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Sample records for ganglion cell disinhibited

  1. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  2. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Do, Michael Tri Hoang; Yau, King-Wai

    2010-10-01

    Life on earth is subject to alternating cycles of day and night imposed by the rotation of the earth. Consequently, living things have evolved photodetective systems to synchronize their physiology and behavior with the external light-dark cycle. This form of photodetection is unlike the familiar "image vision," in that the basic information is light or darkness over time, independent of spatial patterns. "Nonimage" vision is probably far more ancient than image vision and is widespread in living species. For mammals, it has long been assumed that the photoreceptors for nonimage vision are also the textbook rods and cones. However, recent years have witnessed the discovery of a small population of retinal ganglion cells in the mammalian eye that express a unique visual pigment called melanopsin. These ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive and drive a variety of nonimage visual functions. In addition to being photoreceptors themselves, they also constitute the major conduit for rod and cone signals to the brain for nonimage visual functions such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex. Here we review what is known about these novel mammalian photoreceptors.

  3. Changes in ganglion cells during retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Saha, Susmita; Greferath, Ursula; Vessey, Kirstan A; Grayden, David B; Burkitt, Anthony N; Fletcher, Erica L

    2016-08-04

    Inherited retinal degeneration such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is associated with photoreceptor loss and concomitant morphological and functional changes in the inner retina. It is not known whether these changes are associated with changes in the density and distribution of synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We quantified changes in ganglion cell density in rd1 and age-matched C57BL/6J-(wildtype, WT) mice using the immunocytochemical marker, RBPMS. Our data revealed that following complete loss of photoreceptors, (∼3months of age), there was a reduction in ganglion cell density in the peripheral retina. We next examined changes in synaptic inputs to A type ganglion cells by performing double labeling experiments in mice with the ganglion cell reporter lines, rd1-Thy1 and age-matched wildtype-Thy1. Ribbon synapses were identified by co-labelling with CtBP2 (RIBEYE) and conventional synapses with the clustering molecule, gephyrin. ON RGCs showed a significant reduction in RIBEYE-immunoreactive synapse density while OFF RGCs showed a significant reduction in the gephyrin-immmunoreactive synapse density. Distribution patterns of both synaptic markers across the dendritic trees of RGCs were unchanged. The change in synaptic inputs to RGCs was associated with a reduction in the number of immunolabeled rod bipolar and ON cone bipolar cells. These results suggest that functional changes reported in ganglion cells during retinal degeneration could be attributed to loss of synaptic inputs. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dissociation of Retinal Ganglion Cells Without Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Yuki; Partida, Gloria J.; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    We describe here methods for dissociating retinal ganglion cells from adult goldfish and rat without proteolytic enzymes, and show responses of ganglion cells isolated this way to step-wise voltage changes and fluctuating current injections. Taking advantage of the laminar organization of vertebrate retinas, photoreceptors and other cells were lifted away from the distal side of freshly isolated goldfish retinas, after contact with pieces of membrane filter. Likewise, cells were sliced away from the distal side of freshly isolated rat retinas, after these adhered to a membrane filter. The remaining portions of retina were incubated in an enzyme-free, low Ca2+ solution, and triturated. After aliquots of the resulting cell suspension were plated, ganglion cells could be identified by dye retrogradely transported via the optic nerve. These cells showed no obvious morphological degeneration for several days of culture. Perforated-patch whole-cell recordings showed that the goldfish ganglion cells spike tonically in response to depolarizing constant current injections, that these spikes are temporally precise in response to fluctuating current injections, and that the largest voltage-gated Na+ currents of these cells were larger than those of ganglion cells isolated with a neutral protease. PMID:15196824

  5. Morphological properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Coombs, J; van der List, D; Wang, G-Y; Chalupa, L M

    2006-06-19

    The mouse retina offers an increasingly valuable model for vision research given the possibilities for genetic manipulation. Here we assess how the structural properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells relate to the stratification pattern of the dendrites of these neurons within the inner plexiform layer. For this purpose, we used 14 morphological measures to classify mouse retinal ganglion cells parametrically into different clusters. Retinal ganglion cells were labeled in one of three ways: Lucifer Yellow injection, 'DiOlistics' or transgenic expression of yellow fluorescent protein. The resulting analysis of 182 cells revealed 10 clusters of monostratified cells, with dendrites confined to either On or Off sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer, and four clusters of bistratified cells, dendrites spanning the On and Off sublaminae. We also sought to establish how these parametrically identified retinal ganglion cell clusters relate to cell types identified previously on the basis of immunocytochemical staining and the expression of yellow fluorescent protein. Cells labeled with an antibody against melanopsin were found to be located within a single cluster, while those labeled with the SMI-32 antibody were in four different clusters. Yellow fluorescent protein expressing cells were distributed within 13 of the 14 clusters identified here, which demonstrates that yellow fluorescent protein expression is a useful method for labeling virtually the entire population of mouse retinal ganglion cells. Collectively, these findings provide a valuable baseline for future studies dealing with the effects of genetic mutations on the morphological development of these neurons.

  6. Dissociation of retinal ganglion cells without enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Yuki; Partida, Gloria J; Ishida, Andrew T

    2004-08-15

    We describe here methods for dissociating retinal ganglion cells from adult goldfish and rat without proteolytic enzymes, and show responses of ganglion cells isolated this way to step-wise voltage changes and fluctuating current injections. Taking advantage of the laminar organization of vertebrate retinas, photoreceptors and other cells were lifted away from the distal side of freshly isolated goldfish retinas, after contact with pieces of membrane filter. Likewise, cells were sliced away from the distal side of freshly isolated rat retinas, after these adhered to a membrane filter. The remaining portions of retina were incubated in an enzyme-free, low Ca2+ solution, and triturated. After aliquots of the resulting cell suspension were plated, ganglion cells could be identified by dye retrogradely transported via the optic nerve. These cells showed no obvious morphological degeneration for several days of culture. Perforated-patch whole-cell recordings showed that the goldfish ganglion cells spike tonically in response to depolarizing constant current injections, that these spikes are temporally precise in response to fluctuating current injections, and that the largest voltage-gated Na+ currents of these cells were larger than those of ganglion cells isolated with a neutral protease.

  7. Pathogenesis of ganglion "cell death" in glaucoma and neuroprotection: focus on ganglion cell axonal mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Neville N

    2008-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell axons within the globe are functionally specialized being richly provided with many mitochondria. The mitochondria produce the high energy requirement for nerve conduction in the unmyelinated part of the ganglion cell axons. We have proposed that in the initiation of glaucoma, an alteration in the quality of blood flow dynamics in the optic nerve head causes a compromise in the retinal ganglion cell axon energy requirement, rendering the ganglion cells susceptible to additional insults. One secondary insult might be light entering the eye to further affect ganglion cell axon mitochondrial function. Other insults to the ganglion cells might be substances (e.g., glutamate, nitric oxide, TNF-alpha) released from astrocytes. These effects ultimately cause ganglion cell death because of the inability of mitochondria to maintain normal function. We therefore suggest that ganglion cell apoptosis in glaucoma is both receptor and mitochondrial mediated. Agents targeted specifically at enhancing ganglion cell mitochondrial energy production should therefore be beneficial in a disease like glaucoma. Ganglion cell death in glaucoma might therefore, in principle, not be unlike the pathophysiology of numerous neurological disorders involving energy dysregulation and oxidative stress. The trigger(s) for ganglion cell apoptosis in glaucoma is/are likely to be multifactorial, and the rationale for targeting impaired energy production as a possibility of improving a patient's quality of life is based on logic derived from laboratory studies where neuronal apoptosis is shown to occur via different mechanisms. Light-induced neuronal apoptosis is likely to be more relevant to ganglion cell death in glaucoma than, for example, neuronal apoptosis associated with Parkinson's disease. Logic suggests that enhancing mitochondrial function generally will slow down ganglion cell apoptosis and therefore benefit glaucoma patients. On the basis of our laboratory studies, we

  8. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  9. Concerted Signaling by Retinal Ganglion Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Markus; Lagnado, Leon; Baylor, Denis A.

    1995-11-01

    To analyze the rules that govern communication between eye and brain, visual responses were recorded from an intact salamander retina. Parallel observation of many retinal ganglion cells with a microelectrode array showed that nearby neurons often fired synchronously, with spike delays of less than 10 milliseconds. The frequency of such synchronous spikes exceeded the correlation expected from a shared visual stimulus up to 20-fold. Synchronous firing persisted under a variety of visual stimuli and accounted for the majority of action potentials recorded. Analysis of receptive fields showed that concerted spikes encoded information not carried by individual cells; they may represent symbols in a multineuronal code for vision.

  10. Synapse formation during embryogenesis on ganglion cells lacking a periphery

    PubMed Central

    Landmesser, Lynn; Pilar, G.

    1974-01-01

    1. The development of transmission was studied in chick ciliary ganglia that had been deprived of their periphery during early embryonic development. 2. Peripherally deprived neurones in the ganglion differentiate in normal numbers and send functional axons into the post-ganglionic nerve. 3. Ganglion cells lacking a periphery follow the normal developmental sequence sending out transient dendrites at the time ganglion cell synapses are formed, and later retracting them when calyces appear. 4. Synapses, which appear functionally and ultrastructurally normal, form on all ganglion cells at the normal time and transmission is normal until Stage 34. Therefore information from the periphery is not required for ganglion cell synapse formation per se. 5. From Stages 35 to 38 most cells die, so that only 8% of the original number of cells remain in the operated ganglion. Transmission fails in many cells during this same time, but precedes cell loss by only a short time, so that deafferentation probably does not contribute substantially to cell death. 6. Both ciliary and choroid cells achieve full cytologic differentiation and are distinct from each other, indicating that the periphery is not required for the elaboration of the distinctive characteristics of these cells. Presynaptic fibres also differentiate into typical bouton as well as calyciform endings. Therefore, the type of preganglionic ending does not depend on ganglion cells establishing proper peripheral contacts. 7. It has not been possible to ascertain whether ganglion cell specificity is affected by the periphery. 8. Peripheral removal affects ganglion cell migration, so that two ganglia are formed. Approximately half of the cells migrate into the remnant optic cup forming a second misplaced ganglion. Ciliary and choroid cells occur in both ganglia and these cells go through the typical sequence of events described above. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2Plate 3 PMID:4373567

  11. Neuronal cell lines as model dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kathleen; Baillie, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Background Dorsal root ganglion neuron-derived immortal cell lines including ND7/23 and F-11 cells have been used extensively as in vitro model systems of native peripheral sensory neurons. However, while it is clear that some sensory neuron-specific receptors and ion channels are present in these cell lines, a systematic comparison of the molecular targets expressed by these cell lines with those expressed in intact peripheral neurons is lacking. Results In this study, we examined the expression of RNA transcripts in the human neuroblastoma-derived cell line, SH-SY5Y, and two dorsal root ganglion hybridoma cell lines, F-11 and ND7/23, using Illumina next-generation sequencing, and compared the results with native whole murine dorsal root ganglions. The gene expression profiles of these three cell lines did not resemble any specific defined dorsal root ganglion subclass. The cell lines lacked many markers for nociceptive sensory neurons, such as the Transient receptor potential V1 gene, but expressed markers for both myelinated and unmyelinated neurons. Global gene ontology analysis on whole dorsal root ganglions and cell lines showed similar enrichment of biological process terms across all samples. Conclusions This paper provides insights into the receptor repertoire expressed in common dorsal root ganglion neuron-derived cell lines compared with whole murine dorsal root ganglions, and illustrates the limits and potentials of these cell lines as tools for neuropharmacological exploration. PMID:27130590

  12. Disinhibition of rat hippocampal pyramidal cells by GABAergic afferents from the septum.

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, K; Freund, T F; Miles, R

    1997-01-01

    1. Slices were prepared from rat forebrain to include both the septum and the hippocampus in order to examine the effects of septal stimulation on hippocampal inhibitory circuits. 2. Repetitive stimulation of septo-hippocampal fibres caused a maintained decrease in the frequency of spontaneous IPSPs recorded from CA3 pyramidal cells in the presence of antagonists of excitatory amino acid receptors and of muscarine receptors. 3. In records made from pyramidal cells with CsCl-filled electrodes, IPSPs were examined at potentials both more positive and more negative than their reversal potential. Single septal stimuli hyperpolarized pyramidal cells when IPSPs were depolarizing events and depolarized them when IPSPs were hyperpolarizing. The GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin abolished the effects of septal stimulation. 4. Activation of septal afferents initiated an IPSP in hippocampal inhibitory cells but not in pyramidal cells. Septal IPSPs had similar kinetics to those initiated by local hippocampal stimulation and could suppress inhibitory cell discharge. 5. In pyramidal cells recorded with potassium acetate-filled electrodes, septal stimuli initiated a depolarization that increased with the driving force for Cl- and that could cause firing. 6. Rhythmic stimulation of septo-hippocampal fibres at 5 Hz initiated, in the hippocampus, a maintained out-of-phase oscillation of pyramidal cell discharge and inhibitory cell firing, as detected by the occurrence of spontaneous IPSPs. 7. These results suggest that GABAergic septo-hippocampal afferents selectively inhibit hippocampal inhibitory cells and so disinhibit pyramidal cells. This disinhibition could contribute to the transmission of the theta rhythm from the septum to the hippocampus. Images Figure 1 PMID:9147330

  13. Topography of ganglion cell production in the cat's retina

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, C.; Polley, E.H.

    1985-03-01

    The ganglion cells of the cat's retina form several classes distinguishable in terms of soma size, axon diameter, dendritic morphology, physiological properties, and central connections. Labeling with (/sup 3/H)thymidine shows that the ganglion cells which survive in the adult are produced as several temporally shifted, overlapping waves: medium-sized cells are produced before large cells, whereas the smallest ganglion cells are produced throughout the period of ganglion cell generation. Large cells and medium-sized cells show the same distinctive pattern of production, forming rough spirals around the area centralis. The oldest cells tend to lie superior and nasal to the area centralis, whereas cells in the inferior nasal retina and inferior temporal retina are, in general, progressively younger. Within each retinal quadrant, cells nearer the area centralis tend to be older than cells in the periphery, but there is substantial overlap. The retinal raphe divides the superior temporal quadrant into two zones with different patterns of cell addition. Superior temporal retina near the vertical meridian adds cells only slightly later than superior nasal retina, whereas superior temporal retina near the horizontal meridian adds cells very late, contemporaneously with inferior temporal retina. The broader wave of production of smaller ganglion cells seems to follow this same spiral pattern at its beginning and end. The presence of the area centralis as a nodal point about which ganglion cell production in the retinal quadrants pivots suggests that the area centralis is already an important retinal landmark even at the earliest stages of retinal development.

  14. Functional organization of ganglion cells in the salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Segev, Ronen; Puchalla, Jason; Berry, Michael J

    2006-04-01

    Recently, we reported a novel technique for recording all of the ganglion cells in a retinal patch and showed that their receptive fields cover visual space roughly 60 times over in the tiger salamander. Here, we carry this analysis further and divide the population of ganglion cells into functional classes using quantitative clustering algorithms that combine several response characteristics. Using only the receptive field to classify ganglion cells revealed six cell types, in agreement with anatomical studies. Adding other response measures served to blur the distinctions between these cell types rather than resolve further classes. Only the biphasic off type had receptive fields that tiled the retina. Even when we attempted to split these classes more finely, ganglion cells with almost identical functional properties were found to have strongly overlapping spatial receptive fields. A territorial spatial organization, where ganglion cell receptive fields tend to avoid those of other cells of the same type, was only found for the biphasic off cell. We further studied the functional segregation of the ganglion cell population by computing the amount of visual information shared between pairs of cells under natural movie stimulation. This analysis revealed an extensive mixing of visual information among cells of different functional type. Together, our results indicate that the salamander retina uses a population code in which every point in visual space is represented by multiple neurons with subtly different visual sensitivities.

  15. Ionic channel changes in glaucomatous retinal ganglion cells: multicompartment modeling.

    PubMed

    Maturana, Matias I; Turpin, Andrew; McKendrick, Allison M; Kameneva, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    This research takes a step towards discovering underlying ionic channel changes in the glaucomatous ganglion cells. Glaucoma is characterized by a gradual death of retinal ganglion cells. In this paper, we propose a hypothesis that the ionic channel concentrations change during the progression of glaucoma. We use computer simulation of a multi-compartment morphologically correct model of a mouse retinal ganglion cell to verify our hypothesis. Using published experimental data, we alter the morphology of healthy ganglion cells to replicate glaucomatous cells. Our results suggest that in glaucomatous cell, the sodium channel concentration decreases in the soma by 30% and by 60% in the dendrites, calcium channel concentration decreases by 10% in all compartments, and leak channel concentration increases by 40% in the soma and by 100% in the dendrites.

  16. Ih without Kir in Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sherwin C.; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    Antisera directed against hyperpolarization-activated mixed-cation (“Ih”) and K+ (“Kir”) channels bind to some somata in the ganglion cell layer of rat and rabbit retina. Additionally, the termination of hyperpolarizing current injections can trigger spikes in some cat retinal ganglion cells, suggesting a rebound depolarization due to activation of Ih. However, patch-clamp studies have reported that rat ganglion cells lack inward rectification, or present an inwardly rectifying K+ current. We therefore tested whether hyperpolarization activates Ih in dissociated, adult rat retinal ganglion cell somata. We report here that while we found no inward rectification in some cells, and a Kir-like current in a few cells, hyperpolarization activated Ih in roughly 75% of the cells we recorded from in voltage clamp. We show that this current is blocked by Cs+ or ZD7288 and only slightly reduced by Ba2+, that the current amplitude and reversal potential are sensitive to extracellular Na+ and K+, and that we found no evidence of Kir in cells presenting Ih. In current clamp, injecting hyperpolarizing current induced a slowly relaxing membrane hyperpolarization that rebounded to a few action potentials when the hyperpolarizing current was stopped; both the membrane potential relaxation and rebound spikes were blocked by ZD7288. These results provide the first measurement of Ih in mammalian retinal ganglion cells, and indicate that the ion channels of rat retinal ganglion cells may vary in ways not expected from previous voltage and current recordings. PMID:17488978

  17. Directional summation in non-direction selective retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Syed Y; Hamade, Khaldoun C; Yang, Ellen J; Nawy, Scott; Smith, Robert G; Pettit, Diana L

    2013-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells receive inputs from multiple bipolar cells which must be integrated before a decision to fire is made. Theoretical studies have provided clues about how this integration is accomplished but have not directly determined the rules regulating summation of closely timed inputs along single or multiple dendrites. Here we have examined dendritic summation of multiple inputs along On ganglion cell dendrites in whole mount rat retina. We activated inputs at targeted locations by uncaging glutamate sequentially to generate apparent motion along On ganglion cell dendrites in whole mount retina. Summation was directional and dependent13 on input sequence. Input moving away from the soma (centrifugal) resulted in supralinear summation, while activation sequences moving toward the soma (centripetal) were linear. Enhanced summation for centrifugal activation was robust as it was also observed in cultured retinal ganglion cells. This directional summation was dependent on hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels as blockade with ZD7288 eliminated directionality. A computational model confirms that activation of HCN channels can override a preference for centripetal summation expected from cell anatomy. This type of direction selectivity could play a role in coding movement similar to the axial selectivity seen in locust ganglion cells which detect looming stimuli. More generally, these results suggest that non-directional retinal ganglion cells can discriminate between input sequences independent of the retina network.

  18. Directional Summation in Non-direction Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Syed Y.; Hamade, Khaldoun C.; Yang, Ellen J.; Nawy, Scott; Smith, Robert G.; Pettit, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells receive inputs from multiple bipolar cells which must be integrated before a decision to fire is made. Theoretical studies have provided clues about how this integration is accomplished but have not directly determined the rules regulating summation of closely timed inputs along single or multiple dendrites. Here we have examined dendritic summation of multiple inputs along On ganglion cell dendrites in whole mount rat retina. We activated inputs at targeted locations by uncaging glutamate sequentially to generate apparent motion along On ganglion cell dendrites in whole mount retina. Summation was directional and dependent13 on input sequence. Input moving away from the soma (centrifugal) resulted in supralinear summation, while activation sequences moving toward the soma (centripetal) were linear. Enhanced summation for centrifugal activation was robust as it was also observed in cultured retinal ganglion cells. This directional summation was dependent on hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels as blockade with ZD7288 eliminated directionality. A computational model confirms that activation of HCN channels can override a preference for centripetal summation expected from cell anatomy. This type of direction selectivity could play a role in coding movement similar to the axial selectivity seen in locust ganglion cells which detect looming stimuli. More generally, these results suggest that non-directional retinal ganglion cells can discriminate between input sequences independent of the retina network. PMID:23516351

  19. Genetic Networks in Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Struebing, Felix L.; Lee, Richard K.; Williams, Robert W.; Geisert, Eldon E.

    2016-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the output neuron of the eye, transmitting visual information from the retina through the optic nerve to the brain. The importance of RGCs for vision is demonstrated in blinding diseases where RGCs are lost, such as in glaucoma or after optic nerve injury. In the present study, we hypothesize that normal RGC function is transcriptionally regulated. To test our hypothesis, we examine large retinal expression microarray datasets from recombinant inbred mouse strains in GeneNetwork and define transcriptional networks of RGCs and their subtypes. Two major and functionally distinct transcriptional networks centering around Thy1 and Tubb3 (Class III beta-tubulin) were identified. Each network is independently regulated and modulated by unique genomic loci. Meta-analysis of publically available data confirms that RGC subtypes are differentially susceptible to death, with alpha-RGCs and intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs) being less sensitive to cell death than other RGC subtypes in a mouse model of glaucoma. PMID:27733864

  20. Polymodal Sensory Integration in Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    PubMed

    Križaj, David

    2016-01-01

    An animal's ability to perceive the external world is conditioned by its capacity to extract and encode specific features of the visual image. The output of the vertebrate retina is not a simple representation of the 2D visual map generated by photon absorptions in the photoreceptor layer. Rather, spatial, temporal, direction selectivity and color "dimensions" of the original image are distributed in the form of parallel output channels mediated by distinct retinal ganglion cell (RGC) populations. We propose that visual information transmitted to the brain includes additional, light-independent, inputs that reflect the functional states of the retina, anterior eye and the body. These may include the local ion microenvironment, glial metabolism and systemic parameters such as intraocular pressure, temperature and immune activation which act on ion channels that are intrinsic to RGCs. We particularly focus on light-independent mechanical inputs that are associated with physical impact, cell swelling and intraocular pressure as excessive mechanical stimuli lead to the counterintuitive experience of "pressure phosphenes" and/or debilitating blinding disease such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. We point at recently discovered retinal mechanosensitive ion channels as examples through which molecular physiology brings together Greek phenomenology, modern neuroscience and medicine. Thus, RGC output represents a unified picture of the embodied context within which vision takes place.

