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Sample records for ganglion cysts

  1. Ganglion Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ganglion Cysts Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Ganglion Cysts Close Popup Figures Figure 1 - Ganglion ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  2. Ganglion Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... with aspiration and injection therapy, there are nevertheless cases in which the ganglion cyst returns. Find an ACFAS Physician Search Search Tools Find an ACFAS Physician: Search by Mail Address ...

  3. Arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts.

    PubMed

    Bontempo, Nicholas A; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2014-02-01

    Arthroscopy is an advancing field in orthopedics, the applications of which have been expanding over time. Traditionally, excision of ganglion cysts has been done in an open fashion. However, more recently, studies show outcomes following arthroscopic excision to be as good as open excision. Cosmetically, the incisions are smaller and heal faster following arthroscopy. In addition, there is the suggested benefit that patients will regain function and return to work faster following arthroscopic excision. More prospective studies comparing open and arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts need to be done in order to delineate if there is a true functional benefit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ganglion cyst of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Heng-Kun, W; Yan-Ling, G; Wen-Feng, Z; Zhe, S; Ren-Xin, W; Xiao-Tao, Z

    2014-02-01

    Ganglion cyst of the temporomandibular joint is a rare disease, which may arise from myxoid degeneration of the collagenous tissue of the temporomandibular joint capsule, without epithelial or endothelial lining. We report a case of cystic lesion in a 40-year-old female patient. The patient had a left pre-auricular oval-shaped swelling without any articular symptoms. The pathological analysis after surgical removal allowed diagnosing the lesion as a ganglion cyst of the left temporomandibular joint. We made a literature review and noted that this condition was predominant in female patients. We recommend using MRI for diagnostic purposes and surgery as the best therapeutic alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Tibial periosteal ganglion cyst: The ganglion in disguise.

    PubMed

    Reghunath, Anjuna; Mittal, Mahesh K; Khanna, Geetika; Anil, V

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue ganglions are commonly encountered cystic lesions around the wrist presumed to arise from myxomatous degeneration of periarticular connective tissue. Lesions with similar pathology in subchondral location close to joints, and often simulating a geode, is the less common entity called intraosseous ganglion. Rarer still is a lesion produced by mucoid degeneration and cyst formation of the periostium of long bones, rightly called the periosteal ganglion. They are mostly found in the lower extremities at the region of pes anserinus, typically limited to the periosteum and outer cortex without any intramedullary component. We report the case of a 62 year-old male who presented with a tender swelling on the mid shaft of the left tibia, which radiologically suggested a juxtacortical lesion extending to the soft tissue or a soft tissue neoplasm eroding the bony cortex of tibia. It was later diagnosed definitively as a periosteal ganglion in an atypical location, on further radiologic work-up and histopathological correlation.

  6. Tibial periosteal ganglion cyst: The ganglion in disguise

    PubMed Central

    Reghunath, Anjuna; Mittal, Mahesh K; Khanna, Geetika; Anil, V

    2017-01-01

    Soft tissue ganglions are commonly encountered cystic lesions around the wrist presumed to arise from myxomatous degeneration of periarticular connective tissue. Lesions with similar pathology in subchondral location close to joints, and often simulating a geode, is the less common entity called intraosseous ganglion. Rarer still is a lesion produced by mucoid degeneration and cyst formation of the periostium of long bones, rightly called the periosteal ganglion. They are mostly found in the lower extremities at the region of pes anserinus, typically limited to the periosteum and outer cortex without any intramedullary component. We report the case of a 62 year-old male who presented with a tender swelling on the mid shaft of the left tibia, which radiologically suggested a juxtacortical lesion extending to the soft tissue or a soft tissue neoplasm eroding the bony cortex of tibia. It was later diagnosed definitively as a periosteal ganglion in an atypical location, on further radiologic work-up and histopathological correlation. PMID:28515597

  7. Sciatica and claudication caused by ganglion cyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Wen, Xiaoyu; Gong, Yubao; Yang, Chen

    2013-12-15

    Case report. We report a rare case that a ganglion cyst compressed the sciatic nerve and caused sciatica and claudication in a 51-year-old male. Sciatica and claudication commonly occurs in spinal stenosis. To our knowledge, only 4 cases have been reported on sciatica resulting from posterior ganglion cyst of hip. A 51-year-old male had a 2-month history of radiating pain on his right leg. He could only walk 20 to 30 m before stopping and standing to rest for 1 to 3 minutes. Interestingly, he was able to walk longer distances (about 200 m) when walking slowly in small steps, without any rest. He had been treated as a case of lumbar disc herniation, but conservative treatment was ineffective. On buttock examination, a round, hard, and fixative mass was palpated at the exit of the sciatic nerve. MR imaging of hip revealed a multilocular cystic mass located on the posterior aspect of the superior gemellus and obturator internus, compressing the sciatic nerve. On operation, we found that the cyst extended to the superior gemellus and the obturator internus, positioned right at the outlet of the sciatic nerve. At 18 months of follow-up, the patient continued to be symptom free. He returned to comprehensive physical activity with no limitations. For an extraspinal source, a direct compression on the sciatic nerve also resulted in sciatica and claudication. A meticulous physical examination is very important for the differential diagnosis of extraspinal sciatica from spinal sciatica.

  8. Application of three-dimensional rendering in joint-related ganglion cysts.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Robert J; Edwards, Phillip K; Amrami, Kimberly K

    2006-05-01

    The origin of para-articular cysts is poorly understood and controversial. The relatively common, simple (extraneural) cysts are presumed to be derived from joints, although joint connections are not always established. Rarer complex cysts are thought by many to form de novo within nerves (intraneural ganglion cysts) or within vessels (adventitial cysts) (degenerative theory). We believe that these simple and complex ganglion cysts are joint-related (articular theory). Joint connections are often not readily appreciated with routine imaging or at surgery. Not identifying and/or treating joint connections frequently leads to cyst recurrence. More sophisticated imaging may enhance visualization of these joint connections. We created a 3D rendering technique to assess potential joint connections of simple and complex cysts localized to the knee and superior tibiofibular joints in patients with fibular (peroneal) neuropathy. Two- and three-dimensional data sets from MRI examinations were segmented semiautomatically by signal intensity with further refinement based on interaction with the user to identify specific anatomic structures, such as small nerves and vessels on serial images. The bone, cysts, nerves, and vessels were each assigned different color representations, and 3D renderings were created in ANALYZE using the data sets closest to isotropic (voxel with equal length in all dimensions) resolution as the primary background rendering. We selected four cases to illustrate the spectrum of pathology. In all of these cases, we demonstrated joint connections and correlated imaging and operative findings. Surgery addressing the cyst and the joint connection resulted in excellent outcomes; postoperative MRIs done more than 6 months later confirmed that there was no recurrence. In addition to highlighting the important relationship of these cysts to neighboring anatomic structures, this 3D technique allows visualization of "occult" connections not readily appreciated

  9. Ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity in a cat.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, T; Sadahiro, S; Nishimura, M; Miyazaki, Y; Shibata, M

    2014-01-01

    A four-year-old, female spayed Domestic Longhaired cat was referred for evaluation with a two month history of initial inability to jump progressing to ambulatory tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated a cystic lesion arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity and extending to the region of the occipital bone and the axis. The lesion surrounded the spinal canal, causing moderate dorsal spinal cord compression at the atlanto-occipital joint. A dynamic myelographic study demonstrated attenuation of the dorsal contrast column at the atlanto-occipital joint when the cervical spine was positioned in extension. Partial excision of the cyst capsule by a ventral approach resulted in long-term (64 months) resolution of clinical signs. Histological evaluation was consistent with a ganglion cyst. An intra-spinal ganglion cyst arising from the composite occipito-atlanto-axial joint cavity may be considered as an uncommon differential diagnosis for cats with cervical myelopathy.

  10. Piriformis ganglion: An uncommon cause of sciatica.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Jeong, H J; Shin, H K; Park, S J; Lee, J H; Kim, E

    2016-04-01

    Sciatica can occur due to a spinal lesion, intrapelvic tumor, diabetic neuropathy, and rarely piriformis syndrome. The causes of piriformis syndrome vary by a space-occupying lesion. A ganglionic cyst can occur in various lesions in the body but seldom around the hip joint. In addition, sciatica due to a ganglionic cyst around the hip joint has been reported in one patient in Korea who underwent surgical treatment. We experienced two cases of sciatica from a piriformis ganglionic cyst and we report the clinical characterics and progress after non-operative treatment by ultrasonography-guided aspiration. The two cases were diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and were treated by ultrasonography-guided aspiration. We followed the patients for more than 6months. The symptoms of piriformis syndrome from the ganglion improved following aspiration and this conservative treatment is a treatment method that can be used without extensive incision or cyst excision. Level IV historical case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Immediate Nerve Transfer for Treatment of Peroneal Nerve Palsy Secondary to an Intraneural Ganglion: Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Ratanshi, Imran; Clark, Tod A; Giuffre, Jennifer L

    2018-05-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts, which occur within the common peroneal nerve, are a rare cause of foot drop. The current standard of treatment for intraneural ganglion cysts involving the common peroneal nerve involves (1) cyst decompression and (2) ligation of the articular nerve branch to prevent recurrence. Nerve transfers are a time-dependent strategy for recovering ankle dorsiflexion in cases of high peroneal nerve palsy; however, this modality has not been performed for intraneural ganglion cysts involving the common peroneal nerve. We present a case of common peroneal nerve palsy secondary to an intraneural ganglion cyst occurring in a 74-year-old female. The patient presented with a 5-month history of pain in the right common peroneal nerve distribution and foot drop. The patient underwent simultaneous cyst decompression, articular nerve branch ligation, and nerve transfer of the motor branch to flexor hallucis longus to a motor branch of anterior tibialis muscle. At final follow-up, the patient demonstrated complete (M4+) return of ankle dorsiflexion, no pain, no evidence of recurrence and was able to bear weight without the need for orthotic support. Given the minimal donor site morbidity and recovery of ankle dorsiflexion, this report underscores the importance of considering early nerve transfers in cases of high peroneal neuropathy due to an intraneural ganglion cyst.

  12. Intraosseous Ganglion Cyst of Olecranon

    PubMed Central

    Zarezadeh, Abolghasem; Nourbakhsh, Mohsen; Shemshaki, Hamidreza; Etemadifar, Mohammad Reza; Mazoochian, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Intraosseous ganglia are benign cysts that usually can be seen in lower extremity; especially around ankle. These cysts have fewer incidences in upper extremity, mainly around the wrist. They are extremely rare in olecranon. These lesions are often asymptomatic. Patient was a 75-year-old man who had trauma many years ago. When he came to our clinic, he complained of severe pain around his elbow that he could not do ordinary activity. He had local tenderness in elbow and 30 degree limitation in extension. In radiography, lytic, multiloculated lesion existed in region of olecranon. After excisional biopsy was done, cavity was cleaned completely with curette and was filled with autogenous bone. At 10-year follow-up, the patient was completely asymptomatic. Control radiograph showed cavity filled completely by bone; there was no evidence of relapse. PMID:22973489

  13. Investigation of tissue cysts in the retina in a mouse model of ocular toxoplasmosis: distribution and interaction with glial cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun Beom; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Young-Ha; Choi, Min-Ho; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2018-06-02

    The conversion of tachyzoites into bradyzoites is a way for Toxoplasma gondii to establish a chronic and asymptomatic infection and achieve lifelong persistence in the host. The bradyzoites form tissue cysts in the retina, but not much is known about the horizontal distribution of the cysts or their interactions with glial cells in the retina. A chronic ocular toxoplasmosis model was induced by per oral administration of T. gondii Me49 strain cysts to BALB/c mice. Two months after the infection, retinas were flat-mounted and immunostained to detect cysts, ganglion cells, Müller cells, astrocytes, and microglial cells, followed by observation under fluorescence and confocal microscope. The horizontal distribution showed a rather clustered pattern, but the clusters were not restricted to certain location of the retina. Axial distribution was confined to the inner retina, mostly in ganglion cell layer or the inner plexiform layer. Both ganglion cells, a type of retinal neurons, and Müller cells, predominant retinal glial cells, could harbor cysts. The cysts were spatially separated from astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the ganglion cell layer, while close spatial distribution of microglial cells was observed in two thirds of retinal cysts. In this study, we demonstrated that the retinal cysts were not evenly distributed horizontally and were confined to the inner retina axially. Both neurons and one type of glial cells could harbor cysts, and topographic analysis of other glial cells suggests role of microglial cells in chronic ocular toxoplasmosis.

  14. [Intra-osseous ganglion cyst of the carpal bones. A review of the literature underlining the importance of systematic computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Dumas, P; Georgiou, C; Chignon-Sicard, B; Balaguer, T; Lebreton, E; Dumontier, C

    2013-02-01

    The intraosseous ganglion cyst (IOGC) is a benign and lytic bone tumor affecting mostly the metaphyseal and epiphyseal regions of long bones. Its location on the short bones, including the carpal bones has been little reported in the literature. Our review of the literature shows consensus about the surgical techniques to use, but there is currently no real consensus about its pathophysiology, and its diagnostic work-up. Complications related to this lesion (mainly the risk of pathologic fracture) are potentially serious, and can cause irreversible damage. They therefore require accurate assessment to guide the choice of medical or surgical treatment, including a CT scan, which - we believe - is essential. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. [Ganglions of the wrist: proposals for topographical systematization and natural history].

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, J-N; Luboinski, J; Baux, S; Mimoun, M

    2003-06-01

    We looked for the anatomic origin and mechanism of constitution of the so-called "ganglions" of the wrist. Fifty-nine formations considered to be synovial ganglions were dissected and removed according to the same protocol by the same surgeon. Eleven were re-examined by a pathologist. All ganglions were extra-articular but had intra- and extra-capsular components. The extra-capsular part was the clinically palpable main cyst. The intra-capsular part was composed of the cystic stalk and its base of implantation. An intra-capsular stalk was present in 58 cases. The stalk was situated between the joint synovium and the capsula which it perforated at a weak point between two ligaments, forming a collar before expanding outwardly. Based on our findings, we propose a topographical systematization and natural history of ganglions of the wrist. The stalk's implantation base was always located on bone and found in the intermediate area of Colomniati and Soubbotine, which lies outside the articular cartilage between the synovium and the ligamentous capsula. This area is exposed to mechanical stress initiating histological degenerative lesions, particularly mucoid degeneration. At the radiocarpal joint, the stalk's base of implantation was located at the distal end of the lateral dorsal or volar edge of the lunate bone or at the corresponding part of the scaphoid. The collar of the proximal ganglions was situated between the dorsal radiocarpal and transverse scaphotriquetral ligament. The collar of distal dorsal ganglions was situated between the transverse scaphotriquetral and the trapezotriquetral ligament. The collar of the lateral ganglions was situated between the lateral collateral and the transverse ligament. The collar of the volar ganglions was situated between the stylocarpal ligament and the radiolunotriquetral ligament, or between the different stylocarpal ligaments. At the level of the scaphotrapezal joint, the stalk's base of implantation was located near the

  16. Suprascapular Nerve Entrapment Caused by Protrusion of an Intraosseous Ganglion of the Glenoid into the Spinoglenoid Notch: A Rare Cause of Posterior Shoulder Pain

    PubMed Central

    Terabayashi, Nobuo; Nishimoto, Yutaka; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case of suprascapular nerve entrapment caused by protrusion of an intraosseous ganglion of the glenoid into the spinoglenoid notch. A 47-year-old man with left shoulder pain developed an intraosseous cyst in the left glenoid, which came into contact with the suprascapular nerve. The area at which the patient experienced spontaneous shoulder pain was innervated by the suprascapular nerve, and 1% xylocaine injection into the spinoglenoid notch under ultrasonographic guidance relieved the pain. Therefore, we concluded that the protrusion of an intraosseous cyst of the glenoid into the spinoglenoid notch was a cause of the pain, and performed curettage. Consequently, the shoulder pain was resolved promptly without suprascapular nerve complications, and the cyst was histologically diagnosed as an intraosseous ganglion. This case demonstrated that the intraosseous ganglion of the glenoid was a benign lesion but could be a cause of suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome. Curettage is a useful treatment option for a ganglion inside bone and very close to the suprascapular nerve. PMID:28620557

  17. Periosteal ganglion: a cause of cortical bone erosion.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, E F; Matz, S; Steiner, G C; Dorfman, H D

    1983-01-01

    Three cases of periosteal ganglia of long bones are presented. These lesions are produced by mucoid degeneration and cyst formation of the periosteum to produce external cortical erosion and reactive periosteal new bone. They are not associated with a soft tissue ganglion or an intraosseous lesion. They may radiologically mimic other periosteal lesions or soft tissue neoplasms which erode bone.

  18. Mycotic cysts: report of 21 cases including eight pheomycotic cysts from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Salwa S; Amr, Samir S

    2007-04-01

    Mycotic cysts are subcutaneous cystic granulomas caused by either dematiaceous (pigmented) fungi (pheomycotic cysts) or eumycotic (nonpigmented fungi) present in soil, wood, and decaying plant material. These fungi gain access to the tissues via a wooden splinter or thorn. No deep tissue involvement or extension to bone is known to occur. We reviewed our surgical pathology files for the last 32 years. All cases with the diagnosis of cysts with fungi, thorns, or splinters and associated granulomatous and acute inflammation were reviewed. Gomori's silver and periodic acid-Schiff stains were performed in all cases. Twenty-one cases of mycotic cyst were found, including eight pheomycotic cysts (one with a recurrent lesion seen 11 months after the initial excision of the cyst). Thirteen cysts had nonpigmented fungal hyphae. There were 14 males and seven females, with an age range of 5-76 years. The dorsum of the foot was the most frequently affected site (12 cases). Four cases involved the fingers, two involved the knee area, two involved the big toe, and one each involved the leg, ankle, and forearm. The cysts measured 0.6-4.5 cm in diameter. Histologically, there was granulomatous inflammation with a variable degree of neutrophilic infiltrate giving central abscess formation. Twelve cases showed a wooden splinter. All cases were positive for fungal organisms, mostly septate hyphae and spores that were highlighted by special stains. Fungal pigment, ranging from yellow-brown to light brown to black, was observed in eight cases. No extension to deep tissues was noted. The clinical impression varied widely including ganglion, sebaceous cyst, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, and lipoma. One patient was immunosuppressed following renal transplantation. All patients were treated by simple excision. No antifungal chemotherapy was needed or administered in any of the patients. One patient had a recurrence of his lesion within 1 year as a result of inadequate initial

  19. Anomalous optic discs in a patient with a Dandy-Walker cyst.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, J C; Bunt, A H

    1982-03-01

    A 19-month-old female infant with a Dandy-Walker cyst had anomalous optic discs, each of which appeared to divide to form an accessory optic nerve. The discs probably lie within the spectrum of anomalous discs including optic nerve aplasia and hypoplasia, megallopapillae, morning glory disc, optic disc dysplasia, and optic nerve colobomas. The association of anomalous optic discs with a Dandy-Walker cyst has not been previously recognized. The ocular and brain malformations in this patient likely occurred during the fourth to eighth week of gestation, when the retinal ganglion cell axons were penetrating the optic nerve, and the rhombic lips were enlarging in early cerebellar development. The etiology of these anomalies is not known; however, teratogens, sporadic events, and genetic disorders should be considered.

  20. Adhesive arachnoiditis after percutaneous fibrin glue treatment of a sacral meningeal cyst.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazunori; Nagano, Junji; Hattori, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    The authors present the case of a 64-year-old woman who was referred for severe sacral pain. She reported that her pain had been longstanding, and had greatly increased after percutaneous fibrin glue placement therapy for a sacral meningeal cyst 2 months earlier at a different hospital. An MRI scan obtained immediately after fibrin glue placement at that hospital suggested that fibrin glue had migrated superiorly into the subarachnoid space from the sacral cyst to the level of L-4. On admission to the authors' institution, physical examination demonstrated no abnormal findings except for perianal hypesthesia. An MRI study obtained at admission demonstrated a cystic lesion in the peridural space from the level of S-2 to S-4. Inhomogeneous intensity was identified in this region on T2-weighted images. Because the cauda equina and nerve roots appeared to be compressed by the lesion, total cyst excision was performed. The cyst cavity was filled with fluid that resembled CSF, plus gelatinous material. Histopathological examination revealed that the cyst wall was composed of hyaline connective tissue with some calcification. No nervous tissue or ganglion cells were found in the tissue. The gelatinous material was acellular, and appeared to be degenerated fibrin glue. Sacral pain persisted to some extent after surgery. The authors presumed that migrated fibrin glue caused the development of adhesive arachnoiditis. The risk of adhesive arachnoiditis should be considered when this therapy is planned. Communication between a cyst and the subarachnoid space should be confirmed to be sufficiently narrow to prevent the migration of injected fibrin glue.

  1. Evaluation of the percentage of ganglion cells in the ganglion cell layer of the rodent retina

    PubMed Central

    Schlamp, Cassandra L.; Montgomery, Angela D.; Mac Nair, Caitlin E.; Schuart, Claudia; Willmer, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Retinal ganglion cells comprise a percentage of the neurons actually residing in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) of the rodent retina. This estimate is useful to extrapolate ganglion cell loss in models of optic nerve disease, but the values reported in the literature are highly variable depending on the methods used to obtain them. Methods We tested three retrograde labeling methods and two immunostaining methods to calculate ganglion cell number in the mouse retina (C57BL/6). Additionally, a double-stain retrograde staining method was used to label rats (Long-Evans). The number of total neurons was estimated using a nuclear stain and selecting for nuclei that met specific criteria. Cholinergic amacrine cells were identified using transgenic mice expressing Tomato fluorescent protein. Total neurons and total ganglion cell numbers were measured in microscopic fields of 104 µm2 to determine the percentage of neurons comprising ganglion cells in each field. Results Historical estimates of the percentage of ganglion cells in the mouse GCL range from 36.1% to 67.5% depending on the method used. Experimentally, retrograde labeling methods yielded a combined estimate of 50.3% in mice. A retrograde method also yielded a value of 50.21% for rat retinas. Immunolabeling estimates were higher at 64.8%. Immunolabeling may introduce overestimates, however, with non-specific labeling effects, or ectopic expression of antigens in neurons other than ganglion cells. Conclusions Since immunolabeling methods may overestimate ganglion cell numbers, we conclude that 50%, which is consistently derived from retrograde labeling methods, is a reliable estimate of the ganglion cells in the neuronal population of the GCL. PMID:23825918

  2. Enkephalin-like immunoreactive principal ganglion cells and nerve fibres in the inferior mesenteric ganglion of the cat.

    PubMed

    Balayadi, M; Jule, Y; Cupo, A

    1988-10-05

    The occurrence and distribution of methionine-enkephalin (ME), leucine-enkephalin (LE) and methionine-enkephalin-Arg6-Gly7-Leu8 (MERGL)-like (LI) immunoreactive material in the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) of the cat were studied by immunohistochemical techniques using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Numerous ME-Li, LE-Li and MERGL-Li immunoreactive fibres with the same distribution pattern were observed. They were varicose and often surrounded closely neighbouring unlabelled ganglion cell bodies. Sometimes they ran in strands between ganglion cells. ME-Li immunoreactive material was detected in a number of cell bodies, the diameter of which was similar to that of unlabelled principal ganglion cell bodies, and which were probably Enk-Li-containing principal ganglion cells. These immunoreactive cells were often surrounded by ME-Li immunoreactive fibres. No LE-Li or MERGL-Li immunoreactive ganglion cell bodies were observed. The presence of ME-Li immunoreactive principal ganglion cells raises the possibility that the Enk-Li immunoreactive fibres present in the IMG may have a prevertebral ganglionic source. The possibility that the Enk-Li material present in nerve fibres might be derived from preproenkephalin-A was suggested by the occurrence of MERGL-Li immunoreactivity.

  3. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-01-01

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

  4. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-10-07

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth.

  5. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Hs, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A; Astekar, Madhusudan S

    2012-05-29

    Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient.

  6. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    HS, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A.; Astekar, Madhusudan S.

    2012-01-01

    Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient. PMID:24765458

  7. Molecular biology of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, M; Zhou, H; Nathans, J

    1996-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells are the output neurons that encode and transmit information from the eye to the brain. Their diverse physiologic and anatomic properties have been intensively studied and appear to account well for a number of psychophysical phenomena such as lateral inhibition and chromatic opponency. In this paper, we summarize our current view of retinal ganglion cell properties and pose a number of questions regarding underlying molecular mechanisms. As an example of one approach to understanding molecular mechanisms, we describe recent work on several POU domain transcription factors that are expressed in subsets of retinal ganglion cells and that appear to be involved in ganglion cell development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8570601

  8. Macrophage polarization differs between apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts.

    PubMed

    Weber, Manuel; Schlittenbauer, Tilo; Moebius, Patrick; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Ries, Jutta; Preidl, Raimund; Geppert, Carol-Immanuel; Neukam, Friedrich W; Wehrhan, Falk

    2018-01-01

    Apical periodontitis can appear clinically as apical granulomas or radicular cysts. There is evidence that immunologic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of both pathologies. In contrast to radicular cysts, the dentigerous cysts have a developmental origin. Macrophage polarization (M1 vs M2) is a main regulator of tissue homeostasis and differentiation. There are no studies comparing macrophage polarization in apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts. Forty-one apical granulomas, 23 radicular cysts, and 23 dentigerous cysts were analyzed in this study. A tissue microarray (TMA) of the 87 consecutive specimens was created, and CD68-, CD11c-, CD163-, and MRC1-positive macrophages were detected by immunohistochemical methods. TMAs were digitized, and the expression of macrophage markers was quantitatively assessed. Radicular cysts are characterized by M1 polarization of macrophages while apical granulomas show a significantly higher degree of M2 polarization. Dentigerous cysts have a significantly lower M1 polarization than both analyzed periapical lesions (apical granulomas and radicular cysts) and accordingly, a significantly higher M2 polarization than radicular cysts. Macrophage cell density in dentigerous cysts is significantly lower than in the periapical lesions. The development of apical periodontitis towards apical granulomas or radicular cysts might be directed by macrophage polarization. Radicular cyst formation is associated with an increased M1 polarization of infiltrating macrophages. In contrast to radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts are characterized by a low macrophage infiltration and a high degree of M2 polarization, possibly reflecting their developmental rather than inflammatory origin. As M1 polarization of macrophages is triggered by bacterial antigens, these results underline the need for sufficient bacterial clearance during endodontic treatment to prevent a possible M1 macrophage-derived stimulus for radicular cyst

  9. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... mature in the ovaries, are released in monthly cycles during the childbearing years. Many women have ovarian ... cysts develop as a result of your menstrual cycle (functional cysts). Other types of cysts are much ...

  10. Beware! A simple renal cyst could be a hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Nidhi; Priyadarshi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Kidney is one of the most common sites for the cyst formation in the body, and the management of simple cysts is required entirely for its symptoms and complications. Surgical decortication is an established treatment for a large and symptomatic simple renal cyst. On the other hand, hydatid cysts of the kidney are usually multiloculated complex or calcified cysts and are quite rare. Their surgical treatment also differs and requires complete excision with pericystectomy or partial/complete nephrectomy depending upon residual functional parenchyma, using extreme caution to avoid spillage, recurrence or development of severe anaphylactic shock. A simple cyst harboring a hydatid cyst is highly uncommon and quite dangerous; as if not diagnosed preoperatively, it can create huge trouble for both the patient and the operating surgeon which happened in the present case.

  11. Follicular hybrid cyst: a combination of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Sanusi, Tutyana; Qu, Xiaoying; Li, Yanqiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Zhen; An, Xiangjie; Qian, Yue; Wang, Chunsen; Chen, Hongxiang; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Changzheng

    2013-01-01

    The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2 × 1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner's syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation.

  12. Follicular hybrid cyst: a combination of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sanusi, Tutyana; Qu, Xiaoying; Li, Yanqiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Zhen; An, Xiangjie; Qian, Yue; Wang, Chunsen; Chen, Hongxiang; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Changzheng

    2013-01-01

    The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2×1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner’s syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation. PMID:24294394

  13. Cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Riley, D E; Lang, A E; Lewis, A; Resch, L; Ashby, P; Hornykiewicz, O; Black, S

    1990-08-01

    We report our experience with 15 patients believed to have cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration. The clinical picture is distinctive, comprising features referable to both cortical and basal ganglionic dysfunction. Characteristic manifestations include cortical sensory loss, focal reflex myoclonus, "alien limb" phenomena, apraxia, rigidity and akinesia, a postural-action tremor, limb dystonia, hyperreflexia, and postural instability. The asymmetry of symptoms and signs is often striking. Brain imaging may demonstrate greater abnormalities contralateral to the more affected side. Postmortem studies in 2 patients revealed the characteristic pathologic features of swollen, poorly staining (achromatic) neurons and degeneration of cerebral cortex and substantia nigra. Biochemical analysis of 1 brain showed a severe, diffuse loss of dopamine in the striatum. This condition is more frequent than previously believed, and the diagnosis can be predicted during life on the basis of clinical findings. However, as with other "degenerative" diseases of the nervous system, a definitive diagnosis of cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration requires confirmation by autopsy.

  14. Rare Nonneoplastic Cysts of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cysts represent a small proportion of pancreatic diseases, but their incidence has been recently increasing. Most pancreatic cysts are identified incidentally, causing a dilemma for both clinicians and patients. In contrast to ductal adenocarcinoma, neoplastic pancreatic cysts may be cured by resection. In general, pancreatic cysts are classified as neoplastic or non-neoplastic cysts. The predominant types of neoplastic cysts include intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms. With the exception of serous type, neoplastic cysts, have malignant potential, and in most cases requires resection. Non-neoplastic cysts include pseudocyst, retention cyst, benign epithelial cysts, lymphoepithelial cysts, squamous lined cysts (dermoid cyst and epidermal cyst in intrapancreatic accessory spleen), mucinous nonneoplastic cysts, and lymphangiomas. The incidence of nonneoplastic, noninflammatory cysts is about 6.3% of all pancreatic cysts. Despite the use of high-resolution imaging technologies and cytologic tissue acquisition with endosonography, distinguishing nonneoplastic from neoplastic cysts remains difficult with most differentiations made postoperatively. Nonetheless, the definitive distinction between non-neoplastic and neoplastic cysts is crucial as unnecessary surgery could be avoided with proper diagnosis. Therefore, consideration of these rare disease entities should be entertained before deciding on surgery. PMID:25674524

  15. Simultaneous cell death in the trigeminal ganglion and in ganglion neurons present in the oculomotor nerve of the bovine fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Bortolami, R; Lucchi, M L; Callegari, E; Barazzoni, A M; Costerbosa, G L; Scapolo, P A

    1990-01-01

    A well-developed ganglion and scattered ganglion cells are present in the intracranial portion of the oculomotor nerve during the first half of fetal life in the ox. In the second half of fetal life a dramatic reduction of the ganglion cells associated with the oculomotor nerve occurs because of spontaneous cell death. Concomitantly, the same phenomenon of cell death is found in the trigeminal ganglion, especially in its rostromedial portion. Free degenerating perikarya can be found in the cavernous sinus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:2384329

  16. [Rare location of arachnoid cysts. Extratemporal cysts].

    PubMed

    Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Hinojosa, José; Pascual, Beatriz; Panaderos, Teresa; Welter, Diego; Muñoz, María J

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic management of arachnoid cysts depends largely on its location. Almost 50% of arachnoid cysts are located in the temporal fossa-Sylvian fissure, whereas the other half is distributed in different locations, sometimes exceptional. Under the name of infrequent location arachnoid cysts, a description is presented of those composed of 2 sheets of arachnoid membrane, which are not located in the temporal fossa, and are primary or congenital. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Vascular Leiomyoma and Geniculate Ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Magliulo, Giuseppe; Iannella, Giannicola; Valente, Michele; Greco, Antonio; Appiani, Mario Ciniglio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Discussion of a rare case of angioleiomyoma involving the geniculate ganglion and the intratemporal facial nerve segment and its surgical treatment. Design Case report. Setting Presence of an expansive lesion englobing the geniculate ganglion without any lesion to the cerebellopontine angle. Participants A 45-year-old man with a grade III facial paralysis according to the House-Brackmann scale of evaluation. Main Outcomes Measure Surgical pathology, radiologic appearance, histological features, and postoperative facial function. Results Removal of the entire lesion was achieved, preserving the anatomic integrity of the nerve; no nerve graft was necessary. Postoperative histology and immunohistochemical studies revealed features indicative of solid vascular leiomyoma. Conclusion Angioleiomyoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of geniculate ganglion lesions. Optimal postoperative facial function is possible only by preserving the anatomical and functional integrity of the facial nerve. PMID:23943721

  18. Odontogenic Cysts and Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, Elizabeth Ann; Collins, Bobby M

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews a myriad of common and uncommon odontogenic cysts and tumors. The clinical presentation, gross and microscopic features, differential diagnosis, prognosis, and diagnostic pitfalls are addressed for inflammatory cysts (periapical cyst, mandibular infected buccal cyst/paradental cyst), developmental cysts (dentigerous, lateral periodontal, glandular odontogenic, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst), benign tumors (keratocystic odontogenic tumor, ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, ameloblastic fibroma and fibroodontoma, odontoma, squamous odontogenic tumor, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, primordial odontogenic tumor, central odontogenic fibroma, and odontogenic myxomas), and malignant tumors (clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, ameloblastic fibrosarcoma). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rathke's cleft cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Steven P.; Bailey, Orville T.

    1972-01-01

    A 29 year old female with a chiasmal syndrome secondary to a Rathke's cleft cyst is described. The histology and pathogenesis of these rare cysts are discussed, contrasting them with other hypophysial cysts. Images PMID:4538890

  20. Bacteria associated with cysts of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).

    PubMed

    Nour, Sarah M; Lawrence, John R; Zhu, Hong; Swerhone, George D W; Welsh, Martha; Welacky, Tom W; Topp, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, causes economically significant damage to soybeans (Glycine max) in many parts of the world. The cysts of this nematode can remain quiescent in soils for many years as a reservoir of infection for future crops. To investigate bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts, cysts were obtained from eight SCN-infested farms in southern Ontario, Canada, and analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent means. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations of cyst contents revealed a microbial flora located on the cyst exterior, within a polymer plug region and within the cyst. Microscopic counts using 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazine-2-yl)aminofluorescein staining and in situ hybridization (EUB 338) indicated that the cysts contained (2.6 +/- 0.5) x 10(5) bacteria (mean +/- standard deviation) with various cellular morphologies. Filamentous fungi were also observed. Live-dead staining indicated that the majority of cyst bacteria were viable. The probe Nile red also bound to the interior polymer, indicating that it is lipid rich in nature. Bacterial community profiles determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis were simple in composition. Bands shared by all eight samples included the actinobacterium genera Actinomadura and STREPTOMYCES: A collection of 290 bacteria were obtained by plating macerated surface-sterilized cysts onto nutrient broth yeast extract agar or on actinomycete medium. These were clustered into groups of siblings by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting, and representative isolates were tentatively identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Thirty phylotypes were detected, with the collection dominated by Lysobacter and Variovorax spp. This study has revealed the cysts of this important plant pathogen to be rich in a variety of bacteria, some of which could presumably play a role in the ecology of SCN or have potential as biocontrol agents.

  1. Bacteria Associated with Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Sarah M.; Lawrence, John R.; Zhu, Hong; Swerhone, George D. W.; Welsh, Martha; Welacky, Tom W.; Topp, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, causes economically significant damage to soybeans (Glycine max) in many parts of the world. The cysts of this nematode can remain quiescent in soils for many years as a reservoir of infection for future crops. To investigate bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts, cysts were obtained from eight SCN-infested farms in southern Ontario, Canada, and analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent means. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations of cyst contents revealed a microbial flora located on the cyst exterior, within a polymer plug region and within the cyst. Microscopic counts using 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazine-2-yl)aminofluorescein staining and in situ hybridization (EUB 338) indicated that the cysts contained (2.6 ± 0.5) × 105 bacteria (mean ± standard deviation) with various cellular morphologies. Filamentous fungi were also observed. Live-dead staining indicated that the majority of cyst bacteria were viable. The probe Nile red also bound to the interior polymer, indicating that it is lipid rich in nature. Bacterial community profiles determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis were simple in composition. Bands shared by all eight samples included the actinobacterium genera Actinomadura and Streptomyces. A collection of 290 bacteria were obtained by plating macerated surface-sterilized cysts onto nutrient broth yeast extract agar or on actinomycete medium. These were clustered into groups of siblings by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting, and representative isolates were tentatively identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Thirty phylotypes were detected, with the collection dominated by Lysobacter and Variovorax spp. This study has revealed the cysts of this important plant pathogen to be rich in a variety of bacteria, some of which could presumably play a role in the ecology of SCN or have potential as biocontrol agents. PMID:12514048

  2. Expression of Ki-67 in odontogenic cysts: A comparative study between odontogenic keratocysts, radicular cysts and dentigerous cysts.

    PubMed

    Modi, Tapan G; Chalishazar, Monali; Kumar, Malay

    2018-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are the most common cysts of the jaws and are formed from the remnants of the odontogenic apparatus. Among these odontogenic cysts, radicular cysts (RCs) (about 60% of all diagnosed jaw cysts), dentigerous cysts (DCs) (16.6% of all jaw cysts) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) (11.2% of all developmental odontogenic cysts) are the most common. The behavior of any lesion is generally reflected by its growth potential. Growth potential is determined by measuring the cell proliferative activity. The cell proliferative activity is measured by various methods among which immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the commonly used technique. Most of the IHC studies on cell proliferation have been based on antibodies such as Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In the present study, the total sample size comprised of 45 cases of odontogenic cysts, with 15 cases each of OKC, RC and DC. Here, an attempt is made to study immunohistochemical (streptavidin-biotin detection system HRP-DAB) method to assess the expression of Ki-67 in different layers of the epithelial lining of OKCs, RCs and DCs. Ki-67 positive cells were highest in epithelium of OKC as compared to DC and RC. The increased Ki-67 labeling index and its expression in suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in OKC and its correlation with suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in DC and RC could contribute toward its clinically aggressive behavior. OKC is of more significance to the oral pathologist and oral surgeon because of its specific histopathological features, high recurrence rate and aggressive behavior.

  3. Simple Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  4. Short-wavelength cone-opponent retinal ganglion cells in mammals.

    PubMed

    Marshak, David W; Mills, Stephen L

    2014-03-01

    In all of the mammalian species studied to date, the short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cones and the S-cone bipolar cells that receive their input are very similar, but the retinal ganglion cells that receive synapses from the S-cone bipolar cells appear to be quite different. Here, we review the literature on mammalian retinal ganglion cells that respond selectively to stimulation of S-cones and respond with opposite polarity to longer wavelength stimuli. There are at least three basic mechanisms to generate these color-opponent responses, including: (1) opponency is generated in the outer plexiform layer by horizontal cells and is conveyed to the ganglion cells via S-cone bipolar cells, (2) inputs from bipolar cells with different cone inputs and opposite response polarity converge directly on the ganglion cells, and (3) inputs from S-cone bipolar cells are inverted by S-cone amacrine cells. These are not mutually exclusive; some mammalian ganglion cells that respond selectively to S-cone stimulation seem to utilize at least two of them. Based on these findings, we suggest that the small bistratified ganglion cells described in primates are not the ancestral type, as proposed previously. Instead, the known types of ganglion cells in this pathway evolved from monostratified ancestral types and became bistratified in some mammalian lineages.

  5. Expression of Ki-67 in odontogenic cysts: A comparative study between odontogenic keratocysts, radicular cysts and dentigerous cysts

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Tapan G; Chalishazar, Monali; Kumar, Malay

    2018-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Odontogenic cysts are the most common cysts of the jaws and are formed from the remnants of the odontogenic apparatus. Among these odontogenic cysts, radicular cysts (RCs) (about 60% of all diagnosed jaw cysts), dentigerous cysts (DCs) (16.6% of all jaw cysts) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) (11.2% of all developmental odontogenic cysts) are the most common. The behavior of any lesion is generally reflected by its growth potential. Growth potential is determined by measuring the cell proliferative activity. The cell proliferative activity is measured by various methods among which immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the commonly used technique. Most of the IHC studies on cell proliferation have been based on antibodies such as Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Materials and Method: In the present study, the total sample size comprised of 45 cases of odontogenic cysts, with 15 cases each of OKC, RC and DC. Here, an attempt is made to study immunohistochemical (streptavidin-biotin detection system HRP-DAB) method to assess the expression of Ki-67 in different layers of the epithelial lining of OKCs, RCs and DCs. Observations and Results: Ki-67 positive cells were highest in epithelium of OKC as compared to DC and RC. Conclusion: The increased Ki-67 labeling index and its expression in suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in OKC and its correlation with suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in DC and RC could contribute toward its clinically aggressive behavior. OKC is of more significance to the oral pathologist and oral surgeon because of its specific histopathological features, high recurrence rate and aggressive behavior. PMID:29731577

  6. Incomplete segregation of endorgan-specific vestibular ganglion cells in mice and rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maklad, A.; Fritzsch, B.

    1999-01-01

    The endorgan-specific distribution of vestibular ganglion cells was studied in neonatal and postnatal rats and mice using indocarbocyanine dye (DiI) and dextran amines for retrograde and anterograde labeling. Retrograde DiI tracing from the anterior vertical canal labeled neurons scattered throughout the whole superior vestibular ganglion, with denser labeling at the dorsal and central regions. Horizontal canal neurons were scattered along the dorsoventral axis with more clustering toward the dorsal and ventral poles of this axis. Utricular ganglion cells occupied predominantly the central region of the superior vestibular ganglion. This utricular population overlapped with both the anterior vertical and horizontal canals' ganglion cells. Posterior vertical canal neurons were clustered in the posterior part of the inferior vestibular ganglion. The saccular neurons were distributed in the two parts of the vestibular ganglion, the superior and inferior ganglia. Within the inferior ganglion, the saccular neurons were clustered in the anterior part. In the superior ganglion, the saccular neurons were widely scattered throughout the whole ganglion with more numerous neurons at the posterior half. Small and large neurons were labeled from all endorgans. Examination of the fiber trajectory within the superior division of the vestibular nerve showed no clear lamination of the fibers innervating the different endorgans. These results demonstrate an overlapping pattern between the different populations within the superior ganglion, while in the inferior ganglion, the posterior canal and saccular neurons show tighter clustering but incomplete segregation. This distribution implies that the ganglion cells are assigned for their target during development in a stochastic rather than topographical fashion.

  7. Tail gut cyst.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision.

  8. Odontogenic cysts in three dogs: one odontogenic keratocyst and two dentigerous cysts.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Ishiguro, Taketo; Takagi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kenji; Kimura, Takashi; Okumura, Masahiro; Fujinaga, Toru

    2004-09-01

    Odontogenic cysts, which showed cystic radiolucency in the jaw bone by radiographic examination and computed tomography, were enucleated by operation in 3 dogs. One dog had a odontogenic keratocyst in the incisive bone of the right maxilla and another 2 cases revealed dentigerous cysts in the mandible. These cyst walls were enucleated or transpired by semiconductor laser. Afterwards, osteogenesis was confirmed at the defective part of jaw bone by extirpation of the cyst in all cases, and no recurrence has been noted in any cases. Odontogenic cyst is a disease which should be treated by surgical extirpation or transpiration.

  9. Baker cyst

    MedlinePlus

    Popliteal cyst; Bulge-knee ... Baker cyst is caused by swelling in the knee. The swelling is due to an increase in the fluid that lubricates the knee joint (synovial fluid). When pressure builds up, fluid ...

  10. Nonsurgical root canal therapy of large cyst-like inflammatory periapical lesions and inflammatory apical cysts.

    PubMed

    Lin, Louis M; Ricucci, Domenico; Lin, Jarshen; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2009-05-01

    It is a general belief that large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts caused by root canal infection are less likely to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. A large cyst-like periapical lesion or an apical true cyst is formed within an area of apical periodontitis and cannot form by itself. Therefore, both large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts are of inflammatory and not of neoplastic origin. Apical periodontitis lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses, or cysts, fail to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy for the same reason, intraradicular and/or extraradicular infection. If the microbial etiology of large cyst-like periapical lesions and inflammatory apical true cysts in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy, the lesions might regress by the mechanism of apoptosis in a manner similar to the resolution of inflammatory apical pocket cysts. To achieve satisfactory periapical wound healing, surgical removal of an apical true cyst must include elimination of root canal infection.

  11. Thoracic arachnoid cyst resection.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2014-09-01

    Arachnoid cysts in the spinal cord may be asymptomatic. In some cases arachnoid cysts may exert mass effect on the thoracic spinal cord and lead to pain and myelopathy symptoms. Arachnoid cysts may be difficult to visualize on an MRI scan because the thin walled arachnoid may not be visible. Focal displacement of the thoracic spinal cord and effacement of the spinal cord with apparent widening of the cerebrospinal fluid space is seen. This video demonstrates surgical techniques to remove a dorsal arachnoid cyst causing spinal cord compression. The surgery involves a thoracic laminectomy. The dura is opened sharply with care taken not to open the arachnoid so that the cyst can be well visualized. The thickened arachnoid walls of the cyst are removed to alleviate the compression caused by the arachnoid cyst. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/pgUrl9xvsD0.

  12. Keratinizing dentigerous cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankar, Vaishnavi; Ranganathan, Kannan; Praveen, B

    2014-01-01

    Keratinizing dentigerous cyst is a rare entity. This article reports a case of keratinizing dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted mandibular canine. Clinical and radiological features, cone-beam computed tomography findings and histological features of the case are reported along with a discussion on keratinizing odontogenic cysts and the need for follow-up. PMID:24808713

  13. Proteomic Study of Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites, Cysts, and Cyst-Like Structures

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Nácar, Milka; Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Carrero, Julio C.

    2016-01-01

    The cyst stage of Entamoeba histolytica is a promising therapeutic target against human amoebiasis. Our research team previously reported the production in vitro of Cyst-Like Structures (CLS) sharing structural features with cysts, including rounded shape, size reduction, multinucleation, and the formation of a chitin wall coupled to the overexpression of glucosamine 6-phosphate isomerase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the chitin synthesis pathway. A proteomic study of E. histolytica trophozoites, cysts, and in vitro-produced CLS is reported herein to determine the nature of CLS, widen our knowledge on the cyst stage, and identify possible proteins and pathways involved in the encystment process. Total protein extracts were obtained from E. histolytica trophozoites, CLS, and partially purified cysts recovered from the feces of amoebic human patients; extracts were trypsin-digested and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In total, 1029 proteins were identified in trophozoites, 550 in CLS, and 411 in cysts, with 539, 299, and 84 proteins unique to each sample, respectively, and only 74 proteins shared by all three stages. About 70% of CLS proteins were shared with trophozoites, even though differences were observed in the relative protein abundance. While trophozoites showed a greater abundance of proteins associated to a metabolically active cell, CLS showed higher expression of proteins related to proteolysis, redox homeostasis, and stress response. In addition, the expression of genes encoding for the cyst wall proteins Jessie and Jacob was detected by RT-PCR and the Jacob protein identified by Western blotting and immunofluorescence in CLS. However, the proteomic profile of cysts as determined by LC-MS/MS was very dissimilar to that of trophozoites and CLS, with almost 40% of hypothetical proteins. Our global results suggest that CLS are more alike to trophozoites than to cysts, and they could be generated as a rapid survival response of trophozoites to a stressful condition

  14. Light-evoked currents in retinal ganglion cells from dystrophic RCS rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Wang, Yi; Yin, Zhengqin; Weng, Chuanhuang

    2013-01-01

    To study the electrophysiological properties of the light-evoked currents in ganglion cells in situations of retinal degeneration. We investigated light-evoked currents in ganglion cells by performing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from ganglion cells using a retina-stretched preparation from Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a model of retinal degeneration and congenic controls at different ages. Pharmacological inhibitors of the AMPA receptor (NBQX), GABA receptor (BMI), and sodium channels (TTX) were used to identify the components of the light-evoked currents in ON, OFF and ON-OFF retinal ganglion cells. We found that the light-evoked currents in ganglion cells from control rats were inhibited by NBQX, BMI and TTX, suggesting that AMPA receptors, GABA receptors and sodium channels contribute to these currents in ganglion cells. However, only AMPA receptor-mediated currents were recorded in RCS rats. Light-evoked inward currents were absent in the majority of ganglion cells from RCS rats, particularly at the later stages of retinal degeneration. At earlier stages of retinal degeneration, we found that both the timing and amplitude of light-evoked currents are significantly different in ganglion cells from RCS and control rats. Our study furthers the understanding of the electrophysiological characteristics of retinal ganglion cells during retinal degeneration, and provides insight into the optimal timing for the treatment of retinal degeneration. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Submental epidermoid cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Rafal; Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided.

  16. Renal Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside the renal cysts. Your doctor may use ultrasound imaging to monitor renal cysts for any changes over ... Related Articles and Media Ultrasound - Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body Ultrasound - Pelvis Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ...

  17. Vaginal cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential to determine what type of cyst or mass you may have. A mass or bulge of the vaginal wall may be ... to rule out vaginal cancer, especially if the mass appears to be solid. If the cyst is ...

  18. Submental epidermoid cysts in children

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided. PMID:28352681

  19. Surgery for pilonidal cyst

    MedlinePlus

    Pilonidal abscess; Pilonidal dimple; Pilonidal disease; Pilonidal cyst; Pilonidal sinus ... An infected pilonidal cyst or abscess requires surgical drainage. It will not heal with antibiotic medicines. If you continue to have infections, the pilonidal cyst can be ...

  20. Morphological patterns in children with ganglion related enteric neuronal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Henna, Nausheen; Nagi, Abdul H; Sheikh, Muhammad A; Shaukat, Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Hirschsprung's Disease (HD) is a developmental disorder of enteric nervous system characterised by the absence of ganglion cells in submucosal (Meissner's) and myenteric (Aurbach's) plexuses of distal bowel. The purpose of the present study was to observe and report the morphological patterns of ganglion related enteric neuronal abnormalities in children presented with clinical features of (HD) in a Pakistani population. A total of 92 patients with clinical presentation of HD were enrolled between March 2009 and October 2009. Among them, 8 were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. After detailed history and physical examination, paraffin embedded H and E stained sections were prepared from the serial open biopsies from colorectum. The data was analysed using SPSS-17. Frequencies and percentages are given for qualitative variables. Non-parametric Binomial Chi-Square test was applied to observe within group associations and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among 84 patients, 13 (15.5%) proved to be normally ganglionic whereas 71 (84.5%) showed ganglion related enteric neuronal abnormalities namely isolated hypoganglionosis 9 (12.7%), immaturity of ganglion cells 9 (12.7%), isolated hyperganglionosis (IND Type B) 2 (2.8%) and Hirschsprung's disease 51 (71.8%). Among HD group, 34 (66.7%) belonged to isolated form and 17 (33.3%) showed combined ganglion related abnormalities. Hirschsprung's disease is common in Pakistani population, followed by hypoganglionosis, immaturity of ganglion cells and IND type B. The presence of hypertrophic nerve fibres was significant in HD, hyperganglionosis and hypoganglionosis, whereas, no hypertrophic nerve fibres were appreciated in immaturity of ganglion cell group.

  1. Neurenteric Cyst or Neuroendodermal Cyst? Immunohistochemical Study and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ting; Lai, Hung-Yi; Jung, Shih-Ming; Lee, Ching-Yi; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Neurenteric cysts are rare central nervous system lesions derived from an endodermal origin. There is no consensus concerning pathogenesis because of the paucity of occurrences. We report an immunohistochemical study of 10 cases with neurenteric cysts and postulate its pathogenesis. Ten patients underwent surgical treatment for neurenteric cysts from 1995 to 2015. We retrospectively reviewed clinical, radiologic, operative, and pathologic findings for these patients. Immunohistochemical stains were completed in all cases to distinguish cell type and origin. Three cell types were identified: pseudostratified-ciliated, goblet-columnar, and simple cuboidal cells. All cases were positive for cytokeratin 7, and negative for cytokeratin 20, caudal-type homeobox 2, mucin 2, thyroid transcription factor 1, human chorionic gonadotropin, placental alkaline phosphatase, and cluster of differentiation 31. Four of them had positive staining for mucin 5AC, with expression only in goblet-columnar cells. According to the immunohistochemical results, the cells resembled the respiratory tract (pseudostratified-ciliated), stomach (goblet-columnar), and respiratory bronchioles (simple cuboidal). Seventy-five percent of cases with recurrence had a goblet-columnar component, emphasizing the importance of total resection of the cyst and complete pathologic examination. We postulate that the cystic tumor was derived from multipotent endodermal cells that migrated and traveled along the neuroectoderm, with incomplete differentiation into various cell types as a result of an unsuitable microenvironment. Because the neurenteric canal was only the channel of migration rather than a component of the cysts, the term neuroendodermal cysts is more precise in presenting the embryopathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Surgical treatment of perinatal ovarian cysts].

    PubMed

    Armas Alvarez, A L; Taboada Santomil, P; Pradillos Serna, J M; Rivera Chavez, L L; Méndez Gallart, R; Estévez Martínez, E; Rodríguez Barca, P; Bautista Casasnovas, A; Varela Cives, R

    2010-10-01

    Actually, the perinatal ovarian cysts are increasingly being diagnosed by prenatal and neonatal ultrasound. We reported our experience in the surgical management of perinatal ovarian cysts. Patients and methods. We have reviewed the clinical charts of 10 female newborns diagnosed of ovarian cysts who underwent surgical management in our hospital from 1989 to 2009. The ovarian cysts were diagnosed antenatally in 8 cases and period neonatal in 2 cases. The clinical presentation was asymptomatic abdominal mass in 7 cases. Ultrasound confirmed the ovarian mass in 8 patients. CT scan and MRI were necessary for confirm suspected diagnosis in two patients. Ultrasonography showed 7 complex cysts and 3 simple cysts. Surgery of the complicated cysts revealed ovarian torsion in 5 cases and 1 hemorragic cyst. At surgery, 5 patients underwent salpingooophorectomy, 2 patients needed oophorectomy and in 3 cases only cystectomy were necessary. The ovarian torsion is the most common complication and the cause of loss of the ovary. The neonatal ovarian cysts greater than 5 centimetres, symptomatic cysts, complex cysts and cysts persisting for more than 6 months need surgical intervention.

  3. Comparative anatomy of the accessory ciliary ganglion in mammals.

    PubMed

    Kuchiiwa, S; Kuchiiwa, T; Suzuki, T

    1989-01-01

    The orbits of 13 mammalian species (pig, sika deer, domestic sheep, horse, cat, fox, racoon dog, marten, rat, rabbit, crab-eating macaque, japanese macaque and man) were stained with silver nitrate and dissected under a dissecting microscope with special attention to the presence and location of the accessory ciliary ganglion. Some preparations were stained with thionin and examined as whole-mounts in a transmission microscope. The accessory ciliary ganglion was present in all 13 species, although the number and degree of development varied greatly from species to species. The accessory ciliary ganglion could be readily differentiated from the main ciliary ganglion in the following respects: it was located on the short ciliary nerve, and it had no root derived directly from the inferior trunk of the oculomotor nerve and it never attaches to this nerve. In many species, ganglion cells were also scattered in the short ciliary nerves in the stained whole preparations. In a few species, there were one or more small ganglia on the nerve to the inferior oblique muscle.

  4. Depicting the pterygopalatine ganglion on 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Bratbak, Daniel Fossum; Folvik, Mari; Nordgård, Ståle; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Dodick, David W; Matharu, Manjit; Tronvik, Erling

    2018-06-01

    The pterygopalatine ganglion has yet not been identified on medical images in living humans. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether the pterygopalatine ganglion could be identified on 3 T MR imaging. This study was performed on medical images of 20 Caucasian subjects on both sides (n = 40 ganglia) with an exploratory design. 3 T MR images were assessed by two physicians for the presence and size of the pterygopalatine ganglion. The distance from the pterygopalatine ganglion to four bony landmarks was registered from fused MR and CT images. In an equivalence analysis, the distances were compared to those obtained in an anatomical cadaveric study serving as historical controls (n = 50). A structure assumed to be the pterygopalatine ganglion was identified on MR images in all patients on both sides by both physicians. The mean size was depth 2.1 ± 0.5 mm, width 4.2 ± 1.1 mm and height 5.1 ± 1.4 mm, which is in accordance with formerly published data. Equivalence of the measurements on MR images and the historical controls was established, suggesting that the structure identified on the MR images is the pterygopalatine ganglion. Our findings suggest that the pterygopalatine ganglion can be detected on 3 T MR images. Identification of the pterygopalatine ganglion may be important for image-guided interventions targeting the pterygopalatine ganglion, and has the potential to increase the efficacy, safety and reliability for these treatments.

  5. Histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of cutaneous cysts in Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: clues for differentiation of nonsyndromic cysts.

    PubMed

    Tirado, Mariantonieta; Ständer, Sonja; Metze, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Goltz-Gorlin syndrome presents with multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, and cutaneous cysts, among other manifestations. The cutaneous cysts have been described as both epidermoid cysts and keratocysts but were not further characterized. Light microscopic examinations were made on 23 cutaneous cysts in 4 patients associated with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome located on extremities, face, trunk, palms, and soles and compared with nonsyndromic vellus hair cysts, steatocystomas, and hybrid cysts. Twenty-one of the syndromic cysts revealed alternating infundibular-like and steatocystoma-like squamous epitheliums in varying proportions. The cysts were lined by both smooth and corrugated squamous epithelium. The horny layer was composed by alternating areas of thin, lamellate, and compact eosinophilic keratin. Only 2 cases showed an exclusive steatocystoma-like type of epithelium very similar to odontogenic keratocysts. Sebaceous glands and follicular structures were absent. There were no differences between palmar and plantar cysts and other anatomic locations. The ultrastructural findings in syndromatic cysts confirmed variable expression of keratohyalin granules. Only 3 of 6 cases of nonsyndromic hybrid cysts showed overlapping features with syndromic cysts. Immunohistochemical profiling of keratin, involucrin, filaggrin, loricrin, and BCL-2 expression in syndromatic cysts showed exclusive positivity of K19 and continuous staining for BCL-2. In summary, 2 types of cutaneous cysts are characteristic of Goltz-Gorlin, irrelevant of their anatomic location, namely steatocystoma-like and more frequently hybrid-like. The diagnosis of syndromic hybrid-like cysts should be considered whenever infundibular and steatocystoma differentiation alternate and overlap. Altogether, these findings in epithelial cysts may raise the suspicion of Goltz-Gorlin as an underlying cause.

  6. Unicameral and aneurysmal bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Campanacci, M; Capanna, R; Picci, P

    1986-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight cases of unicameral bone cysts (UBC) treated with curettage and bone grafting were compared to 141 cases treated with cortisone injections. The end results were comparable in the two groups. Local recurrence risk factors in the surgical group were active cyst and previous operations. In the other group they were multilocation of the cyst, active cyst, and size of cyst. A new radiographic classification of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is proposed in a report of 198 cases of ABC. The treatment of choice in ABC is surgical and the type (curettage, curettage plus phenole or cryosurgery, resection or hemiresection) is selected on the basis of the radiographic aspect and the rate of growth of the cyst. Radiotherapy is only indicated in inoperable ABC cases.

  7. Dentigerous cyst in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lobprise, H B; Wiggs, R B

    1992-03-01

    An infrequently occurring tumor-like lesion arising from the cellular components of the developing dental follicle is the dentigerous cyst. These odontogenic cysts have classic clinical and radiographic findings. The cysts are locally invasive and aggressive and require prompt surgical management. This case describes the diagnosis and surgical treatment of a dentigerous cyst in the mandible of a dog.

  8. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  9. Globulomaxillary cysts--do they really exist?

    PubMed

    Dammer, U; Driemel, O; Mohren, W; Giedl, C; Reichert, T E

    2014-01-01

    The so-called "globulomaxillary cyst", described as a fissural cyst, caused by entrapped epithelium between the nasal and maxillary process, is no longer considered for its own entity. Nevertheless, cystic lesions, which correspond to the previous image of globulomaxillary cysts, do still occur in daily practice. This raises the question to which entities pathological processes in this particular region actually belong to. In a retrospective study, 17 cases (12 men and 5 women, 12-59 years old) of primarily diagnosed globulomaxillary cysts are analysed according to clinical, radiological and histological aspects, catamnestic processed and assigned to a new entity. The results are compared with the international literature and draws conclusions on the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Seven lateral periodontal cysts, four radicular cysts, two keratocystic odontogenic tumours, one adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, one periapical granuloma, one residual cyst and one undefined jaw cyst were determined. According to the results of our study and the data from the international literature, the entity globulomaxillary cyst is no longer justified.

  10. Non-infected and Infected Bronchogenic Cyst: The Correlation of Image Findings with Cyst Content

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Gil; Park, Ju Hwan; Park, Hye Min; Kwon, Woon Jung; Cha, Hee Jeong; Lee, Young Jik; Park, Chang Ryul; Jegal, Yangjin; Ahn, Jong-Joon

    2014-01-01

    We hereby report a case on bronchogenic cyst which is initially non-infected, then becomes infected after bronchoscopic ultrasound (US)-guided transesophageal fine-needle aspiration (FNA). The non-infected bronchogenic cyst appears to be filled with relatively echogenic materials on US, and the aspirate is a whitish jelly-like fluid. Upon contrast-enhanced MRI of the infected bronchogenic cyst, a T1-weighted image shows low signal intensity and a T2-weighted image shows high signal intensity, with no enhancements of the cyst contents, but enhancements of the thickened cystic wall. The patient then undergo video-assisted thoracic surgery 14 days after the FNA. The cystic mass is known to be completely removed, and the aspirate is yellowish and purulent. To understand the image findings that pertain to the gross appearance of the cyst contents will help to diagnose bronchogenic cysts in the future. PMID:24624219

  11. Diversity in spatial scope of contrast adaptation among mouse retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Khani, Mohammad Hossein; Gollisch, Tim

    2017-12-01

    Retinal ganglion cells adapt to changes in visual contrast by adjusting their response kinetics and sensitivity. While much work has focused on the time scales of these adaptation processes, less is known about the spatial scale of contrast adaptation. For example, do small, localized contrast changes affect a cell's signal processing across its entire receptive field? Previous investigations have provided conflicting evidence, suggesting that contrast adaptation occurs either locally within subregions of a ganglion cell's receptive field or globally over the receptive field in its entirety. Here, we investigated the spatial extent of contrast adaptation in ganglion cells of the isolated mouse retina through multielectrode-array recordings. We applied visual stimuli so that ganglion cell receptive fields contained regions where the average contrast level changed periodically as well as regions with constant average contrast level. This allowed us to analyze temporal stimulus integration and sensitivity separately for stimulus regions with and without contrast changes. We found that the spatial scope of contrast adaptation depends strongly on cell identity, with some ganglion cells displaying clear local adaptation, whereas others, in particular large transient ganglion cells, adapted globally to contrast changes. Thus, the spatial scope of contrast adaptation in mouse retinal ganglion cells appears to be cell-type specific. This could reflect differences in mechanisms of contrast adaptation and may contribute to the functional diversity of different ganglion cell types. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Understanding whether adaptation of a neuron in a sensory system can occur locally inside the receptive field or whether it always globally affects the entire receptive field is important for understanding how the neuron processes complex sensory stimuli. For mouse retinal ganglion cells, we here show that both local and global contrast adaptation exist and that this diversity in

  12. Diversity in spatial scope of contrast adaptation among mouse retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells adapt to changes in visual contrast by adjusting their response kinetics and sensitivity. While much work has focused on the time scales of these adaptation processes, less is known about the spatial scale of contrast adaptation. For example, do small, localized contrast changes affect a cell’s signal processing across its entire receptive field? Previous investigations have provided conflicting evidence, suggesting that contrast adaptation occurs either locally within subregions of a ganglion cell’s receptive field or globally over the receptive field in its entirety. Here, we investigated the spatial extent of contrast adaptation in ganglion cells of the isolated mouse retina through multielectrode-array recordings. We applied visual stimuli so that ganglion cell receptive fields contained regions where the average contrast level changed periodically as well as regions with constant average contrast level. This allowed us to analyze temporal stimulus integration and sensitivity separately for stimulus regions with and without contrast changes. We found that the spatial scope of contrast adaptation depends strongly on cell identity, with some ganglion cells displaying clear local adaptation, whereas others, in particular large transient ganglion cells, adapted globally to contrast changes. Thus, the spatial scope of contrast adaptation in mouse retinal ganglion cells appears to be cell-type specific. This could reflect differences in mechanisms of contrast adaptation and may contribute to the functional diversity of different ganglion cell types. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Understanding whether adaptation of a neuron in a sensory system can occur locally inside the receptive field or whether it always globally affects the entire receptive field is important for understanding how the neuron processes complex sensory stimuli. For mouse retinal ganglion cells, we here show that both local and global contrast adaptation exist and that this diversity

  13. Branchial Cleft Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Nahata, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity. PMID:27904209

  14. Branchial Cleft Cyst.

    PubMed

    Nahata, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity.

