.; Scherlag, Benjamin J.; Lazzara, Ralph; Jackman, Warren M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown that the epicardial autonomic ganglia play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this review, we present the current data on the role of the autonomic ganglia in the pathogenesis of AF and discuss potential therapeutic implications. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute autonomic remodeling may play a crucial role in AF maintenance in the very early stages. The benefit of adding ablation of the autonomic ganglia to the standard pulmonary vein (PV) isolation procedure for patients with paroxysmal AF is supported by both experimental and clinical data. The interruption of axons from these hyperactive autonomic ganglia to the PV myocardial sleeves may be an important factor in the success of PV isolation procedures. The vagus nerve exerts an inhibitory control over the autonomic ganglia and attenuation or loss of this control may allow these ganglia to become hyperactive. Autonomic neuromodulation using low-level vagus nerve stimulation inhibits the activity of the autonomic ganglia and reverses acute electrical atrial remodeling during rapid atrial pacing and may provide an alternative non-ablative approach for the treatment of AF, especially in the early stages. This notion is supported by a preliminary human study. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26301262

  16. The basal ganglia-circa 1982 - A review and commentary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent studies which utilize new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods in order to improve knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and to clarify their sites of origin. These studies have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and have revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Also examined are the many new histochemical techniques that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in or interconnecting with the basal ganglia.

  17. The chelonian spinal nerve ganglia are a conglomerate of the spinal nerve ganglia proper and the sympathetic ganglia.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Tetsuo; Nakano, Masato; Atobe, Yoshitoshi; Goris, Richard C; Funakoshi, Kengo

    2009-01-01

    A tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell mass is found in the caudal portion of the dorsal nerve ganglion of the red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans. The ganglion appears as a flat oval structure in the horizontal plane, where the major axis runs latero-medially, and the minor axis rostro-caudally in the ventral view. A communicating branch to the sympathetic chain diverges from the top of each tubercle which lies on the caudo-lateral side of the ganglion. A tyrosine hydroxylase- immunoreactive cell mass is located in this tubercle. This cell mass exists in both sexes. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells, that contain Nissl bodies in cytoplasm and are enveloped by the satellite cells, are multipolar and their neural processes are distributed in a distal direction into the spinal nerve. The range of distribution of the synapsin I-immunoreactive structures is limited to the tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell mass. The chelonian dorsal spinal nerve ganglia are a conglomerate of the spinal nerve ganglion proper and the sympathetic ganglion.

  18. Segmentation of nerve bundles and ganglia in spine MRI using particle filters.

    PubMed

    Dalca, Adrian; Danagoulian, Giovanna; Kikinis, Ron; Schmidt, Ehud; Golland, Polina

    2011-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of spinal nerve bundles that originate within the dural sac and exit the spinal canal is important for diagnosis and surgical planning. The variability in intensity, contrast, shape and direction of nerves seen in high resolution myelographic MR images makes segmentation a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automatic tracking method for nerve segmentation based on particle filters. We develop a novel approach to particle representation and dynamics, based on Bézier splines. Moreover, we introduce a robust image likelihood model that enables delineation of nerve bundles and ganglia from the surrounding anatomical structures. We demonstrate accurate and fast nerve tracking and compare it to expert manual segmentation.

  19. Synaptic dimorphism in Onychophoran cephalic ganglia.

    PubMed

    Peña-Contreras, Z; Mendoza-Briceño, R V; Miranda-Contreras, L; Palacios-Prü, E L

    2007-03-01

    The taxonomic location of the Onychophora has been controversial because of their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, related to both annelids and arthropods. We analyzed the ultrastructure of the neurons and their synapses in the cephalic ganglion of a poorly known invertebrate, the velvet worm Peripatus sedgwicki, from the mountainous region of El Valle, Mérida, Venezuela. Cephalic ganglia were dissected, fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy. The animal has a high degree of neurobiological development, as evidenced by the presence of asymmetric (excitatory) and symmetric (inhibitory) synapses, as well as the existence of glial cell processes in a wide neuropile zone. The postsynaptic terminals were seen to contain subsynaptic cisterns formed by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum beneath the postsynaptic density, whereas the presynaptic terminal showed numerous electron transparent synaptic vesicles. From the neurophylogenetic perspectives, the ultrastructural characteristics of the central nervous tissue of the Onychophora show important evolutionary acquirements, such as the presence of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, indicating functional synaptic transmission, and the appearance of mature glial cells. PMID:18457135

  20. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    MedlinePlus

    ... in regulating phosphate levels within the body (phosphate homeostasis) by transporting phosphate across cell membranes. The SLC20A2 ... link familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with phosphate homeostasis. Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 12;44(3):254- ...

  1. Human laryngeal ganglia contain both sympathetic and parasympathetic cell types.

    PubMed

    Ibanez, Marta; Valderrama-Canales, Francisco J; Maranillo, Eva; Vazquez, Teresa; Pascual-Font, Arán; McHanwell, Stephen; Sanudo, Jose

    2010-09-01

    The presence of ganglia associated with the laryngeal nerves is well documented. In man, these ganglia have been less well studied than in other species and, in particular, the cell types within these ganglia are less well characterized. Using a panel of antibodies to a variety of markers found in the paraganglion cells of other species, we were able to show the existence of at least two populations of cells within human laryngeal paraganglia. One population contained chromogranin and tyrosine hydroxylase representing a neurosecretory population possibly secreting dopamine. A second population of choline acetyltransferase positive cells would appear to have a putative parasympathetic function. Further work is needed to characterize these cell populations more fully before it will be possible to assign functions to these cell types but our results are consistent with the postulated functions of these ganglia as chemoreceptors, neurosecretory cells, and regulators of laryngeal mucus secretion.

  2. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    PubMed Central

    Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

  3. Convergent evidence for abnormal striatal synaptic plasticity in dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Dystonia is a functionally disabling movement disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures. Although substantial recent progress has been made in identifying genetic factors, the pathophysiology of the disease remains a mystery. A provocative suggestion gaining broader acceptance is that some aspect of neural plasticity may be abnormal. There is also evidence that, at least in some forms of dystonia, sensorimotor “use” may be a contributing factor. Most empirical evidence of abnormal plasticity in dystonia comes from measures of sensorimotor cortical organization and physiology. However, the basal ganglia also play a critical role in sensorimotor function. Furthermore, the basal ganglia are prominently implicated in traditional models of dystonia, are the primary targets of stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, and provide a neural substrate for sensorimotor learning influenced by neuromodulators. Our working hypothesis is that abnormal plasticity in the basal ganglia is a critical link between the etiology and pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review we set up the background for this hypothesis by integrating a large body of disparate indirect evidence that dystonia may involve abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the striatum. After reviewing evidence implicating the striatum in dystonia, we focus on the influence of two neuromodulatory systems: dopamine and acetylcholine. For both of these neuromodulators, we first describe the evidence for abnormalities in dystonia and then the means by which it may influence striatal synaptic plasticity. Collectively, the evidence suggests that many different forms of dystonia may involve abnormal plasticity in the striatum. An improved understanding of these altered plastic processes would help inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, and, given the role of the striatum in sensorimotor learning, provide a principled basis for designing therapies aimed at the dynamic processes

  4. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal... in accordance with section 203 of the Act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive findings with regard...

  5. Task-Rest Modulation of Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Mild to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C.; Poston, Kathleen L.; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M.; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG–cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen–medial parietal and pallidum–occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate–supramarginal gyrus and pallidum–inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal–cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate–prefrontal, caudate–precuneus, and putamen–motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance. PMID:25280970

  6. Task-rest modulation of basal ganglia connectivity in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C; Poston, Kathleen L; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG-cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen-medial parietal and pallidum-occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate-supramarginal gyrus and pallidum-inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal-cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate-prefrontal, caudate-precuneus, and putamen-motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance. PMID:25280970

  7. Automatic Evaluation of Speech Rhythm Instability and Acceleration in Dysarthrias Associated with Basal Ganglia Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Jan; Hlavnička, Jan; Čmejla, Roman; Růžička, Evžen

    2015-01-01

    Speech rhythm abnormalities are commonly present in patients with different neurodegenerative disorders. These alterations are hypothesized to be a consequence of disruption to the basal ganglia circuitry involving dysfunction of motor planning, programing, and execution, which can be detected by a syllable repetition paradigm. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to design a robust signal processing technique that allows the automatic detection of spectrally distinctive nuclei of syllable vocalizations and to determine speech features that represent rhythm instability (RI) and rhythm acceleration (RA). A further aim was to elucidate specific patterns of dysrhythmia across various neurodegenerative disorders that share disruption of basal ganglia function. Speech samples based on repetition of the syllable /pa/ at a self-determined steady pace were acquired from 109 subjects, including 22 with Parkinson's disease (PD), 11 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 9 multiple system atrophy (MSA), 24 ephedrone-induced parkinsonism (EP), 20 Huntington's disease (HD), and 23 healthy controls. Subsequently, an algorithm for the automatic detection of syllables as well as features representing RI and RA were designed. The proposed detection algorithm was able to correctly identify syllables and remove erroneous detections due to excessive inspiration and non-speech sounds with a very high accuracy of 99.6%. Instability of vocal pace performance was observed in PSP, MSA, EP, and HD groups. Significantly increased pace acceleration was observed only in the PD group. Although not significant, a tendency for pace acceleration was observed also in the PSP and MSA groups. Our findings underline the crucial role of the basal ganglia in the execution and maintenance of automatic speech motor sequences. We envisage the current approach to become the first step toward the development of acoustic technologies allowing automated assessment of rhythm in dysarthrias. PMID:26258122

  8. Quantitation of the human basal ganglia with Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bendriem, B.; Dewey, S.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.; Volkow, N.D.

    1990-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the concentration of a radioisotope in small structures with PET requires a correction for quantitation loss due to the partial volume effect and the effect of scattered radiation. To evaluate errors associated with measures in the human basal ganglia (BG) we have built a unilateral model of the BG that we have inserted in a 20 cm cylinder. The recovery coefficient (RC = measured activity/true activity) for our BG phantom has been measured on a CTI tomograph (model 931-08/12) with different background concentrations (contrast) and at different axial locations in the gantry. The BG was visualized on 4 or 5 slices depending on its position in the gantry and on the contrast used. The RC was 0.75 with no background (contrast equal to 1.0). Increasing the relative radioactivity concentration in the background increased the RC from 0.75 to 2.00 when the contrast was {minus}0.7 (BG < Background). The RC was also affected by the size and the shape of the region of interest (ROI) used (RC from 0.75 to 0.67 with ROI size from 0.12 to 1.41 cm{sup 2}). These results show that accurate RC correction depends not only on the volume of the structure but also on its contrast with its surroundings as well as on the selection of the ROI. They also demonstrate that the higher the contrast the more sensitive to axial positioning PET measurements in the BG are. These data provide us with some information about the variability of PET measurements in small structure like the BG and we have proposed some strategies to improve the reproducibility. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Role of the Indirect Pathway of the Basal Ganglia in Perceptual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Rubin, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) play an important role in motor control, reinforcement learning, and perceptual decision making. Modeling and experimental evidence suggest that, in a speed–accuracy tradeoff, the corticostriatal pathway can adaptively adjust a decision threshold (the amount of information needed to make a choice). In this study, we go beyond the focus of previous works on the direct and hyperdirect pathways to examine the contribution of the indirect pathway of the BG system to decision making in a biophysically based spiking network model. We find that the mechanism of adjusting the decision threshold by plasticity of the corticostriatal connections is effective, provided that the indirect pathway counterbalances the direct pathway in their projections to the output nucleus. Furthermore, in our model, changes within basal ganglia connections similar to those that arise in parkinsonism give rise to strong beta oscillations. Specifically, beta oscillations are produced by an abnormal enhancement of the interactions between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external segment of globus pallidus (GPe) in the indirect pathway, with an oscillation frequency that depends on the excitatory cortical input to the STN and the inhibitory input to the GPe from the striatum. In a parkinsonian state characterized by pronounced beta oscillations, the mean reaction time and range of threshold variation (a measure of behavioral flexibility) are significantly reduced compared with the normal state. Our work thus reveals a specific circuit mechanism for impairments of perceptual decision making associated with Parkinson's disease. PMID:25740532

  10. Genetic screening and functional characterization of PDGFRB mutations associated with Basal Ganglia Calcification of Unknown Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Contreras, Monica; Baker, Matthew C.; Finch, NiCole A.; Nicholson, Alexandra; Wojtas, Aleksandra; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Ross, Owen A.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Rademakers, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Three causal genes for Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) have been identified. Most recently, mutations in PDGFRB, encoding a member of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor family type β, and PDGFB, encoding PDGF-B, the specific ligand of PDGFRβ, were found implicating the PDGF-B/PDGFRβ pathway in abnormal brain calcification. In this study we aimed to identify and study mutations in PDGFRB and PDGFB in a series of 26 patients from the Mayo Clinic Florida Brain Bank with moderate to severe basal ganglia calcification (BCG) of unknown etiology. No mutations in PDGFB were found. However, we identified one mutation in PDGFRB, p.R695C located in the tyrosine kinase domain, in one BGC patient. We further studied the function of p.R695C mutant PDGFRβ and two previously reported mutants, p.L658P and p.R987W PDGFRβ in cell culture. We show that, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation, the p.L658P mutation completely suppresses PDGFRβ autophosphorylation whereas the p.R695C mutation results in partial loss of autophosphorylation. For the p.R987W mutation, our data suggest a different mechanism involving reduced protein levels. These genetic and functional studies provide the first insight into the pathogenic mechanisms associated with PDGFRB mutations and provide further support for a pathogenic role of PDGFRB mutations in BGC. PMID:24796542

  11. The basal ganglia optimize decision making over general perceptual hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Lepora, Nathan F; Gurney, Kevin N

    2012-11-01

    The basal ganglia are a subcortical group of interconnected nuclei involved in mediating action selection within cortex. A recent proposal is that this selection leads to optimal decision making over multiple alternatives because the basal ganglia anatomy maps onto a network implementation of an optimal statistical method for hypothesis testing, assuming that cortical activity encodes evidence for constrained gaussian-distributed alternatives. This letter demonstrates that this model of the basal ganglia extends naturally to encompass general Bayesian sequential analysis over arbitrary probability distributions, which raises the proposal to a practically realizable theory over generic perceptual hypotheses. We also show that the evidence in this model can represent either log likelihoods, log-likelihood ratios, or log odds, all leading proposals for the cortical processing of sensory data. For these reasons, we claim that the basal ganglia optimize decision making over general perceptual hypotheses represented in cortex. The relation of this theory to cortical encoding, cortico-basal ganglia anatomy, and reinforcement learning is discussed.

  12. Basal ganglia output reflects internally-specified movements

    PubMed Central

    Lintz, Mario J; Felsen, Gidon

    2016-01-01

    How movements are selected is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. While many studies have elucidated the sensorimotor transformations underlying stimulus-guided movements, less is known about how internal goals – critical drivers of goal-directed behavior – guide movements. The basal ganglia are known to bias movement selection according to value, one form of internal goal. Here, we examine whether other internal goals, in addition to value, also influence movements via the basal ganglia. We designed a novel task for mice that dissociated equally rewarded internally-specified and stimulus-guided movements, allowing us to test how each engaged the basal ganglia. We found that activity in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, a basal ganglia output, predictably differed preceding internally-specified and stimulus-guided movements. Incorporating these results into a simple model suggests that internally-specified movements may be facilitated relative to stimulus-guided movements by basal ganglia processing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13833.001 PMID:27377356

  13. [Case of painful muscle spasm induced by thoracic vertebral fracture: successful treatment with lumbar sympathetic ganglia block].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Fumitaka; Kawai, Motoharu; Koga, Michiaki; Ogasawara, Jun-ichi; Negoro, Kiyoshi; Kanda, Takashi

    2008-10-01

    We report a 70-year-old man, who developed painful involuntary muscle contraction of the left leg after the lumbar discectomy, which exacerbated after a vertebral fracture of Th12. This involuntary movement was accompanied with the abnormal position of left leg simulating triple flexion response, and was induced by active or passive movement of his left knee and foot joints. Several drugs including benzodiazepines and dantrolene were ineffective, although treatment with baclofen or carbamazepine was effective. These findings suggest that hyperexcitability of the anterior horn cells following the disturbance of spinal inhibitory interneurons was involved. Electophysiological studies suggested the disturbance of left lumber nerve roots. The spinal root blocks from L3 to S1 were performed, after which the painful involuntary muscle spasm was resolved. The lumbar sympathetic ganglia block was also effective; suggesting that abnormal afferent neuronal input to spinal cord was caused by the nerve root trauma which triggered the formation of secondary abnormal network in the spine. Lumbar sympathetic ganglia block should be recommended to a therapeutic option for the refractory painful muscle spasm of the leg.

  14. Mouse Models of Neurodevelopmental Disease of the Basal Ganglia and Associated Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Samuel S.; Leventhal, Daniel K.; Albin, Roger L.; Dauer, William T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on neurodevelopmental diseases that are tightly linked to abnormal function of the striatum and connected structures. We begin with an overview of three representative diseases in which striatal dysfunction plays a key role—Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder, Rett's syndrome, and primary dystonia. These diseases highlight distinct etiologies that disrupt striatal integrity and function during development, and showcase the varied clinical manifestations of striatal dysfunction. We then review striatal organization and function, including evidence for striatal roles in online motor control/action selection, reinforcement learning, habit formation, and action sequencing. A key barrier to progress has been the relative lack of animal models of these diseases, though recently there has been considerable progress. We review these efforts, including their relative merits providing insight into disease pathogenesis, disease symptomatology, and basal ganglia function. PMID:24947237

  15. Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Yen M.; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. “What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia” and “how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?” are the main questions addressed in this review. PMID:23918214

  16. Neurotransmitters in the human and nonhuman primate basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Haber, S N

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, a number of new molecules, particularly peptides, have been identified as putative neurotransmitters. The basal ganglia, is especially rich in a number of classical transmitter molecules, amino acids and neuropeptides considered to function in neurotransmission. These include: the well-described terminal fields in the striatum which originate from the brain stem and contain the monoamines, dopamine and serotonin; amino acid containing axons projecting from the cortex and thalamus; striatal cholinergic and peptide-positive interneurons; and amino acid and peptide containing projection neurons to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Two amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, are considered to provide excitatory input to the striatum while gamma aminobutyric acid is thought to mediate inhibitory output. Neuropeptides which are richly concentrated in the basal ganglia include, enkephalin, dynorphin, substance P, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y and cholincystokinease. Changes in many of these peptide levels have recently been associated with a number of basal ganglia disorders.

  17. A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unconscious, automatic, and insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. We critically evaluate for each of these how it has been defined, its utility for research in both humans and non-human animals, and the evidence that it serves as an accurate description of basal ganglia function. In conclusion, we propose a multi-faceted approach to habit learning and its relationship to the basal ganglia, emphasizing the need for formal definitions that will provide directions for future research. PMID:21909324

  18. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Ludvig, Elliot A.

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138

  19. BASAL GANGLIA PATHOLOGY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DOPAMINE CONNECTIONS and ANOMALIES

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of antipsychotic drugs. In this review we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis. PMID:20089137

  20. Computational modeling of stuttering caused by impairments in a basal ganglia thalamo-cortical circuit involved in syllable selection and initiation

    PubMed Central

    Civier, Oren; Bullock, Daniel; Max, Ludo; Guenther, Frank H.

    2013-01-01

    A typical white-matter integrity and elevated dopamine levels have been reported for individuals who stutter. We investigated how such abnormalities may lead to speech dysfluencies due to their effects on a syllable-sequencing circuit that consists of basal ganglia (BG), thalamus, and left ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). “Neurally impaired” versions of the neurocomputational speech production model GODIVA were utilized to test two hypotheses: (1) that white-matter abnormalities disturb the circuit via corticostriatal projections carrying copies of executed motor commands, and (2) that dopaminergic abnormalities disturb the circuit via the striatum. Simulation results support both hypotheses: in both scenarios, the neural abnormalities delay readout of the next syllable’s motor program, leading to dysfluency. The results also account for brain imaging findings during dysfluent speech. It is concluded that each of the two abnormality types can cause stuttering moments, probably by affecting the same BG-thalamus-vPMC circuit. PMID:23872286

  1. Computational modeling of stuttering caused by impairments in a basal ganglia thalamo-cortical circuit involved in syllable selection and initiation.

    PubMed

    Civier, Oren; Bullock, Daniel; Max, Ludo; Guenther, Frank H

    2013-09-01

    Atypical white-matter integrity and elevated dopamine levels have been reported for individuals who stutter. We investigated how such abnormalities may lead to speech dysfluencies due to their effects on a syllable-sequencing circuit that consists of basal ganglia (BG), thalamus, and left ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). "Neurally impaired" versions of the neurocomputational speech production model GODIVA were utilized to test two hypotheses: (1) that white-matter abnormalities disturb the circuit via corticostriatal projections carrying copies of executed motor commands and (2) that dopaminergic abnormalities disturb the circuit via the striatum. Simulation results support both hypotheses: in both scenarios, the neural abnormalities delay readout of the next syllable's motor program, leading to dysfluency. The results also account for brain imaging findings during dysfluent speech. It is concluded that each of the two abnormality types can cause stuttering moments, probably by affecting the same BG-thalamus-vPMC circuit.

  2. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-06-14

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance. PMID:22699618

  3. Depression in adult patients with biotin responsive basal ganglia disease.

    PubMed

    Bubshait, Dalal K; Rashid, Asif; Al-Owain, Mohammed A; Sulaiman, Raashda A

    2016-01-01

    Biotin responsive basal ganglia disease (BBGD), is a potentially treatable inherited metabolic disorder which clinically presents as sub-acute encephalopathy in children. Early diagnosis and treatment of this disorder results in good clinical recovery in childhood. However, there is no report in the literature on the long term outcome of these treated patients in adult life. We report two patients with BBGD who were metabolically stable on treatment and developed depression later in life. These cases highlight the association of depression with basal ganglia disorders and demonstrate that depression is the potential long term complication of BBGD.

  4. Rhythmic Cortical Neurons Increase their Oscillations and Sculpt Basal Ganglia Signaling During Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Day, Nancy F.; Nick, Teresa A.

    2014-01-01

    The function and modulation of neural circuits underlying motor skill may involve rhythmic oscillations (Feller, 1999; Marder and Goaillard, 2006; Churchland et al., 2012). In the proposed pattern generator for birdsong, the cortical nucleus HVC, the frequency and power of oscillatory bursting during singing increases with development (Crandall et al., 2007; Day et al., 2009). We examined the maturation of cellular activity patterns that underlie these changes. Single unit ensemble recording combined with antidromic identification (Day et al., 2011) was used to study network development in anesthetized zebra finches. Autocovariance quantified oscillations within single units. A subset of neurons oscillated in the theta/alpha/mu/beta range (8–20 Hz), with greater power in adults compared to juveniles. Across the network, the normalized oscillatory power in the 8–20 Hz range was greater in adults than juveniles. In addition, the correlated activity between rhythmic neuron pairs increased with development. We next examined the functional impact of the oscillators on the output neurons of HVC. We found that the firing of oscillatory neurons negatively correlated with the activity of cortico-basal ganglia neurons (HVCXs), which project to Area X (the song basal ganglia). If groups of oscillators work together to tonically inhibit and precisely control the spike timing of adult HVCXs with coordinated release from inhibition, then the activity of HVCXs in juveniles should be decreased relative to adults due to uncorrelated, tonic inhibition. Consistent with this hypothesis, HVCXs had lower activity in juveniles. These data reveal network changes that shape cortical-to-basal ganglia signaling during motor learning. PMID:23776169

  5. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.

    PubMed

    German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption.

  6. Selective extracellular stimulation of individual neurons in ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hui; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Shaw, Kendrick M.; Chiel, Hillel J.

    2008-09-01

    Selective control of individual neurons could clarify neural functions and aid disease treatments. To target specific neurons, it may be useful to focus on ganglionic neuron clusters, which are found in the peripheral nervous system in vertebrates. Because neuron cell bodies are found primarily near the surface of invertebrate ganglia, and often found near the surface of vertebrate ganglia, we developed a technique for controlling individual neurons extracellularly using the buccal ganglia of the marine mollusc Aplysia californica as a model system. We experimentally demonstrated that anodic currents can selectively activate an individual neuron and cathodic currents can selectively inhibit an individual neuron using this technique. To define spatial specificity, we studied the minimum currents required for stimulation, and to define temporal specificity, we controlled firing frequencies up to 45 Hz. To understand the mechanisms of spatial and temporal specificity, we created models using the NEURON software package. To broadly predict the spatial specificity of arbitrary neurons in any ganglion sharing similar geometry, we created a steady-state analytical model. A NEURON model based on cat spinal motor neurons showed responses to extracellular stimulation qualitatively similar to those of the Aplysia NEURON model, suggesting that this technique could be widely applicable to vertebrate and human peripheral ganglia having similar geometry.

  7. Evidence for Glutamate as a Neuroglial Transmitter within Sensory Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Ling-Hsuan; Gong, Kerui; Adedoyin, Mary; Ng, Johnson; Bhargava, Aditi; Ohara, Peter T.; Jasmin, Luc

    2013-01-01

    This study examines key elements of glutamatergic transmission within sensory ganglia of the rat. We show that the soma of primary sensory neurons release glutamate when depolarized. Using acute dissociated mixed neuronal/glia cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or trigeminal ganglia and a colorimetric assay, we show that when glutamate uptake by satellite glial cells (SGCs) is inhibited, KCl stimulation leads to simultaneous increase of glutamate in the culture medium. With calcium imaging we see that the soma of primary sensory neurons and SGCs respond to AMPA, NMDA, kainate and mGluR agonists, and selective antagonists block this response. Using whole cell patch-clamp technique, inward currents were recorded from small diameter (<30 µm) DRG neurons from intact DRGs (ex-vivo whole ganglion preparation) in response to local application of the above glutamate receptor agonists. Following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of either the inferior orbital nerve or the sciatic nerve, glutamate expression increases in the trigeminal ganglia and DRG respectively. This increase occurs in neurons of all diameters and is present in the somata of neurons with injured axons as well as in somata of neighboring uninjured neurons. These data provides additional evidence that glutamate can be released within the sensory ganglion, and that the somata of primary sensory neurons as well as SGCs express functional glutamate receptors at their surface. These findings, together with our previous gene knockdown data, suggest that glutamatergic transmission within the ganglion could impact nociceptive threshold. PMID:23844184

  8. Genetics Home Reference: biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 4 links) Encyclopedia: Basal Ganglia Dysfunction Health Topic: B Vitamins Health Topic: Brain Diseases Health Topic: Movement Disorders ... doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1128152. Epub 2009 Mar 17. Review. Citation on PubMed GeneReview: Biotin-Thiamine-Responsive ...

  9. Variability in action: Contributions of a songbird cortical-basal ganglia circuit to vocal motor learning and control.

    PubMed

    Woolley, S C; Kao, M H

    2015-06-18

    Many motor behaviors, from walking to speaking, are acquired through experience, in particular, through trial-and-error learning. The acquisition and maintenance of such motor behaviors in a wide range of species, including humans, appear to depend on cortical-basal ganglia circuits. In this review, we discuss recent studies in songbirds that have been pivotal in informing our current understanding of motor learning and cortical-basal ganglia function. Songbirds are important ethological model systems for the study of motor learning because young songbirds naturally develop and refine their songs through trial-and-error learning. In addition, reinforcement mechanisms are hypothesized to be important for the maintenance and plasticity of structured adult song. Computational and experimental studies highlight the importance of vocal motor variability as the substrate upon which reinforcement mechanisms could operate to shape developing song and to maintain adult song. Recent studies in songbirds indicate that this vocal motor variability is actively generated and modulated by a highly specialized cortical-basal ganglia circuit evolved for a single behavior, song. We argue that these and other recent findings illustrate how the tight association between a specialized neural circuit and a natural behavior make songbirds a unique and powerful model in which to investigate the neural substrates of motor learning and plasticity.

  10. A movable microelectrode array for chronic basal ganglia single-unit electrocorticogram co-recording in freely behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaobin; Zeng, Jia; Chen, Ting; Lin, Yuanxiang; Yu, Lianghong; Li, Ying; Lin, Zhangya; Wu, Xiyue; Chen, Fuyong; Kang, Dezhi; Zhang, Shizhong

    2014-09-01

    The basal ganglia-cortical circuits are important for information process to brain function. However, chronic recording of single-unit activities in the basal ganglia nucleus has not yet been well established. We present a movable bundled microwire array for chronic subthalamic nucleus (STN) single-unit electrocorticogram co-recording. The electrode assembly contains a screw-advanced microdrive and a microwire array. The array consists of a steel guide tube, five recording wires and one referenced wire which form the shape of a guiding hand, and one screw electrode for cortico-recording. The electrode can acquire stable cortex oscillation-driven STN firing units in rats under different behaving conditions for 8 weeks. We achieved satisfying signal-to-noise ratio, portions of cells retaining viability, and spike waveform similarities across the recording sections. Using this method, we investigated neural correlations of the basal ganglia-cortical circuits in different behaving conditions. This method will become a powerful tool for multi-region recording to study normal statements or movement disorders.

  11. Pedunculopontine nucleus and basal ganglia: distant relatives or part of the same family?

    PubMed

    Mena-Segovia, Juan; Bolam, J Paul; Magill, Peter J

    2004-10-01

    The basal ganglia are more highly interconnected with the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) than with any other brain region. Regulation and relay of basal ganglia activity are two key functions of the PPN. The PPN provides an interface for the basal ganglia to influence sleep and waking, and the two structures are similarly implicated in learning, reward and other cognitive functions. Perturbations of basal ganglia activity have consequences for the PPN and vice versa, exemplified by their interdependencies in motor function and Parkinson's disease. Thus, close anatomical and physiological links between the PPN and basal ganglia make it increasingly difficult to consider the two as separate functional entities. PMID:15374668

  12. Segmentation of Nerve Bundles and Ganglia in Spine MRI Using Particle Filters

    PubMed Central

    Dalca, Adrian; Danagoulian, Giovanna; Kikinis, Ron; Schmidt, Ehud; Golland, Polina

    2011-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of spinal nerve bundles that originate within the dural sac and exit the spinal canal is important for diagnosis and surgical planning. The variability in intensity, contrast, shape and direction of nerves seen in high resolution myelographic MR images makes segmentation a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automatic tracking method for nerve segmentation based on particle filters. We develop a novel approach to particle representation and dynamics, based on Bézier splines. Moreover, we introduce a robust image likelihood model that enables delineation of nerve bundles and ganglia from the surrounding anatomical structures. We demonstrate accurate and fast nerve tracking and compare it to expert manual segmentation. PMID:22003741

  13. ROLE OF A LATERALIZED PARIETAL-BASAL GANGLIA CIRCUIT IN HIERARCHICAL PATTERN PERCEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Schendan, Haline E.; Amick, Melissa M.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2009-01-01

    The role of corticostriatal circuits in hierarchical pattern perception was examined in Parkinson’s disease. The hypothesis was tested that patients with right-side onset of motor symptoms (RPD, left hemisphere dysfunction) would be impaired at local level processing because the left posterior temporoparietal junction (TP) emphasizes processing of local information. By contrast, left-side onset patients (LPD; right hemisphere dysfunction) would show impaired global processing because right TP emphasizes global processing. Participants identified targets at local or global levels without and with attention biased toward those levels. Despite normal attentional control between levels, LPD patients showed a single dissociation, demonstrating abnormal global level processing under all conditions, whereas RPD patients showed abnormal local level processing mainly when attention was biased toward the local level. These findings link side of motor symptom onset to visuospatial cognitive abilities that depend upon the contralateral TP, highlighting that side of onset can predict visuospatial impairments, and provide evidence that an inferior parietal - basal ganglia pathway involving the caudate head and the hemispherically asymmetrical TP region is necessary for hierarchical pattern perception. PMID:19170437

  14. Anhedonia is associated with reduced incentive cue related activation in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yu Sun; Barch, Deanna

    2015-12-01

    Research has shown that reward incentives improve cognitive control in motivationally salient situations. Much previous work in this domain has focused on incentive cue-related activity in a number of brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum. However, the more sustained changes in functional brain activity during task contexts with incentives have been relatively less explored. Here, we examined both the cue-related and sustained effects of rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) on cognitive control, with a particular focus on the roles of the DLPFC and striatum, using a mixed state-item design. We investigated whether variability in a reward-related trait (i.e., anhedonia) would modulate the sustained and/or the cue-related transient aspects of motivated cognitive control. Twenty-seven healthy individuals performed a modified response conflict task (Padmala & Pessoa, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3419-3432, 2011) during scanning, in which participants were asked to categorize images as either houses or buildings with either congruent or incongruent overlaid words. Participants performed a baseline condition without knowledge of monetary incentives, followed by reward blocks with monetary incentives on some cued trials (reward cues) for fast and correct responses. We replicated previous work by showing increases in both sustained activity during reward versus baseline blocks and transient. cue-related activity in bilateral DLPFC and the basal ganglia. Importantly, healthy individuals with higher anhedonia showed less of an increase in trial-by-trial activity as a function of reward in the lateral globus pallidus. Together, our results suggest that reduced hedonic experience may be related to abnormality of reward cue-related activity in the basal ganglia. PMID:26105776

  15. Anhedonia is associated with reduced incentive cue related activation in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yu Sun; Barch, Deanna

    2015-12-01

    Research has shown that reward incentives improve cognitive control in motivationally salient situations. Much previous work in this domain has focused on incentive cue-related activity in a number of brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum. However, the more sustained changes in functional brain activity during task contexts with incentives have been relatively less explored. Here, we examined both the cue-related and sustained effects of rewards (i.e., monetary incentives) on cognitive control, with a particular focus on the roles of the DLPFC and striatum, using a mixed state-item design. We investigated whether variability in a reward-related trait (i.e., anhedonia) would modulate the sustained and/or the cue-related transient aspects of motivated cognitive control. Twenty-seven healthy individuals performed a modified response conflict task (Padmala & Pessoa, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3419-3432, 2011) during scanning, in which participants were asked to categorize images as either houses or buildings with either congruent or incongruent overlaid words. Participants performed a baseline condition without knowledge of monetary incentives, followed by reward blocks with monetary incentives on some cued trials (reward cues) for fast and correct responses. We replicated previous work by showing increases in both sustained activity during reward versus baseline blocks and transient. cue-related activity in bilateral DLPFC and the basal ganglia. Importantly, healthy individuals with higher anhedonia showed less of an increase in trial-by-trial activity as a function of reward in the lateral globus pallidus. Together, our results suggest that reduced hedonic experience may be related to abnormality of reward cue-related activity in the basal ganglia.

  16. Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2013-05-01

    The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent findings from neuroanatomical, behavioral, and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that cerebellar output reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, which suggests that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Taken together, these findings elucidate the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

  17. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:25698913

  18. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction.

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:25698913

  19. [Morphological Re-evaluation of the Basal Ganglia Network].

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, Fumino

    2016-07-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to dopamine signals, via dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of reward prediction error and conducts reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, with particular focus on the striosome and matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome and matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:27395470

  20. Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Bostan, Andreea C.; Dum, Richard P.; Strick, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent results from neuroanatomical, behavioral and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that the output from the cerebellum reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, indicating that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Altogether, these results provide the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

  1. Neural representation of time in cortico-basal ganglia circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Dezhe Z.; Fujii, Naotaka; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    Encoding time is universally required for learning and structuring motor and cognitive actions, but how the brain keeps track of time is still not understood. We searched for time representations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits by recording from thousands of neurons in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of macaque monkeys performing a routine visuomotor task. We found that a subset of neurons exhibited time-stamp encoding strikingly similar to that required by models of reinforcement-based learning: They responded with spike activity peaks that were distributed at different time delays after single task events. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the population activity allowed robust decoding of task time by perceptron models. We suggest that time information can emerge as a byproduct of event coding in cortico-basal ganglia circuits and can serve as a critical infrastructure for behavioral learning and performance. PMID:19850874

  2. Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in

  3. A role for Sv2c in basal ganglia functions.

    PubMed

    Dardou, D; Monlezun, S; Foerch, P; Courade, J P; Cuvelier, L; De Ryck, M; Schiffmann, S N

    2013-04-24

    SV2C is an isoform of the synaptic vesicle 2 protein family that exhibits a particular pattern of brain expression with enriched expression in several basal ganglia nuclei. In the present study, we have investigated SV2C implication in both normal and pathological basal ganglia functioning with a peculiar attention to dopamine neuron containing regions. In SV2C-/- mice, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in midbrain dopaminergic neurons was largely and significantly increased and enkephalin mRNA expression was significantly decreased in the caudate-putamen and accumbens nucleus. The expression of SV2C was studied in two models of dopaminergic denervation (6-OHDA- and MPTP-induced lesions). In dopamine-depleted animals, SV2C mRNA expression was significant increased in the striatum. In order to further understand the role of SV2C, we performed behavioral experiments on SV2C-/- mice and on knock-down mice receiving an injection of adeno-associated virus expressing SV2C miRNA specifically in the ventral midbrain. These modifications of SV2C expression had little or no impact on behavior in open field and elevated plus maze. However, even if complete loss of SV2C had no impact on conditioned place preference induced by cocaine, the specific knock-down of SV2C expression in the dopaminergic neurons completely abolished the development of a CPP while the reaction to an acute drug injection remains similar in these mice compared to control mice. These results showed that SV2C, a poorly functionally characterized protein is strongly involved in normal operation of the basal ganglia network and could be also involved in system adaptation in basal ganglia pathological conditions. PMID:23458503

  4. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinse

    2016-05-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest. PMID:27240808

  5. Proactive selective response suppression is implemented via the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Majid, D S Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Aron, Adam R

    2013-08-14

    In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway.

  6. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinse

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest. PMID:27240808

  7. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Expression Analysis of Sensory Ganglia with a Focus on Ion Channels and GPCRs in Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Manteniotis, Stavros; Lehmann, Ramona; Flegel, Caroline; Vogel, Felix; Hofreuter, Adrian; Schreiner, Benjamin S. P.; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Schöbel, Nicole; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2013-01-01

    The specific functions of sensory systems depend on the tissue-specific expression of genes that code for molecular sensor proteins that are necessary for stimulus detection and membrane signaling. Using the Next Generation Sequencing technique (RNA-Seq), we analyzed the complete transcriptome of the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult mice. Focusing on genes with an expression level higher than 1 FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads), we detected the expression of 12984 genes in the TG and 13195 in the DRG. To analyze the specific gene expression patterns of the peripheral neuronal tissues, we compared their gene expression profiles with that of the liver, brain, olfactory epithelium, and skeletal muscle. The transcriptome data of the TG and DRG were scanned for virtually all known G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as for ion channels. The expression profile was ranked with regard to the level and specificity for the TG. In total, we detected 106 non-olfactory GPCRs and 33 ion channels that had not been previously described as expressed in the TG. To validate the RNA-Seq data, in situ hybridization experiments were performed for several of the newly detected transcripts. To identify differences in expression profiles between the sensory ganglia, the RNA-Seq data of the TG and DRG were compared. Among the differentially expressed genes (> 1 FPKM), 65 and 117 were expressed at least 10-fold higher in the TG and DRG, respectively. Our transcriptome analysis allows a comprehensive overview of all ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in trigeminal ganglia and provides additional approaches for the investigation of trigeminal sensing as well as for the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of pain. PMID:24260241

  8. Relationship between oscillatory activity in the cortico-basal ganglia network and parkinsonism in MPTP-treated monkeys☆

    PubMed Central

    Devergnas, Annaelle; Pittard, Damien; Bliwise, Donald; Wichmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Parkinsonism is associated with changes in oscillatory activity patterns and increased synchronization of neurons in the basal ganglia and cortex in patients and animal models of Parkinson's disease, but the relationship between these changes and the severity of parkinsonian signs remains unclear. We examined this relationship by studying changes in local field potentials (LFPs) in the internal pallidal segment (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and in encephalographic signals (EEG) from the primarymotor cortex (M1) in Rhesus monkeys which were rendered progressively parkinsonian by repeated systemic injections of small doses of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Observations during wakefulness and sleep (defined by EEG and video records) were analyzed separately. The severity of parkinsonism correlated with increases in spectral power at frequencies below 15.5 Hz in M1 and GPi and reductions in spectral power at frequencies above 15.6 Hz with little change in STN. The severity of parkinsonism also correlated with increases in the coherence betweenM1 EEG and basal ganglia LFPs in the low frequency band. Levodopa treatment reduced low-frequency activity and increased high-frequency activity in all three areas, but did not affect coherence. The state of arousal also affected LFP and EEG signals in all three structures, particularly in the STN. These results suggest that parkinsonism-associated changes in alpha and low-beta band oscillatory activity can be detected early in the parkinsonian state in M1 and GPi. Interestingly, oscillations detectable in STN LFP signals (including oscillations in the beta-band) do not appear to correlate strongly with the severity of mild-to-moderate parkinsonism in these animals. Levodopa-induced changes in oscillatoryM1 EEG and basal ganglia LFP patterns do not necessarily represent a normalization of abnormalities caused by dopamine depletion. PMID:24768805

  9. Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum: further delineation of the phenotype and genotype–phenotype correlation

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Eline M.; Polder, Emiel; Vanderver, Adeline; Naidu, Sakkubai; Schiffmann, Raphael; Fisher, Kate; Raguž, Ana Boban; Blumkin, Luba; van Berkel, Carola G. M.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Simons, Cas; Taft, Ryan J.; Abbink, Truus E. M.; Wolf, Nicole I.

    2014-01-01

    Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum is a rare leukoencephalopathy that was identified using magnetic resonance imaging in 2002. In 2013, whole exome sequencing of 11 patients with the disease revealed that they all had the same de novo mutation in TUBB4A, which encodes tubulin β-4A. We investigated the mutation spectrum in a cohort of 42 patients and the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Patients were selected on the basis of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities that are indicative of hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Genetic testing and a clinical inventory were performed, and sequential magnetic resonance images were evaluated using a standard protocol. The heterozygous TUBB4A mutation observed in the first 11 patients was the most common (25 patients). Additionally, 13 other heterozygous mutations were identified, located in different structural domains of tubulin β-4A. We confirmed that the mutations were de novo in all but three patients. In two of these three cases we lacked parental DNA and in one the mutation was also found in the mother, most likely due to mosaicism. Patients showed a phenotypic continuum ranging from neonatal to childhood disease onset, normal to delayed early development and slow to more rapid neurological deterioration. Neurological symptomatology consisted of extrapyramidal movement abnormalities, spasticity, ataxia, cognitive deficit and sometimes epilepsy. Three patients died and the oldest living patient was 29 years of age. The patients’ magnetic resonance images showed an absent or disappearing putamen, variable cerebellar atrophy and highly variable cerebral atrophy. Apart from hypomyelination, myelin loss was evident in several cases. Three severely affected patients had similar, somewhat atypical magnetic resonance image abnormalities. The study results were strongly suggestive of a genotype–phenotype correlation. The 25 patients with

  10. Purification and culture of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Delree, P; Leprince, P; Schoenen, J; Moonen, G

    1989-06-01

    To study the trophic requirements of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRG) in vitro, we developed a purification procedure that yields highly enriched neuronal cultures. Forty to fifty ganglia are dissected from the spinal column of an adult rat. After enzymatic and mechanical dissociation of the ganglia, myelin debris are eliminated by centrifugation on a Percoll gradient. The resulting cell suspension is layered onto a nylon mesh with a pore size of 10 microns. Most of the neurons, the diameter of which ranged from 17 microns to greater than 100 microns, are retained on the upper surface of the sieve; most of the non-neuronal cells with a caliber of less than 10 microns after trypsinization go through it. Recovery of neurons is achieved by reversing the mesh onto a Petri dish containing culture medium. Neurons to non-neurons ratio is 1 to 10 in the initial cell suspension and 1 to 1 after separation. When these purified neurons are seeded at a density of 3,000 neurons/cm2 in 6 mm polyornithine-laminin (PORN-LAM) coated wells, neuronal survival (assessed by the ability to extend neurites), measured after 48 hr of culture, is very low (from 0 to 16%). Addition of nerve growth factor (NGF) does not improve neuronal survival. However, when neurons are cultured in the presence of medium conditioned (CM) by astrocytes or Schwann cells, 60-80% of the seeded, dye-excluding neurons survive. So, purified adult DRG neurons require for their short-term survival and regeneration in culture, a trophic support that is present in conditioned medium from PNS or CNS glia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Sympathetic storming in a patient with intracranial basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Siu, Gilbert; Marino, Michael; Desai, Anjuli; Nissley, Frederick

    2011-03-01

    Neurologic deficits and medical complications are common sequelae after intracranial hemorrhage. Among the medical complications, sympathetic storming is relatively rare. We describe a case of a patient with an acute right basal ganglia hemorrhage. During the patient's hospital course, he developed tachypnea, diaphoresis, hypertension, hyperthermia, and tachycardia for three consecutive days. A complete laboratory work-up and imaging studies were unremarkable for infectious etiology, new intracranial hemorrhage, and deep vein thrombosis. The patient was diagnosed with sympathetic storming, a relatively uncommon cause of these symptoms. The storming was secondary to a kinked Foley catheter, and subsequent placement of a new catheter resulted in the resolution of his symptoms. PMID:21297401

  12. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed: A report of rare two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kankane, Vivek Kumar; Gupta, Tarun Kumar; Jaiswal, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage (TBGH) is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. The general incidence of TBGH is reported between 2.4% and 3% of closed head injury. However, the incidence is higher in postmortem studies (9.8%). Bilateral traumatic basal ganglia hematoma is extremely rare. Descriptions are limited to case reports.

  13. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed: A report of rare two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kankane, Vivek Kumar; Gupta, Tarun Kumar; Jaiswal, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage (TBGH) is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. The general incidence of TBGH is reported between 2.4% and 3% of closed head injury. However, the incidence is higher in postmortem studies (9.8%). Bilateral traumatic basal ganglia hematoma is extremely rare. Descriptions are limited to case reports. PMID:27695573

  14. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. ); Murray, R.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO )

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

  15. Interaction between basal ganglia and limbic circuits in learning and memory processes.

    PubMed

    Calabresi, Paolo; Picconi, Barbara; Tozzi, Alessandro; Ghiglieri, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampus and striatum play distinctive roles in memory processes since declarative and non-declarative memory systems may act independently. However, hippocampus and striatum can also be engaged to function in parallel as part of a dynamic system to integrate previous experience and adjust behavioral responses. In these structures the formation, storage, and retrieval of memory require a synaptic mechanism that is able to integrate multiple signals and to translate them into persistent molecular traces at both the corticostriatal and hippocampal/limbic synapses. The best cellular candidate for this complex synthesis is represented by long-term potentiation (LTP). A common feature of LTP expressed in these two memory systems is the critical requirement of convergence and coincidence of glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs to the dendritic spines of the neurons expressing this form of synaptic plasticity. In experimental models of Parkinson's disease abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein affects these two memory systems by altering two major synaptic mechanisms underlying cognitive functions in cholinergic striatal neurons, likely implicated in basal ganglia dependent operative memory, and in the CA1 hippocampal region, playing a central function in episodic/declarative memory processes.