  1. Advances in retinal ganglion cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Balendra, S I; Normando, E M; Bloom, P A; Cordeiro, M F

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide and will affect 79.6 million people worldwide by 2020. It is caused by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), predominantly via apoptosis, within the retinal nerve fibre layer and the corresponding loss of axons of the optic nerve head. One of its most devastating features is its late diagnosis and the resulting irreversible visual loss that is often predictable. Current diagnostic tools require significant RGC or functional visual field loss before the threshold for detection of glaucoma may be reached. To propel the efficacy of therapeutics in glaucoma, an earlier diagnostic tool is required. Recent advances in retinal imaging, including optical coherence tomography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and adaptive optics, have propelled both glaucoma research and clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. However, an ideal imaging technique to diagnose and monitor glaucoma would image RGCs non-invasively with high specificity and sensitivity in vivo. It may confirm the presence of healthy RGCs, such as in transgenic models or retrograde labelling, or detect subtle changes in the number of unhealthy or apoptotic RGCs, such as detection of apoptosing retinal cells (DARC). Although many of these advances have not yet been introduced to the clinical arena, their successes in animal studies are enthralling. This review will illustrate the challenges of imaging RGCs, the main retinal imaging modalities, the in vivo techniques to augment these as specific RGC-imaging tools and their potential for translation to the glaucoma clinic. PMID:26293138

  2. THE MODULATORY ROLE OF TAURINE IN RETINAL GANGLION CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zheng; Bulley, Simon; Guzzone, Joseph; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethylsuphonic acid) is present in nearly all animal tissues, and is the most abundant free amino acid in muscle, heart, CNS and retina. Although it is known to be a major cytoprotectant and essential for normal retinal development, its role in retinal neurotransmission and modulation is not well understood. We investigated the response of taurine in retinal ganglion cells, and its effect on synaptic transmission between ganglion cells and their pre-synaptic neurons. We find that taurine-elicited currents in ganglion cells could be fully blocked by both strychnine and SR95531, glycine and GABAA receptor antagonists, respectively. This suggests that taurine-activated receptors might share the antagonists with GABA and glycine receptors. The effect of taurine at micromolar concentrations can effectively suppress spontaneous vesicle release from the pre-synaptic neurons, but had limited effects on light-evoked synaptic signals in ganglion cells. We also describe a metabotropic effect of taurine in the suppression of light-evoked response in ganglion cells. Clearly, taurine acts in multiple ways to modulate synaptic signals in retinal output neurons, ganglion cells. PMID:23392924

  3. Phenotypic map of porcine retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; del Río, Patricia; Blindert, Marcel; Ueffing, Marius; Hauck, Stefanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Porcine retina is an excellent model for studying diverse retinal processes and diseases. The morphologies of porcine retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have, however, not yet been described comprehensively. The aim of the present study was to créate a classification of the RGCs using the 1, 1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) tracing method. Methods About 170 RGCs were retrogradely labeled by injecting DiI into the optic nerve of postmortem eyes and statistically analyzed by two different clustering methods: Ward’s algorithm and the K-means clustering. Major axis length of the soma, soma area size, and dendritic field area size were selected as main parameters for cluster classification. Results RGC distribution in clusters was achieved according to their morphological parameters. It was feasible to combine both statistical methods, thereby obtaining a robust clustering distribution. Morphological analysis resulted in a classification of RGCs in three groups according to the soma size and dendritic field: A (large somas and large dendritic fields), B (medium to large somas and medium to large dendritic fields), C (medium to small somas and medium to small dendritic fields). Within groups, fine clustering defined several subgroups according to dendritic arborization and level of stratification. Additionally, cells stratifying in two different levels of the inner plexiform layer were observed within the clusters. Conclusions This comprehensive study of RGC morphologies in the porcine retina provides fundamental knowledge about RGC cell types and provides a basis for functional studies toward selective RGC cell degeneration in retinal disorders. PMID:23687427

  4. Evaluating retinal ganglion cell loss and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mead, Ben; Tomarev, Stanislav

    2016-10-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGC) bear the sole responsibility of propagating visual stimuli to the brain. Their axons, which make up the optic nerve, project from the retina to the brain through the lamina cribrosa and in rodents, decussate almost entirely at the optic chiasm before synapsing at the superior colliculus. For many traumatic and degenerative ocular conditions, the dysfunction and/or loss of RGC is the primary determinant of visual loss and are the measurable endpoints in current research into experimental therapies. To actually measure these endpoints in rodent models, techniques must ascertain both the quantity of surviving RGC and their functional capacity. Quantification techniques include phenotypic markers of RGC, retrogradely transported fluorophores and morphological measurements of retinal thickness whereas functional assessments include electroretinography (flash and pattern) and visual evoked potential. The importance of the accuracy and reliability of these techniques cannot be understated, nor can the relationship between RGC death and dysfunction. The existence of up to 30 types of RGC complicates the measuring process, particularly as these may respond differently to disease and treatment. Since the above techniques may selectively identify and ignore particular subpopulations, their appropriateness as measures of RGC survival and function may be further limited. This review discusses the above techniques in the context of their subtype specificity.

  5. Electrophysiological assessment of retinal ganglion cell function

    PubMed Central

    Porciatti, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The function of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can be non-invasively assessed in experimental and genetic models of glaucoma by means of variants of the ERG technique that emphasize the activity of inner retina neurons. The best understood technique is the Pattern Electroretinogram (PERG) in response to contrast-reversing gratings or checkerboards, which selectively depends on the presence of functional RGCs. In glaucoma models, the PERG can be altered before histological loss of RGCs; PERG alterations may be either reversed with moderate IOP lowering or exacerbated with moderate IOP elevation. Under particular luminance-stimulus conditions, the Flash-ERG displays components that may reflect electrical activity originating in the proximal retina and be altered in some experimental glaucoma models (positive Scotopic Threshold response, pSTR; negative Scotopic Threshold Response, nSTR; Photopic Negative Response, PhNR; Oscillatory Potentials, OPs; multifocal ERG, mfERG). It is not yet known which of these components is most sensitive to glaucomatous damage. Electrophysiological assessment of RGC function appears to be a necessary outcome measure in experimental glaucoma models, which complements structural assessment and may even predict it. Neuroprotective strategies could be tested based on enhancement of baseline electrophysiological function that results in improved RGC survival. The use of electrophysiology in glaucoma models may be facilitated by specifically designed instruments that allow high throughput, robust assessment of electrophysiological function. PMID:25998495

  6. Ganglion cell death in glaucoma: from mice to men.

    PubMed

    Nickells, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Glaucoma results from the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Over the last 20 years several important advancements have been made in our understanding of the molecular pathology of this disease, particularly through the development of rat models of experimental glaucoma and the characterization of a spontaneous secondary form of glaucoma in DBA/2 substrains of inbred mice. One of these advances is the observation that ganglion cells die by apoptosis, an intrinsic molecular pathway of programmed cell death. An important aspect of this cell death process is the concept that these cells actually undergo compartmentalized self-destruction. Importantly, genetic evidence now suggests that axons die independently of the apoptotic program that executes the cell body or soma. This review briefly summarizes some of the most significant developments in glaucoma research, with respect to the process of ganglion cell degeneration.

  7. Trigeminal ganglion cells cocultured with gut express vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    PubMed

    Davis, J P; Epstein, M L

    1987-12-01

    The plasticity of neural crest cells for the expression of adrenergic and cholinergic transmitter phenotypes has been well studied. The object of this study was to determine if cells of a sensory ganglion are capable of neuropeptide transmitter plasticity. We studied whether cells of the trigeminal ganglion, which do not express the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in vivo, would express this peptide when grown with a tissue the gut, that contains large numbers of VIP neurons. Embryonic aneural chick rectum was explanted with the embryonic quail trigeminal ganglion on the chorioallantoic membrane of chick hosts for 7-8 days. The explants were fixed, sectioned, and stained for VIP immunoreactivity (IR), for neurofilament protein immunoreactivity, and for the quail nucleolar marker. In sections of the explants we observed two populations of quail neurons: small (10-13 microns) VIP-IR cells and large (25-32 microns) cells lacking VIP-IR and resembling native trigeminal neurons. Trigeminal ganglia explanted with embryonic heart or trigeminal ganglia explanted alone lacked small VIP-IR cells but contained large VIP-negative neurons. These results show that cells of the trigeminal ganglion grown with the gut can express a neuropeptide they do not express in the absence of the gut or in vivo. Thus the embryonic trigeminal ganglion contains cells that are plastic with respect to neuropeptide expression.

  8. Expression of Aquaporin-6 in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sun Young; Lee, Eung Suk; Ohn, Young-Hoon; Park, Tae Kwann

    2016-08-01

    Several aquaporins (AQPs) have been identified to be present in the eyes, and it has been suggested that they are involved in the movement of water and small solutes. AQP6, which has low water permeability and transports mainly anions, was recently discovered in the eyes. In the present study, we investigate the localization of AQP6 in the rat retina and show that AQP6 is selectively localized to the ganglion cell layer and the outer plexiform layer. Along with the gradual decrease in retinal ganglion cells after a crushing injury of optic nerve, immunofluorescence signals of AQP6 gradually decreased. Confocal microscope images confirmed AQP6 expression in retinal ganglion cells and Müller cells in vitro. Therefore, AQP6 might participate in water and anion transport in these cells.

  9. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in penguins.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Nolan, Paul M; Collin, Shaun P; Hart, Nathan S

    2012-01-01

    Penguins are a group of flightless seabirds that exhibit numerous morphological, behavioral and ecological adaptations to their amphibious lifestyle, but little is known about the topographic organization of neurons in their retinas. In this study, we used retinal wholemounts and stereological methods to estimate the total number and topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in addition to an anatomical estimate of spatial resolving power in two species of penguins: the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, and the king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus. The total number of ganglion cells per retina was approximately 1,200,000 in the little penguin and 1,110,000 in the king penguin. The topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in both species revealed the presence of a prominent horizontal visual streak with steeper gradients in the little penguin. The little penguin retinas showed ganglion cell density peaks of 21,867 cells/mm², affording spatial resolution in water of 17.07-17.46 cycles/degree (12.81-13.09 cycles/degree in air). In contrast, the king penguin showed a relatively lower peak density of ganglion cells of 14,222 cells/mm², but--due to its larger eye--slightly higher spatial resolution in water of 20.40 cycles/degree (15.30 cycles/degree in air). In addition, we mapped the distribution of giant ganglion cells in both penguin species using Nissl-stained wholemounts. In both species, topographic mapping of this cell type revealed the presence of an area gigantocellularis with a concentric organization of isodensity contours showing a peak in the far temporal retina of approximately 70 cells/mm² in the little penguin and 39 cells/mm² in the king penguin. Giant ganglion cell densities gradually fall towards the outermost isodensity contours revealing the presence of a vertically organized streak. In the little penguin, we confirmed our cytological characterization of giant ganglion cells using immunohistochemistry for microtubule

  10. Synchronized Firing among Retinal Ganglion Cells Signals Motion Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Greg; Taylor, Sam; Fisher, Clark; Harris, Rob; Berry, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY We show that when a moving object suddenly reverses direction, there is a brief, synchronous burst of firing within a population of retinal ganglion cells. This burst can be driven by either the leading or trailing edge of the object. The latency is constant for movement at different speeds, objects of different size, and bright versus dark contrasts. The same ganglion cells that signal a motion reversal also respond to smooth motion. We show that the brain can build a pure reversal detector using only a linear filter that reads out synchrony from a group of ganglion cells. These results indicate that not only can the retina anticipate the location of a smoothly moving object, but that it can also signal violations in its own prediction. We show that the reversal response cannot be explained by models of the classical receptive field and suggest that nonlinear receptive field subunits may be responsible. PMID:17880898

  11. Retinal ganglion cell adaptation to small luminance fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel K; Graña, Gilberto; Passaglia, Christopher L

    2010-08-01

    To accommodate the wide input range over which the visual system operates within the narrow output range of spiking neurons, the retina adjusts its sensitivity to the mean light level so that retinal ganglion cells can faithfully signal contrast, or relative deviations from the mean luminance. Given the large operating range of the visual system, the majority of work on luminance adaptation has involved logarithmic changes in light level. We report that luminance gain controls are recruited for remarkably small fluctuations in luminance as well. Using spike recordings from the rat optic tract, we show that ganglion cell responses to a brief flash of light are modulated in amplitude by local background fluctuations as little as 15% contrast. The time scale of the gain control is rapid (<125 ms), at least for on cells. The retinal locus of adaptation precedes the ganglion cell spike generator because response gain changes of on cells were uncorrelated with firing rate. The mechanism seems to reside within the inner retinal network and not in the photoreceptors, because the adaptation profiles of on and off cells differed markedly. The response gain changes follow Weber's law, suggesting that network mechanisms of luminance adaptation described in previous work modulates retinal ganglion cell sensitivity, not just when we move between different lighting environments, but also as our eyes scan a visual scene. Finally, we show that response amplitude is uniformly reduced for flashes on a modulated background that has spatial contrast, indicating that another gain control that integrates luminance signals nonlinearly over space operates within the receptive field center of rat ganglion cells.

  12. Twelve chromatically opponent ganglion cell types in turtle retina.

    PubMed

    Rocha, F A F; Saito, C A; Silveira, L C L; de Souza, J M; Ventura, D F

    2008-01-01

    The turtle retina has been extensively used for the study of chromatic processing mechanisms. Color opponency has been previously investigated with trichromatic paradigms, but behavioral studies show that the turtle has an ultraviolet (UV) channel and a tetrachromatic visual system. Our laboratory has been working in the characterization of neuronal responses in the retina of vertebrates using stimuli in the UV-visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the present investigation, we recorded color-opponent responses from turtle amacrine and ganglion cells to UV and visible stimuli and extended our previous results that UV color-opponency is present at the level of the inner nuclear layer. We recorded from 181 neurons, 36 of which were spectrally opponent. Among these, there were 10 amacrine (5%), and 26 ganglion cells (15%). Morphological identification of color-opponent neurons was possible for two ganglion cell classes (G17 and G22) and two amacrine cell classes (A22 and A23b). There was a variety of cell response types and a potential for complex processing of chromatic stimuli, with intensity- and wavelength-dependent response components. Ten types of color opponency were found in ganglion cells and by adding previous results from our laboratory, 12 types of opponent responses have been found. The majority of the ganglion cells were R+UVBG- and RG+UVB-color-opponents but there were other less frequent types of chromatic opponency. This study confirms the participation of a UV channel in the processing of color opponency in the turtle inner retina and shows that the turtle visual system has the retinal mechanisms to allow many possible chromatic combinations.

  13. Taurine prevents ultraviolet B induced apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Dayang, Wu; Dongbo, Pang

    2017-06-07

    Compatible osmolytes accumulation is an active resistance response in retina under ultraviolet radiation and hypertonicity conditions. The purpose of this research is to investigate the protective role of taurine on retina under ultraviolet B radiation. Osmolytes transporters was measured by quantitative realtime PCR. Osmolytes uptake was estimated by radioimmunoassay. Cell viability was caculated by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry analysis. Hypertonicity accelerated osmolytes uptake into retinal ganglion cells including taurine, betaine and myoinositol. Ultraviolet B radiation increased osmolytes transporter expression and osmolytes uptake. In addition, osmolyte taurine remarkably prevented ultraviolet B radiation induced cell apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on cell survival rate may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  14. Encoding Visual Information in Retinal Ganglion Cells with Prosthetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel K; Rizzo, Joseph F; Fried, Shelley I

    2011-01-01

    Retinal prostheses aim to restore functional vision to those blinded by outer retinal diseases using electric stimulation of surviving retinal neurons. The ability to replicate the spatiotemporal pattern of ganglion cell spike trains present under normal viewing conditions is presumably an important factor for restoring high-quality vision. In order to replicate such activity with a retinal prosthesis, it is important to consider both how visual information is encoded in ganglion cell spike trains, and how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation. The goal of the current review is to bring together these two concepts in order to guide the development of more effective stimulation strategies. We review the experiments to date that have studied how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation and discuss these findings in the context of known retinal signaling strategies. The results from such in vitro studies reveal the advantages and disadvantages of activating the ganglion cell directly with the electric stimulus (direct activation) as compared to activation of neurons that are presynaptic to the ganglion cell (indirect activation). While direct activation allows high temporal but low spatial resolution, indirect activation yields improved spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution. Finally, we use knowledge gained from in vitro experiments to infer the patterns of elicited activity in ongoing human trials, providing insights into some of the factors limiting the quality of prosthetic vision. PMID:21593546

  15. Cell type-specific bipolar cell input to ganglion cells in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Neumann, S; Hüser, L; Ondreka, K; Auler, N; Haverkamp, S

    2016-03-01

    Many distinct ganglion cell types, which are the output elements of the retina, were found to encode for specific features of a visual scene such as contrast, color information or movement. The detailed composition of retinal circuits leading to this tuning of retinal ganglion cells, however, is apart from some prominent examples, largely unknown. Here we aimed to investigate if ganglion cell types in the mouse retina receive selective input from specific bipolar cell types or if they sample their synaptic input non-selectively from all bipolar cell types stratifying within their dendritic tree. To address this question we took an anatomical approach and immunolabeled retinae of two transgenic mouse lines (GFP-O and JAM-B) with markers for ribbon synapses and type 2 bipolar cells. We morphologically identified all green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing ganglion cell types, which co-stratified with type 2 bipolar cells and assessed the total number of bipolar input synapses and the proportion of synapses deriving from type 2 bipolar cells. Only JAM-B ganglion cells received synaptic input preferentially from bipolar cell types other than type 2 bipolar cells whereas the other analyzed ganglion cell types sampled their bipolar input most likely from all bipolar cell terminals within their dendritic arbor. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transmission from photoreceptors to ganglion cells in turtle retina.

    PubMed

    Baylor, D A; Fettiplace, R

    1977-10-01

    1. Synaptic transfer between photoreceptors and impulse-generating cells was studied in isolated eyecups from turtles. Single red-sensitive cones or rods were stimulated by current passed through an intracellular electrode, and impulses generated by the resulting synaptic action were recorded with an external micro-electrode. This technique permits study of retinal transmission without the operation of the visual transduction mechanism. Antidromic stimulation of the optic nerve indicated that most of the impulse-generating cells were ganglion cells.2. Individual ganglion cells responded transiently to changes in the membrane potential of a receptor and could be classified into three groups on the basis of the direction of the effective change in potential. Off centre ganglion cells responded selectively to depolarizations of a receptor, while on centre ganglion cells responded selectively to hyperpolarizations. On-off ganglion cells responded to both depolarizations and hyperpolarizations of a receptor.3. Ganglion cells gave the same pattern of response to electrical hyperpolarization of a receptor and to light in the centre of their receptive fields. Subthreshold depolarizing currents passed in a receptor antagonized the ganglion cell's response to light, and subthreshold hyperpolarizing currents reinforced the response. These observations are consistent with the view that the hyperpolarization generated by visual transduction is responsible for regulating the release of transmitter at the first retinal synapse.4. When a receptor was stimulated with weak current pulses of fixed intensity the number and latency of the ganglion cell impulses fluctuated randomly in successive trials. The relation between the fraction of trials yielding a response and the stimulus intensity was broad. These results indicate that the link between retinal input and output is noisy.5. In the most sensitive pairs of cells, a response of one or more impulses could be obtained in half the

  17. Primordial rhythmic bursting in embryonic cochlear ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, T A; Jones, S M; Paggett, K C

    2001-10-15

    This study examined the nature of spontaneous discharge patterns in cochlear ganglion cells in embryonic day 13 (E13) to early E17 chicken embryos (stages 39-43). Neural recordings were made with glass micropipettes. No sound-driven activity was seen for the youngest embryos (maximum intensity 107 dB sound pressure level). Ganglion cells were labeled with biotinylated dextran amine in four embryos. In two animals, primary afferents projected to hair cells in the middle region along the length of the basilar papilla in which, in one cell, the terminals occupied a neural transverse position and, in the other, a more abneural location. Statoacoustic ganglion cells showing no spontaneous activity were seen for the first time in the chicken. The proportion of "silent" cells was largest at the youngest stages (stage 39, 67%). In active cells, mean spontaneous discharge rates [9.4 +/- 10.4 spikes (Sp)/sec; n = 44] were lower than rates for older embryos (19 +/- 17 Sp/sec) (Jones and Jones, 2000). Embryos at stages 39-41 evidenced even lower rates (4.2 +/- 5.0 Sp/sec). The most salient feature of spontaneous activity for stages 39-43 was a bursting discharge pattern in >75% of active neurons (33 of 44). Moreover, in 55% of these cells, there was a clear, slow, rhythmic bursting pattern. The proportion of cells showing rhythmic bursting was greatest at the youngest stages (39-42) and decreased to <30% at stage 43. Rate of bursting ranged from 1 to 54 bursts per minute. The presence of rhythmic bursting in cochlear ganglion cells at E13-E17 provides an explanation for the existence of such patterns in central auditory relays. The bursting patterns may serve as a patterning signal for central synaptic refinements in the auditory system during development.

  18. A morphological study of the retinal ganglion cells of the Afghan pika (Ochotona rufescens).

    PubMed

    Akaishi, Y; Uchiyama, H; Ito, H; Shimizu, Y

    1995-03-01

    The distribution and morphology of the retinal ganglion cells was studied in a relative of the rabbit, the Afghan pika. The total number of retinal ganglion cells was approximately 170,000. The total number of optic nerve fibers was between 160,000 and 190,000, corresponding to the total number of retinal ganglion cells. Retinal ganglion cells were found to have a horizontal region of high-density. The maximum density was 5250 cells/mm2. This region was located in the central retina below the optic disc. This area contained numerous closely packed small ganglion cells, while the peripheral retina (especially in the dorsal periphery) contained large ganglion cells more loosely dispersed. The retinal ganglion cells labeled by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were morphologically classified into three types based on dendritic length and ramification pattern.

  19. Proliferation and cell cycle dynamics in the developing stellate ganglion.

    PubMed

    Gonsalvez, David G; Cane, Kylie N; Landman, Kerry A; Enomoto, Hideki; Young, Heather M; Anderson, Colin R

    2013-04-03

    Cell proliferation during nervous system development is poorly understood outside the mouse neocortex. We measured cell cycle dynamics in the embryonic mouse sympathetic stellate ganglion, where neuroblasts continue to proliferate following neuronal differentiation. At embryonic day (E) 9.5, when neural crest-derived cells were migrating and coalescing into the ganglion primordium, all cells were cycling, cell cycle length was only 10.6 h, and S-phase comprised over 65% of the cell cycle; these values are similar to those previously reported for embryonic stem cells. At E10.5, Sox10(+) cells lengthened their cell cycle to 38 h and reduced the length of S-phase. As cells started to express the neuronal markers Tuj1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) at E10.5, they exited the cell cycle. At E11.5, when >80% of cells in the ganglion were Tuj1(+)/TH(+) neuroblasts, all cells were again cycling. Neuroblast cell cycle length did not change significantly after E11.5, and 98% of Sox10(-)/TH(+) cells had exited the cell cycle by E18.5. The cell cycle length of Sox10(+)/TH(-) cells increased during late embryonic development, and ∼25% were still cycling at E18.5. Loss of Ret increased neuroblast cell cycle length at E16.5 and decreased the number of neuroblasts at E18.5. A mathematical model generated from our data successfully predicted the relative change in proportions of neuroblasts and non-neuroblasts in wild-type mice. Our results show that, like other neurons, sympathetic neuron differentiation is associated with exit from the cell cycle; sympathetic neurons are unusual in that they then re-enter the cell cycle before later permanently exiting.