  15. Agmatine protects retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis in transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Samin; Lee, Jong Eun; Kim, Chan Yun; Seong, Gong Je

    2007-01-01

    Background Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine formed by the decarboxylation of L-arginine. We investigated the protective effects of agmatine against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5). RGC-5 cells were cultured in a closed hypoxic chamber (5% O2) with or without agmatine. Cell viability was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and apoptosis was examined by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Expression and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; JNK, ERK p44/42, and p38) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were investigated by Western immunoblot analysis. The effects of agmatine were compared to those of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a well-known protective neurotrophin for retinal ganglion cells. Results After 48 hours of hypoxic culture, the LDH assay showed 52.3% cell loss, which was reduced to 25.6% and 30.1% when agmatine and BDNF were administered, respectively. This observed cell loss was due to apoptotic cell death, as established by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Although total expression of MAPKs and NF-κB was not influenced by hypoxic injury, phosphorylation of these two proteins was increased. Agmatine reduced phosphorylation of JNK and NF-κB, while BDNF suppressed phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Conclusion Our results show that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage in RGC-5 cells and that its effects may act through the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our data suggest that agmatine may lead to a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce retinal ganglion cell injury related to hypoxia. PMID:17908330

  16. [The neurotrophic effect of endogenous NT-3 from adult cat spared dorsal root ganglion on ganglionic neurons].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xue; Wang, Ting-hua; Wang, Te-wei; Liu, Su; Chen, Si-xiu; Ou, Ke-qun

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the neurotrophic effect of endogenous NT-3 from adult cat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) on ganglionic neurons. Rhizotomy of bilateral L1, L3, L5 and L7 dorsal roots of cats was performed, leaving L2, L4 and L6 DRG as spared DRGs. The separate neurons of normal (control) DRG, spared DRG and anti-NT-3 antibody blocking DRG were cultured in vitro respectively. The number of survival neurons and the length of neurites were measured and used for comparison in the control, spared DRG, and block groups. There were survival neurons and cell clusters in every group. The number of survival neurons and cell clusters of spared DRG group were much larger than those of the control and block groups. The neurite length of neurons, the neurite number and the length of cell clusters of spared DRG group were much greater than those of control and block groups. Endogenous NT-3 from spared DRG may act on ganglionic neurons to maintain survival of neuron and stimulate growth of neurite.

  17. Spiral Ganglion Stem Cells Can Be Propagated and Differentiated Into Neurons and Glia

    PubMed Central

    Zecha, Veronika; Wagenblast, Jens; Arnhold, Stefan; Edge, Albert S. B.; Stöver, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The spiral ganglion is an essential functional component of the peripheral auditory system. Most types of hearing loss are associated with spiral ganglion cell degeneration which is irreversible due to the inner ear's lack of regenerative capacity. Recent studies revealed the existence of stem cells in the postnatal spiral ganglion, which gives rise to the hope that these cells might be useful for regenerative inner ear therapies. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of sphere-forming stem cells isolated from the spiral ganglion of postnatal mice. We show that spiral ganglion spheres have characteristics similar to neurospheres isolated from the brain. Importantly, spiral ganglion sphere cells maintain their major stem cell characteristics after repeated propagation, which enables the culture of spheres for an extended period of time. In this work, we also demonstrate that differentiated sphere-derived cell populations not only adopt the immunophenotype of mature spiral ganglion cells but also develop distinct ultrastructural features of neurons and glial cells. Thus, our work provides further evidence that self-renewing spiral ganglion stem cells might serve as a promising source for the regeneration of lost auditory neurons. PMID:24940560

  18. [Arachnoid cysts: Embriology and pathology].

    PubMed

    García-Conde, Mario; Martín-Viota, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    There is still great controversy surrounding the origin of the arachnoid cyst. The most accepted theory in the case of congenital cysts explains how they are formed from an anomalous development of the arachnoid membrane, which is unfolded allowing the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside and creating a cyst. This theory seems to explain the origin of convexity and sylvian cistern arachnoid cysts, whereas those in other locations might be due to other mechanisms. In the anatomopathological analysis, the arachnoid cyst wall can be seen as having few differences from normal, although thickened due to an increase quantity of collagenous material. A description of the embryological development of the arachnoid layer and cyst formation is presented, describing the main anatomopathological findings. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Branchial cleft cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop normally. The birth defect may appear as open spaces called cleft sinuses, which may develop on one or both sides of the neck. A branchial cleft cyst may form from fluid drained from a sinus. The cyst or sinus can become infected.

  20. Intramedullary cyst formation after removal of multiple intradural spinal arachnoid cysts: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zekaj, Edvin; Saleh, Christian; Servello, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Background: A rare cause of spinal cord compression is spinal arachnoid cysts. Symptoms are caused by spinal cord compression, however, asymptomatic patients have been also reported. Treatment options depend upon symptom severity and clinical course. Case Description: We report the case of a 47-year-old patient who developed an intramedullary arachnoid cyst after removal of an intradural extramedullary cyst. Conclusion: Surgery should be considered early in a symptomatic disease course. Longstanding medullary compression may reduce the possibility of neurological recovery as well as secondary complications such as intramedullary cyst formation. PMID:27512608

  1. Update on pancreatic cyst fluid analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rockacy, Matthew; Khalid, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions (PCL) may be incidentally detected in up to 13.5% of patients. These represent a wide variety of lesions including mucinous cysts [intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN)] that have malignant potential. The difficulty in identifying the various PCL and their unpredictable potential for malignant degeneration makes their management cumbersome. The current diagnostic evaluation of PCL often includes EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for cyst fluid analysis. Cyst fluid can be analyzed for tumor markers, cytology, mucins, DNA analysis and amylase. Pancreatic cyst CEA level is considered the most accurate tumor marker for diagnosing mucinous cysts. Approximately 0.2 to 1.0 mL of cyst fluid is required to run the test and a cut-off of 192 ng/ mL can be expected to capture ~75% of mucinous cysts. The presence of a KRAS mutation is very specific for a mucinous cyst but lacks sensitivity. Cytology is especially helpful in diagnosing malignancy typically in the presence of a solid component in the cyst. Newer markers to improve diagnostic accuracy are on the horizon, but clinical studies are awaited. PMID:24714589

  2. Cyclin d1 expression in odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Nasim; Modabbernia, Shirin; Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Sajjadi, Samad

    2013-01-01

    In the present study expression of cyclin D1 in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and glandular odontogenic cyst was investigated to compare proliferative activity in these lesions. Immunohistochemical staining of cyclin D1 on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of odontogenic keratocysts (n=23), dentigerous cysts (n=20), radicular cysts (n=20) and glandular odontogenic cysts (n=5) was performed by standard EnVision method. Then, slides were studied to evaluate the following parameters in epithelial lining of cysts: expression, expression pattern, staining intensity and localization of expression. The data analysis showed statistically significant difference in cyclin D1 expression in studied groups (p < 0.001). Assessment of staining intensity and staining pattern showed more strong intensity and focally pattern in odontogenic keratocysts, but difference was not statistically significant among groups respectively (p=0.204, 0.469). Considering expression localization, cyclin D1 positive cells in odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts were frequently confined in parabasal layer, different from radicular cysts and glandular odontogenic cysts. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Findings showed higher expression of cyclin D1 in parabasal layer of odontogenic keratocyst and the entire cystic epithelium of glandular odontogenic cysts comparing to dentigerous cysts and radicular cysts, implying the possible role of G1-S cell cycle phase disturbances in the aggressiveness of odontogenic keratocyst and glandular odontogenic cyst.

  3. Odonto calcifying cyst.

    PubMed

    Aswath, Nalini; Mastan, Kader; Manikandan, Tirupathi; Samuel, Gigi

    2013-01-01

    The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is reported to be associated with odontoma in 24% of cases. Separation of the cases of calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with odontoma (COCaO) may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. The literature revealed 52 cases of COCaO. The male to female ratio was 1:1.9, with a mean age of 16 years. Most common location was the maxilla (61.5%). The radiographic appearance of most cases (80.5%) was a well-defined, mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion. Histologically, the lesions consisted of a single large cyst with tooth-like structures as an integral part, giving the impression of a single lesion. In addition to the unique histologic features, differences in gender and distribution were found between the cases of COCaO and those of simple COC. COCaO may be regarded as a separate entity and classified as a benign, mixed odontogenic tumor. The term odontocalcifying odontogenic cyst is suggested.

  4. Characterization of Ganglionic Acetylcholine Receptor Autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Vernino, Steven; Lindstrom, Jon; Hopkins, Steve; Wang, Zhengbei; Low, Phillip A.

    2008-01-01

    In myasthenia gravis (MG), autoantibodies bind to the α1 subunit and other subunits of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an antibody-mediated neurological disorder caused by antibodies against neuronal AChRs in autonomic ganglia. Subunits of muscle and neuronal AChR are homologous. We examined the specificity of AChR antibodies in patients with MG and AAG. Ganglionic AChR autoantibodies found in AAG patients are specific for AChRs containing the α3 subunit. Muscle and ganglionic AChR antibody specificities are distinct. Antibody crossreactivity between AChRs with different α subunits is uncommon but can occur. PMID:18485491

  5. Expression of cytokeratins in odontogenic jaw cysts: monoclonal antibodies reveal distinct variation between different cyst types.

    PubMed

    Hormia, M; Ylipaavalniemi, P; Nagle, R B; Virtanen, I

    1987-08-01

    Immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies was used to study and compare the cytokeratin content of odontogenic cysts and normal gingival epithelium. Two monoclonal antibodies, PKK2 and KA1, stained the whole epithelium in all cyst samples. In gingiva, PKK2 gave a suprabasal staining and KA1 reacted with all epithelial cell layers. Antibodies PKK1, KM 4.62 and KS 8.12 gave a heterogeneous staining in follicular and radicular cysts. In keratocysts and in gingiva PKK1 and KM 4.62 reacted mainly with basal cells and KS 8.12 gave a suprabasal staining. Antibodies reacting with the simple epithelial cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18 (PKK3, KS 18.18) recognized in gingiva only solitary cells compatible with Merkel cells. In a case of follicular ameloblastoma a distinct staining of tumor epithelium was revealed with these antibodies. In 2 follicular cysts, but not in other cyst types, a layer of cytokeratin 18-positive cells was revealed. KA5 and KK 8.60 antibodies, reacting exclusively with keratinizing epithelia, including normal gingiva, gave no reaction in radicular cysts, keratocysts and ameloblastoma. Two of the follicular cysts, were negative for PKK3 and KS 18.18, but reacted strongly with KA5 and KK 8.60. The present results show that odontogenic jaw cysts have distinct differences in their cytokeratin content. With the exception of some follicular cysts, they lack signs of keratinizing epithelial differentiation. Only follicular cysts appear to share with some types of ameloblastoma the expression of cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18.

  6. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors

  7. Ganglionic adrenergic action modulates ovarian steroids and nitric oxide in prepubertal rat.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Casais, Marilina; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2006-08-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. The purpose of this work was to analyse the ganglionic adrenergic influence on the ovarian release of steroids and NO and the possible steroids/NO relationship. The experiments were carried out in the ex vivo coeliac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve (SON)-ovary system of prepubertal rats. The coeliac ganglion-SON-ovary system was incubated in Krebs Ringer-bicarbonate buffer in presence of adrenergic agents in the ganglionic compartment. The accumulation of progesterone, androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. Norepinephrine in coeliac ganglion inhibited the liberation of progesterone and increased androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in ovary. The addition of alpha and beta adrenergic antagonists also showed different responses in the liberation of the substances mentioned before, which, from a physiological point of view, reveals the presence of adrenergic receptors in coeliac ganglion. In relation to propranolol, it does not revert the effect of noradrenaline on the liberation of progesterone, which leads us to think that it might also have a "per se" effect on the ganglion, responsible for the ovarian response observed for progesterone. Finally, we can conclude that the ganglionic adrenergic action via SON participates on the regulation of the prepubertal ovary in one of two ways: either increasing the NO, a gaseous neurotransmitter with cytostatic characteristics, to favour the immature follicles to remain dormant or increasing the liberation of androstenedione and oestradiol, the steroids necessary for the beginning of the near first estral cycle.

  8. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, David P.; Mahood, Albert D.

    1981-01-01

    Many Chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. We have used an ecologic and biogeographic approach to study the distribution of cyst forms in sediments and have established that many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples we have studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Numerous taxonomic problems have yet to be resolved. We believe that chrysophyte cysts have the potential to become a useful tool for both modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits.

  9. Evidence that ganglion cells react to retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, Francie E; Radeke, Monte J; Lewis, Geoffrey P; Fisher, Steven K

    2003-03-01

    Growth associated protein 43 (GAP 43) is involved in synapse formation and it is expressed in the retina in a very specific pattern. Although GAP 43 is downregulated at the time of synapse formation, it can be re-expressed following injury such as axotomy or ischemia. Because of this we sought to characterize the expression of GAP 43 after retinal detachment (RD). Immunoblot, immunocytochemical and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) techniques were used to assess the level of GAP 43 expression after experimental RD. GAP 43 was localized to three sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer of the normal retina. GAP 43 became upregulated in a subset of retinal ganglion cells following at least 7 days of RD. By immunoblot GAP 43 could be detected by 3 days. QPCR shows the upregulation of GAP 43 message by 6hr of detachment. To further characterize changes in ganglion cells, we used an antibody to neurofilament 70 and 200kDa (NF) proteins. Anti-NF labels horizontal cells, ganglion cell dendrites in the inner plexiform layer, and ganglion cell axons (fasicles) in the normal retina. Following detachment it is upregulated in horizontal cells and ganglion cells. When detached retina was double labelled with anti-GAP 43 and anti-NF, some cells were labelled with both markers, while others labelled with only one. We have previously shown that second order neurons respond to detachment; here we show that third order neurons are responding as well. Cellular remodelling of this type in response to detachment may explain the slow recovery of vision that often occurs after reattachment, or those changes that are often assumed to be permanent.

  10. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in penguins.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Nolan, Paul M; Collin, Shaun P; Hart, Nathan S

    2012-01-01

    Penguins are a group of flightless seabirds that exhibit numerous morphological, behavioral and ecological adaptations to their amphibious lifestyle, but little is known about the topographic organization of neurons in their retinas. In this study, we used retinal wholemounts and stereological methods to estimate the total number and topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in addition to an anatomical estimate of spatial resolving power in two species of penguins: the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, and the king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus. The total number of ganglion cells per retina was approximately 1,200,000 in the little penguin and 1,110,000 in the king penguin. The topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in both species revealed the presence of a prominent horizontal visual streak with steeper gradients in the little penguin. The little penguin retinas showed ganglion cell density peaks of 21,867 cells/mm², affording spatial resolution in water of 17.07-17.46 cycles/degree (12.81-13.09 cycles/degree in air). In contrast, the king penguin showed a relatively lower peak density of ganglion cells of 14,222 cells/mm², but--due to its larger eye--slightly higher spatial resolution in water of 20.40 cycles/degree (15.30 cycles/degree in air). In addition, we mapped the distribution of giant ganglion cells in both penguin species using Nissl-stained wholemounts. In both species, topographic mapping of this cell type revealed the presence of an area gigantocellularis with a concentric organization of isodensity contours showing a peak in the far temporal retina of approximately 70 cells/mm² in the little penguin and 39 cells/mm² in the king penguin. Giant ganglion cell densities gradually fall towards the outermost isodensity contours revealing the presence of a vertically organized streak. In the little penguin, we confirmed our cytological characterization of giant ganglion cells using immunohistochemistry for microtubule

  11. Intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Atoini, Fouad; Ouarssani, Aziz; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed; Aitlhou, Fatima; Rguibi, Mustapha Idrissi; Hommadi, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease caused by echinococcus granulosus is still a serious problem in both underdeveloped and developing countries. Clinical signs of the disease are not specific. Most patients have a few symptoms when a hydatid cyst is discovered. Symptoms depend on its location, size and complications. Parasite can settle in every organ and tissue in the human body. We report two cases with intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst with multiple cysts. Pathophysiology of the mode of dissemination, and surgery are discussed.

  12. Sphenopalatine ganglion: block, radiofrequency ablation and neurostimulation - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kwo Wei David; Przkora, Rene; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2017-12-28

    Sphenopalatine ganglion is the largest collection of neurons in the calvarium outside of the brain. Over the past century, it has been a target for interventional treatment of head and facial pain due to its ease of access. Block, radiofrequency ablation, and neurostimulation have all been applied to treat a myriad of painful syndromes. Despite the routine use of these interventions, the literature supporting their use has not been systematically summarized. This systematic review aims to collect and summarize the level of evidence supporting the use of sphenopalatine ganglion block, radiofrequency ablation and neurostimulation. Medline, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were reviewed for studies on sphenopalatine ganglion block, radiofrequency ablation and neurostimulation. Studies included in this review were compiled and analyzed for their treated medical conditions, study design, outcomes and procedural details. Studies were graded using Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine for level of evidence. Based on the level of evidence, grades of recommendations are provided for each intervention and its associated medical conditions. Eighty-three publications were included in this review, of which 60 were studies on sphenopalatine ganglion block, 15 were on radiofrequency ablation, and 8 were on neurostimulation. Of all the studies, 23 have evidence level above case series. Of the 23 studies, 19 were on sphenopalatine ganglion block, 1 study on radiofrequency ablation, and 3 studies on neurostimulation. The rest of the available literature was case reports and case series. The strongest evidence lies in using sphenopalatine ganglion block, radiofrequency ablation and neurostimulation for cluster headache. Sphenopalatine ganglion block also has evidence in treating trigeminal neuralgia, migraines, reducing the needs of analgesics after endoscopic sinus surgery and reducing pain associated with nasal packing

  13. Management strategy for unicameral bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Chuo, Chin-Yi; Fu, Yin-Chih; Chien, Song-Hsiung; Lin, Gau-Tyan; Wang, Gwo-Jaw

    2003-06-01

    The management of a unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration, and local injection of steroid, autogenous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to the more invasive surgical procedures of conventional curettage and grafting (with autogenous or allogenous bone) or subtotal resection with bone grafting. The best treatment for a unicameral bone cyst is yet to be identified. Better understanding of the pathology will change the concept of management. The aim of treatment is to prevent pathologic fracture, to promote cyst healing, and to avoid cyst recurrence and re-fracture. We retrospectively reviewed 17 cases of unicameral bone cysts (12 in the humerus, 3 in the femur, 2 in the fibula) managed by conservative observation, curettage and bone grafting with open reduction and internal fixation, or continuous decompression and drainage with a cannulated screw. We suggest percutaneous cannulated screw insertion to promote cyst healing and prevent pathologic fracture. We devised a protocol for the management of unicameral bone cysts.

  14. Infected orbital cyst following exenteration.

    PubMed

    Barak, A; Hirsh, A; Rosner, M; Rosen, N

    1996-09-01

    An orbital cyst is a rare complication of orbital trauma and exenteration. Infections of such cysts have not been described, and are potentially dangerous unless treated immediately. The authors describe a case of delayed treatment of such an infected cyst, which resolved following surgical drainage. The potentially hazardous outcome makes knowledge of such cases important.

  15. Epidermoid cyst of the spleen

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Quoc Duy; Monnard, Etienne; Hoogewoud, Henri Marcel

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with a palpable mass and abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant. A physical examination revealed tenderness in this region. An ultrasound performed initially showed a large cystic structure. A CT examination revealed a large cyst originating in the spleen with loculations in its upper part and focal calcification in the wall. On MRI, the cystic mass showed high signal on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. The carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) was measured at 88 U/ml (standard <37.1 mUI/l). According to the imaging examinations and laboratory tests performed, it was impossible to determine if the splenic cyst was parasitic or non-parasitic. Given the most important risks of complications encountered in parasitic cysts, it was decided to treat this splenic cyst as a parasitic cyst. For this reason, an elective laparoscopic splenectomy with preoperative embolisation of the splenic artery was performed. The histological diagnosis was a primary epidermoid splenic cyst with inner lining epithelial cells. PMID:23667225

  16. Structural basis of orientation sensitivity of cat retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, A G; Schall, J D

    1983-11-10

    We investigated the structural basis of the physiological orientation sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells (Levick and Thibos, '82). The dendritic fields of 840 retinal ganglion cells labeled by injections of horseradish peroxidase into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) or optic tracts of normal cats. Siamese cats, and cat deprived of patterned visual experience from birth by monocular lid-suture (MD) were studied. Mathematical techniques designed to analyze direction were used to find the dendritic field orientation of each cell. Statistical techniques designed for angular data were used to determine the relationship between dendritic field orientation and angular position on the retina (polar angle). Our results indicate that 88% of retinal ganglion cells have oriented dendritic fields and that dendritic field orientation is related systematically to retinal position. In all regions of retina more that 0.5 mm from the area centralis the dendritic fields of retinal ganglion cells are oriented radially, i.e., like the spokes of a wheel having the area centralis at its hub. This relationship was present in all animals and cell types studied and was strongest for cells located close to the horizontal meridian (visual streak) of the retina. Retinal ganglion cells appear to be sensitive to stimulus orientation because they have oriented dendritic fields.

  17. Morphology of retinal ganglion cells in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Isayama, Tomoki; O'Brien, Brendan J; Ugalde, Irma; Muller, Jay F; Frenz, Aaron; Aurora, Vikas; Tsiaras, William; Berson, David M

    2009-12-01

    The ferret is the premiere mammalian model of retinal and visual system development, but the spectrum and properties of its retinal ganglion cells are less well understood than in another member of the Carnivora, the domestic cat. Here, we have extensively surveyed the dendritic architecture of ferret ganglion cells and report that the classification scheme previously developed for cat ganglion cells can be applied with few modifications to the ferret retina. We confirm the presence of alpha and beta cells in ferret retina, which are very similar to those in cat retina. Both cell types exhibited an increase in dendritic field size with distance from the area centralis (eccentricity) and with distance from the visual streak. Both alpha and beta cell populations existed as two subtypes whose dendrites stratified mainly in sublamina a or b of the inner plexiform layer. Six additional morphological types of ganglion cells were identified: four monostratified cell types (delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta) and two bistratified types (theta and iota). These types closely resembled their counterparts in the cat in terms of form, relative field size, and stratification. Our data indicate that, among carnivore species, the retinal ganglion cells resemble one another closely and that the ferret is a useful model for studies of the ontogenetic differentiation of ganglion cell types.

  18. The Toxoplasma gondii cyst wall protein CST1 is critical for cyst wall integrity and promotes bradyzoite persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Tadakimi; Bzik, David J.; Ma, Yan Fen

    2013-12-26

    Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one third of the world’s population. A key to the success of T.gondii is its ability to persist for the life of its host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The glycosylated cyst wall is the key structural feature that facilitates persistence and oral transmission of this parasite. We have identified CST1 (TGME49_064660) as a 250 kDa SRS (SAG1 related sequence) domain protein with a large mucin-like domain. CST1 is responsible for the Dolichos biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) lectin binding characteristic of T. gondii cysts. Deletion of CST1 results in a fragile brain cyst phenotype revealed bymore » a thinning and disruption of the underlying region of the cyst wall. These defects are reversed by complementation of CST1. Additional complementation experiments demonstrate that the CST1-mucin domain is necessary for the formation of a normal cyst wall structure, the ability of the cyst to resist mechanical stress and binding of DBA to the cyst wall. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis demonstrated dysregulation of bradyzoite genes within the various cst1 mutants. These results indicate that CST1 functions as a key structural component that reinforces the cyst wall structure and confers essential sturdiness to the T. gondii tissue cyst.« less

  19. [Study of 103 cases of odontogenic cysts].

    PubMed

    Moctezuma-Bravo, Gustavo Sergio; Magallanes-González, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    To describe characteristics of odontogenic cysts in a Mexican population. A retrospective study of 103 odontogenic cysts in 86 patients was done. The data were obtained from files of the Pathology Department of a General Hospital. We observed a frequency of the 8.13 % of odontogenic cysts (103) in 1266 pathological studies. The dentigerous cyst 56 % and odontogenic keratocyst 33 % were the most common odontogenic cysts. Sixty one percent of the cysts appeared in the second and third decades of life. In 71 cysts, 42 % appeared in the posterior region jaw, 29 % in the anterior region of the maxilla and 21 % in the posterior region of the maxilla. A 6.7 % developed a recurrence after treatment and a case of keratocyst of posterior region of the maxilla was associated with epidermoid carcinoma. The study included three women with the syndrome of carcinoma of the basal cell nevus, who presented multiple keratocysts. The dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts were the most frequent odontogenic cysts. They appeared mainly in the second and third decades of life.

  20. An anatomic and morphometric study of C2 nerve root ganglion and its corresponding foramen.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Okan

    2004-03-01

    Exposing and measuring the dorsal root ganglion of the second cervical spinal nerve (C2 ganglion) and the second intervertebral space, which is present between posterior arch of atlas (APA) and lamina of axis (LA). This study aims to investigate the shape, size, and relation of the C2 ganglion with the adjacent structures that limits the corresponding intervertebral space and the alterations of relation between C2 ganglion and APA and between C2 ganglion and LA with the movements of the head bilaterally. In previous studies, the position and the heights of the C2 ganglion have been described. But the shape of the C2 ganglion and its relation to APA and LA by the movement of the head had not been considered previously. Upper cervical spines of 20 cadavers were dissected posteriorly. The muscles attaching to the atlas and axis were resected to ease the head movements. The heights of the C2 ganglion and space were measured in anatomic position and in hyperextension with opposite rotation position of the head. Originally in this study, plastic dough casts were used to obtain reliable outcomes. The shape of the ganglions was defined in three types: 70% were oval, 20% were spindle-like, and 10% were spherical. The height of the C2 ganglion was 4.97 +/- 0.92 mm on the right side and 4.6 +/- 0.84 mm on the left side. The height of the intervertebral space in anatomic position and in hyperextension with rotation to the opposite position of the head were, respectively, 9.74 +/- 1.77 mm and 7.48 +/- 1.44 mm on the right side and 9.64 +/- 1.47 mm and 7.12 +/- 0.96 mm on the left side. There was no bone contact or impact to the ganglion in each position of the head. The C2 ganglions are confident in their place between APA and LA. No bone contact to the C2 ganglion was detected in either normal limited or in forced head motions.

  1. Managing Incidental Pancreatic Cysts.

    PubMed

    Phan, Jennifer; Raman Muthusamy, V

    2018-06-09

    The goal of this review is to critically analyze the current literature regarding the management of incidental pancreatic cysts. Given their increased rates of detection due to the frequent use of cross-sectional imaging, correctly identifying the subset of high risk lesions that are appropriate for surgical resection is critical. However, the existing consensus and societal guidelines discussed in this review lack high quality data to create evidence-based recommendations, making achieving this important aim challenging. Several recent studies have focused on the natural history of pancreatic cysts and defining the role of endoscopic ultrasound, which remains unclear. EUS-guided diagnostic tools include molecular analysis of obtained fluid; EUS-guided FNA, FNB, and intracystic forceps biopsy of the cyst wall; and confocal endomicroscopy. While their precise role in diagnosing pancreatic cystic neoplasms remains to be defined, they represent promising innovations that may play a future role in cyst assessment and management. Large, long-term, prospective studies of incidentally identified pancreatic cysts are essential to fully understand their natural history and potential for neoplastic progression. Given the absence of such data at present, an individualized patient approach is recommended.

  2. P53 Protein Expression in Dental Follicle, Dentigerous Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Inflammatory Subtypes of Cysts: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatemeh, Mashhadiabbas; Sepideh, Arab; Sara, Bagheri Seyedeh; Nazanin, Mahdavi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives An odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst with aggressive clinical behavior. This cyst shows a different growth mechanism from the more common dentigerous cyst and now has been renamed as a keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Inflammation can assist tumor growth via different mechanisms including dysregulation of the p53 gene. This study aims to assess and compare the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 in inflamed and non-inflamed types of OKC and dentigerous cyst. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of p53 was assessed in 14 cases of dental follicle, 34 cases of OKC (including 18 inflamed OKCs), and 31 cases of dentigerous cyst (including 16 inflamed cysts). Results The mean percentage of p53 positive cells was 0.7% in dental follicles, 5.4% in non-inflamed OKCs, 17.3% in inflamed OKCs, 1.2% in non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and 2.2% in inflamed dentigerous cysts. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.050) except for the difference between inflamed and non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and between dental follicle and non-inflamed dentigerous cyst. Conclusions The difference in p53 expression in OKC and dentigerous cyst can explain their different growth mechanism and clinical behavior. Inflammation is responsible for the change in behavior of neoplastic epithelium of OKC via p53 overexpression. PMID:28584604

  3. P53 Protein Expression in Dental Follicle, Dentigerous Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Inflammatory Subtypes of Cysts: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Fatemeh, Mashhadiabbas; Sepideh, Arab; Sara, Bagheri Seyedeh; Nazanin, Mahdavi

    2017-05-01

    An odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst with aggressive clinical behavior. This cyst shows a different growth mechanism from the more common dentigerous cyst and now has been renamed as a keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Inflammation can assist tumor growth via different mechanisms including dysregulation of the p53 gene. This study aims to assess and compare the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 in inflamed and non-inflamed types of OKC and dentigerous cyst. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 was assessed in 14 cases of dental follicle, 34 cases of OKC (including 18 inflamed OKCs), and 31 cases of dentigerous cyst (including 16 inflamed cysts). The mean percentage of p53 positive cells was 0.7% in dental follicles, 5.4% in non-inflamed OKCs, 17.3% in inflamed OKCs, 1.2% in non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and 2.2% in inflamed dentigerous cysts. The differences between the groups were statistically significant ( p < 0.050) except for the difference between inflamed and non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and between dental follicle and non-inflamed dentigerous cyst. The difference in p53 expression in OKC and dentigerous cyst can explain their different growth mechanism and clinical behavior. Inflammation is responsible for the change in behavior of neoplastic epithelium of OKC via p53 overexpression.

  4. Parathyroid cysts: the Latin-American experience.

    PubMed

    Román-González, Alejandro; Aristizábal, Natalia; Aguilar, Carolina; Palacios, Karen; Pérez, Juan Camilo; Vélez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Duque, Carlos Simon; Sanabria, Alvaro

    2016-12-01

    Parathyroid cyst is an infrequent and unsuspected disease. There are more than 300 hundred cases reported in the world literature, a few of them are from Latin America. The experience of our centers and a review of the cases are presented. Case report of a series of patients with parathyroid cyst from our institutions according to the CARE guidelines (Case Reports). A search of Medline, Embase, BIREME ( Biblioteca Regional de Medicina ) LILACS ( Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud ), Google Scholar and Scielo ( Scientific Electronic Library on Line ) databases and telephonic or email communications with other experts from Latin-America was performed . Six patients with parathyroid cyst were found in our centers in Colombia. Most of them were managed with aspiration of the cyst. Two of them required surgery. Only one case was functional. Twelve reports from Latin America were found for a total of 18 cases in our region adding ours. Parathyroid cysts are uncommonly reported in Latin America. Most of them are diagnosed postoperatively. Suspicion for parathyroid cyst should be raised when a crystal clear fluid is aspirated from a cyst. The confirmation of the diagnosis may be easily done if parathyroid hormone (PTH) level is measured in the cyst fluid.

  5. Parathyroid cysts: the Latin-American experience

    PubMed Central

    Aristizábal, Natalia; Aguilar, Carolina; Palacios, Karen; Pérez, Juan Camilo; Vélez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Duque, Carlos Simon; Sanabria, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Parathyroid cyst is an infrequent and unsuspected disease. There are more than 300 hundred cases reported in the world literature, a few of them are from Latin America. The experience of our centers and a review of the cases are presented. Methods Case report of a series of patients with parathyroid cyst from our institutions according to the CARE guidelines (Case Reports). A search of Medline, Embase, BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina) LILACS (Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud), Google Scholar and Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library on Line) databases and telephonic or email communications with other experts from Latin-America was performed . Results Six patients with parathyroid cyst were found in our centers in Colombia. Most of them were managed with aspiration of the cyst. Two of them required surgery. Only one case was functional. Twelve reports from Latin America were found for a total of 18 cases in our region adding ours. Conclusions Parathyroid cysts are uncommonly reported in Latin America. Most of them are diagnosed postoperatively. Suspicion for parathyroid cyst should be raised when a crystal clear fluid is aspirated from a cyst. The confirmation of the diagnosis may be easily done if parathyroid hormone (PTH) level is measured in the cyst fluid. PMID:28149800

  6. Keratinous inclusion cyst of oesophagus: unusual finding

    PubMed Central

    Wan Abdul Rahman, Wan Faiziah; Mutum, Samarendra Singh; Fauzi, Mohd Hashairi

    2013-01-01

    Cysts of the oesophagus are unusual findings and they are classified according to the embryological site of origin. It may represent inclusion cysts, retention cysts and developmental cysts. We present a case of keratinous inclusion cyst of the lower oesophagus in a 71-year-old Malay woman who presented with dyspepsia and severe epigastric pain. An oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy demonstrated a sliding hiatus hernia with whitish ulcer-like lesion at the lower oesophagus. Biopsy from the lesion revealed a keratinous inclusion cyst. The patient was given pantoprazole and put on regular follow-up for monitoring any other development. PMID:23878290

  7. Giant radicular cyst of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Shrivastava, Ratika; Bharath, Kashetty Panchakshari; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2014-01-01

    Radicular cysts are inflammatory odontogenic cysts of tooth bearing areas of the jaws. Most of these lesions involve the apex of offending tooth and appear as well-defined radiolucencies. Owing to its clinical characteristics similar to other more commonly occurring lesions in the oral cavity, differential diagnosis should include dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, periapical cementoma and Pindborg tumour. The present case report documents a massive radicular cyst crossing the midline of the palate. Based on clinical, radiographical and histopathological findings, the present case was diagnosed as an infected radicular cyst. The clinical characteristics of this cyst could be considered as an interesting and unusual due to its giant nature. The lesion was surgically enucleated along with the extraction of the associated tooth; preservation of all other teeth and vital structures, without any postoperative complications and satisfactory healing, was achieved. PMID:24792022

  8. [CT diagnosis of hemorrhagic renal cysts].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y Z; Li, D T; Luo, J G

    2001-06-28

    CT signs of nineteen cases of hemorrhagic renal cysts that surgically and pathologically proved were analyzed. 8 of the 19 cases revealed as high density hemorrhagic lesion. CT signs in those 8 patients include low density rim sign, cyst immerging sign, and perirenal fascia thickening. The other 11 of 19 cases revealed as low density lesion. CT signs include thickened cyst wall and inhomogeneous density of the cystic content. The hounsfield unit of the lesion is correlated with the duration of disease. It is suggested that CT is valuable in diagnosis of high density hemorrhagic renal cysts, and it gives a clue to the diagnosis of low density hemorrhagic renal cysts.

  9. Molecular aspects of cyst nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Catherine J; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2005-11-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Superkingdom Eukaryota; kingdom Metazoa; phylum Nematoda; class Chromadorea; order Tylenchida; suborder Tylenchina; superfamily Tylenchoidea; family Heteroderidae; subfamily Heteroderinae; main genera Heterodera and Globodera. Cyst nematodes comprise approximately 100 known species in six genera. They are pathogens of temperate, subtropical and tropical plant species and the host range of many species is narrow. The most economically important species are within the Globodera and Heterodera genera. Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are important pathogens of potato crops. There are many economic species in the Heterodera genus, including Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode), H. avenae (cereal cyst nematode) and H. schachtii (sugar beet cyst nematode), the last of which attacks a range of Chenopodiaceae and Cruciferae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Disease symptoms: Field symptoms of severe cyst nematode infection are often stunting, wilting and chlorosis, but considerable yield loss can occur without obvious symptoms. The only unique indicator of cyst nematode infection is the presence of adult female nematodes attached to host roots after several weeks of parasitism. Disease control: This is usually achieved by using integrated pest management involving cultural practices such as crop rotation, resistant cultivars if available and chemical control when economically justified.

  10. Disappearance of Renal Cysts Included in Ice Ball During Cryoablation of Renal-Cell Carcinoma: A Potential Therapy for Symptomatic Renal Cysts?

    PubMed

    Yodoya, Mitsuko; Hiraki, Takao; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Matsui, Yusuke; Masaoka, Yoshihisa; Sakurai, Jun; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Gobara, Hideo; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2017-06-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the effect of cryoablation of renal-cell carcinoma on nearby renal cysts with the goal to investigate the potential for an alternative therapy to treat symptomatic renal cysts. The study population comprised 46 cysts (mean size, 12 mm; range, 5-43 mm) that were within or near the ice ball during cryoablation in 22 patients. Size change of each cyst was evaluated via enhanced CT or MR imaging before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after cryoablation. Forty-one cysts were also followed after 12 months. Variables including positional relationship between the cyst and the ice ball were evaluated via linear regression analysis using generalized estimating equation models to determine which factors affected cyst shrinkage rate at 12 months. Fifteen, 12, and 19 cysts were completely included in, partially included in, or excluded from the ice ball, respectively. The overall shrinkage rate was 62%, and 57% of cysts (26 of 46) had disappeared at 12 months. Only the relationship between the cyst and the ice ball was significantly (P < .001) associated with cyst shrinkage rate. Cyst disappearance rates at 12 months were 100% (15 of 15), 67% (8 of 12), and 16% (3 of 19) for cysts completely included, partially included, and excluded from the ice ball, respectively. Among the 22 cysts that disappeared at 12 months and continued to be followed, none recurred after 12 months. All renal cysts that were completely included in the ice ball disappeared after cryoablation, demonstrating the potential utility of cryoablation as an alternative therapy for symptomatic renal cysts. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in morphology of retinal ganglion cells with eccentricity in retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E E; Greferath, U; Fletcher, E L

    2016-05-01

    Ganglion cells are the output neurons of the retina and are known to remodel during the subtle plasticity changes that occur following the death of photoreceptors in inherited retinal degeneration. We examine the influence of retinal eccentricity on anatomical remodelling and ganglion cell morphology well after photoreceptor loss. Rd1 mice that have a mutation in the β subunit of phosphodiesterase 6 were used as a model of retinal degeneration and gross remodelling events were examined by processing serial sections for immunocytochemistry. Retinal wholemounts from rd1-Thy1 and control Thy1 mice that contained a fluorescent protein labelling a subset of ganglion cells were processed for immunohistochemistry at 11 months of age. Ganglion cells were classified based on their soma size, dendritic field size and dendritic branching pattern and their dendritic fields were analysed for their length, area and quantity of branching points. Overall, more remodelling was found in the central compared with the peripheral retina. In addition, the size and complexity of A2, B1, C1 and D type ganglion cells located in the central region of the retina decreased. We propose that the changes in ganglion cell morphology are correlated with remodelling events in these regions and impact the function of retinal circuitry in the degenerated retina.

  12. Mammary and femoral hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2010-08-01

    Hydatid cyst disease most commonly affects liver and lungs, but it can affect all viscera and soft tissues of the body. Simultaneous mammary and femoral hydatid cysts, without any other visceral involvement, are extremely rare. This is a case report of 25-years-old female, presenting with lump in left breast mimicking fibroadenoma and lump in right thigh mimicking fibroma. Both turned out to be hydatid cysts.

  13. A Case Report of an Acromioclavicular Joint Ganglion Associated with a Rotator Cuff Tear.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Suguru; Gotoh, Masafumi; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Shirachi, Isao; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Shiba, Naoto

    2017-04-13

    We report a case of subcutaneous ganglion adjacent to the acromioclavicular joint with massive rotator cuff tear [1-7]. An 81-year-old woman presented with a ganglion adjacent to the acromioclavicular joint that had first been identified 9 months earlier. The ganglion had recurred after having been aspirated by her local physician, so she was referred to our hospital. The puncture fluid was yellowish, clear and viscous. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a massive rotator cuff tear with multi- lobular cystic lesions continuous to the acromioclavicular joint, presenting the "geyser sign". During arthroscopy, distal clavicular resection and excision of the ganglion were performed together with joint debridement. At present, the ganglion has not recurred and the patient has returned to normal daily activity. In this case, the ganglion may have developed subsequent to the concomitant massive cuff tear, due to subcutaneous fluid flow through the damaged acromioclavicular joint.

  14. Synaptic potentials recorded by the sucrosegap method from the rabbit superior cervical ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Kosterlitz, H. W.; Lees, G. M.; Wallis, D. I.

    1970-01-01

    1. Compound ganglionic potentials evoked by stimulation of the preganglionic nerves to the superior cervical ganglion of the rabbit were recorded by the sucrose-gap method. 2. When the distal part of the ganglion was bathed in flowing isotonic sucrose solution or sodium-deficient solutions, ganglionic action potentials were no longer evoked, only large synaptic potentials. 3. The compound synaptic potential, which remained unaltered for more than 1 h, originated in a population of cells at the interface between the Krebs and sucrose solutions. Hexamethonium reduced the size but did not alter the time course of the synaptic potential. 4. It is suggested that a higher concentration of sodium ions is required for the generation of ganglionic action potentials than for either conduction in the postganglionic axons or production of synaptic potentials. 5. When lithium replaced sodium in the solution bathing the distal part of the ganglion, the synaptic potential was greatly reduced in amplitude. Impulse propagation in the postganglionic axons was only slightly impaired when lithium replaced sodium in the solution bathing the axons. 6. A quantitative assessment of the potency of the ganglion-blocking drugs nicotine, pentolinium, hexamethonium and pempidine was made by measuring the depression of the synaptic potentials produced by bathing the distal part of the ganglion in flowing isotonic sucrose solution. The concentrations which produced a 50% depression were 8·1 μM nicotine, 26·5 μM pentolinium, 111 μM hexamethonium and 22·2 μM pempidine. PMID:5492898

  15. A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts.

    PubMed

    Forte, Vito; Fuoco, Gabriel; James, Adrian

    2004-06-01

    A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts based on the extent of the cyst and on the embryologic tissue of origin is proposed. Retrospective chart review. The charts of 20 patients with either congenital or acquired laryngeal cysts that were treated surgically between 1987 and 2002 at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical presentation, radiologic findings, surgical management, histopathology, and outcome were recorded. A new classification system is proposed to better appreciate the origin of these cysts and to guide in their successful surgical management. Fourteen of the supraglottic and subglottic simple mucous retention cysts posed no diagnostic or therapeutic challenge and were treated successfully by a single endoscopic excision or marsupialization. The remaining six patients with congenital cysts in the study were deemed more complex, and all required open surgical procedures for cure. On the basis of the analysis of the data of these patients, a new classification of congenital laryngeal cysts is proposed. Type I cysts are confined to the larynx, the cyst wall composed of endodermal elements only, and can be managed endoscopically. Type II cysts extend beyond the confines of the larynx and require an external approach. The Type II cysts are further subclassified histologically on the basis of the embryologic tissue of origin: IIa, composed of endoderm only and IIb, containing endodermal and mesodermal elements (epithelium and cartilage) in the wall of the cyst. A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts is proposed on the basis of the extent of the cyst and the embryologic tissue of origin. This classification can help guide the surgeon with initial management and help us better understand the origin of these cysts.

  16. Regenerating reptile retinas: a comparative approach to restoring retinal ganglion cell function.

    PubMed

    Williams, D L

    2017-02-01

    Transection or damage to the mammalian optic nerve generally results in loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis. This cell death is seen less in fish or amphibians where retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration leads to recovery of sight. Reptiles lie somewhere in the middle of this spectrum of nerve regeneration, and different species have been reported to have a significant variation in their retinal ganglion cell regenerative capacity. The ornate dragon lizard Ctenophoris ornatus exhibits a profound capacity for regeneration, whereas the Tenerife wall lizard Gallotia galloti has a more variable response to optic nerve damage. Some individuals regain visual activity such as the pupillomotor responses, whereas in others axons fail to regenerate sufficiently. Even in Ctenophoris, although the retinal ganglion cell axons regenerate adequately enough to synapse in the tectum, they do not make long-term topographic connections allowing recovery of complex visually motivated behaviour. The question then centres on where these intraspecies differences originate. Is it variation in the innate ability of retinal ganglion cells from different species to regenerate with functional validity? Or is it variances between different species in the substrate within which the nerves regenerate, the extracellular environment of the damaged nerve or the supporting cells surrounding the regenerating axons? Investigations of retinal ganglion cell regeneration between different species of lower vertebrates in vivo may shed light on these questions. Or perhaps more interesting are in vitro studies comparing axon regeneration of retinal ganglion cells from various species placed on differing substrates.

  17. Multiple Colloid Cysts: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Ahmed R; Bettag, Martin

    2018-06-14

     Colloid cysts usually occur in the anterior third ventricle at the level of the foramina of Monro. Colloid cysts may extend from the third toward the lateral ventricle. We present a rare case of multiple intraventricular colloid cysts, two of which were in the third ventricle and one in the lateral ventricle.  A 40-year-old female patient presented with three intraventricular cystic lesions: one cyst in the typical localization in the anterior rostral third ventricle, another cyst behind it in the same (third) ventricle, and a larger bulging cyst in the right lateral ventricle. A bilateral ventriculoperitoneal shunt had been inserted 26 years before to treat hydrocephalus. All three cysts had different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal characteristics. We removed the cysts through an endoscopically assisted right transcortical transventricular microsurgical approach, using the right ventricular catheter as a guide to the lateral ventricle. After removal of the lateral ventricular cyst, we observed that the foramen of Monro was greatly enlarged (most likely as a result of the large cyst), which allowed us to remove the cysts in the third ventricle. During surgery, the cysts were found to have different consistencies. MRI 2 years following surgery showed complete removal and no hydrocephalus. The patient had no symptoms, and the clinical examinations were normal.  Colloid cysts may become large and extend to the lateral ventricle, especially in patients treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Studying the relevant pathoanatomy of these cysts is very important for preoperative planning including the choice of surgical approach. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Reinke Edema: Watch For Vocal Fold Cysts.

    PubMed

    Tüzüner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Yavanoglu, Ahmet; Kurkcuoglu, Melih; Arslan, Necmi

    2015-06-01

    Reinke edema is one of the common cause of dysphonia middle-aged population, and severe thickening of vocal folds require surgical treatment. Smoking plays a major role on etiology. Vocal fold cysts are also benign lesions and vocal trauma blamed for acquired cysts. We would like to present 3 cases with vocal fold cyst related with Reinke edema. First case had a subepidermal epidermoid cyst with Reinke edema, which could be easily observed before surgery during laryngostroboscopy. Second case had a mucous retention cyst into the edematous Reinke tissue, which was detected during surgical intervention, and third case had a epidermoid cyst that occurred 2 months after before microlaryngeal operation regarding Reinke edema reduction. These 3 cases revealed that surgical management of Reinke edema needs a careful dissection and close follow-up after surgery for presence of vocal fold cysts.

  19. Surgical management of calcaneal unicameral bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Glaser, D L; Dormans, J P; Stanton, R P; Davidson, R S

    1999-03-01

    Unicameral bone cysts are not seen commonly in the calcaneus. Little is known about the etiology and natural history of these lesions. Calcaneal cysts often are symptomatic, although some of these lesions are detected as incidental findings. Treatment has been advocated based on the fear of pathologic fracture and collapse. Several published series have been divided in their favor for either open treatment or injection management. These series are small, and the optimal treatment is still in question. The current study compared the efficacy of methylprednisolone acetate injection treatment with curettage and bone grafting in the treatment of unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus. All patients treated for unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus during the past 7 years at two institutions were reviewed. Eleven patients met inclusion criteria. All diagnoses were confirmed radiographically or histologically. Demographic information, presenting complaints, diagnostic imaging, treatment modalities, and outcome were analyzed. Long term radiographic and subjective followup was obtained. Eighteen surgical procedures were performed on 11 patients with 12 cysts. Nine injections performed on six patients failed to show healing of the cyst. Nine cysts treated with curettage and bone grafting showed cyst healing. At mean followup of 28 months (range, 12-77 months), all 11 patients had no symptoms; there were no recurrences of the cyst in the nine patients who underwent bone grafting and persistence of the cyst in the two patients who underwent injection therapy. This review reports one of the largest series of cysts in this location. The results indicate that steroid injection treatment, although useful in other locations, may not be the best option for the management of unicameral bone cysts in the calcaneus. Curettage and bone grafting yielded uniformly good results.

  20. Aspiration and methylprednisolone injection to the cavity with IV cannula needle in the treatment of volar wrist ganglia: New technique

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Murat; Ozturk, Hayati; Amanvermez Senarslan, Dilsad; Erdogan, Yalcin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There are several types of treatment modalities for wrist ganglions. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of cyst aspiration and methyl prednisolone acetate injection with double IV cannula rather than sharp pointed needle, as a new technique in the treatment of volar ganglia. Methodology: The study involves total of 19 patients who received treatment by aspiration and methyl prednisolone injection into the cavity. Two IV cannulas are pricked to the cystic cavity. Cyst fluid is drained by the distally placed IV cannula meanwhile injecting methyl prednisolone by proximally placed IV cannula. The patient records and follow-up reports are retrospectively investigated. The patient age, sex, site of the cyst, the treatment that was applied, adjacency to the artery and the nerves and recurrence are recorded. Mean follow up time was 2.1±0.5 years. Results: The study involved 19 patients that received aspiration treatment for volar ganglion cysts between January 2004 and December 2009. There were 12 (63.2%) female and 7 (36.8%) male subject with volar wrist ganglion cyst. The mean age of patients was 27.63±6.6 years. Fourteen (73.7%) patients of total had cysts close to the artery. We didn’t observe any complication related to methyl prednisolone injection and arterial ischemia. Recurrence was observed in three (15.8%) patients. Conclusion: This method has lower recurrence rate than other aspiration therapy with sharp pointed needle. We prefer to use IV cannula needle for cyst aspiration and steroid injection in treatment of volar ganglia before any surgical intervention. PMID:24353517

  1. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  2. Subconjunctival epidermoid cysts in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Craene, S; Batteauw, A; Van Lint, M; Claerhout, I; Decock, C

    2014-08-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common benign cysts which occur particularly on the skin of the face, neck and upper trunk. Subconjunctival location of these cysts is very rare and, until today, only seen in patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Histopathological examination of these cysts show similarities with odontogenic keratocysts, a typical clinical manifestation of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

  3. Evaluation of mast cells in periapical cysts, dentigerous cysts, and keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    de Noronha Santos Netto, Juliana; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; da Fonseca, Eliene Carvalho; Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; de Queiroz Chaves Lourenço, Simone

    2012-09-01

    Several cell types are associated with the development of cystic and tumoral odontogenic lesions. Among inflammatory cells, mast cells can be associated with their pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze mast cells in periapical cysts, dentigerous cysts, and keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Tissue sections were submitted to toluidine blue staining and immunohistochemistry with antibody anti-tryptase (clone G3). Mast cells were quantitated using Image-Pro Plus software to obtain the mean number of mast cells in three regions: epithelial, superficial portion of the fibrous wall and deep portion of the fibrous wall from 20 periapical cysts, 20 dentigerous cysts (six non-inflamed and 14 inflamed) and 20 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (four non-inflamed and 16 inflamed). The mean number of mast cells detected per lesion by immunohistochemistry (4.1) was higher than by histochemistry (1.5) (P<0.0001). Inflamed dentigerous cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumors showed a higher mean number of mast cells than non-inflamed lesions in all regions. The deep region from all cysts showed the highest mean number of degranulated mast cells, except for non-inflamed keratocystic odontogenic tumors analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical staining detected higher number of mast cells than histochemistry. The higher number of mast cells observed in inflamed lesions could indicate the participation of these cells in the inflammatory response in odontogenic lesions. The prevalence of degranulated mast cells in the deep region suggests intense activity of these cells, possibly related to growth of cystic lesions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Epidermoid Cyst of Mandible Ramus: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida

    2016-06-01

    An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region-left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions.

  5. Epidermoid Cyst of Mandible Ramus: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. Case presentation: We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region–left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Discussion: Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Conclusion: Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions. PMID:27594757

  6. Laparoscopic Excision of a Ciliated Hepatic Foregut Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Grace Z.; Reynolds, Jordan P.; Tevar, Amit D.; Pritts, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts are uncommon solitary cysts of the liver that originate from the embryologic foregut. Clinically and radiographically, these lesions can be difficult to distinguish from neoplasms. Recent reports have demonstrated that ciliated hepatic foregut cysts may undergo dysplastic progression, supporting the argument to excise these cysts when discovered. Fewer than 100 cases have been described in the literature since the first description of a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in 1857. We present a patient who recently underwent laparoscopic excision of a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst, review the literature, and propose the rationale for attempting removal of these cysts via a laparoscopic approach. PMID:19366552

  7. Host Th1/Th2 immune response to Taenia solium cyst antigens in relation to cyst burden of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Tharmalingam, J; Prabhakar, A T; Gangadaran, P; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Geldhof, P; Rajshekhar, V; Alexander, M; Oommen, A

    2016-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC. T. solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T. solium-endemic and T. solium-non-endemic regions and those with single-cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multicyst neurocysticercosis. Multicyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T. solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple-cyst infections to establish and persist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in children and adolescents with emphasis on dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst (keratocystic odontogenic tumor).

    PubMed

    Li, Nannan; Gao, Xing; Xu, Ziyuan; Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Laikuan; Wang, Jinrui; Liu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the incidence and prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in children and adolescents and compare the features of the two most common types, dentigerous cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). A retrospective review in a series of 369 patients with all histological diagnoses of developmental odontogenic cysts in children (≤12 years) and adolescents (13-18 years) was conducted. Among these, 361 (97.8%) patients were diagnosed as dentigerous cyst (n = 281) and KCOT (n = 80), with the male-to-female ratios of dentigerous cyst and KCOT both being 2:1. The average age of the patients with KCOT was older than that of those with dentigerous cyst (14.7 years vs 11.8 years, p < 0.001). Dentigerous cyst (59.1%) was more common in children, but KCOT (78.8%) was more common in adolescents (p < 0.001). Dentigerous cyst (57.6%) predominantly located on the maxilla, but KCOT (60.3%) predominantly located on the mandible (p = 0.010). Adolescent patients with lesions located on the mandible would favor KCOT over dentigerous cyst. This study aids in better knowledge of the prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in a large pediatric population, and shows that a well-supported early diagnosis is indispensable for a more adequate treatment.

  9. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a salivary duct cyst of the parotid gland. Contribution to the development of tumours in salivary gland cysts.

    PubMed

    Seifert, G

    1996-12-01

    Concerning the hypothesis that distinct types of salivary gland cysts may be the starting point of a salivary gland tumour, a histological examination of 1,661 salivary gland cysts was performed in order to analyse the cell types and their proliferative activity. Epithelial alterations were found especially in salivary duct cysts of parotid gland and in mucous retention cysts of minor salivary glands. Characteristic cellular changes were epithelial metaplasias (goblet cells, clear cells, squamous cells) and focal epithelial proliferations with plump or papillary plaques projecting into the cyst lumen. Only in one case had a mucoepidermoid carcinoma developed in the wall of a parotid duct cyst. The epithelial metaplasia and focal proliferative activity in salivary duct cysts is comparable to similar alterations in odontogenic cysts as possible early manifestation of a tumour, especially of an ameloblastoma or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The differential diagnosis of salivary duct cysts must take primarily cystadenomas and cystic mucoepidermoid carcinomas of well-differentiated type into account.

  10. Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of mediastinal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Brzeziński, Daniel; Kozak, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Progress in the development of surgical techniques has led to the growing use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) techniques in mediastinal cyst treatment. Aim To present our experience of treating mediastinal cysts with the minimally invasive technique. Material and methods Fifty patients with mediastinal cysts were treated from 2001 to 2011. There were 32 women and 18 men. The age of the patients ranged from 17 to 72, the mean age being 42 years. All patients underwent basic preoperative diagnostic tests of the chest: X-ray, computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy and spirometry; 4 patients underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and 3 fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the described lesions. Results The VATS was performed in each case. Conversion was carried out due to superior mediastinal location in 10 cases and pleural adhesions in 3 cases. The partial resection of a cyst was performed in 3 patients. One patient was treated conservatively due to heart failure. In that patient the transthoracic needle aspiration of a cyst under ultrasound guidance using alcoholisation with 76% ethanol with a good effect was performed twice. Cyst recurrence was observed in 1 case. Conclusions The surgical access depends on the location of a cyst. The VATS resection of a superior mediastinal cyst is not always feasible. Surgery of mediastinal cysts is both diagnostic and curative. PMID:25337163

  11. [Traumatic rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    Martino, A; Rampone, B; Schiavone, B; Viviano, C; Cuomo, O; Iovine, L; Sacco, M; Maharajan, G; Confuorto, G

    2010-01-01

    Hydatid disease is endemic in some areas of the world. It is located mostly in the liver. The cysts rupture is possible after a trauma, or spontaneously by the increase of intracystic pressure. Rupture of the hydatid cyst requires urgent surgical intervention. We report our experience in treatment of traumatic rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst.

  12. Sclerotherapy for hydrocoele and epididymal cysts.

    PubMed

    Nash, J R

    1979-04-01

    A prospective study was carried out on the efficacy of sclerotherapy for the treatment of hydrocoeles and epididymal cysts. Thirty-six hydrocoeles and 13 epididymal cysts were treated and followed up for between 1 and 2 years. Thirty-four hydrocoeles were cured, 1 failed to respond to treatment and 1 recurred after treatment. All 13 epididymal cysts were cured.

  13. Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... and location. Sometimes, a cyst looks like a skin cancer and may need to be removed to be ... and pits. In: Patterson JW, ed. Weedon's Skin Pathology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2016: ...

  14. An unusual encounter of an epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sritharan, Kaji; Ghani, Yaser; Thompson, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are extremely common and can occur in any hair-containing area. We present the case of a 20-year-old man with an epidermoid cyst in the perianal region. Epidermal cysts have been described in this area previously after haemorrhoidectomy, but cysts of the size seen in this case are rare in the absence of previous anal trauma. The diagnosis was confirmed by excision biopsy. PMID:24825558

  15. The treatment of large supratentorial arachnoid cysts in infants with cyst-peritoneal shunting and Hakim programmable valve.

    PubMed

    Germanò, Antonino; Caruso, Gerardo; Caffo, Mariella; Baldari, Sergio; Calisto, Amedeo; Meli, Francesco; Tomasello, Francesco

    2003-03-01

    This retrospective case series examines 7 infants with large supratentorial arachnoid cysts who underwent cyst-peritoneal shunting and insertion of a Hakim programmable valve. Comparing pre- and postoperative clinical data, neuroradiological and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings we evaluated the efficacy of the surgical procedure. Infants, ranging in age from 1 to 55 days (mean age 29.5 days), were assessed pre- and postoperatively by neurological examination, developmental profile and neuroimaging. Post procedure, all patients showed a significant reduction in the cyst/brain ratio on neuroimaging (p<0.001), 6 had a normal developmental profile (p<0.001) and 5 cases showed a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and neurological signs. Two patients underwent preoperative SPECT scans, which showed hypoperfusion in the area surrounding the cyst; this decreased rCBF also improved post shunting. Large supratentorial arachnoid cysts in infants can be successfully treated with cyst-peritoneal shunting and insertion of a Hakim programmable valve. This is the first study specifically aimed at evaluating the long-term results of these conditions.

  16. Strychnine blocks transient but not sustained inhibition in mudpuppy retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed Central

    Belgum, J H; Dvorak, D R; McReynolds, J S

    1984-01-01

    Transient and sustained inhibitory synaptic inputs to on-centre, off-centre, and on-off ganglion cells in the mudpuppy retina were studied using intracellular recording in the superfused eye-cup preparation. When chemical transmission was blocked with 4 mM-Co2+, application of either glycine or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) caused a hyperpolarization and conductance increase in all ganglion cells. For both amino acids, the responses were dose dependent in the range 0.05-10 mM, with a half-maximal response at about 0.7 mM. Glycine and GABA sensitivities were very similar in all three types of ganglion cells. The response to applied glycine was selectively antagonized by 10(-5) M-strychnine and the response to applied GABA was selectively antagonized by 10(-5) M-picrotoxin. In all ganglion cells, 10(-5) M-strychnine eliminated the transient inhibitory events which occur at the onset and termination of a light stimulus. The block of transient inhibition was associated with a relative depolarization of membrane potential and decrease in conductance at these times. Strychnine had no effect on membrane potential or conductance in darkness or during sustained inhibitory responses to light. Picrotoxin (10(-5) M) did not block transient inhibitory events in any ganglion cells, but did affect other components of their responses. The results suggest that in all three classes of ganglion cells transient inhibition, but not sustained inhibition, may be mediated by glycine or a closely related substance. PMID:6481635

  17. Minimally invasive management of hepatic cysts: indications and complications.

    PubMed

    Vardakostas, D; Damaskos, C; Garmpis, N; Antoniou, E A; Kontzoglou, K; Kouraklis, G; Dimitroulis, D

    2018-03-01

    Liver cysts are divided into congenital and acquired. Congenital cystic lesions include polycystic liver disease, simple cysts, duct related and ciliated hepatic foregut cysts. Acquired cystic lesions are divided into infectious and non-infectious. The infectious cysts are the hydatid cyst, the amoebic abscess, and the pyogenic abscess, whereas the non-infectious cysts are neoplastic cysts and false cysts. While modern medicine provides a lot of minimally invasive therapeutic modalities, there has emerged a pressing need for understanding the various types of liver cysts, the possible minimal therapeutic options along with their indications and complications. We aim is to clarify the role of minimally invasive techniques in the management of hepatic cysts. A literature review was performed using the MEDLINE database. The search terms were: liver cyst, minimally invasive, laparoscopic, percutaneous, drainage and fenestration. We reviewed 82 English language publications articles, published until October 2017. Minimally invasive management of liver LC is an emerging field including many therapeutic modalities ranging from the percutaneous aspiration of pyogenic abscesses to laparoscopic hepatectomy for hepatic cystadenomas. The most used techniques are percutaneous drainage, laparoscopic fenestration, and laparoscopic hepatectomy. The application of the various minimally invasive approaches, as well as their indication and complications, depend on the type of the cystic lesion, its size and its position in the liver. Percutaneous drainage is mostly used in simple cysts, hydatid cysts, pyogenic abscesses and bilomas. Laparoscopic fenestration is mostly used in simple cysts and polycystic liver disease. Finally, laparoscopic hepatectomy is mostly used in polycystic liver disease, hydatid cysts, and cystadenomas.

  18. Hazard and outcome of retreated choledochal cyst patients.

    PubMed

    Chijiiwa, K

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients initially treated for choledochal cyst (25: cyst-enterostomy for 15 type I and 10 type IV A, 13: cyst excision for 8 type I and 5 type IV A, 1: sphincterotomy for type III) have been completely followed up for a mean period of 17 years to examine the effect of surgical management on their lives. Eighteen of 25 cases with cyst-enterostomy (72%) needed retreatment due to the complications but one could not be retreated because of the presence of advanced bile duct carcinoma. Fourteen of 17 cases were retreated with cyst excision, of whom 12 showed an excellent outcome but other two were suffering from cholangitis and hepatolithiasis. The remaining 3 patients retreated with PTCS or cyst-enterostomy showed a poor outcome. Of 13 patients who had undergone cyst excision with hepatico-jejunostomy as the first choice, 12 showed a good outcome but one needed retreatment due to the anastomotic stenosis and hepatolithiasis. Thus, excision of cyst should be the surgical management for choledochal cyst. However, it should be noted that three of 27 patients treated initially or secondarily with cyst excision showed unsatisfactory results mainly due to the anastomotic stenosis. The results demonstrate that hepaticojejunostomy with a wide opening stoma is necessary to prevent postoperative morbidity.

  19. Retrospective clinicopathological study of 418 odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Urrutia, Sergio; Figueiredo, Rui; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2010-09-01

    To determine the relative incidence of odontogenic cysts and to identify the main clinicopathological features among patients treated in the Oral Surgery Department of the Dental Clinic of the University of Barcelona (Spain). A retrospective observational study was made of 418 odontogenic cysts diagnosed in 380 patients included in the database of 1235 histopathological diagnoses. The subjects were treated in the Master degree program of Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Barcelona in the period 1997-2006. The following variables were recorded: gender, age, clinical characteristics of the lesions (size and location), radiological features, duration, treatment, complications and relapses. A descriptive analysis was made of the study variables, using the SPSS version 15.0. The incidence of odontogenic cysts was 33.8%. The mean patient age at appearance of the lesion was 42 years (range 7-83). The cysts were slightly more prevalent in males (58.4%). The lesion size ranged from 2-60 mm, with a mean size of 18.4 mm. The most frequent diagnosis was radicular cyst (50.2%). The most common location of the odontogenic cysts was in the mandible (61.5%), particularly the lower third molar region (36.8%). The most frequently diagnosed lesion was the radicular cyst. Odontogenic cysts were seen to be slightly more prevalent in males, and showed a high mandibular incidence. Knowledge of the biological and histological behavior of odontogenic cysts and their frequency are key aspects for ensuring early detection and adequate treatment.