  16. Subthalamic, not striatal, activity correlates with basal ganglia downstream activity in normal and parkinsonian monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Deffains, Marc; Iskhakova, Liliya; Katabi, Shiran; Haber, Suzanne N; Israel, Zvi; Bergman, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) constitute the input stage of the basal ganglia (BG) network and together innervate BG downstream structures using GABA and glutamate, respectively. Comparison of the neuronal activity in BG input and downstream structures reveals that subthalamic, not striatal, activity fluctuations correlate with modulations in the increase/decrease discharge balance of BG downstream neurons during temporal discounting classical condition task. After induction of parkinsonism with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), abnormal low beta (8-15 Hz) spiking and local field potential (LFP) oscillations resonate across the BG network. Nevertheless, LFP beta oscillations entrain spiking activity of STN, striatal cholinergic interneurons and BG downstream structures, but do not entrain spiking activity of striatal projection neurons. Our results highlight the pivotal role of STN divergent projections in BG physiology and pathophysiology and may explain why STN is such an effective site for invasive treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease and other BG-related disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16443.001 PMID:27552049

  17. Development of a spontaneously active dorsal root ganglia assay using multiwell multielectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Kim; Wang, Shuya; Hoque, Nina; Kiss, Laszlo; Ahlijanian, Michael K; Herrington, James; Graef, John D

    2016-06-01

    In vitro phenotypic assays of sensory neuron activity are important tools for identifying potential analgesic compounds. These assays are typically characterized by hyperexcitable and/or abnormally, spontaneously active cells. Whereas manual electrophysiology experiments provide high-resolution biophysical data to characterize both in vitro models and potential therapeutic modalities (e.g., action potential characteristics, the role of specific ion channels, and receptors), these techniques are hampered by their low throughput. We have established a spontaneously active dorsal root ganglia (DRG) platform using multiwell multielectrode arrays (MEAs) that greatly increase the ability to evaluate the effects of multiple compounds and conditions on DRG excitability within the context of a cellular network. We show that spontaneous DRG firing can be attenuated with selective Na(+) and Ca(2+) channel blockers, as well as enhanced with K(+) channel blockers. In addition, spontaneous activity can be augmented with both the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 agonist capsaicin and the peptide bradykinin and completely blocked with neurokinin receptor antagonists. Finally, we validated the use of this assay by demonstrating that commonly used neuropathic pain therapeutics suppress DRG spontaneous activity. Overall, we have optimized primary rat DRG cells on a multiwell MEA platform to generate and characterize spontaneously active cultures that have the potential to be used as an in vitro phenotypic assay to evaluate potential therapeutics in rodent models of pain. PMID:27052585

  18. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Immunohistochemical analysis of myenteric ganglia and interstitial cells of Cajal in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bernardini, Nunzia; Segnani, Cristina; Ippolito, Chiara; De Giorgio, Roberto; Colucci, Rocchina; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Chiarugi, Massimo; Campani, Daniela; Castagna, Maura; Mattii, Letizia; Blandizzi, Corrado; Dolfi, Amelio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease with alterations of colonic motility, which influence clinical symptoms. Although morpho-functional abnormalities in the enteric nervous system have been suggested, in UC patients scarce attention has been paid to possible changes in the cells that control colonic motility, including myenteric neurons, glial cells and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). This study evaluated the neural-glial components of myenteric ganglia and ICC in the colonic neuromuscular compartment of UC patients by quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. Full-thickness archival samples of the left colon were collected from 10 patients with UC (5 males, 5 females; age range 45–62 years) who underwent elective bowel resection. The colonic neuromuscular compartment was evaluated immunohistochemically in paraffin cross-sections. The distribution and number of neurons, glial cells and ICC were assessed by anti-HuC/D, -S100β and -c-Kit antibodies, respectively. Data were compared with findings on archival samples of normal left colon from 10 sex- and age-matched control patients, who underwent surgery for uncomplicated colon cancer. Compared to controls, patients with UC showed: (i) reduced density of myenteric HuC/D+ neurons and S100β+ glial cells, with a loss over 61% and 38%, respectively, and increased glial cell/neuron ratio; (ii) ICC decrease in the whole neuromuscular compartment. The quantitative variations of myenteric neuro-glial cells and ICC indicate considerable alterations of the colonic neuromuscular compartment in the setting of mucosal inflammation associated with UC, and provide a morphological basis for better understanding the motor abnormalities often observed in UC patients. PMID:21426484

  20. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems.

    PubMed

    German, Christopher L; Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-25

    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pretreatment with D1 -like (SCH-23380) or D2 -like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Alburges, Mario E.; Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pre-treatment with D1-like (SCH-23380) or D2-like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. PMID:25155699

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor in adult human dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huerta, J J; Diaz-Trelles, R; Naves, F J; Llamosas, M M; Del Valle, M E; Vega, J A

    1996-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) enhances neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. It binds a membrane protein, denominated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr). EGFr has been localized in developing and adult human DRG. However, it remains to be elucidated whether all DRG neurons express EGFr or whether differences exist among neuronal subtypes. This study was undertaken to investigate these topics in adult human DRG using immunoblotting, and combined immunohistochemistry and image analysis techniques. A mouse monoclonal antibody (clone F4) mapping within the intracytoplasmic domain of EGFr was used. Immunoblotting revealed two main proteins with estimated molecular masses of approximately/equal to 65 kDa and 170 kDa, and thus consistent with the full-length EGFr. Additional protein bands were also encountered. Light immunohistochemistry revealed specific immunoreactivity (IR) for EGFr-like proteins in most (86%) primary sensory neurons, the intensity of immunostaining being stronger in the small- and intermediate-sized ones. Furthermore, EGFr-like IR was also observed in the satellite glial cells of the ganglia as well as in the intraganglionic and dorsal root Schwann cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that EGFr, and other related proteins containing the epitope labeled with the antibody F4, are responsible for the EGFr IR reported in DRG. Furthermore, we demonstrated heterogeneity in the expression of EGFr-like IR in adult human primary sensory neurons, which suggests different responsiveness to their ligands.

  3. Monitoring Temperature and Fan Speed Using Ganglia and Winbond Chips

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffrey, Cattie; /SLAC

    2006-09-27

    Effective monitoring is essential to keep a large group of machines, like the ones at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), up and running. SLAC currently uses Ganglia Monitoring System to observe about 2000 machines, analyzing metrics like CPU usage and I/O rate. However, metrics essential to machine hardware health, such as temperature and fan speed, are not being monitored. Many machines have a Winbond w83782d chip which monitors three temperatures, two of which come from dual CPUs, and returns the information when the sensor command is invoked. Ganglia also provides a feature, gmetric, that allows the users to monitor their own metrics and incorporate them into the monitoring system. The programming language Perl is chosen to implement a script that invokes the sensors command, extracts the temperature and fan speed information, and calls gmetric with the appropriate arguments. Two machines were used to test the script; the two CPUs on each machine run at about 65 Celsius, which is well within the operating temperature range (The maximum safe temperature range is 77-82 Celsius for the Pentium III processors being used). Installing the script on all machines with a Winbond w83782d chip allows the SLAC Scientific Computing and Computing Services group (SCCS) to better evaluate current cooling methods.

  4. Expression of serotonin receptor genes in cranial ganglia.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Naohiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Kurokawa, Azusa; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko

    2016-03-23

    Taste cells release neurotransmitters to gustatory neurons to transmit chemical information they received. Sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells use ATP as a neurotransmitter. However, ATP release from sour taste cells has not been observed so far. Instead, they release serotonin when they are activated by sour/acid stimuli. Thus it is still controversial whether sour taste cells use ATP, serotonin, or both. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses, we revealed that of 14 serotonin receptor genes only 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B showed significant/clear signals in a subset of neurons of cranial sensory ganglia in which gustatory neurons reside. Double-fluorescent labeling analyses of ISH for serotonin receptor genes with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) in cranial sensory ganglia of pkd1l3-WGA mice whose sour neural pathway is visualized by the distribution of WGA originating from sour taste cells in the posterior region of the tongue revealed that WGA-positive cranial sensory neurons rarely express either of serotonin receptor gene. These results suggest that serotonin receptors expressed in cranial sensory neurons do not play any role as neurotransmitter receptor from sour taste cells. PMID:26854841

  5. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    PubMed Central

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  6. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    PubMed

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease.

  7. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LESIONS IN PERIPHERAL GANGLIA IN CHIMPANZEE AND IN HUMAN POLIOMYELITIS

    PubMed Central

    Bodian, David; Howe, Howard A.

    1947-01-01

    1. The peripheral ganglia of eighteen inoculated chimpanzees and thirteen uninoculated controls, and of eighteen fatal human poliomyelitis cases, were studied for histopathological evidence of the route of transmission of virus from the alimentary tract to the CNS. 2. Lesions thought to be characteristic of poliomyelitis in inoculated chimpanzees could not be sharply differentiated from lesions of unknown origin in uninoculated control animals. Moreover, although the inoculated animals as a group, in comparison with the control animals, had a greater number of infiltrative lesions in sympathetic as well as in sensory ganglia, it was not possible to make satisfactory correlations between the distribution of these lesions and the routes of inoculation. 3. In sharp contrast with chimpanzees, the celiac and stellate ganglia of the human poliomyelitis cases were free of any but insignificant infiltrative lesions. Lesions in human trigeminal and spinal sensory ganglia included neuronal damage as well as focal and perivascular inflitrative lesions, as is well known. In most ganglia, as in monkey and chimpanzee sensory ganglia, these were correlated in intensify with the degree of severity of lesions in the region of the CNS receiving their axons. This suggested that lesions in sensory ganglia probably resulted from spread of virus centrifugally from the CNS, in accord with considerable experimental evidence. 4. Two principal difficulties in the interpretation of histopathological findings in peripheral ganglia were revealed by this study. The first is that the specificity of lesions in sympathetic ganglia has not been established beyond doubt as being due to poliomyelitis. The second is that the presence of characteristic lesions in sensory ganglia does not, and cannot, reveal whether the virus reached the ganglia from the periphery or from the central nervous system, except in very early preparalytic stages or in exceptional cases of early arrest of virus spread and of

  8. Motoneuron development influences dorsal root ganglia survival and Schwann cell development in a vertebrate model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Hao, Le Thi; Duy, Phan Q; Jontes, James D; Beattie, Christine E

    2015-01-15

    Low levels of the survival motor neuron protein (SMN) cause the disease spinal muscular atrophy. A primary characteristic of this disease is motoneuron dysfunction and paralysis. Understanding why motoneurons are affected by low levels of SMN will lend insight into this disease and to motoneuron biology in general. Motoneurons in zebrafish smn mutants develop abnormally; however, it is unclear where Smn is needed for motoneuron development since it is a ubiquitously expressed protein. We have addressed this issue by expressing human SMN in motoneurons in zebrafish maternal-zygotic (mz) smn mutants. First, we demonstrate that SMN is present in axons, but only during the period of robust motor axon outgrowth. We also conclusively demonstrate that SMN acts cell autonomously in motoneurons for proper motoneuron development. This includes the formation of both axonal and dendritic branches. Analysis of the peripheral nervous system revealed that Schwann cells and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons developed abnormally in mz-smn mutants. Schwann cells did not wrap axons tightly and had expanded nodes of Ranvier. The majority of DRG neurons had abnormally short peripheral axons and later many of them failed to divide and died. Expressing SMN just in motoneurons rescued both of these cell types showing that their failure to develop was secondary to the developmental defects in motoneurons. Driving SMN just in motoneurons did not increase survival of the animal, suggesting that SMN is needed for motoneuron development and motor circuitry, but that SMN in other cells types factors into survival.

  9. Ischemic lesions in basal ganglia in children after minor head injury.

    PubMed

    Dharker, S R; Mittal, R S; Bhargava, N

    1993-11-01

    Twenty-three children under the age of 6 1/2 years developed immediate unilateral weakness after an apparently minor head injury. Computed tomography disclosed a hypodense lesion in the basal ganglia. The lesion appeared to be caused by an infarct in the basal ganglia. All but one of the children recovered completely within 4 months.

  10. Distinct Hippocampal and Basal Ganglia Contributions to Probabilistic Learning and Reversal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Daphna; Myers, Catherine E.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Sage, Jake; Gluck, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The hippocampus and the basal ganglia are thought to play fundamental and distinct roles in learning and memory, supporting two dissociable memory systems. Interestingly, however, the hippocampus and the basal ganglia have each, separately, been implicated as necessary for reversal learning--the ability to adaptively change a response when…

  11. [Hyperechogenicity within the basal ganglia of neonates: incidence, etiology, and neurological outcome].

    PubMed

    Gourmet, C; Decortis, Th; Rigo, J

    2003-12-01

    Ramifying hyperechogenicities within the basal ganglia were observed in two neonates followed for prematurity. The investigations demonstrated an asymptomatic cytomegalo-virus infection in both. The literature was reviewed about this association. Incidence, etiology of hyperechoic lesions in the basal ganglia of neonates and neurodevelopmental outcome of the patients were also reviewed.

  12. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  13. Input to the lateral habenula from the basal ganglia is excitatory, aversive, and suppressed by serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Shabel, Steven J.; Proulx, Christophe D.; Trias, Anthony; Murphy, Ryan T.; Malinow, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary The lateral habenula (LHb) has recently been identified as a key regulator of the reward system by driving inhibition onto dopaminergic neurons. However, the nature and potential modulation of the major input to the LHb originating from the basal ganglia are poorly understood. Although the output of the basal ganglia is thought to be primarily inhibitory, here we show that transmission from the basal ganglia to the LHb is excitatory, glutamatergic and suppressed by serotonin. Behaviorally, activation of this pathway is aversive, consistent with its role as an ‘anti-reward’ signal. Our demonstration of an excitatory projection from the basal ganglia to the LHb explains how LHb-projecting basal ganglia neurons can have similar encoding properties as LHb neurons themselves. Our results also provide a link between ‘anti-reward’ excitatory synapses and serotonin, a neuromodulator implicated in depression. PMID:22578499

  14. Input to the lateral habenula from the basal ganglia is excitatory, aversive, and suppressed by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Shabel, Steven J; Proulx, Christophe D; Trias, Anthony; Murphy, Ryan T; Malinow, Roberto

    2012-05-10

    The lateral habenula (LHb) has recently been identified as a key regulator of the reward system by driving inhibition onto dopaminergic neurons. However, the nature and potential modulation of the major input to the LHb originating from the basal ganglia are poorly understood. Although the output of the basal ganglia is thought to be primarily inhibitory, here we show that transmission from the basal ganglia to the LHb is excitatory, glutamatergic, and suppressed by serotonin. Behaviorally, activation of this pathway is aversive, consistent with its role as an "antireward" signal. Our demonstration of an excitatory projection from the basal ganglia to the LHb explains how LHb-projecting basal ganglia neurons can have similar encoding properties as LHb neurons themselves. Our results also provide a link between antireward excitatory synapses and serotonin, a neuromodulator implicated in depression.

  15. Input to the lateral habenula from the basal ganglia is excitatory, aversive, and suppressed by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Shabel, Steven J; Proulx, Christophe D; Trias, Anthony; Murphy, Ryan T; Malinow, Roberto

    2012-05-10

    The lateral habenula (LHb) has recently been identified as a key regulator of the reward system by driving inhibition onto dopaminergic neurons. However, the nature and potential modulation of the major input to the LHb originating from the basal ganglia are poorly understood. Although the output of the basal ganglia is thought to be primarily inhibitory, here we show that transmission from the basal ganglia to the LHb is excitatory, glutamatergic, and suppressed by serotonin. Behaviorally, activation of this pathway is aversive, consistent with its role as an "antireward" signal. Our demonstration of an excitatory projection from the basal ganglia to the LHb explains how LHb-projecting basal ganglia neurons can have similar encoding properties as LHb neurons themselves. Our results also provide a link between antireward excitatory synapses and serotonin, a neuromodulator implicated in depression. PMID:22578499

  16. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... findings suggesting, abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  17. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH will... section 203 of the Act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive findings with regard to pneumoconiosis will...

  18. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  19. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  1. Distribution pattern and chemical coding of neurons of the sympathetic chain ganglia supplying the descending colon in the pig.

    PubMed

    Skobowiat, Cezary; Calka, Jarosław; Wasowicz, Krzysztof; Majewski, Mariusz

    2010-06-01

    Sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG) neurons projecting to the descending colon of the pig were studied by means of retrograde tracing (Fast Blue, FB) and double-labelling immunofluorescence methods. FB was injected into the gut wall and after three weeks survival time the animals were transcardially perfused with paraformaldehyde and the bilateral sympathetic trunks were collected. The FB-positive neurons were localised only in the lumbar (L(1)-L(5)) ganglia of the sympathetic trunk and appeared either as small (30-50 microm in diameter) round-shaped perikarya forming clusters localised in caudal-ventral area or, rarely, as bigger (50-80 microm) and dispersed solitary irregular perikarya. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the catecholaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase-/dopamine beta-hydroxylase-immunoreactive) character of the great majority of FB-positive neurons which preferentially co-expressed neuropeptide Y. In addition, none of the FB-positive perikarya was immunopositive to galanin, somatostatin, choline acetyltransferase, vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, leu(5)-enkephalin, nitric oxide synthase, substance P and calcitonin-generelated peptide. PMID:20460218

  2. Methamphetamine increases basal ganglia iron to levels observed in aging.

    PubMed

    Melega, William P; Laćan, Goran; Harvey, Dennis C; Way, Baldwin M

    2007-10-29

    Increases in basal ganglia iron are well documented for neurodegenerative diseases but have not been associated with methamphetamine (METH). In this study, vervet monkeys that received two doses of METH (2 mg/kg, intramuscularly, 6 h apart) showed at 1 month, iron increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus, with concurrent increases of ferritin-immunoreactivity and decreases of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in substantia nigra. At 1.5 years, substantia nigra tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity had recovered while iron and ferritin-immunoreactivity increases persisted. Globus pallidus and substantia nigra iron levels of the adult METH-exposed animals (age 5-9 years) were now comparable with those of drug-naive, aged animals (19-22 years), suggesting an aging-related condition that might render those regions more vulnerable to oxidative stress.

  3. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  4. An indirect basal ganglia pathway in anuran amphibians?

    PubMed

    Maier, Silke; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Luksch, Harald; Endepols, Heike

    2010-09-01

    The mammalian subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a glutamatergic cell group within the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. It receives input from the external globus pallidus (GP) and in turn projects to the internal GP and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). While the direct pathway from striatum to SNr is well established in anurans, it is unknown whether they possess an indirect pathway including a STN homologue. The subthalamic region comprises the dorsocaudal suprachiasmatic nucleus (dcSC), the posterior entopeduncular nucleus (EP), and the ventral part of the ventral thalamus (vVM/VL). In the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis we investigated whether one of these areas match the criteria established for the mammalian STN. We delineated the SNr in the midbrain tegmentum by labeling the striatonigral terminal field by means of GABA-, substance P-, and enkephalin immunohistochemistry and striatal tracer injections. Subsequently, we used double fluorescence tracing with injections into the SNr and GP to stain different parts of the indirect pathway. Confocal laser scan analysis revealed that dcSC, EP, and vVM/VL contain retrogradely labeled neurons projecting to the SNr, contacted by anterogradely labeled terminals arising in the GP. Immunohistochemical stainings with antibodies against glutamate and the glutamate transporters EAAC1 and vGluT2 demonstrated that the investigated nuclei contain glutamatergic neurons. Our results suggest that all regions in the subthalamic region fulfill our morphological criteria, except the connection back to the GP. An indirect basal ganglia pathway seems to be present in anuran amphibians, although we cannot exclusively delineate an STN homologue.

  5. Dorsal Root Ganglia Damage in SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Burdo, Tricia H.; Orzechowski, Krystyna; Knight, Heather L.; Miller, Andrew D.; Williams, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is currently the most common neurological complication of chronic HIV infection and continues to substantially affect patient quality of life. Mechanisms underlying the neuronal damage and loss observed in sensory ganglia of HIV-infected individuals have not been sufficiently studied. The present study aimed to develop and characterize a model of HIV-SN using SIV-infected CD8 T-lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Uninfected controls (n = 5), SIV-infected CD8-depleted (n = 4), and SIV-infected non-CD8-depleted (n = 6) animals were used. Of the six non-CD8-depleted animals, three were conventional progressors (progressing to AIDS >1 year after infection) and three were rapid progressors (AIDS within 6 months). Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were examined for histological hallmarks of HIV-SN, including satellitosis, presence of Nageotte nodules, and neuronophagia, as well as increased numbers of CD68+ macrophages and abundant viral replication. In contrast to non-CD8-depleted animals, which had mild to moderate DRG pathology, the CD8-depleted SIV-infected animals had moderate to severe DRG damage, with increased numbers of CD68+ satellite cells. Additionally, there was marked active viral replication in the affected DRG. These findings confirm that many features of HIV-SN can be recapitulated in the CD8-depleted SIV-infected rhesus macaque model within a short time frame and illustrate the importance of this model for study of sensory neuropathy. PMID:22322298

  6. Protocol for Culturing Sympathetic Neurons from Rat Superior Cervical Ganglia (SCG)

    PubMed Central

    Zareen, Neela; Greene, Lloyd A.

    2009-01-01

    The superior cervical ganglia (SCG) in rats are small, glossy, almond-shaped structures that contain sympathetic neurons. These neurons provide sympathetic innervations for the head and neck regions and they constitute a well-characterized and relatively homogeneous population (4). Sympathetic neurons are dependent on nerve growth factor (NGF) for survival, differentiation and axonal growth and the wide-spread availability of NGF facilitates their culture and experimental manipulation (2, 3, 6). For these reasons, cultured sympathetic neurons have been used in a wide variety of studies including neuronal development and differentiation, mechanisms of programmed and pathological cell death, and signal transduction (1, 2, 5, and 6). Dissecting out the SCG from newborn rats and culturing sympathetic neurons is not very complicated and can be mastered fairly quickly. In this article, we will describe in detail how to dissect out the SCG from newborn rat pups and to use them to establish cultures of sympathetic neurons. The article will also describe the preparatory steps and the various reagents and equipment that are needed to achieve this. PMID:19229183

  7. Cerebral abnormalities: use of calculated T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images for diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, C.M.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential clinical importance of T1 and T2 relaxation times in distinguishing normal and pathologic tissue with magnetic resonance (MR) is discussed and clinical examples of cerebral abnormalities are given. Five patients with cerebral infarction, 15 with multiple sclerosis, two with Wilson disease, and four with tumors were imaged. Hemorrhagic and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents were distinguished using the spin echo technique. In the patients with multiple sclerosis, lesions had prolonged T1 and T2 times, but the definition of plaque was limited by spatial resolution. No abnormalities in signal intensity were seen in the patient with Wilson disease who was no longer severly disabled; abnormal increased signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found in the second patient with Wilson disease. Four tumors produced abnormal T1 and T2 relaxation times but these values alone were not sufficient for tumor characterization.

  8. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for voluntary and automatic behaviour to reach rewards.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung F; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2015-07-01

    The basal ganglia control body movements, value processing and decision-making. Many studies have shown that the inputs and outputs of each basal ganglia structure are topographically organized, which suggests that the basal ganglia consist of separate circuits that serve distinct functions. A notable example is the circuits that originate from the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) regions of the caudate nucleus, both of which target the superior colliculus. These two caudate regions encode the reward values of visual objects differently: flexible (short-term) values by the caudate head and stable (long-term) values by the caudate tail. These value signals in the caudate guide the orienting of gaze differently: voluntary saccades by the caudate head circuit and automatic saccades by the caudate tail circuit. Moreover, separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate the caudate head and tail and may selectively guide the flexible and stable learning/memory in the caudate regions. Studies focusing on manual handling of objects also suggest that rostrocaudally separated circuits in the basal ganglia control the action differently. These results suggest that the basal ganglia contain parallel circuits for two steps of goal-directed behaviour: finding valuable objects and manipulating the valuable objects. These parallel circuits may underlie voluntary behaviour and automatic skills, enabling animals (including humans) to adapt to both volatile and stable environments. This understanding of the functions and mechanisms of the basal ganglia parallel circuits may inform the differential diagnosis and treatment of basal ganglia disorders.

  9. Gene expression for peptides in neurons of the petrosal and nodose ganglia in rat.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk-Krzeska, M F; Bayliss, D A; Seroogy, K B; Millhorn, D E

    1991-01-01

    In situ hybridization was used to determine whether genes for neuropeptides [substance P/neurokinin A (SP/NKA), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin (SOM), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK)] are expressed in inferior ganglia of the vagus (nodose) and glossopharyngeal (petrosal) nerves. Synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides, complementary to the cognate, mRNAs were labeled with [32P] or [35S], and hybridized to 10 microns thick sections of unperfused tissue which were then processed for film and emulsion autoradiography. We found numerous, clustered neuronal perikarya throughout the nodose and petrosal ganglia that expressed preprotachykinin A (SP/NKA) and CGRP mRNAs to varying degrees. Neurons expressing preproSOM mRNA were less abundant and more scattered throughout both ganglia. Notably, we found mRNA for NPY in cells (usually 5-10 per section) in both ganglia. To our knowledge, this is first evidence for NPY in these sensory ganglia. In contrast to previous immunohistochemical findings, we found no evidence for expression of preproCCK in either the nodose or petrosal ganglia. The present findings demonstrate that cells of the nodose and petrosal ganglia express the genes for a number of neuropeptides that are presumably involved with transmission of visceral sensory afferent information to higher order neurons of the central nervous system. PMID:1708726

  10. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for voluntary and automatic behaviour to reach rewards

    PubMed Central

    Hikosaka, Okihide

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia control body movements, value processing and decision-making. Many studies have shown that the inputs and outputs of each basal ganglia structure are topographically organized, which suggests that the basal ganglia consist of separate circuits that serve distinct functions. A notable example is the circuits that originate from the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) regions of the caudate nucleus, both of which target the superior colliculus. These two caudate regions encode the reward values of visual objects differently: flexible (short-term) values by the caudate head and stable (long-term) values by the caudate tail. These value signals in the caudate guide the orienting of gaze differently: voluntary saccades by the caudate head circuit and automatic saccades by the caudate tail circuit. Moreover, separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate the caudate head and tail and may selectively guide the flexible and stable learning/memory in the caudate regions. Studies focusing on manual handling of objects also suggest that rostrocaudally separated circuits in the basal ganglia control the action differently. These results suggest that the basal ganglia contain parallel circuits for two steps of goal-directed behaviour: finding valuable objects and manipulating the valuable objects. These parallel circuits may underlie voluntary behaviour and automatic skills, enabling animals (including humans) to adapt to both volatile and stable environments. This understanding of the functions and mechanisms of the basal ganglia parallel circuits may inform the differential diagnosis and treatment of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:25981958

  11. [Walking abnormalities in children].

    PubMed

    Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional

  12. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Does Not Induce Apoptosis in Human Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Anja; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Hüfner, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can establish lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia. Latently infected ganglia contain CD8+ T cells, which secrete granzyme B and are thus capable of inducing neuronal apoptosis. Using immunohistochemistry and single-cell reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), higher frequency and transcript levels of caspase-3 were found in HSV-1-negative compared to HSV-1-positive ganglia and neurons, respectively. No terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay-positive neurons were detected. The infiltrating T cells do not induce apoptosis in latently infected neurons. PMID:25762734

  13. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  14. A case report of biotin–thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease in a Saudi child

    PubMed Central

    Aljabri, Mohammad F.; Kamal, Naglaa M.; Arif, Moinuddin; AlQaedi, Asrar M.; Santali, Enas Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Biotin–thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTRBGD) is a neurometabolic autosomal recessive (AR) disorder characterized by subacute encephalopathy with confusion, convulsions, dysarthria, and dystonia. The disease is completely reversible if treated early with biotin and thiamine, and can be fatal if left untreated. We herein present our experience with in an extended family study of an index case of BTRBGD aiming to support its AR mode of inheritance, diagnose asymptomatic and missed symptomatic cases, and provide family screening with proper genetic counseling. Methods: An index case of BTRBGD and his family underwent thorough clinical and radiological assessment along with genetic molecular testing. Results: Two-and-half years old Saudi male child whose parents are consanguineous fulfilled the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria of BTRBGD. He was proved by molecular genetic testing to have homozygous mutation of c.1264A>G (p.Thr422Ala) in the SLC19A3 gene of BTRBGD. Extended clinical, radiological, and genetic family study revealed 2 affected members: a neglected symptomatic cousin with subtle neurological affection and an asymptomatic brother carrying the disease mutation in homozygous status. Heterozygous pattern was detected in his parents, his grandma and grandpa, his aunt and her husband, 2 siblings, and 1 cousin while 1 sibling and 2 cousins were negative to this mutation. Treatment of the patient and his diseased cousin with biotin and thiamine was initiated with gradual improvement of symptoms within few days. Treatment of his asymptomatic brother was also initiated. Conclusion: BTRBGD requires high index of suspicion in any child presenting with unexplained subacute encephalopathy, abnormal movement, and characteristic MRI findings. Extended family study is crucial to diagnose asymptomatic diseased cases and those with subtle neurological symptoms. PMID:27749535

  15. Neural code alterations and abnormal time patterns in Parkinson’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The neural code used by the basal ganglia is a current question in neuroscience, relevant for the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While a rate code is known to participate in the communication between the basal ganglia and the motor thalamus/cortex, different lines of evidence have also favored the presence of complex time patterns in the discharge of the basal ganglia. To gain insight into the way the basal ganglia code information, we studied the activity of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), an output node of the circuit. Approach. We implemented the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinsonism in Sprague-Dawley rats, and recorded the spontaneous discharge of single GPi neurons, in head-restrained conditions at full alertness. Analyzing the temporal structure function, we looked for characteristic scales in the neuronal discharge of the GPi. Main results. At a low-scale, we observed the presence of dynamic processes, which allow the transmission of time patterns. Conversely, at a middle-scale, stochastic processes force the use of a rate code. Regarding the time patterns transmitted, we measured the word length and found that it is increased in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, it showed a positive correlation with the frequency of discharge, indicating that an exacerbation of this abnormal time pattern length can be expected, as the dopamine depletion progresses. Significance. We conclude that a rate code and a time pattern code can co-exist in the basal ganglia at different temporal scales. However, their normal balance is progressively altered and replaced by pathological time patterns in Parkinson’s disease.

  16. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    PubMed

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions.

  17. Dynamic Clamp Analysis of Synaptic Integration in Sympathetic Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Horn, J. P.; Kullmann, P. H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in modern neuroscience require the identification of principles that connect different levels of experimental analysis, from molecular mechanisms to explanations of cellular functions, then to circuits, and, ultimately, to systems and behavior. Here, we examine how synaptic organization of the sympathetic ganglia may enable them to function as use-dependent amplifiers of preganglionic activity and how the gain of this amplification may be modulated by metabotropic signaling mechanisms. The approach combines a general computational model of ganglionic integration together with experimental tests of the model using the dynamic clamp method. In these experiments, we recorded intracellularly from dissociated bullfrog sympathetic neurons and then mimicked physiological synapses with virtual computer-generated synapses. It thus became possible to analyze the synaptic gain by recording cellular responses to complex patterns of synaptic activity that normally arise in vivo from convergent nicotinic and muscarinic synapses. The results of these studies are significant because they illustrate how gain generated through ganglionic integration may contribute to the feedback control of important autonomic behaviors, in particular to the control of the blood pressure. We dedicate this paper to the memory of Professor Vladimir Skok, whose rich legacy in synaptic physiology helped establish the modern paradigm for connecting multiple levels of analysis in studies of the nervous system. PMID:19756262

  18. Origins of basal ganglia output signals in singing juvenile birds

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Morgane; Bollu, Tejapratap; Riccelli, Tori

    2014-01-01

    Across species, complex circuits inside the basal ganglia (BG) converge on pallidal output neurons that exhibit movement-locked firing patterns. Yet the origins of these firing patterns remain poorly understood. In songbirds during vocal babbling, BG output neurons homologous to those found in the primate internal pallidal segment are uniformly activated in the tens of milliseconds prior to syllable onsets. To test the origins of this remarkably homogenous BG output signal, we recorded from diverse upstream BG cell types during babbling. Prior to syllable onsets, at the same time that internal pallidal segment-like neurons were activated, putative medium spiny neurons, fast spiking and tonically active interneurons also exhibited transient rate increases. In contrast, pallidal neurons homologous to those found in primate external pallidal segment exhibited transient rate decreases. To test origins of these signals, we performed recordings following lesion of corticostriatal inputs from premotor nucleus HVC. HVC lesions largely abolished these syllable-locked signals. Altogether, these findings indicate a striking homogeneity of syllable timing signals in the songbird BG during babbling and are consistent with a role for the indirect and hyperdirect pathways in transforming cortical inputs into BG outputs during an exploratory behavior. PMID:25392171

  19. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    PubMed

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860

  20. Modeling basal ganglia for understanding Parkinsonian reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Magdoom, K N; Subramanian, D; Chakravarthy, V S; Ravindran, B; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Meenakshisundaram, N

    2011-02-01

    We present a computational model that highlights the role of basal ganglia (BG) in generating simple reaching movements. The model is cast within the reinforcement learning (RL) framework with correspondence between RL components and neuroanatomy as follows: dopamine signal of substantia nigra pars compacta as the temporal difference error, striatum as the substrate for the critic, and the motor cortex as the actor. A key feature of this neurobiological interpretation is our hypothesis that the indirect pathway is the explorer. Chaotic activity, originating from the indirect pathway part of the model, drives the wandering, exploratory movements of the arm. Thus, the direct pathway subserves exploitation, while the indirect pathway subserves exploration. The motor cortex becomes more and more independent of the corrective influence of BG as training progresses. Reaching trajectories show diminishing variability with training. Reaching movements associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) are simulated by reducing dopamine and degrading the complexity of indirect pathway dynamics by switching it from chaotic to periodic behavior. Under the simulated PD conditions, the arm exhibits PD motor symptoms like tremor, bradykinesia and undershooting. The model echoes the notion that PD is a dynamical disease. PMID:21105828

  1. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    PubMed Central

    N'Guyen, Steve; Thurat, Charles; Girard, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    The Basal Ganglia (BG) is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks. We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based on our previous BG and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of the saccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks. The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not). Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate. PMID:24795615

  2. Neuropsychological impairment after hemorrhagic stroke in basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Chen, Hui-Mei; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Lin, Yueh-Hsieh; Guo, Nai-Wen

    2007-05-01

    We aimed to determine the severity and pattern of cognitive dysfunction in patients with basal ganglia (BG) hemorrhage within the first 6 months after stroke and to identify its clinical correlates. The study samples consisted of 30 patients with BG hemorrhage and 37 healthy controls. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery including tests of attention, memory, language, visuospatial function, and executive function was administered to all participants. Relative to healthy controls, BG patients performed significantly worse across different cognitive domains after controlling for age, sex, and education. 96.7% of patients displayed defective performance on at least three neuropsychological tests. Discriminant function analysis showed that visuospatial function and memory were the best predictors of group membership (patient/control), with an overall classification rate of 95.5%. Only side of stroke and admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score correlated significantly with some of the cognitive domains. The widespread pattern of cognitive deficits seen in BG patients provides evidence for the substantial involvement of the BG in many neuronal pathways connecting cortical and subcortical brain areas responsible for various cognitive functions. PMID:17336034

  3. Bilateral Traumatic Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage Associated With Epidural Hematoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Calderon-Miranda, Willem Guillermo; Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; M. Rubiano, Andres; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic basal ganglia hematoma is a rare condition defined as presence of hemorrhagic lesions in basal ganglia or adjacent structures suchas internal capsule, putamen and thalamus. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma are among the devastating and rare condition. We herein report a 28-year old man, a victim of car-car accident who was brought to our surgical emergency room by immediate loss of consciousness and was diagnosed to have hyperdense lesion in the basal ganglia bilaterally, with the presence of right parietal epidural hematoma. Craniotomy and epidural hematoma drainage were considered, associated to conservative management of gangliobasal traumatic contusions. On day 7 the patient had sudden neurologic deterioration, cardiac arrest unresponsive to resuscitation. Management of these lesions is similar to any other injury in moderate to severe traumatic injury. The use of intracranial pressure monitoring must be guaranteed. PMID:27162882

  4. The role of basal ganglia in language production: evidence from Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Macoir, Joël; Fossard, Marion; Mérette, Chantal; Langlois, Mélanie; Chantal, Sophie; Auclair-Ouellet, Noémie

    2013-01-01

    According to the dominant view in the literature, basal ganglia do not play a direct role in language but are involved in cognitive control required by linguistic and non-linguistic processing. In Parkinson's disease, basal ganglia impairment leads to motor symptoms and language deficits; those affecting the production of verbs have been frequently explored. According to a controversial theory, basal ganglia play a specific role in the conjugation of regular verbs as compared to irregular verbs. We report the results of 15 patients with Parkinson's disease in experimental conjugation tasks. They performed below healthy controls but their performance did not differ for regular and irregular verbs. These results confirm that basal ganglia are involved in language processing but do not play a specific role in verb production. PMID:23948988

  5. The role of basal ganglia in language production: evidence from Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Macoir, Joël; Fossard, Marion; Mérette, Chantal; Langlois, Mélanie; Chantal, Sophie; Auclair-Ouellet, Noémie

    2013-01-01

    According to the dominant view in the literature, basal ganglia do not play a direct role in language but are involved in cognitive control required by linguistic and non-linguistic processing. In Parkinson's disease, basal ganglia impairment leads to motor symptoms and language deficits; those affecting the production of verbs have been frequently explored. According to a controversial theory, basal ganglia play a specific role in the conjugation of regular verbs as compared to irregular verbs. We report the results of 15 patients with Parkinson's disease in experimental conjugation tasks. They performed below healthy controls but their performance did not differ for regular and irregular verbs. These results confirm that basal ganglia are involved in language processing but do not play a specific role in verb production.

  6. Gliocyte and Synapse Analyses in Cerebral Ganglia of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir Sinensis: Ultrastructural Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Yu, P.; Zhong, S.; Ge, T.; Peng, S.; Zhou, Z.; Guo, X.

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is an economically important aquatic species in China. Many studies on gene structure, breeding, and diseases of the crab have been reported. However, knowledge about the organization of the nerve system of the crab remains largely unknown. To study the ultrastructure of the cerebral ganglia of E. sinensis and to compare the histological findings regarding the nerve systems of crustaceans, the cerebral ganglia were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that four types of gliocytes, including type I, II, III, and IV gliocytes were located in the cerebral ganglia. In addition, three types of synapses were present in the cerebral ganglia, including unidirectional synapses, bidirectional synapses, and combined type synapses. PMID:27734995

  7. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C; Mackay, Clare E; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-08-01

    SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson's disease and 10 control subjects received (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement sleep

  8. Actor-critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives.

    PubMed

    Joel, Daphna; Niv, Yael; Ruppin, Eytan

    2002-01-01

    A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor-critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between dopamine-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum and learning guided by a prediction error signal in the actor. We selectively review several actor-critic models of the basal ganglia with an emphasis on two important aspects: the way in which models of the critic reproduce the temporal dynamics of dopamine firing, and the extent to which models of the actor take into account known basal ganglia anatomy and physiology. To complement the efforts to relate basal ganglia mechanisms to reinforcement learning (RL), we introduce an alternative approach to modeling a critic network, which uses Evolutionary Computation techniques to 'evolve' an optimal RL mechanism, and relate the evolved mechanism to the basic model of the critic. We conclude our discussion of models of the critic by a critical discussion of the anatomical plausibility of implementations of a critic in basal ganglia circuitry, and conclude that such implementations build on assumptions that are inconsistent with the known anatomy of the basal ganglia. We return to the actor component of the actor-critic model, which is usually modeled at the striatal level with very little detail. We describe an alternative model of the basal ganglia which takes into account several important, and previously neglected, anatomical and physiological characteristics of basal ganglia-thalamocortical connectivity and suggests that the basal ganglia performs reinforcement-biased dimensionality reduction of cortical inputs. We further suggest that since such selective encoding may bias the representation at the level of the frontal cortex towards the selection of rewarded

  9. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C; Mackay, Clare E; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-08-01

    SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson's disease and 10 control subjects received (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement sleep

  10. Analysis of T Cell Responses during Active Varicella-Zoster Virus Reactivation in Human Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Steain, Megan; Sutherland, Jeremy P.; Rodriguez, Michael; Cunningham, Anthony L.; Slobedman, Barry

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is responsible for both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). During varicella, the virus establishes latency within the sensory ganglia and can reactivate to cause herpes zoster, but the immune responses that occur in ganglia during herpes zoster have not previously been defined. We examined ganglia obtained from individuals who, at the time of death, had active herpes zoster. Ganglia innervating the site of the cutaneous herpes zoster rash showed evidence of necrosis, secondary to vasculitis, or localized hemorrhage. Despite this, there was limited evidence of VZV antigen expression, although a large inflammatory infiltrate was observed. Characterization of the infiltrating T cells showed a large number of infiltrating CD4+ T cells and cytolytic CD8+ T cells. Many of the infiltrating T cells were closely associated with neurons within the reactivated ganglia, yet there was little evidence of T cell-induced neuronal apoptosis. Notably, an upregulation in the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II molecules was observed on satellite glial cells, implying these cells play an active role in directing the immune response during herpes zoster. This is the first detailed characterization of the interaction between T cells and neuronal cells within ganglia obtained from patients suffering herpes zoster at the time of death and provides evidence that CD4+ and cytolytic CD8+ T cell responses play an important role in controlling VZV replication in ganglia during active herpes zoster. IMPORTANCE VZV is responsible for both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). During varicella, the virus establishes a life-long dormant infection within the sensory ganglia and can reawaken to cause herpes zoster, but the immune responses that occur in ganglia during herpes zoster have not previously been defined. We examined ganglia obtained from individuals who, at the time of death, had

  11. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate basal ganglia and its role in action selection

    PubMed Central

    Grillner, Sten; Robertson, Brita; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The group of nuclei within the basal ganglia of the forebrain is central to the control of movement. We present data showing that the structure and function of the basal ganglia have been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution over some 560 million years. The interaction between the different nuclei within the basal ganglia is conserved as well as the cellular and synaptic properties and transmitters. We consider the role of the conserved basal ganglia circuitry for basic patterns of motor behaviour controlled via brainstem circuits. The output of the basal ganglia consists of tonically active GABAergic neurones, which target brainstem motor centres responsible for different patterns of behaviour, such as eye and locomotor movements, posture, and feeding. A prerequisite for activating or releasing a motor programme is that this GABAergic inhibition is temporarily reduced. This can be achieved through activation of GABAergic projection neurons from striatum, the input level of the basal ganglia, given an appropriate synaptic drive from cortex, thalamus and the dopamine system. The tonic inhibition of the motor centres at rest most likely serves to prevent the different motor programmes from becoming active when not intended. Striatal projection neurones are subdivided into one group with dopamine 1 receptors that provides increased excitability of the direct pathway that can initiate movements, while inhibitory dopamine 2 receptors are expressed on neurones that instead inhibit movements and are part of the ‘indirect loop’ in mammals as well as lamprey. We review the evidence showing that all basic features of the basal ganglia have been conserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny, and discuss these findings in relation to the role of the basal ganglia in selection of behaviour. PMID:23318875

  12. Providing Explicit Information Disrupts Implicit Motor Learning After Basal Ganglia Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Lara A.; Winstein, Carolee J.

    2004-01-01

    Despite their purported neuroanatomic and functional isolation, empirical evidence suggests that sometimes conscious explicit processes can influence implicit motor skill learning. Our goal was to determine if the provision of explicit information affected implicit motor-sequence learning after damage to the basal ganglia. Individuals with stroke affecting the basal ganglia (BG) and healthy controls (HC) practiced a continuous implicit motor-sequencing task; half were provided with explicit information (EI) and half were not (No-EI). The focus of brain damage for both BG groups was in the putamen. All of the EI participants were at least explicitly aware of the repeating sequence. Across three days of practice, explicit information had a differential effect on the groups. Explicit information disrupted acquisition performance in participants with basal ganglia stroke but not healthy controls. By retention (day 4), a dissociation was apparent—explicit information hindered implicit learning in participants with basal ganglia lesions but aided healthy controls. It appears that after basal ganglia stroke explicit information is less helpful in the development of the motor plan than is discovering a motor solution using the implicit system alone. This may be due to the increased demand placed on working memory by explicit information. Thus, basal ganglia integrity may be a crucial factor in determining the efficacy of explicit information for implicit motor-sequence learning. PMID:15286181

  13. The subdiaphragmatic part of the phrenic nerve - morphometry and connections to autonomic ganglia.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Du Plessis, Maira; Louis, Robert G; Tubbs, R Shane; Wartmann, Christopher T; Apaydin, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    Few anatomical textbooks offer much information concerning the anatomy and distribution of the phrenic nerve inferior to the diaphragm. The aim of this study was to identify the subdiaphragmatic distribution of the phrenic nerve, the presence of phrenic ganglia, and possible connections to the celiac plexus. One hundred and thirty formalin-fixed adult cadavers were studied. The right phrenic nerve was found inferior to the diaphragm in 98% with 49.1% displaying a right phrenic ganglion. In 22.8% there was an additional smaller ganglion (right accessory phrenic ganglion). The remaining 50.9% had no grossly identifiable right phrenic ganglion. Most (65.5% of specimens) exhibited plexiform communications with the celiac ganglion, aorticorenal ganglion, and suprarenal gland. The left phrenic nerve inferior to the diaphragm was observed in 60% of specimens with 19% containing a left phrenic ganglion. No accessory left phrenic ganglia were observed. The left phrenic ganglion exhibited plexiform communications to several ganglia in 71.4% of specimens. Histologically, the right phrenic and left phrenic ganglia contained large soma concentrated in their peripheries. Both phrenic nerves and ganglia were closely related to the diaphragmatic crura. Surgically, sutures to approximate the crura for repair of hiatal hernias must be placed above the ganglia in order to avoid iatrogenic injuries to the autonomic supply to the diaphragm and abdomen. These findings could also provide a better understanding of the anatomy and distribution of the fibers of that autonomic supply.

  14. Focal expression of mutant huntingtin in the songbird basal ganglia disrupts cortico-basal ganglia networks and vocal sequences

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masashi; Singh Alvarado, Jonnathan; Murugan, Malavika; Mooney, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) promote complex sequential movements by helping to select elementary motor gestures appropriate to a given behavioral context. Indeed, Huntington’s disease (HD), which causes striatal atrophy in the BG, is characterized by hyperkinesia and chorea. How striatal cell loss alters activity in the BG and downstream motor cortical regions to cause these disorganized movements remains unknown. Here, we show that expressing the genetic mutation that causes HD in a song-related region of the songbird BG destabilizes syllable sequences and increases overall vocal activity, but leave the structure of individual syllables intact. These behavioral changes are paralleled by the selective loss of striatal neurons and reduction of inhibitory synapses on pallidal neurons that serve as the BG output. Chronic recordings in singing birds revealed disrupted temporal patterns of activity in pallidal neurons and downstream cortical neurons. Moreover, reversible inactivation of the cortical neurons rescued the disorganized vocal sequences in transfected birds. These findings shed light on a key role of temporal patterns of cortico-BG activity in the regulation of complex motor sequences and show how a genetic mutation alters cortico-BG networks to cause disorganized movements. PMID:26951661

  15. Focal expression of mutant huntingtin in the songbird basal ganglia disrupts cortico-basal ganglia networks and vocal sequences.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masashi; Singh Alvarado, Jonnathan; Murugan, Malavika; Mooney, Richard

    2016-03-22

    The basal ganglia (BG) promote complex sequential movements by helping to select elementary motor gestures appropriate to a given behavioral context. Indeed, Huntington's disease (HD), which causes striatal atrophy in the BG, is characterized by hyperkinesia and chorea. How striatal cell loss alters activity in the BG and downstream motor cortical regions to cause these disorganized movements remains unknown. Here, we show that expressing the genetic mutation that causes HD in a song-related region of the songbird BG destabilizes syllable sequences and increases overall vocal activity, but leave the structure of individual syllables intact. These behavioral changes are paralleled by the selective loss of striatal neurons and reduction of inhibitory synapses on pallidal neurons that serve as the BG output. Chronic recordings in singing birds revealed disrupted temporal patterns of activity in pallidal neurons and downstream cortical neurons. Moreover, reversible inactivation of the cortical neurons rescued the disorganized vocal sequences in transfected birds. These findings shed light on a key role of temporal patterns of cortico-BG activity in the regulation of complex motor sequences and show how a genetic mutation alters cortico-BG networks to cause disorganized movements.