  20. The functional diversity of retinal ganglion cells in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Baden, Tom; Berens, Philipp; Franke, Katrin; Román Rosón, Miroslav; Bethge, Matthias; Euler, Thomas

    2016-01-21

    In the vertebrate visual system, all output of the retina is carried by retinal ganglion cells. Each type encodes distinct visual features in parallel for transmission to the brain. How many such 'output channels' exist and what each encodes are areas of intense debate. In the mouse, anatomical estimates range from 15 to 20 channels, and only a handful are functionally understood. By combining two-photon calcium imaging to obtain dense retinal recordings and unsupervised clustering of the resulting sample of more than 11,000 cells, here we show that the mouse retina harbours substantially more than 30 functional output channels. These include all known and several new ganglion cell types, as verified by genetic and anatomical criteria. Therefore, information channels from the mouse eye to the mouse brain are considerably more diverse than shown thus far by anatomical studies, suggesting an encoding strategy resembling that used in state-of-the-art artificial vision systems.

  1. High speed coding for velocity by archerfish retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Viola; Kretschmer, Friedrich; Ahlers, Malte T; Ammermüller, Josef

    2012-06-18

    Archerfish show very short behavioural latencies in response to falling prey. This raises the question, which response parameters of retinal ganglion cells to moving stimuli are best suited for fast coding of stimulus speed and direction. We compared stimulus reconstruction quality based on the ganglion cell response parameters latency, first interspike interval, and rate. For stimulus reconstruction of moving stimuli using latency was superior to using the other stimulus parameters. This was true for absolute latency, with respect to stimulus onset, as well as for relative latency, with respect to population response onset. Iteratively increasing the number of cells used for reconstruction decreased the calculated error close to zero. Latency is the fastest response parameter available to the brain. Therefore, latency coding is best suited for high speed coding of moving objects. The quantitative data of this study are in good accordance with previously published behavioural response latencies.

  2. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing.

    PubMed

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  3. Enriched retinal ganglion cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Katherine P.; Hung, Sandy S. C.; Sharov, Alexei; Lo, Camden Y.; Needham, Karina; Lidgerwood, Grace E.; Jackson, Stacey; Crombie, Duncan E.; Nayagam, Bryony A.; Cook, Anthony L.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Optic neuropathies are characterised by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that lead to vision impairment. Development of cell therapy requires a better understanding of the signals that direct stem cells into RGCs. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an unlimited cellular source for generation of human RGCs in vitro. In this study, we present a 45-day protocol that utilises magnetic activated cell sorting to generate enriched population of RGCs via stepwise retinal differentiation using hESCs. We performed an extensive characterization of these stem cell-derived RGCs by examining the gene and protein expressions of a panel of neural/RGC markers. Furthermore, whole transcriptome analysis demonstrated similarity of the hESC-derived RGCs to human adult RGCs. The enriched hESC-RGCs possess long axons, functional electrophysiological profiles and axonal transport of mitochondria, suggestive of maturity. In summary, this RGC differentiation protocol can generate an enriched population of functional RGCs from hESCs, allowing future studies on disease modeling of optic neuropathies and development of cell therapies. PMID:27506453

  4. Diverse types of ganglion cell photoreceptors in the mammalian retina.

    PubMed

    Sand, Andrea; Schmidt, Tiffany M; Kofuji, Paulo

    2012-07-01

    Photoreceptors carry out the first step in vision by capturing light and transducing it into electrical signals. Rod and cone photoreceptors efficiently translate photon capture into electrical signals by light activation of opsin-type photopigments. Until recently, the central dogma was that, for mammals, all phototransduction occurred in rods and cones. However, the recent discovery of a novel photoreceptor type in the inner retina has fundamentally challenged this view. These retinal ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive and mediate a broad range of physiological responses such as photoentrainment of the circadian clock, light regulation of sleep, pupillary light reflex, and light suppression of melatonin secretion. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells express melanopsin, a novel opsin-based signaling mechanism reminiscent of that found in invertebrate rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells convey environmental irradiance information directly to brain centers such as the hypothalamus, preoptic nucleus, and lateral geniculate nucleus. Initial studies suggested that these melanopsin-expressing photoreceptors were an anatomically and functionally homogeneous population. However, over the past decade or so, it has become apparent that these photoreceptors are distinguishable as individual subtypes on the basis of their morphology, molecular markers, functional properties, and efferent projections. These results have provided a novel classification scheme with five melanopsin photoreceptor subtypes in the mammalian retina, each presumably with differential input and output properties. In this review, we summarize the evidence for the structural and functional diversity of melanopsin photoreceptor subtypes and current controversies in the field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DIVERSE TYPES OF GANGLION CELL PHOTORECEPTORS IN THE MAMMALIAN RETINA

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Andrea; Schmidt, Tiffany M.; Kofuji, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Photoreceptors carry out the first step in vision by capturing light and transducing it into electrical signals. Rod and cone photoreceptors efficiently translate photon capture into electrical signals by light activation of opsin-type photopigments. Until recently, the central dogma was that, for mammals, all phototransduction occurred in rods and cones. However, the recent discovery of a novel photoreceptor type in the inner retina has fundamentally challenged this view. These retinal ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive and mediate a broad range of physiological responses such as photoentrainment of the circadian clock, light regulation of sleep, pupillary light reflex, and light suppression of melatonin secretion. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells express melanopsin, a novel opsin-based signaling mechanism reminiscent of that found in invertebrate rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells convey environmental irradiance information directly to brain centers such as the hypothalamus, preoptic nucleus, and lateral geniculate nucleus. Initial studies suggested that these melanopsin-expressing photoreceptors were an anatomically and functionally homogeneous population. However, over the past decade or so, it has become apparent that these photoreceptors are distinguishable as individual subtypes on the basis of their morphology, molecular markers, functional properties, and efferent projections. These results have provided a novel classification scheme with five melanopsin photoreceptor subtypes in the mammalian retina, each presumably with differential input and output properties. In this review, we summarize the evidence for the structural and functional diversity of melanopsin photoreceptor subtypes and current controversies in the field. PMID:22480975

  6. Dynamic Characteristics of Retinal Ganglion Cell Responses in Goldfish

    PubMed Central

    Schellart, Nico A. M.; Spekreijse, Henk

    1972-01-01

    A cross-correlation technique has been applied to quantify the dependence of the dynamic characteristics of retinal ganglion cell responses in goldfish on intensity, wavelength, spatial configuration, and spot size. Both theoretical and experimental evidence justify the use of the cross-correlation procedure which allows the completion of rather extensive measurements in a relatively short time. The findings indicate the following. (a) The shape of the amplitude characteristics depends on the energy per unit of time (power) falling within the center of a receptive field rather than on the intensity of the stimulus spot. For spot diameters of up to 1 mm, identical amplitude characteristics can be obtained by interchanging area and intensity. Therefore the receptor processes do not contribute to the change in the amplitude characteristics as a function of the power of the stimulus light. (b) For high frequencies the amplitude characteristics obtained as a function of power join together in a common envelope if plotted on an absolute sensitivity scale. For spontaneous ganglion cells this envelope holds over a range of three log units and the shape is identical for central and peripheral processes. (c) The amplitude characteristics of the central and peripheral processes converging to a ganglion cell are identical, irrespective of the sign (on or off) and the spectral coding of the response. Therefore we have no evidence for interneurons in the goldfish retina unique to the periphery of the receptive field. PMID:5007262

  7. Hedgehogs and retinal ganglion cells: organizers of the mammalian retina.

    PubMed

    Dakubo, Gabriel D; Wallace, Valerie A

    2004-03-01

    The mature vertebrate retina develops from a population of multipotential neural progenitor cells that give rise to all of the retinal neurons and one glial cell type. Retinal histogenesis is regulated, in part, by cell extrinsic cues. A growing number of studies now implicate signaling by members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of morphogens in vertebrate retinal development. In this review we will discuss the role of Hh signals from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the retina, on proliferation, differentiation and lamination in the neural retina.

  8. Dopaminergic modulation of tracer coupling in a ganglion-amacrine cell network

    PubMed Central

    MILLS, STEPHEN L.; XIA, XIAO-BO; HOSHI, HIDEO; FIRTH, SALLY I.; RICE, MARGARET E.; FRISHMAN, LAURA J.; MARSHAK, DAVID W.

    2008-01-01

    Many retinal ganglion cells are coupled via gap junctions with neighboring amacrine cells and ganglion cells. We investigated the extent and dynamics of coupling in one such network, the OFF α ganglion cell of rabbit retina and its associated amacrine cells. We also observed the relative spread of Neurobiotin injected into a ganglion cell in the presence of modulators of gap junctional permeability. We found that gap junctions between amacrine cells were closed via stimulation of a D1 dopamine receptor, while the gap junctions between ganglion cells were closed via stimulation of a D2 dopamine receptor. The pairs of hemichannels making up the heterologous gap junctions between the ganglion and amacrine cells were modulated independently, so that elevations of cAMP in the ganglion cell open the ganglion cell hemichannels, while elevations of cAMP in the amacrine cell close its hemichannels. We also measured endogenous dopamine release from an eyecup preparation and found a basal release from the dark-adapted retina of approximately 2 pmol/min during the day. Maximal stimulation with light increased the rate of dopamine release from rabbit retina by 66%. The results suggest that coupling between members of the OFF α ganglion cell/amacrine cell network is differentially modulated with changing levels of dopamine. PMID:17711603

  9. [Morphological transformation of sensory ganglion neurons and satellite cells].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, S; Kobayashi, N; Mominoki, K; Wakisaka, H; Mori, M; Murakami, S

    1998-12-01

    Sensory ganglion neurons in higher vertebrates are unique in that they are pseudounipolar with a single stem process that divides at some distance from the cell body into central and peripheral processes. In the early stages of development, these neurons are bipolar but later they became pseudounipolar. This developmental process of sensory ganglion neurons with satellite cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy following removal of connective tissue. This pseudo-unipolarization began earlier but proceeded at a slower rate in chick than in rat embryos. This difference may due to the difference found in the extent and intimacy of satellite cell investments in these two animals, which was due to the fact that sensory neurons undergo pseudo-unipolarization only in the presence of satellite cells in vitro. The neuronal perikaryal projections were observed by scanning electron microscopy after removal of connective tissue and satellite cells. Morphometric analysis reveal that perikaryal projections were more numerous on the surface of mature pseudounipolar neurons than on the surface of premature bipolar neurons, and that the number of projections increased as the neuronal cell bodies grew larger. This may support the hypothesis that perikaryal projections are structural devices for increasing the neuron-satellite interface and for improving the efficiency of metabolic exchange between these two cell types. These results suggest that satellite cells play an important role in neuronal maturation.

  10. Components and properties of the G3 ganglion cell circuit in the rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Hideo; Mills, Stephen L

    2009-03-01

    Each point on the retina is sampled by about 15 types of ganglion cell, each of which is an element in a circuit also containing specific types of bipolar cell and amacrine cell. Only a few of these circuits are well characterized. We found that intracellular injection of Neurobiotin into a specific ganglion cell type targeted by fluorescent markers also stained an asymmetrically branching ganglion cell. It was also tracer-coupled to an unusual type of amacrine cell whose dendrites were strongly asymmetric, coursing in a narrow bundle from the soma in the dorsal direction only. The dendritic field of the ganglion cell stratifies initially in sublamina b (the ON layers), but with few specializations and branches, and then more extensively in sublamina a (the OFF layers) at the level of the processes of the coupled amacrine cell. Intersections of the ganglion and amacrine cell processes contain puncta immunopositive for Cx36. Additionally, we found that the dopaminergic amacrine cell makes contact with both the ganglion cell and the amacrine cell, and that a bipolar cell immunopositive for calbindin synapses onto the sublamina b processes of the ganglion cell. Dopamine D(1) receptor activation reduced tracer flow to the amacrine cells. We have thus targeted and characterized two poorly understood retinal cell types and placed them with two other cell types in a substantial portion of a new retinal circuit. This unique circuit comprised of pronounced asymmetries in the ganglion cell and amacrine cell dendritic fields may result in a substantial orientation bias.

  11. Sensitivity of Retinal Ganglion Cell Photoreceptors in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients with Photophobia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0434 TITLE: Sensitivity of retinal ganglion cell photoreceptors in traumatic brain injury patients...1Sep2012 - 31Aug2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sensitivity of retinal ganglion cell photoreceptors in traumatic brain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1... sensitivity of melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells in subjects that have had a prior head injury. These intrinsically photosensitive retinal

  12. Sympathetic and sensory innervation of small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells in rat superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Fumiya; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Kusakabe, Tatsumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2015-02-01

    The sympathetic ganglion contains small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells derived from the neural crest. We morphologically characterize SIF cells and focus on their relationship with ganglionic cells, preganglionic nerve fibers and sensory nerve endings. SIF cells stained intensely for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), with a few cells also being immunoreactive for dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH). Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)-immunoreactive puncta were distributed around some clusters of SIF cells, whereas some SIF cells closely abutted DBH-immunoreactive ganglionic cells. SIF cells contained bassoon-immunoreactive products beneath the cell membrane at the attachments and on opposite sites to the ganglionic cells. Ganglion neurons and SIF cells were immunoreactive to dopamine D2 receptors. Immunohistochemistry for P2X3 revealed ramified nerve endings with P2X3 immunoreactivity around SIF cells. Triple-labeling for P2X3, TH and VAChT allowed the classification of SIF cells into three types based on their innervation: (1) with only VAChT-immunoreactive puncta, (2) with only P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings, (3) with both P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings and VAChT-immunoreactive puncta. The results of retrograde tracing with fast blue dye indicated that most of these nerve endings originated from the petrosal ganglion. Thus, SIF cells in the superior cervical ganglion are innervated by preganglionic fibers and glossopharyngeal sensory nerve endings and can be classified into three types. SIF cells might modulate sympathetic activity in the superior cervical ganglion.

  13. Distribution and morphology of retinal ganglion cells in the Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Ikushima, M; Watanabe, M; Ito, H

    1986-06-25

    A ganglion cell density map was produced from the Nissl-stained retinal whole mount of the Japanese quail. Ganglion cell density diminished nearly concentrically from the central area toward the retinal periphery. The mean soma area of ganglion cells in isodensity zones increased as the cell density decreased. The histograms of soma areas in each zone indicated that a population of small-sized ganglion cells persists into the peripheral retina. The total number of ganglion cells was estimated at about 2.0 million. Electron microscopic examination of the optic nerve revealed thin unmyelinated axons to comprise 69% of the total fiber count (about 2.0 million). Since there was no discrepancy between both the total numbers of neurons in the ganglion cell layer and optic nerve fibers, it is inferred that displaced amacrine cells are few, if any. The spectrum in optic nerve fiber diameter showed a unimodal skewed distribution quite similar to the histogram of soma areas of ganglion cells in the whole retina. This suggests a close correlation between soma areas and axon diameters. Retinal ganglion cells filled from the optic nerve with horseradish peroxidase were classified into 7 types according to such morphological characteristics as size, shape and location of the soma, as well as dendritic arborization pattern. Taking into account areal ranges of somata of each cell type, it can be assumed that most of the ganglion cells in the whole retinal ganglion cell layer are composed of type I, II and III cells, and that the population of uniformly small-sized ganglion cells corresponds to type I cells and is an origin of unmyelinated axons in the optic nerve.

  14. Spontaneous activity of morphologically identified ganglion cells in the developing ferret retina.

    PubMed

    Liets, Lauren C; Olshausen, Bruno A; Wang, Guo-Yong; Chalupa, Leo M

    2003-08-13

    Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from morphologically identified ganglion cells in the intact retina of developing ferrets. As early as 3 d after birth, all ganglion cells exhibited bursts of spontaneous activity, with the interval between bursts gradually decreasing with maturity. By 2 weeks after birth, ganglion cells could be morphologically differentiated into three major classes (alpha, beta, and gamma), and at this time each cell class was characterized by a distinct pattern of spontaneous activity. Dual patch-clamp recordings from pairs of neighboring cells revealed that cells of all morphological classes burst in a coordinated manner, regardless of cell type. These observations suggest that a common mechanism underlies the bursting patterns exhibited by all ganglion cell classes, and that class-specific firing patterns emerge coincident with retinal ganglion cell morphological differentiation.

  15. Incomplete segregation of endorgan-specific vestibular ganglion cells in mice and rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maklad, A.; Fritzsch, B.

    1999-01-01

    The endorgan-specific distribution of vestibular ganglion cells was studied in neonatal and postnatal rats and mice using indocarbocyanine dye (DiI) and dextran amines for retrograde and anterograde labeling. Retrograde DiI tracing from the anterior vertical canal labeled neurons scattered throughout the whole superior vestibular ganglion, with denser labeling at the dorsal and central regions. Horizontal canal neurons were scattered along the dorsoventral axis with more clustering toward the dorsal and ventral poles of this axis. Utricular ganglion cells occupied predominantly the central region of the superior vestibular ganglion. This utricular population overlapped with both the anterior vertical and horizontal canals' ganglion cells. Posterior vertical canal neurons were clustered in the posterior part of the inferior vestibular ganglion. The saccular neurons were distributed in the two parts of the vestibular ganglion, the superior and inferior ganglia. Within the inferior ganglion, the saccular neurons were clustered in the anterior part. In the superior ganglion, the saccular neurons were widely scattered throughout the whole ganglion with more numerous neurons at the posterior half. Small and large neurons were labeled from all endorgans. Examination of the fiber trajectory within the superior division of the vestibular nerve showed no clear lamination of the fibers innervating the different endorgans. These results demonstrate an overlapping pattern between the different populations within the superior ganglion, while in the inferior ganglion, the posterior canal and saccular neurons show tighter clustering but incomplete segregation. This distribution implies that the ganglion cells are assigned for their target during development in a stochastic rather than topographical fashion.

  16. Regional differences in myelination of chick vestibulocochlear ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Jie; Kobayashi, Hiroto; Yoshida, Saori; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Naito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    In vertebrates, vestibular and cochlear ganglion (VG and CG, respectively) cells are bipolar neurons with myelinated axons and perikarya. The time course of the myelination of the VG and CG cells during development of chick embryos was investigated. Chick VG and CG from embryonic day at 7-20 (E7-20) were prepared for a transmission electron microscopy, myelin basic protein immunohistochemistry, and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. In the VG cells, myelination was first observed on the peripheral axons of the ampullar nerves at E10, on the utricular and saccular nerves at E12, and on the lagenar and neglecta nerves at E13. In the VG central axons, myelination was first seen on the ampullar nerves at E11, on the utricular and saccular nerves at E13, and on the lagenar nerves at E13. In the CG cells, the myelination was first observed on the peripheral and central axons at E14. In both VG and CG, myelination was observed on the perikarya at E17. These results suggest that the onset of the axonal myelination on the VG cells occurred earlier than that on the CG cells, whereas the perikaryal myelination occurred at about the same time on the both types of ganglion cells. Moreover, the myelination on the ampullar nerves occurred earlier than that on the utricular and saccular nerves. The myelination on the peripheral axons occurred earlier than that on the central axons of the VG cells, whereas that on the central and peripheral axons of the CG cells occurred at about the same time. The regional differences in myelination in relation to the onset of functional activities in the VG and CG cells are discussed. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spiral Ganglion Stem Cells Can Be Propagated and Differentiated Into Neurons and Glia

    PubMed Central

    Zecha, Veronika; Wagenblast, Jens; Arnhold, Stefan; Edge, Albert S. B.; Stöver, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The spiral ganglion is an essential functional component of the peripheral auditory system. Most types of hearing loss are associated with spiral ganglion cell degeneration which is irreversible due to the inner ear's lack of regenerative capacity. Recent studies revealed the existence of stem cells in the postnatal spiral ganglion, which gives rise to the hope that these cells might be useful for regenerative inner ear therapies. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of sphere-forming stem cells isolated from the spiral ganglion of postnatal mice. We show that spiral ganglion spheres have characteristics similar to neurospheres isolated from the brain. Importantly, spiral ganglion sphere cells maintain their major stem cell characteristics after repeated propagation, which enables the culture of spheres for an extended period of time. In this work, we also demonstrate that differentiated sphere-derived cell populations not only adopt the immunophenotype of mature spiral ganglion cells but also develop distinct ultrastructural features of neurons and glial cells. Thus, our work provides further evidence that self-renewing spiral ganglion stem cells might serve as a promising source for the regeneration of lost auditory neurons. PMID:24940560

  18. Incoming synapses and size of small granule-containing cells in a rat sympathetic ganglion after post-ganglionic axotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Case, C P; Matthews, M R

    1986-01-01

    A quantitative ultrastructural study has been made of the reaction of the incoming synapses of small granule-containing cells after axotomy of the major post-ganglionic branches of the superior cervical ganglion of the young adult rat. These cells are intrinsic and interneurone-like in this ganglion, receiving a preganglionic input and giving outgoing synapses to principal post-ganglionic neurones. Unlike their outgoing synapses, which are lost after post-ganglionic axotomy (Case & Matthews, 1986), the incoming synapses of the small granule-containing cells in axotomized ganglia increased in incidence post-operatively. The increase first became clearly evident 5-7 days post-operatively and was greater, being both more sustained and progressive, after bilateral than after unilateral axotomy. After bilateral axotomy the incidence of incoming synapses rose to more than four times that of normal ganglia and was still elevated at 128 days post-operatively, but was within normal limits at 390 days. After a unilateral lesion, increases of similar extent and time course to those in the axotomized ganglia were seen in the incoming synapses of small granule-containing cells in the uninjured contralateral ganglia. The incoming synapses of the small granule-containing cells are multifocal, i.e. show several points or active foci of synaptic specialization. The increase in synapses expressed itself both through an increased incidence of these synaptic active foci per nerve terminal and through an increase in the number of presynaptic nerve terminal profiles associated with the cells. Control observations indicated that the increase in synapses was not due to surgical stress, nor was it attributable solely to post-operative ageing. The nerve terminals which were presynaptic to the small granule-containing cells post-operatively were all of preganglionic origin: no incoming synapses or presynaptic nerve terminals remained at 2 days after a preganglionic denervation of axotomized

  19. Modeling the variability of firing rate of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Levine, M W

    1992-12-01

    Impulse trains simulating the maintained discharges of retinal ganglion cells were generated by digital realizations of the integrate-and-fire model. If the mean rate were set by a "bias" level added to "noise," the variability of firing would be related to the mean firing rate as an inverse square root law; the maintained discharges of retinal ganglion cells deviate systematically from such a relationship. A more realistic relationship can be obtained if the integrate-and-fire mechanism is "leaky"; with this refinement, the integrate-and-fire model captures the essential features of the data. However, the model shows that the distribution of intervals is insensitive to that of the underlying variability. The leakage time constant, threshold, and distribution of the noise are confounded, rendering the model unspecifiable. Another aspect of variability is presented by the variance of responses to repeated discrete stimuli. The variance of response rate increases with the mean response amplitude; the nature of that relationship depends on the duration of the periods in which the response is sampled. These results have defied explanation. But if it is assumed that variability depends on mean rate in the way observed for maintained discharges, the variability of responses to abrupt changes in lighting can be predicted from the observed mean responses. The parameters that provide the best fits for the variability of responses also provide a reasonable fit to the variability of maintained discharges.