  20. Towards an Ecological Understanding of Dinoflagellate Cyst Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Isabel; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The life cycle of many dinoflagellates includes at least one nonflagellated benthic stage (cyst). In the literature, the different types of dinoflagellate cysts are mainly defined based on morphological (number and type of layers in the cell wall) and functional (long- or short-term endurance) differences. These characteristics were initially thought to clearly distinguish pellicle (thin-walled) cysts from resting (double-walled) dinoflagellate cysts. The former were considered short-term (temporal) and the latter long-term (resting) cysts. However, during the last two decades further knowledge has highlighted the great intricacy of dinoflagellate life histories, the ecological significance of cyst stages, and the need to clarify the functional and morphological complexities of the different cyst types. Here we review and, when necessary, redefine the concepts of resting and pellicle cysts, examining both their structural and their functional characteristics in the context of the life cycle strategies of several dinoflagellate species. PMID:27694774

  1. Odontogenic cysts: analysis of 680 cases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prockt, Anderson P; Schebela, Clarissa R; Maito, Fábio D M; Sant'Ana-Filho, Manoel; Rados, Pantelis V

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of 680 odontogenic cysts diagnosed in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, and to compare results with findings in the literature. Data of odontogenic cysts diagnosed from 1985 to 2005 were collected from the files of the Oral Pathology Laboratory of Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, and entered in a standardized form for later comparisons. The most prevalent odontogenic cysts were radicular (72.50%), dentigerous (22.20%) and residual (4.26%) cysts. The mandible of white patients was the anatomic site and ethnic group most frequently affected by this disease. Four of the six types of cysts were more frequent in the second and fourth decades of life, and no significant differences were found between sexes in the diagnosis of odontogenic cysts. In conclusion, the prevalence of odontogenic cysts was similar to that reported in the literature, which shows that inflammatory cysts are the most frequent.

  2. Branchial cleft cyst encircling the hypoglossal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Long, Kristin L.; Spears, Carol; Kenady, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are a common cause of lateral neck masses and may present with infection, cyst enlargement or fistulas. They may affect any of the nearby neck structures, causing compressive symptoms or vessel thrombosis. We present a case of a branchial cleft cyst in a 10-year-old boy who had been present for 1year. At the time of operation, the cyst was found to completely envelop the hypoglossal nerve. While reports of hypoglossal nerve palsies due to external compression from cysts are known, we believe this to be the first report of direct nerve involvement by a branchial cleft cyst. PMID:24963902

  3. Naegleria fowleri: enolase is expressed during cyst differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Segovia-Gamboa, Norma; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Espinosa-Cantellano, Martha; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    Cysts of Naegleria fowleri present an external single-layered cyst wall. To date, little information exists on the biochemical components of this cyst wall. Knowledge of the cyst wall composition is important to understand its resistance capacity under adverse environmental conditions. We have used of a monoclonal antibody (B4F2 mAb) that specifically recognizes enolase in the cyst wall of Entamoeba invadens. By Western blot assays this antibody recognized in soluble extracts of N. fowleri cysts a 48-kDa protein with similar molecular weight to the enolase reported in E. invadens cysts. Immunofluorescence with the B4F2 mAb revealed positive cytoplasmic vesicles in encysting amebas, as well as a positive reaction at the cell wall of mature cysts. Immunoelectron microscopy using the same monoclonal antibody confirmed the presence of enolase in the cell wall of N. fowleri cysts and in cytoplasmic vesicular structures. In addition, the B4F2 mAb had a clear inhibitory effect on encystation of N. fowleri. © 2011 The Author(s). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  4. Cervical bronchogenic cysts in head and neck region.

    PubMed

    Ustundag, Emre; Iseri, Mete; Keskin, Gurkan; Yayla, Berna; Muezzinoglu, Bahar

    2005-06-01

    Congenital cysts of the neck are not uncommon. Most of these are thyroglossal, branchial cleft and thymic cysts. Bronchogenic cysts are uncommon developmental anomalies of the tracheobronchial tree and rarely occur in the neck. More than 70 cases of bronchogenic cysts in the head and neck region have been reported in the literature. We report three cases presenting with neck swelling in the hyoid region that were diagnosed as bronchogenic cysts based on clinical and histopathological findings.

  5. Immunohistochemical Assessment of Mast Cells and Small Blood Vessels in Dentigerous Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Periapical Cyst.

    PubMed

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Moradzadeh Khiavi, Monir; Jamali, Golshan; Farnia, Samira

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the density of mast cells (MCs) and microvessels in odontogenic cysts. Furthermore, the correlation between MCs and microvessels was evaluated to assess the contribution of MCs to angiogenesis and growth of odontogenic cysts. This approach may be a basis for the development of future pharmaceuticals addressed to MCs performance to manage odontogenic cysts. To our knowledge, no study investigating the correlation between MCs and microvessels has been performed to date. 60 cases of odontogenic cysts consisting of 20 radicular cysts (RCs), 20 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and 20 dentigerous cysts (DCs) were included in this study. Five high power fields in superficial connective tissue and five high power fields in deep connective tissue were counted for each sample. Moreover, a total mean of ten fields was calculated. RC showed the highest mean numbers of MCs and microvessels (p<0.05). The subepithelial zones of all cysts contained more MCs and microvessels compared to the deeper zones. A statistically significant correlation between the numbers of MCs and microvessels was not observed (r=0.00, p=0.49). Although the number of MCs was not significantly associated with microvessels, these cells may be related to the growth of odontogenic lesions, particularly RCs. Further studies on the in vivo functions of MCs will make the concept more clear.

  6. Immunohistochemical Assessment of Mast Cells and Small Blood Vessels in Dentigerous Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Periapical Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Moradzadeh Khiavi, Monir; Jamali, Golshan; Farnia, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to verify the density of mast cells (MCs) and microvessels in odontogenic cysts. Furthermore, the correlation between MCs and microvessels was evaluated to assess the contribution of MCs to angiogenesis and growth of odontogenic cysts. This approach may be a basis for the development of future pharmaceuticals addressed to MCs performance to manage odontogenic cysts. To our knowledge, no study investigating the correlation between MCs and microvessels has been performed to date. Methods: 60 cases of odontogenic cysts consisting of 20 radicular cysts (RCs), 20 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and 20 dentigerous cysts (DCs) were included in this study. Five high power fields in superficial connective tissue and five high power fields in deep connective tissue were counted for each sample. Moreover, a total mean of ten fields was calculated. Results: RC showed the highest mean numbers of MCs and microvessels (p<0.05). The subepithelial zones of all cysts contained more MCs and microvessels compared to the deeper zones. A statistically significant correlation between the numbers of MCs and microvessels was not observed (r=0.00, p=0.49). Conclusion: Although the number of MCs was not significantly associated with microvessels, these cells may be related to the growth of odontogenic lesions, particularly RCs. Further studies on the in vivo functions of MCs will make the concept more clear. PMID:26793609

  7. Oral foregut cyst in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ana Cláudia Garcia; Hiramatsu, Daniel Martins; de Moraes, Fábio Roberto Ruiz; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti; Soares, Andresa Borges

    2013-11-01

    Oral foregut cysts are congenital choristomas that arise in the oral cavity during embryonic development from remnants of foregut-derived epithelium. This is an unusual report of a neonate with a large congenital sublingual cystic lesion, extending superficially from the left ventral tongue to the anterior floor of the mouth, impeding breast-feeding. The differential diagnosis included dermoid cyst, epidermoid cyst, mucous retention cyst, and oral lymphangioma. The treatment of choice was enucleation under general anesthesia. Histology showed a cystic lesion with a ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with numerous goblet cells. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 and negative for cytokeratin 20, resulting in a final diagnosis of an oral foregut cyst. Three weeks after surgery, the tongue had healed with good mobility, and breast-feeding could be established. No recurrence was present at 6 months of follow-up.

  8. CD56 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Razmjouyi, Faranak

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Odontogenic cysts and tumors have a wide spectrum of clinical characteristics that lead to the different management strategies. Since definite diagnosis is difficult in some cases, it has been suggested that CD56 may be a candidate marker for definitive diagnosis of some odontogenic tumors. The present study was designed to examine CD56 expression in lesions with histopathological similarities. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional, analytical study the subjects were 22 ameloblastomas, 13 dentigerous cysts, 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT), 4 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOT), 3 orthokeratinized odonto-genic cysts, 3 calcifying odontogenic cysts (COC) and one glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC). All the samples were examined for CD56 immunoreactivity. Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Results. Twenty cases (91%) of ameloblastomas, 3 (75%) AOT, 4 (40%) KCOT and one case of GOC were positive for CD56. None of the dentigerous cysts, COC and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts was CD56-positive. There was a significant difference in the CD56 expression between ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst, as well as COC. Also, KCOT showed significantly higher expression than orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst. Conclusion. In this study CD56 expression was limited to the odontogenic tumors and more aggressive cystic lesions. This marker can be a useful aid for distinguishing cysts and tumors from similar lesions.

  9. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad Abdulhadi Abbas

    2008-08-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is known to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. The expression of EMMPRIN in odontogenic cysts has not been previously studied. This study was done to determine the presence and the variability of EMMPRIN expression in various types of odontogenic cysts. An immunohistochemical study using a polyclonal anti-EMMPRIN antibody was done using 48 odontogenic cyst cases: 13 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), 18 dentigerous cysts (DCs), and 17 periapical cysts (PAs). Twelve cases of normal dental follicles (DFs) were also included in this study for comparison. EMMPRIN immunoreactivity was detected in all of the cysts and DFs studied. In odontogenic cysts, EMMPRIN immunoreactivity was generally higher in basal cells than in suprabasal cells. The overall EMMPRIN expression in the epithelial lining of the 3 different types of odontogenic cyst was significantly higher than in the DFs. Overall EMMPRIN expression was also found to be significantly higher in the epithelial lining of OKCs than in the other types of cysts. This study confirmed that EMMPRIN is present in odontogenic cysts and DFs. The higher EMMPRIN expression in OKCs suggests that it may be involved in the aggressive behavior of this type of cyst.

  10. Neonatal ovarian cysts: ultrasound assessment and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Llorens Salvador, R; Sangüesa Nebot, C; Pacheco Usmayo, A; Picó Aliaga, S; Garcés Iñigo, E

    Ovarian cysts are the most common abdominal cysts in female fetuses and newborn girls. Ultrasonography is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing ovarian cysts because it makes it possible to differentiate them from other cystic lesions. Although most neonatal ovarian cysts regress in the first few months after birth, complications can occur during gestation or after birth. The manifestations of ovarian cysts on ultrasonography will depend on the complications. The management is controversial, although the current trend favors watchful waiting. We describe the different presentations of neonatal ovarian cysts with their complications and their patterns of findings on ultrasonography. We also discuss the differential diagnosis with other cystic abdominal lesions, and finally we discuss the therapeutic management of neonatal ovarian cysts. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying Spiral Ganglion Neurite and Schwann Behavior on Micropatterned Polymer Substrates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Elise L; Leigh, Braden; Guymon, C Allan; Hansen, Marlan R

    2016-01-01

    The first successful in vitro experiments on the cochlea were conducted in 1928 by Honor Fell (Fell, Arch Exp Zellforsch 7(1):69-81, 1928). Since then, techniques for culture of this tissue have been refined, and dissociated primary culture of the spiral ganglion has become a widely accepted in vitro model for studying nerve damage and regeneration in the cochlea. Additionally, patterned substrates have been developed that facilitate and direct neural outgrowth. A number of automated and semi-automated methods for quantifying this neurite outgrowth have been utilized in recent years (Zhang et al., J Neurosci Methods 160(1):149-162, 2007; Tapias et al., Neurobiol Dis 54:158-168, 2013). Here, we describe a method to study the effect of topographical cues on spiral ganglion neurite and Schwann cell alignment. We discuss our microfabrication process, characterization of pattern features, cell culture techniques for both spiral ganglion neurons and spiral ganglion Schwann cells. In addition, we describe protocols for reducing fibroblast count, immunocytochemistry, and methods for quantifying neurite and Schwann cell alignment.

  12. Arthroscopic Decompression for a Giant Meniscal Cyst.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    The authors report the case of a giant medial meniscal cyst in an osteoarthritic knee of an 82-year-old woman that was successfully treated with only arthroscopic cyst decompression. The patient noticed a painful mass on the medial side of the right knee that had been gradually growing for 5 years. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an encapsulated large medial cystic mass measuring 80×65×40 mm that was adjacent to the medial meniscus. An accompanying horizontal tear was also detected in the middle and posterior segments of the meniscus. The medial meniscus was resected up to the capsular attachment to create bidirectional flow between the joint and the cyst with arthroscopic surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging performed 14 months postoperatively showed that the cyst had completely disappeared, and no recurrence was observed during a 2-year follow-up period. An excellent result could be obtained by performing limited meniscectomy to create a channel leading to the meniscal cyst, even though the cyst was large. Among previously reported cases of meniscal cysts, this case is the largest to be treated arthroscopically without open excision. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Clinical approach to incidental pancreatic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Austin L; Lee, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    The approach to incidentally noted pancreatic cysts is constantly evolving. While surgical resection is indicated for malignant or higher risk cysts, correctly identifying these highest risk pancreatic cystic lesions remains difficult. Using parameters including cyst size, presence of solid components, and pancreatic duct involvement, the 2012 International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) and the 2015 American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) guidelines have sought to identify the higher risk patients who would benefit from further evaluation using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Not only can EUS help further assess the presence of solid component and nodules, but also fine needle aspiration of cyst fluid aids in diagnosis by obtaining cellular, molecular, and genetic data. The impact of new endoscopic innovations with novel methods of direct visualization including confocal endomicroscopy require further validation. This review also highlights the differences between the 2012 IAP and 2015 AGA guidelines, which include the thresholds for sending patients for EUS and surgery and methods, interval, and duration of surveillance for unresected cysts. PMID:26811661

  14. Primary hydatid cyst of the neck.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Syeddah Shafaq; Faridi, Naveen; Haroon, Saroona

    2013-11-01

    Hydatid cysts in the neck are relatively exceptional, even in areas where Echinococcus granulosis is endemic, such as Asia. Although liver and lung are frequent sites of involvement, it can involve all tissues, with neck remaining one of the most rare sites. It should come in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesion of neck, as the treatment options differ widely from common neck cysts. The role of radiological investigation is important and, in these cases, the involvement of other organs should be investigated. Serological tests may be helpful. The major treatment modality is surgical and the cyst should be excised as a whole, without being ruptured, to prevent any treatment complications, as the cyst fluid can initiate an anaphylactic reaction. Postoperative albendazole therapy is recommended particularly when there is intra-operative spillover. We report a case of an isolated hydatid cyst localized in the anterior triangle of the neck without any pulmonary or hepatic involvement.

  15. Bilateral nasolabial cysts associated with recurrent dacryocystitis.

    PubMed

    Kyrmizakis, Dionysios E; Lachanas, Vassilios A; Benakis, Antonios A; Velegrakis, George A; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2005-05-01

    Nasolabial cysts are rare, nonodontogenic, soft-tissue, developmental cysts occurring inferior to the nasal alar region. They are thought to arise from remnants of the nasolacrimal ducts and they are frequently asymptomatic. We report a rare case of bilateral nasolabial cysts accompanied by bilateral chronic dacryocystitis. A 48-year-old woman suffering from bilateral chronic dacryocystitis was referred to our department for endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy. She had undergone external dacryocystorhinostomy on the left side a few years earlier. Physical examination and computed tomography scan revealed nasolabial cysts bilaterally inferior to the nasal alar region. The cysts were removed via a sublabial approach and endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy was performed on the right side. Ten months after surgery, the patient was asymptomatic. There may be a correlation, due to embryological reasons, between the presence of nasolabial cysts and the presence of chronic dacryocystitis. Both can be corrected surgically, under the same anaesthesia, without visible scar formation.

  16. The nervus terminalis ganglion in Anguilla rostrata: an immunocytochemical and HRP histochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Grober, M S; Bass, A H; Burd, G; Marchaterre, M A; Segil, N; Scholz, K; Hodgson, T

    1987-12-08

    Immunocytochemistry and retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) transport were used to study the ganglion of the nervus terminalis in the American eel, Anguilla rostrata. Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) like immunoreactivity was found in large, ganglion-like cells located ventromedially at the junction of the telencephalon and olfactory bulb and in fibers within the retina and olfactory epithelium. HRP transport from the retina demonstrated direct connections with both the ipsi- and contralateral populations of these ganglion-like cells. Given the well-documented role of both olfaction and vision during migratory and reproductive phases of the life cycle of eels, the robust nature of a nervus terminalis system in these fish may present a unique opportunity to study the behavioral correlates of structure-function organization in a discrete population of ganglion-like cells.

  17. Protecting retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Khatib, T Z; Martin, K R

    2017-02-01

    Retinal ganglion cell degeneration underlies several conditions which give rise to significant visual compromise, including glaucoma, hereditary optic neuropathies, ischaemic optic neuropathies, and demyelinating disease. In this review, we discuss the emerging strategies for neuroprotection specifically in the context of glaucoma, including pharmacological neuroprotection, mesenchymal stem cells, and gene therapy approaches. We highlight potential pitfalls that need to be considered when developing these strategies and outline future directions, including the prospects for clinical trials.

  18. Diagnosing aneurysmal and unicameral bone cysts with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R J; Meyer, J S; Dormans, J P; Davidson, R S

    1999-09-01

    The differential between aneurysmal bone cysts and unicameral bone cysts usually is clear clinically and radiographically. Occasionally there are cases in which the diagnosis is not clear. Because natural history and treatment are different, the ability to distinguish between these two entities before surgery is important. The authors reviewed, in a blinded fashion, the preoperative magnetic resonance images to investigate criteria that could be used to differentiate between the two lesions. All patients had operative or pathologic confirmation of an aneurysmal bone cyst or unicameral bone cyst. The authors analyzed the preoperative magnetic resonance images of 14 patients with diagnostically difficult bone cysts (eight children with unicameral bone cysts and six children with aneurysmal bone cysts) and correlated these findings with diagnosis after biopsy or cyst aspiration and contrast injection. The presence of a double density fluid level within the lesion strongly indicated that the lesion was an aneurysmal bone cyst, rather than a unicameral bone cyst. Other criteria that suggested the lesion was an aneurysmal bone cyst were the presence of septations within the lesion and signal characteristics of low intensity on T1 images and high intensity on T2 images. The authors identified a way of helping to differentiate between aneurysmal bone cysts and unicameral bone cysts on magnetic resonance images. Double density fluid level, septation, and low signal on T1 images and high signal on T2 images strongly suggest the bone cyst in question is an aneurysmal bone cyst, rather than a unicameral bone cyst. This may be helpful before surgery for the child who has a cystic lesion for which radiographic features do not allow a clear differentiation of unicameral bone cyst from aneurysmal bone cyst.

  19. Arachnoid cyst with rupture into the subdural space.

    PubMed Central

    Cullis, P A; Gilroy, J

    1983-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts which develop in relation to the cerebral hemispheres are usually found in the middle cranial fossa. These cysts are usually asymptomatic but can produce symptoms if there is haemorrhage into the cyst or the development of an associated subdural hematoma. Recent publications have emphasised the association of arachnoid cysts of the middle fossa with subdural haematomas. This report describes a case of an asymptomatic arachnoid cyst which ruptured into the subdural space. This event was followed by the development of symptoms despite the lack of haemorrhage. Images PMID:6101185

  20. A giant ovarian cyst in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Soccorso, Giampiero; Walker, Jenny

    2009-06-01

    Antenatally diagnosed abdominal cysts are common, and frequently are ovarian in origin, which usually regress spontaneously. Surgery is indicated in the infantile period in case of very large, persisting or symptomatic cysts. Many surgeons feel that watchful waiting can be justified in newborns with simple and complex cysts. We present a neonate with an ovarian cyst diagnosed antenatally by ultrasound (US) and showing persistent enlargement within 3 months after birth when reached a diameter of 13 cm. Assessment and treatment is described. The extremely large, non-resolving ovarian cysts in neonates present a major challenge for clinicians and should be treated by surgery to avoid complications. We advocate laparotomy and cystectomy when possible to avoid unnecessary loss of functional ovarian tissue.

  1. Follow-up of pineal cysts in children: is it necessary?

    PubMed

    Jussila, Miro-Pekka; Olsén, Päivi; Salokorpi, Niina; Suo-Palosaari, Maria

    2017-12-01

    Pineal cysts are common incidental findings in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Several studies have suggested MRI follow-up if the cyst is larger than 10 mm. However, cysts do not usually change during follow-up. Prevalence, growth, and structure of the pineal cysts were analyzed to decide if follow-up MRI is necessary. A retrospective review between 2010 and 2015 was performed using 3851 MRI examinations of children aged 0-16 years to detect pineal cysts having a maximum diameter ≥ 10 mm. Eighty-one children with pineal cysts were identified and 79 of them had been controlled by MRI. Cysts were analyzed for the size, growth, and structure. A total of 1.8% of the children had a pineal cyst with a diameter ≥ 10 mm. Cysts were present in 48 girls (59.3%) and 33 boys (40.7%). Most pineal cysts (70/79) did not significantly grow during the follow-up (median 10 months, range 3-145 months). A total of 11.4% (9/79) of the cysts grew with the biggest change measured from the outer cyst wall sagittal anteroposterior dimension (mean 3.4 mm ± 1.7 mm). Only one cyst grew more than 5 mm. We found no factors correlating with the cyst growth among 9 cysts that grew > 2 mm. A majority of pineal cysts remained unchanged during the MRI follow-up. Results of this study suggest that routine MRI follow-up of pineal cysts is not necessary in the absence of unusual radiological characteristics or related clinical symptoms.

  2. Clustering is a feature of the spiral ganglion in the basal turn.

    PubMed

    Gacek, Richard R

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the organization of the spiral ganglion in the mammalian species. Temporal bone (TB) specimens from man (n = 2), monkey (n = 2), lion (n = 2) and cat (n = 20) were stained, decalcified and dissected according to the Sudan black B method of Rasmussen. These TB specimens were examined under a Zeiss operating microscope and photographed with a Canon 100 camera interfaced with the microscope. Spiral ganglion cells occurred in clusters within Rosenthal's canal in all four species. The location of the clusters was marked by the interface between axon and dendritic bundles as well as groups of ganglion cells. In monkey and man the clusters were more separated than in lion and cat. These observations indicate that the spiral ganglion forms clusters of neurons within Rosenthal's canal at the basal cochlear turn in the mammals investigated here. The formation of clusters may be related to the principles of neurogenesis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Differentiation of Pancreatic Cyst Types by Analysis of Rheological Behavior of Pancreatic Cyst Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Khamaysi, Iyad; Abu Ammar, Aiman; Vasilyev, Gleb; Arinstein, Arkadii; Chowers, Yehuda; Zussman, Eyal

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between mucinous and non-mucinous pancreatic cysts is exceedingly important and challenging, particularly as the former bears malignant transformation potential. Pancreatic cyst fluid (PCF)-based diagnostics, including analyses of biochemical markers, as well as cytology, has shown inadequate accuracy. Herein, a preliminary single-center study of 22 PCF samples, collected by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), assessed the rheological behavior of PCF and its correlation with lesion type. The dependence of PCF shear viscosity on shear rate was found to follow a power law and could be fitted using Ostwald–de Waele model. Three types of flow curves were identified, where two types correlated with non-mucinous cysts, differing by their power law exponent, and the third type corresponding to mucinous cysts. Viscosity measured at a high shear rate was shown to serve as an accurate and independent marker distinguishing between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts, with an optimal cutoff value of ηc = 1.3 cP The accuracy of this novel technique proved superior to string-sign, cytology, carcinoembryonic antigen, and amylase assessments. Moreover, the combined predictive value of ηc and patient age provided for sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 95.5%, respectively. This simple and rapid diagnostic tool can be immediately implemented after EUS-FNA sampling. PMID:28358122

  4. Caveolin-1 expression in odontogenic cysts and ameloblastomas.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Pardis, Soheil; Asadzadeh, Maryam; Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the caveolin-1 expression in a group of odontogenic cysts and tumors. In this cross-sectional study, the expression of caveolin-1 was evaluated immunohistochemically in 75 samples including 18 cases of dentigerous cyst, 18 odontogenic keratocysts, 3 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts, 2 calcifying odontogenic cysts and 34 ameloblastomas (solid and unicystic). Positive immunohistochemical reaction was found in 100% of odontogenic cysts and this was significantly more than both unicystic (65%) and solid (55%) ameloblastomas. The present study showed the expression of caveolin-1 in all odontogenic cysts and more than ameloblastomas. The results suggested that absence of caveolin-1 might enhance aggressiveness of odontogenic lesions and could be a useful marker for distinguishing ameloblastomas from other odontogenic lesions.

  5. Hydatid cyst of the uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Başgül, A; Kavak, Z N; Gökaslan, H; Küllü, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydatidosis is a common zoonosis that affects a large number of humans and animals, especially in poorly developed countries. The infesting parasite has four forms named Echinococcus granulosis, E. multilocularis, E. vogeli and E. oligarthrus (very rare in humans). The most frequently involved organs are liver followed by the lung. The involvement of the genital tract is rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. We report a case of hydatid cyst in the uterus. CASE: A 70-year-old female with a history of hydatid cysts of the liver, was admitted to hospital after complaining of low abdominal pains. On physical and gynecological examinations, no pathological finding was detected. However, the uterus was significantly large for a postmenopausal patient. Transvaginal sonography (TS) revealed a cystic mass in the uterus with a size of 7 x 6 cm. After further examinations a subtotal hysterectomy was performed. Microscopic examination showed scolices of Echinococcus granulosis. CONCLUSION: Hydatid cysts in the genital tract are rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. Differentiation between hydatid cyst and malignant disease of the related organ is difficult. To avoid misdiagnosis, a careful examination of pelvic masses should be carried out in endemic areas for detection of hydatid cysts. PMID:12530482

  6. Orbital dermoid and epidermoid cysts: case study.

    PubMed

    Veselinović, Dragan; Krasić, Dragan; Stefanović, Ivan; Veselinović, Aleksandar; Radovanović, Zoran; Kostić, Aleksandar; Cvetanović, Marija

    2010-01-01

    Dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the orbit belong to choristomas, tumours that originate from the aberrant primordial tissue. Clinically, they manifest as cystic movable formations mostly localized in the upper temporal quadrant of the orbit. They are described as both superficial and deep formations with most frequently slow intermittent growth. Apart from aesthetic effects, during their growth, dermoid and epidermoid cysts can cause disturbances in the eye motility, and in rare cases, also an optical nerve compression syndrome. In this paper, we described a child with a congenital orbital dermoid cyst localized in the upper-nasal quadrant that was showing signs of a gradual enlargement and progression. The computerized tomography revealed a cyst of 1.5-2.0 cm in size. At the Maxillofacial Surgery Hospital in Nis, the dermoid cyst was extirpated in toto after orbitotomy performed by superciliary approach. Postoperative course was uneventful, without inflammation signs, and after two weeks excellent functional and aesthetic effects were achieved. Before the decision to treat the dermoid and epidermoid cysts operatively, a detailed diagnostic procedure was necessary to be done in order to locate the cyst precisely and determine its size and possible propagation into the surrounding periorbital structures. Apart from cosmetic indications, operative procedures are recommended in the case of cysts with constant progressions, which cause the pressure to the eye lobe, lead to motility disturbances and indirectly compress the optical nerve and branches of the cranial nerves III, IV and VI.

  7. Berberine exerts antioxidant effects via protection of spiral ganglion cells against cytomegalovirus-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wei; Li, Ting; Wang, Caiji; Shi, Xi; Li, Yalan; Zhang, Shili; Zhao, Zeqi; Dong, Hongyan; Qiao, Yuehua

    2018-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children because of its damage to the cochlea and spiral ganglion cells. Therefore, it has become a top priority to devise new methods to effectively protect spiral ganglion cells from damage. Berberine (BBR) has gained attention for its vast beneficial biological effects through immunomodulation, and its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis properties. However, the effect of BBR on spiral ganglion cells and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. This study aims to investigate whether BBR has an anti-apoptosis effect in CMV-induced apoptosis in cultured spiral ganglion cells and explore the possible mechanism. In this study, TUNEL and MTT assays significantly demonstrated that low doses of BBR did not promote cell apoptosis and they also inhibited the CMV-induced cultured spiral ganglion cell apoptosis. Immunofluorescence and Western blot assays indicated that the anti-apoptosis effect of BBR was related to Nox3. Mitochondrial calcium and Western blot assays revealed that NMDAR1 mediated this anti-apoptosis effect. Our results demonstrated that BBR exerted an anti-apoptosis effect against CMV in cultured spiral ganglion cells, and the mechanism is related to NMDAR1/Nox3-mediated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cysts of the oro-facial region: A Nigerian experience

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, AO; Adisa, AO; Sigbeku, OF

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Though many studies have examined cysts of the jaws, most of them focused on a group of cysts and only few have examined cysts based on a particular classification. The aim of this study is to review cysts of the oro-facial region seen at a tertiary health centre in Ibadan and to categorize these cases based on Lucas, Killey and Kay and WHO classifications. Materials and Methods: All histologically diagnosed oro-facial cysts were retrieved from the oral pathology archives. Information concerning cyst type, topography, age at time of diagnosis and gender of patients was gathered. Data obtained was analyzed with the SPSS 18.0.1 version software. Results: A total of 92 histologically diagnosed oro-facial cysts comprising 60 (65.2%) males and 32 (34.8%) females were seen. The age range was 4 to 73 years with a mean age of 27.99 ± 15.26 years. The peak incidence was in the third decade. The mandible/ maxilla ratio was 1.5:1. Apical periodontal was the most common type of cyst accounting for 50% (n = 46) of total cysts observed. Using the WHO classification, cysts of the soft tissues of head, face and neck were overwhelmingly more common in males than females with a ratio of 14:3, while non-epithelial cysts occurred at a 3:1 male/female ratio. Conclusion: This study showed similar findings in regard to type, site and age incidence of oro-facial cysts compared to previous studies and also showed that the WHO classification protocol was the most comprehensive classification method for oro-facial cysts. PMID:22923885

  9. Water relations during desiccation of cysts of the potato-cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    PubMed

    Wharton, D A; Worland, M R

    2001-03-01

    The loss during desiccation of osmotically active water (OAW), which freezes during cooling to -45 degrees C, and osmotically inactive water (OIW), which remains unfrozen, from the cysts of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, was determined using differential scanning calorimetry. Exotherms and endotherms associated with non-egg compartments were not detected after 5 min desiccation at 50% relative humidity and 20 degrees C. The pattern of water loss from the cysts indicates that water is lost from compartments outside the eggs first, that nearly all the non-egg water is OAW and that the OIW content of the cyst is contained within the eggs. Water is lost from the eggs only after the OAW content outside the eggs falls below that within the eggs. Both OAW and OIW are lost from the eggs during desiccation but the eggs retain a small amount of OIW. Other animals which survive some desiccation but which are not anhydrobiotic will tolerate the loss of OAW but not the loss of their OIW. Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both their OAW and a substantial proportion of their OIW.

  10. The predominant bacteria isolated from radicular cysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature. Material and methods Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis. Results The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%). Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) – especially SMG (23.8%) – were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile. PMID:24011184

  11. Migrating lumbar facet joint cysts.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Francesco; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Lalam, Radhesh K; Tins, Bernhard J; Tyrrell, Prudencia N M; McCall, Iain W

    2006-04-01

    The majority of lumbar facet joint cysts (LFJCs) are located in the spinal canal, on the medial aspect of the facet joint with characteristic diagnostic features. When they migrate away from the joint of origin, they cause diagnostic problems. In a 7-year period we examined by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging five unusual cases of facet joint cysts which migrated from the facet joint of origin. Three LFJCs were identified in the right S1 foramen, one in the right L5-S1 neural foramen and one in the left erector spinae and multifidus muscles between the levels of L2-L4 spinous process. Awareness that spinal lesions identified at MRI and CT could be due to migrating facet joint cyst requires a high level of suspicion. The identification of the appositional contact of the cyst and the facet joint needs to be actively sought in the presence of degenerative facet joints.

  12. Automated classification of four types of developmental odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Frydenlund, A; Eramian, M; Daley, T

    2014-04-01

    Odontogenic cysts originate from remnants of the tooth forming epithelium in the jaws and gingiva. There are various kinds of such cysts with different biological behaviours that carry different patient risks and require different treatment plans. Types of odontogenic cysts can be distinguished by the properties of their epithelial layers in H&E stained samples. Herein we detail a set of image features for automatically distinguishing between four types of odontogenic cyst in digital micrographs and evaluate their effectiveness using two statistical classifiers - a support vector machine (SVM) and bagging with logistic regression as the base learner (BLR). Cyst type was correctly predicted from among four classes of odontogenic cysts between 83.8% and 92.3% of the time with an SVM and between 90 ± 0.92% and 95.4 ± 1.94% with a BLR. One particular cyst type was associated with the majority of misclassifications. Omission of this cyst type from the data set improved the classification rate for the remaining three cyst types to 96.2% for both SVM and BLR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidermoid cyst of the breast: Mammography, ultrasound, MRI.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Elisabeth; Louie, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are common cysts located cutaneously or subcutaneously in the head, neck, and trunk. However, deep epidermal cysts of the breast are very rare, and are frequently associated with traumatic implantation. We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right breast. The patient was evaluated using mammography, ultrasound, and MRI, which uniquely characterized the mass and revealed a second mass. Histological analysis revealed fragments of an epidermoid cyst. The origin of the cysts and location deep within the breast tissue likely were due to a previous bilateral-reduction mammoplasty.

  14. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Christina; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O’Sullivan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach. PMID:22669964

  15. Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Cisternostomy for Nonneoplastic Sellar Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yukai; Ishii, Yudo; Lin, Chien-Min; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Importance. Sellar arachnoid cysts and Rathke's cleft cysts are benign lesions that produce similar symptoms, including optochiasmatic compression, pituitary dysfunction, and headache. Studies have reported the use of various surgical treatment methods for treating these symptoms, preventing recurrence, and minimizing operative complications. However, the postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and recurrence rate remain significant. Clinical Presentation. In this paper, we present 8 consecutive cases involving arachnoid cysts and Rathke's cleft cysts, which were managed by using drainage and cisternostomy, the intentional fenestration of the cyst into the subarachnoid space, and then meticulously closing sellar floor using dural sutures. The postoperative images, CSF fistula rate, and the recurrence rate were favorable. Conclusion. We report this technique and discuss the benefit of this minimally invasive approach. PMID:25685785

  16. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Retinal ganglion cell distribution and spatial resolving power in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Lisney, Thomas J; Collin, Shaun P

    2008-01-01

    The total number, distribution and peak density of presumed retinal ganglion cells was assessed in 10 species of elasmobranch (nine species of shark and one species of batoid) using counts of Nissl-stained cells in retinal wholemounts. The species sampled include a number of active, predatory benthopelagic and pelagic sharks that are found in a variety of coastal and oceanic habitats and represent elasmobranch groups for which information of this nature is currently lacking. The topographic distribution of cells was heterogeneous in all species. Two benthic species, the shark Chiloscyllium punctatum and the batoid Taeniura lymma, have a dorsal or dorso-central horizontal streak of increased cell density, whereas the majority of the benthopelagic and pelagic sharks examined exhibit a more concentric pattern of increasing cell density, culminating in a central area centralis of higher cell density located close to the optic nerve head. The exception is the shark Alopias superciliosus, which possesses a ventral horizontal streak. Variation in retinal ganglion cell topography appears to be related to the visual demands of different habitats and lifestyles, as well as the positioning of the eyes in the head. The upper limits of spatial resolving power were calculated for all 10 species, using peak ganglion cell densities and estimates of focal length taken from cryo-sectioned eyes in combination with information from the literature. Spatial resolving power ranged from 2.02 to 10.56 cycles deg(-1), which is in accordance with previous studies. Species with a lower spatial resolving power tend to be benthic and/or coastal species that feed on benthic invertebrates and fishes. Active, benthopelagic and pelagic species from more oceanic habitats which feed on larger, more active prey, possess a higher resolving power. Additionally, ganglion cells in a juvenile of C. punctatum, were retrogradely-labeled from the optic nerve with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). A comparison

  18. [Met]- and [Leu]enkephalin-like immunoreactive cell bodies and nerve fibres in the coeliac ganglion of the cat.

    PubMed

    Julé, Y; Clerc, N; Niel, J P; Condamin, M

    1986-06-01

    The occurrence and distribution of methionine- and leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity were investigated in the cat coeliac ganglion using either the indirect immunoperoxidase method or the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique. Several antisera raised to methionine- and leucine-enkephalin were used. Their specificity was assessed by incubating sections of the coeliac ganglion with increasing dilutions of antisera and with antisera saturated with their respective antigen. The present study was performed both in untreated and in colchicine-treated cats. Immunoreactive methionine- and leucine-enkephalin-like cell bodies were only visualized in colchicine-treated cats. Two types of labeled cells were observed. The first type had a size similar to that of unlabeled principal ganglion cells. These labeled cells were numerous and scattered throughout the ganglion; they probably represented enkephalin-containing ganglion cells. The second type of immunoreactive cells were of a much smaller size. They were always gathered in small clusters of about 5-15 cells and were not numerous; they presumably represented enkephalin-containing small intensely fluorescent cells. Immunoreactive nerve fibres were mainly observed in untreated cats and accessorily in colchicine-treated cats. In untreated animals dense networks of methionine- and leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactive fibres were found in the coeliac ganglion. These fibres had numerous varicosities which often closely surrounded unlabeled principal ganglion cells. In colchicine-treated cats some immunoreactive fibres surrounded labeled principal ganglion cell bodies. The present results establish for the first time the presence of enkephalin-like immunoreactive principal ganglion cells in a mammalian sympathetic prevertebral ganglion. The presence of enkephalin-containing principal ganglion cells, small intensely fluorescent cells and nerve terminals, supports an important role of enkephalins in the integrative synaptic

  19. [Epidermal cyst and osteolysis of the cranial vault].

    PubMed

    Guillaud, V; Rémond, J; Balme, B; Moulin, G

    1992-01-01

    In a 40-year old man undergoing, under local anaesthesia, excision of an epidermal cyst located in the frontal region, at the border of the scalp, the operator had difficulties in removing the deep part of the cyst and perceived an underlying bone depression. The depression was caused by a 2 x 1.3 cm wide lacuna in the calvarium, which was subsequently treated by neurosurgeons. Histology showed only fragments of a simple epidermal cyst wall and no evidence of dermoid cyst. The causes of osteolysis associated with congenital or acquired skin lesions are reviewed. In this case, the old age and volume of the cyst may explain the osteolysis by mechanical compression. This case is exceptional since we were unable to find other examples in the literature, apart from dermoid and trichilemmal cysts.

  20. Surgical management of anterior chamber epithelial cysts.

    PubMed

    Haller, Julia A; Stark, Walter J; Azab, Amr; Thomsen, Robert W; Gottsch, John D

    2003-03-01

    To review management strategies for treatment of anterior chamber epithelial cysts. Retrospective review of consecutive interventional case series. Charts of patients treated for epithelial ingrowth over a 10-year period by a single surgeon were reviewed. Cases of anterior chamber epithelial cysts were identified and recorded, including details of ocular history, preoperative and postoperative acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular examination, type of surgical intervention, and details of further procedures performed. Seven eyes with epithelial cysts were identified. Patient age ranged from 1.5 to 53 years at presentation. Four patients were children. In four eyes, cysts were secondary to trauma, one case was presumably congenital, one case developed after corneal perforation in an eye with Terrien's marginal degeneration, and one case developed after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Three eyes were treated with vitrectomy, en bloc resection of the cyst and associated tissue, fluid-air exchange and cryotherapy. The last four eyes were treated with a new conservative strategy of cyst aspiration (three cases) or local excision (one keratin "pearl" cyst), and endolaser photocoagulation of the collapsed cyst wall/base. All epithelial tissue was successfully eradicated by clinical criteria; one case required repeat excision (follow-up, 9 to 78 months, mean 45). Two eyes required later surgery for elevated IOP, two for cataract extraction and one for repeat PK. Final visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to hand motions, depending on associated ocular damage. Best-corrected visual results were obtained in the more conservatively managed eyes. Anterior chamber epithelial cysts can be managed conservatively in selected cases with good results. This strategy may be particularly useful in children's eyes, where preservation of the lens, iris, and other structures may facilitate amblyopia management. Copyright 2003 by Elsevier Science Inc.

  1. Vocal cysts: clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects.

    PubMed

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Santana, Marcela Ferreira; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Vocal cysts are benign laryngeal lesions, which affect children and adults. They can be classified as epidermic or mucous-retention cyst. The objective was to study the clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects of vocal cysts. We reviewed the medical charts of 72 patients with vocal cysts, considering age, gender, occupation, time of vocal symptoms, nasosinusal and gastroesophageal symptoms, vocal abuse, tabagism, alcoholism, associated lesions, treatment, and histological details. Of the 72 cases, 46 were adults (36 females and 10 male) and 26 were children (eight girls and 18 boys). As far as occupation is concerned, there was a higher incidence of students and teachers. All the patients had symptoms of chronic hoarseness. Nasosinusal (27.77%) and gastroesophageal (32%) symptoms were not relevant. Vocal abuse was reported by 45.83%, smoking by 18%, and alcoholism by 8.4% of the patients. Unilateral cysts were seen in 93% of the cases, 22 patients had associated lesions, such as bridge, sulcus vocalis, and microweb. Surgical treatment was performed in 46 cases. Histological analysis of the epidermic cysts revealed a cavity with caseous content, covered by stratified squamous epithelium, often keratinized. Mucous cysts presented mucous content, and the walls were coated by a cylindrical ciliated epithelium. Vocal cysts are benign vocal fold lesions that affect children and adults, being often associated with vocal overuse, which frequently affects people who use their voices professionally. Vocal symptoms are chronic in course, often times since childhood, and the treatment of choice is surgical removal. A careful examination of the vocal folds is necessary during surgery, because other laryngeal lesions may be associated with vocal cysts. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protecting retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Khatib, T Z; Martin, K R

    2017-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell degeneration underlies several conditions which give rise to significant visual compromise, including glaucoma, hereditary optic neuropathies, ischaemic optic neuropathies, and demyelinating disease. In this review, we discuss the emerging strategies for neuroprotection specifically in the context of glaucoma, including pharmacological neuroprotection, mesenchymal stem cells, and gene therapy approaches. We highlight potential pitfalls that need to be considered when developing these strategies and outline future directions, including the prospects for clinical trials. PMID:28085136

  3. Traumatic bone cyst resembling apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, D J; Ardekian, L; Machtei, E E; Peled, M; Manor, R; Laufer, D

    1997-10-01

    Among the pseudocysts of the jaws, the traumatic bone cyst is known as an asymptomatic lesion often noted unintentionally during routine radiographic examinations. The lesion neither devitalizes the teeth within its borders, nor does it cause resorption of their roots. The well-demarcated traumatic bone cyst often projects into the intraradicular septa and hence has been described as having scalloped borders. The following presentation is of a traumatic bone cyst that resembled periodontal pathology in its appearance.

  4. Features and functions of nonlinear spatial integration by retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Gollisch, Tim

    2013-11-01

    Ganglion cells in the vertebrate retina integrate visual information over their receptive fields. They do so by pooling presynaptic excitatory inputs from typically many bipolar cells, which themselves collect inputs from several photoreceptors. In addition, inhibitory interactions mediated by horizontal cells and amacrine cells modulate the structure of the receptive field. In many models, this spatial integration is assumed to occur in a linear fashion. Yet, it has long been known that spatial integration by retinal ganglion cells also incurs nonlinear phenomena. Moreover, several recent examples have shown that nonlinear spatial integration is tightly connected to specific visual functions performed by different types of retinal ganglion cells. This work discusses these advances in understanding the role of nonlinear spatial integration and reviews recent efforts to quantitatively study the nature and mechanisms underlying spatial nonlinearities. These new insights point towards a critical role of nonlinearities within ganglion cell receptive fields for capturing responses of the cells to natural and behaviorally relevant visual stimuli. In the long run, nonlinear phenomena of spatial integration may also prove important for implementing the actual neural code of retinal neurons when designing visual prostheses for the eye. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Species of Heterodera cysts in cereal fields in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Zeliha Colak; Deeren, Anne-Marie; De Sutter, Nancy; Viaene, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Heterodera is a genus of cyst-forming nematodes, including the cereal cysts which can provoke yield reductions in grain crops. As little is known about the occurrence of these cysts in Belgian grain fields, a survey was organized, starting in Flanders. Soil samples were taken from 50 fields where cereals are grown in rotation with mainly beet, potato and vegetables. Cysts were extracted from the 112 samples and 10 individuals per sample were identified up to species level by morphometrical and morphological observations. The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was found in 34 fields (56%) at infestation levels varying from 0.6 to 1322 cysts/kg soil. Other Heterodera species (e.g. H. trifolii, H. mani) were found in low numbers and sometimes in mixtures with H. schachtii, but no cereal cysts were detected. This survey confirms that beet cyst nematodes are a problem in Flanders. The few cereal cysts that might be present were perhaps not detected due to the few individuals that were identified. For this reason, molecular identification tools which allow fast and accurate identification of Heterodera species would be very useful. It could be interesting to find out why cereal cysts are suppressed in our regions and to expand the survey to the Walloon region where more cereals are grown.

  6. Surgical treatment for hypopharyngeal cysts with a side-opened direct laryngoscope.

    PubMed

    Kawaida, M; Fukuda, H; Shiotani, A; Kohno, N

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of hypopharyngeal cyst are reported. Both cysts occurred in the piriform sinus of the hypopharynx. Histopathological examination indicated that both were retention cysts. These cysts were removed by laryngomicrosurgical technique using a side-opened direct laryngoscope. In the cyst with a distinct base, a laryngomicrosurgical snare was used for removal. In the wide-based cyst, the mucous membrane around the cyst was incised with an electrosurgical instrument and then detached to facilitate removal. In this paper, we describe our surgical procedure for removing hypopharyngeal cysts and discuss the causes of such cysts.

  7. Spontaneous Discharge Patterns in Cochlear Spiral Ganglion Cells Prior to the Onset of Hearing in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Timothy A.; Leake, Patricia A.; Snyder, Russell L.; Stakhovskaya, Olga; Bonham, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous neural activity has been recorded in the auditory nerve of cats as early as 2 days postnatal (P2 ), yet individual auditory neurons do not respond to ambient sound levels below 90–100 dB SPL until about P10. Significant refinement of the central projections from the spiral ganglion to the cochlear nucleus occurs during this neonatal period. This refinement may be dependent on peripheral spontaneous discharge activity. We recorded from single spiral ganglion cells in kittens aged P3 to P9. The spiral ganglion was accessed via the round window through the spiral lamina. A total of 112 ganglion cells were isolated for study in 9 animals. Spike rates in neonates were very low, ranging from 0.06 to 56 sp/s with a mean of 3.09 +/− 8.24 sp/s. Ganglion cells in neonatal kittens exhibited remarkable repetitive spontaneous bursting discharge patterns. The unusual patterns were evident in the large mean interval coefficient of variation (CVi = 2.9 +/−1.6) and burst index of 5.2 +/− 3.5 across ganglion cells. Spontaneous bursting patterns in these neonatal mammals were similar to those reported for cochlear ganglion cells of the embryonic chicken suggesting this may be a general phenomenon that is common across animal classes. Rhythmic spontaneous discharge of retinal ganglion cells has been shown to be important in the development of central retinotopic projections and normal binocular vision (Shatz, 1996, Proc Natl Acad Sci 93). Bursting rhythms in cochlear ganglion cells may play a similar role in the auditory system during pre-hearing periods. PMID:17686914

  8. Cochlear implants and ex vivo BDNF gene therapy protect spiral ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Rejali, Darius; Lee, Valerie A; Abrashkin, Karen A; Humayun, Nousheen; Swiderski, Donald L; Raphael, Yehoash

    2007-06-01

    Spiral ganglion neurons often degenerate in the deaf ear, compromising the function of cochlear implants. Cochlear implant function can be improved by good preservation of the spiral ganglion neurons, which are the target of electrical stimulation by the implant. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has previously been shown to enhance spiral ganglion survival in experimentally deafened ears. Providing enhanced levels of BDNF in human ears may be accomplished by one of several different methods. The goal of these experiments was to test a modified design of the cochlear implant electrode that includes a coating of fibroblast cells transduced by a viral vector with a BDNF gene insert. To accomplish this type of ex vivo gene transfer, we transduced guinea pig fibroblasts with an adenovirus with a BDNF gene cassette insert, and determined that these cells secreted BDNF. We then attached BDNF-secreting cells to the cochlear implant electrode via an agarose gel, and implanted the electrode in the scala tympani. We determined that the BDNF expressing electrodes were able to preserve significantly more spiral ganglion neurons in the basal turns of the cochlea after 48 days of implantation when compared to control electrodes. This protective effect decreased in the higher cochlear turns. The data demonstrate the feasibility of combining cochlear implant therapy with ex vivo gene transfer for enhancing spiral ganglion neuron survival.

  9. Intraoperative Visualization of a Spinal Arachnoid Cyst Using Pyoktanin Blue.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Soichiro; Seki, Toshitaka; Yamazaki, Kazuyoshi; Sasamori, Toru; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2018-01-01

    Spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) are filled with cerebrospinal fluid, and they include the arachnoid membrane, making it difficult to distinguish the walls of the cyst from the arachnoid membrane and excise the cyst as a lump. Here we report a technique for the intraoperative visualization of SACs, involving the use of pyoktanin blue. Four patients with spinal intradural arachnoid cysts underwent total excision of the cysts between October 2016 and April 2017. In 1 case, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the cyst clearly, but in the other cases, the cysts were unclear. All cysts were injected with 1% pyoktanin blue (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan) diluted 500 times with physiological saline before excision. When it was difficult to distinguish the cyst from the normal arachnoid membrane, 1% pyoktanin blue diluted 1000 times with physiological saline was injected into both the cyst and the subarachnoid space, and the spread of the stain was observed. The cysts were better visualized after pyoktanin blue injection than before injection. When it was difficult to distinguish the cyst from the normal arachnoid space, pyoktanin blue injection was useful for judging the cyst space. There were no perioperative complications, and the patients' symptoms improved partially or completely after treatment. Our technique of pyoktanin blue injection into SACs could make their excision easy and safe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extraforaminal Discal Cyst as Cause of Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Mathon, Bertrand; Bienvenot, Peggy; Leclercq, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    We report the first extraforaminal location of a lumbar discal cyst. The patient was treated by hemilaminectomy, arthrectomy, cyst resection, and unilateral arthrodesis, achieving complete release of the nerve root. Extraforaminal lumbar discal cyst may represent an unexpected cause of sciatic pain with favorable outcome after surgical resection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrasound biomicroscopic analysis of iris cysts.

    PubMed

    Pedro-Aguilar, L; Fuentes-Cataño, C; Pedroza-Seres, M

    2016-02-01

    To describe the ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) features and complications associated with iris cysts. A retrospective case series. Thirteen patients with iris cysts were identified in a 10 year period study at a ophthalmologic reference Center in Mexico City. The variables included demographic data, ocular and medical history, clinical course, and complications. All patients were examined by UBM, and type, number, location, and acoustic characteristics of cysts were evaluated. Descriptive statistics were performed. Thirteen patients were included (8 men and 5 women). The mean age was 44.5 ± 15.5 years (range 6-70 years). The origin most prevalent was neuroepithelial (92.3%), and 7.7% had stromal cysts. Regarding to location 76.9% were found in the periphery, and 69.2% between meridians II and VI. All cysts showed a moderate to high reflectivity in the wall. Complications were present in 38.5% of cases (15.4% partial angle closure, 15.4% secondary angle closure glaucoma and 7.7% dyscoria). Most cysts are derived from iris pigmented epithelium, with a benign course and a minor rate of complications. The UBM is an indispensable tool that allows us to plan more specific and conservative treatments, with less damage to ocular structures and, therefore, better visual prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Supratentorial endodermal cysts: review of literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Riccardo; Artico, Marco; Colonnese, Claudio; Marrocco, Luigi; Wierzbicki, Venceslao

    2013-11-01

    Supratentorial endodermal cysts are very rare pathological entities. Their pathoembryology is largely unknown and they can represent a diagnostic challenge. A research performed on the PubMed database in December 2010, to screen for supratentorial endodermal cyst studies, demonstrated that since 1960 only 31 supratentorial endodermal cysts have been described in the literature, including our case: a 42-year-old woman with a parasellar endodermal cyst. These lesions are usually benign. As with other types of brain cysts, the signs and symptoms caused by supratentorial endodermal cysts are mainly linked to the compression or irritation of surrounding neural structures. Upon neuroimaging examination, they typically appear as a round or lobulated mass. The signal intensity may vary depending on the protein content of the cyst. The majority of reported supratentorial endodermal cysts were completely excised with good or excellent results. Incomplete excision can result in an increased risk of recurrence, infection, and dissemination. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. [Giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst].

    PubMed

    Alberione, F; Caire, F; Fischer-Lokou, D; Gueye, M; Moreau, J J

    2007-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign, uncommon lesions (1% of all intracranial tumors). Their localization is intradiploic in 25% of cases, and exceptionally subtentorial. We report here a rare case of giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst. A 74-year old patient presented with recent diplopia and sindrome cerebellar. CT scan and MR imaging revealed a giant osteolytic extradural lesion of the posterior fossa (5.2 cm x 3.8 cm) with a small area of peripheral enhancement after contrast injection. Retrosigmoid suboccipital craniectomy allowed a satisfactory removal of the tumor, followed by an acrylic cranioplasty. The outcome was good. Neuropathological examination confirmed an epidermoid cyst. We review the literature and discuss our case.

  14. Percutaneous drainage without sclerotherapy for benign ovarian cysts.

    PubMed

    Zerem, Enver; Imamović, Goran; Omerović, Safet

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate percutaneous short-term catheter drainage in the management of benign ovarian cysts in patients at increased surgical risk. Thirty-eight patients with simple ovarian cysts were treated with drainage of fluid content by catheters until output stopped. All patients were poor candidates for surgery. All procedures were performed under ultrasonographic (US) control and local anesthesia. Cytologic examination was performed in all cases. The patients were followed up monthly with color Doppler US for 12 months. Outcome measure was the recurrence of a cyst. During the 12-month follow-up period, 10 of 38 cysts recurred. Seven of the 10 cysts required further intervention, and three were followed up without intervention. Four of the seven patients who required further intervention underwent repeat transabdominal aspiration and three declined repeat aspiration and subsequently underwent surgery. After repeated aspirations, two of four cysts disappeared, one necessitated follow-up only, and one necessitated surgical intervention. Cyst volume (P = .009) and diameter (P = .001) were significantly larger in the cysts that recurred. No evidence of malignancy was reported in the cytologic examination in any patient. No patients developed malignancy during follow-up. No major complications were observed. The hospital stay was 1 day for all patients. The median duration of drainage in the groups with resolved and recurrent cysts was 1 day (interquartile range, 1-1) and 2 days (interquartile range, 1-3), respectively (P = .04). In patients considered poor candidates for open surgery or laparoscopy, percutaneous treatment of ovarian cysts with short-term catheter drainage without sclerotherapy appears to be a safe and effective alternative, with low recurrence rates.

  15. Laryngeal Cysts in Adults: Simplifying Classification and Management.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Richard; Lott, David G

    2017-12-01

    Objective Laryngeal cysts may occur at any mucosa-lined location within the larynx and account for 5% to 10% of nonmalignant laryngeal lesions. A number of proposed classifications for laryngeal cysts exist; however, no previously published classification aims to guide management. This review analyzes contemporary laryngeal cyst management and proposes a framework for the terminology and management of cystic lesions in the larynx. Data Sources PubMed/Medline. Review Methods A primary literature search of the entire Medline database was performed for all titles of publications pertaining to laryngeal cysts and reviewed for relevance. Full manuscripts were reviewed per the relevance of their titles and abstracts, and selection into this review was according to their clinical and scientific relevance. Conclusion Laryngeal cysts have been associated with rapid-onset epiglottitis, dyspnea, stridor, and death; therefore, they should not be considered of little significance. Symptoms are varied and nonspecific. Laryngoscopy is the primary initial diagnostic tool. Cross-sectional imaging may be required, and future use of endolaryngeal ultrasound and optical coherence tomography may revolutionize practice. Where possible, cysts should be completely excised, and there is growing evidence that a transoral approach is superior to transcervical excision for nearly all cysts. Histology provides definitive diagnosis, and oncocytic cysts require close follow-up. Implications for Practice A new classification system is proposed that increases clarity in terminology, with the aim of better preparing surgeons and authors for future advances in the understanding and management of laryngeal cysts.

  16. Management of non-neoplastic ovarian cysts with sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kafali, H; Yurtseven, S; Atmaca, F; Ozardali, I

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate sclerotherapy with alcohol and erythromycin in the management of simple ovarian cysts. Twenty-four simple ovarian cysts were subjected to sclerotherapy with alcohol and erythromycin. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia and in an outpatient setting. Cytological examination was carried out in all cases and two patients were excluded from the study because of suspicious cytological results. The patients were followed up monthly with color Doppler sonography for more than 12 months. Cyst fluid was serous in 17 cases and dark-chocolate colored in seven cases. The volume of aspirated fluid ranged from 100 to 220 ml. The size of ovarian masses and cyst-wall thickness ranged from 5.5 to 8.5 cm and 1.5 to 5 mm, respectively. Cytological analysis of 15 cysts revealed acellular sediment, seven cysts were compatible with endometrioma, and two were reported as suspicious. During the 12-month follow-up, seven cyst recurrences were detected. Aspiration and sclerotherapy with alcohol and erythromycin are followed by a relatively high recurrence rate when the aspirate is bloody. However, patients with a simple cyst that is painful or liable to torsion could benefit from sclerotherapy. Such patients, who are at low risk for malignancy, are relieved with sclerotherapy while avoiding surgery.

  17. Spontaneous haemorrhage and rupture of third ventricular colloid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ogbodo, Elisha; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Bermingham, Niamh; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Acute bleeding within a colloid cyst of the third ventricle represents a rare event causing sudden increase in the cyst volume that may lead to acute hydrocephalus and rapid neurological deterioration. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of haemorrhagic third ventricular colloid cyst and its management. A 77-year-old ex-smoker presented with unsteady gait, incontinence and gradually worsening confusion over a 3-week period. Brain CT scan findings were highly suggestive of a third ventricular colloid cyst with intraventricular rupture. He underwent cyst excision and histopathology, which confirmed the radiological diagnosis with evidence of haemorrhage within the cyst. A ventriculo peritoneal shunt was performed for delayed hydrocephalus. Surgical management of these patients must include emergency ventriculostomy followed by prompt surgical removal of the haemorrhagic cyst. PMID:22949002

  18. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Do, Michael Tri Hoang; Yau, King-Wai

    2010-10-01

    Life on earth is subject to alternating cycles of day and night imposed by the rotation of the earth. Consequently, living things have evolved photodetective systems to synchronize their physiology and behavior with the external light-dark cycle. This form of photodetection is unlike the familiar "image vision," in that the basic information is light or darkness over time, independent of spatial patterns. "Nonimage" vision is probably far more ancient than image vision and is widespread in living species. For mammals, it has long been assumed that the photoreceptors for nonimage vision are also the textbook rods and cones. However, recent years have witnessed the discovery of a small population of retinal ganglion cells in the mammalian eye that express a unique visual pigment called melanopsin. These ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive and drive a variety of nonimage visual functions. In addition to being photoreceptors themselves, they also constitute the major conduit for rod and cone signals to the brain for nonimage visual functions such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex. Here we review what is known about these novel mammalian photoreceptors.

  19. Primary iris stromal cyst with rapid growth.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yang; Wang, Yu-Hong; Niu, Gai-Ling; Gao, Min

    2009-11-01

    To describe the clinical features and the surgical management of primary iris stromal cyst with rapid growth. A 14-year-old Chinese-Mongolian girl was referred to us with a 1-month history of obstructed vision and photophobia. On an examination, a semitransparent cyst with a densely pigmented posterior wall was revealed in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The information regarding the location and extent of the cyst was further analyzed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy. It arose within the iris stroma, measuring 7.52 x 3.60 mm. Blood vessels on the surface of the lesion were revealed by iris angiography. There was no history of amniocentesis, birth trauma, antecedent ocular injury, or maternal illness during gestation. The diagnosis of primary iris stromal cyst was made. A combination of needle aspiration, piecemeal resection of cyst wall, cryotherapy, and argon laser photocoagulation with overlapped spots was used. Histopathology of the cyst wall revealed nonkeratinized, multilayered, stratified squamous epithelium with clusters of goblet cells. Complete resolution of the cyst was successfully achieved. The visual acuity improved to 20/25 from counting fingers. At 6 months of follow-up, there was no recurrence. Complete eradication and devitalization of any remaining epithelial cells are the key factors for preventing recurrence and diffuse epithelialization of the anterior chamber.

  20. A retrospective study of oral cysts in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Salako, N O; Taiwo, E O

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of oral cysts that were seen over an 11-year period in children at a dental institution in Nigeria was carried out. In general, oral cysts accounted for only 2.6% of the total biopsied lesions during the period under review. The most common oral cysts were the mucous retention cysts, the gingival cysts of infants and the dentigerous cyst. The commonest sites were the maxilla, the mandible and the floor of the mouth respectively and there was no significant difference in sex preference. Most of the cases were seen in the age group 11-16 years while the least was in the group aged 6-10 years.

  1. Sclerotherapy for 'scrotal cysts' using tetracycline instillation.

    PubMed

    Courtney, S P; Wightman, J A

    1991-04-01

    Aspiration and tetracycline (Achromycin) instillation has been used to sclerose 'scrotal cysts'. Thirteen hydroceles and epididymal cysts were treated. Of the cysts treated, four failed to sclerose, and moderate to severe pain occurred in eight patients. In three patients the pain was severe, necessitating admission to the hospital. We would not recommend this treatment either in terms of efficacy or for patient comfort.

  2. Suspended Alexandrium spp. hypnozygote cysts in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirn, Sarah L.; Townsend, David W.; Pettigrew, Neal R.

    2005-09-01

    The life cycle of dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium includes sexual reproduction followed by the formation of a dormant hypnozygote cyst, which serves as a resting stage. Negatively buoyant cysts purportedly fall to the benthos where they undergo a mandatory period of quiescence. Previous reports of cysts in the surficial sediments of the Gulf of Maine, where Alexandrium blooms are well documented, show a broad distribution of cysts, with highest concentrations generally in sediments below 100 m depth. We report here an exploration of cysts suspended in the water column, where they would be better positioned to inoculate springtime Alexandrium populations. During cruises in February, April, and June of 2000, water samples were collected at depths just off the bottom (within 5 m), at the top of the bottom nepheloid layer, and near the surface (1 m) and examined for cyst concentrations. Suspended cysts were found throughout the Gulf of Maine and westernmost Bay of Fundy. Planktonic cyst densities were generally greater in near-bottom and top of the bottom nepheloid layer samples than in near-surface water samples; densities were of the order of 10 2 cysts m -3 in surface waters, and 10 2-10 3 cysts m -3 at near-bottom depths. Temporally, they were most abundant in February and least abundant in April. Reports by earlier workers of cysts in the underlying sediments were on the order of 10 3 cysts cm -3. We present calculations that demonstrate the likelihood of cyst resuspension from bottom sediments forced by swell and tidal currents, and propose that such resuspended cysts are important in inoculating the seasonal bloom. We estimate that suspended cysts may contribute significantly to the annual vegetative cell population in the Gulf of Maine.

  3. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to get pregnant and you often get functional cysts, you can prevent them by taking hormone drugs (such as birth control pills). These medicines prevent follicles from growing. Alternative Names Physiologic ovarian ...

  4. Developmental odontogenic cysts of jaws: a clinical study of 245 cases.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Javad; Kahnamouii, Shiva Solahaye

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relative frequency of developmental odontogenic cysts in an Iranian population. In this study 245 cysts from both jaws, treated in the Faculty of Dentistry at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences during a 10-year period from 1998 to 2008, were analyzed in order to evaluate the incidence of such cysts. We had permission from all the patients. Case histories of 65% of male and 35% of female patients were analyzed. The age of the patients varied from 14 to 64 years, with an average of 33.21 ± 10.89. In this 10-year study of odontogenic cysts, 97 cases were developmental odontogenic cysts with the following inci-dence: dentigerous cyst, 44%; odontogenic keratocyst, 36%; primordial cyst, 9%; Gorlin cyst, 2%; lateral periodontal cyst, 3%; eruption cyst, 3%; and gingival cyst, 3% (adults 2%, infants 1%). A total of 60% of the cysts were found in the mandible and 40% in the maxilla. Regarding the mandible, the molar region was involved in 47% of the cases, premolar region in 33% and anterior region in 20% (total = 100%). Regarding the maxilla, the canine-to-canine region was involved in 52% of the cases, premolar region in 20% and molar region in 28% (total = 100%). An important finding in this study was the fact that 39% of the jaw cysts were developmental odontogenic cysts and the most common developmental odontogenic cysts were dentigerous cyst and OKC (odontogenic keratocyst).