  16. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  17. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  18. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  19. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  20. Chronic sciatic nerve compression induces fibrosis in dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinwen; Chen, Jianghai; Chen, Yanhua; Cong, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhenbing

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, pathological alterations in neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were investigated in a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression. The rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression was established by placing a 1 cm Silastic tube around the right sciatic nerve. Histological examination was performed via Masson's trichrome staining. DRG injury was assessed using Fluoro Ruby (FR) or Fluoro Gold (FG). The expression levels of target genes were examined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. At 3 weeks post‑compression, collagen fiber accumulation was observed in the ipsilateral area and, at 8 weeks, excessive collagen formation with muscle atrophy was observed. The collagen volume fraction gradually and significantly increased following sciatic nerve compression. In the model rats, the numbers of FR‑labeled DRG neurons were significantly higher, relative to the sham‑operated group, however, the numbers of FG‑labeled neurons were similar. In the ipsilateral DRG neurons of the model group, the levels of transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were elevated and, surrounding the neurons, the levels of collagen type I were increased, compared with those in the contralateral DRG. In the ipsilateral DRG, chronic nerve compression was associated with significantly higher levels of phosphorylated (p)‑extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2, and significantly lower levels of p‑c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase and p‑p38, compared with those in the contralateral DRGs. Chronic sciatic nerve compression likely induced DRG pathology by upregulating the expression levels of TGF‑β1, CTGF and collagen type I, with involvement of the mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling pathway. PMID:26820076

  1. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Rodríguez-Cueto, Carmen; Palomo-Garo, Cristina; Gómez-Cañas, María; Valdeolivas, Sara; Guaza, Carmen; Romero, Julián; Guzmán, Manuel; Mechoulam, Raphael; Ramos, José A

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoids are promising medicines to slow down disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), two of the most important disorders affecting the basal ganglia. Two pharmacological profiles have been proposed for cannabinoids being effective in these disorders. On the one hand, cannabinoids like Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol protect nigral or striatal neurons in experimental models of both disorders, in which oxidative injury is a prominent cytotoxic mechanism. This effect could be exerted, at least in part, through mechanisms independent of CB1 and CB2 receptors and involving the control of endogenous antioxidant defences. On the other hand, the activation of CB2 receptors leads to a slower progression of neurodegeneration in both disorders. This effect would be exerted by limiting the toxicity of microglial cells for neurons and, in particular, by reducing the generation of proinflammatory factors. It is important to mention that CB2 receptors have been identified in the healthy brain, mainly in glial elements and, to a lesser extent, in certain subpopulations of neurons, and that they are dramatically up-regulated in response to damaging stimuli, which supports the idea that the cannabinoid system behaves as an endogenous neuroprotective system. This CB2 receptor up-regulation has been found in many neurodegenerative disorders including HD and PD, which supports the beneficial effects found for CB2 receptor agonists in both disorders. In conclusion, the evidence reported so far supports that those cannabinoids having antioxidant properties and/or capability to activate CB2 receptors may represent promising therapeutic agents in HD and PD, thus deserving a prompt clinical evaluation. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7 PMID:21545415

  2. Glutamate-dopamine-GABA interactions in the aging basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mora, Francisco; Segovia, Gregorio; Del Arco, Alberto

    2008-08-01

    The study of neurotransmitter interactions gives a better understanding of the physiology of specific circuits in the brain. In this review we focus mostly on our own results on the interaction of the neurotransmitters glutamate, dopamine and GABA in the basal ganglia during the normal process of aging. We review first the studies on the action of endogenous glutamate on the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and GABA in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens during aging. It was found that there exists an age-related change in the interaction of glutamate, dopamine and GABA and that these effects of aging exhibit a dorsal-to-ventral pattern of effects with no changes in the dorsal parts (dorsal striatum) and changes in the most ventral parts (nucleus accumbens). Second we reviewed the data on the effects of different ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists on the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and GABA in the nucleus accumbens. The results obtained clearly show the different contribution of each glutamate receptor subtype in the age-related changes produced on the interaction of glutamate, dopamine and GABA in this area of the brain. Third the effects of an enriched environment on the action of AMPA and NMDA-receptor agonists in the nucleus accumbens of rats during aging are also evaluated. Finally, and since the nucleus accumbens has been suggested to play a role in emotion and motivation and also motor behaviour, we speculated on the possibility of a specific contribution for the different glutamatergic pathways terminating in the nucleus accumbens and their interaction with a decreased dopamine playing a relevant role in motor behaviour during aging.

  3. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  4. Nurture versus nature: long-term impact of forced right-handedness on structure of pericentral cortex and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Klöppel, Stefan; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Vongerichten, Anna; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2010-03-01

    Does a conflict between inborn motor preferences and educational standards during childhood impact the structure of the adult human brain? To examine this issue, we acquired high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans of the whole brain in adult "converted" left-handers who had been forced as children to become dextral writers. Analysis of sulcal surfaces revealed that consistent right- and left-handers showed an interhemispheric asymmetry in the surface area of the central sulcus with a greater surface contralateral to the dominant hand. This pattern was reversed in the converted group who showed a larger surface of the central sulcus in their left, nondominant hemisphere, indicating plasticity of the primary sensorimotor cortex caused by forced use of the nondominant hand. Voxel-based morphometry showed a reduction of gray matter volume in the middle part of the left putamen in converted left-handers relative to both consistently handed groups. A similar trend was found in the right putamen. Converted subjects with at least one left-handed first-degree relative showed a correlation between the acquired right-hand advantage for writing and the structural changes in putamen and pericentral cortex. Our results show that a specific environmental challenge during childhood can shape the macroscopic structure of the human basal ganglia. The smaller than normal putaminal volume differs markedly from previously reported enlargement of cortical gray matter associated with skill acquisition. This indicates a differential response of the basal ganglia to early environmental challenges, possibly related to processes of pruning during motor development. PMID:20203186

  5. Conceptual convergence: increased inflammation is associated with increased basal ganglia glutamate in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Haroon, E; Fleischer, C C; Felger, J C; Chen, X; Woolwine, B J; Patel, T; Hu, X P; Miller, A H

    2016-10-01

    Inflammation and altered glutamate metabolism are two pathways implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Interestingly, these pathways may be linked given that administration of inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-α to otherwise non-depressed controls increased glutamate in the basal ganglia and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whether increased inflammation is associated with increased glutamate among patients with major depression is unknown. Accordingly, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 50 medication-free, depressed outpatients using single-voxel MRS, to measure absolute glutamate concentrations in basal ganglia and dACC. Multivoxel chemical shift imaging (CSI) was used to explore creatine-normalized measures of other metabolites in basal ganglia. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory markers were assessed along with anhedonia and psychomotor speed. Increased log plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) was significantly associated with increased log left basal ganglia glutamate controlling for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking status and depression severity. In turn, log left basal ganglia glutamate was associated with anhedonia and psychomotor slowing measured by the finger-tapping test, simple reaction time task and the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Plasma CRP was not associated with dACC glutamate. Plasma and CSF CRP were also associated with CSI measures of basal ganglia glutamate and the glial marker myoinositol. These data indicate that increased inflammation in major depression may lead to increased glutamate in the basal ganglia in association with glial dysfunction and suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting glutamate may be preferentially effective in depressed patients with increased inflammation as measured by CRP. PMID:26754953

  6. Substrates for normal gait and pathophysiology of gait disturbances with respect to the basal ganglia dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Takakusaki, Kaoru; Tomita, Nozomi; Yano, Masafumi

    2008-08-01

    In this review, we have tried to elucidate substrates for the execution of normal gait and to understand pathophysiological mechanisms of gait failure in basal ganglia dysfunctions. In Parkinson's disease, volitional and emotional expressions of movement processes are seriously affected in addition to the disturbance of automatic movement processes, such as adjustment of postural muscle tone before gait initiation and rhythmic limb movements during walking. These patients also suffer from muscle tone rigidity and postural instability, which may also cause reduced walking capabilities in adapting to various environments. Neurophysiological and clinical studies have suggested the importance of basal ganglia connections with the cerebral cortex and limbic system in the expression of volitional and emotional behaviors. Here we hypothesize a crucial role played by the basal ganglia-brainstem system in the integrative control of muscle tone and locomotion. The hypothetical model may provide a rational explanation for the role of the basal ganglia in the control of volitional and automatic aspects of movements. Moreover, it might also be beneficial for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of basal ganglia movement disorders. A part of this hypothesis has been supported by studies utilizing a constructive simulation engineering technique that clearly shows that an appropriate level of postural muscle tone and proper acquisition and utilization of sensory information are essential to maintain adaptable bodily functions for the full execution of bipedal gait. In conclusion, we suggest that the major substrates for supporting bipedal posture and executing bipedal gait are 1) fine neural networks such as the cortico-basal ganglia loop and basal ganglia-brainstem system, 2) fine musculoskeletal structures with adequately developed (postural) muscle tone, and 3) proper sensory processing. It follows that any dysfunction of the above sensorimotor integration processes

  7. Conceptual convergence: increased inflammation is associated with increased basal ganglia glutamate in patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Haroon, E; Fleischer, C C; Felger, J C; Chen, X; Woolwine, B J; Patel, T; Hu, X P; Miller, A H

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and altered glutamate metabolism are two pathways implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Interestingly, these pathways may be linked given that administration of inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-α to otherwise non-depressed controls increased glutamate in the basal ganglia and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whether increased inflammation is associated with increased glutamate among patients with major depression is unknown. Accordingly, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 50 medication-free, depressed outpatients using single-voxel MRS, to measure absolute glutamate concentrations in basal ganglia and dACC. Multivoxel chemical shift imaging (CSI) was used to explore creatine-normalized measures of other metabolites in basal ganglia. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory markers were assessed along with anhedonia and psychomotor speed. Increased log plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) was significantly associated with increased log left basal ganglia glutamate controlling for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking status and depression severity. In turn, log left basal ganglia glutamate was associated with anhedonia and psychomotor slowing measured by the finger-tapping test, simple reaction time task and the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Plasma CRP was not associated with dACC glutamate. Plasma and CSF CRP were also associated with CSI measures of basal ganglia glutamate and the glial marker myoinositol. These data indicate that increased inflammation in major depression may lead to increased glutamate in the basal ganglia in association with glial dysfunction and suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting glutamate may be preferentially effective in depressed patients with increased inflammation as measured by CRP. PMID:26754953

  8. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  10. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  11. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  12. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  13. A review of pathologies associated with high T1W signal intensity in the basal ganglia on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zaitout, Zahia; Romanowski, Charles; Karunasaagarar, Kavitasagary; Connolly, Daniel; Batty, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Summary With several functions and a fundamental influence over cognition and motor functions, the basal ganglia are the cohesive centre of the brain. There are several conditions which affect the basal ganglia and these have various clinical and radiological manifestations. Nevertheless, on magnetic resonance imaging there is a limited differential diagnosis for those conditions presenting with T1 weighted spin echo hyperintensity within the central nervous system in general and the basal ganglia in particular. The aim of our review is to explore some of these basal ganglia pathologies and provide image illustrations. PMID:24900164

  14. Expression of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Ganglia of Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ruiqi; Gu, Huan; Qiu, Yamei; Guo, Yong; Korteweg, Christine; Huang, Jin; Gu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    CF is caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) which is an anion selective transmembrane ion channel that mainly regulates chloride transport, expressed in the epithelia of various organs. Recently, we have demonstrated CFTR expression in the brain, the spinal cord and the sympathetic ganglia. This study aims to investigate the expression and distribution of CFTR in the ganglia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Fresh tissue and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal gastrointestinal tract samples were collected from eleven surgical patients and five autopsy cases. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, laser-assisted microdissection and nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed. Expression of CFTR protein and mRNA was detected in neurons of the ganglia of all segments of the human gastrointestinal tract examined, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, colon and rectum. The extensive expression of CFTR in the enteric ganglia suggests that CFTR may play a role in the physiology of the innervation of the gastro-intestinal tract. The presence of dysfunctional CFTRs in enteric ganglia could, to a certain extent, explain the gastrointestinal symptoms frequently experienced by CF patients. PMID:27491544

  15. Expression of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Ganglia of Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ruiqi; Gu, Huan; Qiu, Yamei; Guo, Yong; Korteweg, Christine; Huang, Jin; Gu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    CF is caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) which is an anion selective transmembrane ion channel that mainly regulates chloride transport, expressed in the epithelia of various organs. Recently, we have demonstrated CFTR expression in the brain, the spinal cord and the sympathetic ganglia. This study aims to investigate the expression and distribution of CFTR in the ganglia of the human gastrointestinal tract. Fresh tissue and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal gastrointestinal tract samples were collected from eleven surgical patients and five autopsy cases. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, laser-assisted microdissection and nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed. Expression of CFTR protein and mRNA was detected in neurons of the ganglia of all segments of the human gastrointestinal tract examined, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, colon and rectum. The extensive expression of CFTR in the enteric ganglia suggests that CFTR may play a role in the physiology of the innervation of the gastro-intestinal tract. The presence of dysfunctional CFTRs in enteric ganglia could, to a certain extent, explain the gastrointestinal symptoms frequently experienced by CF patients. PMID:27491544

  16. Selection of cortical dynamics for motor behaviour by the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2015-12-01

    The basal ganglia and cortex are strongly implicated in the control of motor preparation and execution. Re-entrant loops between these two brain areas are thought to determine the selection of motor repertoires for instrumental action. The nature of neural encoding and processing in the motor cortex as well as the way in which selection by the basal ganglia acts on them is currently debated. The classic view of the motor cortex implementing a direct mapping of information from perception to muscular responses is challenged by proposals viewing it as a set of dynamical systems controlling muscles. Consequently, the common idea that a competition between relatively segregated cortico-striato-nigro-thalamo-cortical channels selects patterns of activity in the motor cortex is no more sufficient to explain how action selection works. Here, we contribute to develop the dynamical view of the basal ganglia-cortical system by proposing a computational model in which a thalamo-cortical dynamical neural reservoir is modulated by disinhibitory selection of the basal ganglia guided by top-down information, so that it responds with different dynamics to the same bottom-up input. The model shows how different motor trajectories can so be produced by controlling the same set of joint actuators. Furthermore, the model shows how the basal ganglia might modulate cortical dynamics by preserving coarse-grained spatiotemporal information throughout cortico-cortical pathways.

  17. Effects on hypothalamus when CPG is fed back to basal ganglia based on KIV model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Li, Wenfeng; Tian, Juan; Zhang, Xixue

    2015-02-01

    The KIV model approximates the operation of the basic vertebrate forebrain together with the basal ganglia and motor systems. In KIV model, the hypothalamus and the basal ganglia which are two important parts in the midline forebrain are closely associated with the locomotion. The CPG model with time delay is established in this paper and the stability of this CPG model is discussed. The CPG output is treated as the proprioception and fed back to the basal ganglia. We focus on the effects on the hypothalamus and the basal ganglia when the time delay parameter a d , the CPG amplitude parameter e and the CPG frequency parameter T r are changed. Through analysis, we find that there exists optimum value of the parameters a d or T r which can make the synchronization of the hypothalamus optimum when the CPG is added into the basal ganglia. The results could have important implications for biological processes which are about interaction between the neural network and the CPG.

  18. Position of Larval Tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the Ganglia of Shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus

    PubMed Central

    Carreon, Nadia; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    Parasites that invade the nervous system of their hosts have perhaps the best potential to manipulate their host’s behavior, but how they manipulate the host, if they do at all, could depend on their position within the host’s nervous system. We hypothesize that parasites that live in the nervous system of their host will be randomly distributed if they exert their influence through non-specific effects (i.e., general pathology), but that their position in the nervous system will be non-random if they exert their influence by targeting specific neural circuits. We recorded the position of larval tapeworms, Polypocephalus sp., in the abdominal ganglia of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus. Tapeworms are more common within ganglia than in the section of the nerve cord between ganglia, even though the nerve cord has a greater volume than the ganglia. The tapeworms are also more abundant in the periphery of the ganglia. Because most synaptic connections are within the central region of the ganglion, such positioning may represent a trade-off between controlling the nervous system and damaging it. PMID:24820854

  19. Abnormal Trichuris trichiura eggs detected during an epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Rodríguez, Iván; Kozek, Wieslaw J

    2007-09-01

    Abnormal eggs of Trichuris trichiura were found in the stools of one of the patients during a study on the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses among an institutionalized population. The abnormalities observed included great variation in shape, size, and color. Similar atypical whipworm eggs have been reported in patients after treatment with mebendazole, thiabendazole, tetracloroethylene, and dithiazanine. Apparently some anthelminthics have an effect on the reproductive system of female T. trichiura, resulting in production of abnormal eggs, which could lead to misdiagnosis of the infection, since they can be mistaken as eggs of other parasites or artifacts.

  20. Identifying the Basal Ganglia Network Model Markers for Medication-Induced Impulsivity in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramani, Pragathi Priyadharsini; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Ali, Manal; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity, i.e. irresistibility in the execution of actions, may be prominent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine precursors or dopamine receptor agonists. In this study, we combine clinical investigations with computational modeling to explore whether impulsivity in PD patients on medication may arise as a result of abnormalities in risk, reward and punishment learning. In order to empirically assess learning outcomes involving risk, reward and punishment, four subject groups were examined: healthy controls, ON medication PD patients with impulse control disorder (PD-ON ICD) or without ICD (PD-ON non-ICD), and OFF medication PD patients (PD-OFF). A neural network model of the Basal Ganglia (BG) that has the capacity to predict the dysfunction of both the dopaminergic (DA) and the serotonergic (5HT) neuromodulator systems was developed and used to facilitate the interpretation of experimental results. In the model, the BG action selection dynamics were mimicked using a utility function based decision making framework, with DA controlling reward prediction and 5HT controlling punishment and risk predictions. The striatal model included three pools of Medium Spiny Neurons (MSNs), with D1 receptor (R) alone, D2R alone and co-expressing D1R-D2R. Empirical studies showed that reward optimality was increased in PD-ON ICD patients while punishment optimality was increased in PD-OFF patients. Empirical studies also revealed that PD-ON ICD subjects had lower reaction times (RT) compared to that of the PD-ON non-ICD patients. Computational modeling suggested that PD-OFF patients have higher punishment sensitivity, while healthy controls showed comparatively higher risk sensitivity. A significant decrease in sensitivity to punishment and risk was crucial for explaining behavioral changes observed in PD-ON ICD patients. Our results highlight the power of computational modelling for identifying neuronal circuitry implicated in learning, and its

  1. Hypernasality associated with basal ganglia dysfunction: evidence from Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Novotný, Michal; Čmejla, Roman; Růžičková, Hana; Klempíř, Jiří; Růžička, Evžen

    2016-01-01

    Background Although increased nasality can originate from basal ganglia dysfunction, data regarding hypernasality in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD) are very sparse. The aim of the current study was to analyze acoustic and perceptual correlates of velopharyngeal seal closure in 37 PD and 37 HD participants in comparison to 37 healthy control speakers. Methods Acoustical analysis was based on sustained phonation of the vowel /i/ and perceptual analysis was based on monologue. Perceptual analysis was performed by 10 raters using The Great Ormond Street Speech Assessment ’98. Acoustic parameters related to changes in a 1/3-octave band centered on 1 kHz were proposed to reflect nasality level and behavior through utterance. Results Perceptual analysis showed the occurrence of mild to moderate hypernasality in 65% of PD, 89% of HD and 22% of control speakers. Based on acoustic analyses, 27% of PD, 54% of HD and 19% of control speakers showed an increased occurrence of hypernasality. In addition, 78% of HD patients demonstrated a high occurrence of intermittent hypernasality. Further results indicated relationships between the acoustic parameter representing fluctuation of nasality and perceptual assessment (r = 0.51, p < 0.001) as well as the Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale chorea composite subscore (r = 0.42, p = 0.01). Conclusions In conclusion the acoustic assessment showed that abnormal nasality was not a common feature of PD, whereas patients with HD manifested intermittent hypernasality associated with chorea. PMID:27703866

  2. Modiolus-hugging intracochlear electrode array with shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyou Sik; Jun, Sang Beom; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications. PMID:23762181

  3. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  4. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  5. Functional study of endothelin B receptors in satellite glial cells in trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Feldman-Goriachnik, Rachel; Hanani, Menachem

    2011-07-13

    There is immunohistochemical evidence for endothelin (ET) receptors in satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia, but there is no information on the function of these receptors. We used calcium imaging to study this question in isolated mouse trigeminal ganglia and found that satellite glial cells are highly sensitive to ET-1, with threshold at 0.05 nM. Responses displayed strong desensitization at ET-1 concentrations of more than 1 nM. A large component of the response persisted when Ca was deleted from the external medium, consistent with Ca release from internal stores. The use of receptor selective agents showed that the responses were mediated by ETB receptors. We conclude that satellite glial cells display endothelin receptors, which may participate in neuron-glia communications in the trigeminal ganglia.

  6. MR-DTI and PET multimodal imaging of dopamine release within subdivisions of basal ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziortzi, A.; Searle, G.; Tsoumpas, C.; Long, C.; Shotbolt, P.; Rabiner, E.; Jenkinson, M.; Gunn, R. N.

    2011-09-01

    The basal ganglia is a group of anatomical nuclei, functionally organised into limbic, associative and sensorimotor regions, which plays a central role in dopamine related neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we combine two imaging modalities to enable the measurement of dopamine release in functionally related subdivisions of the basal ganglia. [11C]-(+)-PHNO Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measurements in the living human brain pre- and post-administration of amphetamine allow for the estimation of regional dopamine release. Combined Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging (MR-DTI) data allows for the definition of functional territories of the basal ganglia from connectivity information. The results suggest that there is a difference in dopamine release among the connectivity derived functional subdivisions. Dopamine release is highest in the limbic area followed by the sensorimotor and then the associative area with this pattern reflected in both striatum and pallidum.

  7. Peripheral ganglia supplying the genital smooth musculature in the female pig: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    PANU, RINO; BO MINELLI, LUISA; BOTTI, MADDALENA; GAZZA, FERDINANDO; ACONE, FRANCA; PALMIERI, GIOVANNI

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to locate the sensory and autonomic ganglia innervating the female genital musculature in pigs. The retrograde neuronal tracers horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or fast blue (FB) were injected into the left retractor clitoridis muscle (RCM), which was treated as a typical model of the genital smooth musculature. Labelled cells were found in ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia Sl–S4, in bilateral sympathetic paravertebral ganglia from L5–L6 or L6–L7 to S3 and in the left and right caudal mesenteric ganglion. In two of the five animals treated, presumably preganglionic parasympathetic cells were labelled in the ipsilateral intermediate grey substance of the segments Sl–S2. PMID:11554508

  8. Dopamine transporter SPECT/CT and perfusion brain SPECT imaging in idiopathic basal ganglia calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Paschali, Anna; Lakiotis, Velissarios; Messinis, Lambros; Markaki, Elli; Constantoyannis, Constantine; Ellul, John; Vassilakos, Pavlos

    2009-07-01

    A case of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification in a 56-year-old woman with parkinsonism and cognitive impairment is described. The nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and regional cerebral blood flow were evaluated using dopamine transporter (DAT) brain single photon emission tomography combined with a low-dose x-ray computerized tomography transmission (hybrid SPECT/CT) and Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT study, respectively. DAT SPECT/CT imaging revealed a reduction in DAT binding in both striatum regions coinciding with bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia. Brain perfusion scan showed hypoperfusion in basal ganglia regions, posterior parietal cortex bilaterally, left frontopolar and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left temporal lobe. These findings correlated well with the clinical condition of the patient. Mineralization may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuronal degeneration. Cortical perfusion changes in patients may better explain the patient's altered cognitive and motor functions.

  9. Conditional Routing of Information to the Cortex: A Model of the Basal Ganglia's Role in Cognitive Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocco, Andrea; Lebiere, Christian; Anderson, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a central role in cognition and are involved in such general functions as action selection and reinforcement learning. Here, we present a model exploring the hypothesis that the basal ganglia implement a conditional information-routing system. The system directs the transmission of cortical signals between pairs of regions…

  10. Functions of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits for spoken language may extend beyond emotional-affective modulation in adults.

    PubMed

    Hanakawa, Takashi; Hosoda, Chihiro

    2014-12-01

    We support Ackermann et al.'s proposal that the cortico-basal ganglia circuits may play essential roles in the evolution of spoken language. Here we discuss further evidence indicating that the cortico-basal ganglia circuits may contribute to various aspects of spoken language including planning, learning, and controlling of speech in adulthood.

  11. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  12. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  13. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  14. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  15. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  16. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  17. Selective attentional enhancement and inhibition of fronto-posterior connectivity by the basal ganglia during attention switching.

    PubMed

    van Schouwenburg, Martine R; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Cools, Roshan

    2015-06-01

    The prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia interact to selectively gate a desired action. Recent studies have shown that this selective gating mechanism of the basal ganglia extends to the domain of attention. Here, we investigate the nature of this action-like gating mechanism for attention using a spatial attention-switching paradigm in combination with functional neuroimaging and dynamic causal modeling. We show that the basal ganglia guide attention by focally releasing inhibition of task-relevant representations, while simultaneously inhibiting task-irrelevant representations by selectively modulating prefrontal top-down connections. These results strengthen and specify the role of the basal ganglia in attention. Moreover, our findings have implications for psychological theorizing by suggesting that inhibition of unattended sensory regions is not only a consequence of mutual suppression, but is an active process, subserved by the basal ganglia. PMID:24343891

  18. Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R

    1975-01-01

    The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images PMID:1060122

  19. The disrupted basal ganglia and behavioural control: an integrative cross-domain perspective of spontaneous stereotypy.

    PubMed

    McBride, Sebastian D; Parker, Matthew O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous stereotypic behaviour (SB) is common in many captive animal species, as well as in humans with some severe psychiatric disorders, and is often cited as being related to general basal ganglia dysfunction. Despite this assertion, there is little in the literature examining SB specifically in terms of the basal ganglia mechanics. In this review, we attempt to fill this gap by offering an integrative, cross-domain perspective of SB by linking what we currently understand about the SB phenotype with the ever-growing literature on the anatomy and functionality of the basal ganglia. After outlining current models of SB from different theoretical perspectives, we offer a broad but detailed overview of normally functioning basal ganglia mechanics, and attempt to link this with current neurophysiological evidence related to spontaneous SB. Based on this we present an empirically derived theoretical framework, which proposes that SB is the result of a dysfunctional action selection system that may reflect dysregulation of excitatory (direct) and inhibitory (indirect and hyperdirect) pathways as well as alterations in mechanisms of behavioural switching. This approach also suggests behaviours that specifically become stereotypic may reflect inbuilt low selection threshold behavioural sequences associated with early development and the species-specific ethogram or, low threshold behavioural sequences that are the result of stress-induced dopamine exposure at the time of performance.

  20. [Distinct roles of the direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia circuit mechanism].

    PubMed

    Morita, Makiko; Hikida, Takatoshi

    2015-11-01

    The basal ganglia are key neural substrates that control not only motor balance but also emotion, motivation, cognition, learning, and decision-making. Dysfunction of the basal ganglia leads to neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease) and psychiatric disorders (e.g. drug addiction, schizophrenia, and depression). In the basal ganglia circuit, there are two important pathways: the direct and indirect striatal pathways. Recently, new molecular techniques that activate or inactive selectively the direct or indirect pathway neurons have revealed the function of each pathway. Here we review the distinct roles of the direct and indirect striatal pathways in brain function and drug addiction. We have developed a reversible neurotransmission blocking technique, in which transmission of each pathway is selectively blocked by specific expression of transmission-blocking tetanus toxin, and revealed that the activation of D1 receptors in the direct pathway is critical for reward learning/cocaine addiction, and that the inactivation of D2 receptors is critical for aversive learning/learning flexibility. We propose a new circuit mechanism by which the dopaminergic input from the ventral tegmental area can switch the direct and indirect pathways in the nucleus accumbens. These basal ganglia circuit mechanisms will give us insights into the pathophysiology of mental diseases. PMID:26785520

  1. How may the basal ganglia contribute to auditory categorization and speech perception?

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung-Joo; Fiez, Julie A.; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners must accomplish two complementary perceptual feats in extracting a message from speech. They must discriminate linguistically-relevant acoustic variability and generalize across irrelevant variability. Said another way, they must categorize speech. Since the mapping of acoustic variability is language-specific, these categories must be learned from experience. Thus, understanding how, in general, the auditory system acquires and represents categories can inform us about the toolbox of mechanisms available to speech perception. This perspective invites consideration of findings from cognitive neuroscience literatures outside of the speech domain as a means of constraining models of speech perception. Although neurobiological models of speech perception have mainly focused on cerebral cortex, research outside the speech domain is consistent with the possibility of significant subcortical contributions in category learning. Here, we review the functional role of one such structure, the basal ganglia. We examine research from animal electrophysiology, human neuroimaging, and behavior to consider characteristics of basal ganglia processing that may be advantageous for speech category learning. We also present emerging evidence for a direct role for basal ganglia in learning auditory categories in a complex, naturalistic task intended to model the incidental manner in which speech categories are acquired. To conclude, we highlight new research questions that arise in incorporating the broader neuroscience research literature in modeling speech perception, and suggest how understanding contributions of the basal ganglia can inform attempts to optimize training protocols for learning non-native speech categories in adulthood. PMID:25136291

  2. Opponent and bidirectional control of movement velocity in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Yttri, Eric A; Dudman, Joshua T

    2016-05-02

    For goal-directed behaviour it is critical that we can both select the appropriate action and learn to modify the underlying movements (for example, the pitch of a note or velocity of a reach) to improve outcomes. The basal ganglia are a critical nexus where circuits necessary for the production of behaviour, such as the neocortex and thalamus, are integrated with reward signalling to reinforce successful, purposive actions. The dorsal striatum, a major input structure of basal ganglia, is composed of two opponent pathways, direct and indirect, thought to select actions that elicit positive outcomes and suppress actions that do not, respectively. Activity-dependent plasticity modulated by reward is thought to be sufficient for selecting actions in the striatum. Although perturbations of basal ganglia function produce profound changes in movement, it remains unknown whether activity-dependent plasticity is sufficient to produce learned changes in movement kinematics, such as velocity. Here we use cell-type-specific stimulation in mice delivered in closed loop during movement to demonstrate that activity in either the direct or indirect pathway is sufficient to produce specific and sustained increases or decreases in velocity, without affecting action selection or motivation. These behavioural changes were a form of learning that accumulated over trials, persisted after the cessation of stimulation, and were abolished in the presence of dopamine antagonists. Our results reveal that the direct and indirect pathways can each bidirectionally control movement velocity, demonstrating unprecedented specificity and flexibility in the control of volition by the basal ganglia.

  3. RNA-Seq Analysis of Human Trigeminal and Dorsal Root Ganglia with a Focus on Chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Flegel, Caroline; Schöbel, Nicole; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Tannapfel, Andrea; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-01-01

    The chemosensory capacity of the somatosensory system relies on the appropriate expression of chemoreceptors, which detect chemical stimuli and transduce sensory information into cellular signals. Knowledge of the complete repertoire of the chemoreceptors expressed in human sensory ganglia is lacking. This study employed the next-generation sequencing technique (RNA-Seq) to conduct the first expression analysis of human trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We analyzed the data with a focus on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion channels, which are (potentially) involved in chemosensation by somatosensory neurons in the human TG and DRG. For years, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been considered the main group of receptors for chemosensation in the trigeminal system. Interestingly, we could show that sensory ganglia also express a panel of different olfactory receptors (ORs) with putative chemosensory function. To characterize OR expression in more detail, we performed microarray, semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments, and immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, we analyzed the expression data to identify further known or putative classes of chemoreceptors in the human TG and DRG. Our results give an overview of the major classes of chemoreceptors expressed in the human TG and DRG and provide the basis for a broader understanding of the reception of chemical cues. PMID:26070209

  4. The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

  5. Evidence for "direct" and "indirect" pathways through the song system basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Farries, Michael A; Ding, Long; Perkel, David J

    2005-03-28

    Song learning in oscine birds relies on a circuit known as the "anterior forebrain pathway," which includes a specialized region of the avian basal ganglia. This region, area X, is embedded within a telencephalic structure considered homologous to the striatum, the input structure of the mammalian basal ganglia. Area X has many features in common with the mammalian striatum, yet has distinctive traits, including largely aspiny projection neurons that directly innervate the thalamus and a cell type that physiologically resembles neurons recorded in the mammalian globus pallidus. We have proposed that area X is a mixture of striatum and globus pallidus and has the same functional organization as circuits in the mammalian basal ganglia. Using electrophysiological and anatomical approaches, we found that area X contains a functional analog of the "direct" striatopallidothalamic pathway of mammals: axons of the striatal spiny neurons make close contacts on the somata and dendrites of pallidal cells. A subset of pallidal neurons project directly to the thalamus. Surprisingly, we found evidence that many pallidal cells may not project to the thalamus, but rather participate in a functional analog of the mammalian "indirect" pathway, which may oppose the effects of the direct pathway. Our results deepen our understanding of how information flows through area X and provide more support for the notion that song learning in oscines employs physiological mechanisms similar to basal ganglia-dependent forms of motor learning in mammals. PMID:15717304

  6. Opponent and bidirectional control of movement velocity in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Yttri, Eric A; Dudman, Joshua T

    2016-05-19

    For goal-directed behaviour it is critical that we can both select the appropriate action and learn to modify the underlying movements (for example, the pitch of a note or velocity of a reach) to improve outcomes. The basal ganglia are a critical nexus where circuits necessary for the production of behaviour, such as the neocortex and thalamus, are integrated with reward signalling to reinforce successful, purposive actions. The dorsal striatum, a major input structure of basal ganglia, is composed of two opponent pathways, direct and indirect, thought to select actions that elicit positive outcomes and suppress actions that do not, respectively. Activity-dependent plasticity modulated by reward is thought to be sufficient for selecting actions in the striatum. Although perturbations of basal ganglia function produce profound changes in movement, it remains unknown whether activity-dependent plasticity is sufficient to produce learned changes in movement kinematics, such as velocity. Here we use cell-type-specific stimulation in mice delivered in closed loop during movement to demonstrate that activity in either the direct or indirect pathway is sufficient to produce specific and sustained increases or decreases in velocity, without affecting action selection or motivation. These behavioural changes were a form of learning that accumulated over trials, persisted after the cessation of stimulation, and were abolished in the presence of dopamine antagonists. Our results reveal that the direct and indirect pathways can each bidirectionally control movement velocity, demonstrating unprecedented specificity and flexibility in the control of volition by the basal ganglia. PMID:27135927

  7. Bidirectional Plasticity in Striatonigral Synapses: A Switch to Balance Direct and Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aceves, Jose J.; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Hernandez-Martinez, Ricardo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

    2011-01-01

    There is no hypothesis to explain how direct and indirect basal ganglia (BG) pathways interact to reach a balance during the learning of motor procedures. Both pathways converge in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) carrying the result of striatal processing. Unfortunately, the mechanisms that regulate synaptic plasticity in striatonigral…

  8. Alterations in neuronal activity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits in the parkinsonian state

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Adriana; Devergnas, Annaelle; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials (LFPs), electroencephalograms (EEGs) or electrocorticograms (ECoGs). Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. PMID:25698937

  9. Association Between Invisible Basal Ganglia and ZNF335 Mutations: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sato, Rieko; Takanashi, Jun-Ichi; Tsuyusaki, Yu; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Takahashi, Takao

    2016-09-01

    ZNF335 was first reported in 2012 as a causative gene for microcephaly. Because only 1 consanguineous pedigree has ever been reported, the key clinical features associated with ZNF335 mutations remain unknown. In this article, we describe another family harboring ZNF335 mutations. The female proband was the first child of nonconsanguineous Japanese parents. At birth, microcephaly was absent; her head circumference was 32.0 cm (-0.6 SD). At 3 months, microcephaly was noted, (head circumference, 34.0 cm [-4.6 SD]). Brain MRI showed invisible basal ganglia, cerebral atrophy, brainstem hypoplasia, and cerebellar atrophy. At 33 months, (head circumference, 41.0 cm [-5.1 SD]), she had severe psychomotor retardation. After obtaining informed consent from her parents, we performed exome sequencing in the proband and identified 1 novel and 1 known mutation in ZNF335, namely, c.1399T>C (p.C467R) and c.1505A>G (p.Y502C), respectively. The mutations were individually transmitted by her parents, indicating that the proband was compound heterozygous for the mutations. Her brain imaging findings, including invisible basal ganglia, were similar to those observed in the previous case with ZNF335 mutations. We speculate that invisible basal ganglia may be the key feature of ZNF335 mutations. For infants presenting with both microcephaly and invisible basal ganglia, ZNF335 mutations should be considered as a differential diagnosis. PMID:27540107

  10. The Differential Effects of Thalamus and Basal Ganglia on Facial Emotion Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Crystal C. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Yip, James T. H.; King, Kristin E.; Li, Leonard S. W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined if subcortical stroke was associated with impaired facial emotion recognition. Furthermore, the lateralization of the impairment and the differential profiles of facial emotion recognition deficits with localized thalamic or basal ganglia damage were also studied. Thirty-eight patients with subcortical strokes and 19 matched…

  11. Basal ganglia volume in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia is associated with treatment response to antipsychotic medication.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Nathan L; Clark, David G; Bolding, Mark S; White, David M; Lahti, Adrienne C

    2014-01-30

    We investigated the relationship between basal ganglia volume and treatment response to the atypical antipsychotic medication risperidone in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia. Basal ganglia volumes included the bilateral caudate, putamen, and pallidum and were measured using the Freesurfer automated segmentation pipeline in 23 subjects. Also, baseline symptom severity, duration of illness, age, gender, time off medication, and exposure to previous antipsychotic were measured. Treatment response was significantly correlated with all three regions of the bilateral basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, and pallidum), baseline symptom severity, duration of illness, and age but not gender, time off antipsychotic medication, or exposure to previous antipsychotic medication. The caudate volume was the basal ganglia region that demonstrated the strongest correlation with treatment response and was significantly negatively correlated with patient age. Caudate volume was not significantly correlated with any other measure. We demonstrated a novel finding that the caudate volume explains a significant amount of the variance in treatment response over the course of 6 weeks of risperidone pharmacotherapy even when controlling for baseline symptom severity and duration of illness.

  12. Acute movement disorder with bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uremia

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Gurusidheshwar M.; Khanpet, Mallikarjun S.; Mali, Rajendra V.

    2011-01-01

    Acute movement disorder associated with symmetrical basal ganglia lesions occurring in the background of diabetic end stage renal disease is a recently described condition. It has distinct clinico-radiological features and is commonly described in Asian patients. We report the first Indian case report of this potentially reversible condition and discuss its various clinico-radiological aspects. PMID:22028539

  13. Effects of Focal Basal Ganglia Lesions on Timing and Force Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, P.; Diedrichsen, J.; Ivry, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of basal ganglia dysfunction in humans have generally involved patients with degenerative disorders, notably Parkinson's disease. In many instances, the performance of these patients is compared to that of patients with focal lesions of other brain structures such as the cerebellum. In the present report, we studied the performance of…

  14. RNA-Seq Analysis of Human Trigeminal and Dorsal Root Ganglia with a Focus on Chemoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Flegel, Caroline; Schöbel, Nicole; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Tannapfel, Andrea; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-01-01

    The chemosensory capacity of the somatosensory system relies on the appropriate expression of chemoreceptors, which detect chemical stimuli and transduce sensory information into cellular signals. Knowledge of the complete repertoire of the chemoreceptors expressed in human sensory ganglia is lacking. This study employed the next-generation sequencing technique (RNA-Seq) to conduct the first expression analysis of human trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). We analyzed the data with a focus on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion channels, which are (potentially) involved in chemosensation by somatosensory neurons in the human TG and DRG. For years, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been considered the main group of receptors for chemosensation in the trigeminal system. Interestingly, we could show that sensory ganglia also express a panel of different olfactory receptors (ORs) with putative chemosensory function. To characterize OR expression in more detail, we performed microarray, semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments, and immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, we analyzed the expression data to identify further known or putative classes of chemoreceptors in the human TG and DRG. Our results give an overview of the major classes of chemoreceptors expressed in the human TG and DRG and provide the basis for a broader understanding of the reception of chemical cues. PMID:26070209

  15. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  16. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  17. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  18. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  19. Craniofacial abnormalities in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, N J; Silvera, V M; Campbell, S E; Gordon, L B

    2012-09-01

    HGPS is a rare syndrome of segmental premature aging. Our goal was to expand the scope of structural bone and soft-tissue craniofacial abnormalities in HGPS through CT or MR imaging. Using The Progeria Research Foundation Medical and Research Database, 98 imaging studies on 25 patients, birth to 14.1 years of age, were comprehensively reviewed. Eight newly identified abnormalities involving the calvaria, skull base, and soft tissues of the face and orbits were present with prevalences between 43% and 100%. These included J-shaped sellas, a mottled appearance and increased vascular markings of the calvaria, abnormally configured mandibular condyles, hypoplastic articular eminences, small zygomatic arches, prominent parotid glands, and optic nerve kinking. This expanded craniofacial characterization helps link disease features and improves our ability to evaluate how underlying genetic and cellular abnormalities culminate in a disease phenotype.

  20. Sildenafil promotes neuroprotection of the pelvic ganglia neurones after bilateral cavernosal nerve resection in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, Su M.; Garcia, Leah A.; Kovanecz, Istvan; Martinez, Ramon A.; Shah, Sanjana; Artaza, Jorge N.; Ferrini, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the gene expression profile of pelvic ganglia neurones after bilateral cavernosal nerve resection (BCNR) and subsequent treatment with sildenafil in relation to neurotrophic-related pathways. Materials and methods Fisher rats aged 5 months were subjected to BCNR or sham operation and treated with or without sildenafil (20 mg/kg body-weight in drinking water) for 7 days. Total RNA isolated from pelvic ganglia was subjected to reverse transcription and then to quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the RAT-neurotrophic array. Results were corroborated by real-time PCR and western blotting. Another set of animals were injected with a fluorescent tracer at the base of the penis, 7 days before BCNR or sham operation, and were sacrificed 7 days after surgery. Sections of pelvic ganglia were used for immunohistochemistry with antibodies against neurturin, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, tyrosine hydroxylase and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor α2. Results A down-regulation of the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase accompanied by changes in the level of cholinergic neurotrophic factors, such as neurturin and its receptor glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor α2, artemin, neurotrophin-4 and cilliary neurotrophic factor, was observed 7 days after BCNR in pelvic ganglia neurones. Treatment with sildenafil, starting immediately after surgery, reversed all these changes at a level similar to that in sham-operated animals. Conclusions Sildenafil treatment promotes changes in the neurotrophic phenotype, leading to a regenerative state of pelvic ganglia neurones. The present study provides a justification for the use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors as a neuroprotective agent after BCNR. PMID:22672418

  1. Transcriptome analysis of trigeminal ganglia following masseter muscle inflammation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jennifer; Asgar, Jamila; Ro, Jin Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pain in masticatory muscles is a major medical problem. Although mechanisms underlying persistent pain in masticatory muscles are not fully understood, sensitization of nociceptive primary afferents following muscle inflammation or injury contributes to muscle hyperalgesia. It is well known that craniofacial muscle injury or inflammation induces regulation of multiple genes in trigeminal ganglia, which is associated with muscle hyperalgesia. However, overall transcriptional profiles within trigeminal ganglia following masseter inflammation have not yet been determined. In the present study, we performed RNA sequencing assay in rat trigeminal ganglia to identify transcriptome profiles of genes relevant to hyperalgesia following inflammation of the rat masseter muscle. Results Masseter inflammation differentially regulated >3500 genes in trigeminal ganglia. Predominant biological pathways were predicted to be related with activation of resident non-neuronal cells within trigeminal ganglia or recruitment of immune cells. To focus our analysis on the genes more relevant to nociceptors, we selected genes implicated in pain mechanisms, genes enriched in small- to medium-sized sensory neurons, and genes enriched in TRPV1-lineage nociceptors. Among the 2320 candidate genes, 622 genes showed differential expression following masseter inflammation. When the analysis was limited to these candidate genes, pathways related with G protein-coupled signaling and synaptic plasticity were predicted to be enriched. Inspection of individual gene expression changes confirmed the transcriptional changes of multiple nociceptor genes associated with masseter hyperalgesia (e.g., Trpv1, Trpa1, P2rx3, Tac1, and Bdnf) and also suggested a number of novel probable contributors (e.g., Piezo2, Tmem100, and Hdac9). Conclusion These findings should further advance our understanding of peripheral mechanisms involved in persistent craniofacial muscle pain conditions and provide a

  2. Neural basis of singing in crickets: central pattern generation in abdominal ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

    2011-12-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying cricket singing behavior have been the focus of several studies, but the central pattern generator (CPG) for singing has not been localized conclusively. To test if the abdominal ganglia contribute to the singing motor pattern and to analyze if parts of the singing CPG are located in these ganglia, we systematically truncated the abdominal nerve cord of fictively singing crickets while recording the singing motor pattern from a front-wing nerve. Severing the connectives anywhere between terminal ganglion and abdominal ganglion A3 did not preclude singing, although the motor pattern became more variable and failure-prone as more ganglia were disconnected. Singing terminated immediately and permanently after transecting the connectives between the metathoracic ganglion complex and the first unfused abdominal ganglion A3. The contribution of abdominal ganglia for singing pattern generation was confirmed by intracellular interneuron recordings and current injections. During fictive singing, an ascending interneuron with its soma and dendrite in A3 depolarized rhythmically. It spiked 10 ms before the wing-opener activity and hyperpolarized in phase with the wing-closer activity. Depolarizing current injection elicited rhythmic membrane potential oscillations and spike bursts that elicited additional syllables and reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. Our results disclose that the abdominal ganglion A3 is directly involved in generating the singing motor pattern, whereas the more posterior ganglia seem to provide only stabilizing feedback to the CPG circuit. Localizing the singing CPG in the anterior abdominal neuromeres now allows analyzing its circuitry at the level of identified interneurons in subsequent studies.

  3. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults: The Role of Basal Ganglia Volume

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia

  4. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  5. Classification of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Nur Atiqah Kamarul; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Jumaat, Abdul Kadir; Yasiran, Siti Salmah

    2015-05-01

    Classification is the process of recognition, differentiation and categorizing objects into groups. Breast abnormalities are calcifications which are tumor markers that indicate the presence of cancer in the breast. The aims of this research are to classify the types of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network (ANN) classifier and to evaluate the accuracy performance using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The methods used in this research are ANN for breast abnormalities classifications and Canny edge detector as a feature extraction method. Previously the ANN classifier provides only the number of benign and malignant cases without providing information for specific cases. However in this research, the type of abnormality for each image can be obtained. The existing MIAS MiniMammographic database classified the mammogram images into three features only namely characteristic of background tissues, class of abnormality and radius of abnormality. However, in this research three other features are added-in. These three features are number of spots, area and shape of abnormalities. Lastly the performance of the ANN classifier is evaluated using ROC curve. It is found that ANN has an accuracy of 97.9% which is considered acceptable.

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  7. Pineal ganglioglioma in a patient with familial basal ganglia calcification and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein: case report.