  20. The circadian response of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Zele, Andrew J; Feigl, Beatrix; Smith, Simon S; Markwell, Emma L

    2011-03-14

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) signal environmental light level to the central circadian clock and contribute to the pupil light reflex. It is unknown if ipRGC activity is subject to extrinsic (central) or intrinsic (retinal) network-mediated circadian modulation during light entrainment and phase shifting. Eleven younger persons (18-30 years) with no ophthalmological, medical or sleep disorders participated. The activity of the inner (ipRGC) and outer retina (cone photoreceptors) was assessed hourly using the pupil light reflex during a 24 h period of constant environmental illumination (10 lux). Exogenous circadian cues of activity, sleep, posture, caffeine, ambient temperature, caloric intake and ambient illumination were controlled. Dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) was determined from salivary melatonin assay at hourly intervals, and participant melatonin onset values were set to 14 h to adjust clock time to circadian time. Here we demonstrate in humans that the ipRGC controlled post-illumination pupil response has a circadian rhythm independent of external light cues. This circadian variation precedes melatonin onset and the minimum ipRGC driven pupil response occurs post melatonin onset. Outer retinal photoreceptor contributions to the inner retinal ipRGC driven post-illumination pupil response also show circadian variation whereas direct outer retinal cone inputs to the pupil light reflex do not, indicating that intrinsically photosensitive (melanopsin) retinal ganglion cells mediate this circadian variation.

  1. Divisive suppression explains high-precision firing and contrast adaptation in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuwei; Wang, Yanbin V; Park, Silvia J H; Demb, Jonathan B; Butts, Daniel A

    2016-11-14

    Visual processing depends on specific computations implemented by complex neural circuits. Here, we present a circuit-inspired model of retinal ganglion cell computation, targeted to explain their temporal dynamics and adaptation to contrast. To localize the sources of such processing, we used recordings at the levels of synaptic input and spiking output in the in vitro mouse retina. We found that an ON-Alpha ganglion cell's excitatory synaptic inputs were described by a divisive interaction between excitation and delayed suppression, which explained nonlinear processing that was already present in ganglion cell inputs. Ganglion cell output was further shaped by spike generation mechanisms. The full model accurately predicted spike responses with unprecedented millisecond precision, and accurately described contrast adaptation of the spike train. These results demonstrate how circuit and cell-intrinsic mechanisms interact for ganglion cell function and, more generally, illustrate the power of circuit-inspired modeling of sensory processing.

  2. Synaptic inputs to the ganglion cells in the tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Wunk, D F; Werblin, F S

    1979-03-01

    The postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) that form the ganglion cell light response were isolated by polarizing the cell membrane with extrinsic currents while stimulating at either the center or surround of the cell's receptive field. The time-course and receptive field properties of the PSPs were correlated with those of the bipolar and amacrine cells. The tiger salamander retina contains four main types of ganglion cell: "on" center, "off" center, "on-off", and a "hybrid" cell that responds transiently to center, but sustainedly, to surround illumination. The results lead to these inferences. The on-ganglion cell receives excitatory synpatic input from the on bipolars and that synapse is "silent" in the dark. The off-ganglion cell receives excitatory synaptic input from the off bipolars with this synapse tonically active in the dark. The on-off and hybrid ganglion cells receive a transient excitatory input with narrow receptive field, not simply correlated with the activity of any presynaptic cell. All cell types receive a broad field transient inhibitory input, which apparently originates in the transient amacrine cells. Thus, most, but not all, ganglion cell responses can be explained in terms of synaptic inputs from bipolar and amacrine cells, integrated at the ganglion cell membrane.

  3. Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Do, Michael Tri H.; Kang, Shin H.; Xue, Tian; Zhong, Haining; Liao, Hsi-Wen; Bergles, Dwight E.; Yau, King-Wai

    2009-01-01

    A subset of retinal ganglion cells has recently been discovered to be intrinsically photosensitive, with melanopsin as the pigment. These cells project primarily to brain centers for non-image-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment. How well they signal intrinsic light absorption to drive behavior remains unclear. Here we report fundamental parameters governing their intrinsic light responses and associated spike generation. The membrane density of melanopsin is 104-fold lower than that of rod and cone pigments, resulting in a very low photon-catch and a phototransducing role only in relatively bright light. Nonetheless, each captured photon elicits a large and extraordinarily prolonged response, with a unique shape among known photoreceptors. Remarkably, like rods, these cells are capable of signalling single-photon absorption. A flash causing a few hundred isomerized melanopsin molecules in a retina is sufficient for reaching threshold for the pupillary light reflex. PMID:19118382

  4. Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Do, Michael Tri H; Kang, Shin H; Xue, Tian; Zhong, Haining; Liao, Hsi-Wen; Bergles, Dwight E; Yau, King-Wai

    2009-01-15

    A subset of retinal ganglion cells has recently been discovered to be intrinsically photosensitive, with melanopsin as the pigment. These cells project primarily to brain centres for non-image-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment. How well they signal intrinsic light absorption to drive behaviour remains unclear. Here we report fundamental parameters governing their intrinsic light responses and associated spike generation. The membrane density of melanopsin is 10(4)-fold lower than that of rod and cone pigments, resulting in a very low photon catch and a phototransducing role only in relatively bright light. Nonetheless, each captured photon elicits a large and extraordinarily prolonged response, with a unique shape among known photoreceptors. Notably, like rods, these cells are capable of signalling single-photon absorption. A flash causing a few hundred isomerized melanopsin molecules in a retina is sufficient for reaching threshold for the pupillary light reflex.

  5. Morphological properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Julie L; Van Der List, Deborah; Chalupa, Leo M

    2007-08-20

    Quantitative methods were used to assess dendritic stratification and other structural features of developing mouse retinal ganglion cells from birth to after eye opening. Cells were labeled by transgenic expression of yellow fluorescent protein, DiOlistics or diffusion of DiI, and subsequently imaged in three dimensions on a confocal microscope followed by morphometric analysis of 13 different structural properties. At postnatal day 1 (P1), the dendrites of all cells ramified across the vertical extent of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). By P3/4, dendrites were largely confined to different strata of the IPL. The stratification of dendrites initially reflected a retraction of widely ramifying dendritic processes, but for the most part this was due to the subsequent vertical expansion of the IPL. By P8, distinct cell classes could be recognized, although these had not yet attained adult-like properties. The structural features differentiating cell classes were found to follow three different developmental trends. The mean values of one set of morphological parameters were essentially unchanged throughout postnatal development; another set of measures showed a rapid rise with age to adult values; and a third set of measures first increased with age and later decreased, with the regressive events initiated around the time of eye opening. These findings suggest that the morphological development of retinal ganglion cells is regulated by diverse factors operating during different but overlapping time periods. Our results also suggest that dendritic stratification may be more highly specified in the developing mammalian retina than has been previously realized.

  6. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin protects retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Chanjuan; Lu, Dan; Shu, Xiaoming; Zhu, Lihong; Qi, Renbing; So, Kwok-Fai; Lu, Daxiang; Xu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The death of retinal ganglion cells is a hallmark of many optic neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma and retinopathy. Oxidative stress is one of the major reasons to cause the cell death. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin has many health beneficial effects including antioxidative and neuroprotective actions. Here we tested whether oligomeric proanthocyanidin may protect retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress induced-apoptosis in vitro. Retinal ganglion cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide with or without oligomeric proanthocyanidin. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that treating retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5 cells with 20 μmol/L oligomeric proanthocyanidin significantly decreased the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced death. Results of flow cytometry and Hoechst staining demonstrated that the death of RGC-5 cells was mainly caused by cell apoptosis. We further found that expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 were significantly decreased while anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was greatly increased in H2O2 damaged RGC-5 cells with oligomeric proanthocyanidin by western blot assay. Furthermore, in retinal explant culture, the number of surviving retinal ganglion cells in H2O2-damaged retinal ganglion cells with oligomeric proanthocyanidin was significantly increased. Our studies thus demonstrate that oligomeric proanthocyanidin can protect oxidative stress-injured retinal ganglion cells by inhibiting apoptotic process. PMID:25206541

  7. FTY720 protects retinal ganglion cells in experimental glaucoma.

    PubMed

    You, Yuyi; Gupta, Vivek K; Li, Jonathan C; Al-Adawy, Nadia; Klistorner, Alexander; Graham, Stuart L

    2014-04-17

    To investigate the neuroprotective effects of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) analogue fingolimod (FTY720) in experimental glaucoma in rats. A unilateral chronic ocular hypertensive model was established by injections of microbeads into the anterior eye chamber of adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Fingolimod was administered to one group of rats intraperitoneally every week for 3 months. The scotopic threshold response (STR) was recorded to assess the function of the inner retina. Changes in cell density in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining on retinal sections and axonal count of the optic nerve was performed using Bielschowsky's silver staining. Effects of drug treatment on activation of Akt and Erk1/2 were evaluated using Western blotting by assessing phosphorylation levels of these proteins. The expression of S1P receptors in the optic nerve head region was also evaluated using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Administration of FTY720 reduced the loss of STR amplitude in glaucomatous eyes (P < 0.05). Counting and plotting the cell numbers/axonal density showed significant neural preservation in the GCL and the optic nerve (P < 0.05). An increased phosphorylation level of Akt and Erk1/2 following FTY720 administration was observed. Both S1P1 and S1P5 receptors were found to be expressed in the retina and the expression of S1P1R was upregulated in experimentally-induced glaucoma. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that FTY720 could act as a neuroprotective agent to protect retinal ganglion cells in experimental glaucoma. Administration of this drug significantly reduces the structural and functional loss of the inner retina elicited indicating that it may potentially be used to attenuate neuronal loss and optic nerve damage in glaucomatous patients. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  8. Association Between Regular Cannabis Use and Ganglion Cell Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Schwitzer, Thomas; Schwan, Raymund; Albuisson, Eliane; Giersch, Anne; Lalanne, Laurence; Angioi-Duprez, Karine; Laprevote, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Because cannabis use is a major public health concern and cannabis is known to act on central neurotransmission, studying the retinal ganglion cells in individuals who regularly use cannabis is of interest. To determine whether the regular use of cannabis could alter the function of retinal ganglion cells in humans. For this case-control study, individuals who regularly use cannabis, as well as healthy controls, were recruited, and data were collected from February 11 to October 28, 2014. Retinal function was used as a direct marker of brain neurotransmission abnormalities in complex mental phenomena. Amplitude and implicit time of the N95 wave on results of pattern electroretinography. Twenty-eight of the 52 participants were regular cannabis users (24 men and 4 women; median age, 22 years [95% CI, 21-24 years]), and the remaining 24 were controls (20 men and 4 women; median age, 24 years [95% CI, 23-27 years]). There was no difference between groups in terms of age (P = .13) or sex (P = .81). After adjustment for the number of years of education and alcohol use, there was a significant increase for cannabis users of the N95 implicit time on results of pattern electroretinography (median, 98.6 milliseconds [95% CI, 93.4-99.5]) compared with controls (median, 88.4 milliseconds [95% CI, 85.0-91.1]), with 8.4 milliseconds as the median of the differences (95% CI, 4.9-11.5; P < .001, Wald logistic regression). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (area under the curve, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.73-0.95]; P < .001) revealed, for a cutoff value of 91.13 milliseconds, a sensitivity of 78.6% (95% CI, 60.5%-89.8%) and a specificity of 75.0% (95% CI, 55.1%-88.0%) for correctly classifying both cannabis users and controls in their corresponding group. The positive predictive value was 78.6% (95% CI, 60.5%-89.8%), and the negative predictive value was 75.0% (95% CI, 55.1%-88.0%). Our results demonstrate a delay in transmission of action potentials by the

  9. Inhibition of BDNF-AS Provides Neuroprotection for Retinal Ganglion Cells against Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lifang; Zhang, Ziyin; Xie, Tianhua; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Dai, Tu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protects retinal ganglion cells against ischemia in ocular degenerative diseases. We aimed to determine the effect of BDNF-AS on the ischemic injury of retinal ganglion cells. Methods: The levels of BDNF and BDNF-AS were measured in retinal ganglion cells subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. The lentiviral vectors were constructed to either overexpress or knock out BDNF-AS. The luciferase reporter gene assay was used to determine whether BDNF-AS could target its seed sequence on BDNF mRNA. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was used to determine cell viability, and TUNEL staining was used for cell apoptosis. Results: The levels of BDNF-AS were negatively correlated with BDNF in ischemic retinal ganglion cells. BDNF-AS directly targeted its complementary sequences on BDNF mRNA. BDNF-AS regulated the expression of BDNF and its related genes in retinal ganglion cells. Down-regulation of BDNF-AS increased cell viability and decreased the number of TUNEL-positive retinal ganglion cells under oxygen and glucose deprivation conditions. Conclusion: Inhibition of BDNF-AS protected retinal ganglion cells against ischemia by increasing the levels of BDNF. PMID:27935942

  10. Inhibitory masking controls the threshold sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Toychiev, Abduqodir; Zhang, Yi; Atlasz, Tamas; Ramakrishnan, Hariharasubramanian; Roy, Kaushambi; Völgyi, Béla; Akopian, Abram; Bloomfield, Stewart A

    2016-11-15

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in dark-adapted retinas show a range of threshold sensitivities spanning ∼3 log units of illuminance. Here, we show that the different threshold sensitivities of RGCs reflect an inhibitory mechanism that masks inputs from certain rod pathways. The masking inhibition is subserved by GABAC receptors, probably on bipolar cell axon terminals. The GABAergic masking inhibition appears independent of dopaminergic circuitry that has been shown also to affect RGC sensitivity. The results indicate a novel mechanism whereby inhibition controls the sensitivity of different cohorts of RGCs. This can limit and thereby ensure that appropriate signals are carried centrally in scotopic conditions when sensitivity rather than acuity is crucial. The responses of rod photoreceptors, which subserve dim light vision, are carried through the retina by three independent pathways. These pathways carry signals with largely different sensitivities. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the output neurons of the retina, show a wide range of sensitivities in the same dark-adapted conditions, suggesting a divergence of the rod pathways. However, this organization is not supported by the known synaptic morphology of the retina. Here, we tested an alternative idea that the rod pathways converge onto single RGCs, but inhibitory circuits selectively mask signals so that one pathway predominates. Indeed, we found that application of GABA receptor blockers increased the sensitivity of most RGCs by unmasking rod signals, which were suppressed. Our results indicate that inhibition controls the threshold responses of RGCs under dim ambient light. This mechanism can ensure that appropriate signals cross the bottleneck of the optic nerve in changing stimulus conditions. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  11. Gene therapy for retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A M; Di Polo, A

    2012-02-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The primary cause of glaucoma is not known, but several risk factors have been identified, including elevated intraocular pressure and age. Loss of vision in glaucoma is caused by the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that convey visual information from the retina to the brain. Therapeutic strategies aimed at delaying or halting RGC loss, known as neuroprotection, would be valuable to save vision in glaucoma. In this review, we discuss the significant progress that has been made in the use of gene therapy to understand mechanisms underlying RGC degeneration and to promote the survival of these neurons in experimental models of optic nerve injury.

  12. Interphase gap decreases electrical stimulation threshold of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Weitz, A C; Behrend, M R; Humayun, M S; Chow, R H; Weiland, J D

    2011-01-01

    The most common electrical stimulation pulse used in retinal implants is a symmetric biphasic current pulse. Prior electrophysiological studies in peripheral nerve have shown that adding an interphase gap (IPG) between the two phases makes stimulation more efficient. We investigated the effect of IPG duration on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) electrical threshold. We used calcium imaging to measure the activity of RGCs in isolated retina in response to electrical stimulation. By varying IPG duration, we were able to examine the effect of duration on threshold. We further studied this effect by simulating RGC behavior with a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model. Our results indicate that the threshold for electrical activation of RGCs can be reduced by increasing the length of the IPG.

  13. Regenerative amacrine cell depolarization and formation of on-off ganglion cell response.

    PubMed Central

    Werblin, F S

    1977-01-01

    1. Recordings from amacrine and ganglion cells in the mudpuppy retina suggest mechanisms whereby the relatively slow, sustained light responses measured in bipolar cells are converted to rapid, brief, transient activity in the on-off ganglion cells. 2. Double-barrel electrodes were used to control the membrane potential under voltage clamp. The clamp revealed synaptic currents, but eliminated the otherwise obvious spike activity elicited by steps of illumination in both amacrine and ganglion cells, suggesting that the spikes are initiated near the somata. 3. The synaptic current in the on-off ganglion cells was biphasic: a brief inward (depolarizing) membrane current preceded a transient outward (hyperpolarizing) membrane current by about 20 msec. Each component could be isolated by polarizing the membrane to a level near the reversal potential for the other. Each was apparently due to a transient conductance increase of sawtooth shape with a 40 msec time to peak and a decay longer than 400 msec. 4. Synaptic membrane current in amacrine cells was monophasic and inward (depolarizing) of similar sawtooth shape at all potential levels. It was apparently mediated by a conductance increase to ions with a reversal potential more positive than the dark level. 5. When amacrine cells were depolarized in the dark under voltage clamp, a large transient inward membrane current with threshold within 4 mV of the dark level was generated. This regenerative event is capable of boosting a small, 4 mV e.p.s.p. to more than 30 mV in a few milliseconds, thereby generating the leading edge of a rapid sawtooth response. 6. The results suggest that the rapid transient on-off activity in ganglion cells is mediated by opposing sawtooth shaped synaptic currents with different latencies. It is inferred that each of these antagonistic imputs is generated by a regenerative depolarization in amacrine cells which then form synaptic inputs to the ganglion cells. PMID:845823

  14. Melanopsin, Photosensitive Ganglion Cells, and Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Wong, Patricia M.; Miller, Megan A.; Donofry, Shannon D.; Kamarck, Marissa L.; Brainard, George C.

    2013-01-01

    ROECKLEIN, K.A., WONG, P.M., MILLER, M.A., DONOFRY, S.D., KAMARCK, M.L., BRAINARD, G.C. Melanopsin, Photosensitive Ganglion Cells, and Seasonal Affective Disorder…NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV x(x) XXX-XXX, 2012. In two recent reports, melanopsin gene variations were associated with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and in changes in the timing of sleep and activity in healthy individuals. New studies have deepened our understanding of the retinohypothalamic tract, which translates environmental light received by the retina into neural signals sent to a set of nonvisual nuclei in the brain that are responsible for functions other than sight including circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral regulation. Because this pathway mediates seasonal changes in physiology, behavior, and mood, individual variations in the pathway may explain why approximately 1–2% of the North American population develops mood disorders with a seasonal pattern (i.e., Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorders with a seasonal pattern, also known as seasonal affective disorder/SAD). Components of depression including mood changes, sleep patterns, appetite, and cognitive performance can be affected by the biological and behavioral responses to light. Specifically, variations in the gene sequence for the retinal photopigment, melanopsin, may be responsible for significant increased risk for mood disorders with a seasonal pattern, and may do so by leading to changes in activity and sleep timing in winter. The retinal sensitivity of SAD is hypothesized to be decreased compared to controls, and that further decrements in winter light levels may combine to trigger depression in winter. Here we outline steps for new research to address the possible role of melanopsin in seasonal affective disorder including chromatic pupillometry designed to measure the sensitivity of melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells. PMID:23286902

  15. Retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in homonymous hemianopsia

    PubMed Central

    Herro, Angela M; Lam, Byron L

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between topographic reduction in macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness as detected with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and visual field defects caused by ischemic occipital cortical injury. Methods This study was a retrospective review of all patients who presented to our eye institution between January 2012 and July 2014 with visual field defects secondary to ischemic cortical injury. The visual field defect pattern and mean deviation were analyzed. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular GCC were both assessed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Patients with any ocular pathology that could affect these measurements were excluded. The topographic relationship of visual field defect to reduction in GCC was specifically analyzed. Results Nine patients met the inclusion criteria. Their average age was 65 (57–73) years; eight were men and six had right hemianopsias. The laterality of the visual field defect was used to assign an affected and unaffected side of analysis for RNFL and GCC layer thickness. A right hemianopsia meant that the nasal fibers of the right eye and temporal fibers of the left eye were assigned as the “affected side”, and the temporal fibers of the right eye and nasal fibers of the left eye were assigned as “unaffected”. There was no statistically significant difference between affected and unaffected RNFL. However, there was a significant difference in GCC layer reduction between the affected and unaffected sides (P=0.029). Conclusion There is evidence of retrograde trans-synaptic retinal ganglion cell loss in patients with homonymous hemianopsias from cortical visual impairment. This relationship is reflected in thinning of the GCC and maintains the topographic relationship of the visual field defect. PMID:26089638

  16. Tonabersat inhibits trigeminal ganglion neuronal-satellite glial cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Damodaram, Srikanth; Thalakoti, Srikanth; Freeman, Stacy E; Garrett, Filip G; Durham, Paul L

    2009-01-01

    Sensitization and activation of trigeminal neurons are implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine, acute sinusitis, and allergic rhinitis. Cell bodies of trigeminal neurons that provide sensory innervation of the dura and nasal mucosa reside in the trigeminal ganglion in association with satellite glial cells where they communicate via gap junctions. Gap junctions, channels formed by connexins, modulate the excitability state of both neurons and glia under pathological conditions. Tonabersat, a compound being tested as an antimigraine drug, is thought to block gap junction activity. To investigate the cellular events within trigeminal ganglia that may account for the significant comorbidity of migraine and rhinosinusitis and determine the effect of tonabersat on neuron-satellite glia communication. Sprague Dawley rats injected with True Blue were used to localize neuronal cell bodies in the ganglion and study neuron-glia signaling via gap junctions in the trigeminal ganglion. Dye coupling studies were conducted under basal conditions and in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha injection into the whisker pad and/or capsaicin injection into the eyebrow. Changes in connexin 26 and active p38 levels were determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the effect of tonabersat prior to chemical stimulation on gap junction activity and expression of connexins and active p38 was investigated. Injection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, a cytokine implicated in the pathology of acute sinusitis and allergic rhinitis, into the V2 region was shown to lower the amount of capsaicin required to stimulate neurons located in the V1 region of the ganglion. While injection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha into the whisker pad or capsaicin injection into the eyebrow alone did not cause increased dye movement, the combination of both stimuli greatly increased neuron-satellite glia communication via gap junctions in both V1 and V2 regions. The change in gap junction activity