  5. Vanishing large ovarian cyst with thyroxine therapy.

    PubMed

    Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kutiyal, Aditya; Dhanwal, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    A 21-year-old female patient recently diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism was found to have a large ovarian cyst. In view of the large ovarian cyst, she was advised to undergo elective laparotomy in the gynaecology department. She was further evaluated in our medical out-patient department (OPD), and elective surgery was withheld. She was started on thyroxine replacement therapy, and within a period of 4 months, the size of the cyst regressed significantly, thereby improving the condition of the patient significantly. This case report highlights the rare and often missed association between hypothyroidism and ovarian cysts. Although very rare, profound hypothyroidism that can cause ovarian cysts in an adult should always be kept in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary ovarian surgery. Hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult females presenting with multicystic ovarian tumours.Adequate thyroid hormone replacement therapy can prevent these patients from undergoing unnecessary and catastrophic ovarian resection.Surgical excision should be considered only when adequate thyroid replacement therapy fails to resolve ovarian enlargement.In younger women with ovarian cysts, it is also desirable to avoid unnecessary surgery so as to not compromise fertility in the future.

  6. Vanishing large ovarian cyst with thyroxine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kutiyal, Aditya; Dhanwal, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Summary A 21-year-old female patient recently diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism was found to have a large ovarian cyst. In view of the large ovarian cyst, she was advised to undergo elective laparotomy in the gynaecology department. She was further evaluated in our medical out-patient department (OPD), and elective surgery was withheld. She was started on thyroxine replacement therapy, and within a period of 4 months, the size of the cyst regressed significantly, thereby improving the condition of the patient significantly. This case report highlights the rare and often missed association between hypothyroidism and ovarian cysts. Although very rare, profound hypothyroidism that can cause ovarian cysts in an adult should always be kept in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary ovarian surgery. Learning points Hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult females presenting with multicystic ovarian tumours.Adequate thyroid hormone replacement therapy can prevent these patients from undergoing unnecessary and catastrophic ovarian resection.Surgical excision should be considered only when adequate thyroid replacement therapy fails to resolve ovarian enlargement.In younger women with ovarian cysts, it is also desirable to avoid unnecessary surgery so as to not compromise fertility in the future. PMID:24683475

  7. TRPC1 is required for survival and proliferation of cochlear spiral ganglion stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chien; Wang, Chih-Hung; Shih, Cheng-Ping; Chueh, Sheau-Huei; Liu, Shu-Fan; Chen, Hang-Kang; Lin, Yi-Chun

    2015-12-01

    The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that canonical transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) is required for the proliferation of cochlear spiral ganglion stem/progenitor cells (SPCs). TRPC1 were detected and evaluated in postnatal day 1 CBA/CaJ mice pups derived-cochlear spiral ganglion SPCs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and calcium imaging. The cell viability and proliferation of the spiral ganglion SPCs following si-RNA mediated knockdown of TRPC1 or addition of TRPC channel blocker SKF9635 were compared to controls. In spiral ganglion SPCs, TRPC1 was found to be the most abundantly expressed TRPC subunit and shown to contribute to store-operated calcium entry. Silencing of TRPC1 or addition of TRPC channel blockers significantly decreased the rate of cell proliferation. The results suggest that TRPC1 might serve as an essential molecule in regulating the proliferation of spiral ganglion SPCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Oh, Christopher C; Choudhri, Asim F

    2013-12-01

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 ± 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size.

  9. [MR cholangiopancreatography in choledochal cysts].

    PubMed

    Frampas, E; Moussaly, F; Léauté, F; Heloury, Y; Le Neel, J C; Dupas, B

    1999-12-01

    To assess the value of MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in the diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of choledochal cysts. Five patients (aged between 6 days and 28 years) were investigated by MRCP, referred for ultrasonographic detection of a bile duct dilatation or a cystic structure, of antenatal diagnosis (1 case), for jaundice or abdominal pain (3 cases) or in late follow-up of a choledochal cyst surgery. Two endoscopic-ultrasonographic studies were performed. The five patients underwent surgery without preoperative biliary cholangiography. MRCP was performed using a HASTE sequence in frontal, oblique, axial planes (1,5 Tesla MR unit). MRCP allowed to confirm choledochal cyst, helps to specify the anatomical type (2 type I, 3 type II), detects choledocholithiasis (3 cases). Anatomic correlation was perfect. MRCP allowed to exclude gastrointestinal duplication. Anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct was found in one case. MRCP diagnoses choledochal cysts, specifies type, helps surgery and can avoid endoscopic retrograde cholangiography or endoscopic sonographic examinations especially for children. It may find an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct.

  10. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy for odontogenic cysts and tumours.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tsugihama; Otori, Nobuyoshi; Asaka, Daiya; Okushi, Tetsushi; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Odontogenic maxillary cysts and tumours originate from the tooth root and have traditionally been treated through an intraoral approach. Here, we report the efficacy and utility of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) for the treatment of odontogenic maxillary cysts and a tumour. We undertook EMMM under general anaesthesia in six patients: four had radicular cysts, one had a dentigerous cyst, and one had a keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The cysts and tumours were completely excised and the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct were preserved in all patients. There were no peri- or postoperative complications, and no incidences of recurrence. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy appears to be an effective and safe technique for treating odontogenic cysts and tumours.

  11. A decay of gap junctions associated with ganglion cell differentiation during retinal regeneration of the adult newt.

    PubMed

    Oi, Hanako; Chiba, Chikafumi; Saito, Takehiko

    2003-12-01

    Changes in the gap junctional coupling and maturation of voltage-activated Na(+) currents during regeneration of newt retinas were examined by whole-cell patch-clamping in slice preparations. Progenitor cells in regenerating retinas did not exhibit Na(+) currents but showed prominent electrical and tracer couplings. Cells identified by LY-fills were typically slender. Na(+) currents were detected in premature ganglion cells with round somata in the 'intermediate-II' regenerating retina. No electrical and tracer couplings were observed between these cells. Mature ganglion cells did not exhibit electrical coupling, but showed tracer coupling. On average, the maximum Na(+) current amplitude recorded from premature ganglion cells was roughly 2.5-fold smaller than that of mature ganglion cells. In addition, the activation threshold of the Na(+) current was nearly 11 mV more positive than that of mature cells. We provide morphological and physiological evidence showing that loss of gap junctions between progenitor cells is associated with ganglion cell differentiation during retinal regeneration and that new gap junctions are recreated between mature ganglion cells. Also we provide evidence suggesting that the loss of gap junctions correlates with the appearance of voltage-activated Na(+) currents in ganglion cells.

  12. Rare, simultaneous, multiple, and recurrent mandibular bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Mupparapu, Muralidhar; Milles, Maano; Singer, Steven R; Rinaggio, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    Simple bone cysts, also referred to as traumatic bone cysts, are benign connective tissue-lined cavities occurring most commonly in young people. Most of the time, they occur as solitary radiolucencies. In the jaws, they also have been reported to occur concurrently with benign fibro-osseous lesions. The radiographic appearance of simple bone cysts could be confused with other jaw cysts and benign tumors. This case report presents a patient who had 3 separate lesions simultaneously within the mandible. The right mandibular lesion presented as a multilocular radiolucency. The 2 left mandibular lesions were periapical, with mixed radiodensities and radiographically mimicked lesions of focal or periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia. More aggressive benign lesions of the jaw were initially included in the differential diagnosis, as well. A biopsy revealed the diagnosis of simple bone cysts in all 3 locations. Minimal surgical management resulted in complete recovery of these osseous defects only to recur in 2 years on the mandibular left premolar-molar region. A new biopsy confirmed that the lesion was a recurrent simple bone cyst. Simultaneous presence of benign cemento-osseous dysplasia was also considered, as it is known to coexist with the simple bone cysts.

  13. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L

    2006-09-01

    Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.

  14. Epidermal cyst mimicking incision line metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gündoğdu, Ramazan; Ayhan, Erhan; Çolak, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are cystic tumors lined with keratinized squamous layer and filled with keratin debris. Epidermal cysts may develop by implantation of surface epidermal layer into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue after trauma or surgical procedures. Cervix cancer spreads either directly or via the vascular and lymphatic systems. Distant skin metastasis of endometrium or cervix cancer is very rare. In this case report, a patient who had a history of cervix cancer operation 11 years ago and presented with a mass that mimicked incision line metastasis and was histopathologically diagnosed with epidermal cyst is presented.

  15. Developmental Odontogenic Cysts of Jaws: A Clinical Study of 245 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Javad; Kahnamouii, Shiva Solahaye

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study was to investigate the relative frequency of developmental odontogenic cysts in an Iranian population. Materials and methods In this study 245 cysts from both jaws, treated in the Faculty of Dentistry at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences during a 10-year period from 1998 to 2008, were analyzed in order to evaluate the incidence of such cysts. We had permission from all the patients. Case histories of 65% of male and 35% of female patients were analyzed. The age of the patients varied from 14 to 64 years, with an average of 33.21 ± 10.89. Results In this 10-year study of odontogenic cysts, 97 cases were developmental odontogenic cysts with the following inci-dence: dentigerous cyst, 44%; odontogenic keratocyst, 36%; primordial cyst, 9%; Gorlin cyst, 2%; lateral periodontal cyst, 3%; eruption cyst, 3%; and gingival cyst, 3% (adults 2%, infants 1%). A total of 60% of the cysts were found in the mandible and 40% in the maxilla. Regarding the mandible, the molar region was involved in 47% of the cases, premolar region in 33% and anterior region in 20% (total = 100%). Regarding the maxilla, the canine-to-canine region was involved in 52% of the cases, premolar region in 20% and molar region in 28% (total = 100%). Conclusion An important finding in this study was the fact that 39% of the jaw cysts were developmental odontogenic cysts and the most common developmental odontogenic cysts were dentigerous cyst and OKC (odontogenic keratocyst). PMID:23230485

  16. Two Cases of Giant Epidermal Cyst Occurring in the Neck

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang-Gue; Kim, Chul-Han; Cho, Hong-Ki; Park, Mi-Youn; Lee, Yoon-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are the most common cysts of the skin. Aconventional epidermal cyst rarely reaches a size of more than 5 cm in diameter. We report on two cases of giant epidermal cyst occurring in the neck. One patient had a cyst measuring 12×9×9 cm and the other patient had a non-pulsatile, dome-shaped lesion in the neck, which measured 6×5×3 cm. The lesions were totally excised. Histopathologically, both were confirmed as giant epidermal cysts. PMID:22028561

  17. Bilateral Radicular Cyst in Mandible: An Unusual Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bava, Fareed Ahmed; Umar, Dilshad; Bahseer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    A radicular cyst is one of the furthermost everyday odontogenic cysts of the anterior maxilla, not regularly comprehended in youth. They are found mostly at the apices of the tooth (periapical cyst), lateral surface of the roots (lateral radicular cyst) and remains in the jaw after removal of the offending tooth (residual cyst). The radicular cyst has been catalogued as an inflammatory cyst, as an outcome to pulpal necrosis succeeding caries, with a linked periapical inflammatory reaction. They advance sluggishly and asymptomatic lest infected. Because of this they can extent to big dimensions. Many times it is perplexing to segregate radicular cysts from the obligatory pre-existing chronic periapical periodontitis lesions radiographically. Here, we present a rare case with bilateral radicular cyst in relation to first molar of the mandible in a 19-year-old. Orthopantomograph showed a large unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border in the periapical region of the first molar on the left side extending from the root of the second premolar to the mesial root of the second molar. Correspondingly another well-defined unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border was seen on the right side of the mandible. Several treatment possibilities are presented for a radicular cyst such as surgical endodontic treatment, extraction of the transgressing tooth, enucleation with primary closure, and marsupialization trailed by enucleation. The patient management comprised surgical enucleation of cystic sac followed by rehabilitation of the same area. PMID:25859111

  18. Bilateral radicular cyst in mandible: an unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Bava, Fareed Ahmed; Umar, Dilshad; Bahseer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-02-01

    A radicular cyst is one of the furthermost everyday odontogenic cysts of the anterior maxilla, not regularly comprehended in youth. They are found mostly at the apices of the tooth (periapical cyst), lateral surface of the roots (lateral radicular cyst) and remains in the jaw after removal of the offending tooth (residual cyst). The radicular cyst has been catalogued as an inflammatory cyst, as an outcome to pulpal necrosis succeeding caries, with a linked periapical inflammatory reaction. They advance sluggishly and asymptomatic lest infected. Because of this they can extent to big dimensions. Many times it is perplexing to segregate radicular cysts from the obligatory pre-existing chronic periapical periodontitis lesions radiographically. Here, we present a rare case with bilateral radicular cyst in relation to first molar of the mandible in a 19-year-old. Orthopantomograph showed a large unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border in the periapical region of the first molar on the left side extending from the root of the second premolar to the mesial root of the second molar. Correspondingly another well-defined unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border was seen on the right side of the mandible. Several treatment possibilities are presented for a radicular cyst such as surgical endodontic treatment, extraction of the transgressing tooth, enucleation with primary closure, and marsupialization trailed by enucleation. The patient management comprised surgical enucleation of cystic sac followed by rehabilitation of the same area.

  19. Acute pancreatitis complicating choledochal cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Muthucumaru, Mathievathaniy; Ljuhar, Damir; Panabokke, Gayathri; Paul, Eldho; Nataraja, Ramesh; Ferguson, Peter; Dagia, Charuta; Clarnette, Tom; King, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    To analyse the characteristics of patients with choledochal cysts presenting with acute pancreatitis. Multicenter retrospective review of all paediatric patients (<18 years) with choledochal cysts managed over a 14-year period (2001-2014) at two tertiary paediatric surgical centres. Patient data were analysed for demographics, presentation, radiological classification of cyst type (Todani), operative interventions, complications and long-term follow-up. A total of 49 patients with choledochal cysts were identified with 15 (31%) being Type I fusiform, 18 (37%) Type I cystic and 16 (32%) Type IV-A. Seventeen (35%) patients presented with acute pancreatitis, one having had an ante-natally diagnosed choledochal cyst. Patients presenting with pancreatitis were older when compared to the non-pancreatitis group (5.1 vs. 1.2 years, P = 0.005). Nine out of 16 (53%) patients with Type IV-A cysts presented with pancreatitis compared to five (33%) of Type I fusiform and three (17%) of Type I cystic. There was however no statistically significant association between Todani types and the development of pancreatitis (Type I fusiform, P = 1.0; Type I cystic, P = 0.063; Type IV-A, P = 0.053). The rate of complications was similar in both groups. Pancreatitis was a common presentation in children with a choledochal cyst, however, there was no clear statistically significant association with Todani types and pancreatitis. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Accelerated retinal ganglion cell death in mice deficient in the Sigma-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Mavlyutov, Timur A; Nickells, Robert W; Guo, Lian-Wang

    2011-04-26

    The sigma-1 receptor (σR1), a ligand-operated chaperone, has been inferred to be neuroprotective in previous studies using σR1 ligands. The σR1 specificity of the protective function, however, has yet to be firmly established, due to the existence of non-σR1 targets of the ligands. Here, we used the σR1-knockout mouse (Sigmar1(-/-)) to demonstrate unambiguously the role of the σR1 in protecting the retinal ganglion cells against degeneration after acute damage to the optic nerve. Retinal σR binding sites were labeled with radioiodinated σR ligands and analyzed by autoradiography. Localization of the σR1 was performed by indirect immunofluorescence on frozen retinal sections. Retinal ganglion cell death was induced by acute optic nerve crush in wild-type and Sigmar1(-/-) mice. Surviving cells in the ganglion cell layer were counted on Nissl-stained retinal whole mounts 7 days after the crush surgery. Photoaffinity labeling indicated the presence of the σR1 in the retina, in concentrations equivalent to those in liver tissue. Immunolabeling detected this receptor in cells of both the ganglion cell layer and the photoreceptor cell layer in wild-type retinas. Quantification of cells remaining after optic nerve crush showed that 86.8±7.9% cells remained in the wild-type ganglion cell layer, but only 68.3±3.4% survived in the Sigmar1(-/-), demonstrating a significant difference between the wild-type and the Sigmar1(-/-) in crush-induced ganglion cell loss. Our data indicated faster retinal ganglion cell death in Sigmar1(-/-) than in wild-type mice under the stresses caused by optic nerve crush, providing direct evidence for a role of the σR1 in alleviating retinal degeneration. This conclusion is consistent with the previous pharmacological studies using σR1 agonists. Thus, our study supports the idea that the σR1 is a promising therapeutic target for neurodegenerative retinal diseases, such as glaucoma.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii tissue cyst purification using Percoll gradients

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Elizabeth A.; Dhara, Animesh; Sinai, Anthony P.

    2017-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting all warm blooded animals and humans. Infectious, transmissible forms of the parasite include oocysts produced by the sexual cycle within the definitive feline host and tissue cysts that form Toxoplasma in the CNS and muscle during the asexual cycle within all chronically infected warm-blooded hosts. These tissue cysts are populated with slow growing bradyzoites which have been until recently thought to be dormant entities in the context of immune sufficiency. Reactivation to active growth during immune suppression is of critical clinical importance. Yet we know little about tissue cysts or the bradyzoites they house as the diversity of tissue cysts cannot be replicated in cell culture systems. Our optimization of tissue cyst purification from the brains of infected mice using Percoll gradients provides an efficient means to recover in vivo derived tissue cysts that can be applied to imaging, cell-biologic, biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. PMID:28510363

  2. Multiplex real-time PCR assays for the identification of the potato cyst and tobacco cyst nematodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TaqMan primer-probe sets were developed for the detection and identification of potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis using two-tube, multiplex real-time PCR. One tube contained a primer-probe set specific for G. pallida (pale cyst nematode) multiplexed with another prim...

  3. Mycobiome of Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode Under Long Term Crop Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Weiming; Strom, Noah; Haarith, Deepak; Chen, Senyu; Bushley, Kathryn E.

    2018-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe (Phylum Nematoda), is a major pathogen of soybean. It causes substantial yield losses worldwide and is difficult to control because the cyst protects the eggs which can remain viable for nearly a decade. Crop rotation with non-host crops and use of biocontrol organisms such as fungi and bacteria offer promising approaches, but remain hampered by lack of knowledge of the biology of nematode parasitic organisms. We used a high-throughput metabarcoding approach to characterize fungal communities associated with the SCN cyst, a microenvironment in soil that may harbor both nematode parasites and plant pathogens. SCN cysts were collected from a long-term crop rotation experiment in Southeastern Minnesota at three time points over two growing seasons to characterize diversity of fungi inhabiting cysts and to examine how crop rotation and seasonal variation affects fungal communities. A majority of fungi in cysts belonged to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, but the presence of several early diverging fungal subphyla thought to be primarily plant and litter associated, including Mortierellomycotina and Glomeromycotina (e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), suggests a possible role as nematode egg parasites. Species richness varied by both crop rotation and season and was higher in early years of crop rotation and in fall at the end of the growing season. Crop rotation and season also impacted fungal community composition and identified several classes of fungi, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Orbiliomycetes (e.g., nematode trapping fungi), with higher relative abundance in early soybean rotations. The relative abundance of several genera was correlated with increasing years of soybean. Fungal communities also varied by season and were most divergent at midseason. The percentage of OTUs assigned to Mortierellomycotina_cls_Incertae_sedis and Sordariomycetes increased at midseason, while Orbiliomycetes

  4. Mycobiome of Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode Under Long Term Crop Rotation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Strom, Noah; Haarith, Deepak; Chen, Senyu; Bushley, Kathryn E

    2018-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe (Phylum Nematoda), is a major pathogen of soybean. It causes substantial yield losses worldwide and is difficult to control because the cyst protects the eggs which can remain viable for nearly a decade. Crop rotation with non-host crops and use of biocontrol organisms such as fungi and bacteria offer promising approaches, but remain hampered by lack of knowledge of the biology of nematode parasitic organisms. We used a high-throughput metabarcoding approach to characterize fungal communities associated with the SCN cyst, a microenvironment in soil that may harbor both nematode parasites and plant pathogens. SCN cysts were collected from a long-term crop rotation experiment in Southeastern Minnesota at three time points over two growing seasons to characterize diversity of fungi inhabiting cysts and to examine how crop rotation and seasonal variation affects fungal communities. A majority of fungi in cysts belonged to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, but the presence of several early diverging fungal subphyla thought to be primarily plant and litter associated, including Mortierellomycotina and Glomeromycotina (e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), suggests a possible role as nematode egg parasites. Species richness varied by both crop rotation and season and was higher in early years of crop rotation and in fall at the end of the growing season. Crop rotation and season also impacted fungal community composition and identified several classes of fungi, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Orbiliomycetes (e.g., nematode trapping fungi), with higher relative abundance in early soybean rotations. The relative abundance of several genera was correlated with increasing years of soybean. Fungal communities also varied by season and were most divergent at midseason. The percentage of OTUs assigned to Mortierellomycotina_cls_Incertae_sedis and Sordariomycetes increased at midseason, while Orbiliomycetes

  5. Angioarchitecture of the coeliac sympathetic ganglion complex in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis)

    PubMed Central

    PROMWIKORN, WARAPORN; THONGPILA, SAKPORN; PRADIDARCHEEP, WISUIT; MINGSAKUL, THAWORN; CHUNHABUNDIT, PANJIT; SOMANA, REON

    1998-01-01

    The angioarchitecture of the coeliac sympathetic ganglion complex (CGC) of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) was studied by the vascular corrosion cast technique in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy. The CGC of the tree shrew was found to be a highly vascularised organ. It normally received arterial blood supply from branches of the inferior phrenic, superior suprarenal and inferior suprarenal arteries and of the abdominal aorta. In some animals, its blood supply was also derived from branches of the middle suprarenal arteries, coeliac artery, superior mesenteric artery and lumbar arteries. These arteries penetrated the ganglion at variable points and in slightly different patterns. They gave off peripheral branches to form a subcapsular capillary plexus while their main trunks traversed deeply into the inner part before branching into the densely packed intraganglionic capillary networks. The capillaries merged to form venules before draining into collecting veins at the peripheral region of the ganglion complex. Finally, the veins coursed to the dorsal aspect of the ganglion to drain into the renal and inferior phrenic veins and the inferior vena cava. The capillaries on the coeliac ganglion complex do not possess fenestrations. PMID:9877296

  6. Retinal ganglion cell projections to the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet, and visual midbrain: bifurcation and melanopsin immunoreactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.; Provencio, Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) receives direct retinal input via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), and the retinal ganglion cells contributing to this projection may be specialized with respect to direct regulation of the circadian clock. However, some ganglion cells forming the RHT bifurcate, sending axon collaterals to the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) through which light has secondary access to the circadian clock. The present studies provide a more extensive examination of ganglion cell bifurcation and evaluate whether ganglion cells projecting to several subcortical visual nuclei contain melanopsin, a putative ganglion cell photopigment. The results showed that retinal ganglion cells projecting to the SCN send collaterals to the IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, and superior colliculus, among other places. Melanopsin-immunoreactive (IR) ganglion cells are present in the hamster retina, and some of these cells project to the SCN, IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, or superior colliculus. Triple-label analysis showed that melanopsin-IR cells bifurcate and project bilaterally to each SCN, but not to the other visual nuclei evaluated. The melanopsin-IR cells have photoreceptive characteristics optimal for circadian rhythm regulation. However, the presence of moderately widespread bifurcation among ganglion cells projecting to the SCN, and projection by melanopsin-IR cells to locations distinct from the SCN and without known rhythm function, suggest that this ganglion cell type is generalized, rather than specialized, with respect to the conveyance of photic information to the brain. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Epithelial Cyst in the Posterior Triangle of the Neck: Atypical Branchial Cyst or Cystic Lymph Node Metastasis?

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Domenic; Huber, Gerhard F.; Pézier, Thomas F.; Rössle, Matthias; Probst, Rudolf; Widmer, Gian-Marco

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 66-year-old man with a cervical neck mass located behind the left sternocleidomastoid muscle. To exclude malignancy, a full workup, including clinical, radiological, and cytological examination, was performed but failed to provide a definitive diagnosis. Histological analysis following excisional biopsy revealed a benign epithelial cyst, consistent with an atypically located branchial cyst. We describe an approach to the management of these neck masses and discuss several theories of the etiology of branchial cysts and how they may come to be abnormally located. PMID:24523976

  8. Thresholds for activation of rabbit retinal ganglion cells with an ultrafine, extracellular microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ralph J; Rizzo, Joseph F; Ziv, Ofer R; Grumet, Andrew; Wyatt, John

    2003-08-01

    To determine electrical thresholds required for extracellular activation of retinal ganglion cells as part of a project to develop an epiretinal prosthesis. Retinal ganglion cells were recorded extracellularly in retinas isolated from adult New Zealand White rabbits. Electrical current pulses of 100- micro s duration were delivered to the inner surface of the retina from a 5- micro m long electrode. In about half of the cells, the point of lowest threshold was found by searching with anodal current pulses; in the other cells, cathodal current pulses were used. Threshold measurements were obtained near the cell bodies of 20 ganglion cells and near the axons of 19 ganglion cells. Both cathodal and anodal stimuli evoked a neural response in the ganglion cells that consisted of a single action potential of near-constant latency that persisted when retinal synaptic transmission was blocked with cadmium chloride. For cell bodies, but not axons, thresholds for both cathodal and anodal stimulation were dependent on the search method used to find the point of lowest threshold. With search and stimulation of matching polarity, cathodal stimuli evoked a ganglion cell response at lower currents (approximately one seventh to one tenth axonal threshold) than did anodal stimuli for both cell bodies and axons. With cathodal search and stimulation, cell body median thresholds were somewhat lower (approximately one half) than the axonal median thresholds. With anodal search and stimulation, cell body median thresholds were approximately the same as axonal median thresholds. The results suggest that cathodal stimulation should produce lower thresholds, more localized stimulation, and somewhat better selectivity for cell bodies over axons than would anodal stimulation.

  9. Proliferation of epithelial cell rests, formation of apical cysts, and regression of apical cysts after periapical wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Louis M; Huang, George T-J; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2007-08-01

    There is continuing controversy regarding the potential for inflammatory apical cysts to heal after nonsurgical endodontic therapy. Molecular cell biology may provide answers to a series of related questions. How are the epithelial cell rests of Malassez stimulated to proliferate? How are the apical cysts formed? How does the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after endodontic therapy? Epithelial cell rests are induced to divide and proliferate by inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors released from host cells during periradicular inflammation. Quiescent epithelial cell rests can behave like restricted-potential stem cells if stimulated to proliferate. Formation of apical cysts is most likely caused by the merging of proliferating epithelial strands from all directions to form a three-dimensional ball mass. After endodontic therapy, epithelial cells in epithelial strands of periapical granulomas and the lining epithelium of apical cysts may stop proliferating because of a reduction in inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors. Epithelial cells will also regress because of activation of apoptosis or programmed cell death through deprivation of survival factors or by receiving death signals during periapical wound healing.

  10. Frequency of odontogenic cysts and tumors: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nigel R; Gannon, Orla M; Savage, Neil W; Batstone, Martin D

    2014-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature from 1993 to 2011 was undertaken examining frequency data of the most common odontogenic cysts and tumors. Seven inclusion criteria were met for the paper to be incorporated. In the preliminary search 5231 papers were identified, of these 26 papers met the inclusion criteria. There were 18 297 odontogenic cysts reported. Of these there were 9982 (54.6%) radicular cysts, 3772 (20.6%) dentigerous cysts and 2145 (11.7%) keratocystic odontogenic tumors. With the reclassification of keratocystic odontogenic tumor in 2005 as an odontogenic tumor, there were 8129 odontogenic tumors reported with 3001 (36.9%) ameloblastomas, 1163 (14.3%) keratocystic odontogenic tumors, 533 (6.5%) odontogenic myxomas, 337 (4.1%) adenomatoid odontogenic tumors and 127 (1.6%) ameloblastic fibromas. This systematic review found that odontogenic cysts are 2.25 times more frequent than odontogenic tumors. The most frequent odontogenic cyst and tumor were the radicular cyst and ameloblastoma respectively. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Pericardial Cyst: Cause of Sudden Cardiac Death?

    PubMed

    Ley, Marie Brix; Larsen, Maiken Kudahl

    2018-05-21

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of sudden death in the world. The etiology of sudden cardiac death involves a wide range of diseases, but seldom pericardial cysts. A pericardial cyst is an uncommon cyst usually located in the middle mediastinum and rarely in the posterior part. They are usually harmless and asymptomatic. Here, we present a case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea and hoarseness, but died suddenly after a CT scan was attempted. The detailed forensic pathologic and histologic examination revealed a pericardial cyst located in the posterior mediastinum. Toxicology and biochemistry tests, including tryptase, found no competing cause of death. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Sclerotherapy of cervical cysts with Picibanil (OK-432).

    PubMed

    Knipping, Stephan; Goetze, Gerrit; Neumann, Kerstin; Bloching, Marc

    2007-04-01

    The effectiveness of intralesional sclerotherapy of lymphangiomas and ranulas with OK-432 (Picibanil) has been proved in several clinical studies. The aim of our study was to review the effectiveness of sclerotherapy of benign cervical cysts with Picibanil as an alternative method to surgical excision. Between March 2002 and March 2006, a prospective observational study was carried out to assess the effects of Picibanil on cervical cysts. Between 2002 and 2006 we treated 14 patients having cervical cysts through intralesional application of Picibanil with a dose of 0.01 mg/ml. So far we used Picibanil with 13 patients achieving a high success rate. In eight cases we observed, both clinically and ultrasonographically, a nearly complete regression, and a complete regression of the cysts in three cases. In two cases the cysts atrophied. In these cases only residual findings could be observed. In one case we extirpated the remaining cyst. If there is no clear reaction of the cyst to the treatment, an excision is indicated 6 weeks after the injections to gain meaningful histological examination. No significant complication after sclerotherapy with Picibanil was observed. According to our results the application of OK-432 (Picibanil) is a safe and effective primary method for sclerotherapy of benign cervical cysts which can replace surgical extirpation in special cases. However, the risk of malign diseases has to be excluded before the commencement of the Picibanil treatment.

  13. Asymptomatic vallecular cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Yuce, Yucel; Uzun, Sennur; Aypar, Ulku

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old man presented himself for an intracranial glioblastoma multiforme excision. After being routinely monitored, he was preoxygenated. We induced anesthesia and paralysis with 200 mg propofol, 50 μg fentanyl and 9 mg vecuronium. Direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh 3 blade revealed a 2x2 cm cyst, pedunculated, arising from the right side of the vallecula preventing the endotracheal intubation. While the patient remained anesthetized, we urgently consulted an otolaryngologist and aspirated the cyst with a 22-gauge needle and syringe under direct laryngoscopy. We aspirated 10 cc of liquid content. This was followed by an uneventful tracheal intubation with a 9.0 enforced spiral cuffed tube. An alternative to fiberoptic intubation may be careful cyst aspiration to facilitate the intubation.

  14. Endosonography in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Vivek; Lee, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in radiologic technology and increased cross-sectional imaging have led to a sharp rise in incidental discoveries of pancreatic cystic lesions. These cystic lesions include non-neoplastic cysts with no risk of malignancy, neoplastic non-mucinous serous cystadenomas with little or no risk of malignancy, as well as neoplastic mucinous cysts and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms both with varying risk of malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as management is guided by symptoms and risk of malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) allows high resolution evaluation of cyst morphology and precise guidance for fine needle aspiration (FNA) of cyst fluid for cytological, chemical and molecular analysis. Initially, clinical evaluation and radiologic imaging, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging of the pancreas and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, are performed. In asymptomatic patients where diagnosis is unclear and malignant risk is indeterminate, EUS-FNA should be used to confirm the presence or absence of high-risk features, differentiate mucinous from non-mucinous lesions, and diagnose malignancy. After analyzing the cyst fluid for viscosity, cyst fluid carcinoembryonic antigen, amylase, and cyst wall cytology should be obtained. DNA analysis may add useful information in diagnosing mucinous cysts when the previous studies are indeterminate. New molecular biomarkers are being investigated to improve diagnostic capabilities and management decisions in these challenging cystic lesions. Current guidelines recommend surgical pancreatic resection as the standard of care for symptomatic cysts and those with high-risk features associated with malignancy. EUS-guided cyst ablation is a promising minimally invasive, relatively low-risk alternative to both surgery and surveillance. PMID:25789091

  15. Surgical management of complicated hydatid cysts of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ajaz A; Bari, Shams UL; Amin, Ruquia; Jan, Masooda

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To review the clinical presentation and surgical management of complicated hydatid cysts of the liver and to assess whether conservative surgery is adequate in the management of complicated hydatid cysts of liver. METHODS: The study was carried out at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Science, Srinagar, Kashmir, India. Sixty nine patients with hydatid disease of the liver were surgically managed from April 2004 to October 2005 with a follow up period of three years. It included 27 men and 42 women with a median age of 35 years. An abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and serology established diagnosis. Patients with jaundice and high suspicion of intrabiliary rupture were subjected to preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Cysts with infection, rupture into the biliary tract and peritoneal cavity were categorized as complicated cysts. Eighteen patients (26%) had complicated cysts and formed the basis for this study. RESULTS: Common complications were infection (14%), intrabiliary rupture (9%) and intraperitoneal rupture (3%). All the patients with infected cysts presented with pain and fever. All the patients with intrabiliary rupture had jaundice, while only four with intrabiliary rupture had pain and only two had fever. Surgical procedures performed in complicated cysts were: infection-omentoplasty in three and external drainage in seven; intrabiliary rupture-omentoplasty in two and internal drainage in four patients. Two patients with intraperitoneal rupture underwent external drainage. There was no mortality. The postoperative morbidity was 50% in complicated cysts and 16% in uncomplicated cysts. CONCLUSION: Complicated hydatid cyst of the liver can be successfully managed surgically with good long term results. PMID:21160854

  16. A case of peribiliary cysts accompanying bile duct carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Fumihiko; Takada, Tadahiro; Amano, Hodaka; Yoshida, Masahiro; Isaka, Takahiro; Toyota, Naoyuki; Wada, Keita; Takagi, Kenji; Kato, Kenichiro

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of peribiliary cysts accompanying bile duct carcinoma is presented. A 54-year-old man was diagnosed as having lower bile duct carcinoma and peribiliary cysts by diagnostic imaging. He underwent pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. As for the peribiliary cysts, a course of observation was taken. Over surgery due to misdiagnosis of patients with biliary malignancy accompanied by peribiliary cysts should be avoided. PMID:16874882

  17. Multiple mucous retention cysts of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tal, H; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    1984-12-01

    While mucoceles of the oral mucosa are relatively common, multiple mucous retention cysts have not previously been reported. In this article two such cases, in which numerous minor salivary gland ducts had dilated to the point of cyst formation, are described. The number of individual cysts exceeded 100 in each case. Since it is clear that these cysts formed as a result of dilatation of salivary ducts, it would seem that either the ducts were blocked by altered secretion or there was an acquired or congenital weakness in their structure.

  18. Diagnostic problems with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Adas, Gokhan; Karatepe, Oguzhan; Altiok, Merih; Battal, Muharrem; Bender, Omer; Ozcan, Deniz; Karahan, Servet

    2009-05-29

    The splenic cysts constitute a very rare clinical entity. They may occur secondary to trauma or even being more seldom due to parasitic infestations, mainly caused by ecchinocccus granulosus. Literature lacks a defined concencus including the treatment plans and follow up strategies, nor long term results of the patients. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnosis, management of patients with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts together with their long term follow up progresses. Twenty-four patients with splenic cysts have undergone surgery in our department over the last 9 years. Data from eighteen of the twenty-four patients were collected prospectively, while data from six were retrospectively collected. All patients were assessed in terms of age, gender, hospital stay, preoperative diagnosis, additional disease, serology, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), cyst recurrences and treatment. In this study, the majority of patients presented with abdominal discomfort and palpable swelling in the left hypochondrium. All patients were operated on electively. The patients included 14 female and 10 male patients, with a mean age of 44.77 years (range 20-62). Splenic hydatid cysts were present in 16 patients, one of whom also had liver hydatid cysts (6.25%). Four other patients were operated on for a simple cyst (16%) two patients for an epithelial cyst, and the last two for splenic lymphangioma. Of the 16 patients diagnosed as having splenic hydatit cysts, 11 (68.7%) were correctly diagnosed. Only two of these patients were administered benzimidazole therapy pre-operatively because of the risk of multicystic disease The mean follow-up period was 64 months (6-108). There were no recurrences of splenic cysts. Surgeons should keep in mind the possibility of a parasitic cyst when no definitive alternative diagnosis can be made. In the treatment of splenic hydatidosis, benzimidazole therapy is not necessary, although it is crucial to perform

  19. Odontogenic cysts: a clinicopathological study of 507 cases.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Rafael L; Antunes, Antonio A; Carvalho, Ricardo W F; Bezerra, Paulo G C F; Oliveira Neto, Patrício J; Andrade, Emanuel S S

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of odontogenic cysts at the Pernambuco School of Dentistry - Universidade de Pernambuco (Brazil) and compare this prevalence with other international studies. Data for the study were obtained from reports of patients diagnosed with odontogenic cysts between 1992 and 2007. Case records of patients who fit the Histological Classification of the World Health Organization (2005) were included. The following variables were analyzed: gender, age group, anatomical location, histological type and ethnic background. Odontogenic cysts accounted for 9.94% of all lesions biopsied throughout the study period. Mean patient age was 28.9 years and 57.6% of the patients were males (P > 0.05). Radicular cyst was the most prevalent histological type (52.2%), followed by dentigerous cyst (30.7%). Regarding ethnic background, 41.8 % of the patients were of African descent, followed by Caucasians and other ethnic groups (P > 0.05). The mandible was the most prevalent site of the lesions (56%). Odontogenic cysts appear to have a distinct predilection for the male gender, the second and third decades of life (P < 0.05) and are more frequent in the mandible. The removal of odontogenic keratocysts from the new WHO classification has not altered the order of the most prevalent cysts in the maxillofacial complex.

  20. Diagnosis and Management of Parathyroid Cysts: Description with Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Aydoğdu, Koray; Şahin, Furkan; İncekara, Funda; Fındık, Göktürk; Kaya, Sadi; Ağaçkıran, Yetkin

    2015-10-01

    Parathyroid cysts are unilocular, thin-walled cysts, and they are seen very rarely. Their formation mechanisms are not clear. They are usually localized in the cervical region, and mediastinal settlements are rare. They are usually asymptomatic, but cysts that have settled in the neck may be symptomatic, such as tracheal pressure symptoms. There are two types-namely, functional cysts and non-functional cysts-depending on their hormonal characteristics. There are still difficulties in the diagnosis, and they can be mistaken by thyroid pathology. Treatment is surgery. We discussed two cases of parathyroid cysts that we surgically excised.

  1. Pediatric Odontogenic Cysts of the Jaws.

    PubMed

    Arce, Kevin; Streff, Christopher S; Ettinger, Kyle S

    2016-02-01

    Odontogenic cysts represent a common form of pathology of the jaws, and the natural history, clinicopathologic findings, and appropriate management strategies are important to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Odontogenic cysts in the pediatric populations are important pathologic entities given their potential impact on the growth and development of the maxillofacial complex. Inappropriate management strategies can severely affect the form and function of the growing child. Categorizing pediatric odontogenic cysts into inflammatory or developmental causes provides a convenient way of conceptualizing these various entities and helps facilitate the appropriate diagnosis and the subsequent management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidermal cyst mimicking incision line metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gündoğdu, Ramazan; Ayhan, Erhan; Çolak, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are cystic tumors lined with keratinized squamous layer and filled with keratin debris. Epidermal cysts may develop by implantation of surface epidermal layer into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue after trauma or surgical procedures. Cervix cancer spreads either directly or via the vascular and lymphatic systems. Distant skin metastasis of endometrium or cervix cancer is very rare. In this case report, a patient who had a history of cervix cancer operation 11 years ago and presented with a mass that mimicked incision line metastasis and was histopathologically diagnosed with epidermal cyst is presented. PMID:28740968

  3. Alexandrium minutum resting cyst distribution dynamics in a confined site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglès, Sílvia; Jordi, Antoni; Garcés, Esther; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Palanques, Albert

    2010-02-01

    The life cycle of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum consists of an asexual stage, characterized by motile vegetative cells, and a sexual stage, a resting cyst that once formed remains dormant in the sediment. Insight into the factors that determine the distribution and abundance of resting cysts is essential to understanding the dynamics of the vegetative phase. In investigations carried out between January 2005 and January 2008 in Arenys de Mar harbor (northwestern Mediterranean Sea), the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of A. minutum resting cysts and of the sediments were studied during different bloom stages of the vegetative population. Maximum cyst abundance was recorded mainly in the innermost part of the harbor while the lowest abundance always occurred near the harbor entrance, consistent with the distribution of silt-clay sediment fractions. The tendency of cysts in sediments to increase after bloom periods was clearly associated with new cyst formation, while cyst abundance decreased during non-bloom periods. Exceptions to this trend were observed in stations dominated by the deposition of coarse sediments. High correlation between the presence of cysts and clays during non-bloom periods indicates that cysts behave as passive sediment particles and are influenced by the same hydrodynamic processes as clays. In Arenys de Mar, the main physical forcing affecting sediment resuspension is the seiche, which was studied using in situ measurements and numerical models to interpret the observed distribution patterns. During non-bloom periods, cyst losses were smaller when the seiche was more active and at the station where the seiche-induced current was larger. Thus, seiche-forced resuspension appears to reduce cyst losses by reallocating cysts back to the sediment surface such that their burial in the sediment is avoided. The observed vertical profiles of the cysts were consistent with this process.

  4. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Localization and Activation Effects on Ganglion Response Properties

    PubMed Central

    Renna, Jordan M.; Amthor, Franklin R.; Keyser, Kent T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The activation and blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) affects retinal ganglion cell light responses and firing rates. This study was undertaken to identify the full complement of mAChRs expressed in the rabbit retina and to assess mAChR distribution and the functional effects of mAChR activation and blockade on retinal response properties. Methods. RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry were used to identify the complement and distribution of mAChRs in the rabbit retina. Extracellular electrophysiology was used to determine the effects of the activation or blockade of mAChRs on ganglion cell response properties. Results. RT-PCR of whole neural retina resulted in the amplification of mRNA transcripts for the m1 to m5 mAChR subtypes. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that all five mAChR subtypes were expressed by subpopulations of bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells in the rabbit retina, including subsets of cells in cholinergic and glycinergic circuits. Nonspecific muscarinic activation and blockade resulted in the class-specific modulation of maintained ganglion cell firing rates and light responses. Conclusions. The expression of mAChR subtypes on subsets of bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells provides a substrate for both enhancement and suppression of retinal responses via activation by cholinergic agents. Thus, the muscarinic cholinergic system in the retina may contribute to the modulation of complex stimuli. Understanding the distribution and function of mAChRs in the retina has the potential to provide important insights into the visual changes that are caused by decreased ACh in the retinas of Alzheimer's patients and the potential visual effects of anticholinergic treatments for ocular diseases. PMID:20042645

  5. Broad Thorny Ganglion Cells: A Candidate for Visual Pursuit Error Signaling in the Primate Retina

    PubMed Central

    Manookin, Michael B.; Neitz, Jay; Rieke, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Functional analyses exist only for a few of the morphologically described primate ganglion cell types, and their correlates in other mammalian species remain elusive. Here, we recorded light responses of broad thorny cells in the whole-mounted macaque retina. They showed ON-OFF-center light responses that were strongly suppressed by stimulation of the receptive field surround. Spike responses were delayed compared with parasol ganglion cells and other ON-OFF cells, including recursive bistratified ganglion cells and A1 amacrine cells. The receptive field structure was shaped by direct excitatory synaptic input and strong presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition in both ON and OFF pathways. The cells responded strongly to dark or bright stimuli moving either in or out of the receptive field, independent of the direction of motion. However, they did not show a maintained spike response either to a uniform background or to a drifting plaid pattern. These properties could be ideally suited for guiding movements involved in visual pursuit. The functional characteristics reported here permit the first direct cross-species comparison of putative homologous ganglion cell types. Based on morphological similarities, broad thorny ganglion cells have been proposed to be homologs of rabbit local edge detector ganglion cells, but we now show that the two cells have quite distinct physiological properties. Thus, our data argue against broad thorny cells as the homologs of local edge detector cells. PMID:25834063

  6. Edema is a precursor to central nervous system peritumoral cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Lonser, Russell R; Vortmeyer, Alexander O; Butman, John A; Glasker, Sven; Finn, Michael A; Ammerman, Joshua M; Merrill, Marsha J; Edwards, Nancy A; Zhuang, Zhengping; Oldfield, Edward H

    2005-09-01

    Despite the common occurrence and frequent clinical effects of peritumoral cysts in the central nervous system (CNS), the mechanism underlying their development and evolution is not understood. Because they commonly produce peritumoral cysts and because serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is obtained in von Hippel-Lindau disease patients, hemangioblastomas provide an opportunity to examine the pathophysiology of CNS peritumoral cyst formation. Serial MRI was correlated with the clinical findings in 16 von Hippel-Lindau disease patients with 22 CNS hemangioblastomas (11 spinal cord; 11 cerebellar) that were associated with the appearance and evolution of peritumoral cysts. Hemangioblastoma-associated cyst wall histomorphological analysis was performed on postmortem tissues from three von Hippel-Lindau disease patients (not in the clinical series). Comparative proteomic profiling was performed on peritumoral cyst fluid and serum. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels were determined in peritumoral cysts. MRI clearly showed peritumoral edema that developed and slowly and progressively evolved into enlarging hemangioblastoma-associated cysts in all tumors (mean follow-up, 130 +/- 38 months; mean +/- standard deviation). Postcontrast MRI demonstrated convective leakage of gadolinium into cysts. Mean time required for edema to evolve into a cyst was 36 +/- 23 months (range, 8-72 months). Thirteen (59%) hemangioblastoma-cysts became symptomatic (mean time to symptom formation after cyst development, 35 +/- 32 months; range, 3-102 months) and required resection. Protein profiles of cyst fluid and serum were similar. Mean cyst fluid vascular endothelial growth factor concentration was 1.5 ng/ml (range, 0-5.4 ng/ml). Histology of the cyst walls was consistent with reactive gliosis. CNS peritumoral cyst formation is initiated by increased tumor vascular permeability, increased interstitial pressure in the tumor, and plasma extravasation with convective distribution

  7. [Endoscopic surgery in the treatment of patients with extensive odontogenic cysts].

    PubMed

    Sysolyatin, P G; Sysolyatin, S P; Baydik, O D

    The aim of the study was the assessment of effectiveness of endoscopic techniques in the treatment of extensive odontogenic cysts. Endosurgery for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes was used in 67 patients with odontogenic cysts of the jaws: 23 follicular cysts, 19 radicular cysts, 6 residual cysts, and 19 keratokists. The results prove that the developed methods of endovideosurgery of odontogenic cysts have low invasiveness, provide an optimal healing of bone tissue and reduce postoperative complications.

  8. Paracoccygeal corkscrew approach to ganglion impar injections for tailbone pain.

    PubMed

    Foye, Patrick M; Patel, Shounuck I

    2009-01-01

    A new technique for performing nerve blocks of the ganglion impar (ganglion Walther) is presented. These injections have been reported to relieve coccydynia (tailbone pain), as well as other malignant and nonmalignant pelvic pain syndromes. A variety of techniques have been previously described for blocking this sympathetic nerve ganglion, which is located in the retrorectal space just anterior to the upper coccygeal segments. Prior techniques have included approaches through the anococcygeal ligament, through the sacrococcygeal joint, and through intracoccygeal joint spaces. This article presents a new, paracoccygeal approach whereby the needle is inserted alongside the coccyx and the needle is guided through three discrete steps with a rotating or corkscrew trajectory. Compared with some of the previously published techniques, this paracoccygeal corkscrew approach has multiple potential benefits, including ease of fluoroscopic guidance using the lateral view, ability to easily use a stylet for the spinal needle, and use of a shorter, thinner needle. While no single technique works best for all patients and each technique has potential advantages and disadvantages, this new technique adds to the available options.

  9. Baker's Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rarely, a Baker's cyst bursts and synovial fluid leaks into the calf region, causing: Sharp pain in your knee Swelling in the calf Sometimes, redness of your calf or a feeling of water running down your calf These signs and symptoms ...

  10. Branchial cleft or cervical lymphoepithelial cysts: etiology and management.

    PubMed

    Glosser, Jeffrey W; Pires, Carlos Alberto S; Feinberg, Stephen E

    2003-01-01

    The cervical lymphoepithelial or branchial cleft cyst is a developmental cyst that has a disputed pathogenesis. The objective of this article is to provide a brief review of the literature and to define diagnostic terms related to this anomaly, as well as to describe its etiology, clinical presentation and treatment. The cervical lymphoepithelial or branchial cleft cyst usually presents as a unilateral, soft-tissue fluctuant swelling that typically appears in the lateral aspect of the neck, anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and becomes clinically evident late in childhood or in early adulthood. Clinicians can diagnose the cyst with appropriate imaging to assess the extent of the lesion before definitive surgical treatment. The authors describe a patient who underwent excision of a well-encapsulated cystic structure that was diagnosed as a branchial cleft cyst. The cervical lymphoepithelial or branchial cleft cyst can be easily misdiagnosed as a parotid swelling or odontogenic infection. It is imperative that clinicians make an accurate diagnosis so that appropriate treatment (that is, surgical excision) can be performed. If the cysts are treated properly, recurrences are rare.

  11. Comparison of Mast Cells Count in Odontogenic Cysts Using Histochemical Staining.

    PubMed

    Rajabi-Moghaddam, Mahdieh; Abbaszadeh-Bidokhty, Hamid; Bijani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are among the most frequent destructive lesions of jaws which their pathogenesis and growth mechanism are not cleared. With respect to different roles of mast cells, they may play a role in the pathogenesis and growth of odontogenic cysts. The aim of present study was to evaluate mast cells in the most common odontogenic cyst. Thirty paraffin-embedded tissue blocks including 10 radicular cysts, 10 dentigerous cysts and 10 odontogenic keratocysts were used and 5 micron sections stained with toluidine blue and observed by light microscope under ×400 magnification to evaluate mast cells within these cysts. For each case, 5 high-power field areas, selected from hot-spot areas, were considered and each area divided into 3 zones: intra-epithelial zone, sub-epithelial zone and deep zone. Most of the studied cyst showed presence of mast cells. There was not any significant difference in mast cell count between studied cysts ( P -values > 0.05).With respect to intra-epithelial, sub-epithelial and deep zones, there was not any significant difference between three studied cysts. There was not any significant difference between sub-epithelial zone and deep zone within each of these cysts. There was only significant difference between intra-epithelial zone and sub-epithelial zone within dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts ( P -value < 0.05). Prevalence of mast cells in fibrous wall of odontogenic cysts suggests their activity in these cysts. Mast cells may not be directly involved in the pathogenesis of odontogenic keratocysts.

  12. Ovarian dermoid cyst leakage--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A G; Lawrence, A; Tsaltas, J

    1998-08-01

    This case illustrates that when a dermoid cyst is punctured, an immediate operative laparoscopy or laparotomy should be performed, along with lavage, to avoid the problems associated with dermoid cyst contents spillage.

  13. [Retention cysts of the vocal cords (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, E W

    1979-05-01

    Present day knowledge in laryngology maintains that the free edge of the true cord mucosa is devoid of glands so that retention cysts should not occur in this tissue. When such cysts do occur, it is difficult to define their pathogenesis. Reference is made to the author's earlier study which found a regular occurrence of mucous glands in the squamous epithelial region of the vocal cords. A retention cyst in the true cord is described histologically in the present report. The glands responsible for these cysts are believed to function by moistening the mucous membrane of the vocal cords.

  14. Diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell asymmetry for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young Hoon; Ahn, Sang Il; Ko, Sung Ju

    2015-11-01

    Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), this study aims to investigate the glaucoma diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell asymmetry analysis. A cross-sectional study was conducted. This study was performed to investigate glaucoma diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell asymmetry analysis in eyes with various degrees of glaucoma. We enrolled 181 healthy eyes and 265 glaucomatous eyes. Glaucomatous eyes were subdivided into pre-perimetric, early, moderate and advanced-to-severe glaucoma based on visual field test results. For each eye, macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness was measured using OCT. Average GCIPL thickness, GCIPL thicknesses in superior and inferior hemispheres, absolute difference in GCIPL thickness between superior and inferior hemispheres and GCIPL asymmetry index calculated as the absolute value of log10 (inferior hemisphere thickness/superior hemisphere thickness) were analysed. Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUCs) of GCIPL parameter were calculated and compared. All of the GCIPL parameters showed good glaucoma diagnostic ability (AUCs ≥ 0.817, P < 0.01). AUCs of average, superior and inferior GCIPL thickness increased as the severity of glaucoma increased. GCIPL thickness difference and asymmetry index showed the highest AUCs in early and moderate glaucoma and lower AUCs in pre-perimetric and advanced-to-severe glaucoma. GCIPL thickness difference and asymmetry index showed better glaucoma diagnostic ability than other GCIPL parameters only in early stage of glaucoma (P < 0.05); in other stages, these parameters had similar to or worse glaucoma diagnostic ability than other GCIPL parameters. Macular ganglion cell asymmetry analysis showed good glaucoma diagnostic ability, especially in early-stage glaucoma. However, it has limited usefulness in other stages of glaucoma. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  15. Epidermoid Cyst of the Sole - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Santosh Singh; Gopinathan, Nayar Sajeeth

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common benign subcutaneous lesion also termed as epidermal cysts. Epidermoid cyst are commonly seen in hairy regions of body like scalp, face and scrotum, can be single or multiple, but rarely can occur in glabrous skin of palm and sole. They are known to result from progressive cystic ectasia of the infundibular portion of hair follicle but the pathogenesis in palmo-plantar epidermoid cyst differs that is traumatic sequestration of epidermal elements into dermis. Here, we report a case of 30-year-old female presented with complaints of swelling in her left sole. On examination a palpable firm swelling was noted just below the 2nd web space left foot plantar region, on X-ray foot no osseous lesion or foreign body was detected. Swelling was excised and sent for histopathological examination which confirmed it as epidermoid cyst. PMID:28050432

  16. Accelerated retinal ganglion cell death in mice deficient in the Sigma-1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Nickells, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The sigma-1 receptor (σR1), a ligand-operated chaperone, has been inferred to be neuroprotective in previous studies using σR1 ligands. The σR1 specificity of the protective function, however, has yet to be firmly established, due to the existence of non-σR1 targets of the ligands. Here, we used the σR1-knockout mouse (Sigmar1−/−) to demonstrate unambiguously the role of the σR1 in protecting the retinal ganglion cells against degeneration after acute damage to the optic nerve. Methods Retinal σR binding sites were labeled with radioiodinated σR ligands and analyzed by autoradiography. Localization of the σR1 was performed by indirect immunofluorescence on frozen retinal sections. Retinal ganglion cell death was induced by acute optic nerve crush in wild-type and Sigmar1−/− mice. Surviving cells in the ganglion cell layer were counted on Nissl-stained retinal whole mounts 7 days after the crush surgery. Results Photoaffinity labeling indicated the presence of the σR1 in the retina, in concentrations equivalent to those in liver tissue. Immunolabeling detected this receptor in cells of both the ganglion cell layer and the photoreceptor cell layer in wild-type retinas. Quantification of cells remaining after optic nerve crush showed that 86.8±7.9% cells remained in the wild-type ganglion cell layer, but only 68.3±3.4% survived in the Sigmar1−/−, demonstrating a significant difference between the wild-type and the Sigmar1−/− in crush-induced ganglion cell loss. Conclusions Our data indicated faster retinal ganglion cell death in Sigmar1−/− than in wild-type mice under the stresses caused by optic nerve crush, providing direct evidence for a role of the σR1 in alleviating retinal degeneration. This conclusion is consistent with the previous pharmacological studies using σR1 agonists. Thus, our study supports the idea that the σR1 is a promising therapeutic target for neurodegenerative retinal diseases, such as glaucoma. PMID

  17. Relationship between macular ganglion cell complex thickness and macular outer retinal thickness: a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography study.

    PubMed

    Kita, Yoshiyuki; Kita, Ritsuko; Takeyama, Asuka; Anraku, Ayako; Tomita, Goji; Goldberg, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between macular ganglion cell complex and macular outer retinal thicknesses. Case-control study. Forty-two normal eyes and 91 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma were studied. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100) was used to measure the macular ganglion cell complex and macular outer retinal thickness. Ganglion cell complex to outer retinal thickness ratio was also calculated. The relationships between the ganglion cell complex and outer retinal thicknesses and between the ganglion cell complex to outer retinal thickness ratio and outer retinal thickness were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between ganglion cell complex and outer retinal thicknesses in the normal group and the glaucoma group (r = 0.53, P < 0.001 and r = 0.42, P < 0.001, respectively). In that respect, there was no correlation between ganglion cell complex to outer retinal thickness ratio and outer retinal thickness in the both groups (r = -0.07, P = 0.657, and r = 0.04, P = 0.677, respectively). The ganglion cell complex to outer retinal thickness ratio was 55.65% in the normal group, 45.07% in the glaucoma group. This difference was statistically significant. The ganglion cell complex thickness may be affected by outer retinal thickness, and there is individual variation in the outer retinal thickness. Therefore, when determining the ganglion cell complex, it seems necessary to consider the outer retinal thickness as well. We propose the ratio as a suitable parameter to account for individual variations in outer retinal thickness. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. Hepatic cyst penetration of cefazolin in patients receiving aspiration sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lantinga, M A; Wijnands, T F M; Te Morsche, R H M; de Sévaux, R G L; Kuipers, S; Allegaert, K; Burger, D; Drenth, J P H

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic cyst infection is a potentially severe complication in cystic disease. Treatment demands effective antibiotic concentrations within the infected cyst. The aim of this study was to use elective hepatic cyst drainage as a unique pharmacokinetic model to investigate whether cefazolin, a first-generation cephalosporin, is able to penetrate hepatic cysts. Patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous aspiration sclerotherapy of a symptomatic non-infected, non-neoplastic hepatic cyst were eligible for this study. All participants received a single perioperative prophylactic dose of cefazolin (1000 mg, intravenously). We collected blood and cyst fluid samples to determine total and unbound cefazolin concentrations using HPLC. The primary outcome was hepatic cyst penetration, expressed as the ratio (%) of unbound concentration of cefazolin in cyst fluid to plasma (both in mg/L). We included eight patients [male = 25%, median age = 60 years (IQR 54-75), median estimated glomerular filtration rate = 97 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (IQR 67-102) and median serum albumin = 40 g/L (IQR 37-40)]. We detected low concentrations of unbound cefazolin in cyst fluid (≤1.0 mg/L). The median plasma unbound cefazolin peak level (immediately after cefazolin administration) was 36.6 mg/L (IQR 23.7-54.1) and the level at the time of cyst fluid aspiration was 16.1 mg/L (IQR 13.0-20.1). In total, the hepatic cyst penetration of free cefazolin was only 2.2% (IQR 0.7-5.2). We developed a study model to investigate the penetration of antibiotics into hepatic cysts. Cefazolin did not reach adequate intracystic concentrations. Future studies should explore alternatives. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Bosniak Classification for Complex Renal Cysts Reevaluated: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schoots, Ivo G; Zaccai, Keren; Hunink, Myriam G; Verhagen, Paul C M S

    2017-07-01

    We systematically evaluated the Bosniak classification system with malignancy rates of each Bosniak category, and assessed the effectiveness related to surgical treatment and oncologic outcome based on recurrence and/or metastasis. In a systematic review according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement and the QUADAS-2 (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) criteria, we selected 39 publications for inclusion in this analysis and categorized them into 1) surgical cohorts-all cysts treated surgically and 2) radiological cohorts-cysts with surgical treatment or radiological followup. A total of 3,036 complex renal cysts were categorized into Bosniak II, IIF, III and IV. In surgical and radiological cohorts pooled estimates showed a malignancy prevalence of 0.51 (0.44, 0.58) in Bosniak III and 0.89 (0.83, 0.92) in Bosniak IV cysts, respectively. Stable Bosniak IIF cysts showed a malignancy rate of less than 1% during radiological followup (surveillance). Bosniak IIF cysts, which showed reclassification to the Bosniak III/IV category during radiological followup (12%), showed malignancy in 85%, comparable to Bosniak IV cysts. The estimated surgical number needed to treat to avoid metastatic disease of Bosniak III and IV cysts was 140 and 40, respectively. The effectiveness of the Bosniak classification system for complex renal cysts was high in categories II, IIF and IV, but low in category III, and 49% of Bosniak III cysts was overtreated because of a benign outcome. This surgical overtreatment combined with the excellent outcome for Bosniak III cysts may suggest that surveillance is a rational alternative to surgery. This will require further study to assess whether surveillance of Bosniak III cysts will prove safe. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Digital Museum of Retinal Ganglion Cells with Dense Anatomy and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Bae, J Alexander; Mu, Shang; Kim, Jinseop S; Turner, Nicholas L; Tartavull, Ignacio; Kemnitz, Nico; Jordan, Chris S; Norton, Alex D; Silversmith, William M; Prentki, Rachel; Sorek, Marissa; David, Celia; Jones, Devon L; Bland, Doug; Sterling, Amy L R; Park, Jungman; Briggman, Kevin L; Seung, H Sebastian

    2018-05-17

    When 3D electron microscopy and calcium imaging are used to investigate the structure and function of neural circuits, the resulting datasets pose new challenges of visualization and interpretation. Here, we present a new kind of digital resource that encompasses almost 400 ganglion cells from a single patch of mouse retina. An online "museum" provides a 3D interactive view of each cell's anatomy, as well as graphs of its visual responses. The resource reveals two aspects of the retina's inner plexiform layer: an arbor segregation principle governing structure along the light axis and a density conservation principle governing structure in the tangential plane. Structure is related to visual function; ganglion cells with arbors near the layer of ganglion cell somas are more sustained in their visual responses on average. Our methods are potentially applicable to dense maps of neuronal anatomy and physiology in other parts of the nervous system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recurrent neck abscess due to a bronchogenic cyst in an adult.

    PubMed

    Hazenberg, A J C; Pullmann, L M; Henke, R-P; Hoppe, F

    2010-12-01

    Neck abscesses can originate from congenital cervical cysts. Cervical cysts of bronchogenic origin are rare and often asymptomatic. Common symptoms of bronchogenic cysts are stridor, dyspnoea and dysphagia. The reported patient represents the second published case of a bronchogenic cyst causing a neck abscess in an adult. We report a case of a cervical bronchogenic cyst presenting as a recurrent supraclavicular abscess in a middle-aged woman. During extirpation, a fistula was demonstrated to the right upper lobe of the lung, suspected because the cyst inflated synchronously with respiration. The symptoms of bronchogenic cysts are due to the effects of compression or fistulas. In the majority of these cysts, a thorough investigation involving history, examination and radiological imaging does not clearly demonstrate a fistula. Therefore, extirpation is both diagnostic and therapeutic. A bronchogenic cyst is a very rare cause of a recurrent deep neck abscess. Total extirpation is the treatment of choice.

  2. Clinico-radiographic study of odontogenic cysts at a tertiary care centre.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kamran; Munir, Faisal; Rehman, Abdur; Abbas, Iram; Ahmad, Nofil; Akhtar, Muhammad Usman

    2014-01-01

    Cysts of the jaws constitute an important pathology in the oral and maxillofacial region and are broadly classified as odontogenic and non-odontogenic. Objective of this study was to document the clinical and radiographic presentation of odontogenic cysts at a tertiary care centre. In this descriptive case-series, patients presenting with features of suspected cystic lesions of the jaws were investigated using radiographs and incisional biopsy. Subjects showing clinico- radiographic features of odontogenic cyst(s) with subsequent confirmation on histopathological examination were included. A total of 112 subjects were investigated for suspected jaw cysts and cystic diagnosis of odontogenic cysts was confirmed in 100 patients with 53 males (53%) and 47 females (47%). The age range of patients was from 12-55 years. Radicular cyst was the most commonly diagnosed odontogenic cyst (63%) followed by dentigerous cyst (22%) and odontogenickeratocyst (14%). Anterior maxilla was the most affected site (44%) followed by posterior mandible (30%). Odontogenic cysts constitute an established pathology affecting the jaws with varying frequency. This study augments the data cited from Western countries and re-emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and prompt management. It also highlights the differences in the presentation of odontogenic cysts as observed in the current series.