    PubMed

    Tokoro, K; Chiba, Y; Ohtani, T; Abe, H; Yagishita, S

    1993-09-01

    Pineal ganglioglioma was diagnosed in a 36-year-old man with familial basal ganglia calcification and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein. The patient was treated surgically with a good result. Only four other cases of this tumor have been reported. His 38-year-old brother also showed basal ganglia calcification and elevated serum chorionic gonadotropin as well as alpha-fetoprotein. Familial basal ganglia calcification with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein in a nonhepatic benign condition is rare. The pathogenesis of these conditions is discussed. PMID:7692346

  8. Endoscopic Evacuation of Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage via Keyhole Approach Using an Adjustable Cannula in Comparison with Craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng-Zhu; Li, Yu-Ping; Yan, Zheng-cun; Wang, Xing-dong; She, Lei; Wang, Xiao-dong; Dong, Lun

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendoscopic (NE) surgery as a minimal invasive treatment for basal ganglia hemorrhage is a promising approach. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NE approach using an adjustable cannula to treat basal ganglia hemorrhage. In this study, we analysed the clinical and radiographic outcomes between NE group (21 cases) and craniotomy group (30 cases). The results indicated that NE surgery might be an effective and safe approach for basal ganglia haemorrhage, and it is also suggested that NE approach may improve good functional recovery. However, NE approach only suits the selected patient, and the usefulness of NE approach needs further randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate. PMID:24949476

  9. Sonographic Alteration of Basal Ganglia in Different Forms of Primary Focal Dystonia: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Sheng, Yu-Jing; Chen, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Cai-Shan; Ma, Qi; Chen, Han-Bing; Yu, Li-Fang; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Xiong, Kang-Ping; Luo, Wei-Feng; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have addressed whether abnormalities in the lenticular nucleus (LN) are characteristic transcranial sonography (TCS) echo features in patients with primary dystonia. This study aimed to explore alterations in the basal ganglia in different forms of primary focal dystonia. Methods: cross-sectional observational study was performed between December 2013 and December 2014 in 80 patients with different forms of primary focal dystonia and 55 neurologically normal control subjects. TCS was performed in patients and control subjects. Multiple comparisons of multiple rates were used to compare LN hyperechogenicity ratios between control and patient groups. Results: Thirteen individuals were excluded due to poor temporal bone windows, and two subjects were excluded due to disagreement in evaluation by sonologists. Totally, 70 patients (cervical dystonia, n = 30; blepharospasm, n = 30; oromandibular dystonia, n = 10) and 50 normal controls were included in the final analysis. LN hyperechogenicity was observed in 51% (36/70) of patients with primary focal dystonia, compared with 12% (6/50) of controls (P < 0.001). Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity did not differ between the two groups. LN hyperechogenicity was observed in 73% (22/30) of patients with cervical dystonia, a greater prevalence than in patients with blepharospasm (33%, 10/30, P = 0.002) and oromandibular dystonia (40%, 4/10, P = 0.126). LN hyperechogenicity was more frequently observed in patients with cervical dystonia compared with controls (73% vs. 12%, P < 0.001); however, no significant difference was detected in patients with blepharospasm (33% vs. 12%, P = 0.021) or oromandibular dystonia (40% vs. 12%, P = 0.088). Conclusions: LN hyperechogenicity is more frequently observed in patients with primary focal dystonia than in controls. It does not appear to be a characteristic TCS echo feature in patients with blepharospasm or oromandibular dystonia. PMID:27064039

  10. Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons Control Motor Behavior and Basal Ganglia Function in Experimental Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Nicolas; Liberge, Martine; Jaouen, Florence; Ztaou, Samira; Hanini, Marwa; Camon, Jeremy; Deisseroth, Karl; Amalric, Marianne; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Beurrier, Corinne

    2015-10-27

    Despite evidence showing that anticholinergic drugs are of clinical relevance in Parkinson's disease (PD), the causal role of striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in PD pathophysiology remains elusive. Here, we show that optogenetic inhibition of CINs alleviates motor deficits in PD mouse models, providing direct demonstration for their implication in parkinsonian motor dysfunctions. As neural correlates, CIN inhibition in parkinsonian mice differentially impacts the excitability of striatal D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons, normalizes pathological bursting activity in the main basal ganglia output structure, and increases the functional weight of the direct striatonigral pathway in cortical information processing. By contrast, CIN inhibition in non-lesioned mice does not affect locomotor activity, equally modulates medium spiny neuron excitability, and does not modify spontaneous or cortically driven activity in the basal ganglia output, suggesting that the role of these interneurons in motor function is highly dependent on dopamine tone. PMID:26489458

  11. Surprise disrupts cognition via a fronto-basal ganglia suppressive mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Jenkinson, Ned; Brittain, John-Stuart; Voets, Sarah H E M; Aziz, Tipu Z; Aron, Adam R

    2016-04-18

    Surprising events markedly affect behaviour and cognition, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. Surprise recruits a brain mechanism that globally suppresses motor activity, ostensibly via the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. Here, we tested whether this suppressive mechanism extends beyond skeletomotor suppression and also affects cognition (here, verbal working memory, WM). We recorded scalp-EEG (electrophysiology) in healthy participants and STN local field potentials in Parkinson's patients during a task in which surprise disrupted WM. For scalp-EEG, surprising events engage the same independent neural signal component that indexes action stopping in a stop-signal task. Importantly, the degree of this recruitment mediates surprise-related WM decrements. Intracranially, STN activity is also increased post surprise, especially when WM is interrupted. These results suggest that surprise interrupts cognition via the same fronto-basal ganglia mechanism that interrupts action. This motivates a new neural theory of how cognition is interrupted, and how distraction arises after surprising events.

  12. Crossed cerebellar and uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, H.; Harrop, R.; McGeer, P.L.; Peppard, R.; McGeer, E.G.

    1989-04-01

    We detected crossed cerebellar as well as uncrossed basal ganglia and thalamic diaschisis in Alzheimer's disease by positron emission tomography (PET) using /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose. We studied a series of 26 consecutive, clinically diagnosed Alzheimer cases, including 6 proven by later autopsy, and compared them with 9 age-matched controls. We calculated asymmetry indices (AIs) of cerebral metabolic rate for matched left-right regions of interest (ROIs) and determined the extent of diaschisis by correlative analyses. For the Alzheimer group, we found cerebellar AIs correlated negatively, and thalamic AIs positively, with those of the cerebral hemisphere and frontal, temporal, parietal, and angular cortices, while basal ganglia AIs correlated positively with frontal cortical AIs. The only significant correlation of AIs for normal subjects was between the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere. These data indicate that PET is a sensitive technique for detecting diaschisis.

  13. [Histochemistry and choline acetyltransferase in cat spinal cord and spinal ganglia].

    PubMed

    Motavkin, P A; Okhotin, V E

    1978-09-01

    Cytochemical activity of choline acetyltransferase has been studied in the pericaryon of motor neurons of the spinal enlargement and sensitive neurocytes of the intervertebral ganglia in the cat by means of Burt's method. It has been demonstrated that cytoplasm of all motor neurons positively reacts with acetyl KoA. According to the activity of choline acetyltransferase, four groups of neurons have been determined. In cerebrospinal ganglia, the enzyme is present in 58% of pseudounipolar cells, which seem to be cholinergic neurocytes. It has been stated that for all nonspecific reactions the presence of massive and dense residue in all the neurons, walls of small blood vessels and sometimes in astrocytes is a characteristic feature. PMID:718431

  14. Switching from automatic to controlled behavior: cortico-basal ganglia mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Isoda, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    Although we carry out most daily tasks nearly automatically, it is occasionally necessary to change a routine if something changes in our environment and the behavior becomes inappropriate. Such behavioral switching can occur either retroactively based on error feedback or proactively by detecting a contextual cue. Recent imaging and electrophysiological data in humans and monkeys have suggested that the frontal cortical areas play executive roles in behavioral switching. The anterior cingulate cortex acts retroactively and the pre-supplementary motor area acts proactively to enable behavioral switching. The lateral prefrontal cortex reconfigures cognitive processes constituting the switched behavior. The subthalamic nucleus and the striatum in the basal ganglia mediate these cortical signals to achieve behavioral switching. We discuss how breaking a routine to allow more adaptive behavior requires a fine-tuned recruitment of the frontal cortical-basal ganglia neural network. PMID:20181509

  15. Competing basal ganglia pathways determine the difference between stopping and deciding not to go.

    PubMed

    Dunovan, Kyle; Lynch, Brighid; Molesworth, Tara; Verstynen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of corticobasal ganglia pathways allows for many routes to inhibit a planned action: the hyperdirect pathway performs fast action cancellation and the indirect pathway competitively constrains execution signals from the direct pathway. We present a novel model, principled off of basal ganglia circuitry, that differentiates control dynamics of reactive stopping from intrinsic no-go decisions. Using a nested diffusion model, we show how reactive braking depends on the state of an execution process. In contrast, no-go decisions are best captured by a failure of the execution process to reach the decision threshold due to increasing constraints on the drift rate. This model accounts for both behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) responses during inhibitory control tasks better than alternative models. The advantage of this framework is that it allows for incorporating the effects of context in reactive and proactive control into a single unifying parameter, while distinguishing action cancellation from no-go decisions. PMID:26402462

  16. Sympathetic Fiber Sprouting in Chronically Compressed Dorsal Root Ganglia Without Peripheral Axotomy

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Shelby Q.; Li, Chunling; Li, Huiqing; Xie, Wenrui; Pablo, Carmelita S.; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Sympathetic axonal sprouting in axotomized dorsal root ganglia (DRG) has been shown to be a major phenomenon implicated in neuropathic pain. However, it is not known whether sympathetic sprouting can occur in pathologic ganglia without peripheral axotomy. We thus examined presence and density of sympathetic axonal sprouting within DRG of rats subjected to a persistent compressive injury by inserting a stainless steel metal rod into L4 and L5 lumbar intervertebral foramen. Sympathetic axons were identified by immunohistochemical staining with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibodies. Results indicate that progressive increase in sympathetic axonal sprouting occurred in the bilateral DRGs between postoperative days 2 and 28. The sympathetic fiber density was greater on the lesion side than the contralateral side. In conclusion, chronic compressive injury of the DRG results in sympathetic sprouting in the non-axotomized ganglion and may partially contribute to the development and maintenance of certain pathological pain states. PMID:17387381

  17. Lateralization of the connections of the ovary to the celiac ganglia in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Morán, Carolina; Zarate, Fabiola; Morán, José Luis; Handal, Anabella; Domínguez, Roberto

    2009-05-21

    During the development of the female rat, a maturing process of the factors that regulate the functioning of the ovaries takes place, resulting in different responses according to the age of the animal. Studies show that peripheral innervation is one relevant factor involved.In the present study we analyzed the anatomical relationship between the neurons in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG), and the right or left ovary in 24 or 28 days old female pre-pubertal rats. The participation of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) in the communication between the CSMG and the ovaries was analyzed in animals with unilateral section of the SON, previous to injecting true blue (TB) into the ovarian bursa. The animals were killed seven days after treatment. TB stained neurons were quantified at the superior mesenteric-celiac ganglia.The number of labeled neurons in the CSMG of rats treated at 28 days of age was significantly higher than those treated on day 24. At age 24 days, injecting TB into the right ovary resulted in neuron stains on both sides of the celiac ganglia; whereas, injecting the left side the stains were exclusively ipsilateral. Such asymmetry was not observed when the rats were treated at age of 28 days.In younger rats, sectioning the left SON resulted in significantly lower number of stained neurons in the left ganglia while sectioning the right SON did not modify the number of stained neurons. When sectioning of the SON was performed to 28 days old rats, no staining was observed.Present results show that the number and connectivity of post-ganglionic neurons of the CSMG connected to the ovary of juvenile female rats change as the animal mature; that the SON plays a role in this communication process as puberty approaches; and that this maturing process is different for the right or the left ovary.

  18. Trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid colitis alters Na 1.8 channel expression in mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    King, D E; Macleod, R J; Vanner, S J

    2009-08-01

    Visceral inflammation evokes hyperexcitability in nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and these changes are associated with increased voltage-gated sodium channel (Na(v)) 1.8 current density, but the molecular determinants of these changes are unclear. This study used Western blotting to measure changes in Na(v) 1.7, 1.8 and 1.9 protein expression during trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) colitis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to examine corresponding changes in mRNA. Colonic neurons were labelled with the retrograde tracer Fast Blue injected into the wall of the distal colon and quantitative PCR performed on laser-captured labelled colonic neurons from ganglia at T9-13 or unlabelled DRG neurons from the upper spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry and western blots were performed on whole DRG from the same sites. Fast Blue-labelled neurons demonstrated Na(v) 1.7, 1.8 and 1.9 immunoreactivity. On day 7 of colitis, which correlated with electrophysiological studies, there was a threefold increase in Na(v) 1.8 protein in ganglia from T9 to 13, but Na(v) 1.7 and 1.9 levels were unchanged. There was no corresponding change in the Na(v) 1.8 alpha-subunit mRNA levels. However, on days 2 and 4, Na(v) 1.8 mRNA was decreased 10-fold. Na(v) 1.8 protein and mRNA levels were unchanged in neurons isolated from ganglia in the upper spinal cord, where colonic neurons are not found. These findings suggest that the TNBS evoked increase in Na(v) 1.8 currents is associated with increased numbers of channels. The absence of corresponding changes in transcript suggests a translational or post-translational mechanism, but the 10-fold recovery of transcript preceding this time point also demonstrates a complex transcriptional regulation. PMID:19239624

  19. Functional properties of the basal ganglia's re-entrant loop architecture: selection and reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Redgrave, P; Vautrelle, N; Reynolds, J N J

    2011-12-15

    Multifunctional agents with limited motor resources must decide what actions will best ensure their survival. Moreover, given that in an unpredictable world things don't always work out, considerable advantage is to be gained by learning from experience - instrumental behaviour that maximises reward and minimises punishment. In this review we will argue that the re-entrant looped architecture of the basal ganglia represents biological solutions to these fundamental behavioural problems of selection and reinforcement. A potential solution to the selection problem is provided for by selective disinhibition within the parallel loop architecture that connects the basal ganglia with external neural structures. The relay points within these loops permit the signals of a particular channel to be modified by external influences. In part, these influences have the capacity to modify overall selections so that the probability of re-selecting reinforced behaviours in the future is altered. This is the basic process of instrumental learning, which we suggest decomposes into two sub-problems for the agent: (i) learning which external events it causes to happen and learning precisely what it is doing that is causal; and (ii) having determined agency and discovered novel action-outcome routines, how best to exploit this knowledge to maximise future reward acquisitions. Considerations of connectional architecture and signal timing suggest that the short-latency, sensory-evoked dopamine response, which can modulate the re-entrant loop structure within the basal ganglia, is ideally suited to reinforce the determination of agency and the discovery of novel actions. Alternatively, recent studies showing that presence or absence of reward can selectively modulate the magnitude of signals in structures providing input signals to the basal ganglia, offer an alternative mechanism for biasing selection within the re-entrant loop architecture. We suggest that this mechanism may be better

  20. Lateralization of the connections of the ovary to the celiac ganglia in juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Morán, Carolina; Zarate, Fabiola; Morán, José Luis; Handal, Anabella; Domínguez, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    During the development of the female rat, a maturing process of the factors that regulate the functioning of the ovaries takes place, resulting in different responses according to the age of the animal. Studies show that peripheral innervation is one relevant factor involved. In the present study we analyzed the anatomical relationship between the neurons in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG), and the right or left ovary in 24 or 28 days old female pre-pubertal rats. The participation of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) in the communication between the CSMG and the ovaries was analyzed in animals with unilateral section of the SON, previous to injecting true blue (TB) into the ovarian bursa. The animals were killed seven days after treatment. TB stained neurons were quantified at the superior mesenteric-celiac ganglia. The number of labeled neurons in the CSMG of rats treated at 28 days of age was significantly higher than those treated on day 24. At age 24 days, injecting TB into the right ovary resulted in neuron stains on both sides of the celiac ganglia; whereas, injecting the left side the stains were exclusively ipsilateral. Such asymmetry was not observed when the rats were treated at age of 28 days. In younger rats, sectioning the left SON resulted in significantly lower number of stained neurons in the left ganglia while sectioning the right SON did not modify the number of stained neurons. When sectioning of the SON was performed to 28 days old rats, no staining was observed. Present results show that the number and connectivity of post-ganglionic neurons of the CSMG connected to the ovary of juvenile female rats change as the animal mature; that the SON plays a role in this communication process as puberty approaches; and that this maturing process is different for the right or the left ovary. PMID:19460167

  1. Ketamine-Induced Oscillations in the Motor Circuit of the Rat Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Manuel; Pérez-Alcázar, Marta; Iriarte, Jorge; Artieda, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Oscillatory activity can be widely recorded in the cortex and basal ganglia. This activity may play a role not only in the physiology of movement, perception and cognition, but also in the pathophysiology of psychiatric and neurological diseases like schizophrenia or Parkinson's disease. Ketamine administration has been shown to cause an increase in gamma activity in cortical and subcortical structures, and an increase in 150 Hz oscillations in the nucleus accumbens in healthy rats, together with hyperlocomotion. We recorded local field potentials from motor cortex, caudate-putamen (CPU), substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) in 20 awake rats before and after the administration of ketamine at three different subanesthetic doses (10, 25 and 50 mg/Kg), and saline as control condition. Motor behavior was semiautomatically quantified by custom-made software specifically developed for this setting. Ketamine induced coherent oscillations in low gamma (50 Hz), high gamma (80 Hz) and high frequency (HFO, 150 Hz) bands, with different behavior in the four structures studied. While oscillatory activity at these three peaks was widespread across all structures, interactions showed a different pattern for each frequency band. Imaginary coherence at 150 Hz was maximum between motor cortex and the different basal ganglia nuclei, while low gamma coherence connected motor cortex with CPU and high gamma coherence was more constrained to the basal ganglia nuclei. Power at three bands correlated with the motor activity of the animal, but only coherence values in the HFO and high gamma range correlated with movement. Interactions in the low gamma band did not show a direct relationship to movement. These results suggest that the motor effects of ketamine administration may be primarily mediated by the induction of coherent widespread high-frequency activity in the motor circuit of the basal ganglia, together with a frequency-specific pattern of

  2. Two Case Reports on Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Involvement in Children with Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Lihini; Wijesekera, Saraji; Wijayawardena, Maheshaka; Chandrasiri, Suchithra

    2016-01-01

    There have been increasing numbers of case reports of dengue infection with unusual manifestations. Such unusual manifestations including acute liver failure and encephalopathy could be manifested even in the absence of significant plasma leakage. Further, severe organ involvement including nervous system involvement indicates severe dengue infection. However, neurological manifestations of dengue fever are rare. This is the first case report of dengue infection with thalamic and basal ganglia involvement in Sri Lanka. PMID:27478661

  3. Two Case Reports on Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Involvement in Children with Dengue Fever.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Guwani; Adhikari, Lihini; Wijesekera, Saraji; Wijayawardena, Maheshaka; Chandrasiri, Suchithra

    2016-01-01

    There have been increasing numbers of case reports of dengue infection with unusual manifestations. Such unusual manifestations including acute liver failure and encephalopathy could be manifested even in the absence of significant plasma leakage. Further, severe organ involvement including nervous system involvement indicates severe dengue infection. However, neurological manifestations of dengue fever are rare. This is the first case report of dengue infection with thalamic and basal ganglia involvement in Sri Lanka. PMID:27478661

  4. Basal ganglia modulation of thalamocortical relay in Parkinson's disease and dystonia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yixin; Park, Choongseok; Worth, Robert M; Rubchinsky, Leonid L

    2013-01-01

    Basal ganglia dysfunction has being implied in both Parkinson's disease and dystonia. While these disorders probably involve different cellular and circuit pathologies within and beyond basal ganglia, there may be some shared neurophysiological pathways. For example, pallidotomy and pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are used in symptomatic treatment of both disorders. Both conditions are marked by alterations of rhythmicity of neural activity throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Increased synchronized oscillatory activity in beta band is characteristic of Parkinson's disease, while different frequency bands, theta and alpha, are involved in dystonia. We compare the effect of the activity of GPi, the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, on information processing in the downstream neural circuits of thalamus in Parkinson's disease and dystonia. We use a data-driven computational approach, a computational model of the thalamocortical (TC) cell modulated by experimentally recorded data, to study the differences and similarities of thalamic dynamics in dystonia and Parkinson's disease. Our analysis shows no substantial differences in TC relay between the two conditions. Our results suggest that, similar to Parkinson's disease, a disruption of thalamic processing could also be involved in dystonia. Moreover, the degree to which TC relay fidelity is impaired is approximately the same in both conditions. While Parkinson's disease and dystonia may have different pathologies and differ in the oscillatory content of neural discharge, our results suggest that the effect of patterning of pallidal discharge is similar in both conditions. Furthermore, these results suggest that the mechanisms of GPi DBS in dystonia may involve improvement of TC relay fidelity.

  5. Mean-field modeling of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical system. II Dynamics of parkinsonian oscillations.

    PubMed

    van Albada, S J; Gray, R T; Drysdale, P M; Robinson, P A

    2009-04-21

    Neuronal correlates of Parkinson's disease (PD) include a shift to lower frequencies in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and enhanced synchronized oscillations at 3-7 and 7-30 Hz in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cortex. This study describes the dynamics of a recent physiologically based mean-field model of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical system, and shows how it accounts for many key electrophysiological correlates of PD. Its detailed functional connectivity comprises partially segregated direct and indirect pathways through two populations of striatal neurons, a hyperdirect pathway involving a corticosubthalamic projection, thalamostriatal feedback, and local inhibition in striatum and external pallidum (GPe). In a companion paper, realistic steady-state firing rates were obtained for the healthy state, and after dopamine loss modeled by weaker direct and stronger indirect pathways, reduced intrapallidal inhibition, lower firing thresholds of the GPe and subthalamic nucleus (STN), a stronger projection from striatum to GPe, and weaker cortical interactions. Here it is shown that oscillations around 5 and 20 Hz can arise with a strong indirect pathway, which also causes increased synchronization throughout the basal ganglia. Furthermore, increased theta power with progressive nigrostriatal degeneration is correlated with reduced alpha power and peak frequency, in agreement with empirical results. Unlike the hyperdirect pathway, the indirect pathway sustains oscillations with phase relationships that coincide with those found experimentally. Alterations in the responses of basal ganglia to transient stimuli accord with experimental observations. Reduced cortical gains due to both nigrostriatal and mesocortical dopamine loss lead to slower changes in cortical activity and may be related to bradykinesia. Finally, increased EEG power found in some studies may be partly explained by a lower effective GPe firing threshold, reduced GPe-GPe inhibition, and/or weaker

  6. Vocal learning, prosody, and basal ganglia: don't underestimate their complexity.

    PubMed

    Ravignani, Andrea; Martins, Mauricio; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-12-01

    Ackermann et al.'s arguments in the target article need sharpening and rethinking at both mechanistic and evolutionary levels. First, the authors' evolutionary arguments are inconsistent with recent evidence concerning nonhuman animal rhythmic abilities. Second, prosodic intonation conveys much more complex linguistic information than mere emotional expression. Finally, human adults' basal ganglia have a considerably wider role in speech modulation than Ackermann et al. surmise. PMID:25514960

  7. Extensive Direct Subcortical Cerebellum-Basal Ganglia Connections in Human Brain as Revealed by Constrained Spherical Deconvolution Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Milardi, Demetrio; Arrigo, Alessandro; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cacciola, Alberto; Marino, Silvia; Mormina, Enricomaria; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Bruschetta, Daniele; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Trimarchi, Fabio; Quartarone, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The connections between the cerebellum and basal ganglia were assumed to occur at the level of neocortex. However evidences from animal data have challenged this old perspective showing extensive subcortical pathways linking the cerebellum with the basal ganglia. Here we tested the hypothesis if these connections also exist between the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the human brain by using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography. Fifteen healthy subjects were analyzed by using constrained spherical deconvolution technique obtained with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We found extensive connections running between the subthalamic nucleus and cerebellar cortex and, as novel result, we demonstrated a direct route linking the dentate nucleus to the internal globus pallidus as well as to the substantia nigra. These findings may open a new scenario on the interpretation of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:27047348

  8. Oxaliplatin enhances gap junction-mediated coupling in cell cultures of mouse trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Warwick, Rebekah; Duroux, Meg; Hanani, Menachem; Gazerani, Parisa

    2015-08-01

    Communications between satellite glial cells and neighboring neurons within sensory ganglia may contribute to neuropathic and inflammatory pain. To elucidate the role of satellite glial cells in chemotherapy-induced pain, we examined the effects of oxaliplatin on the gap junction-mediated coupling between these cells. We also examined whether the gap junction blocker, carbenoxolone, can reverse the coupling. Primary cultures of mice trigeminal ganglia, 24-48h after cell isolation, were used. Satellite glial cells were injected with Lucifer yellow in the presence or absence of oxaliplatin (60 μM). In addition, the effect of carbenoxolone (100 μM) on coupling, and the expression of connexin 43 proteins were evaluated. Dye coupling between adjacent satellite glial cells was significantly increased (2.3-fold, P<0.05) following a 2h incubation with oxaliplatin. Adding carbenoxolone to the oxaliplatin-treated cultures reversed oxaliplatin-evoked coupling to baseline (P<0.05). Immunostaining showed no difference between expression of connexin 43 in control and oxaliplatin-treated cultures. Our findings indicated that oxaliplatin-increased gap junction-mediated coupling between satellite glial cells in primary cultures of mouse trigeminal ganglia, and carbenoxolone reversed this effect. Hence, it is proposed that increased gap junction-mediated coupling was seen between satellite glial cells in TG. This observation together with our previous data obtained from a behavioral study suggests that this phenomenon might contribute to chemotherapy-induced nociception following oxaliplatin treatment. PMID:25999145

  9. Mass Spectrometry Imaging and Identification of Peptides Associated with Cephalic Ganglia Regeneration in Schmidtea mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Ong, Ta-Hsuan; Romanova, Elena V; Roberts-Galbraith, Rachel H; Yang, Ning; Zimmerman, Tyler A; Collins, James J; Lee, Ji Eun; Kelleher, Neil L; Newmark, Phillip A; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2016-04-01

    Tissue regeneration is a complex process that involves a mosaic of molecules that vary spatially and temporally. Insights into the chemical signaling underlying this process can be achieved with a multiplex and untargeted chemical imaging method such as mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), which can enablede novostudies of nervous system regeneration. A combination of MSI and multivariate statistics was used to differentiate peptide dynamics in the freshwater planarian flatwormSchmidtea mediterraneaat different time points during cephalic ganglia regeneration. A protocol was developed to makeS. mediterraneatissues amenable for MSI. MS ion images of planarian tissue sections allow changes in peptides and unknown compounds to be followed as a function of cephalic ganglia regeneration. In conjunction with fluorescence imaging, our results suggest that even though the cephalic ganglia structure is visible after 6 days of regeneration, the original chemical composition of these regenerated structures is regained only after 12 days. Differences were observed in many peptides, such as those derived from secreted peptide 4 and EYE53-1. Peptidomic analysis further identified multiple peptides from various known prohormones, histone proteins, and DNA- and RNA-binding proteins as being associated with the regeneration process. Mass spectrometry data also facilitated the identification of a new prohormone, which we have named secreted peptide prohormone 20 (SPP-20), and is up-regulated during regeneration in planarians.

  10. Supplementary motor area and presupplementary motor area: targets of basal ganglia and cerebellar output.

    PubMed

    Akkal, Dalila; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2007-10-01

    We used retrograde transneuronal transport of neurotropic viruses in Cebus monkeys to examine the organization of basal ganglia and cerebellar projections to two cortical areas on the medial wall of the hemisphere, the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the pre-SMA. We found that both of these cortical areas are the targets of disynaptic projections from the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum and from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi). On average, the number of pallidal neurons that project to the SMA and pre-SMA is approximately three to four times greater than the number of dentate neurons that project to these cortical areas. GPi neurons that project to the pre-SMA are located in a rostral, "associative" territory of the nucleus, whereas GPi neurons that project to the SMA are located in a more caudal and ventral "sensorimotor" territory. Similarly, dentate neurons that project to the pre-SMA are located in a ventral, "nonmotor" domain of the nucleus, whereas dentate neurons that project to the SMA are located in a more dorsal, "motor" domain. The differential origin of subcortical projections to the SMA and pre-SMA suggests that these cortical areas are nodes in distinct neural systems. Although both systems are the target of outputs from the basal ganglia and the cerebellum, these two cortical areas seem to be dominated by basal ganglia input. PMID:17913900

  11. Oxaliplatin enhances gap junction-mediated coupling in cell cultures of mouse trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Warwick, Rebekah; Duroux, Meg; Hanani, Menachem; Gazerani, Parisa

    2015-08-01

    Communications between satellite glial cells and neighboring neurons within sensory ganglia may contribute to neuropathic and inflammatory pain. To elucidate the role of satellite glial cells in chemotherapy-induced pain, we examined the effects of oxaliplatin on the gap junction-mediated coupling between these cells. We also examined whether the gap junction blocker, carbenoxolone, can reverse the coupling. Primary cultures of mice trigeminal ganglia, 24-48h after cell isolation, were used. Satellite glial cells were injected with Lucifer yellow in the presence or absence of oxaliplatin (60 μM). In addition, the effect of carbenoxolone (100 μM) on coupling, and the expression of connexin 43 proteins were evaluated. Dye coupling between adjacent satellite glial cells was significantly increased (2.3-fold, P<0.05) following a 2h incubation with oxaliplatin. Adding carbenoxolone to the oxaliplatin-treated cultures reversed oxaliplatin-evoked coupling to baseline (P<0.05). Immunostaining showed no difference between expression of connexin 43 in control and oxaliplatin-treated cultures. Our findings indicated that oxaliplatin-increased gap junction-mediated coupling between satellite glial cells in primary cultures of mouse trigeminal ganglia, and carbenoxolone reversed this effect. Hence, it is proposed that increased gap junction-mediated coupling was seen between satellite glial cells in TG. This observation together with our previous data obtained from a behavioral study suggests that this phenomenon might contribute to chemotherapy-induced nociception following oxaliplatin treatment.

  12. Resting state cerebral blood flow and objective motor activity reveal basal ganglia dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Walther, Sebastian; Federspiel, Andrea; Horn, Helge; Razavi, Nadja; Wiest, Roland; Dierks, Thomas; Strik, Werner; Müller, Thomas Jörg

    2011-05-31

    Reduced motor activity has been reported in schizophrenia and was associated with subtype, psychopathology and medication. Still, little is known about the neurobiology of motor retardation. To identify neural correlates of motor activity, resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) was correlated with objective motor activity of the same day. Participants comprised 11 schizophrenia patients and 14 controls who underwent magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling and wrist actigraphy. Patients had reduced activity levels and reduced perfusion of the left parahippocampal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right thalamus, and right prefrontal cortex. In controls, but not in schizophrenia, CBF was correlated with activity in the right thalamic ventral anterior (VA) nucleus, a key module within basal ganglia-cortical motor circuits. In contrast, only in schizophrenia patients positive correlations of CBF and motor activity were found in bilateral prefrontal areas and in the right rostral cingulate motor area (rCMA). Grey matter volume correlated with motor activity only in the left posterior cingulate cortex of the patients. The findings suggest that basal ganglia motor control is impaired in schizophrenia. In addition, CBF of cortical areas critical for motor control was associated with volitional motor behavior, which may be a compensatory mechanism for basal ganglia dysfunction.

  13. Integration of reinforcement learning and optimal decision-making theories of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Rafal; Larsen, Tobias

    2011-04-01

    This article seeks to integrate two sets of theories describing action selection in the basal ganglia: reinforcement learning theories describing learning which actions to select to maximize reward and decision-making theories proposing that the basal ganglia selects actions on the basis of sensory evidence accumulated in the cortex. In particular, we present a model that integrates the actor-critic model of reinforcement learning and a model assuming that the cortico-basal-ganglia circuit implements a statistically optimal decision-making procedure. The values of cortico-striatal weights required for optimal decision making in our model differ from those provided by standard reinforcement learning models. Nevertheless, we show that an actor-critic model converges to the weights required for optimal decision making when biologically realistic limits on synaptic weights are introduced. We also describe the model's predictions concerning reaction times and neural responses during learning, and we discuss directions required for further integration of reinforcement learning and optimal decision-making theories. PMID:21222528

  14. Integration of reinforcement learning and optimal decision-making theories of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Rafal; Larsen, Tobias

    2011-04-01

    This article seeks to integrate two sets of theories describing action selection in the basal ganglia: reinforcement learning theories describing learning which actions to select to maximize reward and decision-making theories proposing that the basal ganglia selects actions on the basis of sensory evidence accumulated in the cortex. In particular, we present a model that integrates the actor-critic model of reinforcement learning and a model assuming that the cortico-basal-ganglia circuit implements a statistically optimal decision-making procedure. The values of cortico-striatal weights required for optimal decision making in our model differ from those provided by standard reinforcement learning models. Nevertheless, we show that an actor-critic model converges to the weights required for optimal decision making when biologically realistic limits on synaptic weights are introduced. We also describe the model's predictions concerning reaction times and neural responses during learning, and we discuss directions required for further integration of reinforcement learning and optimal decision-making theories.

  15. Bilateral basal ganglia lesions in patients with end-stage diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jordan Y Z; Yong, Tuck Y; Sebben, Ruben; Khoo, Eewin; Disney, Alex P S

    2008-02-01

    Acute movement disorder associated with reversible bilateral basal ganglia lesions is an increasingly recognized syndrome in patients with end-stage renal disease, especially in the setting of concurrent diabetes mellitus. We report an elderly man with end-stage diabetic nephropathy treated by daily automated peritoneal dialysis who developed subacute symptoms of gait disturbance, dysarthria, dysphagia and lethargy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia lesions. Repeat imaging 3 weeks later showed that these lesions had regressed spontaneously. However, his neurological symptoms improved slowly. These findings were similar to 23 other cases in the literature. Review of these cases shows that clinical features were predominantly bradykinesia, gait disturbance and concurrent metabolic acidosis (observed in 90% of cases). The pathogenesis of this condition has not been clearly defined, but uraemia may be an aggravating factor in predisposed patients, particularly in the presence of diabetic microvascular disease. There is no specific treatment for this condition; supportive measures are the mainstay of management. In the majority of patients, neurological improvement lags behind regression of basal ganglia lesions seen with neuroimaging, and the long-term outcome is variable.

  16. Satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia are activated in streptozotocin-treated rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, Menachem; Blum, Erez; Liu, Shuangmei; Peng, Lichao; Liang, Shangdong

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a very common complication in diabetes mellitus (DM), and treatment for it is limited. As DM is becoming a global epidemic it is important to understand and treat this problem. The mechanisms of diabetic neuropathic pain are largely obscure. Recent studies have shown that glial cells are important for a variety of neuropathic pain types, and we investigated what are the changes that satellite glial cells (SGCs) in dorsal root ganglia undergo in a DM type 1 model, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in mice and rats. We carried out immunohistochemical studies to learn about changes in the activation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in SGCs. We found that after STZ-treatment the number of neurons surrounded with GFAP-positive SGCs in dorsal root ganglia increased 4-fold in mice and 5-fold in rats. Western blotting for GFAP, which was done only on rats because of the larger size of the ganglia, showed an increase of about 2-fold in STZ-treated rats, supporting the immunohistochemical results. These results indicate for the first time that SGCs are activated in rodent models of DM1. As SGC activation appears to contribute to chronic pain, these results suggest that SGCs may participate in the generation and maintenance of diabetic neuropathic pain, and can serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25312986

  17. Mass Spectrometry Imaging and Identification of Peptides Associated with Cephalic Ganglia Regeneration in Schmidtea mediterranea*

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Ta-Hsuan; Romanova, Elena V.; Roberts-Galbraith, Rachel H.; Yang, Ning; Zimmerman, Tyler A.; Collins, James J.; Lee, Ji Eun; Kelleher, Neil L.; Newmark, Phillip A.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue regeneration is a complex process that involves a mosaic of molecules that vary spatially and temporally. Insights into the chemical signaling underlying this process can be achieved with a multiplex and untargeted chemical imaging method such as mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), which can enable de novo studies of nervous system regeneration. A combination of MSI and multivariate statistics was used to differentiate peptide dynamics in the freshwater planarian flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea at different time points during cephalic ganglia regeneration. A protocol was developed to make S. mediterranea tissues amenable for MSI. MS ion images of planarian tissue sections allow changes in peptides and unknown compounds to be followed as a function of cephalic ganglia regeneration. In conjunction with fluorescence imaging, our results suggest that even though the cephalic ganglia structure is visible after 6 days of regeneration, the original chemical composition of these regenerated structures is regained only after 12 days. Differences were observed in many peptides, such as those derived from secreted peptide 4 and EYE53-1. Peptidomic analysis further identified multiple peptides from various known prohormones, histone proteins, and DNA- and RNA-binding proteins as being associated with the regeneration process. Mass spectrometry data also facilitated the identification of a new prohormone, which we have named secreted peptide prohormone 20 (SPP-20), and is up-regulated during regeneration in planarians. PMID:26884331

  18. Egg-laying-hormone immunoreactivity in the neural ganglia and ovary of Haliotis asinina Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Saitongdee, P; Apisawetakan, S; Anunruang, N; Poomthong, T; Hanna, P; Sobhon, P

    2005-11-01

    Immunoreactivity against the abalone egg-laying hormone (aELH) was detected in the fine granules of type 1 and 2 neurosecretory (NS) cells, neurites in the neuropil, and blood sinuses in the connective tissue sheath of the cerebral, pleuropedal, and visceral ganglia of the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina Linnaeus. The number of positive NS cells, and the intensity of staining in the ganglia, varied and might be related to the stage of ovarian cycle. At any stage, positive cells were most numerous in the pleuropedal, and least numerous in the visceral ganglion. In addition, several cells of the statocyst and associated nerves also exhibited the immunoreactivity. In the ovary, the most intense reactivity was detected in the follicular and granular cells adjacent to mature oocytes, in the trabeculae and the ovarian capsule. The cytoplasm of mature oocytes was also moderately stained. The results indicate that the cerebral, pleuropedal, and visceral ganglia are the main sites of aELH-producing cells. The ovary may also produce aELH locally.

  19. Why we can talk, debate, and change our minds: neural circuits, basal ganglia operations, and transcriptional factors.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Philip

    2014-12-01

    Ackermann et al. disregard attested knowledge concerning aphasia, Parkinson disease, cortical-to-striatal circuits, basal ganglia, laryngeal phonation, and other matters. Their dual-pathway model cannot account for "what is special about the human brain." Their human cortical-to-laryngeal neural circuit does not exist. Basal ganglia operations, enhanced by mutations on FOXP2, confer human motor-control, linguistic, and cognitive capabilities.

  20. Why we can talk, debate, and change our minds: neural circuits, basal ganglia operations, and transcriptional factors.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Philip

    2014-12-01

    Ackermann et al. disregard attested knowledge concerning aphasia, Parkinson disease, cortical-to-striatal circuits, basal ganglia, laryngeal phonation, and other matters. Their dual-pathway model cannot account for "what is special about the human brain." Their human cortical-to-laryngeal neural circuit does not exist. Basal ganglia operations, enhanced by mutations on FOXP2, confer human motor-control, linguistic, and cognitive capabilities. PMID:25514951

  1. Blood vessels in ganglia in human esophagus might explain the higher frequency of megaesophagus compared with megacolon.

    PubMed

    Adad, Sheila Jorge; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Jammal, Alessandro Adad

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the existence of blood vessels within ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the human esophagus and colon. At necropsy, 15 stillborns, newborns and children up to two years of age, with no gastrointestinal disorders, were examined. Rings of the esophagus and colon were analyzed and then fixed in formalin and processed for paraffin. Histological sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Giemsa and immunohistochemistry for the characterization of endothelial cells, using antibodies for anti-factor VIII and CD31. Blood vessels were identified within the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, and no blood vessels were found in any ganglia of the colon. It was concluded that the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus are vascularized, while the ganglia of the colon are avascular. Vascularization within the esophageal ganglia could facilitate the entrance of infectious agents, as well as the development of inflammatory responses (ganglionitis) and denervation, as found in Chagas disease and idiopathic achalasia. This could explain the higher frequency of megaesophagus compared with megacolon.

  2. BLOOD VESSELS IN GANGLIA IN HUMAN ESOPHAGUS MIGHT EXPLAIN THE HIGHER FREQUENCY OF MEGAESOPHAGUS COMPARED WITH MEGACOLON

    PubMed Central

    Adad, Sheila Jorge; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Jammal, Alessandro Adad

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the existence of blood vessels within ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the human esophagus and colon. At necropsy, 15 stillborns, newborns and children up to two years of age, with no gastrointestinal disorders, were examined. Rings of the esophagus and colon were analyzed and then fixed in formalin and processed for paraffin. Histological sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Giemsa and immunohistochemistry for the characterization of endothelial cells, using antibodies for anti-factor VIII and CD31. Blood vessels were identified within the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, and no blood vessels were found in any ganglia of the colon. It was concluded that the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus are vascularized, while the ganglia of the colon are avascular. Vascularization within the esophageal ganglia could facilitate the entrance of infectious agents, as well as the development of inflammatory responses (ganglionitis) and denervation, as found in Chagas disease and idiopathic achalasia. This could explain the higher frequency of megaesophagus compared with megacolon. PMID:25351549

  3. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  4. Quantitative EEG analysis of depth electrode recordings from several brain regions of mutant hamsters with paroxysmal dystonia discloses frequency changes in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Gernert, M; Richter, A; Rundfeldt, C; Löscher, W

    1998-05-01

    Computerized EEG spectral analyses of depth electrode recordings from striatum (caudate/putamen; CPu), globus pallidus (GP), and parietal cortex (pCtx) were performed before and after dystonic attacks in freely moving mutant dt(sz) hamsters with paroxysmal dystonia. In these hamsters, sustained attacks of abnormal movements and postures can be reproducibly induced by stress, such as placing the animals in a new environment. Data recorded from mutant hamsters were compared with recordings from age-matched nondystonic control hamsters. The predominant EEG changes in CPu and GP of dystonic hamsters were significant decreases in the high-frequency beta2 range and there was a tendency to increase in delta and theta activities. These changes were seen both before and after onset of dystonic attacks, indicating a permanent disturbance of neural activities in the basal ganglia of dystonic animals. No such changes were seen in the pCtx. Furthermore, no epileptic or epileptiform activity was seen in any of the recordings, substantiating a previous notion from cortical and hippocampal recordings that paroxysmal dystonia in these mutant hamsters has no epileptogenic basis. The present finding of abnormal synchronization of neural activity in the CPu and GP of dystonic hamsters adds to the belief that the striatopallidal-thalamocortical circuit is the most likely site in which to search for the unknown defect in primary (idiopathic) dystonia. As suggested by this study, quantitative EEG analysis can increase the likelihood of detecting subtle EEG abnormalities in different types of idiopathic dystonia and thereby improves our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of this movement disorder.

  5. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  6. KATP channels in the nodose ganglia mediate the orexigenic actions of ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Grabauskas, Gintautas; Wu, Xiaoyin; Lu, Yuanxu; Heldsinger, Andrea; Song, Il; Zhou, Shi-Yi; Owyang, Chung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ghrelin is the only known hunger signal derived from the peripheral tissues. Ghrelin overcomes the satiety signals evoked by anorexigenic molecules, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin, to stimulate feeding. The mechanisms by which ghrelin reduces the sensory signals evoked by anorexigenic hormones, which act via the vagus nerve to stimulate feeding, are unknown. Patch clamp recordings of isolated rat vagal neurons show that ghrelin hyperpolarizes neurons by activating K+ conductance. Administering a KATP channel antagonist or silencing Kir6.2, a major subunit of the KATP channel, abolished ghrelin inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Patch clamp studies show that ghrelin inhibits currents evoked by leptin and CCK-8, which operate through independent ionic channels. The inhibitory actions of ghrelin were abolished by treating the vagal ganglia neurons with pertussis toxin, as well as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) small interfering RNA. In vivo gene silencing of PI3K and Erk1/2 in the nodose ganglia prevented ghrelin inhibition of leptin- or CCK-8-evoked vagal firing. Feeding experiments showed that silencing Kir6.2 in the vagal ganglia abolished the orexigenic actions of ghrelin. These data indicate that ghrelin modulates vagal ganglia neuron excitability by activating KATP conductance via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor subtype 1a–Gαi–PI3K–Erk1/2–KATP pathway. The resulting hyperpolarization renders the neurons less responsive to signals evoked by anorexigenic hormones. This provides a mechanism to explain the actions of ghrelin with respect to overcoming anorexigenic signals that act via the vagal afferent pathways. Key points Ghrelin, a hunger signalling peptide derived from the peripheral tissues, overcomes the satiety signals evoked by anorexigenic molecules, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin, to stimulate feeding. Using in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological

  7. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  8. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  9. Reconciling abnormalities of brain network structure and function in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fornito, Alex; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-02-01

    Schizophrenia is widely regarded as a disorder of abnormal brain connectivity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggests that patients show robust reductions of structural connectivity. However, corresponding changes in functional connectivity do not always follow, with increased functional connectivity being reported in many cases. Here, we consider different methodological and mechanistic accounts that might reconcile these apparently contradictory findings and argue that increased functional connectivity in schizophrenia likely represents a pathophysiological dysregulation of brain activity arising from abnormal neurodevelopmental wiring of structural connections linking putative hub regions of association cortex to other brain areas. Elucidating the pathophysiological significance of connectivity abnormalities in schizophrenia will be contingent on better understanding how network structure shapes and constrains function.

  10. Skeletal abnormalities of tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Guilherme Monteiro; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria

    2016-01-01

    The tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) type I is a rare genetic disorder related to the TRPS1 gene mutation in chromosome 8, characterized by craniofacial abnormalities and disturbances in formation and maturation of bone matrix. The hallmarks are sparse and brittle hair, tendency to premature baldness, bulbous nose called pear-shaped, long and flat filter and low ear implantation. The most noticeable skeletal changes are clinodactyly, phalangeal epiphyses of the hands appearing as cone-shaped, short stature and hip joint malformations. We report a case of a teenager boy diagnosed with TRPS and referred for rheumatologic evaluation due to joint complaints. PMID:27267340

  11. Quantifying the abnormal hemodynamics of sickle cell anemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George

    2012-02-01

    Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphologies and abnormal hemodynamics in deoxygenated states. A multi-scale model for SS-RBC is developed based on the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in deoxygenated states are constructed and quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The hemodynamics of SS-RBC suspensions is studied in both shear and pipe flow systems. The flow resistance obtained from both systems exhibits a larger value than the healthy blood flow due to the abnormal cell properties. Moreover, SS-RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesive interactions with both the vessel endothelium cells and the leukocytes. The effect of the abnormal adhesive interactions on the hemodynamics of sickle blood is investigated using the current model. It is found that both the SS-RBC - endothelium and the SS-RBC - leukocytes interactions, can potentially trigger the vicious ``sickling and entrapment'' cycles, resulting in vaso-occlusion phenomena widely observed in micro-circulation experiments.

  12. Deregulation of Mitochondria-Shaping Proteins Opa-1 and Drp-1 in Manganese-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M.; Beauquis, Juan; Muñoz, Manuel J.; Saravia, Flavia; Kotler, Mónica L.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo fusion and fission processes. These events are regulated by mitochondria-shaping proteins. Changes in the expression and/or localization of these proteins lead to a mitochondrial dynamics impairment and may promote apoptosis. Increasing evidence correlates the mitochondrial dynamics disruption with the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we focused on this topic in Manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism, a disorder associated with Mn accumulation preferentially in the basal ganglia where mitochondria from astrocytes represent an early target. Using MitoTracker Red staining we observed increased mitochondrial network fission in Mn-exposed rat astrocytoma C6 cells. Moreover, Mn induced a marked decrease in fusion protein Opa-1 levels as well as a dramatic increase in the expression of fission protein Drp-1. Additionally, Mn provoked a significant release of high MW Opa-1 isoforms from the mitochondria to the cytosol as well as an increased Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria. Both Mdivi-1, a pharmacological Drp-1 inhibitor, and rat Drp-1 siRNA reduced the number of apoptotic nuclei, preserved the mitochondrial network integrity and prevented cell death. CsA, an MPTP opening inhibitor, prevented mitochondrial Δψm disruption, Opa-1 processing and Drp-1 translocation to the mitochondria therefore protecting Mn-exposed cells from mitochondrial disruption and apoptosis. The histological analysis and Hoechst 33258 staining of brain sections of Mn-injected rats in the striatum showed a decrease in cellular mass paralleled with an increase in the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. Opa-1 and Drp-1 expression levels were also changed by Mn-treatment. Our results demonstrate for the first time that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics is implicated in both in vitro and in vivo Mn toxicity. In addition we show that the imbalance in fusion/fission equilibrium might be involved in Mn-induced apoptosis. This knowledge may

  13. Morphology and physiology of vibratory interneurons in the thoracic ganglia of the southern green stinkbug Nezara viridula (L.).