  17. Impulse encoding across the dendritic morphologies of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Sheasby, B W; Fohlmeister, J F

    1999-04-01

    Nerve impulse entrainment and other excitation and passive phenomena are analyzed for a morphologically diverse and exhaustive data set (n = 57) of realistic (3-dimensional computer traced) soma-dendritic tree structures of ganglion cells in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) retina. The neurons, including axon and an anatomically specialized thin axonal segment that is observed in every ganglion cell, were supplied with five voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels (plus leakage), which were distributed in accordance with those found in a recent study that employed an equivalent dendritic cylinder. A wide variety of impulse-entrainment responses was observed, including regular low-frequency firing, impulse doublets, and more complex patterns involving impulse propagation failures (or aborted spikes) within the encoder region, all of which have been observed experimentally. The impulse-frequency response curves of the cells fell into three groups called FAST, MEDIUM, and SLOW in approximate proportion as seen experimentally. In addition to these, a new group was found among the traced cells that exhibited an impulse-frequency response twice that of the FAST category. The total amount of soma-dendritic surface area exhibited by a given cell is decisive in determining its electrophysiological classification. On the other hand, we found only a weak correlation between the electrophysiological group and the morphological classification of a given cell, which is based on the complexity of dendritic branching and the physical reach or "receptive field" area of the cell. Dendritic morphology determines discharge patterns to dendritic (synaptic) stimulation. Orthodromic impulses can be initiated on the axon hillock, the thin axonal segment, the soma, or even the proximal axon beyond the thin segment, depending on stimulus magnitude, soma-dendritic membrane area, channel distribution, and state within the repetitive impulse cycle. Although a sufficiently high dendritic

  18. Broad Thorny Ganglion Cells: A Candidate for Visual Pursuit Error Signaling in the Primate Retina

    PubMed Central

    Manookin, Michael B.; Neitz, Jay; Rieke, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Functional analyses exist only for a few of the morphologically described primate ganglion cell types, and their correlates in other mammalian species remain elusive. Here, we recorded light responses of broad thorny cells in the whole-mounted macaque retina. They showed ON-OFF-center light responses that were strongly suppressed by stimulation of the receptive field surround. Spike responses were delayed compared with parasol ganglion cells and other ON-OFF cells, including recursive bistratified ganglion cells and A1 amacrine cells. The receptive field structure was shaped by direct excitatory synaptic input and strong presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition in both ON and OFF pathways. The cells responded strongly to dark or bright stimuli moving either in or out of the receptive field, independent of the direction of motion. However, they did not show a maintained spike response either to a uniform background or to a drifting plaid pattern. These properties could be ideally suited for guiding movements involved in visual pursuit. The functional characteristics reported here permit the first direct cross-species comparison of putative homologous ganglion cell types. Based on morphological similarities, broad thorny ganglion cells have been proposed to be homologs of rabbit local edge detector ganglion cells, but we now show that the two cells have quite distinct physiological properties. Thus, our data argue against broad thorny cells as the homologs of local edge detector cells. PMID:25834063

  19. An open-source computational tool to automatically quantify immunolabeled retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Dordea, Ana C; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Allen, Kaitlin; Logan, David J; Fei, Fei; Malhotra, Rajeev; Gregory, Meredith S; Carpenter, Anne E; Buys, Emmanuel S

    2016-06-01

    A fully automated and robust method was developed to quantify β-III-tubulin-stained retinal ganglion cells, combining computational recognition of individual cells by CellProfiler and a machine-learning tool to teach phenotypic classification of the retinal ganglion cells by CellProfiler Analyst. In animal models of glaucoma, quantification of immunolabeled retinal ganglion cells is currently performed manually and remains time-consuming. Using this automated method, quantifications of retinal ganglion cell images were accelerated tenfold: 1800 images were counted in 3 h using our automated method, while manual counting of the same images took 72 h. This new method was validated in an established murine model of microbead-induced optic neuropathy. The use of the publicly available software and the method's user-friendly design allows this technique to be easily implemented in any laboratory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Morphology of retinal ganglion cells in the flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus): a lucifer yellow investigation.

    PubMed

    Dann, J F; Buhl, E H

    1990-11-15

    The morphology of retinal ganglion cells was determined in megachiroptera, commonly known as flying foxes. Retinal ganglion cells were intracellularly injected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow in fixed retinae from adult little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapulatus) captured in their natural habitat. Ganglion cells closely resembled the three main classes of cat retinal ganglion cells, and therefore were classified into alpha-, beta-, and gamma-type cells. The size of the alpha- and beta-type somas and dendritic fields increased with increasing distance from the area centralis. However, this eccentricity dependence was not as pronounced as in the cat. The gamma-type cells were sub-divided into mono-, bi-, and diffusely stratified, in accordance with the ramification of their dendrites within the inner plexiform layer. The alpha- and beta-type cells were uni-stratified in either the sublamina of the inner plexiform layer closest to the ganglion cell layer or in that closest to the inner nuclear layer. These laminae correspond to those in the cat retina which contain the dendritic ramifications of ganglion cells whose central receptive fields respond best to onset of light (the "on-centre" cells), or to ganglion cells whose centres respond optimally to light being extinguished (the "off-centre" cells). Thus the flying fox retina contains a morphological correlate of the "on"/"off" dichotomy of alpha and beta cells in the cat retina. In general the flying fox retinal ganglion cells exhibit a degree of morphological complexity reminiscent of cat retinal cells and this may reflect similar functional properties.

  1. GABAergic and glycinergic pathways to goldfish retinal ganglion cells: an ultrastructural double label study

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    An ultrastructural double label has been employed to compare GABAergic and glycinergic systems in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the goldfish retina. Electron microscope autoradiography of /sup 3/H-GABA and /sup 3/H-glycine uptake was combined with retrograde HRP-labeling of ganglion cells. When surveyed for distribution, GABAergic and glycinergic synapses were found onto labeled ganglion cells throughout the IPL. This reinforces previous physiological work that described GABAergic and glycinergic influences on a variety of ganglion cells in goldfish and carp; These physiological effects often reflect direct inputs.

  2. Cat retinal ganglion cell receptive-field alterations after 6-hydroxydopamine induced dopaminergic amacrine cell lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, G.W.; Smith, E.L. III

    1985-06-01

    Optic tract single-unit recordings were used to study ganglion cell response functions of the intact cat eye after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioning of the dopaminergic amacrine cell (AC) population of the inner retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC was verified by high pressure-liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection of endogenous dopamine content and by (/sup 3/H)dopamine high-affinity uptake; the dopaminergic ACs of the treated eyes demonstrated reduced endogenous dopamine content and reduced (/sup 3/H)dopamine uptake compared with that of their matched controls. Normal appearing (/sup 3/H)GABA and (/sup 3/H)-glycine uptake in the treated retinas suggests the absence of any nonspecific action of the 6-OHDA on the neural retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC population was found to alter a number of response properties in off-center ganglion cells, but this impairment had only a modest effect on the on-center cells. An abnormally high proportion of the off-center ganglion cells in the 6-OHDA treated eyes possessed nonlinear, Y-type receptive fields. These cells also possessed shift-responses of greater than normal amplitude, altered intensity-response functions, reduced maintained activities, and more transient center responses. Of the on-center type cells, only the Y-type on-center cells were affected by 6-OHDA, possessing higher than normal maintained activities and altered intensity-response functions. The on-center X-cells were unaffected by 6-OHDA treatment. The dopaminergic AC of the photopically adapted cat retina therefore modulates a number of ganglion cell response properties and within the limits of this study is most prominent in off-center ganglion cell circuitry.

  3. Nicotinic Antagonists Enhance Process Outgrowth by Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells in Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipton, Stuart A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Phillips, Micheal D.; Tauck, David L.; Aizenman, Elias

    1988-03-01

    Functional nicotinic cholinergic receptors are found on mammalian retinal ganglion cell neurons in culture. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) can be detected in the medium of many of these retinal cultures, after release presumably from the choline acetyltransferase-positive amacrine cells. The postsynaptic effect of endogenous or applied ACh on the ganglion cells can be blocked with specific nicotinic antagonists. Here it is shown that within 24 hours of producing such a pharmacologic blockade, the retinal ganglion cells begin to sprout or regenerate neuronal processes. Thus, the growth-enhancing effect of nicotinic antagonists may be due to the removal of inhibition to growth by tonic levels of ACh present in the culture medium. Since there is a spontaneous leak of ACh in the intact retina, the effects of nicotinic cholinergic drugs on process outgrowth in culture may reflect a normal control mechanism for growth or regeneration of retinal ganglion cell processes that is exerted by ACh in vivo.

  4. Population activity changes during a trial-to-trial adaptation of bullfrog retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei; Xiao, Lei; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Pu-Ming; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2014-07-09

    A 'trial-to-trial adaptation' of bullfrog retinal ganglion cells in response to a repetitive light stimulus was investigated in the present study. Using the multielectrode recording technique, we studied the trial-to-trial adaptive properties of ganglion cells and explored the activity of population neurons during this adaptation process. It was found that the ganglion cells adapted with different degrees: their firing rates were decreased in different extents from early-adaptation to late-adaptation stage, and this was accompanied by a decrease in cross-correlation strength. In addition, adaptation behavior was different for ON-response and OFF-response, which implied that the mechanism of the trial-to-trial adaptation might involve bipolar cells and/or their synapses with other neurons and the stronger adaptation in the ganglion cells' OFF-responses might reflect the requirement to avoid possible saturation in the OFF circuit.

  5. Self-facilitation of ganglion cells in the retina of the turtle

    PubMed Central

    Marchiafava, P. L.; Torre, V.

    1977-01-01

    1. Ganglion cells responses to illumination and to optic nerve stimulation were recorded intracellularly from the retina of the turtle. All ganglion cells were identified by their antidromic responses to optic nerve stimulation. 2. When solitary spikes are produced following antidromic, orthodromic or intracellular stimulation, about 20% of the recorded ganglion cells show an additional depolarization along the falling phase of the action potential (post-spike depolarization, PSD). 3. The PSD following the antidromic action potential disappears upon collision with a direct spike or when the antidromic spike is prevented from invading the cell soma. 4. By pairing two optic nerve stimuli the PSD is depressed with brief interstimulus intervals, but gradually recovers to the control amplitude 600-800 msec after the conditioning shock. 5. The PSD is tentatively interpreted as an e.p.s.p. transmitted by ganglion cell collaterals originating at the level of the soma dendritic complex of the recorded cell. 6. The interspike interval histogram of ganglion cells showing PSD is characterized by a peak at about 10 msec, as opposed to a peak between 12 and 100 msec observed in cells without PSD. It is suggested that the occurrence of PSD facilitate the onset of additional action potentials at brief interspikes intervals, thus potentiating ganglion cell discharges. PMID:874914

  6. Diverse Central Projection Patterns of Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    PubMed

    Martersteck, Emily M; Hirokawa, Karla E; Evarts, Mariah; Bernard, Amy; Duan, Xin; Li, Yang; Ng, Lydia; Oh, Seung W; Ouellette, Benjamin; Royall, Joshua J; Stoecklin, Michelle; Wang, Quanxin; Zeng, Hongkui; Sanes, Joshua R; Harris, Julie A

    2017-02-21

    Understanding how >30 types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the mouse retina each contribute to visual processing in the brain will require more tools that label and manipulate specific RGCs. We screened and analyzed retinal expression of Cre recombinase using 88 transgenic driver lines. In many lines, Cre was expressed in multiple RGC types and retinal cell classes, but several exhibited more selective expression. We comprehensively mapped central projections from RGCs labeled in 26 Cre lines using viral tracers, high-throughput imaging, and a data processing pipeline. We identified over 50 retinorecipient regions and present a quantitative retina-to-brain connectivity map, enabling comparisons of target-specificity across lines. Projections to two major central targets were notably correlated: RGCs projecting to the outer shell or core regions of the lateral geniculate projected to superficial or deep layers within the superior colliculus, respectively. Retinal images and projection data are available online at http://connectivity.brain-map.org.

  7. Microglia enhance dorsal root ganglion outgrowth in Schwann cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Hynds, Dianna L; Rangappa, Nagarathnamma; Ter Beest, Julia; Snow, Diane M; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

    2004-04-15

    Transplantation of cellular populations to facilitate regrowth of damaged axons is a common experimental therapy for spinal cord injury. Schwann cells (SC) or microglia grafted into injury sites can promote axonal regrowth of central projections of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. We sought to determine whether the addition of microglia or microglia-derived secretory products alters DRG axon regrowth upon cultures of SC. Rat DRG explants were grown on monolayers consisting of either SC, microglia, SC exposed to microglia-conditioned medium (MCM), or co-cultures with different relative concentrations of microglia. Image analysis revealed that, compared to SC alone, the extent of neurite outgrowth was significantly greater on SC-microglia co-cultures. Immunocytochemistry for extracellular matrix molecules showed that microglial cells stained positively for growth-promoting thrombospondin, whereas laminin and the inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) were localized primarily to SC. Notably, immunoreactivity for CSPGs appeared reduced in areas associated with DRG outgrowth in co-cultures and SC exposed to MCM. These results show that microglia or their secreted products can augment SC-mediated DRG regrowth in vitro, indicating that co-grafting SC with microglia provides a novel approach to augment sensory fiber regeneration after spinal cord injury.

  8. Polarization and orientation of retinal ganglion cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zolessi, Flavio R; Poggi, Lucia; Wilkinson, Christopher J; Chien, Chi-Bin; Harris, William A

    2006-01-01

    In the absence of external cues, neurons in vitro polarize by using intrinsic mechanisms. For example, cultured hippocampal neurons extend arbitrarily oriented neurites and then one of these, usually the one nearest the centrosome, begins to grow more quickly than the others. This neurite becomes the axon as it accumulates molecular components of the apical junctional complex. All the other neurites become dendrites. It is unclear, however, whether neurons in vivo, which differentiate within a polarized epithelium, break symmetry by using similar intrinsic mechanisms. To investigate this, we use four-dimensional microscopy of developing retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in live zebrafish embryos. We find that the situation is indeed very different in vivo, where axons emerge directly from uniformly polarized cells in the absence of other neurites. In vivo, moreover, components of the apical complex do not localize to the emerging axon, nor does the centrosome predict the site of axon emergence. Mosaic analysis in four dimensions, using mutants in which neuroepithelial polarity is disrupted, indicates that extrinsic factors such as access to the basal lamina are critical for normal axon emergence from RGCs in vivo. PMID:17147778

  9. Chapter XX: POLYMODAL SENSORY INTEGRATION IN RETINAL GANGLION CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Križaj, David

    2016-01-01

    An animal's ability to perceive the external world is conditioned by its capacity to extract and encode specific features of the visual image. The output of the vertebrate retina is not a simple representation of the 2D visual map generated by photon absorptions in the photoreceptor layer. Rather, spatial, temporal, direction selectivity and color “dimensions” of the original image are distributed in the form of parallel output channels mediated by distinct retinal ganglion cell (RGC) populations. We propose that visual information transmitted to the brain includes additional, light-independent, inputs that reflect the functional states of the retina, anterior eye and the body. These may include the local ion microenvironment, glial metabolism and systemic parameters such as intraocular pressure, temperature and immune activation which act on ion channels that are intrinsic to RGCs. We particularly focus on light-independent mechanical inputs that are associated with physical impact, cell swelling and intraocular pressure as excessive mechanical stimuli lead to the counterintuitive experience of “pressure phosphenes” and/or debilitating blinding disease such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. We point at recently discovered retinal mechanosensitive ion channels as examples through which molecular physiology brings together Greek phenomenology, modern neuroscience and medicine. Thus, RGC output represents a unified picture of the embodied context within which vision takes place. PMID:26427477

  10. Dopamine Modulates Cell Cycle in the Lateral Ganglionic Eminence

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, Nobuyo; Goto, Tomohide; Waeber, Christian; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2005-01-01

    Dopamine is a neuromodulator the functions of which in the regulation of complex behaviors such as mood, motivation, and attention are well known. Dopamine appears in the brain early in the embryonic period when none of those behaviors is robust, raising the possibility that dopamine may influence brain development. The effects of dopamine on specific developmental processes such as neurogenesis are not fully characterized. The neostriatum is a dopamine-rich region of the developing and mature brain. If dopamine influenced neurogenesis, the effects would likely be pronounced in the neostriatum. Therefore, we examined whether dopamine influenced neostriatal neurogenesis by influencing the cell cycle of progenitor cells in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE), the neuroepithelial precursor of the neostriatum. We show that dopamine arrives in the LGE via the nigrostriatal pathway early in the embryonic period and that neostriatal neurogenesis progresses in a dopamine-rich milieu. Dopamine D1-like receptor activation reduces entry of progenitor cells from the G1-to S-phase of the cell cycle, whereas D2-like receptor activation produces the opposite effects by promoting G1- to S-phase entry. D1-like effects are prominent in the ventricular zone, and D2-like effects are prominent in the subventricular zone. The overall effects of dopamine on the cell cycle are D1-like effects, most likely because of the preponderance of D1-like binding sites in the embryonic neostriatum. These data reveal a novel developmental role for dopamine and underscore the relevance of dopaminergic signaling in brain development. PMID:12684471

  11. Cannabinoids modulate spontaneous synaptic activity in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Middleton, T P; Protti, D A

    2011-09-01

    The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has been found throughout the central nervous system and modulates cell excitability in various forms of short-term plasticity. ECBs and their receptors have also been localized to all retinal cells, and cannabinoid receptor activation has been shown to alter voltage-dependent conductances in several different retinal cell types, suggesting a possible role for cannabinoids in retinal processing. Their effects on synaptic transmission in the mammalian retina, however, have not been previously investigated. Here, we show that exogenous cannabinoids alter spontaneous synaptic transmission onto retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in whole-mount retinas, we measured spontaneous postsynaptic currents (SPSCs) in RGCs in adult and young (P14-P21) mice. We found that the addition of an exogenous cannabinoid agonist, WIN55212-2 (5 μM), caused a significant reversible reduction in the frequency of SPSCs. This change, however, did not alter the kinetics of the SPSCs, indicating a presynaptic locus of action. Using blockers to isolate inhibitory or excitatory currents, we found that cannabinoids significantly reduced the release probability of both GABA and glutamate, respectively. While the addition of cannabinoids reduced the frequency of both GABAergic and glutamatergic SPSCs in both young and adult mice, we found that the largest effect was on GABA-mediated currents in young mice. These results suggest that the ECB system may potentially be involved in the modulation of signal transmission in the retina. Furthermore, they suggest that it might play a role in the developmental maturation of synaptic circuits, and that exogenous cannabinoids are likely able to disrupt retinal processing and consequently alter vision.

  12. Accelerated intoxication of GABAergic synapses by botulinum neurotoxin A disinhibits stem cell-derived neuron networks prior to network silencing

    PubMed Central

    Beske, Phillip H.; Scheeler, Stephen M.; Adler, Michael; McNutt, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely potent toxins that specifically cleave SNARE proteins in peripheral synapses, preventing neurotransmitter release. Neuronal responses to BoNT intoxication are traditionally studied by quantifying SNARE protein cleavage in vitro or monitoring physiological paralysis in vivo. Consequently, the dynamic effects of intoxication on synaptic behaviors are not well-understood. We have reported that mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neurons (ESNs) are highly sensitive to BoNT based on molecular readouts of intoxication. Here we study the time-dependent changes in synapse- and network-level behaviors following addition of BoNT/A to spontaneously active networks of glutamatergic and GABAergic ESNs. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings indicated that BoNT/A rapidly blocked synaptic neurotransmission, confirming that ESNs replicate the functional pathophysiology responsible for clinical botulism. Quantitation of spontaneous neurotransmission in pharmacologically isolated synapses revealed accelerated silencing of GABAergic synapses compared to glutamatergic synapses, which was consistent with the selective accumulation of cleaved SNAP-25 at GAD1+ pre-synaptic terminals at early timepoints. Different latencies of intoxication resulted in complex network responses to BoNT/A addition, involving rapid disinhibition of stochastic firing followed by network silencing. Synaptic activity was found to be highly sensitive to SNAP-25 cleavage, reflecting the functional consequences of the localized cleavage of the small subpopulation of SNAP-25 that is engaged in neurotransmitter release in the nerve terminal. Collectively these findings illustrate that use of synaptic function assays in networked neurons cultures offers a novel and highly sensitive approach for mechanistic studies of toxin:neuron interactions and synaptic responses to BoNT. PMID:25954159

  13. The distribution and significance of aberrant ganglion cells in the facial nerve trunk of the cat.

    PubMed

    Satomi, H; Takahashi, K

    1986-01-01

    The distribution and peripheral connections of aberrant ganglion cells in the facial nerve trunk of the cat were studied by means of Klüver-Barrera staining and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). By the Klüver-Barrera staining, aberrant ganglion cells were observed in the facial nerve trunk between the geniculate ganglion and the junction of the auricular branch of the vagus with the facial nerve trunk, although the number varied considerably with each animal. These cells were generally medium-sized and of round or oval shape, with densely stained Nissl substance, the features of which were essentially similar to those of the geniculate ganglion. In cases where HRP injections were made into the anterior wall of the auricle, several HRP-labeled cells were found ipsilaterally in the facial nerve trunk in addition to cell labeling of the geniculate ganglion. The present study in the cat demonstrated that at least some of the aberrant ganglion cells scattered in the facial nerve trunk are parental to the axons to the auricle, subserving the cutaneous sensory function.

  14. Retinal Ganglion Cell Topography and Retinal Resolution in the Baikal Seal (Pusa sibirica).

    PubMed

    Mass, Alla M; Supin, Alexander Y

    2016-01-01

    The total number, size, topographic distribution, and cell density of ganglion cells were studied in retinal wholemounts of Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica). The ganglion cell size varied from 10 to 38 μm. A distinct cell group consisted of large ganglion cells of more than 30 μm in diameter. The topographic distribution of ganglion cells showed a definite area of high cell density similar to the area centralis of terrestrial carnivores. This area was located approximately 6-7 mm dorsotemporally of the geometric center of the wholemount. In this area, the peak cell densities in two wholemounts were 3,800 and 3,400 cells/mm2 (mean 3,600 cells/mm2). With a posterior nodal distance of 24 mm (underwater), this density corresponds to 631 cells/square degree. These values predict a retinal resolution of 2.4' in water and 3.0' in air. The topographic distribution of large cells featured the highest density in the same location as the total ganglion cell population.