  3. Prevalence and distribution of odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts in a Turkish Population

    PubMed Central

    Uzun-Bulut, Emel; Özden, Bora; Gündüz, Kaan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative frequency and distribution of odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts in a large Turkish population. Study Design A retrospective survey of jaw cysts was undertaken at the Oral Diagnosis and Radiology and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Ondokuz Mayıs University Dental School, Samsun, Turkey. Data were retrieved from clinical files, imaging, and histopathology reports from 2000 to 2008; a total of 12,350 patients were included. In each case, we analyzed age, gender, type and number of cysts, and cyst location. Imaging patterns and pathologies associated with cystic lesions were also determined. Results: The prevalence of odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts was 3.51%; males were affected more frequently than females. There were 452 odontogenic cysts (98.5%) and seven nonodontogenic cysts (1.5%). The most frequent odontogenic cyst was radicular (54.7%), followed by dentigerous (26.6%), residual (13.7%), odontogenic keratocyst (3.3%), and lateral periodontal cyst (0.2%). Nasopalatine duct cyst (1.5%) was the only nonodontogenic cyst. By age, cysts peaked in the third decade (24.2%). Concerning location, no statistically significant difference was found between the maxilla and mandible (p>0.05). The most frequent radiological feature of these lesions was unilocular cyst (93.7%). Pathologies associated with cystic lesions occurred in 14.7%. Conclusion: The prevalence of both odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts were lower than that reported in many other studies. In our study population, cysts were mainly inflammatory in origin. Key words: Prevalence, odontogenic, nonodontogenic, cysts. PMID:21743428

  4. Risk factors for pediatric arachnoid cyst rupture/hemorrhage: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cress, Marshall; Kestle, John R W; Holubkov, Richard; Riva-Cambrin, Jay

    2013-05-01

    As the availability of imaging modalities has increased, the finding of arachnoid cysts has become common. Accurate patient counseling regarding physical activity or risk factors for cyst rupture or hemorrhage has been hampered by the lack of definitive association studies. This case-control study evaluated factors that are associated with arachnoid cyst rupture (intracystic hemorrhage, adjacent subdural hematoma, or adjacent subdural hygroma) in pediatric patients with previously asymptomatic arachnoid cysts. Patients with arachnoid cysts and intracystic hemorrhage, adjacent subdural hygroma, or adjacent subdural hematoma treated at a single institution from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively identified. Two unruptured/nonhemorrhagic controls were matched to each case based on patient age, sex, anatomical cyst location, and side. Risk factors evaluated included arachnoid cyst size, recent history of head trauma, and altitude at residence. The proportion of imaged arachnoid cysts that presented either originally or subsequently with a rupture or hemorrhage was 6.0%. Larger cyst size, as defined by maximal cyst diameter, was significantly associated with cyst rupture/hemorrhage (P < .001). When dichotomized with a 5-cm cutoff, 9/13 larger cysts ruptured and/or hemorrhaged, whereas only 5/29 smaller cysts ruptured/hemorrhaged (odds ratio = 16.5 (confidence interval [2.5, ∞]). A recent history of head trauma was also significantly associated with the outcome (P < .001; odds ratio = 25.1 (confidence interval [4.0, ∞]). Altitude was not associated with arachnoid cyst rupture or hemorrhage. This case-control study suggests that larger arachnoid cyst size and recent head trauma are risk factors for symptomatic arachnoid cyst rupture/hemorrhage.

  5. Treatment of a large radicular cyst-enucleation or decompression?

    PubMed

    Matijević, Stevo; Jovivić, Bojan; Bubalo, Marija; Dukić, Smiljka; Cutović, Tatjana

    2015-04-01

    Radicular cysts treatment involves surgical approach, more or less aggressive. However, treatment of large cystic lesions, including radicular cysts, causes some of dilemmas concerning the choice of the surgical method, especially the degree of radicalism. We presented a 65-year-old male patient with large radicular cyst in the mandible. A large elliptical multilocular radiolucency, located in the left side of the mandible, being in close vicinity to the mandibular canal, was registered at the orthopantomographic radiography. There was a risk of pathological fracture of the mandible. However, the cyst was completely removed by enucleation without intraoperative and postoperative complications. The presented case support the opinion that careful enucleation of large mandibular cysts may be done without complications, such as damages of surrounding anatomical structures or mandibular fracture. The authors indicate reasons for strong support of the undertaken surgical approach of treating large radicular cysts in the mandible.

  6. Comparison of Mast Cells Count in Odontogenic Cysts Using Histochemical Staining

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi-Moghaddam, Mahdieh; Abbaszadeh-Bidokhty, Hamid; Bijani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Odontogenic cysts are among the most frequent destructive lesions of jaws which their pathogenesis and growth mechanism are not cleared. With respect to different roles of mast cells, they may play a role in the pathogenesis and growth of odontogenic cysts. The aim of present study was to evaluate mast cells in the most common odontogenic cyst. Methods: Thirty paraffin-embedded tissue blocks including 10 radicular cysts, 10 dentigerous cysts and 10 odontogenic keratocysts were used and 5 micron sections stained with toluidine blue and observed by light microscope under ×400 magnification to evaluate mast cells within these cysts. For each case, 5 high-power field areas, selected from hot-spot areas, were considered and each area divided into 3 zones: intra-epithelial zone, sub-epithelial zone and deep zone. Results: Most of the studied cyst showed presence of mast cells. There was not any significant difference in mast cell count between studied cysts ( P -values > 0.05).With respect to intra-epithelial, sub-epithelial and deep zones, there was not any significant difference between three studied cysts. There was not any significant difference between sub-epithelial zone and deep zone within each of these cysts. There was only significant difference between intra-epithelial zone and sub-epithelial zone within dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts ( P -value < 0.05). Conclusions: Prevalence of mast cells in fibrous wall of odontogenic cysts suggests their activity in these cysts. Mast cells may not be directly involved in the pathogenesis of odontogenic keratocysts. PMID:26351470

  7. Adenovector GAD65 gene delivery into the rat trigeminal ganglion produces orofacial analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Vit, Jean-Philippe; Ohara, Peter T; Sundberg, Christopher; Rubi, Blanca; Maechler, Pierre; Liu, Chunyan; Puntel, Mariana; Lowenstein, Pedro; Castro, Maria; Jasmin, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Background Our goal is to use gene therapy to alleviate pain by targeting glial cells. In an animal model of facial pain we tested the effect of transfecting the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) gene into satellite glial cells (SGCs) of the trigeminal ganglion by using a serotype 5 adenovector with high tropisms for glial cells. We postulated that GABA produced from the expression of GAD would reduce pain behavior by acting on GABA receptors on neurons within the ganglion. Results Injection of adenoviral vectors (AdGAD65) directly into the trigeminal ganglion leads to sustained expression of the GAD65 isoform over the 4 weeks observation period. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that adenovirus-mediated GAD65 expression and GABA synthesis were mainly in SGCs. GABAA and GABAB receptors were both seen in sensory neurons, yet only GABAA receptors decorated the neuronal surface. GABA receptors were not found on SGCs. Six days after injection of AdGAD65 into the trigeminal ganglion, there was a statistically significant decrease of pain behavior in the orofacial formalin test, a model of inflammatory pain. Rats injected with control virus (AdGFP or AdLacZ) had no reduction in their pain behavior. AdGAD65-dependent analgesia was blocked by bicuculline, a selective GABAA receptor antagonist, but not by CGP46381, a selective GABAB receptor antagonist. Conclusion Transfection of glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion with the GAD gene blocks pain behavior by acting on GABAA receptors on neuronal perikarya. PMID:19656360

  8. Adenovector GAD65 gene delivery into the rat trigeminal ganglion produces orofacial analgesia.

    PubMed

    Vit, Jean-Philippe; Ohara, Peter T; Sundberg, Christopher; Rubi, Blanca; Maechler, Pierre; Liu, Chunyan; Puntel, Mariana; Lowenstein, Pedro; Castro, Maria; Jasmin, Luc

    2009-08-05

    Our goal is to use gene therapy to alleviate pain by targeting glial cells. In an animal model of facial pain we tested the effect of transfecting the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) gene into satellite glial cells (SGCs) of the trigeminal ganglion by using a serotype 5 adenovector with high tropisms for glial cells. We postulated that GABA produced from the expression of GAD would reduce pain behavior by acting on GABA receptors on neurons within the ganglion. Injection of adenoviral vectors (AdGAD65) directly into the trigeminal ganglion leads to sustained expression of the GAD65 isoform over the 4 weeks observation period. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that adenovirus-mediated GAD65 expression and GABA synthesis were mainly in SGCs. GABAA and GABAB receptors were both seen in sensory neurons, yet only GABAA receptors decorated the neuronal surface. GABA receptors were not found on SGCs. Six days after injection of AdGAD65 into the trigeminal ganglion, there was a statistically significant decrease of pain behavior in the orofacial formalin test, a model of inflammatory pain. Rats injected with control virus (AdGFP or AdLacZ) had no reduction in their pain behavior. AdGAD65-dependent analgesia was blocked by bicuculline, a selective GABAA receptor antagonist, but not by CGP46381, a selective GABAB receptor antagonist. Transfection of glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion with the GAD gene blocks pain behavior by acting on GABAA receptors on neuronal perikarya.

  9. Airway management in an infant with a giant vallecular cyst.

    PubMed

    Reiersen, David A; Gungor, Anil A

    2014-01-01

    Review vallecular cysts and report the surgical management of a vallecular cyst of unusual size with near-complete obliteration of the airway. This case report describes an unusually large mucus retention cyst in an 8-week-old infant that was diagnosed during induction of general anesthesia and prevented visualization of airway. Intubation was performed after rapid aspiration of the cyst contents. Vallecular cysts can present as a life-threatening obstruction in infants and complicate the establishment of an airway after induction of anesthesia. In our case, rapid thinking and aspiration of the cyst contents helped establish the airway for definitive CO2 laser excision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mucous retention cyst of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Ruprecht, A; Batniji, S; el-Neweihi, E

    1986-12-01

    The mucous retention cyst is not a rare phenomenon. The incidence of dental patients was determined. Of 1685 patient radiographs reviewed, 44 (2.6%) had one or more mucous retention cysts in the maxillary sinuses.

  11. Ultrasound diagnostic of mesonephric paraovarian cyst - case report

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Cîrstoiu, MM; Turcan, N; Ionescu, CA

    2016-01-01

    Paraovarian cysts are a rare pathology, constituting 10-20% of the adnexal masses. The origin can be represented by paramesonephric ducts (Hydatid cysts of Morgagni), vestiges of mesonephric ducts also represented by mesothelium, or neoplastic (cystadenomas or cystadenofibromas) that are mostly benign. Borderline or malignant paraovarian tumors are encountered less often. This article presents a case of paraovarian cyst in a 37-year-old patient, with a history of 2 pregnancies, completed by cesarean. The patient sought medical attention for an asymptomatic voluminous ovarian cyst, detected in a routine ultrasound scan. Laboratory tests and tumor markers were within normal limits. Transvaginal ultrasound and color Doppler revealed a cystic adnexal mass with 10 cm transonic, smooth, homogeneous content, avascular walls with no internal papillary projections, with a “hyperechoic line” sign of delimitation from the ovarian capsule, mostly visible when the adnexa was mobilized. The diagnostic and curative laparoscopic surgery was successful, followed by a quick recovery. The histopathological exam confirmed the benignity and the origin of the paraovarian cyst. The case was discussed in the context of the literature review concerning this pathology, drawing attention to the real possibility of differentiating ovarian from paraovarian cysts by ultrasound. PMID:27974934

  12. Giant Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst in an Adolescent Girl

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Erbil; Çim, Numan; Akdemir, Zülküf; Elçi, Erkan; Akdeniz, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Vulvar cyst in adolescent girls is very uncommon. Epidermoid cyst can be seen in many sites including face, trunk, and extremities but its occurrence in vulva is uncommon. This is the first case of epidermoid cyst of vulva reported in an adolescent girl. Case. A 17-year-old, adolescent girl admitted to our gynecology outpatient clinic with a complaint of painful and palpable mass in her vulva. On examination, a giant mass located in left vulva and labia majora with 11 cm in diameter was seen. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-defined cystic mass without contrast enhancement. The surgery was advised to the patient and the pathologic examination of mass revealed vulvar epidermoid cyst. Discussion. Vulvar cysts generally grow slowly and the main etiologies are vulvar trauma and surgical interventions including episiotomy and female circumcision in some culture. The exact treatment is total surgical excision and pathologic examination. MRI is an important imaging modality for detection of extension to deep perineal tissue and localization of mass in vulva especially in giant ones. Conclusion. Although vulvar mass in adolescents is rare, the epidermoid cyst with benign origin should be kept in mind. PMID:25949839

  13. Visual Field Defects and Retinal Ganglion Cell Losses in Human Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Harwerth, Ronald S.; Quigley, Harry A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective The depth of visual field defects are correlated with retinal ganglion cell densities in experimental glaucoma. This study was to determine whether a similar structure-function relationship holds for human glaucoma. Methods The study was based on retinal ganglion cell densities and visual thresholds of patients with documented glaucoma (Kerrigan-Baumrind, et al.) The data were analyzed by a model that predicted ganglion cell densities from standard clinical perimetry, which were then compared to histologic cell counts. Results The model, without free parameters, produced accurate and relatively precise quantification of ganglion cell densities associated with visual field defects. For 437 sets of data, the unity correlation for predicted vs. measured cell densities had a coefficient of determination of 0.39. The mean absolute deviation of the predicted vs. measured values was 2.59 dB, the mean and SD of the distribution of residual errors of prediction was -0.26 ± 3.22 dB. Conclusions Visual field defects by standard clinical perimetry are proportional to neural losses caused by glaucoma. Clinical Relevance The evidence for quantitative structure-function relationships provides a scientific basis of interpreting glaucomatous neuropathy from visual thresholds and supports the application of standard perimetry to establish the stage of the disease. PMID:16769839

  14. Expression of squid iridescence depends on environmental luminance and peripheral ganglion control.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bellido, P T; Wardill, T J; Buresch, K C; Ulmer, K M; Hanlon, R T

    2014-03-15

    Squid display impressive changes in body coloration that are afforded by two types of dynamic skin elements: structural iridophores (which produce iridescence) and pigmented chromatophores. Both color elements are neurally controlled, but nothing is known about the iridescence circuit, or the environmental cues, that elicit iridescence expression. To tackle this knowledge gap, we performed denervation, electrical stimulation and behavioral experiments using the long-fin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. We show that while the pigmentary and iridescence circuits originate in the brain, they are wired differently in the periphery: (1) the iridescence signals are routed through a peripheral center called the stellate ganglion and (2) the iridescence motor neurons likely originate within this ganglion (as revealed by nerve fluorescence dye fills). Cutting the inputs to the stellate ganglion that descend from the brain shifts highly reflective iridophores into a transparent state. Taken together, these findings suggest that although brain commands are necessary for expression of iridescence, integration with peripheral information in the stellate ganglion could modulate the final output. We also demonstrate that squid change their iridescence brightness in response to environmental luminance; such changes are robust but slow (minutes to hours). The squid's ability to alter its iridescence levels may improve camouflage under different lighting intensities.

  15. Macroanatomical investigation of the aorticorenal ganglion in 1-day-old infant sheep.

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Kaczyńska, K; Jakubowska, W

    2009-06-01

    The aorticorenal gland belongs to the paired splanchnic ganglion, which is the main component of the coeliac plexus. It lies near the renal artery and suprarenal gland. The research was conducted on 13 1-day-old infant sheep - eight males and five females. Based on the conducted studies, it was concluded that the aorticorenal ganglion is characterized by the variable location in relation to the abdominal aorta, renal artery, caudal vena cava and suprarenal gland (holotopy), the thoracic and lumbar segment of the vertebral column (skeletotopy) (between L(1) and L(3)) and also a different shape (elongated, round, triangular, oval) as well as variable length (the aorticorenal ganglion is longer on the left side of the body; 2.72 mm) and distance from the caudal end of the suprarenal gland (longer on the left side of the body; 8.34 mm). With regard to the sex of the animal, the ganglion is the longest on the left side in ewes (3.02 mm), while in rams it is the longest on the right side (2.68 mm). Regarding the division according to sex, the longest segment was observed on the right side in ewes (9.27 mm), and the shortest segment in rams was also on the right side (6.84 mm).

  16. Prevalence of incidental pancreatic cyst on upper endoscopic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Belén; Martínez, Juan F.; Aparicio, José R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of incidental pancreatic cysts in patients undergoing upper endoscopic ultrasound without a known pancreatic abnormality. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in two hospitals in Spain and enrolled consecutive patients referred for upper endoscopic ultrasound for a condition unrelated to the pancreas. Patients with a previous pancreatic anomaly, history of acute or chronic pancreatitis, evidence of acute pancreatitis, previous upper gastrointestinal surgery, or chronic abdominal pain suggestive of pancreatic origin were excluded. Univariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate individual covariates and the incidental pancreatic cyst risk. Results: A total of 298 patients were included, of whom 64 had pancreatic cysts (21.5%; 16.9-26.6%). The mean size of the cysts was 6.3±3.7 (range 3-25) mm. Six cysts (2%) were >10 mm and 16 (5.4%) were compatible with branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. The pancreatic cyst prevalence was similar in the two hospitals and increased significantly with age. Conclusion: The prevalence of incidental pancreatic cysts during endoscopic ultrasound was very high in our study population. PMID:29333072

  17. [The so-called "chocolate cyst"--frequently misinterpreted as ovarian endometriosis?].

    PubMed

    Christensen, B; Schindler, A E

    1996-09-01

    Limitation of morphological diagnostic and possible misinterpretations are shown in a patient with anamnestic ovarian endometriosis. In cases of "chocolate cysts" it is necessary to differentiate between ovarian endometriosis and functional cysts. Hints for the existence of a functional cyst are an atypical past history or perioperative findings. Biochemical analysis of the cyst fluid may lead to a correct diagnosis.

  18. Unicameral bone cyst of the calcaneum.

    PubMed

    Hazmy, C H Wan

    2004-12-01

    The calcaneus is not a common site for a unicameral solitary bone cyst. Little is known about the etiology and natural history of these lesions. The author reports an adult man with a solitary bone cyst of the os calcis which was confirmed radiologically and histologically and successfully treated with curretage and bone grafting.

  19. Unicameral Bone Cysts of the Pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Sommer; Weber, Kristy; McCarthy, Edward F

    2005-01-01

    Unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis are extremely rare. This study summarizes the clinical, radiologic and pathologic features of 16 cases. Patients ranged in age from nine to 69. Most lesions were in the anterior portion of the iliac wing; many appeared to be related to an open iliac crest apophysis. This suggests that the pathogenesis of unicameral bone cysts in this portion of the ilium is similar to that seen in the proximal humerus and the proximal femur. The correct diagnosis was made preoperatively in only five cases. This indicates that, although they are well documented, unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis remain a diagnostic problem. Patients received a spectrum of treatments from curettage to observation. There appeared to be no difference in the outcome after any form of treatment. Therefore, unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis can be managed conservatively. The choice to manage patients conservatively depends on making the correct diagnosis based on clinical history and imaging. The most effective imaging is a combination of plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:16089077

  20. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  1. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  2. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  3. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  4. Aneurysmal bone cyst: a hereditary disease?

    PubMed

    Leithner, Andreas; Machacek, Felix; Haas, Oskar A; Lang, Susanna; Ritschl, Peter; Radl, Roman; Windhager, Reinhard

    2004-05-01

    Recent genetic and immunohistochemical studies propose that the primary aneurysmal bone cyst is a tumour and not a reactive tumour-simulating lesion. Based on a familial case of aneurysmal bone cyst the authors contacted 135 patients with this disease. Sixty-eight females and 67 males (median age 14 years; range 2-73 years) were asked if other family members had bone lesions. One hundred and seven patients (79%) denied having other family members with lesions, 23 patients (17%) did not answer, and five patients (4%) gave evidence of other bone lesions in the family. These data indicate that a predisposing genetic defect could be part of a multifactorial pathogenesis in the development of some aneurysmal bone cysts.

  5. Liesegang rings in renal cyst fluid.

    PubMed

    Katz, L B; Ehya, H

    1990-01-01

    Peculiar ring-like structures identified as Liesegang rings (LRs) were found in renal cyst fluid from three patients with benign renal cysts. They ranged in size from 5 to 820 mu. Most had a double-layer outer wall with equally spaced radial cross-striations and an amorphous central nidus. Special stains were performed in one case, and the results are discussed. Reports of LRs in cystic or inflamed tissues have recently appeared in the literature. Some LRs have been mistaken for eggs or mature components of the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale. We propose that cytologic assessment of renal cyst fluid in conjunction with histologic examination decreases the likelihood of misdiagnosis of LRs.

  6. Maxillary bone epithelial cyst in an adult miniature schnauzer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Tien; Tasi, Wen-Chih; Hu, Chun-Kun; Lin, Nien-Ting; Huang, Pei-Yun; Yeh, Lih-Seng

    2008-09-01

    Maxillary bone epithelial cyst is rare in dogs. A 5-year-old, spayed female miniature schnauzer developed a swelling below the nasal canthus of left eye. Plain radiograph demonstrated a 1.5 cm diameter of radiolucent lesion on the maxillary bone anteroventral to the eye, and contrast dacryocystorhinography confirmed an obstructed nasolarcrimal duct. The swelling showed poor response to antibiotic treatment but responded well to oral prednisolone. Exploratory surgery revealed a cyst-like structure filled with brown serous fluid. Histopathological examination of the removed cyst revealed a double cuboidal epithelial cyst. The dog recovered rapidly after surgery, and the swelling had not recurred for a 36-month follow-up. It is the first case of periorbital bone epithelial cyst reported in an adult miniature schnauzer.

  7. Immunohistochemical analysis of P53 protein in odontogenic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Gaballah, Essam Taher M.A.; Tawfik, Mohamed A.

    2010-01-01

    The p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor gene, the mutations of which are closely related to the decreased differentiation of cells. Findings of studies on immunohistochemical P53 expression in odontogenic cysts are controversial. The present study was carried-out to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of P53 protein in odontogenic cysts. Thirty paraffin blocks of diagnosed odontogenic cysts were processed to determine the immunohistochemical expression of P53 protein. Nine of the 11 odontogenic keratocysts (81.8%) expressed P53, one of three dentigerous cyst cases expressed P53, while none of the 16 radicular cysts expressed P53 protein. The findings of the present work supported the reclassification of OKC as keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:23960493

  8. Morphometric evaluation of AgNORs in odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Sreeshyla, Huchanahalli S; Shashidara, Raju; Sudheendra, Udyavara Sridhara

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the morphometry of AgNORs in odontogenic cysts and to compare their biologic behavior to determine whether AgNOR morphometry is helpful in predicting the behavior. Ten cases each of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC) and radicular cyst (RC) were stained with silver nitrate. Morphometric analysis of 100 selected epithelial and connective tissue cells was done to record their nuclear volume, nuclear perimeter, contour index of the nucleus, AgNOR count, AgNOR proportion and single AgNOR volume. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. AgNOR count, nuclear volume and nuclear perimeter were greatest in the OKC followed by DC and RC, suggesting that these parameters differentiate between the aggressive and less aggressive odontogenic cysts. Single AgNOR volume and AgNOR proportion were greatest in the RC followed by OKC and DC, respectively. Results of our study taken in isolation point to AgNOR count as the most reliable factor in differentiating between aggressive and nonaggressive odontogenic cysts.

  9. Aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Ching; Ngui, Romano; Tan, Tiong Kai; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Ithoi, Init; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2014-01-01

    An aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in river water corresponding to five villages situated in three states in peninsular Malaysia was determined. There were 51.3% (20/39) and 23.1% (9/39) samples positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts, respectively. Overall mean concentration between villages for Giardia cysts ranged from 0.10 to 25.80 cysts/l whilst Cryptosporidium oocysts ranged from 0.10 to 0.90 oocysts/l. Detailed results of the river samples from five villages indicated that Kuala Pangsun 100% (9/9), Kemensah 77.8% (7/9), Pos Piah 33.3% (3/9) and Paya Lebar 33.3% (1/3) were contaminated with Giardia cysts whilst Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts were only detected in Kemensah (100 %; 9/9) and Kuala Pangsun (66.6%; 6/9). However, the water samples from Bentong were all negative for these waterborne parasites. Samples were collected from lower point, midpoint and upper point. Midpoint refers to the section of the river where the studied communities are highly populated. Meanwhile, the position of the lower point is at least 2 km southward of the midpoint and upper point is at least 2 km northward of the midpoint. The highest mean concentration for (oo)cysts was found at the lower points [3.15 ± 6.09 (oo)cysts/l], followed by midpoints [0.66 ± 1.10 (oo)cysts/l] and upper points [0.66 ± 0.92 (oo)cysts/l]. The mean concentration of Giardia cysts was highest at Kuala Pangsun (i.e. 5.97 ± 7.0 cysts/l), followed by Kemensah (0.83 ± 0.81 cysts/l), Pos Piah (0.20 ± 0.35 cysts/l) and Paya Lebar (0.10 ± 0.19 cysts/l). On the other hand, the mean concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts was higher at Kemensah (0.31 ± 0.19 cysts/l) compared to Kuala Pangsun (0.03 ± 0.03cysts/l). All the physical and chemical parameters did not show significant correlation with both protozoa. In future, viability status and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium should be applied to identify

  10. First record of cysts in the tidal tardigrade Echiniscoides sigismundi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Lykke K. B.; Andersen, Kasper N.; Hygum, Thomas L.; Jørgensen, Aslak; Møbjerg, Nadja

    2014-12-01

    Tardigrades are microscopic metazoans that withstand environmental extremes by entering dormant states, such as cryptobiosis (latent life). In addition, they may also form cysts. Here, we present the first report of cyst formation in a marine heterotardigrade, i.e., Echiniscoides sigismundi, which constitutes a cryptic species complex present worldwide in tidal zones. The cysts were initially discovered during experimental series constructed to investigate osmotic stress tolerance. The animals, which eventually formed cysts, showed signs of an imminent molt at the beginning of experimentation. We use the term "cyst" for stages, where a total of three or more cuticles have been synthesized. Our observations show that encystment in E. sigismundi involves synthesizing of at least two new cuticle layers. Legs with discharged claws are present in connection with the first outer cuticle, as well as the second cuticular layer. In the most developed cyst, a third cuticle lacking claws seems to surround the animal, which is delineated by a fourth cuticle. Many features are shared with the well-studied cysts of eutardigrades. The cysts of E. sigismundi, however, lack pigmentation and have an extra set of claws, and the animal inside retains buccopharyngeal sclerified parts, until discharging the third cuticle. The finding of cysts in a marine heterotardigrade is novel and confirms that encystment also occurs within this major evolutionary lineage.

  11. Sonographic Spectrum of Tunica Albuginea Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Daniel M.; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Tunica albuginea (TA) cyst is the most common extratesticular benign mass, which is usually palpable. Ultrasound examination is the imaging modality of choice to characterize palpable testicular lesions. This pictorial essay presents the spectrum of sonographic features of TA cysts in order to assist radiologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries. PMID:21915386

  12. An Approach towards Ultrasound Kidney Cysts Detection using Vector Graphic Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Wan Mahani Hafizah Wan; Supriyanto, Eko

    2017-08-01

    This study develops new approach towards detection of kidney ultrasound image for both with single cyst as well as multiple cysts. 50 single cyst images and 25 multiple cysts images were used to test the developed algorithm. Steps involved in developing this algorithm were vector graphic image formation and analysis, thresholding, binarization, filtering as well as roundness test. Performance evaluation to 50 single cyst images gave accuracy of 92%, while for multiple cysts images, the accuracy was about 86.89% when tested to 25 multiple cysts images. This developed algorithm may be used in developing a computerized system such as computer aided diagnosis system to help medical experts in diagnosis of kidney cysts.

  13. Diagnosing cysts with correlation coefficient images from 2-dimensional freehand elastography.

    PubMed

    Booi, Rebecca C; Carson, Paul L; O'Donnell, Matthew; Richards, Michael S; Rubin, Jonathan M

    2007-09-01

    We compared the diagnostic potential of using correlation coefficient images versus elastograms from 2-dimensional (2D) freehand elastography to characterize breast cysts. In this preliminary study, which was approved by the Institutional Review Board and compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, we imaged 4 consecutive human subjects (4 cysts, 1 biopsy-verified benign breast parenchyma) with freehand 2D elastography. Data were processed offline with conventional 2D phase-sensitive speckle-tracking algorithms. The correlation coefficient in the cyst and surrounding tissue was calculated, and appearances of the cysts in the correlation coefficient images and elastograms were compared. The correlation coefficient in the cysts was considerably lower (14%-37%) than in the surrounding tissue because of the lack of sufficient speckle in the cysts, as well as the prominence of random noise, reverberations, and clutter, which decorrelated quickly. Thus, the cysts were visible in all correlation coefficient images. In contrast, the elastograms associated with these cysts each had different elastographic patterns. The solid mass in this study did not have the same high decorrelation rate as the cysts, having a correlation coefficient only 2.1% lower than that of surrounding tissue. Correlation coefficient images may produce a more direct, reliable, and consistent method for characterizing cysts than elastograms.

  14. Endoscopic colloid cyst excision: surgical techniques and nuances.

    PubMed

    Azab, Waleed Abdelfattah; Najibullah, Mustafa; Yosef, Waleed

    2017-06-01

    Endoscopic excision of colloid cysts is currently well established as a minimally invasive and highly effective technique that is associated with less morbidity in comparison to microsurgical resection. Operative charts and videos of patients undergoing endoscopic colloid cyst excision were retrieved from the senior author's database of endoscopic procedures and reviewed. This revealed nine trans-foraminal and three trans-septal procedures. Description of the surgical techniques was then formulated. Variation of the technique is based on the specific patho-anatomical features of the colloid cyst being resected. For the trans-foraminal approach, we think that the rotational technique is associated with a more complete removal of the cyst wall and consequently lower recurrence rate.

  15. Frontal horn thin walled cysts in preterm neonates are benign

    PubMed Central

    Pal, B; Preston, P; Morgan, M; Rushton, D; Durbin, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Screening cranial ultrasound led to the discovery of isolated frontal horn cysts quite distinct from periventricular leucomalacia cysts.
AIM—To clarify their significance, incidence, characteristics, causal factors or aetiology, and effect on long term outcome.
DESIGN—A retrospective observational study of all first cranial ultrasound scans (total of 2914) performed during the period 1984-1994 inclusive found 21 neonates with smooth thin walled frontal horn cysts: 18 of 2629 scanned were of birth weight < 1500 g or gestation < 33 weeks, and three of 285 were > 33 weeks gestation. Sequential ultrasound, maternal records, and neonatal events were retrospectively assessed. In survivors, routine neurodevelopmental evaluations were obtained. Postmortem studies of one cyst were performed to determine the nature and origin of these lesions.
RESULTS—Of the 21 subjects, 15 had isolated frontal horn cysts and six had additional ultrasound scan abnormalities, including four with subependymal haemorrhage. The sonographic features of frontal horn cysts were of distinctive morphology (elliptical, smooth, thin walled, ranging in size from 3 to 20 mm) and position (adjacent to the tip of the anterior horns). The cysts enlarged and then regressed by a median corrected age of 2 months. Subjects of < 33 weeks gestation (n = 18) had a median birth weight of 1465g (range 720-1990) and median gestation of 30 weeks (range 24-32). There was no consistent perinatal course. The neurodevelopmental outcome in 10 of the 11 survivors with isolated frontal horn cysts was normal. Five subjects died from causes unrelated to brain pathology in the neonatal period, and one subject died after infancy. Histological examination of a cyst at autopsy in one additional subject subsequent to the period of study confirmed the cyst to be lined by neuroblasts and ependymal cells.
CONCLUSIONS—The incidence of frontal horn cysts in this low birthweight population was 7 per 1000 (0

  16. Atypical Intracranial Epidermoid Cysts: Rare Anomalies with Unique Radiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Law, Eric K. C.; Lee, Ryan K. L.; Ng, Alex W. H.; Siu, Deyond Y. W.; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign slow growing extra-axial tumours that insinuate between brain structures, while their occurrences in intra-axial or intradiploic locations are exceptionally rare. We present the clinical, imaging, and pathological findings in two patients with atypical epidermoid cysts. CT and MRI findings for the first case revealed an intraparenchymal epidermoid cyst that demonstrated no restricted diffusion. The second case demonstrated an aggressive epidermoid cyst that invaded into the intradiploic spaces, transverse sinus, and the calvarium. The timing of ectodermal tissue sequestration during fetal development may account for the occurrence of atypical epidermoid cysts. PMID:25667778

  17. Clinico-pathologic study of odontogenic cysts in a Mexican sample population.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Hernández-Guerrero, J C; Garcés-Ortíz, M

    2000-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are uncommon lesions that frequently behave agressively and attain a large size. Unfortunately, information on the relative incidence of these cysts from different populations is not abundant. In Mexico, for example, only a few examples have been reported. The aim of this study was to ascertain the frequency of odontogenic cysts in a Mexican sample and to compare these data with previously reported studies from other countries. The files of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Diagnosis Service at the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) were reviewed and all accessions of odontogenic cysts were listed. Clinical and radiographic data were recorded and microscopic slides evaluated according to the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) classification (1992). Three hundred and four cases of odontogenic cysts (55.9% male predominance) were found. The most frequent odontogenic cysts were the following: periapical cyst (38. 8%); dentigerous cyst (35.5%), and odontogenic keratocyst (18.8%). Periapical cyst was more frequent in females, and maxillary anterior teeth were most commonly involved. Dentigerous cysts appeared in males at a rate of 64.8%, this cyst found more frequently between the 1st and 2nd decades of life and in the molar zone. Odontogenic keratocyst was more frequent in males (59.6%), between the 2nd and 4th decades of life and more common in the molar zone. More than 50% of the sample were aggressive cysts (dentigerous and keratocyst). Our results suggest that Mexican patients develop aggressive odontogenic cysts more commonly than other populations. Our figures point to the need for a precise diagnosis in order to institute the correct surgical procedure, prevent recurrence, and forestall more extensive tissue destruction.

  18. Mucus retention cyst of the maxillary sinus: the endoscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Hadar, T; Shvero, J; Nageris, B I; Yaniv, E

    2000-06-01

    To present our experience of endoscopic surgery for symptomatic mucus retention cyst of the maxillary sinus. Retrospective study. Teaching hospital, Israel. 60 patients with 65 symptomatic cysts of the maxillary sinus who were operated on endoscopically. Only patients with large cysts that filled at least 50% of the sinus space were included. A rigid nasal endoscope was used in all cases; most of the cysts were removed through the natural sinus ostium. Cysts recurred in only two patients during the first postoperative year. There were no complications from the procedure. The endoscopic approach to the treatment of maxillary sinus cyst is associated with a low rate of recurrence (3% in this study) and no complications, and we recommend it as the surgical procedure of choice. Copyright 2000 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

  19. Dual lumbar bronchogenic and arachnoid cyst presenting with sciatica and left foot drop.

    PubMed

    Candy, Nicholas; Young, Adam; Devadass, Abel; Dean, Andrew; McMillen, Jason; Trivedi, Rikin

    2017-10-01

    Spinal bronchogenic cysts are rare findings, with only four cases of lumbar bronchogenic cysts reported in the literature. All of these bronchogenic cysts involved the conus medullaris. We present the first case of a lumbar bronchogenic cyst and arachnoid cyst arising from the cauda equina in a 68-year-old male. Uniquely, this bronchogenic cyst also contained components of an arachnoid cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a compressive cystic lesion at the level of the L3 vertebra splaying the cauda equina. An L3/L4 laminectomy was performed with marsupialisation of the cyst. Histological examination revealed pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium confirming the diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst, as well as a pleated fibrovascular tissue lined by sparsely spaced small monomorphic arachnoidal cells, indicating an arachnoid cyst. We demonstrate that bronchogenic cysts can be successfully treated with marsupialisation.

  20. Giant Follicular Cyst of Ovary in an Adolescent Girl

    PubMed Central

    Gedam, Jaya; Bhalerao, Minal; Nadar, Ponambalaganpathi A

    2014-01-01

    Cystic abdominal lesions are extremely common in adolescent girls and are now diagnosed more frequently due to the availability of better imaging modalities. Presentations as huge cysts have become rare as most of them are diagnosed and treated early. Adolescent girls presenting with huge benign abdominal cysts is not uncommon, most of them due to serious cystadenomas of the ovary, but large follicular cysts are rare. We present a 13-year-old girl who presented with a large abdominal mass which was subsequently diagnosed as juvenile follicular cyst of the ovary. PMID:25177606

  1. Acoustic Characteristics in Epiglottic Cyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, YeonWoo; Kim, GeunHyo; Wang, SooGeun; Jang, JeonYeob; Cha, Wonjae; Choi, HongSik; Kim, HyangHee

    2018-05-03

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the acoustic characteristics associated with alternation deformation of the vocal tract due to large epiglottic cyst, and to confirm the relation between the anatomical change and resonant function of the vocal tract. Eight men with epiglottic cyst were enrolled in this study. The jitter, shimmer, noise-to-harmonic ratio, and first two formants were analyzed in vowels /a:/, /e:/, /i:/, /o:/, and /u:/. These values were analyzed before and after laryngeal microsurgery. The F1 value of /a:/ was significantly raised after surgery. Significant differences of formant frequencies in other vowels, jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio were not presented. The results of this study could be used to analyze changes in the resonance of vocal tracts due to the epiglottic cysts. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of nutrient pollution on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We analyzed surface sediments from 23 northeast USA estuaries, from Maine to Delaware, and nine estuaries from Prince Edward Island (PEI, Canada), to determine how dinoflagellate cyst assemblages varied with nutrient loading. Overall the abundance of cysts of heterotrophic dinoflagellates correlates with modeled nitrogen loading, but there were also regional signals. On PEI cysts of Gymnodinium microreticulatum characterized estuaries with high nitrogen loading while the sediments of eutrophic Boston Harbor were characterized by high abundances of Spiniferites spp. In Delaware Bay and the Delaware Inland Bays Polysphaeridium zoharyi correlated with higher temperatures and nutrient loading. This is the first study to document the dinoflagellate cyst eutrophication signal at such a large geographic scale in estuaries, thus confirming their value as indicators of water quality change and anthropogenic impact. Estuarine and coastal waters are important resources for US and Canadian citizens. This paper summarizes the use of biological indicators that provide information on the eutrophication status and impacts for estuaries along the NW Atlantic coast. These relatively new biological indicators, dinoflagellate cysts, have the potential to provide environmental managers information on recent and historical environmental conditions in estuaries. Together with information on drivers and pressures, dinoflagellate cysts can be used to develop driver-pressure-state-imp

  3. Processing of central and reflex vagal drives by rat cardiac ganglion neurones: an intracellular analysis

    PubMed Central

    McAllen, Robin M; Salo, Lauren M; Paton, Julian F R; Pickering, Anthony E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac vagal tone is an important indicator of cardiovascular health, and its loss is an independent risk factor for arrhythmias and mortality. Several studies suggest that this loss of vagal tone can occur at the cardiac ganglion but the factors affecting ganglionic transmissionin vivoare poorly understood. We have employed a novel approach allowing intracellular recordings from functionally connected cardiac vagal ganglion cells in the working heart–brainstem preparation. The atria were stabilisedin situpreserving their central neural connections, and ganglion cells (n = 32) were impaled with sharp microelectrodes. Cardiac ganglion cells with vagal synaptic inputs (spontaneous, n = 10; or electrically evoked from the vagus, n = 3) were identified as principal neurones and showed tonic firing responses to current injected to their somata. Cells lacking vagal inputs (n = 19, presumed interneurones) were quiescent but showed phasic firing responses to depolarising current. In principal cells the ongoing action potentials and EPSPs exhibited respiratory modulation, with peak frequency in post-inspiration. Action potentials arose from unitary EPSPs and autocorrelation of those events showed that each ganglion cell received inputs from a single active preganglionic source. Peripheral chemoreceptor, arterial baroreceptor and diving response activation all evoked high frequency synaptic barrages in these cells, always from the same single preganglionic source. EPSP amplitudes showed frequency dependent depression, leading to more spike failures at shorter inter-event intervals. These findings indicate that rather than integrating convergent inputs, cardiac vagal postganglionic neurones gate preganglionic inputs, so regulating the proportion of central parasympathetic tone that is transmitted on to the heart. PMID:22005679

  4. Echinococcus granulosus equinus: an ultrastructural study of murine tissue response to hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Richards, K S; Arme, C; Bridges, J F

    1983-06-01

    Peritoneal hydatids of Echinococcus granulosus equinus of 9 months standing in BALB/c mice occurred as free cysts or cysts within cyst masses. Both showed wide variation in size and in host tissue response, and all had a well-developed laminated layer separating the host tissue response from the germinal layer. In the smallest cyst-mass cysts the host tissue response was present as remnants of the initial cellular attack involving eosinophils. Slightly larger cyst-mass cysts possessed a primary macrophage invasion which phagocytosed the remnants of the initial attack and also, though to little effect, the laminated layer material. In the largest cyst-mass cysts a second macrophage invasion, of monocyte origin, had commenced and transformation stages of these cells to macrophages were observed. No fibroblasts surrounded individual cyst-mass cysts but they were present around the cyst mass, encapsulating it and possibly preventing further host cell invasion. Thus, the host tissue response around individual cyst-mass cysts remained 'preserved' at an early stage such as existed at the time of encapsulation. Small free cysts showed a primary macrophage invasion and transformation stages of cells of a secondary infiltration of peritoneal origin. Peripheral to the macrophages were fibroblasts demonstrating limited fibrinogenesis, and each cyst was surrounded by a layer of mesothelial cells. Large free cysts, also delimited by a mesothelial layer, possessed peripheral connective tissue, a deep fibrous layer and a monolayer of very compressed macrophages lying adjacent to the laminated layer. It is emphasized that an understanding of the host tissue response in cysts of different sizes and from different locations is an essential pre-requisite for the design of experimental studies.

  5. Viable Blastocystis Cysts in Scottish and Malaysian Sewage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, K.; Smith, H. V.; Tan, T. C.

    2005-01-01

    Blastocystis cysts were detected in 38% (47/123) (37 Scottish, 17 Malaysian) of sewage treatment works. Fifty percent of influents (29% Scottish, 76% Malaysian) and 28% of effluents (9% Scottish, 60% Malaysian) contained viable cysts. Viable cysts, discharged in effluent, provide further evidence for the potential for waterborne transmission of Blastocystis. PMID:16151162

  6. [Prevalence of postmenopausal simple ovarian cyst diagnosed by ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Luján Irastorza, Jesús E; Hernández Marín, Imelda; Figueroa Preciado, Gudelia; Ayala, Aquiles R

    2006-10-01

    The high-resolution ultrasound has taken to discover small ovary cysts in postmenopausal asymptomatic women who in another situation would not been detected; these cysts frequently disappear spontaneously and rarely develop cancer; however, they are treated aggressively. To know the prevalence, evolution and treatment of ovary simple cysts in the postmenopausal women in our department, since in our country there are not studies that had analyzed these data. We made a retrospective and descriptive study in the Service of Biology of the Human Reproduction of the Hospital Juarez de Mexico, in a four-year period (2000-2003) that included 1,010 postmenopausal women. The statistical analysis was made using the SPSS software program with which we obtained descriptive measurements in localization, dispersion and by a graphic analysis. We found a simple cysts prevalence of 8.2% (n = 83); the average of age at the diagnosis time was 50.76 years with a standard deviation of 5.55; the cysts diameter was between 0.614 to 12,883 cm with a mean and standard deviation of 2.542 and 1.91 cm respectively; in 27.71% of the cases (n = 23), the cysts disappear spontaneously in the follow up of 3 to 36 month (mean of 14.1). Surgery was indicated in 16.46% (n = 13), by increase in the size of the cyst in 9 patients (11.64%) and by changes in morphology from simple to complex in 4 (4.82%). Tumor like markers were made only to 37 patients (44.57%), which were in normal ranks; no carcinoma was found in this group. The prevalence of ovary simple cysts was similar to the reported in literature. Risk of cancer of these cysts is extremely low when a suitable evaluation is made, a reason why the conservative treatment is suggested when these are simple cysts lesser than 5cm with Ca-125 levels within normal ranks. We recommend a follow up every 3-6 months by Doppler color ultrasound and tumor like markers for five years.

  7. Transvaginal Aspiration of Ovarian Cysts: Long-Term Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, D.; Colville, J.; Keeling, A.

    2006-06-15

    Background and purpose. Transvaginal aspiration of ovarian cysts has been advocated as a viable alternative to surgery in patients who are high-risk surgical candidates. We describe a retrospective study evaluating the results of transvaginal aspirations of benign ovarian cysts in patients at increased surgical risk, focusing on long-term follow-up for recurrence of the cyst and/or development of malignancy. Methods. Twenty-four women with ovarian cysts underwent 34 transvaginal drainages between October 1998 and December 2004. All patients were referred following diagnosis of a persistent ovarian cyst with a benign appearance on ultrasound. All patients were unsuitable candidates for surgery (history ofmore » previous pelvic surgery, n = 21; high risk for anesthesia, n = 1; and unsuitable for laparoscopy due to obesity, n = 2). Patients with a history of pregnancy, acute abdominal symptoms, or previous gynecologic malignancy were excluded. A 20G x 20 cm Chiba needle was used for transvaginal aspiration using an endocavity probe (Acuson XP, Mountain View, CA, USA; Siemens Sololine, Erlangen, Germany) and intravenous sedoanalgesia. Cysts were aspirated to dryness. Results. Long-term follow-up of patients was performed and revealed a recurrence rate of 75%. Eighty-three percent of cysts on the left and 42% of those on the right recurred. Nine of 15 (60%) patients with recurrence required further intervention. Two of 9 underwent surgical intervention only, 4 of 9 had repeat transvaginal aspiration(s) performed, and 3 of 9 had a combination of both transvaginal aspiration and surgery. No patient developed ovarian malignancy. Conclusion. Transvaginal cyst aspiration has many advantages including short hospital stay, rapid recovery, excellent patient tolerance, and a low rate of procedure-related complications. Our study demonstrates that ovarian cyst recurrence following transvaginal drainage is a more significant problem than previously documented, especially if the

  8. Recurrent Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Caused by Ganglion: A Report of Nine Cases.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Masatoshi; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Kimura, Takumi; Suenaga, Naoki; Hayashi, Masanori; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome (CuTS) is generally treated successfully by surgery and recurrent cases are rare. This study retrospectively investigated the clinical characteristics of recurrent CuTS caused by ganglion. We evaluated nine patients who were surgically treated for recurrent CuTS caused by ganglion. Age distribution at recurrence ranged from 43 to 79 years. The initial surgery for CuTS had been performed using various methods. The asymptomatic period from initial surgery to recurrence ranged from 22 to 252 months. Clinical, diagnostic imaging, and operative findings during the second surgery were analyzed. All patients were treated by anterior subcutaneous ulnar nerve transposition with ganglion resection and later examined directly within a mean of 71 months after the second surgery. The interval from recurrence to consultation was shorter than two months for eight cases. Chief complaints included numbness with or without pain in the ring and little fingers in all patients and resting pain in the medial elbow in five patients. Elbow osteoarthritis was present in all cases. Although four of 10 ganglia were palpable, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging could identify all ganglia preoperatively. The ulnar nerve typically had become entrapped by the ganglion posteriorly and by fascia, scar tissue, and/or muscle anteriorly. Chief complaints and ulnar nerve function were improved in all patients following revision surgery. The acute onset of numbness with or without intolerable pain in the ring and little fingers after a long-term remission period following initial surgery for CuTS in patients with elbow osteoarthritis appears to be the characteristic clinical profile of recurrent CuTS caused by ganglion. As ganglia are often not palpable, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are recommended for accurate diagnosis.

  9. Congenital choledochal cyst: video-guided laparoscopic treatment.

    PubMed

    Farello, G A; Cerofolini, A; Rebonato, M; Bergamaschi, G; Ferrari, C; Chiappetta, A

    1995-10-01

    We report our first experience with a laparoscopic treatment of congenital choledochal cysts involving the total cyst resection and the reconstruction of the biliary and gastrointestinal tracts through a transmesocolic hepatic-jejunal Roux-en-Y loop anastomosis. The procedure was carried out in a 14-kg 6-year-old girl with a congenital choledochal cyst of the first type, according to the Alonso-Lej classification. The cyst was divided using a Multifire EndoGIA 30 stapler. Hepatic-jejunal and jejunojejunal anastomoses were made with 4.0 chrome catgut interrupted sutures. Intestinal recanalization occurred on the 2nd postoperative day and the postoperative course was uneventful. The laparoscopic approach affords several advantages: excellent intraoperative visualization of tiny structures and, therefore, great surgical accuracy; early resumption of peristalsis; no postoperative pain; no laparocele; prevention of adhesions; excellent esthetics; and quicker resumption of school and sports activities.

  10. Spontaneous disappearance of two asymptomatic arachnoid cysts in two different locations.

    PubMed

    Cokluk, C; Senel, A; Celik, F; Ergür, H

    2003-04-01

    We report two children with asymptomatic arachnoid cysts which resolved spontaneously without any surgical intervention and history of major head and body trauma. The first child was a 10-year-old boy with an arachnoid cyst in the right sylvian fissure. The second child was a 1-year-old girl with a right cerebral convexity arachnoid cyst. Both of them were asymptomatic. Arachnoid cysts spontaneously disappeared within 2 years following initial diagnosing. There was no major head and body trauma except usual home, school and sports activity. We speculated that the cysts ruptured into cerebrospinal fluid circulation by the mechanical effects of some forced activities to the brain tissue and cyst, such as excessive breathing, coughing and sport activities. These factors may change the balance between intracystic and pericystic pressure and facilitate the rupturing of the cyst into subdural, subarachnoid and intraventricular spaces. These cases demonstrate that neurosurgical intervention of asymptomatic arachnoid cysts is not absolutely indicated in the paediatric age group. Close follow up with computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a treatment option in the patient with arachnoid cysts located in the middle cranial fossa and cerebral convexity.

  11. Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with Giardia duodenalis recombinant cyst wall protein inhibits shedding of cysts.

    PubMed

    Larocque, R; Nakagaki, K; Lee, P; Abdul-Wahid, A; Faubert, G M

    2003-10-01

    The process of encystation is a key step in the Giardia duodenalis life cycle that allows this intestinal protozoan to survive between hosts during person-to-person, animal-to-person, waterborne, or food-borne transmission. The release of cysts from infected persons and animals is the main contributing factor to contamination of the environment. Genes coding for cyst wall proteins (CWPs), which could be used for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine, have been cloned. Since the immunogenicity of recombinant Giardia CWP is unknown, we have investigated the immunogenicity of recombinant CWP2 (rCWP2) and its efficacy in interfering with the phenomenon of encystation taking place in the small bowels of BALB/c mice vaccinated with the recombinant protein. Here we report that the immunization of BALB/c mice with rCWP2 stimulated the immune system in a manner comparable to that for a live infection with Giardia muris cysts. Fecal and serum anti-rCWP2 immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were detected in the immunized mice. In addition, anti-rCWP2 IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were detected in the serum. mRNAs coding for Th1 and Th2 types of cytokines were detected in spleen and Peyer's patch cells from immunized mice. When the vaccinated mice were challenged with live cysts, the animals shed fewer cysts. We conclude that rCWP2 is a possible candidate antigen for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine.

  12. Coexistence of mucous retention cyst and basal cell adenoma arising from the lining epithelium of the cyst. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, D; Epivatianos, A; Markopoulos, A; Kolokotronis, A; Zaraboukas, T

    2009-01-01

    To report 2 cases of coexisting mucous retention cyst and basal cell adenoma arising from the lining epithelium of the cyst. Two cases of painless swellings, well-demarcated, soft to palpation, and located in the submucosa of the upper lip were clinically examined with the provisional diagnosis of mucocele or salivary gland tumor. Histological examination showed the presence of a large unilocular cystic cavity in many parts surrounded by single or bilayered lining epithelium composed of flattened to cuboidal cells, and in other parts surrounded by projections of cells arranged in a trabecular pattern far into the cystic cavity. The trabeculae were composed of basal and low columnar cells that sometimes formed small duct-like structures. Immunohistochemistry showed that the lining epithelium of the cystic cavity and the cells of the projections expressed cytokeratin 7 and high-molecular-weight cytokeratins. The cells of the projections were weakly positive for S-100 protein and negative for vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Based on the results, a diagnosis of coexisting mucous retention cysts and basal cell adenomas arising from the lining epithelium of cysts was made. The coexistence of mucous retention cysts and basal cell adenomas arising from the lining epithelium of the cyst is reported. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Development of a Method for Detection of Giardia duodenalis Cysts on Lettuce and for Simultaneous Analysis of Salad Products for the Presence of Giardia Cysts and Cryptosporidium Oocysts▿

    PubMed Central

    Cook, N.; Nichols, R. A. B.; Wilkinson, N.; Paton, C. A.; Barker, K.; Smith, H. V.

    2007-01-01

    We report a method for detecting Giardia duodenalis cysts on lettuce, which we subsequently use to examine salad products for the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. The method is based on four basic steps: extraction of cysts from the foodstuffs, concentration of the extract and separation of the cysts from food materials, staining of the cysts to allow their visualization, and identification of cysts by microscopy. The concentration and separation steps are performed by centrifugation, followed by immunomagnetic separation using proprietary kits. Cyst staining is also performed using proprietary reagents. The method recovered 46.0% ± 19.0% (n = 30) of artificially contaminating cysts in 30 g of lettuce. We tested the method on a variety of commercially available natural foods, which we also seeded with a commercially available internal control, immediately prior to concentration of the extract. Recoveries of the Texas Red-stained Giardia cyst and Cryptosporidium oocyst internal controls were 36.5% ± 14.3% and 36.2% ± 19.7% (n = 20), respectively. One natural food sample of organic watercress, spinach, and rocket salad contained one Giardia cyst 50 g−1 of sample as an indigenous surface contaminant. PMID:17890337

  14. Thyroid Cysts in Cats: A Retrospective Study of 40 Cases.

    PubMed

    Miller, M L; Peterson, M E; Randolph, J F; Broome, M R; Norsworthy, G D; Rishniw, M

    2017-05-01

    Thyroid cysts are rare in cats and poorly documented. To report distinguishing clinical features and treatment responses of cats with thyroid cysts. Forty client-owned cats. Retrospective review of medical records for cats with thyroid cysts confirmed by scintigraphy, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or necropsy at 4 referral centers between 2005 and 2016. Signalment, clinical findings, diagnostic testing, treatment, and outcome were recorded. Cats ranged in age from 8 to 20 years with no apparent breed or sex predilection. 37 of 40 (93%) cats were hyperthyroid (duration, 1-96 months). Clinical findings included palpable neck mass (40/40, 100%), weight loss (15/40, 38%), dysphagia (8/40, 20%), decreased appetite (5/40, 13%), and dyspnea (4/40, 10%). Cysts were classified as small (≤8 cm 3 ) in 16 (40%) and large (>8 cm 3 ) in 24 (60%) cats. Of 25 cats treated with radioiodine, hyperthyroidism resolved in 23 (92%), whereas thyroid cysts resolved in 12 (50%). Radioiodine treatment resolved small cysts in 8 of 13 (62%) cats and large cysts in 4 of 11 (36%) cats. Eight cats, including 2 euthyroid cats, underwent thyroid-cystectomy; 3 with bilateral thyroid involvement were euthanized postoperatively for hypocalcemia. Excised cystic thyroid masses were identified as cystadenoma (4) and carcinoma (4). Thyroid cysts are encountered in hyperthyroid and euthyroid cats with benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Radioiodine treatment alone inconsistently resolved thyroid cysts. Thyroid-cystectomy could be considered in cats with unilateral thyroid disease or when symptomatic cysts persist despite successful radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. [A pediatric case of hydatid cyst in the infratemporal fossa].

    PubMed

    Hiroual, A; Elbouihi, M; Fawzi, S; Lahmiti, S; Aimmadeddine, S; Mansouri-Hattab, N

    2014-06-01

    Hydatid cyst or disease is an anthropozoonosis due to the development of the larval form of the taenia Echinococcus granulosus in humans. It is endemic in Morocco. The location of a hydatid cyst in the infratemporal fossa (ITF) is extremely rare. The authors report a pediatric case. An 11 year old child was admitted to hospital with a history of left latero-facial swelling gradually increasing in volume for 2 months, CT scan of the face revealed a cystic formation of 7 cm diameter sitting at the left ITF, hydatid serology was negative. A transzygomatic approach allowed the excision of the cyst. The histopathological examination of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. The location at the infratemporal fossa of an expansive process such as hydatid cyst in children may have a particular impact on adjacent structures and a more meaningful clinical expression. The rate of growth of hydatid cysts is highly variable and ranges from 1 to 5 cm a year. Hydatid serology is often negative. CT examination is the gold-standard radiological examination. Surgical removal of the hydatid cyst is the most effective treatment. The transzygomatic approach allowed a sufficient access to the cyst and a good quality of excision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) and Canada (Prince Edward Island). A total of 69 surface sediment samples were collected from 27 estuaries, from sites with surface salinities >20. Dinoflagellate cysts were examined microscopically and compared to environmental parameters using multivariate ordination techniques. The spatial distribution of cyst taxa reflects biogeographic provinces established by other marine organisms, with Cape Cod separating the northern Acadian Province from the southern Virginian Province. Species such as Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Polysphaeridinium zoharyi were found almost exclusively in the Virginian Province, while others such as Dubridinium spp. and Islandinium? cezare were more abundant in the Acadian Province. Tidal range, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS) are statistically significant parameters influencing cyst assemblages. Samples from the same type of estuary cluster together in canonical correspondence analysis when the estuaries are within the same biogeographic province. The large geographic extent of this study, encompassing four main estuary types (riverine, lagoon, coastal embayment, and fjord), allowed us to determine that the type of estuary has

  17. Complex distribution patterns of voltage-gated calcium channel α-subunits in the spiral ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei Chun; Xue, Hui Zhong; Hsu, Yun (Lucy); Liu, Qing; Patel, Shail; Davis, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    As with other elements of the peripheral auditory system, spiral ganglion neurons display specializations that vary as a function of location along the tonotopic axis. Previous work has shown that voltage-gated K+ channels and synaptic proteins show graded changes in their density that confers rapid responsiveness to neurons in the high frequency, basal region of the cochlea and slower, more maintained responsiveness to neurons in the low frequency, apical region of the cochlea. In order to understand how voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) may contribute to these diverse phenotypes, we identified the VGCC α-subunits expressed in the ganglion, investigated aspects of Ca2+-dependent neuronal firing patterns, and mapped the intracellular and intercellular distributions of seven VGCC α-subunits in the spiral ganglion in vitro. Initial experiments with qRT-PCR showed that eight of the ten known VGCC α-subunits were expressed in the ganglion and electrophysiological analysis revealed firing patterns that were consistent with the presence of both LVA and HVA Ca2+ channels. Moreover, we were able to study seven of the α-subunits with immunocytochemistry, and we found that all were present in spiral ganglion neurons, and that three of them were neuron-specific (CaV1.3, CaV2.2, and CaV3.3). Further characterization of neuron-specific α-subunits showed that CaV1.3 and CaV3.3 were tonotopically-distributed, whereas CaV2.2 was uniformly distributed in apical and basal neurons. Multiple VGCC α-subunits were also immunolocalized to Schwann cells, having distinct intracellular localizations, and, significantly, appearing to distinguish putative compact0 (CaV2.3, CaV3.1) from loose (CaV1.2) myelin. Electrophysiological evaluation of spiral ganglion neurons in the presence of TEA revealed Ca2+ plateau potentials with slopes that varied proportionately with the cochlear region from which neurons were isolated. Because afterhyperpolarizations were minimal or absent under

  18. Dissapearance of arachnoid cyst after rupturing into subdural space.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, C; Cetinalp, E; Caner, H; Altinors, N

    2007-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are developmental anomalies usually diagnosed in childhood. The most important complications of arachnoid cysts are subdural haematomas and hygromas and intracystic haemorrhage. In our case we present a 7-year-old boy whose arachnoid cyst ruptured into the subdural space following a mild head injury and disappeared after draining the subdural haematoma by burr-holes.

  19. Apoptosis as a possible mechanism of infertility in Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Paredes, R; Jiménez, V; Cabrera, G; Iragüen, D; Galanti, N

    2007-04-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is a parasitic cestode causing hydatidosis in intermediate hosts (human and herbivorous). Most symptoms of the disease occur by the pressure exerted on viscera by cysts that are formed upon ingestion of the parasite eggs excreted by definitive hosts (canines). Protoscoleces, the developmental form of the parasite infective to definitive hosts, are formed in the germinal nucleated layer of fertile hydatid cysts. For unknown reasons, some cysts are unable to produce protoscoleces (infertile hydatid cysts). In this study, analysis of DNA fragmentation using TUNEL and agarose gel electrophoresis showed higher levels of apoptosis in infertile cysts as compared to fertile cysts. Additionally, caspase 3 was detected both in fertile and infertile cysts; the activity of this enzyme was found to be higher in infertile cysts. We conclude that apoptosis may be involved in hydatid cyst infertility. This is the first report on the presence of programmed cell death in E. granulosus. c 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Central Projections of Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    HATTAR, SAMER; KUMAR, MONICA; PARK, ALEXANDER; TONG, PATRICK; TUNG, JONATHAN; YAU, KING-WAI; BERSON, DAVID M.

    2010-01-01

    A rare type of ganglion cell in mammalian retina is directly photosensitive. These novel retinal photoreceptors express the photopigment melanopsin. They send axons directly to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), and olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), thereby contributing to photic synchronization of circadian rhythms and the pupillary light reflex. Here, we sought to characterize more fully the projections of these cells to the brain. By targeting tau-lacZ to the melanopsin gene locus in mice, ganglion cells that would normally express melanopsin were induced to express, instead, the marker enzyme β-galactosidase. Their axons were visualized by X-gal histochemistry or anti-β-galactosidase immunofluorescence. Established targets were confirmed, including the SCN, IGL, OPN, ventral division of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGv), and preoptic area, but the overall projections were more widespread than previously recognized. Targets included the lateral nucleus, peri-supraoptic nucleus, and subparaventricular zone of the hypothalamus, medial amygdala, margin of the lateral habenula, posterior limitans nucleus, superior colliculus, and periaqueductal gray. There were also weak projections to the margins of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. Co-staining with the cholera toxin B subunit to label all retinal afferents showed that melanopsin ganglion cells provide most of the retinal input to the SCN, IGL, and lateral habenula and much of that to the OPN, but that other ganglion cells do contribute at least some retinal input to these targets. Staining patterns after monocular enucleation revealed that the projections of these cells are overwhelmingly crossed except for the projection to the SCN, which is bilaterally symmetrical. PMID:16736474

  1. Dinoflagellate Cyst Contribution to Settling Organic Matter in the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringue, M.; Thunell, R.; Pospelova, V.; Tappa, E.; Johannessen, S.; Macdonald, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    The coastal ocean hosts much of the global primary production, with an estimated 40% of carbon sequestration occurring along continental margins alone. This study characterizes the variability in organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst fluxes and assemblage composition during sedimentation through the water column, in the context of bulk organic and inorganic particulate matter export, in three different coastal settings: the Cariaco Basin (off Venezuela), the Santa Barbara Basin (Southern California) and the Strait of Georgia (western Canada). At each site, moorings of 2-5 sediment traps positioned at different depths collected settling particles over intervals of 7-14 days. The contribution of dinoflagellate cysts to particulate matter fluxes, and their fate as they are being exported to the seafloor, is investigated by comparing cyst fluxes and assemblages in samples collected simultaneously from discrete depths at each location. Preliminary results from the 1,400 m deep Cariaco Basin sediment trap time series indicate that dinoflagellate cyst fluxes during the upwelling season are high (average of 117,000 cyst m-2 day-1 in January-February 2006) and highly consistent between depths. The only notable exception is the record from the shallowest trap (Trap Z, 150 m bsl) which shows marked variations in cyst fluxes (from 7,700 to 240,000 cyst m-2 day-1) that are not reflected in the other four trap records. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from each interval along the five traps are statistically identical, indicating that cysts produced in the upper water column are rapidly transported to the seafloor, and that no selective degradation/preservation has altered the cyst assemblages within the water column. Excluding the Trap Z record, the ratio of dinoflagellate cyst to organic carbon fluxes shows an 35% increase from the top to bottom traps, suggesting a dinoflagellate cyst "enrichment" relative to other organic particles in settling material.

  2. Actinomyces israelii in radicular cysts: a molecular study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Nathália Rodrigues; Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Pereira, Thais Dos Santos Fontes; Estrela, Carlos; de Macedo Farias, Luiz; de Andrade, Bruno Augusto Benevenuto; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether the microscopic filamentous aggregates observed in radicular cysts are associated with the molecular identification of Actinomyces israelii. Moreover, to verify whether this bacterium can be detected in radicular cyst specimens not presenting aggregates. Microscopic colonies suggestive of Actinomyces were found in 8 out of 279 radicular cyst samples (case group). The case and control groups (n = 12; samples without filamentous colonies) were submitted to the semi-nested polymerase chain reaction to test the presence of A israelii. DNA sequencing was performed to validate polymerase chain reaction results. Two and 3 samples in the case and control groups, respectively, did not present a functional genomic DNA template and were excluded from the study. A israelii was identified in all samples of the case group and in 3 out of 9 samples of the control group. Although A israelii is more commonly identified in radicular cysts presenting filamentous aggregates, it also appears to be detected in radicular cysts without this microscopic finding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with a dentigerous cyst.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B S; Harsh, Ashutosh; Purohit, Sharad; Naga, Mahita V

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a relatively uncommon benign lesion of odontogenic origin mainly affecting females in second decade of life, having a predilection for the anterior region of the maxilla. Histologically, it is composed of odontogenic epithelium in a variety of histopathological patterns in a mature, fibrous connective tissue stroma and characterized by slow but progressive growth. Very few cases of AOT associated with a dentigerous cyst have been reported in the literature. PubMed and Medline data showed a total of 11 cases of AOT associated with a dentigerous cyst in the literature. We present an additional case of an AOT arising from a dentigerous cyst around the crown of an unerupted upper canine in a 20-year-old female, which was clinically diagnosed as a dentigerous cyst. Histologically, the case showed proliferation of odontogenic epithelium in the form of whorls and islands typical of AOT associated with dentigerous cyst appearing thin reduced enamel like epithelium lining the cystic cavity, described previously. However, it is unclear whether this entity has a more aggressive potential.