    PubMed

    Zorović, Maja; Presern, Janez; Cokl, Andrej

    2008-05-10

    The central processing mechanisms of vibratory signals in small plant-dwelling insects that rely primarily on substrate-borne vibratory communication are still largely unknown. To elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in vibratory signaling, the vibration-sensitive interneurons in thoracic ganglia of the southern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula, were investigated electrophysiologically by single-cell recordings and staining. Ten types of interneurons were described and divided into four categories, based on their gross morphology. The cell body of the L-shaped CG-AC neurons is located in the metathoracic neuromere of the central ganglion, and the axon ascends contralaterally. This group comprises five types of neurons differing in their fine structure and functional properties. CG-AB neurons are dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons with cell bodies in the mesothoracic neuromere of the central ganglion and two axons that ascend bilaterally into the prothoracic ganglion. Group CG-L includes three types of local neurons limited to the central ganglion. With ipsilateral dendritic arborizations and contralateral axonal branching, their gross morphology is similar to that of cricket omega cells. Interneuron PTG-DC, with the cell body in the prothoracic ganglion (PTG) and a contralaterally descending axon, conveys information received by the sensory organs of the front contralateral leg to the neuropil regions of the ipsilateral middle and hind legs. Based on their frequency tuning and acceleration sensitivity, the vibratory interneurons fall into two groups: the low-frequency units are tuned to 50 Hz and the middle frequency units to 200 Hz, with their acceleration thresholds at 10(-1) m/s(2) and 5 x 10(-3) m/s(2), respectively. Their function is discussed with relevance to the vibratory communication of N. viridula. PMID:18335563

  14. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  15. Distribution of abnormal prion protein in a sheep affected with L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Y; Iwamaru, Y; Masujin, K; Imamura, M; Mohri, S; Yokoyama, T; Okada, H

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the topographical distribution and patterns of deposition of immunolabelled abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)), interspecies transmission of atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to Cheviot ewes (ARQ/ARQ genotype) was performed. L-type BSE was successfully transmitted via the intracerebral route to a ewe, with an incubation period of 1,562 days. Minimal vacuolar change was detected in the basal ganglia, thalamus and brainstem, and PrP(Sc) accumulated throughout the brain. The L-type BSE-affected sheep was characterized by conspicuous fine particulate deposits in the neuropil, particulate and/or granular intraneuronal and intraglial deposits, and the absence of PrP(Sc) plaques or stellate deposits. In addition, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses revealed that PrP(Sc) accumulation was present in peripheral nervous tissues (including the trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglion) and adrenal glands, but was absent in lymphoid tissues. These results suggest that L-type BSE has distinct and distinguishable characteristics as well as PrP(Sc) tissue tropism in sheep.

  16. Comprehensive in vivo mapping of the human basal ganglia and thalamic connectome in individuals using 7T MRI.

    PubMed

    Lenglet, Christophe; Abosch, Aviva; Yacoub, Essa; De Martino, Federico; Sapiro, Guillermo; Harel, Noam

    2012-01-01

    Basal ganglia circuits are affected in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor, dystonia and Tourette syndrome. Understanding the structural and functional connectivity of these circuits is critical for elucidating the mechanisms of the movement and neuropsychiatric disorders, and is vital for developing new therapeutic strategies such as deep brain stimulation (DBS). Knowledge about the connectivity of the human basal ganglia and thalamus has rapidly evolved over recent years through non-invasive imaging techniques, but has remained incomplete because of insufficient resolution and sensitivity of these techniques. Here, we present an imaging and computational protocol designed to generate a comprehensive in vivo and subject-specific, three-dimensional model of the structure and connections of the human basal ganglia. High-resolution structural and functional magnetic resonance images were acquired with a 7-Tesla magnet. Capitalizing on the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and enriched contrast obtained at high-field MRI, detailed structural and connectivity representations of the human basal ganglia and thalamus were achieved. This unique combination of multiple imaging modalities enabled the in-vivo visualization of the individual human basal ganglia and thalamic nuclei, the reconstruction of seven white-matter pathways and their connectivity probability that, to date, have only been reported in animal studies, histologically, or group-averaged MRI population studies. Also described are subject-specific parcellations of the basal ganglia and thalamus into sub-territories based on their distinct connectivity patterns. These anatomical connectivity findings are supported by functional connectivity data derived from resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI). This work demonstrates new capabilities for studying basal ganglia circuitry, and opens new avenues of investigation into the movement and neuropsychiatric disorders, in

  17. Equilibrium Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, Dario; Petazzi, Lorenzo

    2006-08-01

    We present a satellite path planning technique able to make identical spacecraft aquire a given configuration. The technique exploits a behaviour-based approach to achieve an autonomous and distributed control over the relative geometry making use of limited sensorial information. A desired velocity is defined for each satellite as a sum of different contributions coming from generic high level behaviours: forcing the final desired configuration the behaviours are further defined by an inverse dynamic calculation dubbed Equilibrium Shaping. We show how considering only three different kind of behaviours it is possible to acquire a number of interesting formations and we set down the theoretical framework to find the entire set. We find that allowing a limited amount of communication the technique may be used also to form complex lattice structures. Several control feedbacks able to track the desired velocities are introduced and discussed. Our results suggest that sliding mode control is particularly appropriate in connection with the developed technique.

  18. Increased volume and impaired function: the role of the basal ganglia in writer’s cramp

    PubMed Central

    Zeuner, Kirsten E; Knutzen, Arne; Granert, Oliver; Götz, Julia; Wolff, Stephan; Jansen, Olav; Dressler, Dirk; Hefter, Harald; Hallett, Mark; Deuschl, Günther; van Eimeren, Thilo; Witt, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The pathophysiology of writer's cramp, a task-specific dystonia, remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the basal ganglia circuit and the cerebellum during a complex motor sequence learning task carried out with the nonaffected hand in writer's cramp patients. Methods We applied structural and functional imaging in 22 writer's cramp patients and 28 matched controls using 3T MRI. With the asymptomatic left hand all participants learned a complex, sequential, five-element sequence-tapping task as accurately and quickly as possible. Functional imaging was measured during a repeated (15 times), fixed block design with tapping (30 sec) and rest (30 sec). Additionally, gray matter volume of the basal ganglia was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results While behavior was comparable between groups, after small volume correction the anterior part of the right putamen and the left globus pallidus exhibited reduced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity in patients during the sequential finger-tapping task. VBM analysis showed larger gray matter volume bilateral in the posterior part of the putamen and globus pallidus. There were no group differences in the cerebellum. Conclusion The results indicate an impairment of anterior basal ganglia loops involved in producing complex sequential movements of the unaffected hand. These findings are in line with previous reports of reduced neuronal activity in the globus pallidus internus. Higher gray matter volume of the putamen and globus pallidus may stem from elevated activity of the direct pathway, which could reflect a compensatory phenomenon or a primary predisposition, that is, endophenotypic trait. PMID:25642386

  19. Prox1 identifies proliferating neuroblasts and nascent neurons during neurogenesis in sympathetic ganglia.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Julia; Hennchen, Melanie; Rohrer, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    Neurogenesis in embryonic sympathetic ganglia involves neuroblasts that resume proliferation following neuronal differentiation. As cell cycle exit is not associated with neuronal differentiation, the identity of proliferating neuroblasts is incompletely understood. Here, we use sympathetic ganglia of chick embryos to define the timing of neurogenesis and neuroblast identity focusing on the expression and function of the transcription factor Prox1. We show that a large fraction of neuroblasts has initially withdrawn from the cell cycle at embryonic day 3 (E3), which is reflected by a high proportion of p27(+)/Islet1(+) neuroblasts (63%) and low numbers of EdU(+)/Islet1(+) cells (12%). The proportion of proliferating Islet1(+) neuroblasts, identified by EdU pulse labeling and by the absence of the postmitotic marker p27 increases to reach maximal levels at E5, when virtually all neuroblasts are in the cell cycle (95%). Subsequently, the proportion of EdU-labeled and p27(-) neuroblasts is reduced to reach low levels at E11. Interestingly, the expression of the transcription factor Prox1 is restricted to the neuronal lineage, that is, Sox10(+)/Phox2b(+) neuron progenitors, proliferating p27(-)/Islet1(+) neuroblasts and nascent neurons but is rapidly lost in postmitotic neurons. In vitro and in vivo knockdown and overexpression experiments demonstrate effects of Prox1 in the support of neuroblast proliferation and survival. Taken together, these results define the neurogenesis period in the chick paravertebral sympathetic ganglia including an initial cell cycle withdrawal and identify Prox1 as a marker and regulator of proliferating sympathetic neuroblasts.

  20. Models of basal ganglia and cerebellum for sensorimotor integration and predictive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, Marwan A.; Huang, Jerry; Coenen, Olivier J. D.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents a sensorimotor architecture integrating computational models of a cerebellum and a basal ganglia and operating on a microrobot. The computational models enable a microrobot to learn to track a moving object and anticipate future positions using a CCD camera. The architecture features pre-processing modules for coordinate transformation and instantaneous orientation extraction. Learning of motor control is implemented using predictive Hebbian reinforcement-learning algorithm in the basal ganglia model. Learning of sensory predictions makes use of a combination of long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) adaptation rules within the cerebellum model. The basal ganglia model uses the visual inputs to develop sensorimotor mapping for motor control, while the cerebellum module uses robot orientation and world- coordinate transformed inputs to predict the location of the moving object in a robot centered coordinate system. We propose several hypotheses about the functional role of cell populations in the cerebellum and argue that mossy fiber projections to the deep cerebellar nucleus (DCN) could play a coordinate transformation role and act as gain fields. We propose that such transformation could be learnt early in the brain development stages and could be guided by the activity of the climbing fibers. Proprioceptor mossy fibers projecting to the DCN and providing robot orientation with respect to a reference system could be involved in this case. Other mossy fibers carrying visual sensory input provide visual patterns to the granule cells. The combined activities of the granule and the Purkinje cells store spatial representations of the target patterns. The combinations of mossy and Purkinje projections to the DCN provide a prediction of the location of the moving target taking into consideration the robot orientation. Results of lesion simulations based on our model show degradations similar to those reported in cerebellar lesion

  1. Development of nNOS-positive neurons in the rat sensory ganglia after capsaicin treatment.

    PubMed

    Masliukov, Petr M; Moiseev, Konstantin Y; Korzina, Marina B; Porseva, Valentina V

    2015-08-27

    To gain a better understanding of the neuroplasticity of afferent neurons during postnatal ontogenesis, the distribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity was studied in the nodose ganglion (NG) and Th2 and L4 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from vehicle-treated and capsaicin-treated female Wistar rats at different ages (10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, and two-month-old). The percentage of nNOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons decreased after capsaicin treatment in all studied ganglia in first 20 days of life, from 55.4% to 36.9% in the Th2 DRG, from 54.6% to 26.1% in the L4 DRG and from 37.1% to 15.0% in the NG. However, in the NG, the proportion of nNOS-IR neurons increased after day 20, from 11.8% to 23.9%. In the sensory ganglia of all studied rats, a high proportion of nNOS-IR neurons bound isolectin B4. Approximately 90% of the sensory nNOS-IR neurons bound to IB4 in the DRG and approximately 80% in the NG in capsaicin-treated and vehicle-treated rats. In 10-day-old rats, a large number of nNOS-IR neurons also expressed TrkA, and the proportion of nNOS(+)/TrkA(+) neurons was larger in the capsaicin-treated rats compared with the vehicle-treated animals. During development, the percentage of nNOS(+)/TrkA(+) cells decreased in the first month of life in both groups. The information provided here will also serve as a basis for future studies investigating mechanisms of sensory neuron development.

  2. Induction of reactivation of herpes simplex virus in murine sensory ganglia in vivo by cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Fawl, R L; Roizman, B

    1993-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses maintained in a latent state in sensory neurons in mice do not reactivate spontaneously, and therefore the factors or procedures which cause the virus to reactivate serve as a clue to the mechanisms by which the virus is maintained in a latent state. We report that cadmium sulfate induces latent virus to reactivate in 75 to 100% of mice tested. The following specific findings are reported. (i) The highest frequency of induction was observed after two to four daily administrations of 100 micrograms of cadmium sulfate. (ii) Zinc, copper, manganese, or nickel sulfate administered in equimolar amounts under the same regimen did not induce viral reactivation; however, zinc sulfate in molar ratios 25-fold greater than those of cadmium induced viral replication in 2 of 16 ganglia tested. (iii) Administration of zinc, nickel, or manganese prior to the cadmium sulfate reduced the incidence of ganglia containing infectious virus. (iv) Administration of cadmium daily during the first week after infection and at 2-day intervals to 13 days after infection resulted in the recovery from ganglia of infectious virus in titers 10- to 100-fold higher than those obtained from animals given saline. Moreover, infectious virus was recovered as late as 11 days after infection compared with 6 days in mice administered saline. (v) Administration of cadmium immediately after infection or repeatedly after establishment of latency did not exhaust the latent virus harbored by sensory neurons, inasmuch as the fraction of ganglia of mice administered cadmium and yielding infectious virus was similar to that observed in mice treated with saline. We conclude that induction of cadmium tolerance precludes reactivation of latent virus. If the induction of metallothionein genes was the sole factor required to cause reactivation of latent virus, it would have been expected that all metals which induce metallothioneins would also induce reactivation, which was not observed. The

  3. Unusual basal ganglia lesions in a diabetic uraemic patient proven to be demyelination: first pathological observation

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Yasutaka; Mito, Yasunori; Yanai, Mituru; Fukazawa, Yu-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    A 64-year-old man suffering from diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure was admitted to our hospital because of consciousness disturbance and parkinsonism. Cranial MRI showed very characteristic features involving the bilateral basal ganglia. Subsequent postmortem examinations demonstrated demyelination in the affected areas. These myelin destruction patterns were quite similar to those of central pontine myelinolysis. However, rapid correction of hyponatraemia was ruled out in this patient. Therefore, a new demyelinating brain disease associated with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure was suggested. PMID:22948993

  4. Functional Correlates of Exaggerated Oscillatory Activity in Basal Ganglia Output in Hemiparkinsonian Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brazhnik, Elena; Novikov, Nikolay; McCoy, Alex J.; Cruz, Ana V.; Walters, Judith R.

    2014-01-01

    Exaggerated beta range (13–30 Hz) synchronized activity is observed in the basal ganglia of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients during implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes and is thought to contribute to the motor symptoms of this disorder. To explore the translational potential of similar activity observed in a rat model of PD, local field potentials (LFP) and spiking activity in basal ganglia output were characterized in rats with unilateral dopamine cell lesion during a range of behaviors. A circular treadmill was used to assess activity during walking; hemiparkinsonian rats could maintain a steady gait when oriented ipsiversive to the lesioned hemisphere, but were less effective at walking when oriented contraversive to lesion. Dramatic increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) LFP oscillatory activity and spike-LFP synchronization were observed within the beta/low gamma range (12–40 Hz) in the lesioned hemisphere, relative to the non-lesioned hemisphere, with the dominant frequency of spike-LFP entrainment and LFP power varying with behavioral state. At 3 weeks post-lesion, the mean dominant entrainment frequency during ipsiversive treadmill walking and grooming was 34 Hz. Other behaviors were associated with lower mean entrainment frequencies: 27–28 Hz during alert non-walking and REM, 17 Hz during rest and 21 Hz during urethane anesthesia with sensory stimulation. SNpr spike-LFP entrainment frequency was stable during individual treadmill walking epochs, but increased gradually over weeks post-lesion. In contrast, SNpr LFP power in the 25–40 Hz range was greatest at the initiation of each walking epoch, and decreased during walking to stabilize by 6 min at 49% of initial values. Power was further modulated in conjunction with the 1.5 s stepping rhythm. Administration of L-dopa improved contraversive treadmill walking in correlation with a reduction in SNpr 25–40 Hz LFP power and spike synchronization in the dopamine cell

  5. ENDOSCOPIC ‘NO HOLE’ FULL THICKNESS BIOPSY OF THE STOMACH TO DETECT MYENTERIC GANGLIA

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, E; Gostout, CJ; Lurken, MS; Talley, NJ; Locke, GR; Szarka, LA; Sumiyama, K; Bakken, TA; Stoltz, GJ; Knipschield, MA; Farrugia, G

    2009-01-01

    Background The etiology of several common gastric motility diseases remains largely unknown. Gastric wall biopsies that include the muscularis propria to evaluate the enteric nervous system, interstitial cells of Cajal and related cells are essential to promote our understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms. Based on our previous work, a double EMR technique provided sufficient tissue to identify myenteric ganglia. A serious limitation to the technique was the resultant gastric wall perforation after tissue resection. The optimal procedure would seal the gastric wall defect prior to tissue resection, eliminating the risk of peritonitis. Objectives The aims of this study were to 1. Determine the technical feasibility and reproducibility of a full thickness gastric biopsy using a novel double EMR technique without creating a perforation (‘no hole’) and to 2. Determine safety of the procedure. Design and Interventions Pre-clinical study of six pigs. Each animal underwent a ‘no hole’ double EMR survival procedure. To prevent perforation, detachable endoloops and prototype T-tag tissue anchors were placed prior to resection. At 2 weeks repeat endoscopy was performed followed by necropsy. Main Outcome Measurements Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was used to determine which muscle layers were included in the resected specimen, and an antibody to nNOS was utilized to visualize myenteric ganglia in the sample. Technical feasibility, reproducibility and safety of the procedure were evaluated. Results Full thickness gastric biopsy was obtained from all animals without overt perforation. There were no procedural complications. Histology showed muscularis propria with all layers of muscle present, and immunochemical studies demonstrated myenteric ganglia in all tissue samples. Four animals had an uneventful clinical course and repeat endoscopy at week 2 showed ulceration with stellate fibrosis. Necropsy showed mild localized adhesions. Two animals were sacrificed

  6. Modulation of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia by treadmill exercise of stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Gavrilovic, Ljubica; Spasojevic, Natasa; Dronjak, Sladjana

    2012-03-01

    The sympatho-adrenal system represents one of the main systems involved in the response to stressful events because its stress-induced activation results in an increased release of catecholamines. Exercise training acts as an important modulator of sympatho-adrenal system, adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia being two components of this system. This study aimed at investigating physical exercise-related changes in gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in the adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats exposed daily to 20-min treadmill exercise for 12 weeks, using TaqMan RT-PCR assay. Chronic psychosocial stress decreased gene expression of the examined enzymes in the adrenal medulla and treadmill exercise did not lead to further modulation of the corresponding gene expression. On the other hand, chronic psychosocial stress produced a significant increase of TH (about 51%) and DBH (about 103%) gene expression in stellate ganglia, while treadmill exercise decreased gene expression of these enzymes to control levels in psychosocially stressed rats. Our data indicate that treadmill exercise leads to a decreased gene transcription of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in stellate ganglia and attenuation of cardiac noradrenaline production in stressful situations. Reduction of catecholamine synthesis in stellate ganglia may be linked to the beneficial effects of treadmill exercise on cardiovascular system in stressed animals.

  7. Immunohistochemical detection of GnRH-like peptides in the neural ganglia and testis of Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Nuurai, Parinyaporn; Primphon, Jeerawan; Seangcharoen, Tawanchay; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2014-02-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a peptide that is conserved in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. In this study, we have demonstrated the distribution pattern of two isoforms of GnRH-like peptides in the neural ganglia and testis of reproductively mature male abalone, H. asinina, by immunohistochemistry and whole mount immunofluorescence. We found octopus (oct) GnRH and tunicate-I (t) GnRH-I immunoreactivities (ir) in type 1 neurosecretory cells (NS1) and they were expressed mostly within the ventral horn of the cerebral ganglion, whereas in pleuropedal ganglia they were localized primarily in the dorsal horn. Furthermore, tGnRH-I-ir were strongly detected in fibers at the caudal part of the cerebral ganglia and both ventral and dorsal horns of the pleuropedal ganglia. In the testis, only octGnRH-ir was found primarily in the granulated cell and central capillaries within the trabeculae. These results suggest that multiple GnRH-like peptides are present in the neural ganglia which could be the principal source of their production, whereas GnRH may also be synthesized locally in the testis and act as the paracrine control of testicular maturation.

  8. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  9. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  10. Persistence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia as determined by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wolkin, A.; Jaeger, J.; Brodie, J.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.; Rotrosen, J.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Cancro, R.

    1985-05-01

    Local cerebral metabolic rates were determined by positron emission tomography and the deoxyglucose method in a group of 10 chronic schizophrenic subjects before and after somatic treatment and in eight normal subjects. Before treatment, schizophrenic subjects had markedly lower absolute metabolic activity than did normal controls in both frontal and temporal regions and a trend toward relative hyperactivity in the basal ganglia area. After treatment, their metabolic rates approached those seen in normal subjects in nearly all regions except frontal. Persistence of diminished frontal metabolism was manifested as significant relative hypofrontality. These findings suggest specific loci of aberrant cerebral functioning in chronic schizophrenia and the utility of positron emission tomography in characterizing these abnormalities.

  11. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  12. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  13. Is assisted reproduction associated with abnormal placentation?

    PubMed

    Joy, Jolly; Gannon, Caroline; McClure, Neil; Cooke, Inez

    2012-01-01

    Artificial reproductive technologies (ART) and conception following a period of untreated infertility (>1 year) are independently associated with increased pregnancy complications in both singleton and multiple pregnancies. It is unknown if placental dysfunction associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic histological discrepancies might explain some of these variances. Our aim was to compare the histopathology of placentae from singleton pregnancies belonging to 3 groups, as follows: conception as a result of ART; spontaneous conception (<1 year of trying); and conception following untreated infertility (>1 year). Pathological examination of placentae from singleton pregnancies of nonsmoking, age-matched primiparous women with no significant medical history and no known uterine congenital anomalies was performed by a single pathologist blinded to the groups. Features were compared using analysis of variance and chi-square tests. A total of 89 placental pathology reports were available (control  =  39, infertility  =  17, ART  =  33). The mean placental thickness was significantly higher in the ART group when compared to the spontaneous conception group (P  =  0.02). There were significantly more placental hematomas in the ART group (P  =  0.04) compared to the other groups. There were no significant differences in rates of abnormal placental shapes or abnormal cord insertions. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of microscopic placental lesions, nor were there any statistically significant differences in the incidence of macroscopic and microscopic placental lesions between the infertility group and the other groups. Placentae of ART pregnancies show significantly increased thickness and a higher incidence of hematomas. Increased placental thickness has previously been linked to increased perinatal risk.

  14. Long-term increase in coherence between the basal ganglia and motor cortex after asphyxial cardiac arrest and resuscitation in developing rats

    PubMed Central

    Aravamuthan, Bhooma R.; Shoykhet, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The basal ganglia are vulnerable to injury during cardiac arrest. Movement disorders are a common morbidity in survivors. Yet, neuronal motor network changes post-arrest remain poorly understood. METHODS We compared function of the motor network in adult rats that, during postnatal week 3, underwent 9.5 min of asphyxial cardiac arrest (n = 9) or sham intervention (n = 8). Six months after injury, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFP) from the primary motor cortex (MCx) and single neuron firing and LFP from the rat entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), which corresponds to the primate globus pallidus pars interna. Data were analyzed for firing rates, power, and coherence between MCx and EPN spike and LFP activity. RESULTS Cardiac arrest survivors display chronic motor deficits. EPN firing rate is lower in cardiac arrest survivors (19.5 ± 2.4 Hz) compared with controls (27.4 ± 2.7 Hz; P < 0.05). Cardiac arrest survivors also demonstrate greater coherence between EPN single neurons and MCx LFP (3—100 Hz; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This increased coherence indicates abnormal synchrony in the neuronal motor network after cardiac arrest. Increased motor network synchrony is thought to be antikinetic in primary movement disorders. Characterization of motor network synchrony after cardiac arrest may help guide management of post-hypoxic movement disorders. PMID:26083760

  15. An Interactive Channel Model of the Basal Ganglia: Bifurcation Analysis Under Healthy and Parkinsonian Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Oscillations in the basal ganglia are an active area of research and have been shown to relate to the hypokinetic motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. We study oscillations in a multi-channel mean field model, where each channel consists of an interconnected pair of subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus sub-populations. To study how the channels interact, we perform two-dimensional bifurcation analysis of a model of an individual channel, which reveals the critical boundaries in parameter space that separate different dynamical modes; these modes include steady-state, oscillatory, and bi-stable behaviour. Without self-excitation in the subthalamic nucleus a single channel cannot generate oscillations, yet there is little experimental evidence for such self-excitation. Our results show that the interactive channel model with coupling via pallidal sub-populations demonstrates robust oscillatory behaviour without subthalamic self-excitation, provided the coupling is sufficiently strong. We study the model under healthy and Parkinsonian conditions and demonstrate that it exhibits oscillations for a much wider range of parameters in the Parkinsonian case. In the discussion, we show how our results compare with experimental findings and discuss their possible physiological interpretation. For example, experiments have found that increased lateral coupling in the rat basal ganglia is correlated with oscillations under Parkinsonian conditions. PMID:23945348

  16. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Sensory Ganglia of Hairless Mice Prevented by Acycloguanosine†

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Richard J.; Friedman-Kien, Alvin E.; DeStefano, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Acycloguanosine (ACG) was able to prevent the fatal outcome of herpes simplex virus-induced skin infections of the lumbosacral or orofacila area in hairless mice. Topical ACG treatment was more effective than systemic treatment in preventing the evolution of skin lesions. Acute ganglionic infections in the trigeminal ganglia were prevented by ACG, and latent ganglionic infections did not become established when the ACG treatment was initiated 3 h after infection. Serum antibody titers were, on the average, eight times higher in mice which developed latent ganglionic infections after ACG treatment than in mice without evidence of herpes simplex virus latency in ganglia. Reinoculation of ACG-treated mice at a site different from that of the primary inoculation did not lead to the establishment of a second latent infection with the homologous virus type when a latent infection was already present. In mice without evidence of latent infection after the primary inoculation, a latent infection at the site of reinoculation became established in 25% of the animals. PMID:230784

  17. Real-time control of walking using recordings from dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Holinski, B J; Everaert, D G; Mushahwar, V K; Stein, R B

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to decode sensory information from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in real time, and to use this information to adapt the control of unilateral stepping with a state-based control algorithm consisting of both feed-forward and feedback components. Approach In five anesthetized cats, hind limb stepping on a walkway or treadmill was produced by patterned electrical stimulation of the spinal cord through implanted microwire arrays, while neuronal activity was recorded from the dorsal root ganglia. Different parameters, including distance and tilt of the vector between hip and limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope and ground reaction force were modeled from recorded neural firing rates. These models were then used for closed-loop feedback. Main Results Overall, firing-rate based predictions of kinematic sensors (limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope) were the most accurate with variance accounted for >60% on average. Force prediction had the lowest prediction accuracy (48±13%) but produced the greatest percentage of successful rule activations (96.3%) for stepping under closed-loop feedback control. The prediction of all sensor modalities degraded over time, with the exception of tilt. Significance Sensory feedback from moving limbs would be a desirable component of any neuroprosthetic device designed to restore walking in people after a spinal cord injury. This study provides a proof-of-principle that real-time feedback from the DRG is possible and could form part of a fully implantable neuroprosthetic device with further development. PMID:23928579

  18. Overlapping connections within the motor cortico-basal ganglia circuit: fMRI-tractography analysis.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Takuya; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Tabu, Hayato; Urayama, Shin-ichi; Matsuhashi, Masao; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Ojika, Kosei; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2013-09-01

    Contribution of the subcortical nuclei to the coordination of human behavior is dependent on the existence of appropriate anatomical architecture. Interpretations of available data have led to opposing 'information funneling' and 'parallel processing' hypotheses. Using motor circuit as a model, we examined whether cortico-subcortical circuits, especially cortico-basal ganglia circuits, are funneled or parallel in the control of volitional movement. Twenty-five healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Activated clusters during self-initiated, sequential finger-to-thumb opposition movements of the left hand were identified in the bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA), right lateral premotor cortex (PM) and primary motor cortex (M1), and in the right striatum and thalamus. These functionally defined clusters were applied to probabilistic tractography based on diffusion-weighted MRI to examine patterns of connectivity. Striatal and thalamic sub-regions with high probabilities of connection to the motor cortices partially overlapped, with connection to the two premotor areas outspreading rostrally relative to M1. We suggest that, on a macroscopic anatomical level, there is overlap as well as segregation among connections of the motor cortices with the striatum and thalamus. This supports the notion that neuronal information of the motor cortices is funneled, and parallel processing is not an exclusive principle in the basal ganglia.

  19. Neurotensin receptor binding levels in basal ganglia are not altered in Huntington's chorea or schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, J.M.; Chinaglia, G.; Rigo, M.; Ulrich, J.; Probst, A. )

    1991-02-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution and levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia and related regions of the human brain. Monoiodo ({sup 125}I-Tyr3)neurotensin was used as a ligand. High amounts of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Lower but significant quantities of neurotensin receptor binding sites characterized the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, while very low quantities were seen in both medial and lateral segments of the globus pallidus. In Huntington's chorea, the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found to be comparable to those of control cases. Only slight but not statistically significant decreases in amounts of receptor binding sites were detected in the dorsal part of the head and in the body of caudate nucleus. No alterations in the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata. These results suggest that a large proportion of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia are located on intrinsic neurons and on extrinsic afferent fibers that do not degenerate in Huntington's disease.

  20. Segregation of Acetylcholine and GABA in the Rat Superior Cervical Ganglia: Functional Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Elinos, Diana; Rodríguez, Raúl; Martínez, Luis Andres; Zetina, María Elena; Cifuentes, Fredy; Morales, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic neurons have the capability to segregate their neurotransmitters (NTs) and co-transmitters to separate varicosities of single axons; furthermore, in culture, these neurons can even segregate classical transmitters. In vivo sympathetic neurons employ acetylcholine (ACh) and other classical NTs such as gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Herein, we explore whether these neurons in vivo segregate these classical NTs in the superior cervical ganglia of the rat. We determined the topographical distribution of GABAergic varicosities, somatic GABAA receptor, as well as the regional distribution of the segregation of ACh and GABA. We evaluated possible regional differences in efficacy of ganglionic synaptic transmission, in the sensitivity of GABAA receptor to GABA and to the competitive antagonist picrotoxin (PTX). We found that sympathetic preganglionic neurons in vivo do segregate ACh and GABA. GABAergic varicosities and GABAA receptor expression showed a rostro-caudal gradient along ganglia; in contrast, segregation exhibited a caudo-rostral gradient. These uneven regional distributions in expression of GABA, GABAA receptors, and level of segregation correlate with stronger synaptic transmission found in the caudal region. Accordingly, GABAA receptors of rostral region showed larger sensitivity to GABA and PTX. These results suggest the presence of different types of GABAA receptors in each region that result in a different regional levels of endogenous GABA inhibition. Finally, we discuss a possible correlation of these different levels of GABA modulation and the function of the target organs innervated by rostral and caudal ganglionic neurons. PMID:27092054

  1. Increase of glucose consumption in basal ganglia, thalamus and frontal cortex of patients with spasmodic torticollis

    SciTech Connect

    Grassi, F.; Bressi, S.; Antoni, M.

    1994-05-01

    The pathophysiology of spasmodic torticollis, a focal dystonia involving neck muscles, is still unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed either an increase as well as a decrease of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglu) in basal ganglia. In the present study, [18F]FDG and PET was used to measure rCMRglu in 10 patients with spasmodic torticollis (mean age 50.37 {plus_minus} 11.47) and 10 age matched controls. All cases with a short disease duration, were untreated. A factorial analysis of variance revealed a significant bilateral increase of glucose consumption in caudate nucleus and pallidum/putamen complex (p>0.004) and in the cerebellum (p>0.001). The rCMRglu increase in the motor/premotor cortex and in the thalamus reached a trend towards significance (p<0.05). These preliminary data show enhanced metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum as the functional correlate of focal dystonia. A recently proposed model suggests that dystonia would be the consequence of a putaminal hyperactivity, leading to the breakdown of the pallidal inhibitory control on thalamus and thalamo-cortical projections.

  2. Trigeminal-basal ganglia interaction: control of sensory-motor gating and positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Schwarting, R K; Elstermeier, F; Francke, W; Huston, J P

    1991-02-01

    Functional interactions between the basal ganglia and the perioral area were analyzed by means of electrical brain stimulation in the rat. The first experiment showed that unilateral stimulation of the substantia nigra sensitized the contralateral perioral area for a biting reflex upon its tactile stimulation. This biting reflex consists of lip withdrawal, orienting towards and biting into the stimulus source. The same sites in the substantia nigra also produced electrical self-stimulation using bar-pressing as the operant. A positive correlation was found between threshold currents for biting and for self-stimulation. However, the current levels necessary for reinforcement were considerably higher than those to facilitate the biting reflex. In the second experiment, it was found that manipulation of the perioral area by unilateral vibrissae removal reduced the rate of electrical self-stimulation in the substantia nigra. This effect was lateralized, depended on time after vibrissae removal, and could be reversed by systemic injections of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. These results, which provide evidence for a reciprocal interaction between the basal ganglia and the perioral area, are discussed with respect to mechanisms of sensory-motor gating, motivation and reinforcement.

  3. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Benjamin J.; Venkat, Gayathri; Hutson, Thomas; Rau, Kristofer K.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Mendell, Lorne M.; Gage, Fred H.; Johnson, Richard D.; Hill, Caitlin; Rouchka, Eric C.; Moon, Lawrence; Petruska, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Primary afferent collateral sprouting is a process whereby non-injured primary afferent neurons respond to some stimulus and extend new branches from existing axons. Neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo this process, which contributes to both adaptive and maladaptive plasticity (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]). In the model used here (the “spared dermatome” model), the intact sensory neurons respond to the denervation of adjacent areas of skin by sprouting new axon branches into that adjacent denervated territory. Investigations of gene expression changes associated with collateral sprouting can provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Consequently, it can be used to develop treatments to promote functional recovery for spinal cord injury and other similar conditions. This report includes raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days) and maintenance (14 days) phases of the spared dermatome model relative to intact (“naïve”) sensory ganglia. Data has been deposited into GEO (GSE72551). PMID:26697387

  4. Transcriptional changes in sensory ganglia associated with primary afferent axon collateral sprouting in spared dermatome model.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Benjamin J; Venkat, Gayathri; Hutson, Thomas; Rau, Kristofer K; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Mendell, Lorne M; Gage, Fred H; Johnson, Richard D; Hill, Caitlin; Rouchka, Eric C; Moon, Lawrence; Petruska, Jeffrey C

    2015-12-01

    Primary afferent collateral sprouting is a process whereby non-injured primary afferent neurons respond to some stimulus and extend new branches from existing axons. Neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous systems undergo this process, which contributes to both adaptive and maladaptive plasticity (e.g., [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]). In the model used here (the "spared dermatome" model), the intact sensory neurons respond to the denervation of adjacent areas of skin by sprouting new axon branches into that adjacent denervated territory. Investigations of gene expression changes associated with collateral sprouting can provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Consequently, it can be used to develop treatments to promote functional recovery for spinal cord injury and other similar conditions. This report includes raw gene expression data files from microarray experiments in order to study the gene regulation in spared sensory ganglia in the initiation (7 days) and maintenance (14 days) phases of the spared dermatome model relative to intact ("naïve") sensory ganglia. Data has been deposited into GEO (GSE72551). PMID:26697387

  5. Expression of muscarinic acetylcholine and dopamine receptor mRNAs in rat basal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, D.M. Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Bethesda, MD ); Levey, A.I. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD ); Brann, M.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Within the basal ganglia, acetylcholine and dopamine play a central role in the extrapyramidal control of motor function. The physiologic effects of these neurotransmitters are mediated by a diversity of receptor subtypes, several of which have now been cloned. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are encoded by five genes (m1-m5), and of the two known dopamine receptor subtypes (D1 and D2) the D2 receptor gene has been characterized. To gain insight into the physiological roles of each of these receptor subtypes, the authors prepared oligodeoxynucleotide probes to localize receptor subtype mRNAs within the rat striatum and substantia nigra by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Within the striatum, three muscarinic (m1, m2, m4) receptor mRNAs and the D2 receptor mRNA were detected. The m1 mRNA was expressed in most neurons; the m2 mRNA, in neurons which were both very large and rare; and the m4 and D2 mRNAs, in 40-50% of the neurons, one-third of which express both mRNAs. Within the substantia nigra, pars compacta, only the m5 and D2 mRNAs were detected, and most neurons expressed both mRNAs. These data provide anatomical evidence for the identity of the receptor subtypes which mediate the diverse effects of muscarinic and dopaminergic drugs on basal ganglia function.

  6. Identification of bladder and colon afferents in the nodose ganglia of male rats.

    PubMed

    Herrity, April N; Rau, Kristofer K; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Stirling, David P; Hubscher, Charles H

    2014-11-01

    The sensory neurons innervating the urinary bladder and distal colon project to similar regions of the central nervous system and often are affected simultaneously by various diseases and disorders, including spinal cord injury. Anatomical and physiological commonalities between the two organs involve the participation of shared spinally derived pathways, allowing mechanisms of communication between the bladder and colon. Prior electrophysiological data from our laboratory suggest that the bladder also may receive sensory innervation from a nonspinal source through the vagus nerve, which innervates the distal colon as well. The present study therefore aimed to determine whether anatomical evidence exists for vagal innervation of the male rat urinary bladder and to assess whether those vagal afferents also innervate the colon. Additionally, the relative contribution to bladder and colon sensory innervation of spinal and vagal sources was determined. By using lipophilic tracers, neurons that innervated the bladder and colon in both the nodose ganglia (NG) and L6/S1 and L1/L2 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were quantified. Some single vagal and spinal neurons provided dual innervation to both organs. The proportions of NG afferents labeled from the bladder did not differ from spinal afferents labeled from the bladder when considering the collective population of total neurons from either group. Our results demonstrate evidence for vagal innervation of the bladder and colon and suggest that dichotomizing vagal afferents may provide a neural mechanism for cross-talk between the organs. PMID:24845615

  7. Learning processing in the basal ganglia: a mosaic of broken mirrors.

    PubMed

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Wietzikoski, Evellyn Claudia; Dombrowski, Patrícia; Bortolanza, Mariza; Santos, Lucélia Mendes; Boschen, Suelen Lucio; Miyoshi, Edmar

    2009-04-12

    In the present review we propose a model to explain the role of the basal ganglia in sensorimotor and cognitive functions based on a growing body of behavioural, anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical evidence accumulated over the last decades. This model proposes that the body and its surrounding environment are represented in the striatum in a fragmented and repeated way, like a mosaic consisting of the fragmented images of broken mirrors. Each fragment forms a functional unit representing articulated parts of the body with motion properties, objects of the environment which the subject can approach or manipulate, and locations the subject can move to. These units integrate the sensory properties and movements related to them. The repeated and widespread distribution of such units amplifies the combinatorial power of the associations among them. These associations depend on the phasic release of dopamine in the striatum triggered by the saliency of stimuli and will be reinforced by the rewarding consequences of the actions related to them. Dopamine permits synaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal synapses. The striatal units encoding the same stimulus/action send convergent projections to the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) that stimulate or hold the action through a thalamus-frontal cortex pathway. According to this model, this is how the basal ganglia select actions based on environmental stimuli and store adaptive associations as nondeclarative memories such as motor skills, habits, and memories formed by Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning.

  8. Surprise disrupts cognition via a fronto-basal ganglia suppressive mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Jan R.; Jenkinson, Ned; Brittain, John-Stuart; Voets, Sarah H. E. M.; Aziz, Tipu Z.; Aron, Adam R.

    2016-01-01

    Surprising events markedly affect behaviour and cognition, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. Surprise recruits a brain mechanism that globally suppresses motor activity, ostensibly via the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. Here, we tested whether this suppressive mechanism extends beyond skeletomotor suppression and also affects cognition (here, verbal working memory, WM). We recorded scalp-EEG (electrophysiology) in healthy participants and STN local field potentials in Parkinson's patients during a task in which surprise disrupted WM. For scalp-EEG, surprising events engage the same independent neural signal component that indexes action stopping in a stop-signal task. Importantly, the degree of this recruitment mediates surprise-related WM decrements. Intracranially, STN activity is also increased post surprise, especially when WM is interrupted. These results suggest that surprise interrupts cognition via the same fronto-basal ganglia mechanism that interrupts action. This motivates a new neural theory of how cognition is interrupted, and how distraction arises after surprising events. PMID:27088156

  9. Basal Ganglia Activity Mirrors a Benefit of Action and Reward on Long-Lasting Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Koster, Raphael; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J.; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    The expectation of reward is known to enhance a consolidation of long-term memory for events. We tested whether this effect is driven by positive valence or action requirements tied to expected reward. Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm in young adults, novel images predicted gain or loss outcomes, which in turn were either obtained or avoided by action or inaction. After 24 h, memory for these images reflected a benefit of action as well as a congruence of action requirements and valence, namely, action for reward and inaction for avoidance. fMRI responses in the hippocampus, a region known to be critical for long-term memory function, reflected the anticipation of inaction. In contrast, activity in the putamen mirrored the congruence of action requirement and valence, whereas other basal ganglia regions mirrored overall action benefits on long-lasting memory. The findings indicate a novel type of functional division between the hippocampus and the basal ganglia in the motivational regulation of long-term memory consolidation, which favors remembering events that are worth acting for. PMID:26420783

  10. Surprise disrupts cognition via a fronto-basal ganglia suppressive mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Jenkinson, Ned; Brittain, John-Stuart; Voets, Sarah H E M; Aziz, Tipu Z; Aron, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    Surprising events markedly affect behaviour and cognition, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. Surprise recruits a brain mechanism that globally suppresses motor activity, ostensibly via the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. Here, we tested whether this suppressive mechanism extends beyond skeletomotor suppression and also affects cognition (here, verbal working memory, WM). We recorded scalp-EEG (electrophysiology) in healthy participants and STN local field potentials in Parkinson's patients during a task in which surprise disrupted WM. For scalp-EEG, surprising events engage the same independent neural signal component that indexes action stopping in a stop-signal task. Importantly, the degree of this recruitment mediates surprise-related WM decrements. Intracranially, STN activity is also increased post surprise, especially when WM is interrupted. These results suggest that surprise interrupts cognition via the same fronto-basal ganglia mechanism that interrupts action. This motivates a new neural theory of how cognition is interrupted, and how distraction arises after surprising events. PMID:27088156

  11. [THE ORGANIZATION OF PROJECTIONS OF MIDBRAIN LATERAL TEGMENTAL NUCLEI THE TO BRAIN BASAL GANGLIA IN DOGS].

    PubMed

    Gorbachevskaya, A I

    2015-01-01

    The organization of the projections of midbrain lateral tegmental nuclei (peripeduncular nucleus, paralemniscal nucleus, nucleus of the brachium of inferior colliculus) to functionally diverse nuclei of the basal ganglia system was studied in dogs (n = 34) by the method of retrograde axonal transport of horse-radish peroxidase. It was found that the midbrain nuclei studied were involved in functionally different circuits, containing the basal ganglia as their components. These nuclei innervate the regions of the putamen, globus pallidus, cuneate nucleus, subcuneate nucleus, which are the motor or the limbic structures on the basis of their predominant connections with the motor or the limbic brain nuclei, and also regions of the caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, entopeduncular nucleus, compact part of the pedunculopontine nucleus, which receive the projections from the functionally various structures. The analysis of Nissl-stained frontal sections allowed to refine the anatomical topography of the individual nuclei of the midbrain lateral tegmentum. The cholinergic nature of their neurons was demonstrated based on of the positive histochemical reaction to NADPH diaphorase. PMID:27141581

  12. RNA Sequencing of Trigeminal Ganglia in Rattus Norvegicus after Glyceryl Trinitrate Infusion with Relevance to Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Hougaard Pedersen, Sara; Maretty, Lasse; Ramachandran, Roshni; Sibbesen, Jonas Andreas; Yakimov, Victor; Elgaard-Christensen, Rikke; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Krogh, Anders; Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a donor of nitric oxide, induces immediate headache in humans that in migraineurs is followed by a delayed migraine attack. In order to achieve increased knowledge of mechanisms activated during GTN-infusion this present study aims to investigate transcriptional responses to GTN-infusion in the rat trigeminal ganglia. Methods Rats were infused with GTN or vehicle and trigeminal ganglia were isolated either 30 or 90 minutes post infusion. RNA sequencing was used to investigate transcriptomic changes in response to the treatment. Furthermore, we developed a novel method for Gene Set Analysis Of Variance (GSANOVA) to identify gene sets associated with transcriptional changes across time. Results 15 genes displayed significant changes in transcription levels in response to GTN-infusion. Ten of these genes showed either sustained up- or down-regulation in the 90-minute period after infusion. The GSANOVA analysis demonstrate enrichment of pathways pointing towards an increase in immune response, signal transduction, and neuroplasticity in response to GTN-infusion. Future functional in-depth studies of these mechanisms are expected to increase our understanding of migraine pathogenesis. PMID:27213950

  13. Highly efficient method for gene delivery into mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingli; Reynaud, Florie; Falk, Julien; Spencer, Ambre; Ding, Yin-Di; Baumlé, Véronique; Lu, Ruisheng; Castellani, Valérie; Yuan, Chonggang; Rudkin, Brian B

    2015-01-01

    The development of gene transfection technologies has greatly advanced our understanding of life sciences. While use of viral vectors has clear efficacy, it requires specific expertise and biological containment conditions. Electroporation has become an effective and commonly used method for introducing DNA into neurons and in intact brain tissue. The present study describes the use of the Neon® electroporation system to transfect genes into dorsal root ganglia neurons isolated from embryonic mouse Day 13.5-16. This cell type has been particularly recalcitrant and refractory to physical or chemical methods for introduction of DNA. By optimizing the culture condition and parameters including voltage and duration for this specific electroporation system, high efficiency (60-80%) and low toxicity (>60% survival) were achieved with robust differentiation in response to Nerve growth factor (NGF). Moreover, 3-50 times fewer cells are needed (6 × 10(4)) compared with other traditional electroporation methods. This approach underlines the efficacy of this type of electroporation, particularly when only limited amount of cells can be obtained, and is expected to greatly facilitate the study of gene function in dorsal root ganglia neuron cultures. PMID:25698920

  14. Competing basal ganglia pathways determine the difference between stopping and deciding not to go

    PubMed Central

    Dunovan, Kyle; Lynch, Brighid; Molesworth, Tara; Verstynen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of corticobasal ganglia pathways allows for many routes to inhibit a planned action: the hyperdirect pathway performs fast action cancellation and the indirect pathway competitively constrains execution signals from the direct pathway. We present a novel model, principled off of basal ganglia circuitry, that differentiates control dynamics of reactive stopping from intrinsic no-go decisions. Using a nested diffusion model, we show how reactive braking depends on the state of an execution process. In contrast, no-go decisions are best captured by a failure of the execution process to reach the decision threshold due to increasing constraints on the drift rate. This model accounts for both behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) responses during inhibitory control tasks better than alternative models. The advantage of this framework is that it allows for incorporating the effects of context in reactive and proactive control into a single unifying parameter, while distinguishing action cancellation from no-go decisions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08723.001 PMID:26402462

  15. Vocal Experimentation in the Juvenile Songbird Requires a Basal Ganglia Circuit

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Songbirds learn their songs by trial-and-error experimentation, producing highly variable vocal output as juveniles. By comparing their own sounds to the song of a tutor, young songbirds gradually converge to a stable song that can be a remarkably good copy of the tutor song. Here we show that vocal variability in the learning songbird is induced by a basal-ganglia-related circuit, the output of which projects to the motor pathway via the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the nidopallium (LMAN). We found that pharmacological inactivation of LMAN dramatically reduced acoustic and sequence variability in the songs of juvenile zebra finches, doing so in a rapid and reversible manner. In addition, recordings from LMAN neurons projecting to the motor pathway revealed highly variable spiking activity across song renditions, showing that LMAN may act as a source of variability. Lastly, pharmacological blockade of synaptic inputs from LMAN to its target premotor area also reduced song variability. Our results establish that, in the juvenile songbird, the exploratory motor behavior required to learn a complex motor sequence is dependent on a dedicated neural circuit homologous to cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mammals. PMID:15826219

  16. Basal ganglia neuronal activity during scanning eye movements in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sieger, Tomáš; Bonnet, Cecilia; Serranová, Tereza; Wild, Jiří; Novák, Daniel; Růžička, Filip; Urgošík, Dušan; Růžička, Evžen; Gaymard, Bertrand; Jech, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The oculomotor role of the basal ganglia has been supported by extensive evidence, although their role in scanning eye movements is poorly understood. Nineteen Parkinsońs disease patients, which underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes, were investigated with simultaneous intraoperative microelectrode recordings and single channel electrooculography in a scanning eye movement task by viewing a series of colored pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Four patients additionally underwent a visually guided saccade task. Microelectrode recordings were analyzed selectively from the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars reticulata and from the globus pallidus by the WaveClus program which allowed for detection and sorting of individual neurons. The relationship between neuronal firing rate and eye movements was studied by crosscorrelation analysis. Out of 183 neurons that were detected, 130 were found in the subthalamic nucleus, 30 in the substantia nigra and 23 in the globus pallidus. Twenty percent of the neurons in each of these structures showed eye movement-related activity. Neurons related to scanning eye movements were mostly unrelated to the visually guided saccades. We conclude that a relatively large number of basal ganglia neurons are involved in eye motion control. Surprisingly, neurons related to scanning eye movements differed from neurons activated during saccades suggesting functional specialization and segregation of both systems for eye movement control.