  15. Retinal ganglion cell distribution and spatial resolving power in deep-sea lanternfishes (Myctophidae).

    PubMed

    de Busserolles, Fanny; Marshall, N Justin; Collin, Shaun P

    2014-01-01

    Topographic analyses of retinal ganglion cell density are very useful in providing information about the visual ecology of a species by identifying areas of acute vision within the visual field (i.e. areas of high cell density). In this study, we investigated the neural cell distribution in the ganglion cell layer of a range of lanternfish species belonging to 10 genera. Analyses were performed on wholemounted retinas using stereology. Topographic maps were constructed of the distribution of all neurons and both ganglion and amacrine cell populations in 5 different species from Nissl-stained retinas using cytological criteria. Amacrine cell distribution was also examined immunohistochemically in 2 of the 5 species using anti-parvalbumin antibody. The distributions of both the total neuron and the amacrine cell populations were aligned in all of the species examined, showing a general increase in cell density toward the retinal periphery. However, when the ganglion cell population was topographically isolated from the amacrine cell population, which comprised up to 80% of the total neurons within the ganglion cell layer, a different distribution was revealed. Topographic maps of the true ganglion cell distribution in 18 species of lanternfishes revealed well-defined specializations in different regions of the retina. Different species possessed distinct areas of high ganglion cell density with respect to both peak density and the location and/or shape of the specialized acute zone (i.e. elongated areae ventro-temporales, areae temporales and large areae centrales). The spatial resolving power was calculated to be relatively low (varying from 1.6 to 4.4 cycles per degree), indicating that myctophids may constitute one of the less visually acute groups of deep-sea teleosts. The diversity in retinal specializations and spatial resolving power within the family is assessed in terms of possible ecological functions and evolutionary history. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The molecular basis of retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Almasieh, Mohammadali; Wilson, Ariel M; Morquette, Barbara; Cueva Vargas, Jorge Luis; Di Polo, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Glaucoma is a group of diseases characterized by progressive optic nerve degeneration that results in visual field loss and irreversible blindness. A crucial element in the pathophysiology of all forms of glaucoma is the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a population of CNS neurons with their soma in the inner retina and axons in the optic nerve. Strategies that delay or halt RGC loss have been recognized as potentially beneficial to preserve vision in glaucoma; however, the success of these approaches depends on an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that lead to RGC dysfunction and death. In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in valuable information regarding the molecular basis of RGC death stemming from animal models of acute and chronic optic nerve injury as well as experimental glaucoma. The emerging landscape is complex and points at a variety of molecular signals - acting alone or in cooperation - to promote RGC death. These include: axonal transport failure, neurotrophic factor deprivation, toxic pro-neurotrophins, activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxic damage, oxidative stress, misbehaving reactive glia and loss of synaptic connectivity. Collectively, this body of work has considerably updated and expanded our view of how RGCs might die in glaucoma and has revealed novel, potential targets for neuroprotection. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Melanopsin, photosensitive ganglion cells, and seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Roecklein, Kathryn A; Wong, Patricia M; Miller, Megan A; Donofry, Shannon D; Kamarck, Marissa L; Brainard, George C

    2013-03-01

    In two recent reports, melanopsin gene variations were associated with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and in changes in the timing of sleep and activity in healthy individuals. New studies have deepened our understanding of the retinohypothalamic tract, which translates environmental light received by the retina into neural signals sent to a set of nonvisual nuclei in the brain that are responsible for functions other than sight including circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral regulation. Because this pathway mediates seasonal changes in physiology, behavior, and mood, individual variations in the pathway may explain why approximately 1-2% of the North American population develops mood disorders with a seasonal pattern (i.e., Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorders with a seasonal pattern, also known as seasonal affective disorder/SAD). Components of depression including mood changes, sleep patterns, appetite, and cognitive performance can be affected by the biological and behavioral responses to light. Specifically, variations in the gene sequence for the retinal photopigment, melanopsin, may be responsible for significant increased risk for mood disorders with a seasonal pattern, and may do so by leading to changes in activity and sleep timing in winter. The retinal sensitivity of SAD is hypothesized to be decreased compared to controls, and that further decrements in winter light levels may combine to trigger depression in winter. Here we outline steps for new research to address the possible role of melanopsin in seasonal affective disorder including chromatic pupillometry designed to measure the sensitivity of melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells.

  18. Selective retinal ganglion cell loss in familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Santiesteban, Carlos E; Hedges Iii, Thomas R; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Axelrod, Felicia; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2014-04-01

    To define the retinal phenotype of subjects with familial dysautonomia (FD). A cross-sectional study was carried out in 90 subjects divided in three groups of 30 each (FD subjects, asymptomatic carriers and controls). The study was developed at the Dysautonomia Center, New York University Medical Center. All subjects underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and full neuro-ophthalmic examinations. In a subset of affected subjects, visual evoked potentials and microperimetry were also obtained. We compared the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness from OCT between the three groups. OCT showed loss of the RNFL in all FD subjects predominantly in the maculopapillary region (63 % temporally, p < 0.0001; and 21 % nasally, p < 0.005). RNFL loss was greatest in older FD subjects and was associated with decreased visual acuity and color vision, central visual field defects, temporal optic nerve pallor, and delayed visual evoked potentials. Asymptomatic carriers of the FD gene mutation all had thinner RNFL (12 % globally, p < 0.005). OCT and clinical neuro-ophthalmological findings suggest that maculopapillary ganglion cells are primarily affected in FD subjects, leading to a specific optic nerve damage that closely resembles mitochondrial optic neuropathies. This raises the possibility that reduced IKAP levels may affect mitochondrial proteins and their function in the nervous system, particularly in the retina.

  19. Two distinct types of ON directionally selective ganglion cells in the rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Hideo; Tian, Lian-Ming; Massey, Stephen C; Mills, Stephen L

    2011-09-01

    Mammalian retinas contain about 20 types of ganglion cells that respond to different aspects of the visual scene, including the direction of motion of objects in the visual field. The rabbit retina has long been thought to contain two distinct types of directionally selective (DS) ganglion cell: a bistratified ON-OFF DS ganglion cell that responds to onset and termination of light, and an ON DS ganglion cell, which stratifies only in the ON layer and responds only to light onset. This division is challenged by targeted recordings from rabbit retina, which indicate that ON DS ganglion cells occur in two discriminably different types. One of these is strongly tracer-coupled to amacrine cells; the other is never tracer-coupled. These two types also differ in branching pattern, stratification depth, relative latency, and transience of spiking. The sustained, uncoupled ON DS cell ramifies completely within the lower cholinergic band and responds to nicotine with continuous firing. In contrast, the transient, coupled ON DS ganglion cell stratifies above the cholinergic band and is not positioned to receive major input from cholinergic amacrine cells, consistent with its modest response to the cholinergic agonist nicotine. Much data have accrued that directional responses in the mammalian retina originate via gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from the dendrites of starburst amacrine cells (Euler et al., 2002). If there is an ON DS ganglion cell that does not stratify in the starburst band, this suggests that its GABA-dependent directional signals may be generated by a mechanism independent of starburst amacrine cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Hypoplasia of spiral and Scarpa's ganglion cells in GABA(A) receptor beta(3) subunit knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ja-Won; Homanics, Gregg E; Balaban, Carey D

    2002-05-01

    This study documents morphologic alterations in the spiral ganglion and Scarpa's ganglion from gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor beta(3) subunit null mutant mice. The ganglion cells of the mutant mice were hypoplastic in hematoylin&eosin-stained sections. Hypoplasia was observed at every location of the spiral ganglion and Scarpa's ganglion except the apical cochlear turn. Calretinin immunostaining demonstrated a selective hypoplasia of calretinin-negative cells at every location of spiral and Scarpa's ganglion cells, while the soma area of calretinin-positive cells was not affected by the gene deletion. Meanwhile, in the spiral ganglion of both wild type and knockout mice, there were apical to basal gradients in the soma size and the proportion of calretinin-positive cells. The absence of statistically significant hypoplasia in hematoylin&eosin sections through the apical turn of the cochlea can be explained by the relatively higher proportion of calretinin-positive ganglion cells, which were unaffected by the gene deletion. These findings suggest that GABA(A) receptor isoforms containing the beta(3) subunit may play an important role in the development and differentiation of non-calyceal terminals of Scarpa's ganglion cells and type II and smaller type I spiral ganglion cells.

  1. Retinal ganglion cell projections to the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet, and visual midbrain: bifurcation and melanopsin immunoreactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.; Provencio, Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) receives direct retinal input via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), and the retinal ganglion cells contributing to this projection may be specialized with respect to direct regulation of the circadian clock. However, some ganglion cells forming the RHT bifurcate, sending axon collaterals to the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) through which light has secondary access to the circadian clock. The present studies provide a more extensive examination of ganglion cell bifurcation and evaluate whether ganglion cells projecting to several subcortical visual nuclei contain melanopsin, a putative ganglion cell photopigment. The results showed that retinal ganglion cells projecting to the SCN send collaterals to the IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, and superior colliculus, among other places. Melanopsin-immunoreactive (IR) ganglion cells are present in the hamster retina, and some of these cells project to the SCN, IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, or superior colliculus. Triple-label analysis showed that melanopsin-IR cells bifurcate and project bilaterally to each SCN, but not to the other visual nuclei evaluated. The melanopsin-IR cells have photoreceptive characteristics optimal for circadian rhythm regulation. However, the presence of moderately widespread bifurcation among ganglion cells projecting to the SCN, and projection by melanopsin-IR cells to locations distinct from the SCN and without known rhythm function, suggest that this ganglion cell type is generalized, rather than specialized, with respect to the conveyance of photic information to the brain. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Retinal ganglion cell projections to the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet, and visual midbrain: bifurcation and melanopsin immunoreactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lawrence P.; Blanchard, Jane H.; Provencio, Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) receives direct retinal input via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), and the retinal ganglion cells contributing to this projection may be specialized with respect to direct regulation of the circadian clock. However, some ganglion cells forming the RHT bifurcate, sending axon collaterals to the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) through which light has secondary access to the circadian clock. The present studies provide a more extensive examination of ganglion cell bifurcation and evaluate whether ganglion cells projecting to several subcortical visual nuclei contain melanopsin, a putative ganglion cell photopigment. The results showed that retinal ganglion cells projecting to the SCN send collaterals to the IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, and superior colliculus, among other places. Melanopsin-immunoreactive (IR) ganglion cells are present in the hamster retina, and some of these cells project to the SCN, IGL, olivary pretectal nucleus, or superior colliculus. Triple-label analysis showed that melanopsin-IR cells bifurcate and project bilaterally to each SCN, but not to the other visual nuclei evaluated. The melanopsin-IR cells have photoreceptive characteristics optimal for circadian rhythm regulation. However, the presence of moderately widespread bifurcation among ganglion cells projecting to the SCN, and projection by melanopsin-IR cells to locations distinct from the SCN and without known rhythm function, suggest that this ganglion cell type is generalized, rather than specialized, with respect to the conveyance of photic information to the brain. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Effects of betaxolol on light responses and membrane conductance in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Gross, R L; Hensley, S H; Gao, F; Yang, X L; Dai, S C; Wu, S M

    2000-03-01

    To examine the physiological effects of betaxolol, a beta1-adrenergic receptor blocker commonly used in the treatment of glaucoma, on retinal ganglion cells and to evaluate its potential to elicit responses consistent with a neuroprotective agent against ganglion cell degeneration. Single-unit extracellular recording, electroretinogram (ERG), intracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques were made from flatmounted, isolated retina, superfused eyecup, and living retinal slice preparations of the larval tiger salamander. Bath application of 20 microM betaxolol reduced the glutamate-induced increase of spontaneous spike rate in retinal ganglion cell by approximately 30%. The glutamate-induced postsynaptic current recorded under voltage-clamp conditions was reduced by 50 microM betaxolol, and the difference current-voltage (I-V) relation (I(Control)-I(betaxolol)) was N-shaped and AP5-sensitive, characteristic of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated current. Application of 50 microM betaxolol reversibly reduced the voltage-gated sodium and calcium currents by approximately one third of their peak amplitudes. The times-to-action of betaxolol on ganglion cells are long (15-35 minutes for 20-50 microM betaxolol), indicative of modulation through slow biochemical cascades. Betaxolol, up to 100 microM, exerted no effects on horizontal cells or the ERG, suggesting that the primary actions of this beta1 blocker are restricted to retinal ganglion cells. These physiological experiments provide supporting evidence that betaxolol acts in a manner consistent with preventing retinal ganglion cell death induced by elevated extracellular glutamate or by increased spontaneous spike rates under pathologic conditions. The physiological actions of betaxolol lead to reducing neurotoxic effects in ganglion cells, which are the most susceptible retinal neurons to glutamate-induced damages under ischemic and glaucomatous conditions. Therefore, betaxolol has the potential to

  4. Taurine deficiency damages retinal neurones: cone photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Gaucher, David; Arnault, Emilie; Husson, Zoé; Froger, Nicolas; Dubus, Elisabeth; Gondouin, Pauline; Dherbécourt, Diane; Degardin, Julie; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Benahmed, M A; Elbayed, K; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Massin, Pascale; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-11-01

    In 1970s, taurine deficiency was reported to induce photoreceptor degeneration in cats and rats. Recently, we found that taurine deficiency contributes to the retinal toxicity of vigabatrin, an antiepileptic drug. However, in this toxicity, retinal ganglion cells were degenerating in parallel to cone photoreceptors. The aim of this study was to re-assess a classic mouse model of taurine deficiency following a treatment with guanidoethane sulfonate (GES), a taurine transporter inhibitor to determine whether retinal ganglion cells are also affected. GES treatment induced a significant reduction in the taurine plasma levels and a lower weight increase. At the functional level, photopic electroretinograms were reduced indicating a dysfunction in the cone pathway. A change in the autofluorescence appearance of the eye fundus was explained on histological sections by an increased autofluorescence of the retinal pigment epithelium. Although the general morphology of the retina was not affected, cell damages were indicated by the general increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. When cell quantification was achieved on retinal sections, the number of outer/inner segments of cone photoreceptors was reduced (20 %) as the number of retinal ganglion cells (19 %). An abnormal synaptic plasticity of rod bipolar cell dendrites was also observed in GES-treated mice. These results indicate that taurine deficiency can not only lead to photoreceptor degeneration but also to retinal ganglion cell loss. Cone photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells appear as the most sensitive cells to taurine deficiency. These results may explain the recent therapeutic interest of taurine in retinal degenerative pathologies.

  5. All spiking, sustained ON displaced amacrine cells receive gap-junction input from melanopsin ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Reifler, Aaron N.; Chervenak, Andrew P.; Dolikian, Michael E.; Benenati, Brian A.; Li, Benjamin Y.; Wachter, Rebecca D.; Lynch, Andrew M.; Demertzis, Zachary D.; Meyers, Benjamin S.; Abufarha, Fady S.; Jaeckel, Elizabeth R.; Flannery, Michael P.; Wong, Kwoon Y.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Retinal neurons exhibit sustained vs. transient light responses, which are thought to encode low- and high-frequency stimuli respectively. This dichotomy has been recognized since the earliest intracellular recordings from the 1960s, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We report that in the ganglion cell layer of rat retinas, all spiking amacrine interneurons with sustained ON photoresponses receive gap-junction input from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), recently discovered photoreceptors that specialize in prolonged irradiance detection. We have identified three morphological varieties of such ipRGC-driven displaced amacrine cells: 1) monostratified cells with dendrites terminating exclusively in sublamina S5 of the inner plexiform layer; 2) bistratified cells with dendrites in both S1 and S5; and 3) polyaxonal cells with dendrites and axons stratifying in S5. Most of these amacrine cells are wide-field, although some are medium-field. The three classes respond to light differently, suggesting they probably perform diverse functions. These results demonstrate that ipRGCs are a major source of tonic visual information within the retina and exert widespread intraretinal influence. They also add to recent evidence that ganglion cells signal not only to the brain. PMID:26441349

  6. An excitatory amacrine cell detects object motion and provides feature-selective input to ganglion cells in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tahnbee; Soto, Florentina; Kerschensteiner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Retinal circuits detect salient features of the visual world and report them to the brain through spike trains of retinal ganglion cells. The most abundant ganglion cell type in mice, the so-called W3 ganglion cell, selectively responds to movements of small objects. Where and how object motion sensitivity arises in the retina is incompletely understood. In this study, we use 2-photon-guided patch-clamp recordings to characterize responses of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGluT3)-expressing amacrine cells (ACs) to a broad set of visual stimuli. We find that these ACs are object motion sensitive and analyze the synaptic mechanisms underlying this computation. Anatomical circuit reconstructions suggest that VGluT3-expressing ACs form glutamatergic synapses with W3 ganglion cells, and targeted recordings show that the tuning of W3 ganglion cells' excitatory input matches that of VGluT3-expressing ACs' responses. Synaptic excitation of W3 ganglion cells is diminished, and responses to object motion are suppressed in mice lacking VGluT3. Object motion, thus, is first detected by VGluT3-expressing ACs, which provide feature-selective excitatory input to W3 ganglion cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08025.001 PMID:25988808

  7. Connectivity between the OFF bipolar type DB3a and six types of ganglion cell in the marmoset retina.

    PubMed

    Masri, Rania A; Percival, Kumiko A; Koizumi, Amane; Martin, Paul R; Grünert, Ulrike

    2016-06-15

    Parallel visual pathways originate at the first synapse in the retina, where cones make connections with cone bipolar cells that in turn contact ganglion cells. There are more ganglion cell types than bipolar types, suggesting that there must be divergence from bipolar to ganglion cells. Here we analyze the contacts between an OFF bipolar type (DB3a) and six ganglion cell types in the retina of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). Ganglion cells were transfected via particle-mediated gene transfer of an expression plasmid for the postsynaptic density 95-green fluorescent protein (PSD95-GFP), and DB3a cells were labeled via immunohistochemistry. Ganglion cell types that fully or partially costratified with DB3a cells included OFF parasol, OFF midget, broad thorny, recursive bistratified, small bistratified, and large bistratified cells. On average, the number of DB3a contacts to parasol cells (18 contacts per axon terminal) is higher than that to other ganglion cell types (between four and seven contacts). We estimate that the DB3a output to OFF parasol cells accounts for at least 30% of the total DB3a output. Furthermore, we found that OFF parasol cells receive approximately 20% of their total bipolar input from DB3a cells, suggesting that other diffuse bipolar types also provide input to OFF parasol cells. We conclude that DB3a cells preferentially contact OFF parasol cells but also provide input to other ganglion cell types. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A quantitative study of ganglion cells in the German shepherd dog retina.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Soriano, J; Rodriguez-Veiga, E; Martinez-Sainz, P; Mayayo-Vicente, S; Marin-Garcia, P

    1995-03-01

    As in the number of mammals, the most prominent feature of the ganglion-cell layer in the retina of the German shepherd dog is the sharp increase in the density of ganglion cells in the central area. There is an area of maximum density and also a 'cat-like' visual streak, located dorsal to the optic disc. The isodensity lines of ganglion-cell distribution is roughly concentric. Their values vary from 5300-13,000 cells/mm2 in the central area, with the cells densely packed, to 1000 cells/mm2 or less in the periphery, where the cells are sparsely distributed. There were some individual differences amongst the animals studied, although all of them were pure-bred dogs. This suggests that the configuration of the retina in the canine species is not only dependent on the breed itself but also on some other parameters such as phylogenetic heritage, environment, aptitude, lifestyle, or even training.

  9. Vortioxetine disinhibits pyramidal cell function and enhances synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Elena; Zhang, Hong; Leiser, Steven C; Xiao, Yixin; Lu, Dunguo; Yang, Charles R; Plath, Niels; Sanchez, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Vortioxetine, a novel antidepressant with multimodal action, is a serotonin (5-HT)3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and a 5-HT transporter (SERT) inhibitor. Vortioxetine has been shown to improve cognitive performance in several preclinical rat models and in patients with major depressive disorder. Here we investigated the mechanistic basis for these effects by studying the effect of vortioxetine on synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular correlate of learning and memory, and theta oscillations in the rat hippocampus and frontal cortex. Vortioxetine was found to prevent the 5-HT-induced increase in inhibitory post-synaptic potentials recorded from CA1 pyramidal cells, most likely by 5-HT3 receptor antagonism. Vortioxetine also enhanced LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Finally, vortioxetine increased fronto-cortical theta power during active wake in whole animal electroencephalographic recordings. In comparison, the selective SERT inhibitor escitalopram showed no effect on any of these measures. Taken together, our results indicate that vortioxetine can increase pyramidal cell output, which leads to enhanced synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Given the central role of the hippocampus in cognition, these findings may provide a cellular correlate to the observed preclinical and clinical cognition-enhancing effects of vortioxetine. PMID:25122043

  10. Vortioxetine disinhibits pyramidal cell function and enhances synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Dale, Elena; Zhang, Hong; Leiser, Steven C; Xiao, Yixin; Lu, Dunguo; Yang, Charles R; Plath, Niels; Sanchez, Connie

    2014-10-01

    Vortioxetine, a novel antidepressant with multimodal action, is a serotonin (5-HT)3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and a 5-HT transporter (SERT) inhibitor. Vortioxetine has been shown to improve cognitive performance in several preclinical rat models and in patients with major depressive disorder. Here we investigated the mechanistic basis for these effects by studying the effect of vortioxetine on synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular correlate of learning and memory, and theta oscillations in the rat hippocampus and frontal cortex. Vortioxetine was found to prevent the 5-HT-induced increase in inhibitory post-synaptic potentials recorded from CA1 pyramidal cells, most likely by 5-HT3 receptor antagonism. Vortioxetine also enhanced LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Finally, vortioxetine increased fronto-cortical theta power during active wake in whole animal electroencephalographic recordings. In comparison, the selective SERT inhibitor escitalopram showed no effect on any of these measures. Taken together, our results indicate that vortioxetine can increase pyramidal cell output, which leads to enhanced synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Given the central role of the hippocampus in cognition, these findings may provide a cellular correlate to the observed preclinical and clinical cognition-enhancing effects of vortioxetine. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Cross-correlation analysis of the maintained discharge of rabbit retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, D; Spraker, T E

    1981-01-01

    1. Simultaneous recordings were made from pairs of rabbit retinal ganglion cells. Physiological tests were used to classify the receptive field properties of each cell and the receptive field locations were mapped. 2. The statistical dependence between simultaneously recorded retinal ganglion cells was assessed by cross-correlating the maintained discharge of the simultaneously recorded cells. Cross-correlations from cell pairs in which the constituent cells had non-overlapping receptive field centres were statistically flat, reflecting no statistical dependence. 3. Most cell pairs consisting of transient and sustained concentric cells and having overlapping receptive field centres exhibited a correlated maintained discharge indicative of statistical dependence. The strength of the statistical dependence varied approximately inversely with the degree of overlap between the two cells comprising the cell pair. 4. Cell pairs consisting of two ON-centre cells or two OFF-centre cells and having overlapping receptive field centres possessed incremental cross-correlations which were characterized by a peak centred near zero. Cell pairs consisting of an ON-centre cell with an OFF-centre and having overlapping receptive field centres possessed decremental cross-correlations which were characterized by a valley centred near zero. 5. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that a noise source provides shared input to two or more retinal ganglion cells. Bipolar and photoreceptors are the most likely sources of noise responsible for the statistical dependency between retinal ganglion cells. PMID:7310736