  4. [Giant paraovarian cyst in childhood - Case report].

    PubMed

    Torres, Janina P; Íñiguez, Rodrigo D

    2015-01-01

    Paraovarian cysts are very uncommon in children To present a case of giant paraovarian cyst case in a child and its management using a modified laparoscopic-assisted technique A 13-year-old patient with a 15 day-history of intermittent abdominal pain, located in the left hemiabdomen and associated with progressive increase in abdominal volume. Diagnostic imaging was inconclusive, describing a giant cystic formation that filled up the abdomen, but without specifying its origin. Laboratory tests and tumor markers were within normal range. Video-assisted transumbilical cystectomy, a modified laparoscopic procedure with diagnostic and therapeutic intent, was performed with a successful outcome. The histological study reported giant paraovarian cyst. Cytology results were negative for tumor cells. The patient remained asymptomatic during the postoperative follow-up. The video-assisted transumbilical cystectomy is a safe procedure and an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic alternative for the treatment of giant paraovarian cysts. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. Ganglion blocks as a treatment of pain: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Gunduz, Osman Hakan; Kenis-Coskun, Ozge

    2017-01-01

    The inputs from sympathetic ganglia have been known to be involved in the pathophysiology of various painful conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome, cancer pain of different origin, and coccygodynia. Sympathetic ganglia blocks are used to relieve patients who suffer from these conditions for over a century. Many numbers of local anesthetics such as bupivacaine or neurolytic agents such as alcohol can be chosen for a successful block. The agent is selected according to its duration of effect and the purpose of the injection. Most commonly used sympathetic blocks are stellate ganglion block, lumbar sympathetic block, celiac plexus block, superior hypogastric block, and ganglion Impar block. In this review, indications, methods, effectiveness, and complications of these blocks are discussed based on the data from the current literature. PMID:29276402

  6. Ultrasound-guided interventional therapy for recurrent ovarian chocolate cysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Dong, Xiao-Qiu; Shao, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Si-Ming

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided interventional therapy in the treatment of postoperative recurrent chocolate cysts. The 198 patients enrolled in this study were divided into three groups. In group 1, the saline washing group, the cavity of the cyst was washed thoroughly with warm saline. In group 2, the ethanol short-time retention group, after washing with saline, the cyst was injected with 95% ethanol with a volume of half of the fluid aspirated from the cyst. Ten minutes later, the rest of the ethanol was aspirated. In group 3, the ethanol retention group, the procedures were the same as with the ethanol short-time retention group, except that 95% of the ethanol was retained in the cyst. An ultrasound examination was performed in the third, sixth and 12th months after therapy. The chocolate cyst cure rate was significantly higher in the ethanol retention group (96%, 66/69) than in the ethanol short-time retention group (82%, 56/68) and no case was cured in the first group (saline washing). We conclude that ultrasound-guided injection and 95% ethanol retention are an effective therapy for the treatment of postoperative recurrent chocolate cysts. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical management of pineal cysts: a worldwide online survey.

    PubMed

    Májovský, Martin; Netuka, David; Beneš, Vladimír

    2016-04-01

    A pineal cyst is a benign affection of a pineal gland on the borderline between a pathological lesion and a variant of normality. Clinical management of patients with a pineal cyst remains controversial, especially when patients present with non-specific symptoms. An online questionnaire consisting of 13 questions was completed by 110 neurosurgeons worldwide. Responses were entered into a database and subsequently analysed. Based on data from the questionnaire, the main indication criteria for pineal cyst resection are hydrocephalus (90 % of the respondents), Parinaud's syndrome (80 %) and growth of the cyst (68 %). Only 15 % of the respondents occasionally operate on patients with non-specific symptoms. If surgery is indicated, improvement is expected in 88 % of the patients. The vast majority of the respondents favour a supracerebellar infratentorial approach to the pineal region. Most (78 %) of the respondents regarded the patient registry as a potentially useful instrument. This survey sheds light on the current practice of pineal cyst management across the world. Most of the respondents perform surgery on pineal cysts only if patients are presenting with symptoms attributable to a mass effect. Surgery for patients with non-specific complaints (headache, vertigo) is not widely accepted, although it may prove effective. A prospective patient registry might be useful in the decision-making process in the clinical management of pineal cysts.

  8. Role of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Evaluation of Radicular Cyst mimicking Dentigerous Cyst in a 7-year-old Child: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, B S; P Shastry, Shilpa; S Murthy, Padmashree; Jyotsna, T R

    2017-01-01

    To report a rare case of large radicular cyst-associated deciduous tooth and to discuss the importance of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in diagnosing the condition. Radicular cyst is the most common cyst affecting the permanent teeth, but its occurrence in deciduous teeth is rare. Most of the radicular cysts are asymptomatic and are discovered accidentally when radiographs are taken. Conventional radiographs show two-dimensional images of three-dimensional objects. Cone beam computed tomography provides undistorted three-dimensional information of hard tissues and gives adequate spatial resolution. A 7-year-old child, with a complaint of swelling in the maxillary anterior region, was diagnosed with radicular cyst in relation to primary maxillary right central incisor based on CBCT and histopathological features. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of radicular cyst in primary dentition is important to prevent damage to permanent tooth. Mahesh BS, Shastry SP, Murthy PS, Jyotsna TR. Role of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Evaluation of Radicular Cyst mimicking Dentigerous Cyst in a 7-year-old Child: A Case Report and Literature Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2):213-216.

  9. [Dysplastic cysts of the liver: our experience].

    PubMed

    Nardello, O; Muggianu, M; Cabras, V; Farina, G P; Cagetti, M

    2004-08-01

    Systematic surveys with advanced non-invasive imaging techniques have revealed that hepatic cysts are quite common in the general population. Therefore, we retrospectively examined our case series and compared it with the literature. Between January 1990 and December 2000, 228 patients with non-parasitic liver cysts were referred to the outpatients section of the Department of Surgery of the University of Cagliari and 23 were submitted to treatment: 14 patients (60.8%) for solitary cyst and 9 (39.2%) for multiple simple cysts of the liver. One patient (4.5%) had right upper quadrant pain. Eleven (47.8%) patients were asymptomatic: 7 (63.7%) required treatment for other pathologies, 3 (27.3%) for a progressive enlargement of the cyst and 1 (9%) for a suspected hydatid disease. Mean diameter of the treated cysts measured by preoperative CT or US was 8.8 cm (range 7-14). Percutaneous aspiration-injection reaspiration (PAIR) was performed in 5 patients (21.7%), US-guided in 2 cases (40%) and CT-guided in 3 (60%). Twenty patients (86.9%) underwent cysts unroofing, 18 (78.2%) with open surgical fenestration and the latest 2 cases with a laparoscopic approach. Two patients had PAIR as second treatment for recurrence: CT-guided in one and US-guided in the other case. Four (25%) out of 16 patients treated exclusively for cystic liver disease, had fever in 3 cases and nausea and vomiting in 1 case; 8 patients (50%) had an intraperitoneal drainage for a mean of 6-7 days (range 4-11) and of 116 cc of serum-hematic liquid. In our opinion the choice of an adequate treatment must be based on an accurate evaluation of the clinical aspects of the patients and on the characteristics of cystic lesions such as number, size and location. These data let us to choose a surgical treatment rather than a strict US follow-up and to get the best outcome in terms of absence of recurrence, and less biological and economic costs.

  10. LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVEIOLET STUDIES FOR INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA MURIS CYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cysts of Giardia muris were inactivated using a low pressure ultravolet (UV) light source. Cyst viability was detemined by both in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Cyst doeses were counted using a flow cytometer for the animal infectivity experiments. Using in vitro excy...

  11. LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET STUDIES FOR INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA MURIS CYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cysts of Giardia muris were inactivated using a low pressure ultravolet (UV) light source. Cyst viability was detemined by both in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Cyst doeses were counted using a flow cytometer for the animal infectivity experiments. Using in vitro excy...

  12. [Acute rupture of hydatid cysts in the peritoneum: 17 cases].

    PubMed

    Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam; Beyrouti, Ramez; Abbes, Imed; Kharrat, Madiha; Ben Amar, Mohamed; Frikha, Foued; Elleuch, Slim; Gharbi, Walid; Chaabouni, Mohamed; Ghorbel, Ali

    2004-03-27

    Specify the clinical and progressive characteristics of acute rupture of hydatid cysts in the peritoneum. We retrospectively studied patients who had undergone surgery for a hydatid cyst (HC) of the abdomen between January 1990 and December 2000 and in whom the exploration had confirmed the diagnosis of acute rupture of a hydatid cyst in the peritoneum. Over this period of 11 Years, 970 patients had undergone surgery for hydatid cysts of the liver and the spleen, 17 of whom had presented an acute rupture of the hydatid cyst in the peritoneum, that is to say 1.75% of the cases. The mean age was 30 Years and sex ratio was 0.41. Rupture was secondary to a trauma in 6 cases and to an intense physical effort in one case. The clinical table was acute peritonitis in 14 cases, acute intestinal occlusion in one case, suggested anaphylactic shock in one case, and a non-complicated hydatid cyst in one case. Ultra-sonographic diagnosis was made in all the cases, but that of rupture in 12 cases only. No scans were performed. Intervention was decided on within a delay of less than 72 hours in 16 cases. Surgical treatment consisted in the treatment of the peritonitis, the ruptured hydatid cyst, the associated hydatid cysts in the liver and the spleen, and the hydatid cyst of the right lung in two cases. Post-operative follow-up was complicated in 4 cases with two deaths through septic shock. Distant follow-up was marked by a secondary peritoneal hydatidosis in a patient whom has not benefited from medical treatment. The latter, based on albendazole, was prescribed in 6 patients with satisfying results and a mean follow-up of 32 months. The therapeutic progress has improved the prognosis of ruptured hydatid cysts in the peritoneum. Secondary peritoneal hydatidosis is fundamentally enhanced by the delay in diagnosis and treatment and the absence of medical treatment. The optimal strategy is to treat the patients at the non-complicated stage of the hydatid cyst and, above all

  13. Intratarsal keratinous eyelid cysts in Gorlin syndrome: A review and reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Wolkow, Natalie; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Yoon, Michael K

    2017-12-27

    A 38-year-old woman presented with multiple bilateral recurrent eyelid cysts. Her medical history was notable for Gorlin (nevoid basal cell carcinoma) syndrome. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the lesions were intratarsal keratinous cysts. They were similar in appearance to sporadic intratarsal keratinous cysts and closely resembled odontogenic keratocysts of the jaw. Eyelid cysts occur in up to 40% of patients with Gorlin syndrome; however, their description has been cursory and, for the most part, outside of the ophthalmic literature. Although ophthalmologists are familiar with the periocular basal cell carcinomas that occur in patients with Gorlin syndrome, up to 10% of patients never develop a basal cell carcinoma, but they may manifest other ophthalmic findings. Awareness of these other features may contribute to the earlier diagnosis of the syndrome. We discuss the clinical and histopathologic features of intratarsal keratinous cysts in Gorlin syndrome, comparing them to sporadic intratarsal keratinous cysts, other eyelid cysts, and jaw cysts that also characterize this syndrome. We briefly review the ocular and systemic manifestations of Gorlin syndrome and recent genetic and therapeutic developments so that the eyelid cysts may be appreciated within the appropriate context of Gorlin syndrome as a whole. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A clinicopathological study of odontogenic cysts and tumors in hamadan, iran.

    PubMed

    Baghaei, Fahimeh; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Najmi, Hamidreza; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2014-12-01

    Odontogenic cysts and tumors are the most frequent osseous destructive lesions of the jaws; however, there is little information regarding the relative frequency of these lesions among the Iranian population. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of clinically and histologically- diagnosed odontogenic cysts and tumors during a period of 13 years in Hamadan, and also its correlation with age, gender, and the site of the lesion. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 413 oral and maxillofacial specimens during 1996 to 2008.The age and the gender of patients, as well as the site of lesion were recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Totally, 70 specimens were recorded as odontogenic cysts and 11 specimens were diagnosed as odontogenic tumors. The most frequent odontogenic cysts were dentigerous cysts (27.2%), followed by radicular cysts (18.6%) and odontogenic keratocysts (18.6%). In addition, cysts were more frequent in male than female individuals. Ameloblastoma was the most frequent odontogenic tumor (64%). Odontogenic cysts were in correlation with age, gender and location. These results showed that dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst were more frequent than other studies. More investigations should be performed to determine the frequency of odontogenic tumors in Iran.

  15. A Learning Model for L/M Specificity in Ganglion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2016-01-01

    An unsupervised learning model for developing LM specific wiring at the ganglion cell level would support the research indicating LM specific wiring at the ganglion cell level (Reid and Shapley, 2002). Removing the contributions to the surround from cells of the same cone type improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the chromatic signals. The unsupervised learning model used is Hebbian associative learning, which strengthens the surround input connections according to the correlation of the output with the input. Since the surround units of the same cone type as the center are redundant with the center, their weights end up disappearing. This process can be thought of as a general mechanism for eliminating unnecessary cells in the nervous system.

  16. An Optic Nerve Crush Injury Murine Model to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhongshu; Zhang, Shuihua; Lee, Chunsik; Kumar, Anil; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Fan; Li, Xuri

    2011-01-01

    Injury to the optic nerve can lead to axonal degeneration, followed by a gradual death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which results in irreversible vision loss. Examples of such diseases in human include traumatic optic neuropathy and optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma. It is characterized by typical changes in the optic nerve head, progressive optic nerve degeneration, and loss of retinal ganglion cells, if uncontrolled, leading to vision loss and blindness. The optic nerve crush (ONC) injury mouse model is an important experimental disease model for traumatic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, etc. In this model, the crush injury to the optic nerve leads to gradual retinal ganglion cells apoptosis. This disease model can be used to study the general processes and mechanisms of neuronal death and survival, which is essential for the development of therapeutic measures. In addition, pharmacological and molecular approaches can be used in this model to identify and test potential therapeutic reagents to treat different types of optic neuropathy. Here, we provide a step by step demonstration of (I) Baseline retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at day 1, (II) Optic nerve crush injury at day 4, (III) Harvest the retinae and analyze RGC survival at day 11, and (IV) Representative result. PMID:21540827

  17. Intracranial, intradural aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Afnan, Jalil; Snuderl, Matija; Small, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign, expansile, blood-filled, osteolytic lesions with internal septations that may be intraosseous or extraosseous. The cysts may cause local mass effect, and changes in the regional vascular supply necessitating intervention. A case of an intracranial, intradural ABC in a young male patient with progressively severe headaches is presented. This is only the third recorded intradural case, the majority of these rare lesions being extracranial and only a minute fraction intracranial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  19. [Congenital cyst of the common bile duct. Surgical treatment with total excision of the cyst].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Sánchez, J; Carreón-Carranza, J J; Benitez-Sánchez, J A; Rosas-Salas, G; Casian-Castellanos, G; Llanes-González, E; Turcio-Cortazar, E

    1989-02-01

    Congenital choledochal cyst (CChC) has a very low frequency in our population; it is more frequent among females and its pattern of inheritance is multifactorial. The frequency of CChC in our population was 1 per 20,000 to 1 per 30,000 hospitalized patients in the pediatrics department of the Hospital Juarez and Hospital Infantil de Tacubaya, respectively. Four new cases of CChC are reported, two school children and two teenagers. Pre-operative diagnosis was accomplished clinically, which is the most precise non-invasive method. The most effective actual diagnostic methods include ultrasonography, CAT scan, and basic laboratory data, which can corroborate the clinical diagnosis of CChC with 100% certainty. The surgical treatment of CChC is controversial, but the surgical procedures of choice are choledochocystojejunostomy with total cyst removal, Roux's Y, and cholecystectomy. One case was treated with latero-terminal choledochocystojejunostomy and 3 cases with total removal of the cyst. The results were excellent.

  20. [Rathke cysts, craniopharyngioma, and colloid cysts : What are the differences between these pathologies?

    PubMed

    Eymann, R; Kiefer, M

    2018-05-17

    Headache is the most common symptom of colloid cysts, Rathke cysts, and craniopharyngioma due to their location in the midline, being extra-axial and typically presenting in the parasellar region. Although these tumors are generally considered benign, each has its typical characteristics defined by its location and histology. These individual characteristics define whether surgery is necessary at all and if so, the preferred surgical approach and resection's totality. The histopathological findings primarily indicate that embryonic malformations-at the first glance, ectodermal in nature-cause these tumors. Due to the fact that these disturbances occur at the boundary between ectodermal stomodeum and endodermal cephalogaster, however, does leave some doubts.

  1. Need for lung resection in patients with intact or ruptured hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, J C; Montesinos, E; Peralta, J; Rojas, L; DeLaRosa, J; Leon, J J

    2009-08-01

    Lung hydatid cyst caused by Echinococcus granulosus is endemic in many areas of the world. We aimed to compare the outcome of surgical treatment in intact and ruptured (infected or noninfected) cysts. We reviewed the medical records of 115 patients with lung hydatid disease who were surgically treated between 2001 and 2005 in a tertiary hospital in Lima, Peru. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on cyst characteristics: intact cysts (n = 41), ruptured noninfected cysts (n = 47) and ruptured infected cysts (n = 27). If a patient had more than one type of cyst, the most severe form of disease was recorded. Data related to symptoms, morbidity and mortality were recorded and compared. We also calculated direct patient costs. Mean age of patients was 23.6 +/- 15.1 years old. Ruptured cysts were present in 64 % of patients and giant cysts (> 10 cm diameter) were present in 26 % of patients. Hemoptysis was present in 47.0 % of patients and was more frequent in patients with ruptured infected cysts. Lung resection was performed in 58 % of patients. The most common postoperative complication was infection of the operative wound (6.08 %). Perioperative mortality was zero. Patients with ruptured cysts had a longer hospitalization time and higher total cost (12.28 +/- 0.92 days, US$ 890.34 +/- 303.35) than patients with intact cysts (10.17 +/- 0.79 days, US$ 724.81 +/- 14.38). Surgical treatment of lung hydatid disease is safe, with a good outcome and a low mortality rate. The lung resection rate was higher than most published series and reflects the relatively high proportion of patients with giant and ruptured infected cysts.

  2. Unicameral bone cysts: general characteristics and management controversies.

    PubMed

    Pretell-Mazzini, Juan; Murphy, Robert Francis; Kushare, Indranil; Dormans, John P

    2014-05-01

    Unicameral bone cysts are benign bone lesions that are often asymptomatic and commonly develop in the proximal humerus and femur of skeletally immature patients. The etiology of these lesions remains unknown. Most patients present with a pathologic fracture, but these cysts can be discovered incidentally, as well. Radiographically, a unicameral bone cyst appears as a radiolucent lesion with cortical thinning and is centrally located within the metaphysis. Although diagnosis is frequently straightforward, management remains controversial. Because the results of various management methods are heterogeneous, no single method has emerged as the standard of care. New minimally invasive techniques involve cyst decompression with bone grafting and instrumentation. These techniques have yielded promising results, with low rates of complications and recurrence reported; however, prospective clinical trials are needed to compare these techniques with current evidence-based treatments.

  3. Thalamic pain alleviated by stellate ganglion block: A case report.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chenlong; Yang, Min; Liu, Pengfei; Zhong, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchuan

    2017-02-01

    Thalamic pain is a distressing and treatment-resistant type of central post-stroke pain. Although stellate ganglion block is an established intervention used in pain management, its use in the treatment of thalamic pain has never been reported. A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of severe intermittent lancinating pain on the right side of the face and the right hand. The pain started from the ulnar side of the right forearm after a mild ischemic stroke in bilateral basal ganglia and left thalamus. Weeks later, the pain extended to the dorsum of the finger tips and the whole palmar surface, becoming more severe. Meanwhile, there was also pain with similar characteristics emerging on her right face, resembling atypical trigeminal neuralgia. Thalamic pain was diagnosed. After refusing the further invasive treatment, she was suggested to try stellate ganglion block. After a 3-day period of pain free (numerical rating scale: 0) postoperatively, she reported moderate to good pain relief with a numerical rating scale of about 3 to 4 lasting 1 month after the first injection. Pain as well as the quality of life was markedly improved with less dose of analgesic agents. Stellate ganglion block may be an optional treatment for thalamic pain.

  4. Clinical signs and histologic findings in dogs with odontogenic cysts: 41 cases (1995-2010).

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Frank J M; Zin, Bliss P; Kass, Philip H; Cox, Darren P; Jordan, Richard C

    2011-12-01

    To characterize clinical signs and histologic findings in dogs with odontogenic cysts and determine whether histologic findings were associated with clinical features. Retrospective case series. 41 dogs. Medical records were reviewed to obtain clinical data, including breed, age, sex, and lesion location. Microscopic sections and results of diagnostic imaging were reviewed. Odontogenic cysts were identified in 41 dogs between 1995 and 2010. There were 29 dogs with dentigerous cysts, 1 with a radicular cyst, 1 with a lateral periodontal cyst, and 1 with a gingival inclusion cyst. In addition, 9 dogs with odontogenic cysts that had clinical and histologic features suggestive of, but not diagnostic for, odontogenic keratocysts seen in people were identified. In all 9 dogs, these cysts were located in the maxilla and surrounded the roots of normally erupted teeth. Of the 29 dogs with dentigerous cysts, 23 had a single cyst, 5 had 2 cysts, and 1 had 3 cysts. Six cysts were associated with an unerupted canine tooth, and 30 were associated with an unerupted first premolar tooth (1 cyst was associated both with an unerupted canine tooth and with an unerupted first premolar tooth). Dentigerous cysts were identified in a variety of breeds, but several brachycephalic breeds were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population during the study period. Results suggested that a variety of odontogenic cysts can occur in dogs. In addition, cysts that resembled odontogenic keratocysts reported in people were identified. We propose the term canine odontogenic parakeratinized cyst for this condition.

  5. Treatment of Bartholin gland cyst with CO2 laser

    PubMed Central

    Speck, Neila Maria de Góis; Boechat, Karol Pereira Ruela; dos Santos, Georgia Mouzinho Lima; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe the results of treatment with CO2 laser for Bartholin gland cysts. Methods Thirty-one women with Bartholin gland cysts were treated with CO2 laser at an outpatient´s setting. Skin incision was performed with focused laser beam, the capsule was opened to drain mucoid content, followed by internal vaporization of impaired capsule. Results There were no complications. Five patients had recurrence of the cyst and were submitted to a second and successful session. Conclusion CO2 laser surgery was effective to treat Bartholin gland cysts with minimal or no complications, and can be performed at an outpatient´s setting. PMID:27074230

  6. Temporal Dermoid Cyst with Unusual Imaging Appearance: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Abderrahmen, Khansa; Bouhoula, Asma; Aouidj, Lasaad; Jemel, Hafedh

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial dermoid cysts are benign, slow growing tumors derived from ectopic inclusions of epithelial cells during closure of neural tube. These lesions, accounting for less than 1% of intracranial tumors, have characteristic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances that generally permits preoperative diagnosis. However, the radiologic features are uncommon and the cyst can be easily misdiagnosed with other tumors in rare cases. Herein, we report a case of a left temporoparietal dermoid cyst in a 48-year-old woman that was peroperatively and histopathologically proven but not advocated on CT and MRI. Clinical, radiological and histopathological features of a dermoid cyst are reviewed.

  7. Posttraumatic epidermal inclusion cyst of the deep infratemporal fossa.

    PubMed

    Acarturk, T O; Stofman, G M

    2001-01-01

    The authors report a case of an epidermal inclusion cyst found in the deep infratemporal fossa 12 years after the patient sustained blunt trauma to that region. Posttraumatic epidermal inclusion cysts are rare and occur mainly in the fingers, palms, and soles. Introduction of the epidermal elements into the dermis during the trauma is thought to be the cause. This case is rare in presentation, with few reports in the English literature that describe an epidermal inclusion cyst in the deep infratemporal fossa. Review of the English literature disclosed no other cases of epidermal inclusion cyst after blunt trauma involving the deep infratemporal region.

  8. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Cytokeratin 18 and 19 Expressions in Odontogenic Keratocyst, Dentigerous Cyst and Radicular Cyst with a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vandana Sandip; Ghanchi, Mohsin Jiva; Gosavi, Sandesh Sachchidanand; Srivastava, Himanshu Mahesh; Pachore, Nivedita Javahir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Odontogenic cysts viz Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC), Dentigerous Cyst (DC) and Radicular Cyst (RC) occur commonly in the oral and maxillofacial region. Cytokeratin (CK) expression studies have been done to evaluate diagnostic accuracy, role in pathogenesis, elucidate behaviour and role in treatment protocols. However, variations have been reported in the expression of CK patterns in these odontogenic cysts, which could be due to the lack of standardization of laboratory techniques. The present study has tried to shed light on CK 18 and 19 expression in odontogenic cysts and offer the brief review of previous studies on these CK. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intensity and expression patterns of CK 18 and 19 in OKCs, DCs and RCs. Materials and Methods A total of 60 cases, 20 each of OKC, DC and RC were confirmed histologically and evaluated for immunohistochemical expression pattern and intensity of CK 18 and 19. Results A focal and variable expression of CK 18 was observed in 25% of OKCs, 15% of DCs and 10% of RCs. CK 19 was expressed in 75% of OKCs and 100% in DCs as well as RCs. Conclusion The intensity and expression of Cytokeratin 19 was more in all three cysts compared to Cytokeratin 18. PMID:27630961

  10. Trichilemmal cyst nevus of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Serra, David; Pereira, Sara; Robalo-Cordeiro, Margarida; Tellechea, Oscar

    2011-04-01

    We report the observation of a 24-year-old woman presenting a plaque-like lesion of the occipital scalp with hair rarefaction. This lesion was congenital and consisted of numerous, agminated, very small, trichilemmal cysts. It remained stable since birth, slowly growing in proportion with the patient during childhood. We discuss the nosological status of this intriguing lesion and its relationship with the recently described trichilemmal cyst nevus.

  11. Protective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on the noise-damaged cochlear spiral ganglion.

    PubMed

    Zhai, S-Q; Guo, W; Hu, Y-Y; Yu, N; Chen, Q; Wang, J-Z; Fan, M; Yang, W-Y

    2011-05-01

    To explore the protective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on the noise-damaged cochlear spiral ganglion. Recombinant adenovirus brain-derived neurotrophic factor vector, recombinant adenovirus LacZ and artificial perilymph were prepared. Guinea pigs with audiometric auditory brainstem response thresholds of more than 75 dB SPL, measured seven days after four hours of noise exposure at 135 dB SPL, were divided into three groups. Adenovirus brain-derived neurotrophic factor vector, adenovirus LacZ and perilymph were infused into the cochleae of the three groups, variously. Eight weeks later, the cochleae were stained immunohistochemically and the spiral ganglion cells counted. The auditory brainstem response threshold recorded before and seven days after noise exposure did not differ significantly between the three groups. However, eight weeks after cochlear perfusion, the group receiving brain-derived neurotrophic factor had a significantly decreased auditory brainstem response threshold and increased spiral ganglion cell count, compared with the adenovirus LacZ and perilymph groups. When administered via cochlear infusion following noise damage, brain-derived neurotrophic factor appears to improve the auditory threshold, and to have a protective effect on the spiral ganglion cells.

  12. Ocular anatomy, ganglion cell distribution and retinal resolution of a killer whale (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Mass, Alla M; Supin, Alexander Y; Abramov, Andrey V; Mukhametov, Lev M; Rozanova, Elena I

    2013-01-01

    Retinal topography, cell density and sizes of ganglion cells in the killer whale (Orcinus orca) were analyzed in retinal whole mounts stained with cresyl violet. A distinctive feature of the killer whale's retina is the large size of ganglion cells and low cell density compared to terrestrial mammals. The ganglion cell diameter ranged from 8 to 100 µm, with the majority of cells within a range of 20-40 µm. The topographic distribution of ganglion cells displayed two spots of high cell density located in the temporal and nasal quadrants, 20 mm from the optic disk. The high-density areas were connected by a horizontal belt-like area passing below the optic disk of the retina. Peak cell densities in these areas were evaluated. Mean peak cell densities were 334 and 288 cells/mm(2) in the temporal and nasal high-density areas, respectively. With a posterior nodal distance of 19.5 mm, these high-density data predict a retinal resolution of 9.6' (3.1 cycles/deg.) and 12.6' (2.4 cycles/deg.) in the temporal and nasal areas, respectively, in water. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A Clinicopathological Study of Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors in Hamadan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Baghaei, Fahimeh; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Najmi, Hamidreza; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Odontogenic cysts and tumors are the most frequent osseous destructive lesions of the jaws; however, there is little information regarding the relative frequency of these lesions among the Iranian population. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of clinically and histologically- diagnosed odontogenic cysts and tumors during a period of 13 years in Hamadan, and also its correlation with age, gender, and the site of the lesion. Materials and Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 413 oral and maxillofacial specimens during 1996 to 2008.The age and the gender of patients, as well as the site of lesion were recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Totally, 70 specimens were recorded as odontogenic cysts and 11 specimens were diagnosed as odontogenic tumors. The most frequent odontogenic cysts were dentigerous cysts (27.2%), followed by radicular cysts (18.6%) and odontogenic keratocysts (18.6%). In addition, cysts were more frequent in male than female individuals. Ameloblastoma was the most frequent odontogenic tumor (64%). Conclusion: Odontogenic cysts were in correlation with age, gender and location. These results showed that dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst were more frequent than other studies. More investigations should be performed to determine the frequency of odontogenic tumors in Iran. PMID:25469355

  14. Percutaneous Treatment of Renal Cysts with OK-432 Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soung Yong; Cho, Kang Su; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to demonstrate OK-432 sclerotherapy efficacy for treatment of simple renal cysts. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with 25 symptomatic or large simple cysts were treated by ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous aspiration and injection of OK-432 (8 men and 12 women, mean age 63.6 years, SD 9.5). Six patients presented with flank pain, 14 presented with renal mass; renal cyst location was right, left, or bilateral sided in 9, 8, and 8 kidneys, respectively. Patients were evaluated by clinical assessment, US, or CT scan 3 months following the procedure. Complete and partial success was defined as symptom resolution with either total cyst ablation or greater than 70% reduction, respectively. Failure was defined as 30% of cyst size recurrence and/or persistent symptoms. Results Average reduction was 93.0%. Complete and partial resolution occurred in 11 (44.0%) and 13 (52.0%) cysts, respectively. One case was defined as failure, with a 64.2% size reduction from 10.9cm to 3.9cm (volume reduction rate 95.4%). Renal pain improved in all patients, regardless of complete or partial resolution. Minor complications occurred in 3 patients, 2 developed leukocytosis and 1 had mild fever (< 38.5℃) following aspiration and sclerotherapy. Successful treatment was achieved with conservative measures and NSAID therapy. Conclusion Percutaneous treatment of simple renal cysts with OK-432 sclerotherapy was found to be a safe, effective and minimally invasive procedure. PMID:17461526

  15. Hydatid cyst of the liver-criteria for the selection of appropriate treatment.

    PubMed

    Menezes da Silva, A

    2003-02-01

    The appropriate treatment of hydatid cysts of the liver is determined by several factors, namely the patient, the cyst, the therapeutic resources and the physician. Characteristics of cysts, can be described by ultrasonography (US). Based on US images, we can classify hydatid cysts, according the evolutionary phase of the larval parasite and to choose the most appropriate therapeutic approach. US is also important to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment. Concerning the therapeutic methods, surgery had long been the only treatment available for the hydatid cyst of the liver. Beginning the 1970s benzimidazoles, Mebendazole and Albendazole, have been used for the treatment of the hydatid disease and in the early 1980s, with the development of diagnostic US, the deliberate puncture of abdominal cysts, particularly those in the liver, was evaluated this lead to puncture/aspiration, followed by injection of a scolicide which became a therapeutic method known as puncture, aspiration, injection and re-aspiration (PAIR). So, according to the cyst's characteristics based on US evaluation we can establish a therapeutic strategy: cysts type 1 and 3 may be treated by chemotherapy. Alternative treatment should be PAIR but only if the cysts cannot be treated with benzimidazoles. If there are contraindications for PAIR and chemotherapy the treatment should be surgical. Type 2 hydatid cysts can be treated by PAIR following initial treatment with benzimidazoles. If PAIR is not feasible or there is no evidence of degenerative changes after chemotherapy, surgery is indicated. Type 4 cysts are usually inactive and, in these cases, treatment is not indicated. If there is evidence that the cysts contents are still viable PAIR may be indicate. If PAIR is not possible, surgery is the method of choice. Cysts type 5 do not require treatment.

  16. Prevalence and distribution of odontogenic cysts in a Mexican sample. A 753 cases study.

    PubMed

    Villasis-Sarmiento, Luis; Portilla-Robertson, Javier; Melendez-Ocampo, Arcelia; Gaitan-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto; Leyva-Huerta, Elba-Rosa

    2017-04-01

    Odontogenic cysts (OC) are the most frequent lesions of the jaws and their constant epidemiological update is necessary and indispensable. Therefore the principal objective of this report was To determine prevalence and clinical-demographical characteristics of OC in a Mexican sample. 753 cases of OC coming from the archive of a head and neck histopathological teaching service, from January 2000 to December 2013, were included. OC cases were re-assessed according 2005 WHO classification. Chi square test was used to establish possible associations ( p <0.05IC95%). From 753 OC, 369 were female and 384 male; 52.9% of them were in their 2nd- 4th decade of life. The most common location (41%) was the mandibular posterior area. Radicular cysts were more frequent in maxillary anterior zone of females ( p 0.0002) at their fourth decade of life. Dentigerous cysts were more frequent in the mandibular posterior zone of males ( p 0.0000) in their second decade of life. Six cases of periodontal lateral cyst; 4 cases of paradental cysts; 4 eruption cysts and 4 cases of adult gingival cyst, as well were identified. Radicular cyst and dentigerous cyst are the most prevalent odontogenic cyst in this Mexican sample. Due to their etiology, dental pulpar necrosis and impacted teeth, radicular cyst and dentigerous cyst could be prevenible. Therefore, it is necessary to establish preventive strategies to diminish dental decay and programs of prophylactic extractions of impacted teeth, to in consequence decrease the prevalence of odontogenic cysts. Key words: Cyst, dentigerous cyst, mexican, odontogenic cyst, radicular cyst.

  17. A clinical report demonstrating the significance of distinguishing a nasopalatine duct cyst from a radicular cyst

    PubMed Central

    Aparna, Manikkath; Chakravarthy, Arumugam; Acharya, Shashi Rashmi; Radhakrishnan, Raghu

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic diagnosis is challenging and depends on the organisation of information from the patient history, clinical examination and analysis of the pulp, radiographic and histopathological assessment. A 35-year-old man was endodontically treated for radiolucency in relation to the roots of maxillary central incisors as it was a provisionally diagnosed case of radicular cyst. Since the palatal swelling persisted, the lesion was re-evaluated using relevant diagnostic aids and a diagnosis of nasopalatine duct cyst (NPDC) was made, which was missed during the initial assessment. An erroneous interpretation of cystic radiolucency in relation to maxillary central incisors can often lead to inappropriate treatment planning. This case highlights the relevant aspects in the diagnosis of NPDC when it is mistaken for a radicular cyst and emphasises the need for thorough clinical examination and relevant investigations for periapical radiolucencies of questionable origin before initiating endodontic therapy. PMID:24642171

  18. Lithium alters the morphology of neurites regenerating from cultured adult spiral ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Shah, S M; Patel, C H; Feng, A S; Kollmar, R

    2013-10-01

    The small-molecule drug lithium (as a monovalent ion) promotes neurite regeneration and functional recovery, is easy to administer, and is approved for human use to treat bipolar disorder. Lithium exerts its neuritogenic effect mainly by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3, a constitutively-active serine/threonine kinase that is regulated by neurotrophin and "wingless-related MMTV integration site" (Wnt) signaling. In spiral ganglion neurons of the cochlea, the effects of lithium and the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 have not been investigated. We, therefore, set out to test whether lithium modulates neuritogenesis from adult spiral ganglion neurons. Primary cultures of dissociated spiral ganglion neurons from adult mice were exposed to lithium at concentrations between 0 and 12.5 mM. The resulting neurite morphology and growth-cone appearance were measured in detail by using immunofluorescence microscopy and image analysis. We found that lithium altered the morphology of regenerating neurites and their growth cones in a differential, concentration-dependent fashion. Low concentrations of 0.5-2.5 mM (around the half-maximal inhibitory concentration for glycogen synthase kinase 3 and the recommended therapeutic serum concentration for bipolar disorder) enhanced neurite sprouting and branching. A high concentration of 12.5 mM, in contrast, slowed elongation. As the lithium concentration rose from low to high, the microtubules became increasingly disarranged and the growth cones more arborized. Our results demonstrate that lithium selectively stimulates phases of neuritogenesis that are driven by microtubule reorganization. In contrast, most other drugs that have previously been tested on spiral ganglion neurons are reported to inhibit neurite outgrowth or affect only elongation. Lithium sensitivity is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for the involvement of glycogen synthase kinase 3. Our results are, therefore, consistent with, but do not prove

  19. Microbiology of third and fourth branchial pouch cysts.

    PubMed

    Pahlavan, Shane; Haque, Waqar; Pereira, Kevin; Larrier, Deidre; Valdez, Tulio A

    2010-03-01

    To identify the most common pathogens involved in infections of third and fourth branchial pouch cysts. Third and fourth branchial pouch cyst infections are an uncommon cause of anterior neck abscesses often confused with other entities, such as thyroglossal duct cysts and thyroid abscesses leading to misdiagnosis, recurrence, and increased morbidity related to a delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Retrospective chart and literature review. Retrospective chart review case series of patients presenting to the Bobby R. Alford Department of Otolaryngology at Texas Children's Hospital from July 2004 to July 2008 with third and fourth branchial pouch cysts. A total of 11 patients were identified. All patients had left-sided lesions. Eikenella corrodens was found in 60% of cultures and was the most common organism identified in our patient group. Furthermore, 56% of the organisms isolated were anaerobic. All organisms with the exception of Staphylococcus aureus were identified as oral cavity flora. Third and fourth branchial pouch cysts provide a communication between the neck and the oral cavity through pyriform sinus tracts. The presence of oral cavity flora in a left anterior neck abscess should raise the suspicion of a branchial pouch anomaly, and subsequently alter therapeutic management.

  20. Sedimentation of Free and Attached Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts in Water

    PubMed Central

    Medema, G. J.; Schets, F. M.; Teunis, P. F. M.; Havelaar, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental analysis of the sedimentation velocity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts was compared with mathematical description of their sedimentation velocities by using measurements of (oo)cyst size and density and the density and viscosity of the sedimentation medium to determine if the sedimentation kinetics of freely suspended oocysts of C. parvum and cysts of G. lamblia can be described by Stokes’ law. The theoretically calculated sedimentation kinetics showed a good agreement with the experimentally observed kinetics. Both showed a decline in sedimentation velocity over time, caused primarily by variation in (oo)cyst density. The initial apparent sedimentation velocities in Hanks balanced salt solution at 23°C was 0.35 μm · s−1 for oocysts and 1.4 μm · s−1 for cysts. (Oo)cysts that enter the surface water environment by discharges of biologically treated sewage may be attached to sewage particles, and this will affect their sedimentation kinetics. Therefore, (oo)cysts were mixed with settled secondary effluent. (Oo)cysts readily attached to the (biological) particles in effluent; 30% of both cysts and oocysts attached during the first minutes of mixing, and this fraction increased to approximately 75% after 24 h. The sedimentation velocity of (oo)cysts attached to secondary effluent particles increased with particle size and was (already in the smallest size fraction [1 to 40 μm]) determined by the sedimentation kinetics of the effluent particles. The observed sedimentation velocities of freely suspended (oo)cysts are probably too low to cause significant sedimentation in surface water or reservoirs. However, since a significant proportion of both cysts and oocysts attached readily to organic biological particles in secondary effluent, sedimentation of attached (oo)cysts after discharge into surface water will probably be a significant factor in the environmental ecology of C. parvum and G. lamblia. Attachment to

  1. Low pressure ultraviolet studies for inactivation of Giardia muris cysts.

    PubMed

    Hayes, S L; Rice, E W; Ware, M W; Schaefer, F W

    2003-01-01

    The research was initiated to confirm earlier ultraviolet (u.v.) light inactivation studies performed on Giardia cysts using excystation as the viability indicator. Following this, a comparison of in vitro excystation and animal infectivity was performed for assessing cyst viability after exposure to low-pressure u.v. irradiation. Cysts of Giardia muris were inactivated using a low-pressure u.v. light source. Giardia muris was employed as a surrogate for the human pathogen Giardia lamblia. Cyst viability was determined by both in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Cyst doses were counted using a flow cytometer for the animal infectivity experiments. Using in vitro excystation as the viability indicator, fluences as high as approximately 200 mJ cm(-2) did not prevent some cysts from excysting, thus verifying earlier work. Using animal infectivity, u.v. fluences of 1.4, 1.9 and 2.3 mJ cm(-2) yielded log10 reductions ranging from 0.3 to >or= 4.4. Results indicate that in vitro excystation is not a reliable indicator of G. muris cyst viability after u.v. disinfection. Very low doses of u.v. light rendered G. muris cysts non-infective in the mouse model employed. Data presented represent the only complete u.v. inactivation curve for G. muris. This research provides evidence that u.v. can be an effective barrier against Giardia spp. in the treatment of drinking water supplies.

  2. Enkephalin modulation of neural transmission in the cat stellate ganglion: pharmacological actions of exogenous opiates.

    PubMed

    Prosdocimi, M; Finesso, M; Gorio, A

    1986-11-01

    Neural ganglionic transmission was studied in vivo in the cat, using closed chest anesthetized preparations. The right stellate ganglion and its branches were exposed retropleurally and prepared for electrical stimulation of pre- and postganglionic nerve fibers. The axillary artery was cannulated allowing direct administration of drugs in the arterial blood supplying the ganglion. Stimulation of postjunctional receptors could thus be obtained by local administration of selective agents. Local administration of nicotinic, muscarinic or histaminergic agents increased heart rate and blood pressure. Opiates were given either i.v. or locally through the axillary artery: we tested the effects of morphine, Leu-enkephalin (Leu-enk), Met-enkephalin (Met-enk), [D-ala2]-Met-enkephalinamide (DAME) and etorphine. When given locally, Leu-enk (from 10 micrograms), Met-enk (from 20 micrograms), DAME (from 5 micrograms) and etorphine (from 0.2 micrograms) inhibited tachycardia induced by preganglionic stimulation and reduced the amplitude of the compound action potential recorded from the postganglionic nerve. Morphine (10-200 micrograms) had no effect. On the other hand, tachycardia induced by postganglionic nerve stimulation was unaffected by opiates in the same experimental conditions. Intravenous administration of similar doses of opiates had no effect on ganglionic transmission. When tachycardia was induced by chemical stimulation of nicotinic (DMPP), muscarinic (McN-A-343-11) or histamine receptors in the stellate ganglia, opiates were still active in reducing the effect of these chemicals. These data provide evidence that exogenous opiates exert a depressing action on postsynaptic responses of sympathetic ganglia tested in vivo, although an additional action on presynaptic terminals is not excluded. As endogenous opiates are normally present in various sympathetic ganglia, including the stellate ganglion of the cat, it is possible that they play some modulatory role on

  3. The incidence of satellite cysts in keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Pavelić, Boiidar; Katunarić, Marina; Segović, Sanja; Karadole, Maja Cimas; Katanec, Davor; Saban, Aida; Puhar, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Renaming of the Odontogenic Keratocyst as the Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor by the World Health Organization (WHO) is based on the aggressive nature of this lesion. Satellite cysts founded in the walls of the original cysts may give rise to a new lesion formation. The aim of this retrospecitve study was to identify the existence of specific features according incidence of satellite cysts and the pallisading of the basal layer of the epithelium and to establish their mutual correlation. The histopathologic data of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor on the basis of new WHO's classification (2005) were analized. Prominent palisade basal cell layer was found in 415 (94.75%) and partially absent palisade basal cell layer in 23 (5.25%) cases. Satellite cysts were presented in prominent palisade basal cell layer in 85 specimens (20.5%) and in cases with partial absent of the palisade basal layer in 3 spicemens (13%). The higher the frequency of pallisading was the higher the frequency of satellite cysts was (p > 0.05).

  4. Neuroprotective Effect of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid on N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Rondón, Netxibeth; Esquiva, Gema; Germain, Francisco; de la Villa, Pedro; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell degeneration underlies the pathophysiology of diseases affecting the retina and optic nerve. Several studies have previously evidenced the anti-apoptotic properties of the bile constituent, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, in diverse models of photoreceptor degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced damage in the rat retina using a functional and morphological approach. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid was administered intraperitoneally before and after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Three days after insult, full-field electroretinograms showed reductions in the amplitudes of the positive and negative-scotopic threshold responses, scotopic a- and b-waves and oscillatory potentials. Quantitative morphological evaluation of whole-mount retinas demonstrated a reduction in the density of retinal ganglion cells. Systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuated the functional impairment induced by NMDA, which correlated with a higher retinal ganglion cell density. Our findings sustain the efficacy of tauroursodeoxycholic acid administration in vivo, suggesting it would be a good candidate for the pharmacological treatment of degenerative diseases coursing with retinal ganglion cell loss. PMID:26379056

  5. Müllerian duct cyst: diagnosis with MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Thurnher, S; Hricak, H; Tanagho, E A

    1988-07-01

    The value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in diagnosing clinically suspected müllerian duct cysts was assessed in six patients. MR imaging correctly demonstrated the abnormality to be intraprostatic, consistent with the diagnosis of müllerian duct cysts in four patients, and allowed the diagnosis to be excluded in the other two. The demonstration of prostatic zonal anatomy, the ability to obtain direct images in all three orthogonal planes, and a large field of view make MR imaging valuable in the study of suspected müllerian duct cysts.

  6. Active unicameral bone cysts in the upper limb are at greater risk of fracture.

    PubMed

    Tey, Inn Kuang; Mahadev, Arjandas; Lim, Kevin Boon Leong; Lee, Eng Hin; Nathan, Saminathan Suresh

    2009-08-01

    To elucidate the natural history of unicameral bone cyst (UBC) and risk factors for pathological fracture. 14 males and 8 females (mean age, 9 years) diagnosed with UBC were reviewed. Cyst location, symptoms, and whether there was any fracture or surgery were recorded. Cyst parameters were measured on radiographs, and included (1) the cyst index, (2) the ratio of the widest cyst diameter to the growth plate diameter, and (3) the adjusted distance of the cyst border from the growth plate. There were 11 upper- and 11 lower-limb cysts. 13 patients had pathological fractures and 9 did not. 20 patients were treated conservatively with limb immobilisation; 2 underwent curettage and bone grafting (one resolved and one did not). Seven cysts resolved (5 had fractures and 2 did not). The risk of fracture was higher in the upper than lower limbs (100% vs 18%, p<0.001). Fractured cysts were larger than unfractured cysts (mean cyst index, 4.5 vs. 2.2, p=0.07). Active cysts were more likely to fracture. Conservative management had a 30% resolution rate. Surgery should be considered for large active cysts in the upper limbs in order to minimise the fracture risk.

  7. Visual pattern recognition based on spatio-temporal patterns of retinal ganglion cells’ activities

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Wei; Liu, Wen-Zhong; Gong, Xin-Wei; Gong, Hai-Qing

    2010-01-01

    Neural information is processed based on integrated activities of relevant neurons. Concerted population activity is one of the important ways for retinal ganglion cells to efficiently organize and process visual information. In the present study, the spike activities of bullfrog retinal ganglion cells in response to three different visual patterns (checker-board, vertical gratings and horizontal gratings) were recorded using multi-electrode arrays. A measurement of subsequence distribution discrepancy (MSDD) was applied to identify the spatio-temporal patterns of retinal ganglion cells’ activities in response to different stimulation patterns. The results show that the population activity patterns were different in response to different stimulation patterns, such difference in activity pattern was consistently detectable even when visual adaptation occurred during repeated experimental trials. Therefore, the stimulus pattern can be reliably discriminated according to the spatio-temporal pattern of the neuronal activities calculated using the MSDD algorithm. PMID:21886670

  8. Benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and Alexandrium cyst inventories

    PubMed Central

    Pilskaln, C.H.; Hayashi, K.; Keafer, B.A.; Anderson, D.M.; McGillicuddy, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cysts residing in benthic nepheloid layers (BNLs) documented in the Gulf of Maine have been proposed as a possible source of inoculum for annual blooms of a toxic dinoflagellate in the region. Herein we present a spatially extensive data set of the distribution and thickness of benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and the abundance and inventories of suspended Alexandrium fundyense cysts within these near-bottom layers. BNLs are pervasive throughout the gulf and adjacent Bay of Fundy with maximum layer thicknesses of 50–60 m observed. Mean BNL thickness is 30 m in the eastern gulf and Bay of Fundy, and 20 m in the western gulf. Cyst densities in the near-bottom particle resuspension layers varied by three orders of magnitude across the gulf with maxima of 105 cysts m−3. An important interconnection of elevated BNL cyst densities is observed between the Bay of Fundy, the Maine Coastal Current and the south-central region of the gulf. BNL cyst inventories estimated for the eastern and western gulf are each on the order of 1015 cysts, whereas the BNL inventory in the Bay of Fundy is on the order of 1016 . Although BNL cyst inventories in the eastern and western gulf are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the abundance of cysts in the upper 1 cm of sediment in those regions, BNL and sediment-bound cyst inventories are comparable in the Bay of Fundy. The existence of widespread BNLs containing substantial cyst inventories indicates that these near-bottom layers represent an important source of germinating A. fundyense cysts in the region. PMID:25419055

  9. Benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and Alexandrium cyst inventories.

    PubMed

    Pilskaln, C H; Hayashi, K; Keafer, B A; Anderson, D M; McGillicuddy, D J

    2014-05-01

    Cysts residing in benthic nepheloid layers (BNLs) documented in the Gulf of Maine have been proposed as a possible source of inoculum for annual blooms of a toxic dinoflagellate in the region. Herein we present a spatially extensive data set of the distribution and thickness of benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and the abundance and inventories of suspended Alexandrium fundyense cysts within these near-bottom layers. BNLs are pervasive throughout the gulf and adjacent Bay of Fundy with maximum layer thicknesses of 50-60 m observed. Mean BNL thickness is 30 m in the eastern gulf and Bay of Fundy, and 20 m in the western gulf. Cyst densities in the near-bottom particle resuspension layers varied by three orders of magnitude across the gulf with maxima of 10 5 cysts m -3 . An important interconnection of elevated BNL cyst densities is observed between the Bay of Fundy, the Maine Coastal Current and the south-central region of the gulf. BNL cyst inventories estimated for the eastern and western gulf are each on the order of 10 15 cysts, whereas the BNL inventory in the Bay of Fundy is on the order of 10 16 . Although BNL cyst inventories in the eastern and western gulf are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the abundance of cysts in the upper 1 cm of sediment in those regions, BNL and sediment-bound cyst inventories are comparable in the Bay of Fundy. The existence of widespread BNLs containing substantial cyst inventories indicates that these near-bottom layers represent an important source of germinating A. fundyense cysts in the region.

  10. Prevalence and distribution of odontogenic cysts in a Mexican sample. A 753 cases study

    PubMed Central

    Villasis-Sarmiento, Luis; Melendez-Ocampo, Arcelia; Gaitan-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto; Leyva-Huerta, Elba-Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Background Odontogenic cysts (OC) are the most frequent lesions of the jaws and their constant epidemiological update is necessary and indispensable. Therefore the principal objective of this report was To determine prevalence and clinical-demographical characteristics of OC in a Mexican sample. Material and Methods 753 cases of OC coming from the archive of a head and neck histopathological teaching service, from January 2000 to December 2013, were included. OC cases were re-assessed according 2005 WHO classification. Chi square test was used to establish possible associations (p<0.05IC95%). Results From 753 OC, 369 were female and 384 male; 52.9% of them were in their 2nd- 4th decade of life. The most common location (41%) was the mandibular posterior area. Radicular cysts were more frequent in maxillary anterior zone of females (p 0.0002) at their fourth decade of life. Dentigerous cysts were more frequent in the mandibular posterior zone of males (p 0.0000) in their second decade of life. Six cases of periodontal lateral cyst; 4 cases of paradental cysts; 4 eruption cysts and 4 cases of adult gingival cyst, as well were identified. Conclusions Radicular cyst and dentigerous cyst are the most prevalent odontogenic cyst in this Mexican sample. Due to their etiology, dental pulpar necrosis and impacted teeth, radicular cyst and dentigerous cyst could be prevenible. Therefore, it is necessary to establish preventive strategies to diminish dental decay and programs of prophylactic extractions of impacted teeth, to in consequence decrease the prevalence of odontogenic cysts. Key words:Cyst, dentigerous cyst, mexican, odontogenic cyst, radicular cyst. PMID:28469818

  11. Spontaneous regression of a pituitary cyst: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Nishio, S; Morioka, T; Suzuki, S; Fukui, M

    2001-01-01

    Two unusual cases of pituitary cysts are described. Both patients presented with sudden onset of severe headache, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated pituitary cysts, which regressed over months. Although the precise etiology of the cysts was unproven, the cystic lesions in our patients are thought to have shrunken after "pituitary apoplexy."

  12. Nasolacrimal drainage system cyst in an adult.

    PubMed

    Yamasoba, T; Sugimura, H

    1996-01-01

    A cyst of the nasolacrimal drainage system (NLDS) is rare in an adult. We report a case in a 29-year-old man of a mucous retention cyst of the NLDS, which appeared 2 years after the patient developed dacryocystitis coincident with an aggravation of chronic sinusitis. The lesion was successfully managed by removing the bony wall of the NLDS at the interface with the ethmoid and nasal cavity, as well as the membranous closure of the ostium of the common canaliculus. We speculate that the cyst development might have been initiated by inflammatory change such as mucosal adhesion in the NLDS resulting from the spread of secondary infection from the sinonasal tract.

  13. Polidocanol sclerotherapy for hydroceles and epididymal cysts.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, T; Johansson, J E; Jahnson, S; Helgesen, F; Andersson, S O

    1994-04-01

    A total of 87 patients with 63 hydroceles and 29 epididymal cysts underwent injection sclerotherapy with polidocanol on an outpatient basis. In the hydrocele group the cure rate after 1 treatment was 67% and the overall cure rate was 87% after a median followup of 14 months. In the group treated for epididymal cyst the corresponding cure rates were 46% and 64%, respectively, with a median followup of 12 months. A low rate of complications was observed. Of 86 evaluable patients 81 (94%) were satisfied with the procedure and the treatment results. Therefore, we recommend injection sclerotherapy with polidocanol as primary treatment for hydroceles and epididymal cysts in patients older than 40 years.

  14. Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) a...

  15. Malignant changes developing from odontogenic cysts: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Ferreres, Jordi; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review scientific literature in orderto describe the characteristics and prognosis of malignant entities developing from odontogenic cysts. A search in Pubmed (MEDLINE) and Cochrane databases was conducted. The inclusion criteria were articles published in English related to the malignisation of odontogenic cysts in humans. The exclusion criteria were articles that do not specify the type of odontogenic cyst, malignisation of parakeratinised keratocysts, the presence of an ameloblastic carcinoma and metastasis from distant primary tumours. The selected articles were classified according to Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy criteria. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using statistical package software SPSS version 22.0. From the 1,237 articles initially obtained, the authors included 3 case series and 45 case reports in the end. Descriptive analysis showed that men have a disposition for malignisation from odontogenic cysts and they frequently appear at the posterior mandible, with pain and swelling being the most frequent signs and symptoms. Follicular cysts were the entities that underwent the most malignant changes with well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas being the most prevalent type of malignancy. The real prognosis of this malignancy is not known because of the heterogeneity of available studies. Key words: Odontogenic cysts, squamous cell carcinoma, neoplastic cell transformation, oral cancer.

  16. [Hydatid Cyst Cases with Different Localization: Region of Erzurum].

    PubMed

    Demirci, Elif; Altun, Eren; Çalık, Muhammet; Durur Subaşı, Irmak; Şipal, Sare; Gündoğdu, Özge Beyza

    2015-06-01

    In this study it is aimed to contribute in determination of geographic distribution of Hydatid Cysts in Turkey and to emphasize the clinic chaos of Hydatid Cysts cases found in various localizations, by indicating the prevalence of Hydatid Cysts in our region. It is evaluated that the cases diagnosed as Hydatid Cysts in Atatürk University Medical Faculty Pathology Depatment/Erzurum laboratories between 2003-2013; in terms of their age, gender, organ involvement and histopathologic detail. In our study, 459 Hydatid Cysts cases are defined. The most common localizations of cases are determined as liver (n:280, 61%) and lung (n:86, 18,7%). Those are followed by the kidney (n:12, 2,6%), brain (n:12, 2,6%) and spleen (n:9, 2.3%). Multi-organ involvement is observed in 31 cases (6.7%), in 10 (2.2%) cases co-occurence of liver and lung is determined. Unusual organ involvement is observed in 64 cases (13.9%) while the liver and lung is not involved. Hydatid Cysts is an important health issue which is endemically seen in our region. It can be observed in various localizations of human body, other than the liver and lung. Those various localizations lie behind the serious diagnostic problems in endemic regions.

  17. The therapeutic effect of OK-432 (picibanil) sclerotherapy for benign neck cysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Gu; Kim, Sun Gon; Lee, Jun Ho; Eun, Young Gyu; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2008-12-01

    In general, benign neck cysts are treated by surgical excision. This can present technical difficulties and frequent recurrences, because of insufficient surgery. Sclerosing agents such as OK-432 have been tested for the nonsurgical treatment of these cysts. We have assessed the efficacy of OK-432 sclerotherapy for benign neck cysts. The study group consisted of 75 patients (42 men, 33 women) diagnosed with and treated for benign neck cysts between March 2001 and December 2007 by intralesional injection of OK-432. The liquid content of each cyst was aspirated as much as possible, and the same volume of OK-432 solution was injected. Patients were assessed by ultrasonography or computerized tomography, and therapeutic outcomes and adverse effects were evaluated by patient age, sex, cyst type, and number of injections. Of the 75 treated patients, 31 (41.3%) showed total shrinkage, seven (9.3%) showed near-total shrinkage (>90% of cyst volume), five (6.6%) showed marked shrinkage (>70% of cyst volume), and 17 (22.7%) showed partial shrinkage (<70% of cyst volume). No response was seen in 15 patients (20%). Despite repeated sclerotherapy, eight patients (10.7%) showed recurrences. Minor adverse effects of therapy included fever, localized pain, and odynophagia but these complications spontaneously disappeared within several days. OK-432 sclerotherapy is a safe and effective primary alternative to surgery in patients with benign neck cysts.

  18. Ganglion cell distribution and retinal resolution in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Mass, Alla M; Ketten, Darlene R; Odell, Daniel K; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2012-01-01

    The topographic organization of retinal ganglion cells was examined in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) to assess ganglion cell size and distribution and to estimate retinal resolution. The ganglion cell layer of the manatee's retina was comprised primarily of large neurons with broad intercellular spaces. Cell sizes varied from 10 to 60 μm in diameter (mean 24.3 μm). The retinal wholemounts from adult animals measured 446-501 mm(2) in area with total ganglion cell counts of 62,000-81,800 (mean 70,200). The cell density changed across the retina, with the maximum in the area below the optic disc and decreasing toward the retinal edges and in the immediate vicinity of the optic disc. The maximum cell density ranged from 235 to 337 cells per millimeter square in the adult retinae. Two wholemounts obtained from juvenile animals were 271 and 282 mm(2) in area with total cell numbers of 70,900 and 68,700, respectively (mean 69,800), that is, nearly equivalent to those of adults, but juvenile retinae consequently had maximum cell densities that were higher than those of adults: 478 and 491 cells per millimeter square. Calculations indicate a retinal resolution of ∼19' (1.6 cycles per degree) in both adult and juvenile retinae. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Periosteal ganglion: a report of three new cases including MRI findings and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Okada, K; Unoki, E; Kubota, H; Abe, E; Taniwaki, M; Morita, M; Sato, K

    1996-02-01

    To clarify the clinicopathological features of periosteal ganglion. Three patients with periosteal ganglion were studied clinicopathologically. One patient was selected from the files of our institute and two from a consultation file. All three lesions were located over the medial aspect of the tibia. Plain radiographs showed cortical erosions of varying degrees and mild periosteal reaction of the medial side of the tibia. MR images demonstrated well-circumscribed lesions overlying the cortical bone of the tibia, shown as low-intensity areas on T1-weighted images. On T2-weighted images, lesions were homogeneous, lobulated, and showed a characteristic markedly increased signal intensity. These findings are helpful in making a diagnosis of periosteal ganglion. Each patient had an uneventful clinical course after an excision involving the wall of the ganglion, the adjoining periosteum, and the underlying sclerotic cortical bone.

  20. Upper digestive stenosis due to a hydatid cyst of the liver.

    PubMed

    Jarrar, Mohamed Salah; Ben Hadj Khalifa, Mohamed Habib; Toumi, Radhouane; Ghrissi, Rafik; Elghali, Mohamed Amine; Khenissi, Abdelmajid; Hamila, Fehmi; Letaief, Rached

    2015-03-01

    The complications of the hydatid cyst of the liver are dominated by infection and rupture. The compression of adjacent organs (mainly the inferior vena cava, the portal vein and the bile ducts) can be seen, when the cyst is located in the dome, in the hilum or within the hepatic parenchyma. Upper digestive stenosis by compression of the duodenum by the hydatid cyst is an exceptional complication. A 63 year-old patient had, for two months, upper digestive stenosis associated with a sensation of weight in the right hypochondrium. Digestive endoscopy showed an extrinsic compression of the second portion of the duodenum. Biopsies were negative. Abdominal CT showed up a hydatid cyst in the segment VI of the liver, adhering to the duodenum, with an exo-vesiculation compressing it. The patient was operated on: There was a hydatid cyst of the right lateral sector compressing the duodenum. A partial intralamellar pericystectomy was performed. Hydatid cyst of the liver, a parasitic disease described as benign, may give mechanical complications related to compression of adjacent organs (especially the bile ducts and veins). Compression of the digestive tract is exceptional. This is due to the proximity of the cyst to the duodenum and the thickness of the cyst wall.

  1. The management of orbital cysts associated with congenital microphthalmos and anophthalmos

    PubMed Central

    McLean, C J; Ragge, N K; Jones, R B; Collin, J R O

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study the management of the orbital cysts present in a group of patients with anophthalmos and microphthalmos. Methods: A retrospective study of 34 patients (40 orbits) treated for orbital cyst associated with microphthalmos and anophthalmos. Results: The two largest treatment groups comprised 17 orbits (42.5%) where the cyst was removed surgically and 17 orbits (42.5%) where the cyst was retained and conformers were used. The remaining cases comprised two orbits (5%) where the cyst was aspirated initially; two orbits (5%) with large cysts which will need to be excised after further orbital growth; one orbit (2.5%) in which a silicone expander was used initially, and one orbit (2.5%) in which a mildly microphthalmic eye had some vision and was monitored but required no surgery. Conclusion: In this study 33 out of 34 patients had a good cosmetic result which illustrates that the orbital cyst in microphthalmos or anophthalmos performs a useful role in socket expansion and that the majority of patients with this condition can expect a good cosmetic outcome. PMID:12812886

  2. An unusual presentation of presentation of a branchial cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Rahul; Greco, Gregory

    2012-05-01

    Branchial cleft cysts are congenital anomalies that arise from the aberrant embryological development of the branchial apparatus. The location of a branchial cleft cyst is determined by which branchial cleft failed to obliterate during embryological development, with the second branchial cleft cyst being the most commonly recognized lesion. Although the most common location for branchial cleft cysts is between the external auditory canal and the level of the clavicle, the literature does describe unusual locations. We present a case a 15-year-old boy who had an enlarging lesion on his back that had been present since birth. A presumptive radiologic diagnosis of lymphangioma circumscriptum was made. Upon excision of the lesion and pathologic examination, it was determined to be a branchial cleft cyst. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, and no recurrence was noted after a 2-year follow-up. Our clinical report demonstrates a lesion on the posterior thorax that proved to be a branchial cleft cyst and should always be part of the differential diagnosis for soft tissue masses of the thorax.