  17. Germinoma originating in the basal ganglia and thalamus: MR and CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Shuichi Higano; Shoki Takahashi; Kiyoshi Ishii

    1994-09-01

    Purpose: to describe MR and CT features of germinoma originating in the basal ganglia and thalamus and to discuss the roles of each modality for its diagnosis. Methods: MR and CT studies of six cases of germinomas, five of which were histologically proved, were retrospectively reviewed. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted conventional spin-echo images, and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images were evaluated. Results: Typically, the tumor consisted of an irregular solid area with contrast enhancement and various-size cysts. Cystic components were found in five cases and calcification in four. Intratumoral hemorrhage was noted in one. Ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and brain stem hemiatrophy were noted in three cases each. MR was superior to CT in evaluating precise tumor extension, cystic components, and intratumoral hemorrhage, although in one case, extension of the tumor was better defined on CT in its early stage. Calcification was difficult to identify by MR alone. The solid components of the tumors generally showed slightly high density on CT, which seemed to be characteristic compared with nonspecific intensity pattern on MR. Conclusion: The combination of CT and MR findings allows early detection and appropriate diagnosis of the mass in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. fMRI of cocaine self-administration in macaques reveals functional inhibition of basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mandeville, Joseph B; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Jarraya, Bechir; Rosen, Bruce R; Jenkins, Bruce G; Vanduffel, Wim

    2011-05-01

    Disparities in cocaine-induced neurochemical and metabolic responses between human beings and rodents motivate the use of non-human primates (NHP) to model consequences of repeated cocaine exposure in human subjects. To characterize the functional response to cocaine infusion in NHP brain, we employed contrast-enhanced fMRI during both non-contingent injection of drug and self-administration of cocaine in the magnet. Cocaine robustly decreased cerebral blood volume (CBV) throughout basal ganglia and motor/pre-motor cortex and produced subtle functional inhibition of prefrontal cortex. No brain regions exhibited significant elevation of CBV in response to cocaine challenge. Theses effects in NHP brain are opposite in sign to the cocaine-induced fMRI response in rats, but consistent with previous measurements in NHP based on glucose metabolism. Because the striatal ratio of D2 to D1 receptors is larger in human beings and NHP than rats, we hypothesize that the inhibitory effects of D2 receptor binding dominate the functional response in primates, whereas excitatory D1 receptor stimulation predominates in the rat. If the NHP accurately models the human response to cocaine, downregulation of D2 receptors in human cocaine-abusing populations can be expected to blunt cocaine-induced functional responses, contributing to the weak and variable fMRI responses reported in human basal ganglia following cocaine infusion. PMID:21307843

  19. The centre of the brain: topographical model of motor, cognitive, affective, and somatosensory functions of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Arsalidou, Marie; Duerden, Emma G; Taylor, Margot J

    2013-11-01

    The basal ganglia have traditionally been viewed as motor processing nuclei; however, functional neuroimaging evidence has implicated these structures in more complex cognitive and affective processes that are fundamental for a range of human activities. Using quantitative meta-analysis methods we assessed the functional subdivisions of basal ganglia nuclei in relation to motor (body and eye movements), cognitive (working-memory and executive), affective (emotion and reward) and somatosensory functions in healthy participants. We document affective processes in the anterior parts of the caudate head with the most overlap within the left hemisphere. Cognitive processes showed the most widespread response, whereas motor processes occupied more central structures. On the basis of these demonstrated functional roles of the basal ganglia, we provide a new comprehensive topographical model of these nuclei and insight into how they are linked to a wide range of behaviors. PMID:22711692

  20. Expression of POU, Sox, and Pax genes in the brain ganglia of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, E K; Degnan, B M

    2000-11-01

    In gastropod mollusks, neuroendocrine cells in the anterior ganglia have been shown to regulate growth and reproduction. As a first step toward understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of these physiological processes in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina, we have identified sets of POU, Sox, and Pax transcription factor genes that are expressed in these ganglia. Using highly degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed to anneal to conserved codons in each of these gene families, we have amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction 2 POU genes (HasPOU-III and HasPOU-IV), 2 Sox genes (HasSox-B and HasSox-C), and two Pax genes (HasPax-258 and HasPax-6). Analyses with gene-specific primers indicated that the 6 genes are expressed in the cerebral and pleuropedal ganglia of both reproductively active and spent adults, in a number of sensory structures, and in a subset of other adult tissues.

  1. An evaluation of a method for the detection of sensory ganglia in product derived from advanced meat recovery systems.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Scott; Sutton, Mary T; Hill, Joseph; McCaskey, Patrick C; Kelley, Lynda Collins

    2008-11-01

    A method is described for the identification of dorsal root ganglia (DRG)-associated sensory neurons within advanced meat recovery (AMR) product derived from bovine vertebral columns. This method relies on the unique microanatomy of sensory neurons and immunohistochemical staining, primarily for glial fibrillary acidic protein. Sensory neurons are variably sized unipolar neurons, exhibiting a single-cell process that is rarely seen in histologic sections. These neurons are surrounded by a prominent ring of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive satellite cells that produce a distinctive and readily identifiable staining pattern in histologic sections. Fragmented DRG were detected to the 0.25% level in samples of ground beef or nonvertebral-origin AMR product spiked with these sensory ganglia. Similarly examined commercially produced nonvertebral-origin AMR product (n = 157) did not contain sensory ganglia, while 3.3% of vertebral-origin AMR product (n = 364) contained fragmented DRG.

  2. Effect of an 8-week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers.

    PubMed

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering are not well understood. It is known that stuttering appears when persons who stutter speak in a self-paced manner, but speech fluency is temporarily increased when they speak in unison with external trigger such as a metronome. This phenomenon is very similar to the behavioral improvement by external pacing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent imaging studies have also suggested that the basal ganglia are involved in the etiology of stuttering. In addition, previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in self-paced movement. Then, the present study focused on the basal ganglia and explored whether long-term speech-practice using external triggers can induce modification of the basal ganglia activity of stuttering speakers. Our study of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that stuttering speakers possessed significantly lower activity in the basal ganglia than fluent speakers before practice, especially when their speech was self-paced. After an 8-week speech practice of externally triggered speech using a metronome, the significant difference in activity between the two groups disappeared. The cerebellar vermis of stuttering speakers showed significantly decreased activity during the self-paced speech in the second compared to the first experiment. The speech fluency and naturalness of the stuttering speakers were also improved. These results suggest that stuttering is associated with defective motor control during self-paced speech, and that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are involved in an improvement of speech fluency of stuttering by the use of external trigger.

  3. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their parameters within each…

  4. [Topographo-anatomic interrelationships between the branches of the lumbar arteries and the spinal ganglia, nerves and roots].

    PubMed

    Kravchuk, V N

    1975-01-01

    By using a complex of investigation methods variants of branchingout of the spinal cord and spinal ganglia blood supply sources and their anatomo-topographic interrelations were discerned in 140 preparations of lumbar spinal ganglia obtained from human cadavers of both sexes and different age. With the help of anastomoses these sources form a specific arterial circle around the ganglion. The radicular arteries are noted to be non-equivalent. The annular architectonics of the blood vessels is considered as a morphological manifestation of a functionally reliable blood supply to the border area between the central and peripheral divisions of the nervous system.

  5. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  6. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  7. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  8. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  9. Shaping the nucleus: factors and forces.

    PubMed

    Walters, Alison D; Bommakanti, Ananth; Cohen-Fix, Orna

    2012-09-01

    Take a look at a textbook illustration of a cell and you will immediately be able to locate the nucleus, which is often drawn as a spherical or ovoid shaped structure. But not all cells have such nuclei. In fact, some disease states are diagnosed by the presence of nuclei that have an abnormal shape or size. What defines nuclear shape and nuclear size, and how does nuclear geometry affect nuclear function? While the answer to the latter question remains largely unknown, significant progress has been made towards understanding the former. In this review, we provide an overview of the factors and forces that affect nuclear shape and size, discuss the relationship between ER structure and nuclear morphology, and speculate on the possible connection between nuclear size and its shape. We also note the many interesting questions that remain to be explored. PMID:22566057

  10. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A.; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A.; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C.; Mackay, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    See Postuma (doi:10.1093/aww131) for a scientific commentary on this article. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson’s disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson’s disease and 10 control subjects received 123I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement

  11. Unsupervised detection of abnormalities in medical images using salient features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Sharon; Kisilev, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose a new method for abnormality detection in medical images which is based on the notion of medical saliency. The proposed method is general and is suitable for a variety of tasks related to detection of: 1) lesions and microcalcifications (MCC) in mammographic images, 2) stenoses in angiographic images, 3) lesions found in magnetic resonance (MRI) images of brain. The main idea of our approach is that abnormalities manifest as rare events, that is, as salient areas compared to normal tissues. We define the notion of medical saliency by combining local patch information from the lightness channel with geometric shape local descriptors. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method by applying it to various modalities, and to various abnormality detection problems. Promising results are demonstrated for detection of MCC and of masses in mammographic images, detection of stenoses in angiography images, and detection of lesions in brain MRI. We also demonstrate how the proposed automatic abnormality detection method can be combined with a system that performs supervised classification of mammogram images into benign or malignant/premalignant MCC's. We use a well known DDSM mammogram database for the experiment on MCC classification, and obtain 80% accuracy in classifying images containing premalignant MCC versus benign ones. In contrast to supervised detection methods, the proposed approach does not rely on ground truth markings, and, as such, is very attractive and applicable for big corpus image data processing.

  12. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  13. Modulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase, Neuropeptide Y, Glutamate, and Substance P in Ganglia and Brain Areas Involved in Cardiovascular Control after Chronic Exposure to Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Merari F. R.; Coelho, Emerson F.; Farizatto, Karen L. G.; Chadi, Gerson; Fior-Chadi, Debora R.

    2011-01-01

    Considering that nicotine instantly interacts with central and peripheral nervous systems promoting cardiovascular effects after tobacco smoking, we evaluated the modulation of glutamate, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and substance P (SP) in nodose/petrosal and superior cervical ganglia, as well as TH and NPY in nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after 8 weeks of nicotine exposure. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization data demonstrated increased expression of TH in brain and ganglia related to blood pressure control, preferentially in SHR, after nicotine exposure. The alkaloid also increased NPY immunoreactivity in ganglia, NTS, and PVN of SHR, in spite of decreasing its receptor (NPY1R) binding in NTS of both strains. Nicotine increased SP and glutamate in ganglia. In summary, nicotine positively modulated the studied variables in ganglia while its central effects were mainly constrained to SHR. PMID:21822476

  14. The place of dopamine in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit.

    PubMed

    Haber, S N

    2014-12-12

    The midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in developing appropriate goal-directed behaviors, including the motivation and cognition to develop appropriate actions to obtain a specific outcome. Indeed, subpopulations of DA neurons have been associated with these different functions: the mesolimbic, mesocortical, and nigrostriatal pathways. The mesolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways are an integral part of the basal ganglia through its reciprocal connections to the ventral and dorsal striatum respectively. This chapter reviews the connections of the midbrain DA cells and their role in integrating information across limbic, cognitive and motor functions. Emphasis is placed on the interface between these functional domains within the striatum through corticostriatal connections, through the striato-nigro-striatal connection, and through the lateral habenula projection to the midbrain.

  15. A cortical motor nucleus drives the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus in singing birds

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jesse H.

    2012-01-01

    The pallido-recipient thalamus transmits information from the basal ganglia (BG) to the cortex and plays a critical role motor initiation and learning. Thalamic activity is strongly inhibited by pallidal inputs from the BG, but the role of non-pallidal inputs, such as excitatory inputs from cortex, is unclear. We have recorded simultaneously from presynaptic pallidal axon terminals and postsynaptic thalamocortical neurons in a BG-recipient thalamic nucleus necessary for vocal variability and learning in zebra finches. We found that song-locked rate modulations in the thalamus could not be explained by pallidal inputs alone, and persisted following pallidal lesion. Instead, thalamic activity was likely driven by inputs from a motor ‘cortical’ nucleus also necessary for singing. These findings suggest a role for cortical inputs to the pallido-recipient thalamus in driving premotor signals important for exploratory behavior and learning. PMID:22327474

  16. Basal ganglia circuit loops, dopamine and motivation: A review and enquiry.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Satoshi; Yang, Chen; Tan, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine neurons located in the midbrain play a role in motivation that regulates approach behavior (approach motivation). In addition, activation and inactivation of dopamine neurons regulate mood and induce reward and aversion, respectively. Accumulating evidence suggests that such motivational role of dopamine neurons is not limited to those located in the ventral tegmental area, but also in the substantia nigra. The present paper reviews previous rodent work concerning dopamine's role in approach motivation and the connectivity of dopamine neurons, and proposes two working models: One concerns the relationship between extracellular dopamine concentration and approach motivation. High, moderate and low concentrations of extracellular dopamine induce euphoric, seeking and aversive states, respectively. The other concerns circuit loops involving the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, epithalamus, and midbrain through which dopaminergic activity alters approach motivation. These models should help to generate hypothesis-driven research and provide insights for understanding altered states associated with drugs of abuse and affective disorders. PMID:25907747

  17. Basal ganglia circuit loops, dopamine and motivation: A review and enquiry

    PubMed Central

    Ikemoto, Satoshi; Yang, Chen; Tan, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine neurons located in the midbrain play a role in motivation that regulates approach behavior (approach motivation). In addition, activation and inactivation of dopamine neurons regulate mood and induce reward and aversion, respectively. Accumulating evidence suggests that such motivational role of dopamine neurons is not limited to those located in the ventral tegmental area, but also in the substantia nigra. The present paper reviews previous rodent work concerning dopamine’s role in approach motivation and the connectivity of dopamine neurons, and proposes two working models: One concerns the relationship between extracellular dopamine concentration and approach motivation. High, moderate and low concentrations of extracellular dopamine induce euphoric, seeking and aversive states, respectively. The other concerns circuit loops involving the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, epithalamus, and midbrain through which dopaminergic activity alters approach motivation. These models should help to generate hypothesis-driven research and provide insights for understanding altered states associated with drugs of abuse and affective disorders. PMID:25907747

  18. Analysis of delay-induced basal ganglia oscillations: the role of external excitatory nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidar, Ihab; Pasillas-Lépine, William; Panteley, Elena; Chaillet, Antoine; Palfi, Stéphane; Senova, Suhan

    2014-09-01

    Basal ganglia are interconnected deep brain structures involved in movement generation. Their persistent beta-band oscillations (13-30 Hz) are known to be linked to Parkinson's disease motor symptoms. In this paper, we provide conditions under which these oscillations may occur, by explicitly considering the role of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). We analyse the existence of equilibria in the associated firing-rate dynamics and study their stability by relying on a delayed multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) frequency analysis. Our analysis suggests that the PPN has an influence on the generation of pathological beta-band oscillations. These results are illustrated by simulations that confirm numerically the analytic predictions of our two main theorems.

  19. Prepro-neuropeptide Y mRNA and NPY binding sites in human inferior vagal ganglia.

    PubMed

    McLean, K J; Jarrott, B; Lawrence, A J

    1997-07-01

    The inferior vagal ganglia contain the cell bodies of centrally projecting vagal afferent neurones. Using in situ hybridization-histochemistry with a combination of two antisense neuropeptide Y (NPY) oligonucleotides, we have demonstrated that a population of human inferior vagal perikarya express mRNA encoding prepro-NPY, the precursor of NPY. In vitro receptor autoradiography, using both [125I]Bolton Hunter-NPY ([125I]BH-NPY, 15 pM) and [125I]peptide YY ([125I]PYY, 25 pM), enabled visualization of NPY binding sites. Competition binding with NPY (1 microM), PYY (1 microM) and [Leu31,Pro34]NPY (100 nM), suggest that both Y1 and Y2 receptor subtypes are present on human vagal afferent neurones. These observations suggest a potential role for NPY in neuromodulation of vagal transmission in humans.

  20. Visuo-motor and cognitive procedural learning in children with basal ganglia pathology.

    PubMed

    Mayor-Dubois, C; Maeder, P; Zesiger, P; Roulet-Perez, E

    2010-06-01

    We investigated procedural learning in 18 children with basal ganglia (BG) lesions or dysfunctions of various aetiologies, using a visuo-motor learning test, the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task, and a cognitive learning test, the Probabilistic Classification Learning (PCL) task. We compared patients with early (<1 year old, n=9), later onset (>6 years old, n=7) or progressive disorder (idiopathic dystonia, n=2). All patients showed deficits in both visuo-motor and cognitive domains, except those with idiopathic dystonia, who displayed preserved classification learning skills. Impairments seem to be independent from the age of onset of pathology. As far as we know, this study is the first to investigate motor and cognitive procedural learning in children with BG damage. Procedural impairments were documented whatever the aetiology of the BG damage/dysfunction and time of pathology onset, thus supporting the claim of very early skill learning development and lack of plasticity in case of damage.

  1. Impaired Frontal-Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Male Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junling; Shi, Huqing; Wang, Xiang; Jiang, Yali; Ming, Qingsen; Gao, Yidian; Ma, Ren; Yao, Shuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Alack of inhibition control has been found in subjects with conduct disorder (CD), but the underlying neuropathophysiology remains poorly understood. The current study investigated the different mechanism of inhibition control in adolescent-onset CD males (n = 29) and well-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 40) when performing a GoStop task by functional magnetic resonance images. Effective connectivity (EC) within the inhibition control network was analyzed using a stochastic dynamic causality model. We found that EC within the inhibition control network was significantly different in the CD group when compared to the HCs. Exploratory relationship analysis revealed significant negative associations between EC between the IFG and striatum and behavioral scale scores in the CD group. These results suggest for the first time that the failure of inhibition control in subjects with CD might be associated with aberrant connectivity of the frontal–basal ganglia pathways, especially between the IFG and striatum. PMID:26658732

  2. FROM REINFORCEMENT LEARNING MODELS OF THE BASAL GANGLIA TO THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PSYCHIATRIC AND NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Tiago V.; Frank, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade and a half, reinforcement learning models have fostered an increasingly sophisticated understanding of the functions of dopamine and cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (CBGTC) circuits. More recently, these models, and the insights that they afford, have started to be used to understand key aspects of several psychiatric and neurological disorders that involve disturbances of the dopaminergic system and CBGTC circuits. We review this approach and its existing and potential applications to Parkinson’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, addiction, schizophrenia, and preclinical animal models used to screen novel antipsychotic drugs. The approach’s proven explanatory and predictive power bodes well for the continued growth of computational psychiatry and computational neurology. PMID:21270784

  3. Basal ganglia circuit loops, dopamine and motivation: A review and enquiry.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Satoshi; Yang, Chen; Tan, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine neurons located in the midbrain play a role in motivation that regulates approach behavior (approach motivation). In addition, activation and inactivation of dopamine neurons regulate mood and induce reward and aversion, respectively. Accumulating evidence suggests that such motivational role of dopamine neurons is not limited to those located in the ventral tegmental area, but also in the substantia nigra. The present paper reviews previous rodent work concerning dopamine's role in approach motivation and the connectivity of dopamine neurons, and proposes two working models: One concerns the relationship between extracellular dopamine concentration and approach motivation. High, moderate and low concentrations of extracellular dopamine induce euphoric, seeking and aversive states, respectively. The other concerns circuit loops involving the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, epithalamus, and midbrain through which dopaminergic activity alters approach motivation. These models should help to generate hypothesis-driven research and provide insights for understanding altered states associated with drugs of abuse and affective disorders.

  4. The place of dopamine in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit.

    PubMed

    Haber, S N

    2014-12-12

    The midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in developing appropriate goal-directed behaviors, including the motivation and cognition to develop appropriate actions to obtain a specific outcome. Indeed, subpopulations of DA neurons have been associated with these different functions: the mesolimbic, mesocortical, and nigrostriatal pathways. The mesolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways are an integral part of the basal ganglia through its reciprocal connections to the ventral and dorsal striatum respectively. This chapter reviews the connections of the midbrain DA cells and their role in integrating information across limbic, cognitive and motor functions. Emphasis is placed on the interface between these functional domains within the striatum through corticostriatal connections, through the striato-nigro-striatal connection, and through the lateral habenula projection to the midbrain. PMID:25445194

  5. Latent acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 in trigeminal ganglia of immunocompetent individuals.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Monique; van Loenen, Freek B; Meesters, Roland J W; de Graaf, Miranda; Remeijer, Lies; Luider, Theo M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2012-05-15

    Specific mutations within the hypervariable herpes simplex virus (HSV) gene thymidine kinase (TK) gene lead to acyclovir (ACV) resistance. To uncover the existence of latent ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1, we determined the genetic and functional variability of the HSV-1 TK gene pool in paired trigeminal ganglia (TG) of 5 immunocompetent individuals. The latent virus pool consisted of a donor-specific HSV-1 quasispecies, including one major ACV-sensitive (ACV(S)) and multiple phylogenetic-related minor ACV(S) and ACV(R) TK variants. Contrary to minor variants, major TK variants were shared between paired TG. The data demonstrate the coexistence of phylogenetic-related ACV(S) and ACV(R) latent HSV-1 in human TG.

  6. Comparative processing of emotional prosody and semantics following basal ganglia infarcts: ERP evidence of selective impairments for disgust and fear.

    PubMed

    Paulmann, Silke; Pell, Marc D; Kotz, Sonja A

    2009-10-27

    There is evidence from neuroimaging and clinical studies that functionally link the basal ganglia to emotional speech processes. However, in most previous studies, explicit tasks were administered. Thus, the underlying mechanisms substantiating emotional speech are not separated from possibly process-related task effects. Therefore, the current study tested emotional speech processing in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment using an implicit emotional processing task (probe verification). The interactive time course of emotional prosody in the context of emotional semantics was investigated using a cross-splicing method. As previously demonstrated, combined prosodic and semantic expectancy violations elicit N400-like negativities irrespective of emotional categories in healthy listeners. In contrast, basal ganglia patients show this negativity only for the emotions of happiness and anger, but not for fear or disgust. The current data serve as first evidence that lesions within the left basal ganglia affect the comparative online processing of fear and disgust prosody and semantics. Furthermore, the data imply that previously reported emotional speech recognition deficits in basal ganglia patients may be due to misaligned processing of emotional prosody and semantics.

  7. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

  8. Neuropeptides in the cerebral ganglia of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain: transcriptomic analysis and expression profiles during vitellogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chenchang; Yang, Yanan; Huang, Huiyang; Ye, Haihui

    2015-11-23

    Neuropeptides play a critical role in regulating animal reproduction. In vertebrates, GnRH, GnIH and kisspeptin are the key neuropeptide hormones of the reproductive axis, however, the reproductive axis for invertebrates is vague. Knowledge on ovarian development of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, is critical for aquaculture and resources management of the commercially important species. This study employed Illumina sequencing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time PCR techniques to identify neuropeptides that may be involved in ovarian development of S. paramamosain. A total of 32 neuropeptide transcripts from two dozen neuropeptide families, 100 distinct mature peptides were predicted from the transcriptome data of female S. paramamosain cerebral ganglia. Among them, two families, i.e. GSEFLamide and WXXXRamide, were first identified from the cerebral ganglia of crustaceans. Of these neuropeptides, 21 transcripts of interest were selected for further confirmation and all of them were detected in the cerebral ganglia, as well as in other nervous tissues and the ovary. Most of them also had differential expression in the cerebral ganglia during various vitellogenic stages, suggesting their likely involvement in regulating vitellogenesis and ovarian maturation. Overall, these findings provide an important basis for subsequent studies on peptide function in reproduction of S. paramamosain.

  9. Structural differences in basal ganglia of elite running versus martial arts athletes: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Tsai, Jack Han-Chao; Wang, Chun-Chih; Chang, Erik Chihhung

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize and compare microscopic differences in white matter integrity in the basal ganglia between elite professional athletes specializing in running and martial arts. Thirty-three young adults with sport-related skills as elite professional runners (n = 11) or elite professional martial artists (n = 11) were recruited and compared with non-athletic and healthy controls (n = 11). All participants underwent health- and skill-related physical fitness assessments. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD), the primary indices derived from DTI, were computed for five regions of interest in the bilateral basal ganglia, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus internal segment (GPi), globus pallidus external segment (GPe), and subthalamic nucleus. Results revealed that both athletic groups demonstrated better physical fitness indices compared with their control counterparts, with the running group exhibiting the highest cardiovascular fitness and the martial arts group exhibiting the highest muscular endurance and flexibility. With respect to the basal ganglia, both athletic groups showed significantly lower FA and marginally higher MD values in the GPi compared with the healthy control group. These findings suggest that professional sport or motor skill training is associated with changes in white matter integrity in specific regions of the basal ganglia, although these positive changes did not appear to depend on the type of sport-related motor skill being practiced.

  10. Basal Ganglia, Dopamine and Temporal Processing: Performance on Three Timing Tasks on and off Medication in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Malone, Tim J. L.; Dirnberger, Georg; Edwards, Mark; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2008-01-01

    A pervasive hypothesis in the timing literature is that temporal processing in the milliseconds and seconds range engages the basal ganglia and is modulated by dopamine. This hypothesis was investigated by testing 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), both "on" and "off" dopaminergic medication, and 20 healthy controls on three timing tasks.…

  11. Neuropeptides in the cerebral ganglia of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain: transcriptomic analysis and expression profiles during vitellogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Chenchang; Yang, Yanan; Huang, Huiyang; Ye, Haihui

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides play a critical role in regulating animal reproduction. In vertebrates, GnRH, GnIH and kisspeptin are the key neuropeptide hormones of the reproductive axis, however, the reproductive axis for invertebrates is vague. Knowledge on ovarian development of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, is critical for aquaculture and resources management of the commercially important species. This study employed Illumina sequencing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time PCR techniques to identify neuropeptides that may be involved in ovarian development of S. paramamosain. A total of 32 neuropeptide transcripts from two dozen neuropeptide families, 100 distinct mature peptides were predicted from the transcriptome data of female S. paramamosain cerebral ganglia. Among them, two families, i.e. GSEFLamide and WXXXRamide, were first identified from the cerebral ganglia of crustaceans. Of these neuropeptides, 21 transcripts of interest were selected for further confirmation and all of them were detected in the cerebral ganglia, as well as in other nervous tissues and the ovary. Most of them also had differential expression in the cerebral ganglia during various vitellogenic stages, suggesting their likely involvement in regulating vitellogenesis and ovarian maturation. Overall, these findings provide an important basis for subsequent studies on peptide function in reproduction of S. paramamosain. PMID:26592767

  12. Immunocytochemical localization of neuropeptide Y, serotonin, substance P and β-endorphin in optic ganglia and brain of Metapenaeus ensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Haihui; Wang, Guizhong; Jin, Zhuxing; Huang, Huiyang; Li, Shaojing

    2006-12-01

    By using immunocytochemistry method of Strept Avidin-Biotin-Complex, four kinds of antisera raised against rabbits were applied to observe the immunoreactive neurons and neuropils of serotonin (5-HT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP) and β-Endorphin (β-Ep) in optic ganglia and brain of Metapenaeus ensis. The results showed that, the 5-HT-immunoreactive cells were located in all the four neuropils of optic ganglia. Immunoreactivity of 5-HT was detected in anterior medial protocerebrum neuropils (AMPN), and the inner and outer lateral beside olfactory lobe (OL) of deutocerebrum. The presence of NPY-immunoreactive cells was found in all the four neuropils of the optic ganglia. NPY-immunoreactivity occurred in the anterior median cell cluster, lateral cell cluster of protocerebrum, and cell cluster beside OL and AMPN. SP-immunoreactivity was found in medulla terminalis (MT) of optic ganglia, and lateral cell cluster of protocerebrum and posterior lateral cell cluster of tritocerebrum. β-Ep-immunoreactive cells were in MT only. In conclusion, these specific distribution patterns of the four immunoreactive substances can be used as morphological clues for understanding their different neurophysiological functions.

  13. Correlation between acidic phospholipids and serotonin and between lysolecithin and dopamine in ganglia of the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Haley, J E; Stefano, G B; Catapane, E J

    1978-02-15

    These studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between the acidic phospholipids and the serotonin content and between the lysolecithin and the dopamine content in the cerebral, pedal and visceral ganglia of Mytilus edulis. These relationships were further supported by experiments utilizing 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine. PMID:624353

  14. How preparation changes the need for top-down control of the basal ganglia when inhibiting premature actions.

    PubMed

    Jahfari, Sara; Verbruggen, Frederick; Frank, Michael J; Waldorp, Lourens J; Colzato, Lorenza; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Forstmann, Birte U

    2012-08-01

    Goal-oriented signals from the prefrontal cortex gate the selection of appropriate actions in the basal ganglia. Key nodes within this fronto-basal ganglia action regulation network are increasingly engaged when one anticipates the need to inhibit and override planned actions. Here, we ask how the advance preparation of action plans modulates the need for fronto-subcortical control when a planned action needs to be withdrawn. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected while human participants performed a stop task with cues indicating the likelihood of a stop signal being sounded. Mathematical modeling of go trial responses suggested that participants attained a more cautious response strategy when the probability of a stop signal increased. Effective connectivity analysis indicated that, even in the absence of stop signals, the proactive engagement of the full control network is tailored to the likelihood of stop trial occurrence. Importantly, during actual stop trials, the strength of fronto-subcortical projections was stronger when stopping had to be engaged reactively compared with when it was proactively prepared in advance. These findings suggest that fronto-basal ganglia control is strongest in an unpredictable environment, where the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the optimization of reactive control. Importantly, these results further indicate that the advance preparation of action plans reduces the need for reactive fronto-basal ganglia communication to gate voluntary actions. PMID:22875921

  15. Basal Ganglia Structures Differentially Contribute to Verbal Fluency: Evidence from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thames, April D.; Foley, Jessica M.; Wright, Matthew J.; Panos, Stella E.; Ettenhofer, Mark; Ramezani, Amir; Streiff, Vanessa; El-Saden, Suzie; Goodwin, Scott; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in executive language functions (i.e., verbal fluency) through their connections with cortical structures. The caudate and putamen receive separate inputs from prefrontal and premotor cortices, and may differentially contribute to verbal fluency performance. We examined BG integrity in relation to…

  16. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2016-04-15

    Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura. PMID:26355705

  17. Beta Frequency Synchronization in Basal Ganglia Output during Rest and Walk in a Hemiparkinsonian Rat

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Irene; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C.; Brazhnik, Elena; Castañeda, Edward; Bergstrom, Debra A.; Walters, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized oscillatory neuronal activity in the beta frequency range has been observed in the basal ganglia of Parkinson’s disease patients and hypothesized to be antikinetic. The unilaterally lesioned rat model of Parkinson’s disease allows examination of this hypothesis by direct comparison of beta activity in basal ganglia output in non-lesioned and dopamine cell lesioned hemispheres during motor activity. Bilateral substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) recordings of units and local field potentials (LFP) were obtained with EMG activity from the scapularis muscle in control and unilaterally nigrostriatal lesioned rats trained to walk on a rotary treadmill. After left hemispheric lesion, rats had difficulty walking contraversive on the treadmill but could walk in the ipsiversive direction. During inattentive rest, SNpr LFP power in the 12–25 Hz range (low beta) was significantly greater in the dopamine-depleted hemisphere than in non-lesioned and control hemispheres. During walking, low beta power was reduced in all hemispheres, while 25–40 Hz (high beta) activity was selectively increased in the lesioned hemisphere. High beta power increases were reduced by L-DOPA administration. SNpr spiking was significantly more synchronized with SNpr low beta LFP oscillations during rest and high beta LFP oscillations during walking in the dopamine-depleted hemispheres compared with non-lesioned hemispheres. Data show that dopamine loss is associated with opposing changes in low and high beta range SNpr activity during rest and walk and suggest that increased synchronization of high beta activity in SNpr output from the lesioned hemisphere during walking may contribute to gait impairment in the hemiparkinsonian rat. PMID:19948166

  18. Increased functional connectivity in the resting-state basal ganglia network after acute heroin substitution

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, A; Denier, N; Magon, S; Radue, E-W; Huber, C G; Riecher-Rossler, A; Wiesbeck, G A; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; Walter, M

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement signals in the striatum are known to be crucial for mediating the subjective rewarding effects of acute drug intake. It is proposed that these effects may be more involved in early phases of drug addiction, whereas negative reinforcement effects may occur more in later stages of the illness. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether acute heroin substitution also induced positive reinforcement effects in striatal brain regions of protracted heroin-maintained patients. Using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach, we compared resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) strengths within the basal ganglia/limbic network across a group of heroin-dependent patients receiving both an acute infusion of heroin and placebo and 20 healthy subjects who received placebo only. Subsequent correlation analyses were performed to test whether the rsFC strength under heroin exposure correlated with the subjective rewarding effect and with plasma concentrations of heroin and its main metabolites morphine. Relative to the placebo treatment in patients, heroin significantly increased rsFC of the left putamen within the basal ganglia/limbic network, the extent of which correlated positively with patients' feelings of rush and with the plasma level of morphine. Furthermore, healthy controls revealed increased rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus in this network relative to the placebo treatment in patients. Our results indicate that acute heroin substitution induces a subjective rewarding effect via increased striatal connectivity in heroin-dependent patients, suggesting that positive reinforcement effects in the striatum still occur after protracted maintenance therapy. PMID:25803496

  19. Region of interest template for the human basal ganglia: comparing EPI and standardized space approaches.

    PubMed

    Prodoehl, Janey; Yu, Hong; Little, Deborah M; Abraham, Ivy; Vaillancourt, David E

    2008-02-01

    Identifying task-related activation in the basal ganglia (BG) is an important area of interest in normal motor systems and cognitive neuroscience. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in brain activation in the BG using results obtained from two different masking methods: a mask drawn in standardized space from a T1-weighted anatomical image and individual region of interest (ROI) masks drawn from each subject's echo-planar image (EPI) from different tasks with reference to the high resolution fast spin echo image of each subject. Two standardized masks were used: a mask developed in Talairach space (Basal Ganglia Human Area Template (BGHAT)) and a mask developed in Montreal Neurological Institute space (MNI mask). Ten subjects produced fingertip force pulses in five separate contraction tasks during fMRI scanning. ROIs were the left caudate, putamen, external and internal portions of the globus pallidus, and subthalamic nucleus. ANOVA revealed a similar average number of voxels in the EPI mask across tasks in each BG region. The percent signal change (PSC) was consistent within each region regardless of which mask was used. Linear regression analyses between PSC in BGHAT and EPI masks and MNI and EPI masks yielded r(2) values between 0.74-0.99 and 0.70-0.99 across regions, respectively. In conclusion, PSC in different BG ROIs can be compared across studies using these different masking methods. The masking method used does not affect the overall interpretation of results with respect to the effect of task. Use of a mask drawn in standardized space is a valid and time saving method of identifying PSC in the small nuclei of the BG. PMID:17988895

  20. Altered cortico-basal ganglia motor pathways reflect reduced volitional motor activity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bracht, Tobias; Schnell, Susanne; Federspiel, Andrea; Razavi, Nadja; Horn, Helge; Strik, Werner; Wiest, Roland; Dierks, Thomas; Müller, Thomas J; Walther, Sebastian

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the neurobiology of hypokinesia in schizophrenia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate alterations of white matter motor pathways in schizophrenia and to relate our findings to objectively measured motor activity. We examined 21 schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging and actigraphy. We applied a probabilistic fibre tracking approach to investigate pathways connecting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), the supplementary motor area proper (SMA-proper), the primary motor cortex (M1), the caudate nucleus, the striatum, the pallidum and the thalamus. Schizophrenia patients had lower activity levels than controls. In schizophrenia we found higher probability indices forming part of a bundle of interest (PIBI) in pathways connecting rACC, pre-SMA and SMA-proper as well as in pathways connecting M1 and pre-SMA with caudate nucleus, putamen, pallidum and thalamus and a reduced spatial extension of motor pathways in schizophrenia. There was a positive correlation between PIBI and activity level in the right pre-SMA-pallidum and the left M1-thalamus connection in healthy controls, and in the left pre-SMA-SMA-proper pathway in schizophrenia. Our results point to reduced volitional motor activity and altered motor pathway organisation in schizophrenia. The identified associations between the amount of movement and structural connectivity of motor pathways suggest dysfunction of cortico-basal ganglia pathways in the pathophysiology of hypokinesia in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients may use cortical pathways involving the supplementary motor area to compensate for basal ganglia dysfunction.

  1. Increased functional connectivity in the resting-state basal ganglia network after acute heroin substitution.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Denier, N; Magon, S; Radue, E-W; Huber, C G; Riecher-Rossler, A; Wiesbeck, G A; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; Walter, M

    2015-03-24

    Reinforcement signals in the striatum are known to be crucial for mediating the subjective rewarding effects of acute drug intake. It is proposed that these effects may be more involved in early phases of drug addiction, whereas negative reinforcement effects may occur more in later stages of the illness. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether acute heroin substitution also induced positive reinforcement effects in striatal brain regions of protracted heroin-maintained patients. Using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach, we compared resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) strengths within the basal ganglia/limbic network across a group of heroin-dependent patients receiving both an acute infusion of heroin and placebo and 20 healthy subjects who received placebo only. Subsequent correlation analyses were performed to test whether the rsFC strength under heroin exposure correlated with the subjective rewarding effect and with plasma concentrations of heroin and its main metabolites morphine. Relative to the placebo treatment in patients, heroin significantly increased rsFC of the left putamen within the basal ganglia/limbic network, the extent of which correlated positively with patients' feelings of rush and with the plasma level of morphine. Furthermore, healthy controls revealed increased rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus in this network relative to the placebo treatment in patients. Our results indicate that acute heroin substitution induces a subjective rewarding effect via increased striatal connectivity in heroin-dependent patients, suggesting that positive reinforcement effects in the striatum still occur after protracted maintenance therapy.

  2. Immunolocalization of serotonin in Onychophora argues against segmental ganglia being an ancestral feature of arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Georg; Harzsch, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Background Onychophora (velvet worms) represent the most basal arthropod group and play a pivotal role in the current discussion on the evolution of nervous systems and segmentation in arthropods. Although there is a wealth of information on the immunolocalization of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in various euarthropods, as yet no comparable localization data are available for Onychophora. In order to understand how the onychophoran nervous system compares to that of other arthropods, we studied the distribution of serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons and histological characteristics of ventral nerve cords in Metaperipatus blainvillei (Onychophora, Peripatopsidae) and Epiperipatus biolleyi (Onychophora, Peripatidae). Results We demonstrate that paired leg nerves are the only segmental structures associated with the onychophoran nerve cord. Although the median commissures and peripheral nerves show a repeated pattern, their arrangement is independent from body segments characterized by the position of legs and associated structures. Moreover, the somata of serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons do not show any ordered arrangement in both species studied but are instead scattered throughout the entire length of each nerve cord. We observed neither a serially iterated nor a bilaterally symmetric pattern, which is in contrast to the strictly segmental arrangement of serotonergic neurons in other arthropods. Conclusion Our histological findings and immunolocalization experiments highlight the medullary organization of the onychophoran nerve cord and argue against segmental ganglia of the typical euarthropodan type being an ancestral feature of Onychophora. These results contradict a priori assumptions of segmental ganglia being an ancestral feature of arthropods and, thus, weaken the traditional Articulata hypothesis, which proposes a sistergroup relationship of Annelida and Arthropoda. PMID:17629937

  3. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child.

  4. Hypertrophy of Neurons Within Cardiac Ganglia in Human, Canine, and Rat Heart Failure: The Potential Role of Nerve Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanjay; Sayers, Scott; Walter, James S.; Thomas, Donald; Dieter, Robert S.; Nee, Lisa M.; Wurster, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Autonomic imbalances including parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity are cardinal features of heart failure regardless of etiology; however, mechanisms underlying these imbalances remain unknown. Animal model studies of heart and visceral organ hypertrophy predict that nerve growth factor levels should be elevated in heart failure; whether this is so in human heart failure, though, remains unclear. We tested the hypotheses that neurons in cardiac ganglia are hypertrophied in human, canine, and rat heart failure and that nerve growth factor, which we hypothesize is elevated in the failing heart, contributes to this neuronal hypertrophy. Methods and Results Somal morphology of neurons from human (579.54±14.34 versus 327.45±9.17 μm2; P<0.01) and canine hearts (767.80±18.37 versus 650.23±9.84 μm2; P<0.01) failing secondary to ischemia and neurons from spontaneously hypertensive rat hearts (327.98±3.15 versus 271.29±2.79 μm2; P<0.01) failing secondary to hypertension reveal significant hypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia compared with controls. Western blot analysis shows that nerve growth factor levels in the explanted, failing human heart are 250% greater than levels in healthy donor hearts. Neurons from cardiac ganglia cultured with nerve growth factor are significantly larger and have greater dendritic arborization than neurons in control cultures. Conclusions Hypertrophied neurons are significantly less excitable than smaller ones; thus, hypertrophy of vagal postganglionic neurons in cardiac ganglia would help to explain the parasympathetic withdrawal that accompanies heart failure. Furthermore, our observations suggest that nerve growth factor, which is elevated in the failing human heart, causes hypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia. PMID:23959444

  5. Cerebellothalamocortical pathway abnormalities in torsinA DYT1 knock-in mice

    PubMed Central

    Uluğ, Aziz M.; Vo, An; Argyelan, Miklos; Tanabe, Lauren; Schiffer, Wynne K.; Dewey, Stephen; Dauer, William T.; Eidelberg, David

    2011-01-01

    The factors that determine symptom penetrance in inherited disease are poorly understood. Increasingly, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and PET are used to separate alterations in brain structure and function that are linked to disease symptomatology from those linked to gene carrier status. One example is DYT1 dystonia, a dominantly inherited movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions, postures, and/or involuntary movements. This form of dystonia is caused by a 3-bp deletion (i.e., ΔE) in the TOR1A gene that encodes torsinA. Carriers of the DYT1 dystonia mutation, even if clinically nonpenetrant, exhibit abnormalities in cerebellothalamocortical (CbTC) motor pathways. However, observations in human gene carriers may be confounded by variability in genetic background and age. To address this problem, we implemented a unique multimodal imaging strategy in a congenic line of DYT1 mutant mice that contain the ΔE mutation in the endogenous mouse torsinA allele (i.e., DYT1 knock-in). Heterozygous knock-in mice and littermate controls underwent microPET followed by ex vivo high-field DTI and tractographic analysis. Mutant mice, which do not display abnormal movements, exhibited significant CbTC tract changes as well as abnormalities in brainstem regions linking cerebellar and basal ganglia motor circuits highly similar to those identified in human nonmanifesting gene carriers. Moreover, metabolic activity in the sensorimotor cortex of these animals was closely correlated with individual measures of CbTC pathway integrity. These findings further link a selective brain circuit abnormality to gene carrier status and demonstrate that DYT1 mutant torsinA has similar effects in mice and humans. PMID:21464304

  6. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management. PMID:26981222

  7. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-02-28

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management. PMID:26981222

  8. Shape-Shifting Plastic

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    A new plastic developed by ORNL and Washington State University transforms from its original shape through a series of temporary shapes and returns to its initial form. The shape-shifting process is controlled through changes in temperature

  9. Phenotypic abnormalities: terminology and classification.

    PubMed

    Merks, Johannes H M; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Caron, Hubert N; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2003-12-15

    Clinical morphology has proved essential for the successful delineation of hundreds of syndromes and as a powerful instrument for detecting (candidate) genes (Gorlin et al. [2001]; Syndromes of the Head and Neck; Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1 p]. The major approach to reach this has been careful clinical evaluations of patients, focused on congenital anomalies. A similar careful physical examination performed in patients, who have been treated for childhood cancer, may allow detection of concurrent patterns of anomalies and provide clues for causative genes. In the past, several studies were performed describing the prevalence of anomalies in patients with cancer. However, in most studies, it was not possible to indicate the biologic relevance of the recorded anomalies, or to judge their relative importance. Are the detected anomalies common variants, and should they thus be regarded as normal, or are they minor anomalies or true abnormalities, indicating a possible developmental cause? Classification of items in the categories of common variants (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence >4%), minor anomalies (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence abnormal physical findings by a nomenclature for errors of morphogenesis detectable on surface examination, and secondly a uniform classification system. This should allow investigators to evaluate systematically the presence of patterns in phenotypic anomalies, in the general population, and in patients with various disorders, suspected to be a developmental anomaly. Also

  10. Abnormal High-Frequency Burst Firing of Cerebellar Neurons in Rapid-Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Fremont, Rachel; Calderon, D. Paola; Maleki, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the α3 isoform of the Na+/K+ ATPase (sodium pump) are responsible for rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (DYT12). Recently, a pharmacological model of DYT12 was generated implicating both the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the disorder. Notably, partially blocking sodium pumps in the cerebellum was necessary and sufficient for induction of dystonia. Thus, a key question that remains is how partially blocking sodium pumps in the cerebellum induces dystonia. In vivo recordings from dystonic mice revealed abnormal high-frequency bursting activity in neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), which comprise the bulk of cerebellar output. In the same mice, Purkinje cells, which provide strong inhibitory drive to DCN cells, also fired in a similarly erratic manner. In vitro studies demonstrated that Purkinje cells are highly sensitive to sodium pump dysfunction that alters the intrinsic pacemaking of these neurons, resulting in erratic burst firing similar to that identified in vivo. This abnormal firing abates when sodium pump function is restored and dystonia caused by partial block of sodium pumps can be similarly alleviated. These findings suggest that persistent high-frequency burst firing of cerebellar neurons caused by sodium pump dysfunction underlies dystonia in this model of DYT12. PMID:25164667

  11. Abnormal eye movement behaviour during text reading in neglect syndrome: a case study.

    PubMed

    Karnath, H O; Huber, W

    1992-06-01

    The eye movement behaviour of a patient suffering from a right basal ganglia infarction with a left-sided hemineglect but without any visual field defects was investigated during reading. The eye movements were registered by means of an i.r. light technique (pupil-corneal reflection method). The main findings were abnormal return sweeps. Whereas in normal readers the end of one line of text is linked to the beginning of the new line by a long leftward saccade, the return sweeps of the hemineglect patient stereotypically ended in the middle of the next line. They were followed by sequences of short saccades indicating silent backward reading until a linguistically plausible continuation of sentences from the previous line was found, irrespective of the actual beginning of text. The shortened return sweeps could not be attributed to a general oculomotor disturbance. The spatial border for the occurrence of the patient's abnormal scanning pattern (left half of texts) clearly did not depend on a retinal coordinate frame of reference but rather has to be attributed to a different body-centred reference system.