  12. Estimating the Rate of Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Felipe A.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Anderson, Douglas R.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Girkin, Christopher A; Harwerth, Ronald S.; Fredette, Marie-Josée; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To present and evaluate a new method of estimating rates of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in glaucoma by combining structural and functional measurements. Design Observational cohort study Methods The study included 213 eyes of 213 glaucoma patients followed for an average of 4.5±0.8 years with standard automated perimetry (SAP) visual fields and optical coherence tomography (OCT). A control group of 33 eyes of 33 glaucoma patients had repeated tests over a short period of time to test the specificity of the method. An additional group of 52 eyes from 52 healthy subjects followed for an average of 4.0±0.7 years was used to estimate age-related losses of RGCs. Estimates of RGC counts were obtained from SAP and OCT and a weighted average was used to obtain a final estimate of the number of RGCs for each eye. The rate of RGC loss was calculated for each eye using linear regression. Progression was defined by a statistically significant slope faster than the age-expected loss of RGCs. Results From the 213 eyes, 47 (22.1%) showed rates of RGC loss that were faster than the age-expected decline. A larger proportion of glaucomatous eyes showed progression based on rates of RGC loss than based on isolated parameters from SAP (8.5%) or OCT (14.6%; P<0.01), while maintaining similar specificities in the stable group. Conclusion The rate of RGC loss estimated from combining structure and function performed better than either isolated structural or functional measures for detecting progressive glaucomatous damage. PMID:22840484

  13. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cell loss in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Ross‐Cisneros, Fred N.; Koronyo, Yosef; Hannibal, Jens; Gallassi, Roberto; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Sambati, Luisa; Pan, Billy X.; Tozer, Kevin R.; Barboni, Piero; Provini, Federica; Avanzini, Pietro; Carbonelli, Michele; Pelosi, Annalisa; Chui, Helena; Liguori, Rocco; Baruzzi, Agostino; Koronyo‐Hamaoui, Maya; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Carelli, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Objective Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are photoreceptors driving circadian photoentrainment, and circadian dysfunction characterizes Alzheimer disease (AD). We investigated mRGCs in AD, hypothesizing that they contribute to circadian dysfunction. Methods We assessed retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 21 mild‐moderate AD patients, and in a subgroup of 16 we evaluated rest–activity circadian rhythm by actigraphy. We studied postmortem mRGCs by immunohistochemistry in retinas, and axons in optic nerve cross‐sections of 14 neuropathologically confirmed AD patients. We coimmunostained for retinal amyloid β (Aβ) deposition and melanopsin to locate mRGCs. All AD cohorts were compared with age‐matched controls. Results We demonstrated an age‐related optic neuropathy in AD by OCT, with a significant reduction of RNFL thickness (p = 0.038), more evident in the superior quadrant (p = 0.006). Axonal loss was confirmed in postmortem AD optic nerves. Abnormal circadian function characterized only a subgroup of AD patients. Sleep efficiency was significantly reduced in AD patients (p = 0.001). We also found a significant loss of mRGCs in postmortem AD retinal specimens (p = 0.003) across all ages and abnormal mRGC dendritic morphology and size (p = 0.003). In flat‐mounted AD retinas, Aβ accumulation was remarkably evident inside and around mRGCs. Interpretation We show variable degrees of rest–activity circadian dysfunction in AD patients. We also demonstrate age‐related loss of optic nerve axons and specifically mRGC loss and pathology in postmortem AD retinal specimens, associated with Aβ deposition. These results all support the concept that mRGC degeneration is a contributor to circadian rhythm dysfunction in AD. ANN NEUROL 2016;79:90–109 PMID:26505992

  14. Taurine Provides Neuroprotection against Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23115615

  15. Signalling by melanopsin (OPN4) expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, S; Jagannath, A; Rodgers, J; Hankins, M W; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in our understanding of both the anatomy and function of the melanopsin system. It has become clear that rather than acting as a simple irradiance detector the melanopsin system is in fact far more complicated. The range of behavioural systems known to be influenced by melanopsin activity is increasing with time, and it is now clear that melanopsin contributes not only to multiple non-image forming systems but also has a role in visual pathways. How melanopsin is capable of driving so many different behaviours is unclear, but recent evidence suggests that the answer may lie in the diversity of melanopsin light responses and the functional specialisation of photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (pRGC) subtypes. In this review, we shall overview the current understanding of the melanopsin system, and evaluate the evidence for the hypothesis that individual pRGC subtypes not only perform specific roles, but are functionally specialised to do so. We conclude that while, currently, the available data somewhat support this hypothesis, we currently lack the necessary detail to fully understand how the functional diversity of pRGC subtypes correlates with different behavioural responses, and ultimately why such complexity is required within the melanopsin system. What we are lacking is a cohesive understanding of how light responses differ between the pRGC subtypes (based not only on anatomical classification but also based on their site of innervation); how these diverse light responses are generated, and most importantly how these responses relate to the physiological functions they underpin. PMID:26768919

  16. Ketorolac Administration Attenuates Retinal Ganglion Cell Death After Axonal Injury.

    PubMed

    Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco M; Rodriguez-Villagra, Esther; Bravo-Osuna, Irene; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Molina-Martínez, Irene; Villegas-Pérez, Maria Paz; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    To assess the neuroprotective effects of ketorolac administration, in solution or delivered from biodegradable microspheres, on the survival of axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Retinas were treated intravitreally with a single injection of tromethamine ketorolac solution and/or with ketorolac-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. Ketorolac treatments were administered either 1 week before optic nerve crush (pre-ONC) or right after the ONC (simultaneous). In all cases, animals were euthanized 7 days after the ONC. As control, nonloaded microspheres or vehicle (balanced salt solution, BSS) were administered in parallel groups. All retinas were dissected as flat mounts; RGCs were immunodetected with brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3A (Brn3a), and their number was automatically quantified. The percentage of Brn3a+RGCs was 36% to 41% in all control groups (ONC with or without BSS or nonloaded microparticles). Ketorolac solution administered pre-ONC resulted in 63% survival of RGCs, while simultaneous administration promoted a 53% survival. Ketorolac-loaded microspheres were not as efficient as ketorolac solution (43% and 42% of RGC survival pre-ONC or simultaneous, respectively). The combination of ketorolac solution and ketorolac-loaded microspheres did not have an additive effect (54% and 55% survival pre-ONC and simultaneous delivery, respectively). Treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac delays RGC death triggered by a traumatic axonal insult. Pretreatment seems to elicit a better output than simultaneous administration of ketorolac solution. This may be taken into account when performing procedures resulting in RGC axonal injury.

  17. Ganglion Cells Are Frequently Present in Pediatric Mucosal Colorectal Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Alexandra E; Pacheco, M Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) rarely presents as chronic constipation after the newborn period. At our institution, calretinin immunohistochemistry (CAL) is frequently requested by clinicians on rectal mucosal biopsies (RMBs) taken during colonoscopy in older children in whom suspicion for HD is low. We hypothesized that review of these biopsies would frequently reveal ganglion cells (GCs). We reviewed features of mucosal biopsies (November 2013 to September 2015) from children ≥1 year of age on which clinicians had requested CAL on at least one specimen. A total of 93 biopsies with paired CAL from 83 patients were suitable for study (ages 1-18 years, M:F 1.2). Submitted clinical indication was constipation in 62 patients (75%). GCs were found within or subjacent to muscularis mucosa in 63 biopsies (68%), 12 (19%) of which were designated from a specific anatomic site, eg, 2 or 3 cm. In 25 of 63 (40%) cases, GCs were identified on one of the first 3 sections (median 5th, range 1st-54th). Forty-six cases (73%) contained no or <0.5 mm of submucosa (SM, range 0-2 mm). All but one case (62/63, 98%) with identified GCs showed positive CAL staining; a single case showed equivocal staining. Among the 30 biopsies with no observed GCs, none (0%) had >1 mm of SM, and 21 (70%) had no SM. CAL was positive in 28 (93%) and equivocal/weak in 2 (7%); no additional work-up for HD was pursued. The data suggest that H&E sections of RMBs can exclude HD at a specified site in many cases and provide the basis for a future study examining the utility of CAL in RMBs without SM as a means for excluding HD.

  18. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    PubMed

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases.

  19. The neurotoxic effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the retinal ganglion cells of the albino rat.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, C M; Marani, E; Rietveld, W J

    1986-07-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) administered postnatally to the albino rat causes extensive destruction of the retina. This MSG effect does not result in complete blindness. Ganglion cells surviving the MSG treatment are healthy and functional. Using retrogradely transported HRP and Nissl staining in whole mounted retinas, it was found that the ganglion cells left after MSG treatment are not smaller than those in controls, that these cells do not belong to one cell size group, and that no cells size group is selectively missed. The results explain why photic entrainment of MSG treated animals is still possible.

  20. An efficient method that reveals both the dendrites and the soma mosaics of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Zhan, X J; Troy, J B

    1997-03-01

    A method of using neurobiotin to stain both the dendrites and the soma mosaics of retinal ganglion cells in fresh retinae is described. This method is simple to use and efficient in revealing morphological details for a large number of retinal ganglion cells. It has five advantages over currently available staining methods. (1) It stains all ganglion cells in the whole retina or in a selected retinal area, permitting ganglion cell distributions across the retina to be obtained. (2) It reveals cell dendrites in great detail, especially in regions outside the area centralis. The dendritic field mosaics and, therefore the dendritic field coverage factors, of different ganglion cell types across the whole retina can be obtained easily. (3) It works reliably, efficiently, and does not require the expensive set-up or the pains-taking work needed when staining cells through intracellular injection. (4) It works under both in vivo and in vitro settings, permitting the use of retinae from animals sacrificed for other purposes and the use of postmortem human retinae. (5) The end product of the visualization process is optically dark and electron dense, permitting specimens to be examined under both light and electron microscopes.

  1. Divisive suppression explains high-precision firing and contrast adaptation in retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuwei; Wang, Yanbin V; Park, Silvia J H; Demb, Jonathan B; Butts, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Visual processing depends on specific computations implemented by complex neural circuits. Here, we present a circuit-inspired model of retinal ganglion cell computation, targeted to explain their temporal dynamics and adaptation to contrast. To localize the sources of such processing, we used recordings at the levels of synaptic input and spiking output in the in vitro mouse retina. We found that an ON-Alpha ganglion cell's excitatory synaptic inputs were described by a divisive interaction between excitation and delayed suppression, which explained nonlinear processing that was already present in ganglion cell inputs. Ganglion cell output was further shaped by spike generation mechanisms. The full model accurately predicted spike responses with unprecedented millisecond precision, and accurately described contrast adaptation of the spike train. These results demonstrate how circuit and cell-intrinsic mechanisms interact for ganglion cell function and, more generally, illustrate the power of circuit-inspired modeling of sensory processing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19460.001 PMID:27841746

  2. Support and satellite cells within the rabbit dorsal root ganglion: ultrastructure of a perineuronal support cell.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, Kris; Weinstein, James N; McLain, Robert F

    2006-08-01

    The membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasmic contents of satellite cells were evaluated using a transmission electron microscope. To delineate satellite cell morphometries. The role of the satellite support cells associated with the neuronal cell bodies remains poorly understood. Previous research has identified one type of satellite support cells. Dorsal root ganglions were excised from 10 adult New Zealand White rabbits. Sections from L2-L5 ganglions were prepared, cut, and analyzed under a transmission electron microscope. A total of 190 neurons and their associated satellite cells were selected for analysis. Three subgroups of satellite cells were identified. The two predominant subgroups consisted of previously described satellite cells. The third subgroup consisted of highly complex and unusual cells. Nineteen satellite cells (4%) did not conform to any previous description of glial cells. Cells were characterized by larger nuclei, with numerous inclusions, and by extensively convoluted reflections of the cellular membrane. These cells were "perched" or "piggy-backed" on top of a convoluted and multilayered cytoplasmic sheet. A new type of support cell representing a different cell line or a highly adapted cell with specific functional capacities was identified.

  3. Correlation in the Discharges of Neighboring Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells During Prenatal Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, Lamberto; Galli-Resta, Lucia

    1990-04-01

    The spontaneous discharges of neighboring retinal ganglion cells were recorded simultaneously in anesthetized prenatal rats between embryonic days 18 and 21. We report here that in the majority of cases the firings of neighboring retinal ganglion cells are strongly correlated during prenatal life. Correlation in the discharges of neighboring cells during development has long been suggested as a way to consolidate synaptic connections with a target cell onto which they converge, a model first proposed by Hebb. Correlation in the activities of neighboring neurons in the retina could be the basis of developmental processes such as refinement of retinotopic maps in the brain and segregation of the inputs from the two eyes.

  4. Cyclic AMP and the regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Mats; Harvey, Alan R

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present a brief review of studies that have reported therapeutic benefits of elevated cAMP on plasticity and regeneration after injury to the central nervous system (CNS). We also provide new data on the cellular mechanisms by which elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) promotes cytokine driven regeneration of adult CNS axons, using the visual system as the experimental model. cAMP is a second messenger for many intracellular signalling pathways. Elevation of cAMP in the eye by intravitreal injection of the cell permeant analogue (8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate; CPT-cAMP), when added to recombinant ciliary neurotrophic factor (rCNTF), significantly enhances rCNTF-induced regeneration of adult rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons into peripheral nerve (PN) grafted onto transected optic nerve. This effect is mediated to some extent by protein kinase A (PKA) signalling, but CPT-cAMP also acts via PI3K/Akt signalling to reduce suppressor of cytokine signalling protein 3 (SOCS3) activity in RGCs. Another target for cAMP is the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), which can also mediate cAMP-induced axonal growth. Here we describe some novel results and discuss to what extent the pro-regenerative effects of CPT-cAMP on adult RGCs are mediated via Epac as well as via PKA-dependent pathways. We used the established PN-optic nerve graft model and quantified the survival and regenerative growth of adult rat RGCs after intravitreal injection of rCNTF in combination with a selective activator of PKA and/or a specific activator of Epac. Viable RGCs were identified by βIII-tubulin immunohistochemistry and regenerating RGCs retrogradely labelled and quantified after an injection of fluorogold into the distal end of the PN grafts, 4 weeks post-transplantation. The specific agonists of either PKA or Epac were both effective in enhancing the effects of rCNTF on RGC axonal regeneration, but interestingly, injections

  5. Endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors localized to ganglion cells of the retina

    SciTech Connect

    Braas, K.M.; Zarbin, M.A.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-06-01

    Using specific sensitive antisera against adenosine, we have immunocytochemically localized endogenous adenosine to specific layers of rat, guinea pig, monkey, and human retina. Highest adenosine immunoreactivity was observed in ganglion cells and their processes in the optic nerve fiber layer. Substantial staining was also found throughout the inner plexiform layer and in select cells in the inner nuclear layer. Adenosine A1 receptors, labeled with the agonists L-(/sup 3/H)phenylisopropyladenosine and /sup 125/I-labeled hydroxy-phenylisopropyladenosine, were autoradiographically localized. The highest levels of binding sites occurred in the nerve fiber, ganglion cell, and inner plexiform layers of the retina in all the species examined. The distribution of adenosine A1 receptor sites closely parallels that of retinal neurons and fibers containing immunoreactive adenosine. These results suggest a role for endogenous adenosine as a coneurotransmitter in ganglion cells and their fibers in the optic nerve.

  6. Regional specialisation of the ganglion cell density in the retina of the native duck (Anas platyrhynchos) of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Uddin, M; Quasem, M A; Rhaman, M L

    2013-12-01

    In this study, retinal whole-mount specimens were prepared and stained with 0.1% cresyl violet for the ganglion cell study in the native duck (Anas platyrhynchos). The total number, distribution and size of these cells were determined in different retinal regions. The mean total number of ganglion cells was 1 598 501. The retinal area centralis had the highest ganglion cell density with 11 200 cells/mm(2) . Number of ganglion cell bodies was the highest in temporal area, followed by dorsal, nasal and ventral areas. Ganglion cell size ranged from 5.25 to 80 μm(2) . In the temporal and nasal region, most of the cells were ranged from 15 to 25 μm(2) , and in the dorsal and ventral region, most of the cells were ranged from 12 to 25 μm(2) . There was a marked trend for the retinal ganglion cell size to increase as the population density decrease towards the periphery. A population of small ganglion cells persisted into the central area just above the optic disc and the largest soma area was in the ventral zone of the retina. Thus, the specialisation of ganglion cell densities and their sizes support the notion that the conduction of visual information towards the brain from all regions of the retina is not uniform, and the central area is the fine quality area for vision in native duck. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Ocular anatomy, ganglion cell distribution and retinal resolution of a killer whale (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Mass, Alla M; Supin, Alexander Y; Abramov, Andrey V; Mukhametov, Lev M; Rozanova, Elena I

    2013-01-01

    Retinal topography, cell density and sizes of ganglion cells in the killer whale (Orcinus orca) were analyzed in retinal whole mounts stained with cresyl violet. A distinctive feature of the killer whale's retina is the large size of ganglion cells and low cell density compared to terrestrial mammals. The ganglion cell diameter ranged from 8 to 100 µm, with the majority of cells within a range of 20-40 µm. The topographic distribution of ganglion cells displayed two spots of high cell density located in the temporal and nasal quadrants, 20 mm from the optic disk. The high-density areas were connected by a horizontal belt-like area passing below the optic disk of the retina. Peak cell densities in these areas were evaluated. Mean peak cell densities were 334 and 288 cells/mm(2) in the temporal and nasal high-density areas, respectively. With a posterior nodal distance of 19.5 mm, these high-density data predict a retinal resolution of 9.6' (3.1 cycles/deg.) and 12.6' (2.4 cycles/deg.) in the temporal and nasal areas, respectively, in water. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Ganglion cell distribution and retinal resolution in the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Mass, Alla M; Ketten, Darlene R; Odell, Daniel K; Supin, Alexander Ya

    2012-01-01

    The topographic organization of retinal ganglion cells was examined in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) to assess ganglion cell size and distribution and to estimate retinal resolution. The ganglion cell layer of the manatee's retina was comprised primarily of large neurons with broad intercellular spaces. Cell sizes varied from 10 to 60 μm in diameter (mean 24.3 μm). The retinal wholemounts from adult animals measured 446-501 mm(2) in area with total ganglion cell counts of 62,000-81,800 (mean 70,200). The cell density changed across the retina, with the maximum in the area below the optic disc and decreasing toward the retinal edges and in the immediate vicinity of the optic disc. The maximum cell density ranged from 235 to 337 cells per millimeter square in the adult retinae. Two wholemounts obtained from juvenile animals were 271 and 282 mm(2) in area with total cell numbers of 70,900 and 68,700, respectively (mean 69,800), that is, nearly equivalent to those of adults, but juvenile retinae consequently had maximum cell densities that were higher than those of adults: 478 and 491 cells per millimeter square. Calculations indicate a retinal resolution of ∼19' (1.6 cycles per degree) in both adult and juvenile retinae. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats

    PubMed Central

    Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco M.; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Villegas-Pérez, María P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs) is 84,706 ± 1249 in albino and 90,440 ± 2236 in pigmented, out of which 2383 and 2428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs), respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively), ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented) than oRGCs (2.6%) express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic) project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 μm and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 μm, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and ocular hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an

  10. Monte Carlo methods for localization of cones given multielectrode retinal ganglion cell recordings.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, K; Gauthier, J L; Field, G D; Greschner, M; Agne, M; Chichilnisky, E J; Paninski, L

    2013-01-01

    It has recently become possible to identify cone photoreceptors in primate retina from multi-electrode recordings of ganglion cell spiking driven by visual stimuli of sufficiently high spatial resolution. In this paper we present a statistical approach to the problem of identifying the number, locations, and color types of the cones observed in this type of experiment. We develop an adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method that explores the space of cone configurations, using a Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson (LNP) encoding model of ganglion cell spiking output, while analytically integrating out the functional weights between cones and ganglion cells. This method provides information about our posterior certainty about the inferred cone properties, and additionally leads to improvements in both the speed and quality of the inferred cone maps, compared to earlier "greedy" computational approaches.

  11. Synaptic drive and impulse generation in ganglion cells of turtle retina.

    PubMed

    Baylor, D A; Fettiplace, R

    1979-03-01

    1. Light reponses and electrical constants of ganglion cells in the retina of the turtle were examined by intracellular recording in eyecup preparations. 2. In 'on', 'off', and 'on/off' cells, the impulses produced by illumination of the centre of the receptive field arose from slow synaptic depolarizations. The ganglion cells also exhibited inhibitory synaptic potentials. 3. The synaptic depolarization evoked by a step change in light intensity rose more slowly than the response of the cones in which the excitation originated, and the depolarization then declined in spite of a well maintained cone response. This behaviour is consistent with the notion advanced previously that, during transmission to ganglion cells, receptor signals are relayed through the equivalent of a bandpass filter. 4. The e.p.s.p.s evoked by light grew when the membrane was hyperpolarized by injected current and decreased when the membrane was depolarized. The i.p.s.p.s reversed at a level slightly negative to the resting potential in darkness. 5. In neither 'on' nor 'off' ganglion cells did the synaptic potentials evoked by step changes in illumination show the hyperpolarizing phases expected of a linear filter. The absence of hyperpolarizations is consistent with a rectification which permits transmission of depolarizations but not hyperpolarizations from bipolar to ganglion cells. 6. In darkness the membrane potential of some ganglion cells showed random depolarizations which brought the potential near the threshold for impulse generation. 7. With very small spots in the receptive field centre the 'on' responses of ganglion cells to flashes and steps of light grew approximately linearly with stimulus intensity. The step reponse was not, however, related to the flash response by superposition. Larger spots in the field centre gave responses which grew non-linearly with the intensity of even dim stimuli. 8 Depolarizing current passed through the recording electrode elicited a repetitive

  12. Temporal response of protein-based artificial ganglion cell receptive field (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko

    2016-10-01

    We propose ganglion cell receptive-field-type filters with the use of the photoreceptor protein bacteriorhodopsin. Visual image processing is possible with the use of only one sensing element. We also demonstrate that our difference of Gaussians (DOG) filter, which mimics on-center off-suround ganglion cell receptive fields, has the function of a Laplacian filter and can act as an edge detecor. The X-type receptive field responses obtained by the filter, for a variety of stimuli, are compared with available electrophysiological recodings.

  13. The morphology and classification of α ganglion cells in the rat retinae: a fractal analysis study.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Herbert F; Ristanović, Dušan; Milošević, Nebojša T

    2011-09-30

    Rat retinal ganglion cells have been proposed to consist of a varying number of subtypes. Dendritic morphology is an essential aspect of classification and a necessary step toward understanding structure-function relationships of retinal ganglion cells. This study aimed at using a heuristic classification procedure in combination with the box-counting analysis to classify the alpha ganglion cells in the rat retinae based on the dendritic branching pattern and to investigate morphological changes with retinal eccentricity. The cells could be divided into two groups: cells with simple dendritic pattern (box dimension lower than 1.390) and cells with complex dendritic pattern (box dimension higher than 1.390) according to their dendritic branching pattern complexity. Both were further divided into two subtypes due to the stratification within the inner plexiform layer. In the present study we have shown that the alpha rat RCGs can be classified further by their dendritic branching complexity and thus extend those of previous reports that fractal analysis can be successfully used in neuronal classification, particularly that the fractal dimension represents a robust and sensitive tool for the classification of retinal ganglion cells. A hypothesis of possible functional significance of our classification scheme is also discussed.