  3. Spontaneous resolution of colloid cyst of the third ventricle: Implications for management

    PubMed Central

    Turel, Mazda Keki; Kucharczyk, Walter; Gentili, Fred

    2017-01-01

    While there is little controversy regarding the treatment of symptomatic colloid cysts, the optimal management of “incidentally” detected and asymptomatic colloid cyst remains unclear. The age of the patient, duration and significance of symptoms related to the cyst, size and radiological characteristics of the cyst and the presence of hydrocephalus are all factors to be considered before considering surgery. While surgery most often provides good results in the majority of patients, complications do occur. Despite growing literature about the natural history of this condition, to date, only three cases of spontaneous resolution of colloid cyst <10 mm have been reported. We report the case of spontaneous resolution of a colloid cyst larger than 10 mm, initially managed with close observation and serial neuroimaging. This case highlights the possible role for a conservative approach even in larger-sized cysts. PMID:28484531

  4. Odontogenic cysts: demographic profile in a Brazilian population over a 38-year period.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lélia-Batista; Gordón-Núñez, Manuel-Antonio; Nonaka, Cassiano-Francisco-Weege; de Medeiros, Marcell-Costa; Torres, Tabita-Fernandes; Emiliano, Gustavo-Barbalho-Guedes

    2010-07-01

    To determine the distribution of odontogenic cysts diagnosed histologically over a period of 38 years in a Brazilian population according to age, gender and site affected and to compare these data with previously reported studies from other countries. A total of 1019 cases of odontogenic cysts diagnosed between 1970 and 2007 were studied. Clinical features obtained from the patient records and microscope slides were reviewed according to the 1992 World Health Organization classification. The mean age was 31.0 years, and there was a predominance of females. The most frequent odontogenic cysts were radicular cysts (61.4%), followed by dentigerous cysts (20.1%) and odontogenic keratocysts (6.4%). Radicular cysts were more frequent in females (62.0%), and the maxillary teeth were the site most commonly involved (63.05%). The peak incidence of dentigerous cysts occurred in the second decade of life, with the posterior region of the mandible being the site most affected (46.3%), followed by the anterior region of the maxilla (27.8%). Odontogenic keratocysts showed a peak incidence between the third and fourth decades of life and predominance among females. The posterior region of the mandible was the site most frequently affected (65.6%). The present results showed a similar frequency of odontogenic cysts in this Brazilian population and other populations around the world, with inflammatory cysts being identified as the most frequent odontogenic cyst. Radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts, and odontogenic keratocysts are the most common cystic lesions, accounting for 87.9% of all odontogenic cysts.

  5. Intracranial aneurysm and arachnoid cyst: just a coincidence? A case report.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Guilherme Brasileiro de; Santos, Rafael Gomes Dos; Paiva, Aline Lariessy Campos; Silva, João Miguel de Almeida; Silva, Rafael Carlos da; Veiga, José Carlos Esteves

    2017-12-18

    Presence of an arachnoid cyst and a non-ruptured intracystic brain aneurysm is extremely rare. The aim of this paper was to describe a case of a patient with an arachnoid cyst and a non-ruptured aneurysm inside it. Clinical, surgical and radiological data were analyzed and the literature was reviewed. A patient complained of chronic headache. She was diagnosed as having a temporal arachnoid cyst and a non-ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm inside it. Surgery was performed to clip the aneurysm and fenestrate the cyst. This report raises awareness about the importance of intracranial vascular investigation in patients with arachnoid cysts and brain hemorrhage.

  6. Literature Review of Periclitoral Cysts in the Prepubertal Population.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kayla L; McQuillan, Sarah K; Brain, Philippa

    2016-12-01

    Clitoral cysts in the pediatric population are rare conditions that require careful evaluation. In this review of the literature we discuss the evaluation of clitoral abnormalities in the pediatric population, the development of clitoral cysts, and how to differentiate benign from malignant tumors. In addition, a summary of relevant cases of clitoral tumors in the literature are discussed. Literature review. A MedLine and advanced PubMed search was conducted of all English language articles published using the search terms "clitoris" and "cyst" until February 2015. Reference tracing was completed for all articles for completeness. Literature review of clitoral cysts in the prepubertal population. In total, we found 15 cases of benign, spontaneously forming clitoral cysts reported. Eleven of those cases document symptom onset before puberty. Reports of other benign clitoral lesions in the pediatric population include 1 angiokeratoma, 1 hemangiopericytoma, 1 granular cell tumor, 6 hemangiomas, and approximately 30 neurofibromas. Clitoral malignancies in the pediatric population are even more rare with only 3 cases of clitoral schwannomas, 2 rhabdomyosarcomas, 1 lymphoma, and 1 endodermal sinus tumor documented in the literature. Clitoral cysts must be considered as a possible cause of clitoral enlargement in the prepubertal population. Clitoral tumors are distinguished clinically from hormonal abnormalities and intersex disorders by their hormonal profile, and the presence of an underlying mass. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging might be useful imaging modalities to further characterize the clitoral enlargement. When confirmed as the most likely diagnosis, surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for clitoral cysts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Physico-chemical and biological factors influencing dinoflagellate cyst production in the Cariaco Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringué, Manuel; Thunell, Robert C.; Pospelova, Vera; Pinckney, James L.; Romero, Oscar E.; Tappa, Eric J.

    2018-04-01

    We present a 2.5-year-long sediment trap record of dinoflagellate cyst production in the Cariaco Basin, off Venezuela (southern Caribbean Sea). The site lies under the influence of wind-driven, seasonal upwelling which promotes high levels of primary productivity during boreal winter and spring. Changes in dinoflagellate cyst production is documented between November 1996 and May 1999 at ˜ 14-day intervals and interpreted in the context of in situ observations of physico-chemical and biological parameters measured at the mooring site. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are diverse (57 taxa) and dominated by cyst taxa of heterotrophic affinity, primarily Brigantedinium spp. (51 % of the total trap assemblage). Average cyst fluxes to the trap are high (17.1 × 103 cysts m-2 day-1) and show great seasonal and interannual variability. On seasonal timescales, dinoflagellate cyst production responds closely to variations in upwelling strength, with increases in cyst fluxes of several protoperidinioid taxa observed during active upwelling intervals, predominantly Brigantedinium spp. Cyst taxa produced by autotrophic dinoflagellates, in particular Bitectatodinium spongium, also respond positively to upwelling. Several spiny brown cysts contribute substantially to the assemblages, including Echinidinium delicatum (9.7 %) and Echinidinium granulatum (7.3 %), and show a closer affinity to weaker upwelling conditions. The strong El Niño event of 1997/98 appears to have negatively impacted cyst production in the basin with a 1-year lag, and may have contributed to the unusually high fluxes of cysts type Cp (possibly the cysts of the toxic dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides sensu Li et al., 2015), with cyst type Cp fluxes up to 11.8 × 103 cysts m-2 day-1 observed during the weak upwelling event of February-May 1999. Possible trophic interactions between dinoflagellates and other major planktonic groups are also investigated by comparing the timing and

  8. Synaptic transmission in the superior cervical ganglion of the cat after reinnervation by vagus fibres

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, B.; Clementi, F.; Mantegazza, P.

    1971-01-01

    1. A vagus-sympathetic anastomosis was performed in the cat by connecting end to end the cranial trunk of the vagus to the cranial end of the cervical sympathetic trunk, both severed under the ganglia. 2. Forty to sixty days after the anastomosis, the ocular signs of sympathetic paralysis (such as myosis and prolapse of the nictitating membrane) which had developed shortly after the operation, had completely disappeared, thus suggesting the recovery of synaptic transmission in the ganglion. In case of plain preganglionic denervation after the same period the ocular signs of cervical sympathetic paralysis were still present. 3. Contraction of the nictitating membrane could be induced by electrical stimulation of both the vagus preanastomotic and the sympathetic postanastomotic—preganglionic trunks. Ganglionic blocking agents induced the blockade of the `new' ganglionic synaptic function, while nicotine and pilocarpine provoked a marked contraction of the nictitating membrane. 4. Electron microscopy showed that the preganglionic regeneration of vagus fibers resulted in the formation of new synapses, mainly of axodendritic type, identical to normal ganglionic synapses. Moreover, after cutting the preanastomotic trunk of the vagus, these new ganglionic presynaptic profiles degenerated, thus proving their vagal origin. 5. During restoration of the synaptic contacts readjustment of dendritic tips occurred. ImagesText-fig. 2Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4326851

  9. Spatial resolution, contrast sensitivity, and sensitivity to defocus of chicken retinal ganglion cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Erich; Schaeffel, Frank

    2009-11-01

    The chicken has been extensively studied as an animal model for myopia because its eye growth is tightly controlled by visual experience. It has been found that the retina controls the axial eye growth rates depending on the amount and the sign of defocus imposed in the projected image. Glucagonergic amacrine cells were discovered that appear to encode for the sign of imposed defocus. It is not clear whether the downstream neurons, the retinal ganglion cells, still have access to this information-and whether it ultimately reaches the brain. We have analyzed the spike rates of chicken retinal ganglion cells in vitro using a microelectrode array. For this purpose, we initially defined spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity in vitro. Two classes of chicken retinal ganglions were found, depending on the linearity of their responses with increasing contrast. Responses generally declined with increasing defocus of the visual stimulus. These responses were well predicted by the modulation transfer function for a diffraction-limited defocused optical system, the first Bessel function. Thus, the studied retinal ganglion cells did not distinguish between a loss of contrast at a given spatial frequency due to reduced contrast of the stimulus pattern or because the pattern was presented out of focus. Furthermore, there was no indication that the retinal ganglion cells responded differently to defocus of either sign, at least for the cells that were recorded in this study.

  10. Distribution of TRPV1 and TRPV2 in the human stellate ganglion and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Souichi; Sato, Tadasu; Ogawa, Chikara; Kudo, Kai; Goto, Koju; Fujii, Yuki; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-17

    Immunohistochemistry for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and 2 (TRPV2) was performed on the stellate ganglion and spinal cord in human cadavers. In the stellate ganglion, 25.3% and 16.2% of sympathetic neurons contained TRPV1- and TRPV2-immunoreactivity, respectively. The cell size analysis also demonstrated that proportion of TRPV1- or TRPV2-immunoreactive (-IR) neurons among large (>600 μm(2)) sympathetic neurons (TRPV1, 30.7%; TRPV2, 27.0%) was higher than among small (<600 μm(2)) sympathetic neurons (TRPV1, 22.0%; TRPV2, 13.6%). The present study also demonstrated that 10.0% of sympathetic neurons in the stellate ganglion had pericellular TRPV2-IR nerve fibers. Fourteen percent of large neurons and 7.8% of small neurons were surrounded by TRPV2-IR nerve fibers. TRPV2-immunoreactivity was also detected in about 40% of neuronal cell bodies with pericellular TRPV2-IR nerve fibers. In the lateral horn of the human thoracic spinal cord, TRPV2-immunoreactivity was expressed by some neurons and many varicose fibers surrounding TRPV2-immunonegative neurons. TRPV2-IR pericellular fibers in the stellate ganglion may originate from the lateral horn of the spinal cord. There appears to be TRPV1- or TRPV2-IR sympathetic pathway in the human stellate ganglion and spinal cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Orbital hydatid cyst of Echinococcus oligarthrus in a human in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Lopera, R D; Meléndez, R D; Fernandez, I; Sirit, J; Perera, M P

    1989-06-01

    This study reports the first known case of human hydatid disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus oligarthrus. The patient, a native Venezuelan female, presented a single cyst localized intraorbitally behind the left eye (retroocular), which was discovered by computed tomography. The cyst was removed by surgery, and after parasitological studies it was identified as an E. oligarthrus hydatid cyst. This is also the first case of intraorbital hydatid cyst in humans in Venezuela.

  12. Location, sidedness, and sex distribution of intracranial arachnoid cysts in a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Helland, Christian A; Lund-Johansen, Morten; Wester, Knut

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of intracranial arachnoid cysts in a large and unselected patient population with special emphasis on sidedness and sex distribution. In total, 299 patients with 305 arachnoid cysts were studied. These patients were consecutively referred to our department during a 20-year period from a well-defined geographical area with a stable population. There was a strong predilection (198 patients [66.2%]) for intracranial arachnoid cysts in the temporal fossa. Forty-two patients had cysts overlying the frontal convexity, 36 had cysts in the posterior fossa, and 23 patients had cysts in other, different locations. Of 269 cysts with clearly unilateral distribution, 163 were located on the left side and 106 on the right side. This difference resulted from the marked preponderance of temporal fossa cysts on the left side (left-to-right ratio 2.5:1; p < 0.0001 [adjusted < 0.0005]). For cysts in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), there was preponderance on the right side (p = 0.001 [adjusted = 0.005]). Significantly more males than females had cysts in the temporal fossa (p = 0.002 [adjusted = 0.004]), whereas in the CPA a significant female preponderance was found (p = 0.016 [adjusted = 0.032]). For all other cyst locations, there was no difference between the 2 sexes. Arachnoid cysts have a strong predilection for the temporal fossa. There is a sex dependency for some intracranial locations of arachnoid cysts, with temporal cysts occurring more frequently in men, and CPA cysts found more frequently in women. Furthermore, there is a strong location-related sidedness for arachnoid cysts, independent of patient sex. These findings and reports from the literature suggest a possible genetic component in the development of some arachnoid cysts.

  13. Infection Assay of Cyst Nematodes on Arabidopsis Roots.

    PubMed

    Bohlmann, Holger; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-09-20

    Plant parasitic nematodes are devastating pests on many crops. Juveniles (J2) of cyst nematodes invade the roots to induce a syncytium. This feeding site is their only source of nutrients. Male nematodes leave the roots after the fourth molt to mate with females. The females stay attached to their syncytia throughout their life and produce hundreds of eggs, which are contained in their bodies. When the females die their bodies form the cysts, which protect the eggs. Cysts can survive for many years in the soil until favorable conditions induce hatching of the juveniles. The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii ( H. schachtii )is a pathogen of sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris ) but can also complete its life cycle on Arabidopsis roots growing on agar plates under sterile conditions. We present here protocols for a stock culture of H. schachtii and an infection assay on agar plates.

  14. An Improved Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for the Enumeration of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) Cysts Using a DNA Debris Removal Method and a Cyst-Based Standard Curve.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Jin Ho; Wang, Pengbin; Park, Bum Soo; Han, Myung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The identification and quantification of Heterosigma akashiwo cysts in sediments by light microscopy can be difficult due to the small size and morphology of the cysts, which are often indistinguishable from those of other types of algae. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based assays represent a potentially efficient method for quantifying the abundance of H. akashiwo cysts, although standard curves must be based on cyst DNA rather than on vegetative cell DNA due to differences in gene copy number and DNA extraction yield between these two cell types. Furthermore, qPCR on sediment samples can be complicated by the presence of extracellular DNA debris. To solve these problems, we constructed a cyst-based standard curve and developed a simple method for removing DNA debris from sediment samples. This cyst-based standard curve was compared with a standard curve based on vegetative cells, as vegetative cells may have twice the gene copy number of cysts. To remove DNA debris from the sediment, we developed a simple method involving dilution with distilled water and heating at 75°C. A total of 18 sediment samples were used to evaluate this method. Cyst abundance determined using the qPCR assay without DNA debris removal yielded results up to 51-fold greater than with direct counting. By contrast, a highly significant correlation was observed between cyst abundance determined by direct counting and the qPCR assay in conjunction with DNA debris removal (r2 = 0.72, slope = 1.07, p < 0.001). Therefore, this improved qPCR method should be a powerful tool for the accurate quantification of H. akashiwo cysts in sediment samples.

  15. Orbito-nasal cyst in a young European short-haired cat.

    PubMed

    Zemljič, Tadej; Matheis, Franziska L; Venzin, Claudio; Makara, Mariano; Grest, Paula; Spiess, Bernhard M; Pot, Simon A

    2011-09-01

    To describe a case of an orbito-nasal cyst in a cat. An 18-month-old male European short-haired cat was presented to the Ophthalmology service of the Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich for a subcutaneous swelling in the medial canthal region of the right eye (OD). Ophthalmologic, ultrasound and CT examinations, and fine needle aspiration were performed. After lesion excision, the removed tissue was submitted for histopathology. CT examination was repeated 5 months after removal of the cyst. Ophthalmologic examination revealed a large fluctuant swelling inferonasal to OD. Despite patent lacrimal puncta, only the first few mm of the lacrimal canaliculi could be cannulated. A normal globe with moderate enophthalmos was present. Ultrasound examination showed a well-defined lobulated cyst-like structure in the right orbit, inferonasal and anterior to the eye. CT examination revealed extension of this lesion through the medial orbital wall into the right nasal cavity. Fine needle aspiration confirmed the cystic nature of the lesion. An orbito-nasal cyst was diagnosed. The orbital part of the cyst was dissected from the surrounding tissue and excised from the periosteum in the medial orbital wall defect. Part of the maxillary bone was removed to allow removal of the cyst from the nasal cavity. Histologically, the cyst wall consisted of a single to multilayered, mostly cuboidal epithelium and surrounding connective tissue. Follow-up revealed a good functional result and no recurrence 7 months after cyst removal. Similar orbito-nasal cystic structures were reported in dogs but not in cats. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. Molecular Responses of the Spiral Ganglion to Aminoglycosides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balaban, Carey D.

    2005-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are toxic to both the inner ear hair cells and the ganglion cells that give rise to the eighth cranial nerve. According to recent studies, these cells have a repertoire of molecular responses to aminoglycoside exposure that engages multiple neuroprotective mechanisms. The responses appear to involve regulation of ionic homeostasis,…

  17. [Complications of a voluminous congenital ciliary body cyst].

    PubMed

    Kottler, Ulrike B; Schwenn, Oliver

    2002-09-01

    Multiple cysts of iris and ciliary body may cause many complications such as acute or chronic angle closure glaucoma. We present a boy with multiple congenital cysts of the iris pigment epithelium and a voluminous cyst of the unpigmented ciliary body epithelium of the right eye. This resulted in lenticular astigmatism, concomitant strabismus divergens and subsequently to anisometropia. The voluminous cyst (8 x 12 mm in diameter) was folded around the lens, reached the optic axis and resulted in displacement of the lens and contact between the iris and the corneal endothelium from 6.30 to 11. After puncture and partial resection of the cyst at the age of 8 months the boy developed a subcapsular multivesicular cataractic clouding of the temporal lens and a progredient myopia (up to - 14.0/- 2.0/0 degrees ); in contrast the left eye was hyperopic (+ 3.5/- 3.75/0 degrees ). The lens was subluxated superonasally due to congenital damage of the zonular fibres. Because development of visual acuity seemed limited by these determinants (20/200 at the right eye), cataract surgery with posterior capsulorhexis, anterior vitrectomy, and implantation of a capsular tension ring and posterior chamber intraocular lens was performed at the age of nearly five. Actually, there is an orthotropia, best corrected visual acuity in the distance of 20/32 in the right and 20/20 in the left eye; binocular vision is somewhat restricted. Usually congenital cysts are clinically not very relevant; occasionally surgical intervention is required to ensure adequate development of visual acuity.

  18. Chondroblastoma of the patella with aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Tan, Honglue; Yan, Mengning; Yue, Bing; Zeng, Yiming; Wang, You

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma of the patella is rare. Aneurysmal bone cysts, which develop from a prior lesion such as a chondroblastoma, are seldom seen in the patella. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man who presented with 2 years of right knee pain without calor, erythema, pain on palpation, or abnormal range of motion. Radiological studies suggested aneurysmal bone cyst. The lesion was excised with curettage and the residual cavity filled with autogenous bone graft. Histopathology revealed chondroblastoma associated with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. In the follow-up period, the patient demonstrated normal joint activities with no pain. Normal configuration of the patella and bone union were shown on plain radiographs. The authors present a review of the literature of all cases of patellar chondroblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst. This case is the 14th report of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in a chondroblastoma of the patella. According to the literature, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the study of these lesions. The pathologic diagnosis is based on the presence of chondroblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst. Treatment of this lesion includes patellectomy, curettage alone, and curettage with bone grafting. Despite the risk of recurrence of this lesion in the patella, the authors first recommend curettage followed by filling the cavity with bone graft. To protect the anterior tension of the patella intraoperatively, the bone window should be made at the medial edge of the patella to perform the curettage and bone grafting.

  19. Neonatal intestinal obstruction secondary to a small bowel duplication cyst

    PubMed Central

    Puralingegowda, Anil Kumar; Mohanty, Pankaj Kumar; Razak, Abdul; Nagesh N, Karthik; Chandrayya, Ramachandra

    2014-01-01

    A 3-week-old neonate developed abdominal distension and vomiting which subsided after conservative management. However, there was a recurrence of symptoms for which a lower gastrointestinal tract contrast study was performed. The infant had a filling defect in the area of the transverse colon. A CT scan was performed, showing a duplication cyst arising from the small bowel and indenting the transverse colon. Resection of the duplication cyst and end-to-end anastomosis of the bowel was performed. The duplication cyst was of tubular type, and a sealed perforation was noted in the cyst wall. PMID:25006055

  20. Mandibular aneurysmal bone cyst in an elderly patient: Case report.

    PubMed

    Rațiu, Cristian; Ilea, Aranka; Gal, Florin A; Ruxanda, Flavia; Boşca, Bianca A; Miclăuș, Viorel

    2018-06-01

    The article aims to highlight the challenge of establishing the presumptive aetiological diagnosis when unilocular or multilocular radiolucencies are identified in an elderly patient's jawbones. A mandibular cyst-like lesion was identified in a 73-year-old patient. The therapeutic decision was cyst enucleation and grafting of the bone defect. The initial presumptive diagnosis was invalidated by the histopathological examination that revealed the features characteristic for the aneurysmal bone cyst. Aneurysmal bone cyst in an elderly patient is a rare condition. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Laparoscopic management of a large ovarian cyst in an adolescent. A case report.

    PubMed

    Eltabbakh, G H; Kaiser, J R

    2000-03-01

    The safety of laparoscopic management of benign ovarian cysts has been demonstrated. The size of the benign ovarian cyst continues to be a limiting factor for laparoscopic surgery, with most surgeons choosing laparotomy for large cysts. A 15-year-old woman had a 22-cm, benign ovarian cyst extending above the umbilicus that was managed successfully with laparoscopy. We performed prelaparoscopy cyst drainage with a suprapubic Bonanno catheter (Becton Dickinson, Rutherford, New Jersey) followed by laparoscopic cystectomy. Because of its coiled end, the Bonanno catheter is less likely to result in cyst leakage around the aspiration site. With proper patient selection, laparoscopic surgery can be safely applied in a select group of patients with large, benign ovarian cysts.

  2. Apical Cyst Theory: a Missing Link.

    PubMed

    Huang, George T-J

    2010-10-05

    The mechanism of the formation of apical cyst has been elusive. Several theories have long been proposed and discussed speculating how an apical cyst is developed and formed in the jaw bone resulting from endododontic infection. Two popular theories are the nutritional deficiency theory and the abscess theory. The nutritional deficiency theory assumes that the over proliferated epithelial cells will form a ball mass such that the cells in the center of the mass will be deprived of nutrition. The abscess theory postulates that when an abscess cavity is formed in connective tissue, epithelial cells proliferate and line the preexisting cavity because of their inherent tendency to cover exposed connective tissue surfaces. Based on the nature of epithelial cells and the epithelium, nutritional theory is a fairy tale, while abscess theory at best just indicates that abscess may be one of the factors that allows the stratified epithelium to form but not to explain a mechanism that makes the cyst to form. Apical cyst formation is the result of proliferation of resting epithelial cells, due to inflammation, to a sufficient number such that they are able to form a polarized and stratified epithelial lining against dead tissues or foreign materials. These stratified epithelial lining expands along the dead tissue or foreign materials and eventually wrap around them as a spherical sac, i.e. a cyst. The space in the sac is considered the external environment separating the internal (tissue) environment - the natural function of epithelium. This theory may be tested by introducing a biodegradable device able to slowly release epithelial cell mitogens in an in vivo environment implanted with epithelial cells next to a foreign object. This will allow the cells to continuously proliferate which may form a cystic sac wrapping around the foreign object.

  3. Apical Cyst Theory: a Missing Link

    PubMed Central

    Huang, George T.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The mechanism of the formation of apical cyst has been elusive. Several theories have long been proposed and discussed speculating how an apical cyst is developed and formed in the jaw bone resulting from endododontic infection. Two popular theories are the nutritional deficiency theory and the abscess theory. The nutritional deficiency theory assumes that the over proliferated epithelial cells will form a ball mass such that the cells in the center of the mass will be deprived of nutrition. The abscess theory postulates that when an abscess cavity is formed in connective tissue, epithelial cells proliferate and line the preexisting cavity because of their inherent tendency to cover exposed connective tissue surfaces. Based on the nature of epithelial cells and the epithelium, nutritional theory is a fairy tale, while abscess theory at best just indicates that abscess may be one of the factors that allows the stratified epithelium to form but not to explain a mechanism that makes the cyst to form. The hypothesis Apical cyst formation is the result of proliferation of resting epithelial cells, due to inflammation, to a sufficient number such that they are able to form a polarized and stratified epithelial lining against dead tissues or foreign materials. These stratified epithelial lining expands along the dead tissue or foreign materials and eventually wrap around them as a spherical sac, i.e. a cyst. The space in the sac is considered the external environment separating the internal (tissue) environment – the natural function of epithelium. Evaluation of the hypothesis This theory may be tested by introducing a biodegradable device able to slowly release epithelial cell mitogens in an in vivo environment implanted with epithelial cells next to a foreign object. This will allow the cells to continuously proliferate which may form a cystic sac wrapping around the foreign object. PMID:25346864

  4. Mixed periapical lesion: an atypical radicular cyst with extensive calcifications.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Perez, Flávia Maria de Moraes; Pontual, Andréa dos Anjos; França, Talita Ribeiro Tenório de; Pontual, Maria Luiza dos Anjos; Beltrão, Ricardo Villar; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz

    2014-01-01

    The radicular cyst is an inflammatory odontogenic cyst of endodontic origin. Radiographically, the lesion appears as a periapical radiolucent image. This report describes a very rare case of a mixed periapical radiographic image diagnosed as a radicular cyst. A 37-year-old female patient presented a mixed, well-circumscribed image located in the periapical region of the left maxillary central incisor, which presented unsatisfactory endodontic treatment. Microscopic examination revealed a cavity lined by non-keratinized squamous epithelium and extensive calcifications in the cystic lumen and lining epithelium. Diagnosis of radicular cyst with extensive calcifications was established. Endodontic retreatment was performed and no radiographic signs of recurrence were observed 18 months after treatment. Although very rare, a radicular cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a mixed periapical image associated to teeth with pulp necrosis.

  5. Comparision of Immunohistochemical Expression of CD10 in Odontogenic Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Munisekhar, M.S.; Suri, Charu; Rajalbandi, Santosh Kumar; M.R., Pradeep; Gothe, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Expression of CD10 has been documented in various tumors like nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, odontogenic tumors. Aim: To evaluate and compare CD10 expression in odontogenic cysts like radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). Materials and Methods: Total 60 cases were included in the study, comprising 20 cases each of radicular, dentigerous and odontogenic keratocyst. Each case was evaluated and compared for immunohistochemical expression of CD10. Results obtained were statistically analysed using ANOVA test followed by post hoc test Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparisons Test for continuous variable and Chi-square test for discrete variable. Results: More number of cases showing sub-epithelial stromal CD10 expression were found in OKC among the cysts. Conclusion: CD10 expression was more in OKC compared to radicular and dentigerous cysts. PMID:25584313

  6. Reversible CSF cyst related to a functioning ventriculo-peritoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Vajramani, G V; Fugleholm, K

    2005-11-01

    Although the occurrence of CSF oedema and cyst has been described in presence of a blocked ventriculoperitoneal shunt, especially distal end block, its occurrence in presence of a well functioning shunt has not been described so far. We report a case where a 51-year old lady developed an insidious onset and gradually progressive CSF cyst without any clinical or radiological feature of shunt block over a period of about 2 years. The changes started about 6 months after a course of radiation therapy for an extensive residual supra and infratentorial meningioma. Following surgery, where the cyst was punctured and a new ventricular catheter was inserted, despite well functioning upper and lower end, the cyst gradually disappeared. We review the literature and hypothesize that the radiation-induced changes were responsible for initiation and progression of the cyst.

  7. A Tale of Two Cysts: Steatocystoma Multiplex and Eruptive Vellus Hair Cysts-Two Case Reports and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Waldemer-Streyer, Rachel J; Jacobsen, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Background . Steatocystoma multiplex (SM) and eruptive vellus hair cysts (EVHC) are uncommon benign tumors of the pilosebaceous unit. Both SM and EVHC are characterized by smooth, asymptomatic papules or nodules, most commonly presenting on the chest, limbs, and abdomen. Most cases of SM and EVHC are sporadic, although less common autosomal dominant inherited forms have been reported. Main Observation . In this report we present two cases of cutaneous cysts exhibiting characteristics of either SM or EVHC. Both patients presented with numerous 1-2 mm asymptomatic papules and responded well to surgical expression by incision and drainage (I&D). Conclusion . SM and EVHC are similar in clinical presentation and management. Previously reported "hybrid-type" tumors present strong evidence for a relationship between the two lesions pathologically. Due to potential similarity of EVHC and SM cyst contents, I&D and subsequent microscopic examination cannot definitely differentiate between EVHC, SM, and hybrid cysts.

  8. Diagnostic Dilemma: Cerebellopontine Angle Lipoma Versus Dermoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Bertot, Brandon; Boghani, Zain; Britz, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Both lipomas and dermoid cysts of the cerebellopontine angle are rare tumors. These tumors differ in their embryological origin but share similar features on imaging. Both of these congenital lesions can be found in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), and symptomatic clinical presentation is dictated by the location of the lesion. This paper demonstrates a unique case in which a CPA lipoma was misidentified as a dermoid cyst, leading to surgical intervention. Further, the paper provides a literature review of CPA lipomas and dermoid cysts to aid readers in further differentiating between these two unique tumors. PMID:29399424

  9. A case of epidermal cyst with pilomatrical differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Norihiro; Iwashita, Kenichi; Umezawa, Yoshinori; Matsuyama, Takashi; Ohta, Yukinori; Ozawa, Akira; Umemura, Shinobu; Ueyama, Yoshito; Yamazaki, Hitoshi

    2004-09-01

    A 20-year-old Japanese woman with an epidermal cyst on the back is described. Physical examination revealed a deep blue and round shaped cystic lesion measuring 10 min in diameter. A comedo-like keratotic plug also could be seen at the center. Histologically, the inner surface of the cyst was clearly separated of two types of the cells. The one was layers of epidermal keratinocytes and the other looked like a basal layer of epidermis, which immunohistochemically stained by S-100, HMB-45, cytokeratin (CK19) and Fontana-Masson staining. We diagnosed this case as epidermal cyst with pilomatrical differentiation.

  10. Orthopedic services

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dislocation Joint pain Joint swelling or inflammation Ligament tears Common orthopedic-related diagnoses based on body part ... injury Carpal tunnel syndrome Ganglion cyst Tendinitis Tendon tears ... Arthritis Bursitis Dislocation Frozen shoulder ( adhesive ...

  11. Branchial cysts in two Amazon parrots (Amazona species).

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Holmberg, David L; Boston, Sarah; Smith, Dale A; Taylor, W Michael

    2010-03-01

    A 37-year-old yellow-crowned Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala) and a 20-year-old red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis) each presented with a large mass localized on the lateral neck. With the first bird, there was no evidence of signs of pain or discomfort, and the bird prehended and swallowed food normally. The second bird showed signs of mild upper-gastrointestinal discomfort. Results of an ultrasound examination and aspiration of the mass on each bird revealed a cystic structure. A computed tomography performed on the second bird revealed a large polycystic mass connected to the pharynx by a lateral tract. During surgical resection, both masses were found to originate from the subpharyngeal area. Based on topography and the histopathologic and immunohistochemical results, the masses were determined to be a second branchial cleft cyst for the first case and a second branchial pouch cyst for the second case. In addition, a carcinoma was present in situ within the epithelium of case 1, and the cyst in case 2 was secondarily infected. Branchial cysts are uncommonly diagnosed in veterinary and human medicine. These 2 cases are the first documented in parrots and appear similar to second branchial cysts reported in adult humans.

  12. Odontogenic Cysts - An Overview.

    PubMed

    Nayyer, Namita V; Macluskey, Michaelina; Keys, William

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss the clinical features, radiological assessment, histopathology and management of a variety of odontogenic cysts. It also highlights the reclassification of odontogenic keratocysts to keratocystic odontogenic tumours.

  13. Renal Epithelial Cyst Formation and Enlargement in vitro: Dependence on cAMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangoo-Karim, Roberto; Uchic, Marie; Lechene, Claude; Grantham, Jared J.

    1989-08-01

    Cysts, a common abnormality of kidneys, are collections of urine-like fluid enclosed by a continuous layer of epithelial cells. Renal cysts derive from nephrons and collecting ducts and progressively enlarge as a consequence of epithelial proliferation and transepithelial fluid secretion. The initiation of cyst formation and the factors that control cyst enlargement are unknown. We used an in vitro model of renal cysts to explore the role of the cAMP signal transduction system in the formation and expansion of cysts. MDCK cells, cultured in hydrated-collagen gel, produced polarized monolayered epithelial cysts when intracellular cAMP was increased by prostaglandin E1, arginine vasopressin, cholera toxin, forskolin, or 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. All agonists were potentiated by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, a nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The cell proliferation component of cyst enlargement was accelerated by cAMP agonists, as shown by the increased growth of MDCK cells in subconfluent monolayers. The fluid secretion component, reflected by the transepithelial movement of fluid across polarized monolayers of MDCK cells grown on permeable supports, was stimulated by cAMP agonists in the basolateral medium. Chloride levels were higher in the cyst fluid and the secreted fluid than in the bathing medium. We conclude that the development of MDCK cysts is dependent on cAMP. This signal transduction system may be an important modulator of epithelial cell proliferation and transepithelial fluid secretion in the kidney.

  14. Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, D.C.; McLeod, R.A.

    1982-08-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis.

  15. Solid sand particle addition can enhance the production of resting cysts in dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Aoao; Hu, Zhangxi; Tang, Yingzhong

    2018-03-01

    Resting cysts are an important part of the life cycle for many harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellates, and play vital roles in the recurrence and geographical spread of harmful algal blooms. Numerous factors have been suggested to regulate the formation of resting cysts, although only a few have been proven to be significant. Cyst formation can be induced by adverse environmental conditions such as drastic changes in temperature, light, salinity, and nutrient levels, and by biological interactions. In this study, we evaluated the ability of an artificial factor (fine sand particles) to enhance the formation of resting cysts. Fine sand particles were added to cultures of dinoflagellates that are known to produce cysts. The addition of fine sand particles significantly increased both the production rate and final yield of cysts in cultures of Scrippsiella trochoidea, Biecheleria brevisulcata, and Levanderina fissa (= Gymnodinium fissum, Gyrodinium instriatum, Gyrodinium uncatenum). The largest increase in the final yield (107-fold) of cysts as a result of sand addition was in S. trochoidea. However, addition of fine sand particles did not induce cyst formation, or barely affected cyst formation, in Akashiwo sanguinea, Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Pheopolykrikos hartmannii, which are also known to be cyst-producing species. We speculated that addition of sand significantly increased the chances of cell collision, which triggered cyst formation. However, further research is required to test this idea. Importantly, our findings indicate that the addition of fine sand particles is a useful method to obtain a large quantity of cysts in a short time for laboratory studies or tests; for example, if a cyst viability test is being used to assess the effectiveness of ships' ballast water treatment.

  16. Surveillance of Craniopharyngioma Cyst Growth in Children Treated With Proton Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Winkfield, Karen M.; Linsenmeier, Claudia; Yock, Torunn I.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Craniopharyngiomas are benign, slow-growing tumors that frequently contain a cystic component. Even with gross total resection, the cyst can reform and cause symptoms. Fluctuations in cyst volume during radiotherapy (RT) can affect treatment planning and delivery. The aim of this study was to report our experience with cyst enlargement during conformal proton RT for children with craniopharyngioma and to make recommendations regarding mid-treatment surveillance. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and August 2007, 24 children (aged {<=}18 years) underwent proton RT at the Massachusetts General Hospital for craniopharyngioma. For all 24 patients, tumor size on magnetic resonance imaging and/ormore » computed tomography was measured before and after RT. Surveillance imaging was available for review on 17 patients. During RT, cyst growth was assessed to determine whether the treatment fields needed to be altered. Results: Of the 17 children who underwent repeat imaging during RT, 6 required intervention because of changes in cyst dimensions. Four patients (24%) had cyst growth beyond the original treatment fields, requiring enlargement of the treatment plan. One patient's treatment field was reduced after a decreased in cyst size. Cyst drainage was performed in another patient to avoid enlargement of the treatment fields. Conclusion: In patients undergoing highly conformal RT for craniopharyngiomas with cysts, routine imaging during treatment is recommended. Surveillance imaging should be performed at least every 2 weeks during proton RT in an attempt to avoid marginal failure. Craniopharyngiomas with large cystic components or enlargement during treatment might require weekly imaging.« less

  17. Bovine IgG subclasses and fertility of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Riesle, Silke; García, María Pía; Hidalgo, Christian; Galanti, Norbel; Saenz, Leonardo; Paredes, Rodolfo

    2014-09-15

    Hydatidosis is an important zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution, causing important health problems to humans and major economical losses in infected livestock. Echinococcus granulosus, the etiological agent of hydatid disease, induces a humoral immune response in the intermediate host (human and herbivorous) against hydatid cyst antigens. Specifically, IgGs are found in the laminar and germinal layers and inside the lumen of fertile and infertile hydatid cysts. In the germinal layer of infertile cysts IgGs are found in an order of magnitude greater than in the germinal layer of fertile cysts; a fraction of those IgGs are associated with high affinity to germinal layer proteins, suggesting their binding to specific parasite antigens. We have previously shown that those immunoglobulins, bound with high affinity to the germinal layer of hydatid cysts, induce apoptosis leading to cyst infertility. In the present work the presence of IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses in the germinal layer of both fertile and infertile hydatid cysts is reported. IgG1 is the most relevant immunoglobulin subclass present in the germinal layer of infertile cysts and bound with high affinity to that parasite structure. Contrarily, though the IgG2 subclass was also found in the germinal and adventitial layers, those immunoglobulins show low affinity to parasite antigens. We propose that the binding of an IgG1 subclass to parasite antigens present in the germinal layer is involved in the mechanism of cyst infertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonsurgical Management of a Periapical Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dandotikar, Deepakraj; Peddi, Ravigna; Lakhani, Bharvi; Lata, Kamini; Mathur, Aditi; Chowdary, Uday Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Large periapical lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses or cysts, are primarily caused by root canal infection. Thus the treatment protocol should be elimination of etiological factors in the root canal system rather than their product, apical true cyst. A 10 year old female patient reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Dr R Ahmed Dental College & Hospital, Kolkata, with the chief complaint of pain and swelling in relation to upper front fractured teeth. Clinical and radiological findings were suggestive of periapical radicular cyst. Non-surgical endodontic therapy was performed using 1% sodium hypochlorite solution irrigant and Calcium hydroxide intra canal medicament. A 12 months follow-up radiographic examination revealed progressive involution of periapical radiolucency without any clinical symptoms. Periapical cysts respond favorably to non-surgical endodontic treatment and should be considered as primary treatment modality. How to cite this article: Dandotikar D, Peddi R, Lakhani B, Lata K, Mathur A, Chowdary U K. Nonsurgical Management of a Periapical Cyst: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):79-84. PMID:24155607

  19. Nonsurgical management of a periapical cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dandotikar, Deepakraj; Peddi, Ravigna; Lakhani, Bharvi; Lata, Kamini; Mathur, Aditi; Chowdary, Uday Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Large periapical lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses or cysts, are primarily caused by root canal infection. Thus the treatment protocol should be elimination of etiological factors in the root canal system rather than their product, apical true cyst. A 10 year old female patient reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Dr R Ahmed Dental College & Hospital, Kolkata, with the chief complaint of pain and swelling in relation to upper front fractured teeth. Clinical and radiological findings were suggestive of periapical radicular cyst. Non-surgical endodontic therapy was performed using 1% sodium hypochlorite solution irrigant and Calcium hydroxide intra canal medicament. A 12 months follow-up radiographic examination revealed progressive involution of periapical radiolucency without any clinical symptoms. Periapical cysts respond favorably to non-surgical endodontic treatment and should be considered as primary treatment modality. How to cite this article: Dandotikar D, Peddi R, Lakhani B, Lata K, Mathur A, Chowdary U K. Nonsurgical Management of a Periapical Cyst: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):79-84.

  20. Laparoscopic management of urachal cyst associated with umbilical hernia.

    PubMed

    Gregory, G C; Vijay, R; Ligaj, M; Shiwani, M H

    2011-02-01

    The urachal cyst is a rare clinical entity of a urachal remnant. It is usually asymptomatic but can present with haematuria, tumour, urachal stone and infection. We present a case of a 63-year-old lady with a body mass index (BMI) of 49 who presented with a painful swelling in the umbilical region associated with an umbilical hernia. An ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scan showed a suspected herniation of an umbilical remnant cyst through a paraumbilical defect. Laparoscopy confirmed the urachal cyst of 3 cm in size with a band connected with the cyst down to the urinary bladder associated with a 3-cm paraumbilical hernia. We removed the cyst and repaired the hernia laparoscopically uneventfully, after which her recovery was perfect. Radiological and laparoscopic pictures have not been reported in the English literature before. Although this condition is very rare, we suggest that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of painful paraumbilical swelling. CT scanning and laparoscopy seems to be valuable, especially in obese patients.

  1. Gasserian Ganglion and Retrobulbar Nerve Block in the Treatment of Ophthalmic Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie; Ni, Zhongge; Finch, Philip

    2017-09-01

    Varicella zoster virus reactivation can cause permanent histological changes in the central and peripheral nervous system. Neural inflammatory changes or damage to the dorsal root ganglia sensory nerve fibers during reactivation can lead to postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). For PHN of the first division of the fifth cranial nerve (ophthalmic division of the trigeminal ganglion), there is evidence of inflammatory change in the ganglion and adjacent ocular neural structures. First division trigeminal nerve PHN can prove to be difficult and sometimes even impossible to manage despite the use of a wide range of conservative measures, including anticonvulsant and antidepressant medication. Steroids have been shown to play an important role by suppressing neural inflammatory processes. We therefore chose the trigeminal ganglion as an interventional target for an 88-year-old woman with severe ophthalmic division PHN after she failed to respond to conservative treatment. Under fluoroscopic guidance, a trigeminal ganglion nerve block was performed with lidocaine combined with dexamethasone. A retrobulbar block with lidocaine and triamcinolone settled residual oculodynia. At 1-year follow-up, the patient remained pain free and did not require analgesic medication. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ophthalmic division PHN successfully treated with a combination of trigeminal ganglion and retrobulbar nerve block using a local anesthetic agent and steroid for central and peripheral neural inflammatory processes. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  2. Mediastinal Bronchogenic Cyst With Acute Cardiac Dysfunction: Two-Stage Surgical Approach.

    PubMed

    Smail, Hassiba; Baste, Jean Marc; Melki, Jean; Peillon, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    We describe a two-stage surgical approach in a patient with cardiac dysfunction and hemodynamic compromise resulting from a massive and compressive mediastinal bronchogenic cyst. To drain this cyst, video-assisted mediastinoscopy was performed as an emergency procedure, which immediately improved the patient's cardiac function. Five days later and under video thoracoscopy, resection of the cyst margins was impossible because the cyst was tightly adherent to the left atrium. We performed deroofing of this cyst through a right thoracotomy. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative recovery, and no recurrence was observed at the long-term follow-up visit. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Therapeutic potential of stellate ganglion block in orofacial pain: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Younghoon

    2016-09-01

    Orofacial pain is a common complaint of patients that causes distress and compromises the quality of life. It has many etiologies including trauma, interventional procedures, nerve injury, varicella-zoster (shingles), tumor, and vascular and idiopathic factors. It has been demonstrated that the sympathetic nervous system is usually involved in various orofacial pain disorders such as postherpetic neuralgia, complex regional pain syndromes, and atypical facial pain. The stellate sympathetic ganglion innervates the head, neck, and upper extremity. In this review article, the effect of stellate ganglion block and its mechanism of action in orofacial pain disorders are discussed.

  4. Treatment of unicameral calcaneal bone cysts in children: review of literature and results using a cannulated screw for continuous decompression of the cyst.

    PubMed

    Saraph, Vinay; Zwick, Ernst-Bernhard; Maizen, Claudia; Schneider, Frank; Linhart, Wolfgang E

    2004-01-01

    Nine unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus in children were managed surgically using the technique of continuous decompression with titanium cannulated cancellous screws. The average age of the patients at surgery was 12.8 years. At follow-up a minimum of 2 years after surgery, eight cysts showed complete healing; one patient showed healing with residuals. Irritation at the screw insertion site necessitated early removal of the screw in one patient; implant-related problems were not observed in the other patients. Patients were allowed to bear weight after surgery. Implant extraction was performed after full consolidation of the cyst and was uneventful in all patients. A review of the literature and the different treatment modalities used for managing calcaneal cysts is also presented.

  5. Coblation assisted transnasal endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal cyst: 10 years experience and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinying; Chen, Haihong; Wang, Shenqing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the outcomes of coblation assisted transnasal endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal cyst. Method: Retrospective chart review outcomes in 12 patients who underwent endoscopic resect cysts of the nasopharynx at our department between 2001 and 2010. Twelve patient, aged 28 to 71 years, with cysts of the nasopharynx. The outcome variables of complications and the rate of recurrence were analyzed, respectively. Results: In 12 cases, retention cysts in 2 cases, branchial cyst in 1 case, adenoid middle fossa cyst infection in 6 cases, Tornwaldt’s cyst in 3 cases. The use of the coblation device was associated with a significant decrease in blood loss. There were no postoperative complications, and the overall follow-up period was 2-7 years and shows no signs of recurrence. Conclusions: We describe transnasal endoscopic procedures to resect cysts of the nasopharynx. We found that radiofrequency coblation is a useful and safe tool associated with minimal blood loss in the resection of these cysts. In our experience, it has been a highly successful, safe, and effective procedure. PMID:26131108

  6. Tornwaldt's cyst presenting only as occipital headache: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hang S; Byeon, Hyung K; Kim, Jun-Hee; Kim, Kyung S

    2009-02-01

    Tornwaldt's cyst (sometimes called Thornwaldt's cyst) is a rare cause of occipital headache. Owing to the rare occurrence of occipital headache as a symptom of Tornwaldt's cyst, if the patient presented only with occipital headache, this clinical symptom may be falsely perceived as a sign of neurologic disease leading to time-consuming diagnostic examinations that delay the establishment of a correct diagnosis.

  7. Mechanical Characterization of Microengineered Epithelial Cysts by Using Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yusheng; Guan, Dongshi; Serien, Daniela; Takeuchi, Shoji; Tong, Penger; Yobas, Levent; Huang, Pingbo

    2017-01-24

    Most organs contain interconnected tubular tissues that are one-cell-thick, polarized epithelial monolayers enclosing a fluid-filled lumen. Such tissue organization plays crucial roles in developmental and normal physiology, and the proper functioning of these tissues depends on their regulation by complex biochemical perturbations and equally important, but poorly understood, mechanical perturbations. In this study, by combining micropatterning techniques and atomic force microscopy, we developed a simple in vitro experimental platform for characterizing the mechanical properties of the MDCK II cyst, the simplest model of lumen-enclosing epithelial monolayers. By using this platform, we estimated the elasticity of the cyst monolayer and showed that the presence of a luminal space influences cyst mechanics substantially, which could be attributed to polarization and tissue-level coordination. More interestingly, the results from force-relaxation experiments showed that the cysts also displayed tissue-level poroelastic characteristics that differed slightly from those of single cells. Our study provides the first quantitative findings, to our knowledge, on the tissue-level mechanics of well-polarized epithelial cysts and offers new insights into the interplay between cyst mechanics and cyst physiology. Moreover, our simple platform is a potentially useful tool for enhancing the current understanding of cyst mechanics in health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The spiral ganglion: connecting the peripheral and central auditory systems

    PubMed Central

    Nayagam, Bryony A; Muniak, Michael A; Ryugo, David K

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, the initial bridge between the physical world of sound and perception of that sound is established by neurons of the spiral ganglion. The cell bodies of these neurons give rise to peripheral processes that contact acoustic receptors in the organ of Corti, and the central processes collect together to form the auditory nerve that projects into the brain. In order to better understand hearing at this initial stage, we need to know the following about spiral ganglion neurons: (1) their cell biology including cytoplasmic, cytoskeletal, and membrane properties, (2) their peripheral and central connections including synaptic structure; (3) the nature of their neural signaling; and (4) their capacity for plasticity and rehabilitation. In this report, we will update the progress on these topics and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution. PMID:21530629

  9. The retina of the shovel-nosed ray, Rhinobatos batillum (Rhinobatidae): morphology and quantitative analysis of the ganglion, amacrine and bipolar cell populations.

    PubMed

    Collin, S P

    1988-01-01

    A light microscopy study of the retina of the shovel-nosed ray, Rhinobatos batillum (Rhinobatidae) has revealed a duplex retina with a rod to cone ratio between 4:1 and 6:1. The inner nuclear layer consists of three layers of large horizontal cells, tightly packed, stellate bipolar cells, and up to three substrata of amacrine cells. The collaterals of the many supporting Müller cells project from the inner to the outer limiting membrane and divide the retina into many subunits. The cells of the ganglion cell layer are distributed into two layers, although a large proportion of ganglion cells are also displaced into the inner plexiform and inner nuclear layers. Topographic analysis of the cells in the ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform and inner nuclear layers reveals a number of regional specializations or "areae centrales". Ganglion cells were retrogradely-labelled with cobalt-lysine from the optic nerve, and three sub-populations of neurons characterized on their soma size and position. Small (20-50 microns2), large (80-300 microns2) and giant (greater than 300 microns2) sub-populations of ganglion cells each revealed distinct retinal specializations with peak densities of 3 x 10(3), 1.25 x 10(3) and 1.57 x 10(3) cells per mm2, respectively. Topographical comparison between Nissl-stained and retrogradely-labelled ganglion cell populations have established that a maximum of 20% in the "area centralis", and 75% in unspecialized, peripheral regions of the retina are non-ganglion cells. Out of a total of 210,566 cells in the ganglion cell layer, 49% were found to be non-ganglion cells. Iso-density contour maps of amacrine and bipolar cell distributions also reveal some specializations. These cell concentrations lie in corresponding regions to areas of increased density in the large and giant ganglion cell populations, suggesting some functional association.

  10. Cystic echinococcosis: late rupture and complication of a stable pulmonary cyst.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Shargall, Y; Krajden, S; Moid, F; Hoffstein, V

    2011-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is observed worldwide. Traditional management includes an invasive surgical approach with adjunctive chemotherapy. It has been suggested that observation alone may be appropriate in asymptomatic individuals with stable cysts. A case involving a 38-year-old Peruvian man with an asymptomatic bronchogenic cyst (suspected to be due to echinococcus, but never definitely diagnosed) is presented. The cyst was first noted in 1998, and was followed for 10 years during which time he remained asymptomatic with minimal radiographic change. One year later, in 2009, he presented with acute rupture of the cyst causing empyema. The patient required thoracotomy, decortication and resection of the ruptured cyst. Final pathology showed Echinococcus organisms. The patient responded well to treatment with albendazole and praziquantel, and became completely asymptomatic within six months. The present case demonstrates that echinococcal cysts may be at risk of spontaneous rupture, even after many years of clinical stability, thus supporting the case for resection of asymptomatic cysts suspected of being echinococcal at the time of diagnosis. In addition, the case illustrates that medical therapy with albendazole and praziquantel, in conjunction with surgical drainage, can be successful in the treatment of echinococcal empyema.

  11. [Prenatal diagnosis and treatment of fetal choroid plexus cysts].

    PubMed

    Liang, Mei-Ying; Wang, Hong-Bin; Huang, Xin; Wei, Yan-Qiu

    2007-09-01

    To discuss the clinical management and significance of the prenatal diagnosis of Fetal Choroid Plexus Cysts (CPC). From May 2004 to March 2007, 55 cases of fetal CPC diagnosed by B-ultrasound during second trimester were prospectively studied. Each case was studied regarding fetal chromosome karyotype, disappearance weeks of the cyst, the clinical outcome and follow-up results respectively. The cases were diagnosed during 16 - 25 gestational weeks. The diameters of the cysts varied from 0.2 cm to 2.4 cm. There were 25 cases of bilateral cysts and 30 cases of unilateral or 50 cases of isolated CPC and 5 cases of complicated CPC. The cysts of all cases who continued pregnancy disappeared before 28 weeks. Fetal chromosome karyotypes were obtained in 50 cases. Among them, two cases were 18-trisomy, and one case was 21-trisomy. Five cases were terminated pregnancy because of abnormal chromosome karyotype or malformation during second trimester. One neonate was diagnosed as ventricular septal defect among 50 cases of follow up. Among these six cases, three were from advanced-age pregnant women, five cases were with abnormal fetal structure and five cases were with the diameter of bilateral or unilateral cysts more than 1.0 cm. (1) Fetal CPC can be diagnosed during second trimester, and the majority disappear before 28 gestational weeks. (2) High risk factors for fetal abnormal chromosome karyotype may be: advanced-age pregnant women, abnormal structure of fetus, and the diameter of bilateral or unilateral cyst more than 1.0 cm. It is suggested that fetal CPC with the high risks should receive fetal chromosome karyotype test during pregnancy.

  12. Species-Specific Immunodetection of an Entamoeba histolytica Cyst Wall Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Moira R.; Siddique, Abdullah; Ali, Ibne K.; Gilchrist, Carol A.; Arju, Tuhinur; Hoffstrom, Benjamin; Nguyen, Felicia K.; Petri, William A.; Haque, Rashidul; Cangelosi, Gerard A.

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica causes intestinal disease in endemic settings throughout the world. Diagnosis of E. histolytica infection would be improved by the identification of biomarkers that are expressed by cysts of E. histolytica, but not by cysts of closely related commensal species of Entamoeba. Herein, we describe two novel monoclonal antibodies (1A4 and 1D3) produced against a spacer region of the E. histolytica Jacob2 lectin, an outer cyst wall protein. These reagents demonstrated no cross-reaction to E. dispar recombinant antigen and low picomolar molecular detection limits when paired in ELISA sandwich assays. In an immunofluorescence microscopy assay, the α-Jacob2 murine antibodies labeled cysts of three xenically cultured E. histolytica isolates but did not label cysts of three E. bangladeshi isolates. Monoclonal antibody 1A4 did not cross-react with xenic cultures of three E. dispar isolates, demonstrating specificity to E. histolytica, while monoclonal antibody 1D3 cross-reacted with two out of three E. dispar isolates. Both antibodies labeled cysts in formalin-fixed slides, a potential logistical advantage in some settings. The monoclonal antibody 1A4 was also used in an immunofluorescence microscopy assay with formalin-fixed stool specimens. Seven out of ten ELISA-positive stool specimens exhibited 1A4-labeled cyst-like objects, compared to one out of seven ELISA-negative specimens. These results demonstrate that antibodies generated against the flexible spacer of E. histolytica Jacob2 lectin recognize and bind to Jacob2 protein in whole cysts and are capable of differentiating Entamoeba species in fixed specimens. Thus, Jacob2 is a promising biomarker for use in diagnosing E. histolytica infection. PMID:27152855

  13. Association of parameniscal cysts with underlying meniscal tears as identified on MRI and arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Arthur A; Graf, Ben K; del Rio, Alejandro Munoz

    2011-02-01

    Although patients with parameniscal cysts usually have underlying meniscal tears, we noted that this association was less common with anterior lateral cysts. We wished to determine whether the frequency of a meniscal tear underlying a parameniscal cyst varied with cyst location. We reviewed a database of 7,771 knee MR examinations and identified 134 patients with an MR diagnosis of 138 parameniscal cysts and correlative arthroscopy in 78 patients. We reviewed their medical records and MR studies to determine the location of the cysts and presence of an underlying meniscal tear as determined by MRI or arthroscopy. There were 50 lateral and 88 medial parameniscal cysts. Medial meniscal tears were found underlying a cyst in 96% of arthroscopy patients and 86% of patients who had only MR examinations without a location difference in tears (p = 0.68). Meniscal tears were found on MRI or arthroscopy in all 28 patients with a lateral cyst overlying the body or posterior horn of the lateral meniscus, whereas a tear was found on MRI or arthroscopy in only 14 (64%) of 22 patients with cysts adjacent to or extending to the lateral meniscus anterior horn (p = 0.006). Anterior lateral cysts extended medially either into the root or into Hoffa fat-pad, but the type of extension did not correlate with the presence of an underlying meniscal tear. In contrast to medial parameniscal cysts or cysts at other locations adjacent to the lateral meniscus, anteriorly located lateral parameniscal cysts are less likely to have underlying meniscal tears.

  14. Parapharyngeal cyst: considerations on embryology, clinical evaluation, and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Dallan, Iacopo; Seccia, Veronica; Bruschini, Luca; Ciancia, Eugenio; Franceschini, Stefano Sellari

    2008-11-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies represent a common cause of cervical mass in adults. Describing a case report, we reviewed embryology, clinical elements, and treatment options for parapharyngeal congenital cysts. A case of a parapharyngeal cyst mimicking a tonsillar abscess is presented. A second branchial cleft cyst was hypothesized on a clinical and radiologic basis and then confirmed by histologic data. Magnetic resonance imaging provided fundamental information for the study of the parapharyngeal mass and its relationship with surrounding structures. In literature, surgical excision is the recommended therapy. We removed the cyst through a transcervical approach, with no complications or recurrence after 3 years. In our opinion, cervicotomy should be considered the gold standard approach, even for lesions not palpable in the cervical area. When dealing with a parapharyngeal cyst, second branchial cleft anomalies should be considered. Our experience confirms that cervicotomy is a safe approach to parapharyngeal congenital lesions.

  15. Mechanical obstruction to ventilation from an ovarian cyst during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Beng, D T; Choon, L T

    1991-05-01

    This report documents the danger of the gravid uterus fixing a large ovarian cyst in a position disadvantageous to diaphragmatic excursion and thereby obstructing ventilation. A 34-year-old pregnant patient presented at 18 weeks amenorrhoea with a large ovarian cyst. She gave a history of exertional dyspnoea and orthopnoea. Clinical examination revealed a grossly enlarged abdomen and a respiratory rate of 28 breaths.min-1. Intraoperatively, ventilation was markedly impaired resulting in cyanosis and bradycardia. This was relieved by drainage of the ovarian cyst. A left lateral tilt with manual traction on the tumour may have avoided this problem. Should the above measures be inadequate, immediate drainage of the cyst is essential. Severe respiratory distress may require ultrasound-guided, percutaneous, aspiration of the cyst preoperatively. However, as in this patient, the absence of gross signs of respiratory failure does not preclude acute ventilatory failure after induction of anaesthesia.

  16. Surgical management of congenital saccular cysts of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Ward, R F; Jones, J; Arnold, J A

    1995-09-01

    Congenital saccular cysts of the larynx are unusual lesions that commonly present with respiratory obstruction in infants and children. The saccular cyst may result from an atresia of the laryngeal saccule orifice or may represent the retention of mucus in the collecting ducts of submucosal glands located around the ventricle. Traditionally, the treatment of the lesions has been endoscopic unroofing or marsupialization. Frequently, this modality requires multiple procedures as well as concomitant tracheotomy. There also have been reports of acquired subglottic stenosis. We have found that removal of the recurrent saccular cyst can be achieved relatively safely and effectively via a lateral cervical approach to the thyrohyoid membrane. We review our experience with four patients with congenital saccular cysts and detail the evaluation and surgical management of these lesions.

  17. Arthroscopic treatment of femoral nerve paresthesia caused by an acetabular paralabral cyst.

    PubMed

    Kanauchi, Taira; Suganuma, Jun; Mochizuki, Ryuta; Uchikawa, Shinichi

    2014-05-01

    This report describes a rare case of femoral nerve paresthesia caused by an acetabular paralabral cyst of the hip joint. A 68-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of right hip pain and paresthesia along the anterior thigh and radiating down to the anterior aspect of the knee. Radiography showed osteoarthritis with a narrowed joint space in the right hip joint. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cyst with low T1- and high T2-weighted signal intensity arising from a labral tear at the anterior aspect of the acetabulum. The cyst was connected to the joint space and displaced the femoral nerve to the anteromedial side. The lesion was diagnosed as an acetabular paralabral cyst causing femoral neuropathy. Because the main symptom was femoral nerve paresthesia and the patient desired a less invasive procedure, arthroscopic labral repair was performed to stop synovial fluid flow to the paralabral cyst that was causing the femoral nerve paresthesia. After surgery, the cyst and femoral nerve paresthesia disappeared. At the 18-month follow-up, the patient had no recurrence. There have been several reports of neurovascular compression caused by the cyst around the hip joint. To the authors' knowledge, only 3 cases of acetabular paralabral cysts causing sciatica have been reported. The current patient appears to represent a rare case of an acetabular paralabral cyst causing femoral nerve paresthesia. The authors suggest that arthroscopic labral repair for an acetabular paralabral cyst causing neuropathy can be an option for patients who desire a less invasive procedure. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Unicameral Bone Cyst of the Medial Cuneiform.

    PubMed

    Schick, Faith A; Daniel, Joseph N; Miller, Juliane S

    2016-09-02

    A unicameral bone cyst is a relatively uncommon, benign bone tumor found in the metaphysis of long bones, such as the humerus and the femur, in skeletally immature persons. In the foot, these benign, fluid-filled cavities are most commonly found within the os calcis. We present a case report of a 10-year-old female with a unicameral bone cyst of the medial cuneiform.

  19. An adult case of giant bronchogenic cyst mimicking tension pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Yalcinkaya, Serhat; Vural, A Hakan; Ozal, Hasan

    2010-10-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are usually discovered only incidentally in the adult. A giant bronchogenic cyst in a 19-year-old woman presenting with pain and shortness of breath was mistaken for tension pneumothorax and initially treated with tube thoracostomy. Giant bullae were diagnosed by computed tomography. Bullae resection was undertaken, but the remaining lung tissue required pneumonectomy. Pathologic examination of the specimen confirmed bronchogenic cyst.

  20. Demographic distribution of odontogenic cysts in Isfahan (Iran) over a 23-year period (1988-2010).

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Negin; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Kowkabi, Mahsa; Navabi, Amir Arsalan

    2013-03-01

    Odontogenic cysts are relatively common lesions which can cause different complications. As demographic information is lacking in Iran and specially in Isfahan, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of odontogenic cysts according to age, gender and affected area among patients referring to the Oral Pathology Department of the Dental School of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran) over a 23-year period. A total of 7412 diagnosed lesions recorded in the Oral Pathology Department archives of Isfahan Dental School between 1988 and 2010 were reevaluated, then odontogenic cysts were separated through reviewing microscopic slides according to the 2005 World Health Organization classification and variables such as age, gender, the infected jaw, and its specific region were obtained by SPSS Version 16.0 from the recorded database. 21.62% of the lesions were odontogenic cysts, of which 48.72% were inflammatory and 51.28% were developmental cysts. These cysts were more common in the mandible. The mean age of patients was 29.53 ± 16.1. Male to female ratio was 1.31:1. The four most frequent odontogenic cysts were radicular cysts (35.12%), dentigerous cysts (25.77%), odontogenic keratocysts (22.58%) and residual cysts (12.98%). Odontogenic cysts are fairly frequent jaw lesions (21.62%), of which radicular cyst was the most common cyst. The four most common lesions constituted a sum of 96.45% of the total. In general, the prevalence rates in our study are similar to the studies from other geographic parts of the world but with a lower incidence of inflammatory cysts, higher prevalence of dentigerous cysts and residual cysts and also mandibular predominance for residual cysts.

  1. Differential diagnosis of periapical cyst using collagen birefringence pattern of the cyst wall.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hyo Jin; Park, Se-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Mo; Lee, Suk Keun; Kim, Jin Woo

    2017-05-01

    Periapical lesions, including periapical cyst (PC), periapical granuloma (PG), and periapical abscess (PA), are frequently affected by chemical/physical damage during root canal treatment or severe bacterial infection, and thus, the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions may be difficult due to the presence of severe inflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to make differential diagnosis among PC, PG, and PA under polarizing microscope. The collagen birefringence patterns of 319 cases of PC ( n = 122), PG ( n = 158), and PA ( n = 39) obtained using a polarizing microscope were compared. In addition, 6 cases of periodontal fibroma (PF) were used as positive controls. Collagen birefringence was condensed with a thick, linear band-like pattern in PC, but was short and irregularly scattered in PG, and scarce or absent in PA. PF showed intense collagen birefringence with a short, palisading pattern but no continuous band-like pattern. The linear band-like birefringence in PC was ascribed to pre-existing expansile tensile stress of the cyst wall. In this study all PCs ( n = 122) were distinguishable from PGs and PAs by their characteristic birefringence, despite the absence of lining epithelium ( n = 20). Therefore, the authors suggest that the presence of linear band-like collagen birefringence of the cyst wall aids the diagnostic differentiation of PC from PG and PA.