  12. Abnormal neuronal activity in Tourette syndrome and its modulation using deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Israelashvili, Michal; Loewenstern, Yocheved

    2015-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common childhood-onset disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics that are typically accompanied by a multitude of comorbid symptoms. Pharmacological treatment options are limited, which has led to the exploration of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a possible treatment for severe cases. Multiple lines of evidence have linked TS with abnormalities in the motor and limbic cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) pathways. Neurophysiological data have only recently started to slowly accumulate from multiple sources: noninvasive imaging and electrophysiological techniques, invasive electrophysiological recordings in TS patients undergoing DBS implantation surgery, and animal models of the disorder. These converging sources point to system-level physiological changes throughout the CBG pathway, including both general altered baseline neuronal activity patterns and specific tic-related activity. DBS has been applied to different regions along the motor and limbic pathways, primarily to the globus pallidus internus, thalamic nuclei, and nucleus accumbens. In line with the findings that also draw on the more abundant application of DBS to Parkinson's disease, this stimulation is assumed to result in changes in the neuronal firing patterns and the passage of information through the stimulated nuclei. We present an overview of recent experimental findings on abnormal neuronal activity associated with TS and the changes in this activity following DBS. These findings are then discussed in the context of current models of CBG function in the normal state, during TS, and finally in the wider context of DBS in CBG-related disorders. PMID:25925326

  13. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  14. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  15. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  16. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  17. Structural, Metabolic, and Functional Brain Abnormalities as a Result of Prenatal Exposure to Drugs of Abuse: Evidence from Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Roussotte, Florence; Soderberg, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol and stimulants negatively affects the developing trajectory of the central nervous system in many ways. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have allowed researchers to study the structural, metabolic, and functional abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in living human subjects. Here we review the neuroimaging literature of prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Neuroimaging studies of prenatal alcohol exposure have reported differences in the structure and metabolism of many brain systems, including in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, in the cerebellum and basal ganglia, as well as in the white matter tracts that connect these brain regions. Functional imaging studies have identified significant differences in brain activation related to various cognitive domains as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. The published literature of prenatal exposure to cocaine and methamphetamine is much smaller, but evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that exposure to stimulant drugs in utero may be particularly toxic to dopamine-rich basal ganglia regions. Although the interpretation of such findings is somewhat limited by the problem of polysubstance abuse and by the difficulty of obtaining precise exposure histories in retrospective studies, such investigations provide important insights into the effects of drugs of abuse on the structure, function, and metabolism of the developing human brain. These insights may ultimately help clinicians develop better diagnostic tools and devise appropriate therapeutic interventions to improve the condition of children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. PMID:20978945

  18. The hypogastric and thirteenth thoracic ganglia of the rat: effects of age on the neurons and their extracellular environment

    PubMed Central

    WARBURTON, ALISON L.; SANTER, ROBERT M.

    1997-01-01

    Morphometric analyses of the neurons and microvessels of perfusion-fixed hypogastric (HG) and 13th thoracic (T13) ganglia have been performed in male Wistar rats aged 4, 24 and 30 mo. Estimations of HG volume employing the Cavalieri principle have also been performed and showed that the size of the aged HG is increased by 42%. Routine histological staining of the ganglia with Masson's trichrome indicated that this may be due to the increased amount of interstitial connective tissue which was apparent in the aged animals. The number of neurons per unit area progressively decreased by 38% between ages 4 and 24 mo and by 16% between ages 24 and 30 mo in the HG and by 25% (4 and 24 mo) and 2% (24 and 30 mo) in the T13 ganglion. The total number of neurons in the HG however, estimated by a physical disector analysis, was constant with age. The number of microvessels per unit area, microvessel diameter, neuronal and nuclear areas did not differ significantly between the 3 age groups studied. This observed increase in ganglionic volume and decrease in neuronal packing density may be associated with changes in the extracellular matrix, in particular in glycosaminoglycans whose presence was indicated by metachromasia of the ganglia with toluidine blue. The extracellular matrix was therefore characterised using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against glycosaminoglycans and laminin. Chondroitin-6 sulphate and chondroitin-4 sulphate were present in the interstitial connective tissue, and there was an increase in the expression of both these epitopes at 24 mo, noteably surrounding neuron cell bodies. The expression of chondroitin-4 sulphate/dermatan sulphate was unchanged, thus implying a decreased expression of dermatan sulphate with age. Keratan sulphate and the native chondroitin sulphate epitopes were absent from the ganglia at both ages. Laminin expression was increased in the aged ganglia. It is therefore clear that the constituents of the extracellular matrix are not

  19. Selective neuronal staining in tardigrades and onychophorans provides insights into the evolution of segmental ganglia in panarthropods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although molecular analyses have contributed to a better resolution of the animal tree of life, the phylogenetic position of tardigrades (water bears) is still controversial, as they have been united alternatively with nematodes, arthropods, onychophorans (velvet worms), or onychophorans plus arthropods. Depending on the hypothesis favoured, segmental ganglia in tardigrades and arthropods might either have evolved independently, or they might well be homologous, suggesting that they were either lost in onychophorans or are a synapomorphy of tardigrades and arthropods. To evaluate these alternatives, we analysed the organisation of the nervous system in three tardigrade species using antisera directed against tyrosinated and acetylated tubulin, the amine transmitter serotonin, and the invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFamide, allatostatin and perisulfakinin. In addition, we performed retrograde staining of nerves in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli in order to compare the serial locations of motor neurons within the nervous system relative to the appendages they serve in arthropods, tardigrades and onychophorans. Results Contrary to a previous report from a Macrobiotus species, our immunocytochemical and electron microscopic data revealed contralateral fibres and bundles of neurites in each trunk ganglion of three tardigrade species, including Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi, Paramacrobiotus richtersi and Hypsibius dujardini. Moreover, we identified additional, extra-ganglionic commissures in the interpedal regions bridging the paired longitudinal connectives. Within the ganglia we found serially repeated sets of serotonin- and RFamid-like immunoreactive neurons. Furthermore, our data show that the trunk ganglia of tardigrades, which include the somata of motor neurons, are shifted anteriorly with respect to each corresponding leg pair, whereas no such shift is evident in the arrangement of motor neurons in the onychophoran nerve cords. Conclusions Taken

  20. Dorsal root ganglia isolated from Nf1+/- mice exhibit increased levels of mRNA expression of voltage-dependent sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Hodgdon, K E; Hingtgen, C M; Nicol, G D

    2012-03-29

    We reported previously that sensory neurons isolated from mice with a heterozygous mutation of the Nf1 gene (Nf1+/-) exhibited greater excitability and increased sodium current densities compared with wildtype mice. This raises the question as to whether the increased current density resulted from post-translational modifications or increased expression of sodium channels. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression levels of the nine different voltage-gated sodium channel α subunits and the four associated auxiliary β subunits in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) obtained from wildtype and Nf1+/- mice. The Relative Expression Software Tool indicated that Nav1.1, Nav1.3, Nav1.7, and Nav1.8 were significantly elevated in DRG isolated from Nf1+/- mice. Expression of Nav1.2, Nav1.5, Nav1.6, and Nav1.9 were not significantly altered. The gene transcript for Nav1.4 was not detected. There were no significant changes in the relative expression levels of β subunits. The Nav1.9 subtype was the most abundant with Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 being the next most abundant subtypes, whereas Nav1.3 was relatively less abundant. For the β subunits, β1 was by far the most abundant subtype. These results demonstrate that the increased expression levels of Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and perhaps Nav1.1 in the Nf1+/- DRG make the largest contribution to the increased sodium current density and thus give rise to the enhanced excitability. Though the mechanisms by which many people with NF1 experience increased pain have not been elucidated, these abnormal painful states may involve elevated expression of specific sodium channel subtypes in small diameter nociceptive sensory neurons. PMID:22260870

  1. Segmentation and Image Analysis of Abnormal Lungs at CT: Current Approaches, Challenges, and Future Trends.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Awais; Bagci, Ulas; Foster, Brent; Xu, Ziyue; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Folio, Les R; Udupa, Jayaram K; Mollura, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The computer-based process of identifying the boundaries of lung from surrounding thoracic tissue on computed tomographic (CT) images, which is called segmentation, is a vital first step in radiologic pulmonary image analysis. Many algorithms and software platforms provide image segmentation routines for quantification of lung abnormalities; however, nearly all of the current image segmentation approaches apply well only if the lungs exhibit minimal or no pathologic conditions. When moderate to high amounts of disease or abnormalities with a challenging shape or appearance exist in the lungs, computer-aided detection systems may be highly likely to fail to depict those abnormal regions because of inaccurate segmentation methods. In particular, abnormalities such as pleural effusions, consolidations, and masses often cause inaccurate lung segmentation, which greatly limits the use of image processing methods in clinical and research contexts. In this review, a critical summary of the current methods for lung segmentation on CT images is provided, with special emphasis on the accuracy and performance of the methods in cases with abnormalities and cases with exemplary pathologic findings. The currently available segmentation methods can be divided into five major classes: (a) thresholding-based, (b) region-based, (c) shape-based, (d) neighboring anatomy-guided, and (e) machine learning-based methods. The feasibility of each class and its shortcomings are explained and illustrated with the most common lung abnormalities observed on CT images. In an overview, practical applications and evolving technologies combining the presented approaches for the practicing radiologist are detailed.

  2. Differentiation of sCJD and vCJD forms by automated analysis of basal ganglia intensity distribution in multisequence MRI of the brain--definition and evaluation of new MRI-based ratios.

    PubMed

    Linguraru, Marius George; Ayache, Nicholas; Bardinet, Eric; Ballester, Miguel Angel González; Galanaud, Damien; Haïk, Stéphane; Faucheux, Baptiste; Hauw, Jean-Jacques; Cozzone, Patrick; Dormont, Didier; Brandel, Jean-Philippe

    2006-08-01

    We present a method for the analysis of basal ganglia (including the thalamus) for accurate detection of human spongiform encephalopathy in multisequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. One common feature of most forms of prion protein diseases is the appearance of hyperintensities in the deep grey matter area of the brain in T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. We employ T1, T2, and Flair-T2 MR sequences for the detection of intensity deviations in the internal nuclei. First, the MR data are registered to a probabilistic atlas and normalized in intensity. Then smoothing is applied with edge enhancement. The segmentation of hyperintensities is performed using a model of the human visual system. For more accurate results, a priori anatomical data from a segmented atlas are employed to refine the registration and remove false positives. The results are robust over the patient data and in accordance with the clinical ground truth. Our method further allows the quantification of intensity distributions in basal ganglia. The caudate nuclei are highlighted as main areas of diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (sCJD), in agreement with the histological data. The algorithm permitted the classification of the intensities of abnormal signals in sCJD patient FLAIR images with a higher hypersignal in caudate nuclei (10/10) and putamen (6/10) than in thalami. Defining normalized MRI measures of the intensity relations between the internal grey nuclei of patients, we robustly differentiate sCJD and variant CJD (vCJD) patients, in an attempt to create an automatic classification tool of human spongiform encephalopathies.

  3. Adult Education as a Heterotopia of Deviation: A Dwelling for the Abnormal Citizen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Fredrik; Fejes, Andreas; Dahlstedt, Magnus; Olson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We argue that municipal adult education (MAE) can be seen as a place for displaced and abnormal citizens to gain temporary stability, enabling their shaping into desirable subjects. Drawing on a poststructural discursive analysis, we analyze policy texts and interviews with teachers and students. Our analysis illustrates how two distinct but…

  4. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV+ cohort.

    PubMed

    Wade, Benjamin S C; Valcour, Victor G; Wendelken-Riegelhaupt, Lauren; Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis; Joshi, Shantanu H; Gutman, Boris A; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Over 50% of HIV + individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV + participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD) and radial distances (RD) defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4 + T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD) and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV + participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF) model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV + participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV + people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV + participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%.

  5. Mapping abnormal subcortical brain morphometry in an elderly HIV + cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Benjamin S.C.; Valcour, Victor G.; Wendelken-Riegelhaupt, Lauren; Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Gutman, Boris A.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Over 50% of HIV + individuals exhibit neurocognitive impairment and subcortical atrophy, but the profile of brain abnormalities associated with HIV is still poorly understood. Using surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV + participants and 31 uninfected controls. The thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem, accumbens, callosum and ventricles were segmented from high-resolution MRIs. To investigate shape-based morphometry, we analyzed the Jacobian determinant (JD) and radial distances (RD) defined on each region's surfaces. We also investigated effects of nadir CD4 + T-cell counts, viral load, time since diagnosis (TSD) and cognition on subcortical morphology. Lastly, we explored whether HIV + participants were distinguishable from unaffected controls in a machine learning context. All shape and volume features were included in a random forest (RF) model. The model was validated with 2-fold cross-validation. Volumes of HIV + participants' bilateral thalamus, left pallidum, left putamen and callosum were significantly reduced while ventricular spaces were enlarged. Significant shape variation was associated with HIV status, TSD and the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. HIV + people had diffuse atrophy, particularly in the caudate, putamen, hippocampus and thalamus. Unexpectedly, extended TSD was associated with increased thickness of the anterior right pallidum. In the classification of HIV + participants vs. controls, our RF model attained an area under the curve of 72%. PMID:26640768

  6. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  7. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  8. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  9. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  10. Structural characteristics of the recognition site for cholinergic ligands in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from squid optical ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Plyashkevich, Yu.G.; Demushkin, V.P.

    1986-01-20

    The influence of chemical modification on the parameters of the binding of cholinergic ligands by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of squid optical ganglia was investigated. The presence of two subpopulations of recognition sites, differing in the composition of the groups contained in them, was detected. It was established with high probability that subpopulation I contains arginine and tyrosine residues and a carboxyl group while subpopulation II contains an amino group, a thyrosine residue, and a carboxyl group. Moreover, in both subpopulations there is an amino group important only for the binding of tubocurarin. On the basis of the results obtained, a model of the recognition sites for cholinergic ligands of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of squid optical ganglia is proposed.

  11. The role of nodose ganglia in the regulation of cardiovascular function following pulmonary exposure to ultraffine titanium dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Hong; Wu, Zhongxin; Lin, Yen-Chang; Chen, Teh-Hsun; Cumpston, Jared L; Kashon, Michael L; Leonard, Steve; Munson, Albert E; Castranova, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation of nanosized air pollutant particles is a recognised risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, the link between occupational exposure to engineered nanoparticles and adverse cardiovascular events remains unclear. In the present study, the authors demonstrated that pulmonary exposure of rats to ultrafine titanium dioxide (UFTiO2) significantly increased heart rate and depressed diastolic function of the heart in response to isoproterenol. Moreover, pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 elevated mean and diastolic blood pressure in response to norepinephrine. Pretreatment of the rats ip with the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red inhibited substance P synthesis in nodose ganglia and associated functional and biological changes in the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, the effects of pulmonary inhalation of UFTiO2 on cardiovascular function are most likely triggered by a lung-nodose ganglia-regulated pathway via the activation of TRP channels in the lung. PMID:23593933

  12. Late-Onset Mania in a Patient with Movement Disorder and Basal Ganglia Calcifications: A Challenge for Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roiter, Beatrice; Pigato, Giorgio; Perugi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Age of onset can have a significant impact on clinical course and pathophysiological mechanism of bipolar disorder. Late-onset bipolar episodes are more likely linked to medical illnesses and so are frequently classified as “secondary” forms of mood disorder. We discuss the case of a patient who at the age of 58 presented his first delusional-manic episode. He also had mild frontal and occipital cortical atrophy, white matter posterior ischemic lesions, and small basal ganglia calcifications. Seven years later, he presented a second manic episode with new emergent hyperkinetic choreiform symptoms. Taking into account movement disturbances, the presence of basal ganglia calcification, and worsening of cortical atrophy, we performed a differential diagnosis between Fahr disease, Fahr's syndrome, calcifications due to ageing, supersensitivity psychosis, and dementia. Valproate, quetiapine, and tetrabenazine were sequentially administered and yielded a good therapeutic response as regards manic and movement symptoms. Relationship between medications and course of specific symptoms was observed. PMID:27213069

  13. Shape memory polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  14. Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Exercise capacity is lowered in patients with heart failure, which limits their daily activities and also reduces their quality of life. Furthermore, lowered exercise capacity has been well demonstrated to be closely related to the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Skeletal muscle abnormalities including abnormal energy metabolism, transition of myofibers from type I to type II, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in muscular strength, and muscle atrophy have been shown to play a central role in lowered exercise capacity. The skeletal muscle abnormalities can be classified into the following main types: 1) low endurance due to mitochondrial dysfunction; and 2) low muscle mass and muscle strength due to imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms of these skeletal muscle abnormalities have been studied mainly using animal models. The current review including our recent study will focus upon the skeletal muscle abnormalities in heart failure. PMID:26346520

  15. Pattern recognition of abnormal left ventricle wall motion in cardiac MR.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingli; Radau, Perry; Connelly, Kim; Dick, Alexander; Wright, Graham

    2009-01-01

    There are four main problems that limit application of pattern recognition techniques for recognition of abnormal cardiac left ventricle (LV) wall motion: (1) Normalization of the LV's size, shape, intensity level and position; (2) defining a spatial correspondence between phases and subjects; (3) extracting features; (4) and discriminating abnormal from normal wall motion. Solving these four problems is required for application of pattern recognition techniques to classify the normal and abnormal LV wall motion. In this work, we introduce a normalization scheme to solve the first and second problems. With this scheme, LVs are normalized to the same position, size, and intensity level. Using the normalized images, we proposed an intra-segment classification criterion based on a correlation measure to solve the third and fourth problems. Application of the method to recognition of abnormal cardiac MR LV wall motion showed promising results.

  16. Carvacrol modulates voltage-gated sodium channels kinetics in dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Joca, Humberto Cavalcante; Vieira, Daiana Cardoso Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Aliny Perreira; Araújo, Demetrius Antônio Machado; Cruz, Jader Santos

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that many of plant-derived compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate many sensing mechanisms, such as nociception. The monoterpenoid carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol) has an anti-nociceptive effect related to a reduction in neuronal excitability and voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaV) inhibition in peripheral neurons. However, the detailed mechanisms of carvacrol-induced inhibition of neuronal NaV remain elusive. This study explores the interaction between carvacrol and NaV in isolated dorsal root ganglia neurons. Carvacrol reduced the total voltage-gated Na(+) current and tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na(+) current component in a concentration-dependent manner. Carvacrol accelerates current inactivation and induced a negative-shift in voltage-dependence of steady-state fast inactivation in total and TTX-R Na(+) current. Furthermore, carvacrol slowed the recovery from inactivation. Carvacrol provoked a leftward shift in both the voltage-dependence of steady-state inactivation and activation of the TTX-R Na(+) current component. In addition, carvacrol-induced inhibition of TTX-R Na(+) current was enhanced by an increase in stimulation frequency and when neurons were pre-conditioned with long depolarization pulse (5s at -50 mV). Taken all results together, we herein demonstrated that carvacrol affects NaV gating properties. The present findings would help to explain the mechanisms underlying the analgesic activity of carvacrol. PMID:25794844

  17. Model-based action planning involves cortico-cerebellar and basal ganglia networks

    PubMed Central

    Fermin, Alan S. R.; Yoshida, Takehiko; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Ito, Makoto; Tanaka, Saori C.; Doya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Humans can select actions by learning, planning, or retrieving motor memories. Reinforcement Learning (RL) associates these processes with three major classes of strategies for action selection: exploratory RL learns state-action values by exploration, model-based RL uses internal models to simulate future states reached by hypothetical actions, and motor-memory RL selects past successful state-action mapping. In order to investigate the neural substrates that implement these strategies, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment while humans performed a sequential action selection task under conditions that promoted the use of a specific RL strategy. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum increased activity in the exploratory condition; the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsomedial striatum, and lateral cerebellum in the model-based condition; and the supplementary motor area, putamen, and anterior cerebellum in the motor-memory condition. These findings suggest that a distinct prefrontal-basal ganglia and cerebellar network implements the model-based RL action selection strategy. PMID:27539554

  18. A Biologically Inspired Computational Model of Basal Ganglia in Action Selection.

    PubMed

    Baston, Chiara; Ursino, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are a subcortical structure implicated in action selection. The aim of this work is to present a new cognitive neuroscience model of the BG, which aspires to represent a parsimonious balance between simplicity and completeness. The model includes the 3 main pathways operating in the BG circuitry, that is, the direct (Go), indirect (NoGo), and hyperdirect pathways. The main original aspects, compared with previous models, are the use of a two-term Hebb rule to train synapses in the striatum, based exclusively on neuronal activity changes caused by dopamine peaks or dips, and the role of the cholinergic interneurons (affected by dopamine themselves) during learning. Some examples are displayed, concerning a few paradigmatic cases: action selection in basal conditions, action selection in the presence of a strong conflict (where the role of the hyperdirect pathway emerges), synapse changes induced by phasic dopamine, and learning new actions based on a previous history of rewards and punishments. Finally, some simulations show model working in conditions of altered dopamine levels, to illustrate pathological cases (dopamine depletion in parkinsonian subjects or dopamine hypermedication). Due to its parsimonious approach, the model may represent a straightforward tool to analyze BG functionality in behavioral experiments. PMID:26640481

  19. CPEB3 Deficiency Elevates TRPV1 Expression in Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons to Potentiate Thermosensation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Yi-Shuian

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 3 (CPEB3) is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that downregulates translation of multiple plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) at the glutamatergic synapses. Activity-induced synthesis of PRPs maintains long-lasting synaptic changes that are critical for memory consolidation and chronic pain manifestation. CPEB3-knockout (KO) mice show aberrant hippocampus-related plasticity and memory, so we investigated whether CPEB3 might have a role in nociception-associated plasticity. CPEB3 is widely expressed in the brain and peripheral afferent sensory neurons. CPEB3-KO mice with normal mechanosensation showed hypersensitivity to noxious heat. In the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain model, CPEB3-KO animals showed normal thermal hyperalgesia and transiently enhanced mechanical hyperalgesia. Translation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) RNA was suppressed by CPEB3 in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), whereas CFA-induced inflammation reversed this inhibition. Moreover, CPEB3/TRPV1 double-KO mice behaved like TRPV1-KO mice, with severely impaired thermosensation and thermal hyperalgesia. An enhanced thermal response was recapitulated in non-inflamed but not inflamed conditional-KO mice, with cpeb3 gene ablated mostly but not completely, in small-diameter nociceptive DRG neurons. CPEB3-regulated translation of TRPV1 RNA may play a role in fine-tuning thermal sensitivity of nociceptors. PMID:26915043

  20. Neurocalcin-immunoreactive neurons in the mammalian dorsal root ganglia, including humans.

    PubMed

    Galeano, R; Germanà, A; Abbate, F; Calvo, D; Naves, F J; Hidaka, H; Germanà, G; Vega, J A

    2000-07-01

    Neurocalcin (NC) is a recently characterized EF-hand calcium-binding protein present in a discrete population of sensory neurons and their peripheral mechanoreceptors, but its presence in peripheral nervous system neurons other than in the rat is still unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the occurrence of NC in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of several mammalian species (horse, buffalo, cow, sheep, pig, dog, and rat), including humans. DRG were fixed, embedded in paraffin, and processed for immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody against NC. The size of the immunoreactive neurons was measured. In all species examined, NC immunoreactivity (IR) was restricted to neurons but the percentage, as well as the size of the immunoreactive neurons, varied among different species. As a rule, small neurons (diameter <20 microm) lack NC IR. In some species (pig, dog, buffalo, cow), only the largest neurons showed IR, whereas in others (sheep, horse, rat, and humans) they covered the entire range of neuron sizes. The pattern of immunostaining was cytoplasmic, although in some species (cow and buffalo), it formed a peripheral "ring." The present results demonstrate that mammalian DRG contain a subpopulation of NC-positive neurons, which varies from one species to another. Based on the neuron size, the possible function of the NC-containing neurons is discussed.

  1. Multiplicity of control in the basal ganglia: computational roles of striatal subregions.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Aaron M; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2011-06-01

    The basal ganglia, in particular the striatum, are central to theories of behavioral control, and often identified as a seat of action selection. Reinforcement learning (RL) models--which have driven much recent experimental work on this region--cast striatum as a dynamic controller, integrating sensory and motivational information to construct efficient and enriching behavioral policies. Befitting this informationally central role, the BG sit at the nexus of multiple anatomical 'loops' of synaptic projections, connecting a wide range of cortical and subcortical structures. Numerous pioneering anatomical studies conducted over the past several decades have meticulously catalogued these loops, and labeled them according to the inferred functions of the connected regions. The specific cotermina of the projections are highly localized to several different subregions of the striatum, leading to the suggestion that these subregions perform complementary but distinct functions. However, until recently, the dominant computational framework outlined only a bipartite, dorsal/ventral, division of striatum. We review recent computational and experimental advances that argue for a more finely fractionated delineation. In particular, experimental data provide extensive insight into unique functions subserved by the dorsomedial striatum (DMS). These functions appear to correspond well with theories of a 'model-based' RL subunit, and may also shed light on the suborganization of ventral striatum. Finally, we discuss the limitations of these ideas and how they point the way toward future refinements of neurocomputational theories of striatal function, bringing them into contact with other areas of computational theory and other regions of the brain.

  2. Cost-efficient FPGA implementation of basal ganglia and their Parkinsonian analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuangming; Wang, Jiang; Li, Shunan; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Yu, Haitao; Li, Huiyan

    2015-11-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) comprise multiple subcortical nuclei, which are responsible for cognition and other functions. Developing a brain-machine interface (BMI) demands a suitable solution for the real-time implementation of a portable BG. In this study, we used a digital hardware implementation of a BG network containing 256 modified Izhikevich neurons and 2048 synapses to reliably reproduce the biological characteristics of BG on a single field programmable gate array (FPGA) core. We also highlighted the role of Parkinsonian analysis by considering neural dynamics in the design of the hardware-based architecture. Thus, we developed a multi-precision architecture based on a precise analysis using the FPGA-based platform with fixed-point arithmetic. The proposed embedding BG network can be applied to intelligent agents and neurorobotics, as well as in BMI projects with clinical applications. Although we only characterized the BG network with Izhikevich models, the proposed approach can also be extended to more complex neuron models and other types of functional networks. PMID:26318085

  3. Functional lateralization in cingulate cortex predicts motor recovery after basal ganglia stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Chen, Zengai; Su, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoliu; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Yajing; Xu, Qun; Xu, Jianrong; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-02-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) is involved in higher order motor control such as movement planning and execution of complex motor synergies. Neuroimaging study on stroke patients specifically with BG lesions would help to clarify the consequence of BG damage on motor control. In this paper, we performed a longitudinal study in the stroke patients with lesions in BG regions across three motor recovery stages, i.e., less than 2week (Session 1), 1-3m (Session 2) and more than 3m (Session 3). The patients showed an activation shift from bilateral hemispheres during early sessions (<3m) to the ipsilesional cortex in late session (>3m), suggesting a compensation effect from the contralesional hemisphere during motor recovery. We found that the lateralization of cerebellum(CB) for affected hand task correlated with patients' concurrent Fugl-Meyer index (FMI) in Session 2. Moreover, the cingulate cortex lateralization index in Session 2 was shown to significantly correlate with subsequent FMI change between Session 3 and Session 2, which serves as a prognostic marker for motor recovery. Our findings consolidated the close interactions between BG and CB during the motor recovery after stroke. The dominance of activation in contralateral cingulate cortex was associated with a better motor recovery, suggesting the important role of ipsilesional attention modulation in the early stage after BG stroke. PMID:26742641

  4. Eyes on MEGDEL: distinctive basal ganglia involvement in dystonia deafness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, Saskia B; van Hasselt, Peter M; Barić, Ivo; Burlina, Alberto; Darin, Niklas; Hörster, Friederike; Coker, Mahmut; Ucar, Sema Kalkan; Krumina, Zita; Naess, Karin; Ngu, Lock H; Pronicka, Ewa; Riordan, Gilian; Santer, Rene; Wassmer, Evangeline; Zschocke, Johannes; Schiff, Manuel; de Meirleir, Linda; Alowain, Mohammed A; Smeitink, Jan A M; Morava, Eva; Kozicz, Tamas; Wevers, Ron A; Wolf, Nicole I; Willemsen, Michel A

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric movement disorders are still a diagnostic challenge, as many patients remain without a (genetic) diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern recognition can lead to the diagnosis. MEGDEL syndrome (3-MethylGlutaconic aciduria, Deafness, Encephalopathy, Leigh-like syndrome MIM #614739) is a clinically and biochemically highly distinctive dystonia deafness syndrome accompanied by 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, severe developmental delay, and progressive spasticity. Mutations are found in SERAC1, encoding a phosphatidylglycerol remodeling enzyme essential for both mitochondrial function and intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Based on the homogenous phenotype, we hypothesized an accordingly characteristic MRI pattern. A total of 43 complete MRI studies of 30 patients were systematically reevaluated. All patients presented a distinctive brain MRI pattern with five characteristic disease stages affecting the basal ganglia, especially the putamen. In stage 1, T2 signal changes of the pallidum are present. In stage 2, swelling of the putamen and caudate nucleus is seen. The dorsal putamen contains an "eye" that shows no signal alteration and (thus) seems to be spared during this stage of the disease. It later increases, reflecting progressive putaminal involvement. This "eye" was found in all patients with MEGDEL syndrome during a specific age range, and has not been reported in other disorders, making it pathognomonic for MEDGEL and allowing diagnosis based on MRI findings. PMID:25642805

  5. Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) expression in the human spiral ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kimanh D.; Mowlds, Donald; Lopez, Ivan A.; Hosokawa, Seiji; Ishiyama, Akira; Ishiyama, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Opioid peptides and their receptors have been localized to the inner ear of the rat and guinea pig mammalian models. The expression of mu opioid receptor (MOR) in the human and mouse cochlea is not yet known. We present MOR protein localization by immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression by in situ hybridization in the human and mouse spiral ganglia (SG) and organ of Corti. In the human most of the (SG) neurons were immunoreactive; a subset was non-immunoreactive. In situ hybridization revealed a similar labeling pattern across the neurons of the SG. A similar distribution MOR pattern was demonstrated in the mouse SG. In the mouse organ of Corti MOR was expressed in inner and outer hair cells. Fibers underneath the inner hair cells were also MOR immunoreactive. These results are consistent with a role of MOR in neuro-modulation of the auditory periphery. The present results show that the expression of MORs is well-conserved across multiple mammalian species, indicative of an important role in auditory processing. PMID:25278190

  6. Real-time control of walking using recordings from dorsal root ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Mushahwar, V. K.; Stein, R. B.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to decode sensory information from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in real time, and to use this information to adapt the control of unilateral stepping with a state-based control algorithm consisting of both feed-forward and feedback components. Approach. In five anesthetized cats, hind limb stepping on a walkway or treadmill was produced by patterned electrical stimulation of the spinal cord through implanted microwire arrays, while neuronal activity was recorded from the DRG. Different parameters, including distance and tilt of the vector between hip and limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope and ground reaction force were modelled from recorded neural firing rates. These models were then used for closed-loop feedback. Main results. Overall, firing-rate-based predictions of kinematic sensors (limb endpoint, integrated gyroscope) were the most accurate with variance accounted for >60% on average. Force prediction had the lowest prediction accuracy (48 ± 13%) but produced the greatest percentage of successful rule activations (96.3%) for stepping under closed-loop feedback control. The prediction of all sensor modalities degraded over time, with the exception of tilt. Significance. Sensory feedback from moving limbs would be a desirable component of any neuroprosthetic device designed to restore walking in people after a spinal cord injury. This study provides a proof-of-principle that real-time feedback from the DRG is possible and could form part of a fully implantable neuroprosthetic device with further development.

  7. Long-term enhancement (LTE) of postsynaptic potentials following neural conditioning, in mammalian sympathetic ganglia.

    PubMed

    Libet, B; Mochida, S

    1988-11-15

    Orthodromic, preganglionic conditioning stimulation can consistently induce long-term enhancement (LTE) (greater than 3 h) of the muscarinically mediated slow excitatory postsynaptic potential and the slow inhibitory postsynaptic potential. This was shown for superior cervical ganglia of rabbit and rat. Effective conditioning stimuli are in a physiologically observed range (3/s for 7 min, 5/s for 4 min, 10/s for 2 min, 20/s for 1 min). LTE was producible both homosynaptically and heterosynaptically. LTE can thus be associative, with conditioning synaptic input in one line inducing long-term changes in postsynaptic responses to another (heterosynaptic) input. The dopamine antagonist butaclamol depressed LTE, particularly that following the initial postconditioning period of 30 min. Adrenergic antagonists had no effect. This pharmacological evidence, coupled with the heterosynaptic induction of LTE, supports the view that neurally induced LTE may be at least partly mediated by endogenous dopamine. Another non-cholinergic but non-adrenergic transmitter (possibly a peptide) might contribute to the LTE seen in the initial 30 min postconditioning. The present, orthodromically induced LTE is clearly different from the long-term potentiation widely studied in hippocampus, etc., in the modes of induction and synaptic mediation.

  8. Evaluation of Cisplatin Neurotoxicity in Cultured Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia via Cytosolic Calcium Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Kevser; Yiğitaslan, Semra; Ünel, Çiğdem; Kaygısız, Bilgin; Yıldırım, Engin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Calcium homeostasis is considered to be important in antineoplastic as well as in neurotoxic adverse effects of cisplatin. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the role of Ca2+ in cisplatin neurotoxicity in cultured rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells. Study Design: Cell culture study. Methods: DRG cells prepared from 1-day old Sprague-Dawley rats were used to determine the role of Ca2+ in the cisplatin (10–600 μM) neurotoxicity. The cells were incubated with cisplatin plus nimodipine (1–3 μM), dizocilpine (MK-801) (1–3 μM) or thapsigargin (100–300 nM). Toxicity of cisplatinon DRG cells was determined by the MTT assay. Results: The neurotoxicity of cisplatin was significant when used in high concentrations (100–600 μM). Nimodipine (1 μM) but not MK-801 or thapsigargin prevented the neurotoxic effects of 200 μM of cisplatin. Conclusion: Voltage-dependent calcium channels may play a role in cisplatin neurotoxicity. PMID:27403382

  9. Cost-efficient FPGA implementation of basal ganglia and their Parkinsonian analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuangming; Wang, Jiang; Li, Shunan; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Yu, Haitao; Li, Huiyan

    2015-11-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) comprise multiple subcortical nuclei, which are responsible for cognition and other functions. Developing a brain-machine interface (BMI) demands a suitable solution for the real-time implementation of a portable BG. In this study, we used a digital hardware implementation of a BG network containing 256 modified Izhikevich neurons and 2048 synapses to reliably reproduce the biological characteristics of BG on a single field programmable gate array (FPGA) core. We also highlighted the role of Parkinsonian analysis by considering neural dynamics in the design of the hardware-based architecture. Thus, we developed a multi-precision architecture based on a precise analysis using the FPGA-based platform with fixed-point arithmetic. The proposed embedding BG network can be applied to intelligent agents and neurorobotics, as well as in BMI projects with clinical applications. Although we only characterized the BG network with Izhikevich models, the proposed approach can also be extended to more complex neuron models and other types of functional networks.

  10. EFFECTS OF THALLIUM SALTS ON NEURONAL MITOCHONDRIA IN ORGANOTYPIC CORD-GANGLIA-MUSCLE COMBINATION CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Peter S.; Peterson, Edith R.; Madrid A., Ricardo; Raine, Cedric S.

    1973-01-01

    A functionally coupled organotypic complex of cultured dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord peripheral nerve, and muscle has been employed in an experimental approach to the investigation of the neurotoxic effects of thallium. Selected cultures, grown for up to 12 wk in vitro, were exposed to thallous salts for periods ranging up to 4 days. Cytopathic effects were first detected after 2 h of exposure with the appearance of considerably enlarged mitochondria in axons of peripheral nerve fibers. With time, the matrix space of these mitochondria became progressively swollen, transforming the organelle into an axonal vacuole bounded by the original outer mitochondrial membrane. Coalescence of adjacent axonal vacuoles produced massive internal axon compartments, the membranes of which were shown by electron microprobe mass spectrometry to have an affinity for thallium. Other axoplasmic components were displaced within a distended but intact axolemma. The resultant fiber swelling caused myelin retraction from nodes of Ranvier but no degeneration. Impulses could still propagate along the nerve fibers throughout the time course of the experiment. Comparable, but less severe changes were seen in dorsal root ganglion neurons and in central nerve fibers. Other cell types showed no mitochondrial change. It is uncertain how these findings relate to the neurotoxic effects of thallium in vivo, but a sensitivity of the nerve cell and especially its axon to thallous salts is indicated. PMID:4125375

  11. Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neuronal Cultures: a tool for drug discovery for peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Melli, Giorgia; Höke, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuropathies affect many people worldwide and are caused by or associated with a wide range of conditions, both genetic and acquired. Current therapies are directed at symptomatic control because no effective regenerative treatment exists. Primary challenge is that mechanisms that lead to distal axonal degeneration, a common feature of all peripheral neuropathies, are largely unknown. Objective/Methods To address the role and specific characteristics of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) derived sensory neuron culture system as a useful model in evaluating the pathogenic mechanisms of peripheral neuropathies and examination and validation of potential therapeutic compounds. A thorough review of the recent literature was completed and select examples of the use of DRG neurons in different peripheral neuropathy models were chosen to highlight the utility of these cultures. Conclusion Many useful models of different peripheral neuropathies have been developed using DRG neuronal culture and potential therapeutic targets have been examined, but so far none of the potential therapeutic compounds have succeeded in clinical trials. In recent years, focus has changed to evaluation of axon degeneration as the primary outcome measure advocating a drug development strategy starting with phenotypic drug screening, followed by validation in primary complex co-cultures and animal models. PMID:20657751

  12. Automatic identification of various nuclei in the basal ganglia for Parkinson's disease neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Pinzon-Morales, Ruben-Dario; Garces-Arboleda, Maribel; Orozco-Gutierrez, Alvaro-Angel

    2009-01-01

    Stereotactic neurosurgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most used treatments for relief symptoms of this degenerative disorder. Current methods include ablation and deep brain stimulation (DBS) that can be applied to the various nuclei in the basal ganglia (BG), for instance to the Subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the Ventral medial nucleus (Vim). Identification of thus regions must be rigorous and within a minimum position error. Usually, skilled specialist identifies the brain area by comparing and listening to the rhythm created by the temporal and spatial aggregation of action potentials presented in microelectrode recordings (MER). We present a novel system for automatic identification of the various nuclei in the BG which addresses the limitations of the subjectivity and the non-stationary nature of MER signals. This system incorporates the time-frequency analysis using the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), which is a recent tool for processing nonlinear and non-stationary data, with a dynamic classifier based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM). Classification accuracy in two different databases is compared to validate the performance of the proposed method. Results show that system can recognize selected nuclei with a mean accuracy of 90%.

  13. Making working memory work: a computational model of learning in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Randall C; Frank, Michael J

    2006-02-01

    The prefrontal cortex has long been thought to subserve both working memory (the holding of information online for processing) and executive functions (deciding how to manipulate working memory and perform processing). Although many computational models of working memory have been developed, the mechanistic basis of executive function remains elusive, often amounting to a homunculus. This article presents an attempt to deconstruct this homunculus through powerful learning mechanisms that allow a computational model of the prefrontal cortex to control both itself and other brain areas in a strategic, task-appropriate manner. These learning mechanisms are based on subcortical structures in the midbrain, basal ganglia, and amygdala, which together form an actor-critic architecture. The critic system learns which prefrontal representations are task relevant and trains the actor, which in turn provides a dynamic gating mechanism for controlling working memory updating. Computationally, the learning mechanism is designed to simultaneously solve the temporal and structural credit assignment problems. The model's performance compares favorably with standard backpropagation-based temporal learning mechanisms on the challenging 1-2-AX working memory task and other benchmark working memory tasks. PMID:16378516

  14. Identifying enhanced cortico-basal ganglia loops associated with prolonged dance training

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gujing; He, Hui; Huang, Mengting; Zhang, Xingxing; Lu, Jing; Lai, Yongxiu; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Studies have revealed that prolonged, specialized training combined with higher cognitive conditioning induces enhanced brain alternation. In particular, dancers with long-term dance experience exhibit superior motor control and integration with their sensorimotor networks. However, little is known about the functional connectivity patterns of spontaneous intrinsic activities in the sensorimotor network of dancers. Our study examined the functional connectivity density (FCD) of dancers with a mean period of over 10 years of dance training in contrast with a matched non-dancer group without formal dance training using resting-state fMRI scans. FCD was mapped and analyzed, and the functional connectivity (FC) analyses were then performed based on the difference of FCD. Compared to the non-dancers, the dancers exhibited significantly increased FCD in the precentral gyri, postcentral gyri and bilateral putamen. Furthermore, the results of the FC analysis revealed enhanced connections between the middle cingulate cortex and the bilateral putamen and between the precentral and the postcentral gyri. All findings indicated an enhanced functional integration in the cortico-basal ganglia loops that govern motor control and integration in dancers. These findings might reflect improved sensorimotor function for the dancers consequent to long-term dance training. PMID:26035693

  15. A Biologically Inspired Computational Model of Basal Ganglia in Action Selection

    PubMed Central

    Baston, Chiara; Ursino, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are a subcortical structure implicated in action selection. The aim of this work is to present a new cognitive neuroscience model of the BG, which aspires to represent a parsimonious balance between simplicity and completeness. The model includes the 3 main pathways operating in the BG circuitry, that is, the direct (Go), indirect (NoGo), and hyperdirect pathways. The main original aspects, compared with previous models, are the use of a two-term Hebb rule to train synapses in the striatum, based exclusively on neuronal activity changes caused by dopamine peaks or dips, and the role of the cholinergic interneurons (affected by dopamine themselves) during learning. Some examples are displayed, concerning a few paradigmatic cases: action selection in basal conditions, action selection in the presence of a strong conflict (where the role of the hyperdirect pathway emerges), synapse changes induced by phasic dopamine, and learning new actions based on a previous history of rewards and punishments. Finally, some simulations show model working in conditions of altered dopamine levels, to illustrate pathological cases (dopamine depletion in parkinsonian subjects or dopamine hypermedication). Due to its parsimonious approach, the model may represent a straightforward tool to analyze BG functionality in behavioral experiments. PMID:26640481

  16. Spatial confinement of neurite regrowth from dorsal root ganglia within nonporous microconduits.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Richard G; Molino, Yves; Williams, Philip M; Tendler, Saul J B; Davies, Martyn C; Roberts, Clive J; Shakesheff, Kevin M

    2003-04-01

    Tissue engineering is founded on the concept of controlling the behavior of individual cells to stimulate tissue formation. This control is achieved by mimicking signals that manage natural tissue development or repair. These interdependent signals include cytokine delivery, extracellular matrix interactions, and cell-cell communication. Here, we report on the effect of spatial guidance as a signal for nerve tissue regeneration, using a simple in vitro model. We observe the acceleration of neurite extension from rat dorsal root ganglia within micron-scale tubes. Within these hydrogel-filled conduits, neurites were observed to extend more rapidly than when cultured within the hydrogel alone. The spatial cue also induced a change in tissue architecture, with the cabling of cells within the microconduit. The acceleration of neurite extension was found to be independent of conduit diameter within the range of 200 to 635 microm. Finally, our in vitro model enabled quantification of the effect of combining spatial control and localized nerve growth factor delivery.

  17. Multiplicity of control in the basal ganglia: computational roles of striatal subregions.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Aaron M; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2011-06-01

    The basal ganglia, in particular the striatum, are central to theories of behavioral control, and often identified as a seat of action selection. Reinforcement learning (RL) models--which have driven much recent experimental work on this region--cast striatum as a dynamic controller, integrating sensory and motivational information to construct efficient and enriching behavioral policies. Befitting this informationally central role, the BG sit at the nexus of multiple anatomical 'loops' of synaptic projections, connecting a wide range of cortical and subcortical structures. Numerous pioneering anatomical studies conducted over the past several decades have meticulously catalogued these loops, and labeled them according to the inferred functions of the connected regions. The specific cotermina of the projections are highly localized to several different subregions of the striatum, leading to the suggestion that these subregions perform complementary but distinct functions. However, until recently, the dominant computational framework outlined only a bipartite, dorsal/ventral, division of striatum. We review recent computational and experimental advances that argue for a more finely fractionated delineation. In particular, experimental data provide extensive insight into unique functions subserved by the dorsomedial striatum (DMS). These functions appear to correspond well with theories of a 'model-based' RL subunit, and may also shed light on the suborganization of ventral striatum. Finally, we discuss the limitations of these ideas and how they point the way toward future refinements of neurocomputational theories of striatal function, bringing them into contact with other areas of computational theory and other regions of the brain. PMID:21429734

  18. Impaired frontal-basal ganglia connectivity in adolescents with internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Li, Baojuan; Friston, Karl J; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Guopeng; Cao, Fenglin; Su, Linyan; Yao, Shuqiao; Lu, Hongbing; Hu, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the neural basis of poor impulse control in Internet addiction (IA) is important for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of this syndrome. The current study investigated how neuronal pathways implicated in response inhibition were affected in IA using a Go-Stop paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-three control subjects aged 15.2±0.5 years (mean±S.D.) and eighteen IA subjects aged 15.1±1.4 years were studied. Effective connectivity within the response inhibition network was quantified using (stochastic) dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed that the indirect frontal-basal ganglia pathway was engaged by response inhibition in healthy subjects. However, we did not detect any equivalent effective connectivity in the IA group. This suggests the IA subjects fail to recruit this pathway and inhibit unwanted actions. This study provides a clear link between Internet addiction as a behavioral disorder and aberrant connectivity in the response inhibition network.

  19. Toward sophisiticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: review on basal gaglia deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L.; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K.; Gibson, William S. J.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  20. Substrate Availability of Mutant SPT Alters Neuronal Branching and Growth Cone Dynamics in Dorsal Root Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Byung Kyu; Chandra, Ankush; Kuljis, Dika; Schmidt, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) is a key enzyme in the first step of sphingolipid biosynthesis. Mutations in the SPTLC1 gene that encodes for SPT subunits cause hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1. However, little is understood about how mutant SPT regulates mechanisms of sensory neuron and axonal growth. Using transgenic mice overexpressing the C133W SPT mutant, we found that mutant dorsal root ganglia (DRG) during growth in vitro exhibit increased neurite length and branching, coinciding with elevated expression of actin-cross-linking proteins at the neuronal growth cone, namely phosphorylated Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin. In addition, inhibition of SPT was able to reverse the mutant phenotype. Because mutant SPT preferentially uses l-alanine over its canonical substrate l-serine, we also investigated the effects of substrate availability on DRG neurons. Supplementation with l-serine or removal of l-alanine independently restored normal growth patterns in mutant SPTLC1C133W DRG. Therefore, we report that substrate availability and selectivity of SPT influence the regulation of neurite growth in DRG neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder that leads to a sensory neuropathy due to mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) enzyme. We investigated how mutant SPT and substrate levels regulate neurite growth. Because SPT is an important enzyme in the synthesis of sphingolipids, our data are of broader significance to other peripheral and metabolic disorders. PMID:26446223

  1. Technical Integration of Hippocampus, Basal Ganglia and Physical Models for Spatial Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Charles; Humphries, Mark; Mitchinson, Ben; Kiss, Tamas; Somogyvari, Zoltan; Prescott, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Computational neuroscience is increasingly moving beyond modeling individual neurons or neural systems to consider the integration of multiple models, often constructed by different research groups. We report on our preliminary technical integration of recent hippocampal formation, basal ganglia and physical environment models, together with visualisation tools, as a case study in the use of Python across the modelling tool-chain. We do not present new modeling results here. The architecture incorporates leaky-integrator and rate-coded neurons, a 3D environment with collision detection and tactile sensors, 3D graphics and 2D plots. We found Python to be a flexible platform, offering a significant reduction in development time, without a corresponding significant increase in execution time. We illustrate this by implementing a part of the model in various alternative languages and coding styles, and comparing their execution times. For very large-scale system integration, communication with other languages and parallel execution may be required, which we demonstrate using the BRAHMS framework's Python bindings. PMID:19333376

  2. Carvacrol modulates voltage-gated sodium channels kinetics in dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Joca, Humberto Cavalcante; Vieira, Daiana Cardoso Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Aliny Perreira; Araújo, Demetrius Antônio Machado; Cruz, Jader Santos

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that many of plant-derived compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate many sensing mechanisms, such as nociception. The monoterpenoid carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol) has an anti-nociceptive effect related to a reduction in neuronal excitability and voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaV) inhibition in peripheral neurons. However, the detailed mechanisms of carvacrol-induced inhibition of neuronal NaV remain elusive. This study explores the interaction between carvacrol and NaV in isolated dorsal root ganglia neurons. Carvacrol reduced the total voltage-gated Na(+) current and tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na(+) current component in a concentration-dependent manner. Carvacrol accelerates current inactivation and induced a negative-shift in voltage-dependence of steady-state fast inactivation in total and TTX-R Na(+) current. Furthermore, carvacrol slowed the recovery from inactivation. Carvacrol provoked a leftward shift in both the voltage-dependence of steady-state inactivation and activation of the TTX-R Na(+) current component. In addition, carvacrol-induced inhibition of TTX-R Na(+) current was enhanced by an increase in stimulation frequency and when neurons were pre-conditioned with long depolarization pulse (5s at -50 mV). Taken all results together, we herein demonstrated that carvacrol affects NaV gating properties. The present findings would help to explain the mechanisms underlying the analgesic activity of carvacrol.

  3. Eyes on MEGDEL: distinctive basal ganglia involvement in dystonia deafness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, Saskia B; van Hasselt, Peter M; Barić, Ivo; Burlina, Alberto; Darin, Niklas; Hörster, Friederike; Coker, Mahmut; Ucar, Sema Kalkan; Krumina, Zita; Naess, Karin; Ngu, Lock H; Pronicka, Ewa; Riordan, Gilian; Santer, Rene; Wassmer, Evangeline; Zschocke, Johannes; Schiff, Manuel; de Meirleir, Linda; Alowain, Mohammed A; Smeitink, Jan A M; Morava, Eva; Kozicz, Tamas; Wevers, Ron A; Wolf, Nicole I; Willemsen, Michel A

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric movement disorders are still a diagnostic challenge, as many patients remain without a (genetic) diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern recognition can lead to the diagnosis. MEGDEL syndrome (3-MethylGlutaconic aciduria, Deafness, Encephalopathy, Leigh-like syndrome MIM #614739) is a clinically and biochemically highly distinctive dystonia deafness syndrome accompanied by 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, severe developmental delay, and progressive spasticity. Mutations are found in SERAC1, encoding a phosphatidylglycerol remodeling enzyme essential for both mitochondrial function and intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Based on the homogenous phenotype, we hypothesized an accordingly characteristic MRI pattern. A total of 43 complete MRI studies of 30 patients were systematically reevaluated. All patients presented a distinctive brain MRI pattern with five characteristic disease stages affecting the basal ganglia, especially the putamen. In stage 1, T2 signal changes of the pallidum are present. In stage 2, swelling of the putamen and caudate nucleus is seen. The dorsal putamen contains an "eye" that shows no signal alteration and (thus) seems to be spared during this stage of the disease. It later increases, reflecting progressive putaminal involvement. This "eye" was found in all patients with MEGDEL syndrome during a specific age range, and has not been reported in other disorders, making it pathognomonic for MEDGEL and allowing diagnosis based on MRI findings.

  4. Production of Plasminogen Activator in Cultures of Superior Cervical Ganglia and Isolated Schwann Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Valinsky, Jay E.

    1985-05-01

    Plasminogen activator has been implicated in tissue remodeling and cell migration during embryogenesis. In the developing nervous system, these processes are evident in the migration of neurons, axonal extension, Schwann cell migration, and the ensheathment and myelination of nerves. We have studied the production of plasminogen activator in cultures of superior cervical ganglia under conditions in which both neurons and glia are present. We have found that a principal source of the enzyme in these cultures is the glial cells and that the enzyme could not be detected at the growing tips of neurites. Plasminogen activator is also produced by Schwann cells isolated from neonatal rat sciatic nerve. The production of the enzyme by these cells is stimulated 6- to 10-fold by cholera toxin. Isolated Schwann cells and glial cells in the ganglion explant cultures produce the tissue form of plasminogen activator, a form of the enzyme not often found in nonmalignant cells. Preliminary experiments suggest that neuronal-glial interactions may regulate enzyme production by Schwann cells.

  5. Model-based action planning involves cortico-cerebellar and basal ganglia networks.

    PubMed

    Fermin, Alan S R; Yoshida, Takehiko; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Ito, Makoto; Tanaka, Saori C; Doya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Humans can select actions by learning, planning, or retrieving motor memories. Reinforcement Learning (RL) associates these processes with three major classes of strategies for action selection: exploratory RL learns state-action values by exploration, model-based RL uses internal models to simulate future states reached by hypothetical actions, and motor-memory RL selects past successful state-action mapping. In order to investigate the neural substrates that implement these strategies, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment while humans performed a sequential action selection task under conditions that promoted the use of a specific RL strategy. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum increased activity in the exploratory condition; the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsomedial striatum, and lateral cerebellum in the model-based condition; and the supplementary motor area, putamen, and anterior cerebellum in the motor-memory condition. These findings suggest that a distinct prefrontal-basal ganglia and cerebellar network implements the model-based RL action selection strategy. PMID:27539554

  6. Changing pattern in the basal ganglia: motor switching under reduced dopaminergic drive.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Vincenzo G; Rigoli, Francesco; Stenner, Max-Philipp; Zaehle, Tino; Hirth, Frank; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-03-23

    Action selection in the basal ganglia is often described within the framework of a standard model, associating low dopaminergic drive with motor suppression. Whilst powerful, this model does not explain several clinical and experimental data, including varying therapeutic efficacy across movement disorders. We tested the predictions of this model in patients with Parkinson's disease, on and off subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS), focussing on adaptive sensory-motor responses to a changing environment and maintenance of an action until it is no longer suitable. Surprisingly, we observed prolonged perseverance under on-stimulation, and high inter-individual variability in terms of the motor selections performed when comparing the two conditions. To account for these data, we revised the standard model exploring its space of parameters and associated motor functions and found that, depending on effective connectivity between external and internal parts of the globus pallidus and saliency of the sensory input, a low dopaminergic drive can result in increased, dysfunctional, motor switching, besides motor suppression. This new framework provides insight into the biophysical mechanisms underlying DBS, allowing a description in terms of alteration of the signal-to-baseline ratio in the indirect pathway, which better account of known electrophysiological data in comparison with the standard model.

  7. Changing pattern in the basal ganglia: motor switching under reduced dopaminergic drive

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Vincenzo G.; Rigoli, Francesco; Stenner, Max-Philipp; Zaehle, Tino; Hirth, Frank; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Action selection in the basal ganglia is often described within the framework of a standard model, associating low dopaminergic drive with motor suppression. Whilst powerful, this model does not explain several clinical and experimental data, including varying therapeutic efficacy across movement disorders. We tested the predictions of this model in patients with Parkinson’s disease, on and off subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS), focussing on adaptive sensory-motor responses to a changing environment and maintenance of an action until it is no longer suitable. Surprisingly, we observed prolonged perseverance under on-stimulation, and high inter-individual variability in terms of the motor selections performed when comparing the two conditions. To account for these data, we revised the standard model exploring its space of parameters and associated motor functions and found that, depending on effective connectivity between external and internal parts of the globus pallidus and saliency of the sensory input, a low dopaminergic drive can result in increased, dysfunctional, motor switching, besides motor suppression. This new framework provides insight into the biophysical mechanisms underlying DBS, allowing a description in terms of alteration of the signal-to-baseline ratio in the indirect pathway, which better account of known electrophysiological data in comparison with the standard model. PMID:27004463

  8. Time-course of coherence in the human basal ganglia during voluntary movements

    PubMed Central

    Talakoub, Omid; Neagu, Bogdan; Udupa, Kaviraja; Tsang, Eric; Chen, Robert; Popovic, Milos R.; Wong, Willy

    2016-01-01

    We are interested in characterizing how brain networks interact and communicate with each other during voluntary movements. We recorded electrical activities from the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the motor cortex during voluntary wrist movements. Seven patients with dystonia and six patients with Parkinson’s disease underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode placement. Local field potentials from the DBS electrodes and scalp EEG from the electrodes placed over the motor cortices were recorded while the patients performed externally triggered and self-initiated movements. The coherence calculated between the motor cortex and STN or GPi was found to be coupled to its power in both the beta and the gamma bands. The association of coherence with power suggests that a coupling in neural activity between the basal ganglia and the motor cortex is required for the execution of voluntary movements. Finally, we propose a mathematical model involving coupled neural oscillators which provides a possible explanation for how inter-regional coupling takes place. PMID:27725721

  9. Sildenafil Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pelvic Ganglia Neurons after Bilateral Cavernosal Nerve Damage

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Leah A.; Hlaing, Su M.; Gutierrez, Richard A.; Sanchez, Maria D.; Kovanecz, Istvan; Artaza, Jorge N.; Ferrini, Monica G.

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a common complication for patients undergoing surgeries for prostate, bladder, and colorectal cancers, due to damage of the nerves associated with the major pelvic ganglia (MPG). Functional re-innervation of target organs depends on the capacity of the neurons to survive and switch towards a regenerative phenotype. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE5i) have been successfully used in promoting the recovery of erectile function after cavernosal nerve damage (BCNR) by up-regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors in MPG. However, little is known about the effects of PDE5i on markers of neuronal damage and oxidative stress after BCNR. This study aimed to investigate the changes in gene and protein expression profiles of inflammatory, anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress related-pathways in MPG neurons after BCNR and subsequent treatment with sildenafil. Our results showed that BCNR in Fisher-344 rats promoted up-regulation of cytokines (interleukin- 1 (IL-1) β, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1), and oxidative stress factors (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, Myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF receptor superfamily member 5 (CD40) that were normalized by sildenafil treatment given in the drinking water. In summary, PDE5i can attenuate the production of damaging factors and can up-regulate the expression of beneficial factors in the MPG that may ameliorate neuropathic pain, promote neuroprotection, and favor nerve regeneration. PMID:25264738

  10. Modeling the role of basal ganglia in saccade generation: is the indirect pathway the explorer?

    PubMed

    Krishnan, R; Ratnadurai, S; Subramanian, D; Chakravarthy, V S; Rengaswamy, M

    2011-10-01

    We model the role played by the Basal Ganglia (BG) in the generation of voluntary saccadic eye movements. The BG model explicitly represents key nuclei like the striatum (caudate), Substantia Nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and compata (SNc), the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN), the two pallidal nuclei and Superior Colliculus. The model is cast within the Reinforcement Learning (RL) framework, with the dopamine representing the temporal difference error, the striatum serving as the critic, and the indirect pathway playing the role of the explorer. Performance of the model is evaluated on a set of tasks such as feature and conjunction searches, directional selectivity and a successive saccade task. Behavioral phenomena such as independence of search time on number of distractors in feature search and linear increase in search time with number of distractors in conjunction search are observed. It is also seen that saccadic reaction times are longer and search efficiency is impaired on diminished BG contribution, which corroborates with reported data obtained from Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.

  11. A direct GABAergic output from the basal ganglia to frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Arpiar; Oldenburg, Ian A.; Berezovskii, Vladimir K.; Johnson, Caroline A.; Kingery, Nathan D.; Elliott, Hunter L.; Xie, Tiao; Gerfen, Charles R.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are phylogenetically conserved subcortical nuclei necessary for coordinated motor action and reward learning1. Current models postulate that the BG modulate cerebral cortex indirectly via an inhibitory output to thalamus, bidirectionally controlled by the BG via direct (dSPNs) and indirect (iSPNs) pathway striatal projection neurons2–4. The BG thalamic output sculpts cortical activity by interacting with signals from sensory and motor systems5. Here we describe a direct projection from the globus pallidus externus (GP), a central nucleus of the BG, to frontal regions of the cerebral cortex (FC). Two cell types make up the GP-FC projection, distinguished by their electrophysiological properties, cortical projections and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a synthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Despite these differences, ChAT+ cells, which have been historically identified as an extension of the nucleus basalis (NB), as well as ChAT− cells, release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) and are inhibited by iSPNs and dSPNs of dorsal striatum. Thus GP-FC cells comprise a direct GABAergic/cholinergic projection under the control of striatum that activates frontal cortex in vivo. Furthermore, iSPN inhibition of GP-FC cells is sensitive to dopamine 2 receptor signaling, revealing a pathway by which drugs that target dopamine receptors for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders can act in the BG to modulate frontal cortices. PMID:25739505

  12. Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-associated PDGFRB mutations impair the receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Florence A; Velghe, Amélie I; Stevens, Monique; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Essaghir, Ahmed; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) bind to two related receptor tyrosine kinases, which are encoded by the PDGFRA and PDGFRB genes. Recently, heterozygous PDGFRB mutations have been described in patients diagnosed with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC or Fahr disease), a rare inherited neurological disorder. The goal of the present study was to determine whether these mutations had a positive or negative impact on the PDGFRB activity. We first showed that the E1071V mutant behaved like wild-type PDGFRB and may represent a polymorphism unrelated to IBGC. In contrast, the L658P mutant had no kinase activity and failed to activate any of the pathways normally stimulated by PDGF. The R987W mutant activated Akt and MAP kinases but did not induce the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) after PDGF stimulation. Phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ was also decreased. Finally, we showed that the R987W mutant was more rapidly degraded upon PDGF binding compared to wild-type PDGFRB. In conclusion, PDGFRB mutations associated with IBGC impair the receptor signalling. PDGFRB loss of function in IBGC is consistent with recently described inactivating mutations in the PDGF-B ligand. These results raise concerns about the long-term safety of PDGF receptor inhibition by drugs such as imatinib. PMID:25292412

  13. Disconnecting force from money: effects of basal ganglia damage on incentive motivation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Liane; d'Arc, Baudouin Forgeot; Lafargue, Gilles; Galanaud, Damien; Czernecki, Virginie; Grabli, David; Schüpbach, Michael; Hartmann, Andreas; Lévy, Richard; Dubois, Bruno; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2008-05-01

    Bilateral basal ganglia lesions have been reported to induce a particular form of apathy, termed auto-activation deficit (AAD), principally defined as a loss of self-driven behaviour that is reversible with external stimulation. We hypothesized that AAD reflects a dysfunction of incentive motivation, a process that translates an expected reward (or goal) into behavioural activation. To investigate this hypothesis, we designed a behavioural paradigm contrasting an instructed (externally driven) task, in which subjects have to produce different levels of force by squeezing a hand grip, to an incentive (self-driven) task, in which subjects can win, depending on their hand grip force, different amounts of money. Skin conductance was simultaneously measured to index affective evaluation of monetary incentives. Thirteen AAD patients with bilateral striato-pallidal lesions were compared to thirteen unmedicated patients with Parkinson's; disease (PD), which is characterized by striatal dopamine depletion and regularly associated with apathy. AAD patients did not differ from PD patients in terms of grip force response to external instructions or skin conductance response to monetary incentives. However, unlike PD patients, they failed to distinguish between monetary incentives in their grip force. We conclude that bilateral striato-pallidal damage specifically disconnects motor output from affective evaluation of potential rewards. PMID:18344560

  14. Identifying enhanced cortico-basal ganglia loops associated with prolonged dance training.

    PubMed

    Li, Gujing; He, Hui; Huang, Mengting; Zhang, Xingxing; Lu, Jing; Lai, Yongxiu; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-06-02

    Studies have revealed that prolonged, specialized training combined with higher cognitive conditioning induces enhanced brain alternation. In particular, dancers with long-term dance experience exhibit superior motor control and integration with their sensorimotor networks. However, little is known about the functional connectivity patterns of spontaneous intrinsic activities in the sensorimotor network of dancers. Our study examined the functional connectivity density (FCD) of dancers with a mean period of over 10 years of dance training in contrast with a matched non-dancer group without formal dance training using resting-state fMRI scans. FCD was mapped and analyzed, and the functional connectivity (FC) analyses were then performed based on the difference of FCD. Compared to the non-dancers, the dancers exhibited significantly increased FCD in the precentral gyri, postcentral gyri and bilateral putamen. Furthermore, the results of the FC analysis revealed enhanced connections between the middle cingulate cortex and the bilateral putamen and between the precentral and the postcentral gyri. All findings indicated an enhanced functional integration in the cortico-basal ganglia loops that govern motor control and integration in dancers. These findings might reflect improved sensorimotor function for the dancers consequent to long-term dance training.

  15. Presynaptic Inhibition in the Striatum of the Basal Ganglia Improves Pattern Classification and Thus Promotes Superior Goal Selection

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, David J.; Houk, James C.

    2015-01-01

    This review article takes a multidisciplinary approach to understand how presynaptic inhibition in the striatum of the basal ganglia (BG) contributes to pattern classification and the selection of goals that control behavior. It is a difficult problem both because it is multidimensional and because it is has complex system dynamics. We focus on the striatum because, as the main site for input to the BG, it gets to decide what goals are important to consider. PMID:26696840

  16. Vascular Risk Factors and Diseases Modulate Deficits of Reward-Based Reversal Learning in Acute Basal Ganglia Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wicking, Manon; Bellebaum, Christian; Hermann, Dirk M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Besides motor function, the basal ganglia have been implicated in feedback learning. In patients with chronic basal ganglia infarcts, deficits in reward-based reversal learning have previously been described. Methods We re-examined the acquisition and reversal of stimulus-stimulus-reward associations and acquired equivalence in eleven patients with acute basal ganglia stroke (8 men, 3 women; 57.8±13.3 years), whose performance was compared eleven healthy subjects of comparable age, sex distribution and education, who were recruited outside the hospital. Eleven hospitalized patients with a similar vascular risk profile as the stroke patients but without stroke history served as clinical control group. Results In a neuropsychological assessment 7±3 days post-stroke, verbal and spatial short-term and working memory and inhibition control did not differ between groups. Compared with healthy subjects, control patients with vascular risk factors exhibited significantly reduced performance in the reversal phase (F[2,30] = 3.47; p = 0.044; post-hoc comparison between risk factor controls and healthy controls: p = 0.030), but not the acquisition phase (F[2,30] = 1.01; p = 0.376) and the acquired equivalence (F[2,30] = 1.04; p = 0.367) tasks. In all tasks, the performance of vascular risk factor patients closely resembled that of basal ganglia stroke patients. Correlation studies revealed a significant association of the number of vascular risk factors with reversal learning (r = -0.33, p = 0.012), but not acquisition learning (r = -0.20, p = 0.121) or acquired equivalence (r = -0.22, p = 0.096). Conclusions The previously reported impairment of reward-based learning may be attributed to vascular risk factors and associated diseases, which are enriched in stroke patients. This study emphasizes the necessity of appropriate control subjects in cognition studies. PMID:27163585

  17. Critical evaluation of the expression of gastrin-releasing peptide in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Devin M; Li, Hui; Liu, Xian-Yu; Shen, Kai-Feng; Liu, Xue-Ting; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Munanairi, Admire; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Yin, Jun; Sun, Yan-Gang; Li, Yun-Qing

    2016-01-01

    There are substantial disagreements about the expression of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) in sensory neurons and whether GRP antibody cross-reacts with substance P (SP). These concerns necessitate a critical revaluation of GRP expression using additional approaches. Here, we show that a widely used GRP antibody specifically recognizes GRP but not SP. In the spinal cord of mice lacking SP (Tac1 KO), the expression of not only GRP but also other peptides, notably neuropeptide Y (NPY), is significantly diminished. We detected Grp mRNA in dorsal root ganglias using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization and RNA-seq. We demonstrated that Grp mRNA and protein are upregulated in dorsal root ganglias, but not in the spinal cord, of mice with chronic itch. Few GRP+ immunostaining signals were detected in spinal sections following dorsal rhizotomy and GRP+ cell bodies were not detected in dissociated dorsal horn neurons. Ultrastructural analysis further shows that substantially more GRPergic fibers form synaptic contacts with gastrin releasing peptide receptor-positive (GRPR+) neurons than SPergic fibers. Our comprehensive study demonstrates that a majority of GRPergic fibers are of primary afferent origin. A number of factors such as low copy number of Grp transcripts, small percentage of cells expressing Grp, and the use of an eGFP GENSAT transgenic as a surrogate for GRP protein have contributed to the controversy. Optimization of experimental procedures facilitates the specific detection of GRP expression in dorsal root ganglia neurons. PMID:27068287

  18. Rem2, a member of the RGK family of small GTPases, is enriched in nuclei of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Liput, Daniel J.; Lu, Van B.; Davis, Margaret I.; Puhl, Henry L.; Ikeda, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Rem2 is a member of the RGK subfamily of RAS small GTPases. Rem2 inhibits high voltage activated calcium channels, is involved in synaptogenesis, and regulates dendritic morphology. Rem2 is the primary RGK protein expressed in the nervous system, but to date, the precise expression patterns of this protein are unknown. In this study, we characterized Rem2 expression in the mouse nervous system. In the CNS, Rem2 mRNA was detected in all regions examined, but was enriched in the striatum. An antibody specific for Rem2 was validated using a Rem2 knockout mouse model and used to show abundant expression in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium spiny neurons but not in several interneuron populations. In the PNS, Rem2 was abundant in a subpopulation of neurons in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia, but was absent in sympathetic neurons of superior cervical ganglia. Under basal conditions, Rem2 was subject to post-translational phosphorylation, likely at multiple residues. Further, Rem2 mRNA and protein expression peaked at postnatal week two, which corresponds to the period of robust neuronal maturation in rodents. This study will be useful for elucidating the functions of Rem2 in basal ganglia physiology. PMID:27118437

  19. Event-related potential activity in the basal ganglia differentiates rewards from nonrewards: temporospatial principal components analysis and source localization of the feedback negativity: commentary.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X; Cavanagh, James F; Slagter, Heleen A

    2011-12-01

    Foti et al. propose that a reward-related brain potential component recorded from scalp EEG is generated by deep brain basal ganglia structures. Previous work, cited in their original article, provides only speculative and theoretical support for this interpretation. Based on empirical and anatomical evidence, we argue that this scalp-recorded ERP component is highly unlikely to be generated by the basal ganglia. PMID:21826758

  20. Raman Spectroscopy of DNA Packaging in Individual Human Sperm Cells distinguishes Normal from Abnormal Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huser, T; Orme, C; Hollars, C; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R

    2009-03-09

    Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization.

  1. 3D shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using 3D shape modeling and decomposition. The gallbladder models can be used for shape anomaly analysis and model comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The 3D shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface model, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the 3D shape can be decomposed and represented as 3D ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape model are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new model selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.

  2. The immunocytochemical distribution of seven peptides in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of horse and pig.

    PubMed

    Merighi, A; Kar, S; Gibson, S J; Ghidella, S; Gobetto, A; Peirone, S M; Polak, J M

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), enkephalin, galanin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin, tachykinins and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was compared in cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral segmental levels of spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of horse and pig. In both species, immunoreactivity for the peptides under study was observed at all segmental levels of the spinal cord. Peptide-immunoreactive fibres were generally concentrated in laminae I-III, the region around the central canal, and in the autonomic nuclei. A general increase in the number of immunoreactive nerve fibres was noted in the lumbosacral segments of the spinal cord, which was particularly exaggerated in the case of VIP immunoreactivity. In the horse, some CGRP-, somatostatin- or tachykinin-immunoreactive cell bodies were present in the dorsal horn. In the pig, cells immunoreactive for somatostatin, enkephalin or NPY were noted in a similar location. In the ventral horn most motoneurones were CGRP-immunoreactive in both species. However, in pig many other cell types were CGRP-immunoreactive not only in the ventral horn, but also in laminae V-VI of the dorsal horn. With the exception of enkephalin and NPY immunoreactivity, which was not seen in pig dorsal root ganglia, all peptides studied were localised to neuronal cell bodies and/or fibres in the dorsal root ganglia. In both species, immunolabeled cell bodies were observed in ganglia from cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral levels, with the exception of VIP-immunoreactive cells that were detected only in the lumbosacral ganglia. Numerous CGRP- and tachykinin-immunoreactive cell bodies were visualised in both species, while the cells immunolabeled with other peptide antisera were much lower in number. In both species, immunostaining of serial sections revealed that a subset of CGRP-immunoreactive cells co-expressed tachykinin, galanin or somatostatin immunoreactivity. In the horse some enkephalin

  3. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  4. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Androgen receptor transcriptionally regulates μ-opioid receptor expression in rat trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Seok; Zhang, Youping; Asgar, Jamila; Auh, Q-Schick; Chung, Man-Kyo; Ro, Jin Y

    2016-09-01

    The involvement of testosterone in pain, inflammation, and analgesia has been reported, but the role of androgen receptor (AR), a steroid receptor for testosterone, is not well understood. We have previously shown that peripheral inflammation upregulates μ-opioid receptor (MOR) in rat trigeminal ganglia (TG) in a testosterone-dependent manner. In this study, we hypothesized that testosterone regulates MOR expression via transcriptional activities of AR in TG. We first examined whether AR is co-expressed with MOR in TG neurons. Our immunohistochemical experiment revealed that AR staining is detected in neurons of all sizes in TG and that a subset of AR is expressed in MOR as well as in TRPV1-positive neurons. We identified the promoter region of the rat MOR gene contains putative AR binding sites. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrated that AR directly binds to these sites in TG extracts. We confirmed with luciferase reporter assay that AR activated the MOR promoter in response to androgens in a human neuroblastoma cell line (5H-5YSY). These data demonstrated that AR functions as a transcriptional regulator of the MOR gene activity. Finally, we showed that flutamide, a specific AR antagonist, prevents complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced upregulation of MOR mRNA in TG, and that flutamide dose-dependently blocks the efficacy of DAMGO, a specific MOR agonist, on CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Our results expand the knowledge regarding the role of androgens and their receptor in pain and analgesia and have important clinical implications, particularly for inflammatory pain patients with low or compromised plasma testosterone levels. PMID:27320211

  6. Developmental Changes in the Organization of Functional Connections between the Basal Ganglia and Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Laumann, Timothy O.; Dubis, Joseph W.; Ihnen, S. Katie; Neta, Maital; Power, Jonathan D.; Pruett, John R.; Black, Kevin J.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) comprise a set of subcortical nuclei with sensorimotor, cognitive, and limbic subdivisions, indicative of functional organization. BG dysfunction in several developmental disorders suggests the importance of the healthy maturation of these structures. However, few studies have investigated the development of BG functional organization. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), we compared human child and adult functional connectivity of the BG with rs-fcMRI-defined cortical systems. Because children move more than adults, customized preprocessing, including volume censoring, was used to minimize motion-induced rs-fcMRI artifact. Our results demonstrated functional organization in the adult BG consistent with subdivisions previously identified in anatomical tracing studies. Group comparisons revealed a developmental shift in bilateral posterior putamen/pallidum clusters from preferential connectivity with the somatomotor “face” system in childhood to preferential connectivity with control/attention systems (frontoparietal, ventral attention) in adulthood. This shift was due to a decline in the functional connectivity of these clusters with the somatomotor face system over development, and no change with control/attention systems. Applying multivariate pattern analysis, we were able to reliably classify individuals as children or adults based on BG–cortical system functional connectivity. Interrogation of the features driving this classification revealed, in addition to the somatomotor face system, contributions by the orbitofrontal, auditory, and somatomotor hand systems. These results demonstrate that BG–cortical functional connectivity evolves over development, and may lend insight into developmental disorders that involve BG dysfunction, particularly those involving motor systems (e.g., Tourette syndrome). PMID:24760844

  7. Nerves projecting from the intrinsic cardiac ganglia of the pulmonary veins modulate sinoatrial node pacemaker function

    PubMed Central

    Zarzoso, Manuel; Rysevaite, Kristina; Milstein, Michelle L.; Calvo, Conrado J.; Kean, Adam C.; Atienza, Felipe; Pauza, Dainius H.; Jalife, José; Noujaim, Sami F.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Pulmonary vein ganglia (PVG) are targets for atrial fibrillation ablation. However, the functional relevance of PVG to the normal heart rhythm remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether PVG can modulate sinoatrial node (SAN) function. Methods and results Forty-nine C57BL and seven Connexin40+/EGFP mice were studied. We used tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) and choline-acetyltransferase immunofluorescence labelling to characterize adrenergic and cholinergic neural elements. PVG projected postganglionic nerves to the SAN, which entered the SAN as an extensive, mesh-like neural network. PVG neurones were adrenergic, cholinergic, and biphenotypic. Histochemical characterization of two human embryonic hearts showed similarities between mouse and human neuroanatomy: direct neural communications between PVG and SAN. In Langendorff perfused mouse hearts, PVG were stimulated using 200–2000 ms trains of pulses (300 μs, 400 µA, 200 Hz). PVG stimulation caused an initial heart rate (HR) slowing (36 ± 9%) followed by acceleration. PVG stimulation in the presence of propranolol caused HR slowing (43 ± 13%) that was sustained over 20 beats. PVG stimulation with atropine progressively increased HR. Time-course effects were enhanced with 1000 and 2000 ms trains (P < 0.05 vs. 200 ms). In optical mapping, PVG stimulation shifted the origin of SAN discharges. In five paroxysmal AF patients undergoing pulmonary vein ablation, application of radiofrequency energy to the PVG area during sinus rhythm produced a decrease in HR similar to that observed in isolated mouse hearts. Conclusion PVG have functional and anatomical biphenotypic characteristics. They can have significant effects on the electrophysiological control of the SAN. PMID:23559611

  8. Direct communication of the spinal subarachnoid space with the rat dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Joukal, Marek; Klusáková, Ilona; Dubový, Petr

    2016-05-01

    The anatomical position of the subarachnoid space (SAS) in relation to dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and penetration of tracer from the SAS into DRG were investigated. We used intrathecal injection of methylene blue to visualize the anatomical position of the SAS in relation to DRG and immunostaining of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) for detecting arachnoid limiting the SAS. Intrathecal administration of fluorescent-conjugated dextran (fluoro-emerald; FE) was used to demonstrate direct communication between the SAS and DRG. Intrathecal injection of methylene blue and DPP-IV immunostaining revealed that SAS delimited by the arachnoid was extended up to the capsule of DRG in a fold-like recess that may reach approximately half of the DRG length. The arachnoid was found in direct contact to the neuronal body-rich area in the angle between dorsal root and DRG as well as between spinal nerve roots at DRG. Particles of FE were found in the cells of DRG capsule, satellite glial cells, interstitial space, as well as in small and medium-sized neurons after intrathecal injection. Penetration of FE from the SAS into the DRG induced an immune reaction expressed by colocalization of FE and immunofluorescence indicating antigen-presenting cells (MHC-II+), activated (ED1+) and resident (ED2+) macrophages, and activation of satellite glial cells (GFAP+). Penetration of lumbar-injected FE into the cervical DRG was greater than that into the lumbar DRG after intrathecal injection of FE into the cisterna magna. Our results demonstrate direct communication between DRG and cerebrospinal fluid in the SAS that can create another pathway for possible propagation of inflammatory and signaling molecules from DRG primary affected by peripheral nerve injury into DRG of remote spinal segments. PMID:26844624

  9. Basal ganglia contribution to rule expectancy and temporal predictability in speech.

    PubMed

    Kotz, Sonja A; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2015-07-01

    The current work set out to answer three questions: (1) Are reported syntactic deficits in patients with structural damage to the basal ganglia (BG) in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical systems (CSTCS) the result of a syntax specific computational deficit or are they potentially a consequence of a generalized timing deficit? (2) Do BG patients suffer from a simple beat perception deficit in speech comparable to the one reported in music? (3) Can regular speech meter (i.e., a pattern of beats induced by the regular alteration of stressed and unstressed syllable accents) ameliorate the computation of syntactically marked information by making speech events temporally predictable and salient? The latter 'remediation' hypothesis would predict that when speech events (i.e., those that are syntactically marked) are metrically aligned to the syllabic accent structure, the computation of syntactic information is facilitated or in the case of patients ameliorated. During continuous EEG measurement nineteen patients with focal BG lesions and matched healthy controls listened to metrically regular and syntactically well-formed sentences and metrically well-formed sentences that either violated syntactic expectancy, metrical expectancy, or both. While healthy controls showed an expected P600 response in the event-related brain potential (ERP) to all expectancy violations, BG patients showed overall comparable P600 responses to all, but the metrical expectancy violation. These results confirm that (1) BG patients suffer from a simple beat perception deficit in speech and (2) regular speech meter ameliorates the computation of syntactically marked information in the speech signal. We propose that a domain general sensorimotor cerebello-thalamo-cortical system (CTCS), involved in event-based temporal processing, engages in the remediation of dysfunctional cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical timing that affects the timely computation of linguistic (i.e., syntax) information in the

  10. Spike propagation through the dorsal root ganglia in an unmyelinated sensory neuron: a modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Sundt, Danielle; Gamper, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Unmyelinated C-fibers are a major type of sensory neurons conveying pain information. Action potential conduction is regulated by the bifurcation (T-junction) of sensory neuron axons within the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Understanding how C-fiber signaling is influenced by the morphology of the T-junction and the local expression of ion channels is important for understanding pain signaling. In this study we used biophysical computer modeling to investigate the influence of axon morphology within the DRG and various membrane conductances on the reliability of spike propagation. As expected, calculated input impedance and the amplitude of propagating action potentials were both lowest at the T-junction. Propagation reliability for single spikes was highly sensitive to the diameter of the stem axon and the density of voltage-gated Na+ channels. A model containing only fast voltage-gated Na+ and delayed-rectifier K+ channels conducted trains of spikes up to frequencies of 110 Hz. The addition of slowly activating KCNQ channels (i.e., KV7 or M-channels) to the model reduced the following frequency to 30 Hz. Hyperpolarization produced by addition of a much slower conductance, such as a Ca2+-dependent K+ current, was needed to reduce the following frequency to 6 Hz. Attenuation of driving force due to ion accumulation or hyperpolarization produced by a Na+-K+ pump had no effect on following frequency but could influence the reliability of spike propagation mutually with the voltage shift generated by a Ca2+-dependent K+ current. These simulations suggest how specific ion channels within the DRG may contribute toward therapeutic treatments for chronic pain. PMID:26334005

  11. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere. PMID:26853846

  12. A spiking Basal Ganglia model of synchrony, exploration and decision making.

    PubMed

    Mandali, Alekhya; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    To make an optimal decision we need to weigh all the available options, compare them with the current goal, and choose the most rewarding one. Depending on the situation an optimal decision could be to either "explore" or "exploit" or "not to take any action" for which the Basal Ganglia (BG) is considered to be a key neural substrate. In an attempt to expand this classical picture of BG function, we had earlier hypothesized that the Indirect Pathway (IP) of the BG could be the subcortical substrate for exploration. In this study we build a spiking network model to relate exploration to synchrony levels in the BG (which are a neural marker for tremor in Parkinson's disease). Key BG nuclei such as the Sub Thalamic Nucleus (STN), Globus Pallidus externus (GPe) and Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) were modeled as Izhikevich spiking neurons whereas the Striatal output was modeled as Poisson spikes. The model is cast in reinforcement learning framework with the dopamine signal representing reward prediction error. We apply the model to two decision making tasks: a binary action selection task (similar to one used by Humphries et al., 2006) and an n-armed bandit task (Bourdaud et al., 2008). The model shows that exploration levels could be controlled by STN's lateral connection strength which also influenced the synchrony levels in the STN-GPe circuit. An increase in STN's lateral strength led to a decrease in exploration which can be thought as the possible explanation for reduced exploratory levels in Parkinson's patients. Our simulations also show that on complete removal of IP, the model exhibits only Go and No-Go behaviors, thereby demonstrating the crucial role of IP in exploration. Our model provides a unified account for synchronization, action section, and explorative behavior. PMID:26074761

  13. Integration of cortical and pallidal inputs in the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus of singing birds

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Jesse H.; Farries, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The basal ganglia-recipient thalamus receives inhibitory inputs from the pallidum and excitatory inputs from cortex, but it is unclear how these inputs interact during behavior. We recorded simultaneously from thalamic neurons and their putative synaptically connected pallidal inputs in singing zebra finches. We find, first, that each pallidal spike produces an extremely brief (∼5 ms) pulse of inhibition that completely suppresses thalamic spiking. As a result, thalamic spikes are entrained to pallidal spikes with submillisecond precision. Second, we find that the number of thalamic spikes that discharge within a single pallidal interspike interval (ISI) depends linearly on the duration of that interval but does not depend on pallidal activity prior to the interval. In a detailed biophysical model, our results were not easily explained by the postinhibitory “rebound” mechanism previously observed in anesthetized birds and in brain slices, nor could most of our data be characterized as “gating” of excitatory transmission by inhibitory pallidal input. Instead, we propose a novel “entrainment” mechanism of pallidothalamic transmission that highlights the importance of an excitatory conductance that drives spiking, interacting with brief pulses of pallidal inhibition. Building on our recent finding that cortical inputs can drive syllable-locked rate modulations in thalamic neurons during singing, we report here that excitatory inputs affect thalamic spiking in two ways: by shortening the latency of a thalamic spike after a pallidal spike and by increasing thalamic firing rates within individual pallidal ISIs. We present a unifying biophysical model that can reproduce all known modes of pallidothalamic transmission—rebound, gating, and entrainment—depending on the amount of excitation the thalamic neuron receives. PMID:22673333

  14. Invertebrate proenkephalin: delta opioid binding sites in leech ganglia and immunocytes.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Stefano, G B

    1997-09-12

    The leech Theromyzon tessulatum and the marine mussel Mytilus edulis immunocytes contain a mammalian-like proenkephalin molecule. The opioid precursor was purified by gel permeation chromatography, anti-Met- and Leu-enkephalin-affinity column separation and then by reversed-phase HPLC. The amino acid sequence analysis, determined by Edman degradation, enzymatic treatments and matrix assisted laser desorption time of flight. The structure of the leech proenkephalin material demonstrates considerable amino acid sequence similarity with amphibian proenkephalin (e.g. 25.4% with Xenopus laevis) but it is smaller, 15 kDa vs. 30 kDa. In contrast, Mytilus proenkephalin is not only larger (26 kDa) but it exhibits a higher sequence identity with guinea pig proenkephalin (50%). Both of the invertebrate materials possess Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin in a ratio of 3:1 for Mytilus and 1:2 in the leech. They also contain Met-enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu and Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe sequences that are flanked by dibasic amino acid residues, demonstrating cleavage sites. Furthermore, using sequence comparison with bovine proenkephalin A (209-237), enkelytin (FAEPLPSEEEGESYSKEVPEMEKRYGGFM), an antibacterial peptide is found in the proenkephalin of both animals and it exhibits a 98% sequence identity with mammalian material. Finally, opioid binding experiments demonstrate the presence in leech ganglia and immunocytes of delta1 and delta2 opioid receptor subtypes as also found human and Mytilus immune cells. This report constitutes the first complete biochemical characterization of mammalian proenkephalin in invertebrates, demonstrating its origin in simpler animals.

  15. Millisecond timescale disinhibition mediates fast information transmission through an avian basal ganglia loop.

    PubMed

    Leblois, Arthur; Bodor, Agnes L; Person, Abigail L; Perkel, David J

    2009-12-01

    Avian song learning shares striking similarities with human speech acquisition and requires a basal ganglia (BG)-thalamo-cortical circuit. Information processing and transmission speed in the BG is thought to be limited by synaptic architecture of two serial inhibitory connections. Propagation speed may be critical in the avian BG circuit given the temporally precise control of musculature during vocalization. We used electrical stimulation of the cortical inputs to the BG to study, with fine time resolution, the functional connectivity within this network. We found that neurons in thalamic and cortical nuclei that are not directly connected with the stimulated area can respond to the stimulation with extremely short latencies. Through pharmacological manipulations, we trace this property back to the BG and show that the cortical stimulation triggers fast disinhibition of the thalamic neurons. Surprisingly, feedforward inhibition mediated by striatal inhibitory neurons onto BG output neurons sometimes precedes the monosynaptic excitatory drive from cortical afferents. The fast feedforward inhibition lengthens a single interspike interval in BG output neurons by just a few milliseconds. This short delay is sufficient to drive a strong, brief increase in firing probability in the target thalamic neurons, evoking short-latency responses. By blocking glutamate receptors in vivo, we show that thalamic responses do not appear to rely on excitatory drive, and we show in a theoretical model that they could be mediated by postinhibitory rebound properties. Such fast signaling through disinhibition and rebound may be a crucial specialization for learning of rapid and temporally precise motor acts such as vocal communication. PMID:20007467

  16. Validation of decision-making models and analysis of decision variables in the rat basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Ito, Makoto; Doya, Kenji

    2009-08-01

    Reinforcement learning theory plays a key role in understanding the behavioral and neural mechanisms of choice behavior in animals and humans. Especially, intermediate variables of learning models estimated from behavioral data, such as the expectation of reward for each candidate choice (action value), have been used in searches for the neural correlates of computational elements in learning and decision making. The aims of the present study are as follows: (1) to test which computational model best captures the choice learning process in animals and (2) to elucidate how action values are represented in different parts of the corticobasal ganglia circuit. We compared different behavioral learning algorithms to predict the choice sequences generated by rats during a free-choice task and analyzed associated neural activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral pallidum (VP). The major findings of this study were as follows: (1) modified versions of an action-value learning model captured a variety of choice strategies of rats, including win-stay-lose-switch and persevering behavior, and predicted rats' choice sequences better than the best multistep Markov model; and (2) information about action values and future actions was coded in both the NAc and VP, but was less dominant than information about trial types, selected actions, and reward outcome. The results of our model-based analysis suggest that the primary role of the NAc and VP is to monitor information important for updating choice behaviors. Information represented in the NAc and VP might contribute to a choice mechanism that is situated elsewhere.

  17. Ockham's razor modeling of the matrisome channels of the basal ganglia thalamocortical loops.

    PubMed

    Lörincz, A; Hévízi, G; Szepesvári, C

    2001-04-01

    A functional model of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical (BTC) loops is described. In our modeling effort, we try to minimize the complexity of our starting hypotheses. For that reason, we call this type of modeling Ockham's razor modeling. We have the additional constraint that the starting assumptions should not contradict experimental findings about the brain. First assumption: The brain lacks direct representation of paths but represents directions (called speed fields in control theory). Then control should be concerned with speed-field tracking (SFT). Second assumption: Control signals are delivered upon differencing in competing parallel channels of the BTC loops. This is modeled by extending SFT with differencing that gives rise to the robust Static and Dynamic State (SDS) feedback-controlling scheme. Third assumption: Control signals are expressed in terms of a gelatinous medium surrounding the limbs. This is modeled by expressing parameters of motion in parameters of the external space. We show that corollaries of the model fit properties of the BTC loops. The SDS provides proper identification of motion related neuronal groups of the putamen. Local minima arise during the controlling process that works in external space. The model explains the presence of parallel channels as the means to avoiding such local minima. Stability conditions of the SDS predict that the initial phase of learning is mostly concerned with selection of sign for the inverse dynamics. The model provides a scalable controller. State description in external space instead of configurational space reduces the dimensionality problem. Falsifying experiment is suggested. Computer experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. We argue that the resulting scheme has a straightforward connectionist representation exhibiting population coding and Hebbian learning properties.

  18. Functional Relevance of Different Basal Ganglia Pathways Investigated in a Spiking Model with Reward Dependent Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Pierre; Lindahl, Mikael; Tully, Philip J; Hellgren-Kotaleski, Jeanette; Lansner, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The brain enables animals to behaviorally adapt in order to survive in a complex and dynamic environment, but how reward-oriented behaviors are achieved and computed by its underlying neural circuitry is an open question. To address this concern, we have developed a spiking model of the basal ganglia (BG) that learns to dis-inhibit the action leading to a reward despite ongoing changes in the reward schedule. The architecture of the network features the two pathways commonly described in BG, the direct (denoted D1) and the indirect (denoted D2) pathway, as well as a loop involving striatum and the dopaminergic system. The activity of these dopaminergic neurons conveys the reward prediction error (RPE), which determines the magnitude of synaptic plasticity within the different pathways. All plastic connections implement a versatile four-factor learning rule derived from Bayesian inference that depends upon pre- and post-synaptic activity, receptor type, and dopamine level. Synaptic weight updates occur in the D1 or D2 pathways depending on the sign of the RPE, and an efference copy informs upstream nuclei about the action selected. We demonstrate successful performance of the system in a multiple-choice learning task with a transiently changing reward schedule. We simulate lesioning of the various pathways and show that a condition without the D2 pathway fares worse than one without D1. Additionally, we simulate the degeneration observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) by decreasing the number of dopaminergic neurons during learning. The results suggest that the D1 pathway impairment in PD might have been overlooked. Furthermore, an analysis of the alterations in the synaptic weights shows that using the absolute reward value instead of the RPE leads to a larger change in D1. PMID:27493625

  19. Neuronal activity (c-Fos) delineating interactions of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Mei-Hong; Chen, Michael C.; Huang, Zhi-Li; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex and basal ganglia (BG) form a neural circuit that is disrupted in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. We found that neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the BG followed cortical activity, i.e., high in arousal state and low in sleep state. To determine if cortical activity is necessary for BG activity, we administered atropine to rats to induce a dissociative state resulting in slow-wave electroencephalography but hyperactive motor behaviors. Atropine blocked c-Fos expression in the cortex and BG, despite high c-Fos expression in the sub-cortical arousal neuronal groups and thalamus, indicating that cortical activity is required for BG activation. To identify which glutamate receptors in the BG that mediate cortical inputs, we injected ketamine [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist] and 6-cyano-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX, a non-NMDA receptor antagonist). Systemic ketamine and CNQX administration revealed that NMDA receptors mediated subthalamic nucleus (STN) input to internal globus pallidus (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), while non-NMDA receptor mediated cortical input to the STN. Both types of glutamate receptors were involved in mediating cortical input to the striatum. Dorsal striatal (caudoputamen, CPu) dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine resulted in reduced activity of the CPu, globus pallidus externa (GPe), and STN but increased activity of the GPi, SNr, and putative layer V neurons in the motor cortex. Our results reveal that the cortical activity is necessary for BG activity and clarifies the pathways and properties of the BG-cortical network and their putative role in the pathophysiology of BG disorders. PMID:24723855

  20. The anterograde transport of rabies virus in rat sensory dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Tsiang, H; Lycke, E; Ceccaldi, P E; Ermine, A; Hirardot, X

    1989-08-01

    We have previously described the capacity of neurites extending from cultured rat sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons to transport rabies virus through axoplasm in the retrograde direction. Here we report the infection of cultured neurons derived from the DRG and the subsequent anterograde transport of rabies virus from the infected cell somas through the extending neurites to its release into the culture supernatant. Viral transport was monitored by titration of the virus yield in the external compartment. Both early and late transport mechanisms of rabies virions were identified. The first one occurred a few hours post-infection and was undetectable 6 h later, before the initiation of viral replication. The velocity of this first wave of infective virions was in the range of 100 to 400 mm/day. The early viral transport was probably the result of a direct translocation of infective virions from the somatic site of entry to the neuritic extensions and subsequent release into the culture medium without replication in the cellular perikaryon. The second virus transport peak was detected 48 h post-infection. In this case, the virions detected in the neuritic compartment were presumably the progeny of the inoculated virus which had replicated in the perikaryon before the viral transport occurs. Using a four-compartment culture device we were able to demonstrate, simultaneously, retrograde and anterograde transport of the virus. The presence of antirabies serum in contact with the exposed neurites did not inhibit either the retrograde or the anterograde transport mechanisms. The viral release from the neuritic extensions after the fast anterograde transport was evaluated to be in the range of 150 to 300 infectious virions per bundle of neurites per day.