  2. Differential diagnosis of periapical cyst using collagen birefringence pattern of the cyst wall

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Periapical lesions, including periapical cyst (PC), periapical granuloma (PG), and periapical abscess (PA), are frequently affected by chemical/physical damage during root canal treatment or severe bacterial infection, and thus, the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions may be difficult due to the presence of severe inflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to make differential diagnosis among PC, PG, and PA under polarizing microscope. Materials and Methods The collagen birefringence patterns of 319 cases of PC (n = 122), PG (n = 158), and PA (n = 39) obtained using a polarizing microscope were compared. In addition, 6 cases of periodontal fibroma (PF) were used as positive controls. Results Collagen birefringence was condensed with a thick, linear band-like pattern in PC, but was short and irregularly scattered in PG, and scarce or absent in PA. PF showed intense collagen birefringence with a short, palisading pattern but no continuous band-like pattern. The linear band-like birefringence in PC was ascribed to pre-existing expansile tensile stress of the cyst wall. Conclusions In this study all PCs (n = 122) were distinguishable from PGs and PAs by their characteristic birefringence, despite the absence of lining epithelium (n = 20). Therefore, the authors suggest that the presence of linear band-like collagen birefringence of the cyst wall aids the diagnostic differentiation of PC from PG and PA. PMID:28503476

  3. Penicillium oxalicum reduces the number of cysts and juveniles of potato cyst nematodes.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Beringola, M L; Salto, T; Vázquez, G; Larena, I; Melgarejo, P; De Cal, A

    2013-07-01

    To test the biocontrol potential of Penicillium oxalicum, a biocontrol agent against fungal diseases and against the potato cyst nematodes (PCNs), Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis. We tested the effect of P. oxalicum on the nematode cysts under laboratory conditions or in soil microcosms. A reduction in the rate of G. pallida juveniles hatching by P. oxalicum was observed when root diffusates from the 'Monalisa' and the 'Désirée' potato cultivar were used (98·6 and 74·1% reduction, respectively). However, the rate of G. pallida juveniles hatching was not significantly reduced when root diffusates from the 'San Pedro' tomato cultivar were used. Penicillium oxalicum also significantly reduced the ability of the G. rostochiensis juveniles to hatch (30·9% reduction) when root diffusates of the 'Désirée' potato cultivars were used. Penicillium oxalicum treatment of the soil significantly reduced the number of G. pallida cysts that were recovered from the soil of each pot that contained the 'Désirée' potato cultivar. Our results show that P. oxalicum is a potential biocontrol inoculant for protecting potato crops against PCNs. Penicillium oxalicum has potential to be used in order to reduce PCNs. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Effect of duration and severity of migraine on retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, and choroidal thickness.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Mona K; Fouad, Mohamed M

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the factors in migraine that have the highest significance on retinal and choroidal layers' thickness. Ninety patients with migraine and 40 age-matched healthy participants were enrolled in this observational, cross-sectional study. After full ophthalmological examination, spectral domain-optical coherence tomography was done for all patients measuring the thickness of ganglion cell layer and retinal nerve fiber layer. Enhanced depth imaging technique was used to measure the choroidal thickness. There was significant thinning in the superior and inferior ganglion cell layers, all retinal nerve fiber layer quadrants, and all choroidal quadrants (except for the central subfield) in migraineurs compared to controls. The duration of migraine was significantly correlated with ganglion cell layer, retinal nerve fiber layer, and all choroidal quadrants, while the severity of migraine was significantly correlated with ganglion cell layer and retinal nerve fiber layer only. Multiregression analysis showed that the duration of migraine is the most important determinant factor of the superior retinal nerve fiber layer quadrant (β = -0.375, p = 0.001) and in all the choroidal quadrants (β = -0.531, -0.692, -0.503, -0.461, -0.564, respectively, p  < 0.001), while severity is the most important determinant factor of inferior, nasal, and temporal retinal nerve fiber layer quadrants (β = -0.256, -0.335, -0.308; p  = 0.036, 0.005, 0.009, respectively) and the inferior ganglion cell layer hemisphere (β = -0.377 and p = 0.001). Ganglion cell layer, retinal nerve fiber layer, and choroidal thickness are significantly thinner in patients with migraine. The severity of migraine has more significant influence in the thinning of ganglion cell layer and retinal nerve fiber layer, while the duration of the disease affected the choroidal thickness more.

  5. Laser surgery in the treatment of vaginal cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Dydowicz, Piotr; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1997-10-01

    The authors described the results of treatment of vaginal cysts with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in 12 women. In five of them the recurrent Bartholin's, in another five the Gartner's and in tow the endometrial cysts were diagnosed. All laser surgeries were done in the Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology, Karol Marcinkowski School of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland between September 1995 and September 1996. In the authors' opinion the use of CO2 laser is the efficient method of treatment of vaginal cysts. The most of laser procedures are doing as the one-day surgery. There are no serious postoperative complications after laser surgery.

  6. Fluorescence diagnosis of tumor cells in hemangioblastoma cysts with 5-aminolevulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Utsuki, Satoshi; Oka, Hidehiro; Sato, Kimitoshi; Shimizu, Satoru; Suzuki, Sachio; Fujii, Kiyotaka

    2010-01-01

    Peritumoral hemangioblastoma cysts are usually composed of fibrous tissue without tumor cells. The authors describe the first case in which fluorescence with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) was used to diagnose a hemangioblastoma tumor in a peritumoral cyst wall. A 27-year-old woman with a homogeneous, enhanced nodular lesion in the right hemisphere of the cerebellum underwent surgical treatment. After the nodular lesion was removed, the cyst region was observed with the aid of a semiconductor laser with a peak wavelength of 405 +/- 1 nm, which was powered using a fiberoptic cable. The cyst region was visualized with strong fluorescence, which disappeared after tissue removal. The fluorescent cyst consisted of tumor cells. The authors conclude that fluorescence diagnosis performed using 5-ALA can inform the choice of removing hemangioblastoma cysts.

  7. Pediatric epidermoid cysts masquerading as ranulas: A case series.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Abhita; Kreicher, Kathryn L; Patel, Neha A; Schantz, Stimson; Shinhar, Shai

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric neck masses represent a variety of differential diagnoses. A common pathology in pediatric cystic neck tumors include ranulas, mucus retention cysts due to salivary gland obstruction. Epidermoid cysts are lesions infrequently encountered in the pediatric population and may appear similarly to ranulas on computed tomography imaging. MRI more easily differentiates these masses, and should therefore be the preferred imaging modality. Due to their distinct intraoperative management, ranulas and epidermoid cysts should be distinguished preoperatively through proper workup. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between pineal cyst size and aqueductal CSF flow measured by phase contrast MRI.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, Abraham F; Kasper, Ekkehard M; Baledent, Olivier; Rojas, Rafael; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A

    2018-02-23

    Most patients with pineal cysts referred for neurosurgical consultation have no specific symptoms or objective findings except for pineal cyst size to help in management decisions. Our purpose was to assess the relationship between pineal cyst size and aqueductal CSF flow using PC-MRI. Eleven adult patients with pineal cysts (> 1-cm in size) referred for neurosurgical consultations were included. Cyst volume was calculated using 3D T1 images. PC-MRI in axial plane with velocity encoding of 5 cm/sec was used to quantitatively assess CSF flow through the cerebral aqueduct to determine the aqueductal stroke volume, which was then correlated to cyst size using Pearson's correlation. Pineal cysts were grouped by size into small (6/11) and large (5/11) using the median value to compare aqueductal stroke volume using Mann-Whitney test. Patients were 39 ± 13 years (mean ± SD) of age, and 10/11 (91%) were female. There was significant negative correlation between cyst volume and aqueductal stroke volume (r=0.74; p=0.009). Volume of small cysts (4954±2157 mm3) was significantly different compared to large cysts (13752±3738 mm3; p= 0.008). The aqueductal stroke volume of patients harboring large cysts 33±8 μL/cardiac cycle was significantly lower than that of patients with small cysts 96±29 μL/cardiac cycle (p=0.008). Aqueductal CSF flow appears to decrease with increasing pineal cyst size. Our preliminary results provide first evidence that even in the absence of objective neurological findings or hydrocephalus; larger pineal cysts already display decreased CSF flow through the cerebral aqueduct.

  9. A Third Branchial Pouch Cyst Presenting as Stridor in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Wasson, Joseph; Blaney, Sean; Simo, Ricard

    2007-01-01

    We present a rare case of a third branchial pouch cyst in an 18-month-old child, presenting with stridor and a lateral cervical cystic mass. Differences in the anatomical course of third and fourth branchial cysts, and histological differences between branchial pouch and branchial cleft cysts are discussed. PMID:17316513

  10. Clinical value of a self-designed training model for pinpointing and puncturing trigeminal ganglion.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Quan; He, Shu; Shen, Yun-Xia; Qian, Cheng

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVES. A training model was designed for learners and young physicians to polish their skills in clinical practices of pinpointing and puncturing trigeminal ganglion. METHODS. A head model, on both cheeks of which the deep soft tissue was replaced by stuffed organosilicone and sponge while the superficial soft tissue, skin and the trigeminal ganglion were made of organic silicon rubber for an appearance of real human being, was made from a dried skull specimen and epoxy resin. Two physicians who had experiences in puncturing foramen ovale and trigeminal ganglion were selected to test the model, mainly for its appearance, X-ray permeability, handling of the puncture, and closure of the puncture sites. Four inexperienced physicians were selected afterwards to be trained combining Hartel's anterior facial approach with the new method of real-time observation on foramen ovale studied by us. RESULTS. Both appearance and texture of the model were extremely close to those of a real human. The fact that the skin, superficial soft tissue, deep muscles of the cheeks, and the trigeminal ganglion made of organic silicon rubber all had great elasticity resulted in quick closure and sealing of the puncture sites. The head model made of epoxy resin had similar X-ray permeability to a human skull specimen under fluoroscopy. The soft tissue was made of radiolucent material so that the training can be conducted with X-ray guidance. After repeated training, all the four young physicians were able to smoothly and successfully accomplish the puncture. CONCLUSION. This self-made model can substitute for cadaver specimen in training learners and young physicians on foramen ovale and trigeminal ganglion puncture. It is very helpful for fast learning and mastering this interventional operation skill, and the puncture accuracy can be improved significantly with our new method of real-time observation on foramen ovale.

  11. Possible Estrogen Dependency in the Pathogenesis of Branchial Cleft Cysts.

    PubMed

    Raguse, Jan D; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Doll, Christian; Heiland, Max; Jöhrens, Korinna

    2017-01-01

    Even though branchial cleft cysts are currently accepted as a congenital anomaly, there is often a long delay until clinical presentation; branchial cleft cysts classically appear in the second to fourth decade of life. Our observation of their occurrence in three pregnant women encouraged us to contemplate a possible hormonal influence. Immunohistological analysis was performed for the evaluation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ER α ) in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 16 patients with a diagnosis of branchial cleft cyst, with three of them being pregnant. Expression of ER α was detected within epithelial cells only in branchial cleft cysts in pregnant females; moreover, higher growth fractions (Ki-67/Mib1) were found. The fact that the estrogen receptor was expressed only in pregnant women, in contrast to 13 investigated cases, may suggest that the high level of estrogen in pregnancy is a possible explanation for the spontaneous growth of branchial cleft cysts.

  12. Possible Estrogen Dependency in the Pathogenesis of Branchial Cleft Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Raguse, Jan D.; Jöhrens, Korinna

    2017-01-01

    Background Even though branchial cleft cysts are currently accepted as a congenital anomaly, there is often a long delay until clinical presentation; branchial cleft cysts classically appear in the second to fourth decade of life. Our observation of their occurrence in three pregnant women encouraged us to contemplate a possible hormonal influence. Methods Immunohistological analysis was performed for the evaluation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 16 patients with a diagnosis of branchial cleft cyst, with three of them being pregnant. Results Expression of ERα was detected within epithelial cells only in branchial cleft cysts in pregnant females; moreover, higher growth fractions (Ki-67/Mib1) were found. Conclusion The fact that the estrogen receptor was expressed only in pregnant women, in contrast to 13 investigated cases, may suggest that the high level of estrogen in pregnancy is a possible explanation for the spontaneous growth of branchial cleft cysts. PMID:29410959

  13. A morphometric analysis of the superior cervical ganglion and its surrounding structures.

    PubMed

    Fazliogullari, Zeliha; Kilic, Cenk; Karabulut, Ahmet Kagan; Yazar, Fatih

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this cadaveric study was to detect the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) in a topographic manner according to vertebrae and to determine the relationship between the vertebrae, mandibular angle and longus colli muscle through morphometric analysis. The present study was performed on 40 SCG of 20 human cadavers (16 males, 4 females). The level of the SCG was determined based on the vertebrae. Ganglion length, width and thickness were detected. Distance to the adjacent vertebra, the mandibular angle and medial side of the longus colli muscle were measured. The results were evaluated statistically. The SCG existing in all cadavers was detected at the C2 vertebra level in 34 cadavers and at the C3 vertebra level in 6 cadavers. The average length, width and thickness of the SCG were 15.18 ± 1.12, 4.62 ± 0.25, and 1.83 ± 0.10 mm, respectively. No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of the distances between the ganglion and anterior tubercle of transverse processes of the vertebrae as well as the mandibular angle on either side. The distance between the SCG and the medial edge of the longus colli muscle was significantly greater on the left side in both men (p < 0.001) and women (p < 0.01). Recognition of morphometric characteristics of the SCG and detection of its location according to adjacent formations may serve as a guide for nerve blockage studies and help surgeons to preserve the ganglion in both anterior and anterolateral cervical approaches.

  14. [Suprasellar arachnoid cyst--report of a case (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Kawai, S; Kaminoh, T; Hiramatsu, K; Maekawa, M; Yuasa, T; Miyamoto, N; Hattori, Y

    1982-04-01

    A 4-year-old boy with suprasellar arachnoid cyst was reported. At the age of 30-month-old his aunt was aware of his squint. During the observation by ophthalmologists from the age of 1y. to 3y., enlargement of the head and impairment of the visual acuity were manifested. Cranial CT scan revealed the enlargement of the ventricular system and a round low density area located superior to the sella. Absorption coefficient of the lesion was similar to that of the cerebrospinal fluid. No abnormal contrast enhancement was seen. Examination revealed the head circumference of 53.3 cm larger than doubled standard deviation, the right external strabismus, impaired vision (R:0.03, L:0.3) and optic atrophy but no other neurological signs. Cerebral angiography showed suprasellar mass lesion. After the ventriculography with water-soluble contrast medium, V-P shunt operation was performed and then the patient was transferred to the CT room. CSF enhanced CT scan showed no communication between the ventricles and the cyst. By frontotemporal approach, microsurgical removal of the cystwall was performed and the histological diagnosis was arachnoid membrane. Several days after the operation, bilateral subdural effusion was seen on CT scan and was treated with bilateral S-P shunt and the removal of V-P shunt. Follow up CT scan disclosed the disappearance of the subdural effusion and the suprasellar cyst. The visual acuity was improved well and the endocrinological study was normal. Analysis of the 45 reported cases of suprasellar arachnoid cyst suggested that direct removal of the cyst wall is better than the V-P shunt operation and the cyst shunting is advisable for repeat recurrence of the cyst. Removal of the ventricular shunting system may be effective for the prevention of the subdural effusion as a complication after direct operation.

  15. Factors promoting in vitro excystation of Giardia muris cysts.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, F W; Rice, E W; Hoff, J C

    1984-01-01

    Giardia muris cysts, isolated from mouse faeces, excysted routinely at levels greater than 90%, when induced in 1X Hanks' supplemented with 17 mM glutathione, 29 mM L-cysteine-HCl, and 50 mM NaHCO3 for 30 minutes at 35 degrees C, followed by washing and suspension in trypsin-Tyrode's solution at pH 8.0. Although trypsin was not required in this final step, it enhanced the escape of the trophozoites from their cysts. G. muris excystation was dependent upon the length of the induction period, pH, oxidation-reduction potential and temperature. Optimal induction conditions for excystation were: an induction period of 5 to 30 min; pH of 2; 120 mV oxidation-reduction potential; and a temperature around 35 degrees C. A gradual decline in excystation occurred as pH and oxidation-reduction potential were changed to 7 and 57 mV, respectively. There was a pronounced increase in excystation percentages with increasing temperatures between 0 and 37 degrees C. At 40 degrees C and above, the G. muris cysts showed signs of inactivation. The thermal death point of G. muris cysts was determined to be about 54 degrees C. G. muris cysts showed no polarity; however, the tail or posterior trophozoite portion always emerged through one end of the cyst first. Cytokinensis began within the first hour after excystation. This method always produced extremely active, normal-looking G. muris trophozoites.

  16. Demographic distribution of odontogenic cysts in Isfahan (Iran) over a 23-year period (1988-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Negin; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Kowkabi, Mahsa; Navabi, Amir Arsalan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Odontogenic cysts are relatively common lesions which can cause different complications. As demographic information is lacking in Iran and specially in Isfahan, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of odontogenic cysts according to age, gender and affected area among patients referring to the Oral Pathology Department of the Dental School of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Iran) over a 23-year period. Materials and Methods: A total of 7412 diagnosed lesions recorded in the Oral Pathology Department archives of Isfahan Dental School between 1988 and 2010 were reevaluated, then odontogenic cysts were separated through reviewing microscopic slides according to the 2005 World Health Organization classification and variables such as age, gender, the infected jaw, and its specific region were obtained by SPSS Version 16.0 from the recorded database. Results: 21.62% of the lesions were odontogenic cysts, of which 48.72% were inflammatory and 51.28% were developmental cysts. These cysts were more common in the mandible. The mean age of patients was 29.53 ± 16.1. Male to female ratio was 1.31:1. The four most frequent odontogenic cysts were radicular cysts (35.12%), dentigerous cysts (25.77%), odontogenic keratocysts (22.58%) and residual cysts (12.98%). Conclusion: Odontogenic cysts are fairly frequent jaw lesions (21.62%), of which radicular cyst was the most common cyst. The four most common lesions constituted a sum of 96.45% of the total. In general, the prevalence rates in our study are similar to the studies from other geographic parts of the world but with a lower incidence of inflammatory cysts, higher prevalence of dentigerous cysts and residual cysts and also mandibular predominance for residual cysts. PMID:23946730

  17. Lymphatic involvement in the histopathogenesis of mucous retention cyst.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sukalyan; Cheng, Jun; Maruyama, Satoshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Saku, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Mucous retention cyst results from extravasation of saliva. Our intent was to study the role of lymphatics in its pathogenesis. Twenty-three surgical specimens of mucous retention cyst of the lip were examined for involvement of lymphatic vessels by a comparative immunohistochemical demonstration of lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial cells, as well as lymphatic and salivary contents. Mucous retention cysts were histopathologically classified into three stages: early, intermediate, and advanced. In the early stage, there was diffuse extravasation of mucous material in the interstitium of the lamina propria or the submucosal layer of the oral mucosa. In the intermediate stage, lymphatics, which were clearly revealed and immunohistochemically distinguished from blood vessels by monoclonal antibody D2-40, were dilated and finally ruptured, leaving fragments of lymphatic walls in the periphery of mucous pools. In the advanced stage, thick cyst walls of granulation tissue were formed around mucous retention. Lymphatics were no longer involved in the granulation tissue wall, which was actively driven by blood vessel formation. The results suggest that the lymphatic rupture seems to contribute to the enlargement in the pathogenesis of mucous retention cyst.

  18. Immunohistochemical Assessment of HER3 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts.

    PubMed

    Honarmand, Marieh; Saravani, Shirin; Kamyab, Nazanin; Jahantigh, Mehdi; Torabi Parizi, Molouk

    2015-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that HER3 plays an important role in some human cancers and the HER3 expression is associated with worse survival in solid tumors. This study was conducted to compare HER3 expression in epithelial lining of radicular cysts (RCs), dentigerous cysts (DCs) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs). This was a descriptive-analytical study, which assessed all 57 paraffin blocks of RCs, DCs and OKCs (21 RCs, 16 DCs, 20 OKC) from pathological archive of Dentistry College of Zahedan, Iran. The HER3 expression in cytoplasm and membrane was examined by immunohistochemical method. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS16 by ANOVA and Chi-square. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The HER3 expression had positive results in 52.4% of OKC, 50% of DC and only 20% of RC samples. There was a significant difference between HER3 expression in OKCs and RCs. The HER3 expression in developmental odontogenic cysts was higher than that in inflammatory odontogenic cysts. The higher rate of HER3 expression in OKC may justify inherent growth potential, stimulation-independent proliferation capability, invasive growth and high recurrence rate of the cyst accepted today as a tumor.

  19. [Odontogenic and nonodontogenic jaw cysts: experience in 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Ağir, Hakan; Sen, Cenk; Işil, Eda; Unal, Ciğdem; Ustündağ, Emre; Keskin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the patients with jaw cysts treated at our center. The study included 25 patients (14 males, 11 females; mean age 33+/-19 years; range 7 to 69 years) who underwent surgery for odontogenic or nonodontogenic jaw cysts. The most common presentation was a swelling in the jaw with or without dental problems. Involvement was in the mandible in 18 patients, and in the maxilla in seven patients. The lesions consisted of eight radicular, six dentigerous, two nasoalveolar, two globulomaxillary cysts, and three keratocysts. Four patients had gingival, nasopalatine, residual, and median mandibular cysts, respectively. Marsupialization, curettage, extensive burring, enucleation, or marginal resection were performed depending on pre- and intraoperative findings. The defects were repaired with a corticocancellous iliac bone block graft in three patients and cancellous iliac bone chips in five patients. During a mean follow-up of 14 months (range 12 to 46 months), recurrence was seen in only one patient with a keratocyst. A good preoperative assessment, complete removal of the cystic lesion, and close radiographic follow-up are essential for a successful outcome in jaw cysts. In selected cases, reconstruction of the defects with autogenous corticocancellous iliac bone graft yields highly satisfactory results.

  20. Congenital orbital cysts of neural tissue in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Regnier, Alain; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Peiffer, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    A 3-month-old English Cocker Spaniel and a 6-month-old miniature poodle presented with clinical signs related to an abnormal right eye since birth. In both dogs, the right globe could not be identified and was replaced by a fluctuant intraorbital mass covered by a vascularized mucous membrane. Ultrasonography demonstrated that both masses were cystic structures markedly larger in size than the normal contralateral globes. In both cases, surgical excision revealed a multilobular cyst filling the whole orbital cavity. Histopathologic examination and immunostaining for glial fibrillary acid protein and S100 protein supported a diagnosis of neural cysts associated with ocular dysplasia. The definitive diagnosis was congenital cystic eye and microphthalmos with cyst for the Cocker Spaniel and miniature poodle, respectively. Karyotype was normal in both dogs. Congenital cystic eye and microphthalmos with cyst result from defects in early embryonic life that arise following formation of the optic vesicle and prior to closure of the optic fissure. To the authors' knowledge neither has been reported in the canine species. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of orbital cysts in dogs.

  1. Role of resting cysts in Chilean Alexandrium catenella dinoflagellate blooms revisited.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Jorge I; Bolch, Chris; Guzmán, Leonardo; Paredes, Javier; Varela, Daniel; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M

    2016-05-01

    The detection of sparse Alexandrium catenella-resting cysts in sediments of southern Chilean fjords has cast doubts on their importance in the recurrence of massive toxic dinoflagellate blooms in the region. The role of resting cysts and the existence of different regional Chilean populations was studied by culturing and genetic approaches to define: (1) cyst production; (2) dormancy period; (3) excystment success; (4) offspring viability and (5) strain mating compatibility. This study newly revealed a short cyst dormancy (minimum 69 days), the role of key abiotic factors (in decreasing order salinity, irradiance, temperature and nutrients) controlling cyst germination (max. 60%) and germling growth rates (up to 0.36-0.52div.day -1 ). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) characterization showed significant differences in genetic distances (GD) among A. catenella populations that were primarily determined by the geographical origin of isolates and most likely driven by oceanographic dispersal barriers. A complex heterothallic mating system pointed to variable reproductive compatibility (RCs) among Chilean strains that was high among northern (Los Lagos/North Aysén) and southern populations (Magallanes), but limited among the genetically differentiated central (South Aysén) populations. Field cyst surveys after a massive 2009 bloom event revealed the existence of exceptional high cyst densities in particular areas of the fjords (max. 14.627cystscm -3 ), which contrast with low cyst concentrations (<221.3cystscm -3 ) detected by previous oceanographic campaigns. In conclusion, the present study suggests that A. catenella resting cysts play a more important role in the success of this species in Chilean fjords than previously thought. Results from in vitro experiments suggest that pelagic-benthic processes can maintain year-round low vegetative cell concentrations in the water column, but also can explain the detection of high cysts aggregations after the

  2. Ameloblastomatous Change in Radicular Cyst of The Jaw in a Nigerian Population.

    PubMed

    Omoregie, F O; Sede, M A; Ojo, A M

    2015-06-01

    To determine the incidence, age, gender, jaw-sites and subtypes of radicular cyst, and to determine the incidence of ameloblastomatous change in radicular cyst in a Nigerian population. A 10-year retrospective analysis of all diagnosed orofacial lesions in the Department of Oral Pathology and Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. From the 785 diagnosed orofacial lesions within the study period; there were 54 (6.9%) cases of radicular cysts of the jaws. The peak age group was the 3(rd) decade (n=23, 42.6%) with a mean age of 31 ± 1.7 years. There were 29 (53.7%) males and 25 (46.3%) females, giving a ratio of 1.2:1. The mandible was the commonest jaw-site (n=32, 59.3%). There were 12 (22.2%) cases of periapical cyst which were significantly associated with anterior maxillary site (n=8, 14.8%) [p=0.001]. Seven (13.0%) cases of cystic ameloblastoma were diagnosed among the radicular cysts, with a predilection of the lesions for 3(rd) and 4(th) decades of life (n=6, 11.1%), and posterior mandible (n=5, 9.3%). This study showed a low incidence of radicular cyst of the jaw among orofacial lesions and a relatively higher incidence of ameloblastomatous change in radicular cyst compared to previous reports. Immuno-histochemical examination is recommended to differentiate radicular cyst with ameloblastomatous-like change from cystic ameloblastoma arising from radicular cyst.

  3. Evaluation of collagen in connective tissue walls of odontogenic cysts--a histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Vij, Ruchieka; Vij, Hitesh; Rao, Nirmala N

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nature of collagen in the connective tissue walls of odontogenic cysts, like the odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst and radicular cyst using picrosirius red stained sections. Furthermore, it was intended to assess if the capsular connective tissue can affect the nature of overlying epithelium, thus emphasizing the role of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in biological behaviour of the cysts. The material for the study included 51 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (15 odontogenic keratocyst, 15 dentigerous cysts, 15 radicular cysts and four normal mucosa and two dental follicular tissue as controls), retrieved from the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, MCODS, Manipal. Tissue blocks were sectioned at 5-μm thickness, stained with picrosirius red stain and observed with polarization and light microscopy. Few sections of OKC and dentigerous cyst exhibited greenish-yellow birefringence in sub-epithelial region, whereas others showed a yellowish-orange birefringence under polarization microscopy. Most radicular cysts had yellowish-orange to orange birefringence. Shift in colour in case OKC and dentigerous cyst was attributed to the presence of inflammation in those sections. These regions also exhibited either a change in phenotype or thickness of overlying epithelium. This technique can be used to study the nature of collagen fibres in odontogenic cyst walls. Further studies with an increased sample size and using various epithelial and mesenchymal markers and ssDNA antibodies should be carried out to confirm the effect of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions on the nature of epithelium of odontogenic cysts. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Sclerotherapy of renal cysts using acetic acid: a comparison with ethanol sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cho, D S; Ahn, H S; Kim, S I; Kim, Y S; Kim, S J; Jeon, G S; Won, J H

    2008-12-01

    This study compared percutaneous sclerotherapy using 50% acetic acid with that using 99% ethanol for patients with simple renal cysts. The study included 72 simple renal cysts in 64 patients (male/female ratio = 31/33; age range, 31-75 years). Under fluoroscopic guidance, the cyst fluid was aspirated completely. Sclerotherapy was then performed using 50% acetic acid for 32 cysts and 99% ethanol for 40 cysts. The volumes of each renal cyst before and after sclerotherapy were compared using ultrasonography or CT. Medical records were reviewed to analyse any complications. The mean follow-up period was 21.5 months (range, 3-75 months). The mean remnant volume of the cyst after sclerotherapy was 2.6% of the initial volume in the acetic acid group and 14.0% in the ethanol group. The rates of complete remission, partial remission and treatment failure were 90.6%, 9.4% and 0%, respectively, in the acetic acid group, and 60.0%, 30.0% and 10.0%, respectively, in the ethanol group. There were no complications related to sclerotherapy in either group. In conclusion, acetic acid is a safe and effective sclerosing agent, with clinical results superior to those of ethanol, and is an alternative to ethanol for sclerotherapy of renal cysts.

  5. Ciliates from ancient permafrost: Assessment of cold resistance of the resting cysts.

    PubMed

    Shatilovich, Anastasia; Stoupin, Daniel; Rivkina, Elizaveta

    2015-06-01

    There is evidence that resting cysts of soil ciliates and numerous taxa of other protists can survive in permafrost for thousands of years at subzero temperatures; however, our knowledge about mechanisms of long term cryobiosis remains incomplete. In order to better understand the means by which ancient cysts survive, we investigated resistance to cyclical supercooling stress of resting cysts of the soil ciliate Colpoda steinii (Colpodida, Ciliophora). Three clonal strains were used for comparison, isolated from Siberian tundra soil, ancient Holocene (5-7,000 y) and late Pleistocene (32-35,000 y) permafrost sediments. To determine the viability of the ancient and contemporary ciliate cysts we improved and validated a cultivation-independent method of vital fluorescent staining with a combination of two nucleic acid binding dyes, acridine orange and propidium iodide. The viability of Colpoda steinii cysts during low-temperature experiments was measured using both the proposed vital fluorescent staining method and standard germination test. Our results indicate that the dual-fluorescence technique is a more accurate, rapid, and efficient method for estimating cyst viability. We found that cysts of ancient ciliates display lower tolerance to the impact of cyclical cold compared to cysts of contemporary ciliates from Siberian permafrost affected soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Trichilemmal cyst nevus: a new complex organoid epidermal nevus.

    PubMed

    Tantcheva-Poor, Iliana; Reinhold, Katja; Krieg, Thomas; Happle, Rudolf

    2007-11-01

    A 31-year-old woman had an organoid nevus characterized by multiple trichilemmal cysts arranged in a bandlike pattern. The involved streaks followed Blaschko's lines and were covered, in addition, by multiple filiform hyperkeratoses and comedo-like plugs. Some histopathologic features of this complex nevus were reminiscent of those of well-established organoid nevi such as nevus comedonicus, porokeratotic eccrine nevus, or hair follicle nevus, but the presence of multiple large trichilemmal cysts was a conspicuously distinctive abnormality. Consequently, we propose for this new organoid nevus the names "trichilemmal cyst nevus" or "nevus trichilemmocysticus."

  7. Laparoscopic excision of an epidermoid cyst arising from the deep abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hajime; Nakai, Takuya; Ueda, Kazuki; Haji, Seiji; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Ohyanagi, Harumasa

    2009-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts are the most common type of cutaneous cyst. However, their occurrence in the deep abdominal wall has not yet been reported. Here, we present the case of a 60-year-old woman who developed an epidermoid cyst in the deep abdominal wall, which was resected laparoscopically. The patient presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain on admission to our hospital. Computed tomography revealed cholecystolithiasis and an incidentally identified well-defined hypoattenuating mass (62 x 47 x 65 mm) in the deep abdominal wall on the left side of the navel. We performed laparoscopic complete resection of the abdominal wall tumor followed by cholecystectomy. The excised specimen was a cyst covered with a smooth thin membrane and contained sludge. Histopathologic examination revealed an epidermoid cyst. This is a very rare case with no previous reports on a similar type of epidermoid cyst.

  8. Fatal Liver Cyst Rupture Due to Anabolic Steroid Use: A Case Presentation.

    PubMed

    Hansma, Patrick; Diaz, Francisco J; Njiwaji, Chantel

    2016-03-01

    Liver cysts are commonly found incidentally from imaging scans or at autopsy. These benign neoplasms vary in size and represent a heterogeneous group of disorders, for which the demographics, risk factors, apparent inciting event, clinical presentation, and outcome are varied. Complications that can develop from a liver cyst include development of spontaneous hemorrhage, infection, and/or obstruction. Although the etiology of liver cysts varies, fatal rupture of a hemorrhagic liver cyst due to anabolic steroid use is a rare occurrence. In fact, there are few reported cases in journal literature. We report a case of a fatal liver cyst rupture with resultant hemoperitoneum in the presence of anabolic steroid (stanozolol) use.

  9. Reduction rate by decompression as a treatment of odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Oliveros-Lopez, L; Fernandez-Olavarria, A; Torres-Lagares, D; Serrera-Figallo, M-A; Castillo-Oyagüe, R; Segura-Egea, J-J; Gutierrez-Perez, J-L

    2017-09-01

    Odontogenic cysts are defined as those cysts that arise from odontogenic epithelium and occur in the tooth-bearing regions of the jaws. Cystectomy, marsupialization or decompression of odontogenic cyst are treatment approach to this pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the decompression as the primary treatment of the cystic lesions of the jaws and them reduction rates involving different factors. 23 patients with odontogenic cysts of the jaws, previously diagnosed by anatomical histopathology (follicular cysts (7) and radicular cysts (16)) underwent decompression as an initial treatment. Clinical examination and pre and post panoramic radiograph were measured and analyzed. In addition, data as gender, age, time reduction and location of the lesion were collected. Significant results were obtained in relation to the location of lesions and the reduction rate (p<0.01). In a higher initial lesion, a greater reduction rate was observed (p<0.05). Decompression as an initial treatment of cystic lesions of the jaws was effective; it reduces the size of the lesions avoiding a possible damage to adjacent structures. Cystic lesions in the mandible, regardless of the area where they occur will have a higher reduction rate if it is compared with the maxilla. Similar behavior was identified in large lesions compared to smaller.

  10. c-Myc oncogene expression in selected odontogenic cysts and tumors: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Moosvi, Zama; Rekha, K

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of c-Myc oncogene in selected odontogenic cysts and tumors. Materials and Methods: Ten cases each of ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst, and radicular cyst were selected and primary monoclonal mouse anti-human c-Myc antibody was used in a dilution of 1: 50. Statistical Analysis was performed using Mann Whitney U test. Results: 80% positivity was observed in ameloblastoma, AOT and OKC; 50% positivity in radicular cyst and 20% positivity in dentigerous cyst. Comparison of c-Myc expression between ameloblastoma and AOT did not reveal significant results. Similarly, no statistical significance was observed when results of OKC were compared with ameloblastoma and AOT. In contrast, significant differences were seen on comparison of dentigerous cyst with ameloblastoma and AOT and radicular cyst with AOT. Conclusion: From the above data we conclude that (1) Ameloblastoma and AOT have similar proliferative potential and their biologic behavior cannot possibly be attributed to it. (2) OKC has an intrinsic growth potential which is absent in other cysts and reinforces its classification as keratocystic odontogenic tumor. PMID:23798830

  11. Ectopic Thymic Cyst of the Subglottis: Considerations for Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iram; Kirby, Patricia; Liming, Bryan

    2018-03-01

    To share the diagnostic and management challenges created by an extremely rare airway lesion-the subglottic ectopic thymic cyst. Case report and literature review. We review the presentation, management, and clinical course of an infant who presented with a subglottic mass that was histologically confirmed as a thymic cyst. A brief literature review supplements the case presentation Results: We present the third described case of an ectopic thymic cyst presenting as a subglottic mass. The differential diagnosis of subglottic masses in neonates consists primarily of subglottic hemangioma and mucous retention cysts. Otolaryngologists must be prepared for unexpected findings when dealing with critical airways. We compare the presentation and management of our patient with the 2 previously described cases. We propose an embryologic theory for the origin of these rare lesions. An ectopic thymic cyst is a rare and unexpected cause of neonatal stridor. Management of pediatric airway lesions must allow for unexpected findings at the time of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. The appropriate management of subglottic thymic cysts is poorly defined, but close surveillance for recurrence is mandatory.

  12. Sensitivity of free-living amoeba trophozoites and cysts to water disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Mathieu; Berne, Florence; Herbelin, Pascaline; Binet, Marie; Berthelot, Nelsie; Rodier, Marie-Hélène; Soreau, Sylvie; Héchard, Yann

    2014-03-01

    Free-living amoebae are naturally present in water. These protozoa could be pathogenic and could also shelter pathogenic bacteria. Thus, they are described as a potential hazard for health. Also, free-living amoebae have been described to be resistant to biocides, especially under their cyst resistant form. There are several studies on amoeba treatments but none of them compare sensitivity of trophozoites and cysts from different genus to various water disinfectants. In our study, we tested chlorine, monochloramine and chlorine dioxide on both cysts and trophozoites from three strains, belonging to the three main genera of free-living amoebae. The results show that, comparing cysts to trophozoites inactivation, only the Acanthamoeba cysts were highly more resistant to treatment than trophozoites. Comparison of the disinfectant efficiency led to conclude that chlorine dioxide was the most efficient treatment in our conditions and was particularly efficient against cysts. In conclusion, our results would help to adapt water treatments in order to target free-living amoebae in water networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional cyst concentration as a prognostic biomarker for polycystic kidney disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Joshua D.; Irazabal, Maria V.; Torres, Vicente E.; King, Bernard F.; Erickson, Bradley J.

    2014-03-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a major cause of renal failure. Despite recent advances in understanding the biochemistry and genetics of PKD, the functional mechanisms underpinning the declines in renal function observed in the disorder are not well established. No studies investigating the distribution of cysts within polycystic kidneys exist. This work introduces regional cyst concentration as a new biomarker for evaluation of patients suffering from PKD. We derive a method to define central and peripheral regions of the kidney, approximating the anatomical division between cortex and medulla, and apply it to two cohorts of ten patients with early/mild or late/severe disease. Our results from the late/severe cohort show peripheral cyst concentration correlates with the current standard PKD biomarker, total kidney volume (TKV), signi cantly better than central cyst concentration (p < 0.05). We also find that cyst concentration was globally increased in the late/severe cohort (p << 0.01) compared to the early/mild cohort, for both central and peripheral regions. These findings show cysts in PKD are not distributed homogeneously throughout the renal tissues.

  14. Changes in ganglion cell physiology during retinal degeneration influence excitability by prosthetic electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Alice; Ratliff, Charles; Sampath, Alapakkam; Weiland, James

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Here we investigate ganglion cell physiology in healthy and degenerating retina to test its influence on threshold to electrical stimulation. Approach. Age-related Macular Degeneration and Retinitis Pigmentosa cause blindness via outer retinal degeneration. Inner retinal pathways that transmit visual information to the central brain remain intact, so direct electrical stimulation from prosthetic devices offers the possibility for visual restoration. Since inner retinal physiology changes during degeneration, we characterize physiological properties and responses to electrical stimulation in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of both wild type mice and the rd10 mouse model of retinal degeneration. Main results. Our aggregate results support previous observations that elevated thresholds characterize diseased retinas. However, a physiology-driven classification scheme reveals distinct sub-populations of ganglion cells with thresholds either normal or strongly elevated compared to wild-type. When these populations are combined, only a weakly elevated threshold with large variance is observed. The cells with normal threshold are more depolarized at rest and exhibit periodic oscillations. Significance. During degeneration, physiological changes in RGCs affect the threshold stimulation currents required to evoke action potentials.

  15. Endoscopic management of intrabiliary-ruptured hepatic hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Singh, Virendra; Reddy, Deevaguntla Chandrasekhar; Verma, Ganga Ram; Singh, Gurpreet

    2006-06-01

    Intrabiliary rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst causes serious morbidity and mortality. These patients are usually managed surgically. We evaluated the feasibility and outcome of an alternative method of treatment of these patients. Seven patients with ruptured hepatic hydatid into the biliary tract underwent endoscopic treatment consisting of endoscopic sphincterotomy, cyst material extraction and hypertonic saline lavage via nasocystic catheter. Median age of patients was 40 years (range 17-50 years) with a male:female ratio of 2:5. Abdominal pain, jaundice and fever were seen in all patients. Six out of seven patients were positive for hydatid serology. All patients were successfully treated by endoscopic sphincterotomy, clearance of cyst material and hypertonic saline lavage. On a follow-up of 6 months to 4 years (median, 3.5 years), ultrasonography, computed tomography of the abdomen and magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen showed a complete cure. There were no complications related to procedure. This study demonstrates endoscopic treatment as one of the therapeutic options of ruptured hepatic hydatid cyst into the biliary tract.

  16. Percutaneous Method of Management of Simple Bone Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Lakhwani, O. P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Simple bone cyst or unicameral bone cysts are benign osteolytic lesions seen in metadiaphysis of long bones in growing children. Various treatment modalities with variable outcomes have been described in the literature. The case report illustrates the surgical technique of minimally invasive method of treatment. Case Study. A 14-year-old boy was diagnosed as active simple bone cyst proximal humerus with pathological fracture. The patient was treated by minimally invasive percutaneous curettage with titanium elastic nail (TENS) and allogenic bone grafting mixed with bone marrow under image intensifier guidance. Results. Pathological fracture was healed and allograft filled in the cavity was well taken up. The patient achieved full range of motion with successful outcome. Conclusion. Minimally invasive percutaneous method using elastic intramedullary nail gives benefit of curettage cyst decompression and stabilization of fracture. Allogenic bone graft fills the cavity and healing of lesion by osteointegration. This method may be considered with advantage of minimally invasive technique in treatment of benign cystic lesions of bone, and the level of evidence was therapeutic level V. PMID:23819089

  17. Comparative Expression of CD34, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Podoplanin and the Presence of Mast Cells in Periapical Granulomas, Cysts, and Residual Cysts.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Cristiane Barbosa; Armada, Luciana; Pires, Fábio Ramôa

    2018-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the immunoexpression of CD34, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and podoplanin and the presence of mast cells with clinical, demographic, radiologic, and histologic features from periapical granulomas, periapical cysts, and residual cysts. Thirty-one lesions (5 granulomas, 15 periapical cysts, and 11 residual cysts) were selected. Histologic sections in silanized slides were used for the immunohistochemical reactions. The analysis of the images was performed by using an optical microscope, and data were analyzed with 5% significance (P < .05). Cysts presented atrophic and hyperplastic epithelium in 11 cases (35.5%) and 15 cases (48.8%), respectively (P > .05). The intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate was similar when comparing the 3 groups (P > .05). CD34 and podoplanin expression and the presence of mast cells were similar when comparing the 3 groups; ICAM-1 expression was more intense in granulomas than cysts (P < .05). There were no statistically significant differences associated with the expression of the evaluated markers according to the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate. There were no differences in the expression of CD34 and podoplanin and in the presence of mast cells when the 3 groups were compared. ICAM-1 expression was more common in periapical granulomas. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nasolabial cyst: 18.5 year experience in a pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Rocha, R; Dornela Verli, F; Lages Lima, N; Rocha Dos Santos, C R; Aparecida Marinho, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a survey of nasolabial cysts diagnosed at the Pathology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (Brazil) over a period of 18.5 years, and a case report. A retrospective study was carried out on biopsies performed at the Pathology Laboratory of the UFVJM School of Dentistry between January 1992 and July 2010. Among a total of 2730 histopathological exams of biopsies performed at the UFVJM Pathology Laboratory, 288 (10.54%) were different types of cysts, The prevalence of NLC was 0.29% (8 cases) in relation to the overall sample and 2.43% among all cysts. NLC only occurred in the female gender in the age group spanning from 25 to 62 years (mean: 40.00 years; standard deviation (SD): 13.48 years). The duration of evolution ranged from six to 18 months (mean: 12 months; SD: 3.79 months). The cysts were asymptomatic in 62.5% of cases. Cyst size ranged from 10 to 30 mm (mean: 16.86; SD: 8.00 mm). In six cases (75%), the radiographic exams were consistent with the final diagnosis, whereas there were no records of radiographic images in two cases (25%). Surgical excision was the treatment of choice for all cases. The characteristics of NLC, such as location, elevation of the nasal wing, disappearance of the nasolabial sulcus, nasal obstruction, floatation of the cyst and the presence of cystic liquid in the interior, are enough to suggest the diagnosis of this cyst. However, the confirmation of the diagnosis is performed through biopsy and histopathological analysis.

  19. Cyst fluid telomerase activity predicts the histologic grade of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Tatsuo; Molin, Marco Dal; Suenaga, Masaya; Yu, Jun; Pittman, Meredith; Weiss, Matthew; Canto, Marcia I.; Wolfgang, Christopher; Lennon, Anne Marie; Hruban, Ralph H; Goggins, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Pancreatic cysts frequently pose clinical dilemmas. On one hand, cysts with high-grade dysplasia offer opportunities for cure, on the other hand, those with low-grade dysplasia are easily over treated. Cyst fluid markers have the potential to improve the evaluation of these cysts. Since telomerase activity is commonly activated in malignant cells, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of cyst fluid telomerase activity measurements for predicting histologic grade. Experimental design Telomerase activity was measured using telomerase repeat amplification with digital-droplet PCR in surgically-aspirated cyst fluid samples from 219 patients who underwent pancreatic resection for a cystic lesion (184, discovery, 35 validation) and 36 patients who underwent endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration. Methodological and clinical factors associated with telomerase activity were examined. Results Telomerase activity was reduced in samples that had undergone prior thawing. Among 119 samples not previously thawed, surgical cyst fluids from cystic neoplasms with high-grade dysplasia +/− associated invasive cancer had higher telomerase activity (median [interquartile range], 1158 [295.9–13033] copies/μL of cyst fluid than those without (19.74 [2.58–233.6] copies/μL) (P < 0.001). Elevated cyst fluid telomerase activity had a diagnostic accuracy for invasive cancer/high-grade dysplasia of 88.1% (discovery), 88.6% (validation), and 88.2% (merged). Among cysts classified preoperatively as having “worrisome features”, cyst fluid telomerase activity had high diagnostic performance (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 90.6%, accuracy, 86.1%). In multivariate analysis, telomerase activity independently predicted the presence of invasive cancer/high-grade dysplasia. Conclusion Cyst fluid telomerase activity can be a useful predictor of the neoplastic grade of pancreatic cysts. PMID:27230749

  20. Epibatidine, an alkaloid from the poison frog Epipedobates tricolor, is a powerful ganglionic depolarizing agent.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M; Huangfu, D; Shen, T Y; Guyenet, P G

    1994-08-01

    Epibatidine, a newly discovered alkaloid from the skin of Dendrobatidae frogs, has structural similarities to nicotine. We examined the effects of epibatidine on cardiorespiratory function and ganglionic synaptic transmission. Superior cervical or splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge (sSND) and phrenic nerve discharge (PND) were recorded along with arterial pressure (AP) in urethane-anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated rats. Epibatidine administered i.v. at low doses (0.5-2 micrograms/kg) produced a transient increase in AP and sSND, followed by a decrease and return to baseline; this low dose of epibatidine also produced a dose-dependent increase in PND. At high doses (cumulative dose of 8-16 micrograms/kg), epibatidine produced bradycardia, a profound depression in sSND and a transient elimination of PND. After i.v. administration of the ganglionic blocker chlorisondamine (5 mg/kg), AP was still increased by 1 microgram/kg epibatidine (+39 +/- 11 mm Hg). This pressor effect was not altered by pretreatment with the alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist phentolamine (+40 +/- 10 mm Hg); however, it was blocked by additional pretreatment with the vasopressin antagonist [beta-mercapto-beta,beta-cyclopentamethylenepropiony1, O-ET-Tyr2,Val4,Arg8]vasopressin (50 micrograms/kg i.v.; +2 +/- 0.4 mm Hg). Low doses of epibatidine (0.5-2 micrograms/kg) produced firing of postganglionic neurons in a decentralized ganglion preparation and potentiated synaptic transmission; at high doses (cumulative dose of 8-16 micrograms/kg), the alkaloid blocked ganglionic synaptic transmission. These results suggest that epibatidine is a potent agonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors and that the alkaloid elicits cardiorespiratory effects similar to those of nicotine.

  1. Immunohistochemical evaluation of podoplanin in odontogenic tumours & cysts using anti-human podoplanin antibody.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Namrata; Khanduri, Nitin; Kurup, Deepak; Gupta, Brijesh; Mitra, Pranjan; Chawla, Roshani

    2017-01-01

    Odontogenic Cysts & tumors originate through some aberration from the normal pattern of odontogenesis. Ameloblastoma is one of the most frequent intraosseous odontogenic tumors. However it is no longer appropriate to use the diagnosis of ameloblastoma without specifying the type. Varied-clinical entities of ameloblastoma differ in their biologic behaviour. Odontogenic cysts like dentigerous and radicular cysts are less aggressive in nature than odontogenic tumors. Recently, podoplanin commonly used as a lymphatic endothelial marker in cancers has recently been found to play a possible role in odontogenic tumorigenesis also. Therefore the purpose of this study was to immunohistochemically analyse the expression of podoplanin in ameloblastomas, KCOTs, dentigerous cysts, radicular cysts & dental follicles. Paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 15 Ameloblastomas (7 follicular, 6 unicystic, 2 desmoplastic),10KCOTs, 5 dentigerous cysts, 5 radicular cysts & 5 dental follicles were immunohistochemically examined using antibody against podoplanin. All ameloblastomas displayed podoplanin expression in ameloblast-like cells of the epithelial islands while the stellate-reticulum like cells exhibited no or weak immunostaining. Expression of podoplanin in KCOTs was strongly positive in the cells of the basal and suprabasal layers & odontogenic epithelial nests. Positive immunoreaction for podoplanin was observed in the inflammatory radicular cysts and inflamed dentigerous cyst only and negative or weak expression in the lining epithelium of uninflamed dentigerous cysts and dental follicles. Our results suggest that podoplanin can be used as a potential proliferative marker to observe the aggressive behaviour of ameloblastomas and KCOTs.

  2. Clinical and radiological outcomes of surgical treatment for symptomatic arachnoid cysts in adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongqian; Wang, Fei; Yu, Mingkun; Wang, Weiping

    2015-09-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 63 patients (31 males and 32 females) with arachnoid cysts managed over a 15 year period at our institution. Surgical indications and modalities for the treatment of intracranial arachnoid cysts are controversial, although endoscopic fenestration is often recommended as a standard procedure. In our cohort, clinical postoperative results and radiological assessments based on the presenting symptoms, cyst location, cyst volume and surgical modalities were recorded. The most common symptoms included headaches (66.7%), dizziness (46%) and seizures (36.5%). Cyst wall excision with microsurgical craniotomy was carried out in 28 patients (44.4%), cyst fenestration in 16 (25.4%), cystoperitoneal or ventriculoperitoneal shunting in 15 (23.8%) and endoscopic fenestration in four patients (6.3%). A satisfactory clinical outcome was achieved in 51 patients (80.9%) and cyst reduction was achieved in 49 (77.8%), at the last follow-up. Clinical improvement correlated significantly with volume reduction in patients with suprasellar and infratentorial cysts (r=0.495; p=0.022) while a similar result was not found after surgery in patients with frontal and temporal cysts. Surgical complications were not correlated with surgical modalities, occurring in only seven patients (11.1%). The various surgical modalities did not influence outcomes. Patients with nonspecific symptoms such as headache may obtain favourable outcomes from surgical treatment with no severe complications, although, intracranial hypertension and neurological deficits are more definite surgical indications for arachnoid cysts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. One-day high-fat diet induces inflammation in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus of mice.

    PubMed

    Waise, T M Zaved; Toshinai, Koji; Naznin, Farhana; NamKoong, Cherl; Md Moin, Abu Saleh; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2015-09-04

    A high-fat diet (HFD) induces inflammation in systemic organs including the hypothalamus, resulting in obesity and diabetes. The vagus nerve connects the visceral organs and central nervous system, and the gastric-derived orexigenic peptide ghrelin transmits its starvation signals to the hypothalamus via the vagal afferent nerve. Here we investigated the inflammatory response in vagal afferent neurons and the hypothalamus in mice following one day of HFD feeding. This treatment increased the number of macrophages/microglia in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus. Furthermore, one-day HFD induced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 in the goblet cells of the colon and upregulated mRNA expressions of the proinflammatory biomarkers Emr1, Iba1, Il6, and Tnfα in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus. Both subcutaneous administration of ghrelin and celiac vagotomy reduced HFD-induced inflammation in these tissues. HFD intake triggered inflammatory responses in the gut, nodose ganglion, and subsequently in the hypothalamus within 24 h. These findings suggest that the vagal afferent nerve may transfer gut-derived inflammatory signals to the hypothalamus via the nodose ganglion, and that ghrelin may protect against HFD-induced inflammation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spring bloom dinoflagellate cyst dynamics in three eastern sub-basins of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sildever, Sirje; Kremp, Anke; Enke, Annely; Buschmann, Fred; Maljutenko, Ilja; Lips, Inga

    2017-04-01

    Dinoflagellate cyst abundance and species composition were investigated before, during and after the spring bloom in the Gulf of Finland, north-eastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Riga in order to detect spatial and temporal dynamics. Transport of newly formed cysts by currents was modelled to explore the possible distance travelled by cysts before sedimentation. The cyst community of the spring bloom dinoflagellates was dominated by the cysts of Biecheleria baltica in all basins, despite its marginal value in the planktonic spring bloom community in the Gulf of Riga. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance in the surface sediments displayed temporal dynamics in all basins, however, this appeared to be also influenced by physical processes. The model simulation showed that newly formed cysts are transported around 10-30 km from the point of origin before deposited. The latter suggests that transport of resting stages in the water column significantly affects spatial cyst distribution in the sediments and thus needs to be considered in the interpretation of temporal biological productivity patterns of a water body from cyst proxies.

  5. Enhancing the Detection of Giardia duodenalis Cysts in Foods by Inertial Microfluidic Separation

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Kyle R.; Clime, Liviu; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Corneau, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of current Giardia cyst detection methods for foods are largely determined by the effectiveness of the elution, separation, and concentration methods used. The aim of these methods is to produce a final suspension with an adequate concentration of Giardia cysts for detection and a low concentration of interfering food debris. In the present study, a microfluidic device, which makes use of inertial separation, was designed and fabricated for the separation of Giardia cysts. A cyclical pumping platform and protocol was developed to concentrate 10-ml suspensions down to less than 1 ml. Tests involving Giardia duodenalis cysts and 1.90-μm microbeads in pure suspensions demonstrated the specificity of the microfluidic chip for cysts over smaller nonspecific particles. As the suspension cycled through the chip, a large number of beads were removed (70%) and the majority of the cysts were concentrated (82%). Subsequently, the microfluidic inertial separation chip was integrated into a method for the detection of G. duodenalis cysts from lettuce samples. The method greatly reduced the concentration of background debris in the final suspensions (10-fold reduction) in comparison to that obtained by a conventional method. The method also recovered an average of 68.4% of cysts from 25-g lettuce samples and had a limit of detection (LOD) of 38 cysts. While the recovery of cysts by inertial separation was slightly lower, and the LOD slightly higher, than with the conventional method, the sample analysis time was greatly reduced, as there were far fewer background food particles interfering with the detection of cysts by immunofluorescence microscopy. PMID:25841016

  6. Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations of wolffian origin.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; González-Peramato, Pilar; Serrano, Alvaro; Vega-Perez, Maria; De Miguel, Maria P; Regadera, Javier

    2005-08-01

    Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations (BEPs) are rare. Only 10 cases were found in a series of 431 paratesticular cysts and were classified as follows: cystadenoma, 5; papilloma, 2; and hamartoma, 3. Four cystadenomas showed multiple papillae lined by CD10+ epithelial cells with hyperchromatic nuclei. The remaining lesion showed areas with a microcystic, glandular, cribriform pattern, with small, benign glands without atypia. Urothelial papilloma presented BEPs with cytokeratin (CK) 7+ and CD10+ and CK20- umbrella-like cells. The mural papilloma was lined by proliferative cylindrical cells exhibiting strong CK7 and CD10 expression. The 3 Wolffian hamartomas were characterized by strongly CD10+ epithelium surrounded by smooth muscle cells. The consistent CD10 expression in BEPs of paratesticular cysts suggests a Wolffian origin. The differential diagnosis of paratesticular cysts with BEP vs metastatic prostatic and primary borderline or malignant tumors is discussed.

  7. Twinkle artefact in the ultrasound diagnosis of superficial epidermoid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Richard; Suresh, Priya; Thomas, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the twinkle artefact is a valuable feature in the sonographic diagnosis of superficial epidermoid cysts. Materials and methods A retrospective search was undertaken of our institution’s Radiology Information System and pathology database to identify cases of superficial masses showing the twinkle artefact that proceeded to surgical excision. Results Eighteen superficial masses demonstrating the twinkle artefact were identified that were submitted for pathological analysis. Of these, 17 were confirmed to represent epidermoid cysts and only 1 case had an alternative diagnosis (proliferating trichilemmal cyst). Conclusion The presence of the twinkle artefact appears to be a specific and valuable ancillary sonographic feature for the diagnosis of superficial epidermoid cysts. PMID:27867407

  8. Piezosurgery versus conventional surgery in radicular cyst enucleation.

    PubMed

    Kocyigit, Ismail Doruk; Atil, Fethi; Alp, Yunus Emre; Tekin, Umut; Tuz, Hakan H

    2012-11-01

    This study compared the use of piezosurgery and conventional surgery in radicular cyst enucleation. The study was conducted with 29 patients who were radiologically and cytologically prediagnosed with radicular cysts in the jaw region. Nineteen patients were treated using piezosurgery, and 10 were treated using conventional surgical procedures. Surgical procedures were evaluated according to the following criteria: hemorrhage, soft-tissue damage, manipulation complexity, major perforation areas on the enucleated cyst tissue, and approximate operation duration. Patients were monitored postoperatively and evaluated for hemorrhaging at 24, 48, and 72 hours following surgery. Follow-up was conducted to check for recurrences and ranged from 5 to 24 months. No complications were observed in any of the 20 patients treated using piezosurgery, although the duration of surgery was longer than expected. Of the 10 patients treated using conventional methods, hemorrhaging that affected the operation occurred in 3 cases, perforation of the cyst epithelium and difficulties in enucleation occurred in 5 cases, postoperative hemorrhage occurred in 2 cases, and recurrence was observed in 2 cases. Piezosurgery may be considered effective in procedures such as enucleation that require sensitive manipulation, despite the increase in the length of the overall surgical procedure. Given the results of the present study and the current lack of information in the literature regarding postoperative pain, infection, and long-term success rates associated with the use of piezosurgery in cyst enucleation, further study in this area is recommended.

  9. Chronic subdural hematoma associated with arachnoid cyst. Two case histories with pathological observations.

    PubMed

    Takayasu, Takeshi; Harada, Kunyu; Nishimura, Shigeru; Onda, Jun; Nishi, Tohru; Takagaki, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are well known to induce chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) after head injury. However, histological observations of the arachnoid cyst and hematoma membrane have only been rarely described. An 8-year-old boy and a 3-year-old boy presented with CSDH associated with arachnoid cyst. Surgical removal of the hematoma and biopsy of the hematoma membrane and cyst wall were performed. Clinical courses were good and without recurrence more than 1.5 years after surgery. Histological examination suggested that the cysts did not contribute to hematoma development. Pediatric hematoma membranes, similar to adult hematoma membranes, are key in the growth of CSDH. Therefore, simple hematoma evacuation is adequate as a first operation for CSDH associated with arachnoid cyst.

  10. The influence of demersal trawl fishing gears on the resuspension of dinoflagellate cysts.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lyndsay; Bresnan, Eileen; Summerbell, Keith; O'Neill, Finbarr Gerard

    2013-01-15

    To investigate the influence of towed demersal fishing gears on dinoflagellate cyst resuspension, towing trials with four gear components were carried out at three sites of differing sediment type in the Moray Firth, Scotland. Samples of sediment plumes were collected using plankton nets mounted on a towed sledge. Diversity of resuspended dinoflagellate cysts was similar at all sites and included Protoperidinium and Gonyaulax spp., Proroceratium reticulatum and unidentified 'round brown' cysts. Cyst concentrations per gram of resuspended sediment varied by gear component and sediment particle size distribution. Gear components with lower hydrodynamic drag generated wakes with smaller shear stresses, mobilising fewer larger sand particles, giving larger concentrations of cysts. Muddy sediments contained higher cyst concentrations which declined with increasing grain size. This study has shown that fishing gear and sediment type can influence the redistribution of dinoflagellate cysts and highlights the importance this may have in relation to dinoflagellate blooms. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Papillary thyroid carcinoma formation in a thyroglossal cyst. A case report.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ma; Abussa, A; Hashmi, H

    2007-09-01

    Thyroglossal cyst rarely presents with carcinoma formation in the remnants of the thyroid gland. We report a 40 year old male with papillary thyroid carcinoma formation in a thyroglossal cyst. The patient underwent surgical intervention for the cyst. His pathology was positive for thyroid carcinoma and he underwent complete thyroidectomy with postoperative radioactive iodine treatment. His follow up revealed no evidence of recurrence.

  12. Morphological and morphometric features of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus liver in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Gizela Melina; Rodrigues, Robson Andrade; Marcondes, Sandriely Fernanda; Soares, Priscilla; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric measures and morphological aspects of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, and the presence of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) associated with the periphery of cysts and in the liver parenchyma. Adult specimens, 34 female (123.1 ± 43.9g) and 45 male (135.5 ± 43.4g), from Paraguay River, Corumbá, Brazil, were used. The number of nematode-cysts was determined in 79 livers and 25 of them randomly selected for histopathological analysis and morphometric measures of nematode-cysts (mean diameter, thickness of collagen layer, and cyst-wall layer). The percentage of cysts with MMCs on the periphery and density in the liver parenchyma was estimated. The average number of macroscopic cysts was of 48.7 ± 2.78. Granulomatous reaction was observed surrounding the cysts. Diameter, collagen layer and cyst-wall measurements were 293.0 ± 75.18 (µm), 17.72 ± 6.01 (µm) and 12.21 ± 9.51 (µm), respectively. The number of nematode-cysts was correlated with hepatosomatic index, (r=0.26, P<0.05). Collagen layer was correlated with cyst diameter (r=0.62, P<0.01). Pericystic and parenchymatous MMCs were moderately (r=0.48) and highly (r=0.90) correlated with nematode-cysts number. Morphological characteristics of hepatic tissue and cysts-nematodes measures suggest that G. inaequilabiatus acts as a paratenic host to nematodes in the larval stage.

  13. Sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting with distinctive magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Kodama, Kozue; Iino, Yukiko

    2014-06-18

    A case of sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings is described. A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a three months progressive left submandibular swelling, difficulty moving his tongue, and snoring. Preoperative evaluation with MRI and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed that the heterogeneous cystic lesion contained the squamous cells, which is compatible with ectodermal tissue. The mass was located above the mylohyoid muscle and spread to the pharyngeal space. By considering the size, infection history, patient age, and location, the cyst was completely resected under general anesthesia via cervical approach without any complication. Histopathologically, the cyst wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with no skin appendage, suggesting an epidermoid cyst. Ultrasound (US), MRI and FNAC were very useful of the preoperative diagnosis for oral and sublingual lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful and without recurrence after 24 months. This case showed that epidermoid cysts formed the rarely heterogeneous cystic tumor and it underlined usefulness of preoperative diagnosis, such as US, MRI and FNAC for oral and sublingual tumor.

  14. Ganglion Cell and Displaced Amacrine Cell Density Distribution in the Retina of the Howler Monkey (Alouatta caraya)

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; de Athaide, Luana Modesto; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Finlay, Barbara L.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Unlike all other New World (platyrrine) monkeys, both male and female howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) are obligatory trichromats. In all other platyrrines, only females can be trichromats, while males are always dichromats, as determined by multiple behavioral, electrophysiological, and genetic studies. In addition to obligatory trichromacy, Alouatta has an unusual fovea, with substantially higher peak cone density in the foveal pit than every other diurnal anthropoid monkey (both platyrrhines and catarrhines) and great ape yet examined, including humans. In addition to documenting the general organization of the retinal ganglion cell layer in Alouatta, the distribution of cones is compared to retinal ganglion cells, to explore possible relationships between their atypical trichromacy and foveal specialization. The number and distribution of retinal ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells were determined in six flat-mounted retinas from five Alouatta caraya. Ganglion cell density peaked at 0.5 mm between the fovea and optic nerve head, reaching 40,700–45,200 cells/mm2. Displaced amacrine cell density distribution peaked between 0.5–1.75 mm from the fovea, reaching mean values between 2,050–3,100 cells/mm2. The mean number of ganglion cells was 1,133,000±79,000 cells and the mean number of displaced amacrine cells was 537,000±61,800 cells, in retinas of mean area 641±62 mm2. Ganglion cell and displaced amacrine cell density distribution in the Alouatta retina was consistent with that observed among several species of diurnal Anthropoidea, both platyrrhines and catarrhines. The principal alteration in the Alouatta retina appears not to be in the number of any retinal cell class, but rather a marked gradient in cone density within the fovea, which could potentially support high chromatic acuity in a restricted central region. PMID:25546077

  15. Chronic cervical radiculopathic pain is associated with increased excitability and hyperpolarization-activated current ( Ih) in large-diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da-Lu; Wang, Xu; Chu, Wen-Guang; Lu, Na; Han, Wen-Juan; Du, Yi-Kang; Hu, San-Jue; Bai, Zhan-Tao; Wu, Sheng-Xi; Xie, Rou-Gang; Luo, Ceng

    2017-01-01

    Cervical radiculopathic pain is a very common symptom that may occur with cervical spondylosis. Mechanical allodynia is often associated with cervical radiculopathic pain and is inadequate