  14. A Thy1-CFP DBA/2J mouse line with cyan fluorescent protein expression in retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    RAYMOND, IONA D.; POOL, ANGELA L.; VILA, ALEJANDRO; BRECHA, NICHOLAS C.

    2013-01-01

    A DBA/2J (D2) transgenic mouse line with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) reporter expression in ganglion cells was developed for the analysis of ganglion cells during progressive glaucoma. The Thy1-CFP D2 (CFP-D2) line was created by congenically breeding the D2 line, which develops pigmentary glaucoma, and the Thy1-CFP line, which expresses CFP in ganglion cells. Microsatellite marker analysis of CFP-D2 progeny verified the genetic inclusion of the D2 isa and ipd loci. Specific mutations within these loci lead to dysfunctional melanosomal proteins and glaucomatous phenotype in D2 mice. Polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the inclusion of the Thy1-CFP transgene. CFP-fluorescent ganglion cells, 6–20 μm in diameter, were distributed in all retinal regions, CFP processes were throughout the inner plexiform layer, and CFP-fluorescent axons were in the fiber layer and optic nerve head. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to ganglion cell markers NF-L, NeuN, Brn3a, and SMI32 was used to confirm CFP expression in ganglion cells. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to amacrine cell markers HPC-1 and ChAT was used to confirm weak CFP expression in cholinergic amacrine cells. CFP-D2 mice developed a glaucomatous phenotype, including iris disease, ganglion cell loss, attrition of the fiber layer, and elevated intraocular pressure. A CFP-D2 transgenic line with CFP-expressing ganglion cells was developed, which has (1) a predominantly D2 genetic background, (2) CFP-expressing ganglion cells, and (3) age-related progressive glaucoma. This line will be of value for experimental studies investigating ganglion cells and their axons in vivo and in vitro during the progressive development of glaucoma. PMID:19930759

  15. Histamine reduces flash sensitivity of on ganglion cells in the primate retina.

    PubMed

    Akimov, Nikolay P; Marshak, David W; Frishman, Laura J; Glickman, Randolph D; Yusupov, Rafail G

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE. In Old World primates, the retina receives input from histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamus. They are a subset of the neurons that project throughout the central nervous system and fire maximally during the day. The contribution of these neurons to vision, was examined by applying histamine to a dark-adapted, superfused baboon eye cup preparation while making extracellular recordings from peripheral retinal ganglion cells. METHODS. The stimuli were 5-ms, 560-nm, weak, full-field flashes in the low scotopic range. Ganglion cells with sustained and transient ON responses and two cell types with OFF responses were distinguished; their responses were recorded with a 16-channel microelectrode array. RESULTS. Low micromolar doses of histamine decreased the rate of maintained firing and the light sensitivity of ON ganglion cells. Both sustained and transient ON cells responded similarly to histamine. There were no statistically significant effects of histamine in a more limited study of OFF ganglion cells. The response latencies of ON cells were approximately 5 ms slower, on average, when histamine was present. Histamine also reduced the signal-to-noise ratio of ON cells, particularly in those cells with a histamine-induced increase in maintained activity. CONCLUSIONS. A major action of histamine released from retinopetal axons under dark-adapted conditions, when rod signals dominate the response, is to reduce the sensitivity of ON ganglion cells to light flashes. These findings may relate to reports that humans are less sensitive to light stimuli in the scotopic range during the day, when histamine release in the retina is expected to be at its maximum.

  16. Histamine Reduces Flash Sensitivity of ON Ganglion Cells in the Primate Retina

    PubMed Central

    Akimov, Nikolay P.; Marshak, David W.; Frishman, Laura J.; Yusupov, Rafail G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. In Old World primates, the retina receives input from histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamus. They are a subset of the neurons that project throughout the central nervous system and fire maximally during the day. The contribution of these neurons to vision, was examined by applying histamine to a dark-adapted, superfused baboon eye cup preparation while making extracellular recordings from peripheral retinal ganglion cells. Methods. The stimuli were 5-ms, 560-nm, weak, full-field flashes in the low scotopic range. Ganglion cells with sustained and transient ON responses and two cell types with OFF responses were distinguished; their responses were recorded with a 16-channel microelectrode array. Results. Low micromolar doses of histamine decreased the rate of maintained firing and the light sensitivity of ON ganglion cells. Both sustained and transient ON cells responded similarly to histamine. There were no statistically significant effects of histamine in a more limited study of OFF ganglion cells. The response latencies of ON cells were approximately 5 ms slower, on average, when histamine was present. Histamine also reduced the signal-to-noise ratio of ON cells, particularly in those cells with a histamine-induced increase in maintained activity. Conclusions. A major action of histamine released from retinopetal axons under dark-adapted conditions, when rod signals dominate the response, is to reduce the sensitivity of ON ganglion cells to light flashes. These findings may relate to reports that humans are less sensitive to light stimuli in the scotopic range during the day, when histamine release in the retina is expected to be at its maximum. PMID:20207974

  17. Visual Field Defects and Retinal Ganglion Cell Losses in Human Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Harwerth, Ronald S.; Quigley, Harry A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective The depth of visual field defects are correlated with retinal ganglion cell densities in experimental glaucoma. This study was to determine whether a similar structure-function relationship holds for human glaucoma. Methods The study was based on retinal ganglion cell densities and visual thresholds of patients with documented glaucoma (Kerrigan-Baumrind, et al.) The data were analyzed by a model that predicted ganglion cell densities from standard clinical perimetry, which were then compared to histologic cell counts. Results The model, without free parameters, produced accurate and relatively precise quantification of ganglion cell densities associated with visual field defects. For 437 sets of data, the unity correlation for predicted vs. measured cell densities had a coefficient of determination of 0.39. The mean absolute deviation of the predicted vs. measured values was 2.59 dB, the mean and SD of the distribution of residual errors of prediction was -0.26 ± 3.22 dB. Conclusions Visual field defects by standard clinical perimetry are proportional to neural losses caused by glaucoma. Clinical Relevance The evidence for quantitative structure-function relationships provides a scientific basis of interpreting glaucomatous neuropathy from visual thresholds and supports the application of standard perimetry to establish the stage of the disease. PMID:16769839

  18. Morphology and distribution of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer of the adult tammar wallaby--Macropus eugenii.

    PubMed

    Wong, R O; Wye-Dvorak, J; Henry, G H

    1986-11-01

    The morphology of the ganglion cell layer of the adult tammar wallaby has been examined from Nissl-stained retinal flatmounts. From this material, neurons have been classed as ganglion cells or displaced amacrine cells according to the disposition of Nissl substance. A further subdivision of ganglion cells into a separate group of alphalike cells was assisted by determining the range of soma sizes in neurofibrillar-stained flatmounts, a method which, in the cat, has revealed the presence of alpha cells. Isodensity contour maps prepared from the Nissl-stained flatmounts show a well-developed visual streak and an area centralis in the total neuronal population. A similar pattern was also found in the ganglion cells, thus confirming Tancred's (J. Comp. Neurol. 196:585-603, '81) finding, and, as well, in the alphalike ganglion cells and the displaced amacrine cells. The relative proportions of ganglion cells to displaced amacrines (GC:DA) were evaluated from isodensity profiles drawn along and vertical to the visual streak for the two cell types and also from maps showing the variation in the GC:DA ratio throughout the retina. A comparison with results published for other species shows that the visual streak development in the tammar wallaby is consistent with the expectations of the "terrain" theory and that, in its relative proportion of displaced amacrines, the tammar closely resembles the rabbit but contrasts sharply with the cat, which has half as many ganglion cells and three times as many displaced amacrines as the other two species.

  19. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies distinct mouse medial ganglionic eminence cell types

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Jiun J.; Friedman, Brad A.; Ha, Connie; Durinck, Steffen; Liu, Jinfeng; Rubenstein, John L.; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Modrusan, Zora

    2017-01-01

    Many subtypes of cortical interneurons (CINs) are found in adult mouse cortices, but the mechanism generating their diversity remains elusive. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on the mouse embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), the major birthplace for CINs, and on MGE-like cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells. Two distinct cell types were identified as proliferating neural progenitors and immature neurons, both of which comprised sub-populations. Although lineage development of MGE progenitors was reconstructed and immature neurons were characterized as GABAergic, cells that might correspond to precursors of different CINs were not identified. A few non-neuronal cell types were detected, including microglia. In vitro MGE-like cells resembled bona fide MGE cells but expressed lower levels of Foxg1 and Epha4. Together, our data provide detailed understanding of the embryonic MGE developmental program and suggest how CINs are specified. PMID:28361918

  20. Changes in ganglion cell physiology during retinal degeneration influence excitability by prosthetic electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Alice; Ratliff, Charles; Sampath, Alapakkam; Weiland, James

    2016-01-01

    Objective Here we investigate ganglion cell physiology in healthy and degenerating retina to test its influence on threshold to electrical stimulation. Approach Age-related Macular Degeneration and Retinitis Pigmentosa cause blindness via outer retinal degeneration. Inner retinal pathways that transmit visual information to the central brain remain intact, so direct electrical stimulation from prosthetic devices offers the possibility for visual restoration. Since inner retinal physiology changes during degeneration, we characterize physiological properties and responses to electrical stimulation in retinal ganglion cells of both wild type mice and the rd10 mouse model of retinal degeneration. Main results Our aggregate results support previous observations that elevated thresholds characterize diseased retinas. However, a physiology-driven classification scheme reveals distinct sub-populations of ganglion cells with thresholds either normal or strongly elevated compared to wild-type. When these populations are combined, only a weakly elevated threshold with large variance is observed. The cells with normal threshold are more depolarized at rest and exhibit periodic oscillations. Significance During degeneration, physiological changes in retinal ganglion cells affect the threshold stimulation currents required to evoke action potentials. PMID:26905177

  1. Classification of retinal ganglion cells in the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis (Cyclostomata).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Lee Norman; Coimbra, João Paulo; Rodger, Jennifer; Potter, Ian C; Gill, Howard S; Dunlop, Sarah A; Collin, Shaun P

    2014-03-01

    Lampreys are one of two extant representatives of the earliest group of vertebrates, the agnathans or jawless fishes. The single species of the southern hemisphere lamprey family Geotriidae, Geotria australis, possesses the potential for pentachromatic color discrimination opposed to the mono- or dichromacy found in other lampreys. However, little is known of the retinal ganglion cell types that contribute to visual processing in G. australis. A quantitative morphological approach was used to distinguish and describe retinal ganglion cell types in G. australis. The morphology of retinal ganglion cells was revealed by retrograde biocytin labeling from the optic disc. Cells were digitally reconstructed, and somatic area and position and dendritic field size, density, tortuosity, and stratification were subjected to quantitative morphometric analyses. Cluster analysis, in conjunction with similarity profile analysis (SIMPROF), statistically identified five discrete monostratified retinal ganglion cell types, one of which may comprise two subtypes. Two bistratified types were identified separately, including a biplexiform and a bistratified subtype. The use of cluster analysis with SIMPROF provided a robust statistical technique for objectively identifying cell types whose characteristics were similar and significantly different from those of other types and thus provides an objective resolution of the problems posed by "lumpers vs. splitters" when designating cell types. The diversity of retinal ganglion cells suggests that visual information in the lamprey G. australis is processed in parallel streams, as in gnathostomes. These findings, together with the results of previous studies, indicate that the visual system of the lamprey G. australis represents the upper limit of visual complexity in extant agnathans. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Morphological changes in autonomic ganglionic cells of the heart in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, T; Nunotani, H; Fushimi, H; Inoue, T

    1986-06-01

    To clarify the histological changes of the cardiac autonomic nervous system in diabetes mellitus, ganglionic cells of the hearts of autopsy cases were examined light microscopically. In 7 severely diabetic patients, the ganglionic neurons showed cellular contraction, cytoplasmic condensation and poor staining of Nissl substance. As neuronal alterations were obvious neither in the mild diabetic patients nor in the non-diabetic patients, these alterations therefore seemed to correlate with diabetes mellitus. The neuronal changes did not seem to correlate with major coronary arterial atherosclerotic narrowing.

  3. Dark-adapted response threshold of OFF ganglion cells is not set by OFF bipolar cells in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Arman, A. Cyrus

    2012-01-01

    The nervous system frequently integrates parallel streams of information to encode a broad range of stimulus strengths. In mammalian retina it is generally believed that signals generated by rod and cone photoreceptors converge onto cone bipolar cells prior to reaching the retinal output, the ganglion cells. Near absolute visual threshold a specialized mammalian retinal circuit, the rod bipolar pathway, pools signals from many rods and converges on depolarizing (AII) amacrine cells. However, whether subsequent signal flow to OFF ganglion cells requires OFF cone bipolar cells near visual threshold remains unclear. Glycinergic synapses between AII amacrine cells and OFF cone bipolar cells are believed to relay subsequently rod-driven signals to OFF ganglion cells. However, AII amacrine cells also make glycinergic synapses directly with OFF ganglion cells. To determine the route for signal flow near visual threshold, we measured the effect of the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine on response threshold in fully dark-adapted retinal cells. As shown previously, we found that response threshold for OFF ganglion cells was elevated by strychnine. Surprisingly, strychnine did not elevate response threshold in any subclass of OFF cone bipolar cell. Instead, in every OFF cone bipolar subclass strychnine suppressed tonic glycinergic inhibition without altering response threshold. Consistent with this lack of influence of strychnine, we found that the dominant input to OFF cone bipolar cells in darkness was excitatory and the response threshold of the excitatory input varied by subclass. Thus, in the dark-adapted mouse retina, the high absolute sensitivity of OFF ganglion cells cannot be explained by signal transmission through OFF cone bipolar cells. PMID:22338022

  4. Dark-adapted response threshold of OFF ganglion cells is not set by OFF bipolar cells in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Arman, A Cyrus; Sampath, Alapakkam P

    2012-05-01

    The nervous system frequently integrates parallel streams of information to encode a broad range of stimulus strengths. In mammalian retina it is generally believed that signals generated by rod and cone photoreceptors converge onto cone bipolar cells prior to reaching the retinal output, the ganglion cells. Near absolute visual threshold a specialized mammalian retinal circuit, the rod bipolar pathway, pools signals from many rods and converges on depolarizing (AII) amacrine cells. However, whether subsequent signal flow to OFF ganglion cells requires OFF cone bipolar cells near visual threshold remains unclear. Glycinergic synapses between AII amacrine cells and OFF cone bipolar cells are believed to relay subsequently rod-driven signals to OFF ganglion cells. However, AII amacrine cells also make glycinergic synapses directly with OFF ganglion cells. To determine the route for signal flow near visual threshold, we measured the effect of the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine on response threshold in fully dark-adapted retinal cells. As shown previously, we found that response threshold for OFF ganglion cells was elevated by strychnine. Surprisingly, strychnine did not elevate response threshold in any subclass of OFF cone bipolar cell. Instead, in every OFF cone bipolar subclass strychnine suppressed tonic glycinergic inhibition without altering response threshold. Consistent with this lack of influence of strychnine, we found that the dominant input to OFF cone bipolar cells in darkness was excitatory and the response threshold of the excitatory input varied by subclass. Thus, in the dark-adapted mouse retina, the high absolute sensitivity of OFF ganglion cells cannot be explained by signal transmission through OFF cone bipolar cells.

  5. Ganglion cells density and retinal resolution in the sea otter, Enhydra lutris.

    PubMed

    Mass, A M; Supin, A Y

    2000-03-01

    The topographic distribution, density, and size of ganglion cells were studied in retinal wholemounts of the sea otter, Enhydra lutris. The cell distribution showed a well defined horizontal streak of higher cell density, and within this streak, a narrow area of the highest cell density. The peak cell density in this area ranged from 4050 to 4400 cells/mm(2), with a mean of 4225 cells/mm(2). The ganglion cell size ranged from 7 microm to 47 microm but the majority of cells were 7 to 30 microm. Cell size distribution revealed three size groups: 7-16, 17-28, and 29-47 microm. The highest-density area contained mainly small (7-16 microm) cells. The cell-density data predict a retinal resolution around 7' in water. Retinal organization in the sea otter exhibits more properties common with terrestrial rather than aquatic mammals, both in terms of ganglion cell characteristics and in terms of their topographic distribution.

  6. Inhibition of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells by D1-type Dopamine Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Yuki; Rodríguez, Carolina Varela; Ogata, Genki; Partida, Gloria J.; Oi, Hanako; Stradleigh, Tyler W.; Lee, Sherwin C.; Colado, Anselmo Felipe; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    The spike output of neural pathways can be regulated by modulating output neuron excitability and/or their synaptic inputs. Dopaminergic interneurons synapse onto cells that route signals to mammalian retinal ganglion cells, but it is unknown whether dopamine can activate receptors in these ganglion cells and, if it does, how this affects their excitability. Here, we show D1a-receptor-like immunoreactivity in ganglion cells identified in adult rats by retrogradely transported dextran, and that dopamine, D1-type receptor agonists, and cAMP analogs inhibit spiking in ganglion cells dissociated from adult rats. These ligands curtailed repetitive spiking during constant current injections, and reduced the number and rate of rise of spikes elicited by fluctuating current injections without significantly altering the timing of the remaining spikes. Consistent with mediation by D1-type receptors, SCH-23390 reversed the effects of dopamine on spikes. Contrary to a recent report, spike inhibition by dopamine was not precluded by blocking Ih. Consistent with the reduced rate of spike rise, dopamine reduced voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) amplitude and tetrodotoxin, at doses that reduced INa as moderately as dopamine, also inhibited spiking. These results provide the first direct evidence that D1-type dopamine receptor activation can alter mammalian retinal ganglion cell excitability, and demonstrate that dopamine can modulate spikes in these cells by a mechanism different from the pre- and postsynaptic means proposed by previous studies. To our knowledge, our results also provide the first evidence that dopamine receptor activation can reduce excitability without altering the temporal precision of spike firing. PMID:19940196

  7. Ganglion Cell and Displaced Amacrine Cell Density Distribution in the Retina of the Howler Monkey (Alouatta caraya)

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; de Athaide, Luana Modesto; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Finlay, Barbara L.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Unlike all other New World (platyrrine) monkeys, both male and female howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) are obligatory trichromats. In all other platyrrines, only females can be trichromats, while males are always dichromats, as determined by multiple behavioral, electrophysiological, and genetic studies. In addition to obligatory trichromacy, Alouatta has an unusual fovea, with substantially higher peak cone density in the foveal pit than every other diurnal anthropoid monkey (both platyrrhines and catarrhines) and great ape yet examined, including humans. In addition to documenting the general organization of the retinal ganglion cell layer in Alouatta, the distribution of cones is compared to retinal ganglion cells, to explore possible relationships between their atypical trichromacy and foveal specialization. The number and distribution of retinal ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells were determined in six flat-mounted retinas from five Alouatta caraya. Ganglion cell density peaked at 0.5 mm between the fovea and optic nerve head, reaching 40,700–45,200 cells/mm2. Displaced amacrine cell density distribution peaked between 0.5–1.75 mm from the fovea, reaching mean values between 2,050–3,100 cells/mm2. The mean number of ganglion cells was 1,133,000±79,000 cells and the mean number of displaced amacrine cells was 537,000±61,800 cells, in retinas of mean area 641±62 mm2. Ganglion cell and displaced amacrine cell density distribution in the Alouatta retina was consistent with that observed among several species of diurnal Anthropoidea, both platyrrhines and catarrhines. The principal alteration in the Alouatta retina appears not to be in the number of any retinal cell class, but rather a marked gradient in cone density within the fovea, which could potentially support high chromatic acuity in a restricted central region. PMID:25546077

  8. Ganglion cell and displaced amacrine cell density distribution in the retina of the howler monkey (Alouatta caraya).

    PubMed

    Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; de Athaide, Luana Modesto; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Finlay, Barbara L; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Unlike all other New World (platyrrine) monkeys, both male and female howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) are obligatory trichromats. In all other platyrrines, only females can be trichromats, while males are always dichromats, as determined by multiple behavioral, electrophysiological, and genetic studies. In addition to obligatory trichromacy, Alouatta has an unusual fovea, with substantially higher peak cone density in the foveal pit than every other diurnal anthropoid monkey (both platyrrhines and catarrhines) and great ape yet examined, including humans. In addition to documenting the general organization of the retinal ganglion cell layer in Alouatta, the distribution of cones is compared to retinal ganglion cells, to explore possible relationships between their atypical trichromacy and foveal specialization. The number and distribution of retinal ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells were determined in six flat-mounted retinas from five Alouatta caraya. Ganglion cell density peaked at 0.5 mm between the fovea and optic nerve head, reaching 40,700-45,200 cells/mm2. Displaced amacrine cell density distribution peaked between 0.5-1.75 mm from the fovea, reaching mean values between 2,050-3,100 cells/mm2. The mean number of ganglion cells was 1,133,000±79,000 cells and the mean number of displaced amacrine cells was 537,000±61,800 cells, in retinas of mean area 641±62 mm2. Ganglion cell and displaced amacrine cell density distribution in the Alouatta retina was consistent with that observed among several species of diurnal Anthropoidea, both platyrrhines and catarrhines. The principal alteration in the Alouatta retina appears not to be in the number of any retinal cell class, but rather a marked gradient in cone density within the fovea, which could potentially support high chromatic acuity in a restricted central region.

  9. Sexual disinhibition and dementia.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Ulivi, Martina; Danti, Sabrina; Lucetti, Claudio; Nuti, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    To describe inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) observed in patients with dementia, we conducted searches using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Web of Science to find relevant articles, chapters, and books published from 1950 to 2014. Search terms used included 'hypersexuality', 'inappropriate sexual behaviors', and 'dementia'. Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed for further relevant references. Sexuality is a human's need to express intimacy, but persons with dementia may not know how to appropriately meet their needs for closeness and intimacy due to their decline in cognition. Generally, the interaction among brain, physical, psychological, and environmental factors can create what we call ISB. The most likely change in the sexual behaviour of a person with dementia is indifference. However, ISB in dementia appear to be of two types--intimacy-seeking and disinhibited--that differ in their association with dementia type, dementia severity and, possibly, other concurrent behavioural disorder. Tensions develop from uncertainties regarding which, or when, behaviours are to be considered 'inappropriate' (i.e. improper) or abnormal. While most ISB occur in the moderate to severe stages of Alzheimer's dementia, they may also be seen in early stages of frontotemporal dementia because of the lack of insight and disinhibition. ISB are often better managed by non-pharmacological means, as patients may be less responsive to psychoactive therapies, but non-pharmacological interventions do not always stop the behaviour. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid on N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Vicente, Violeta; Lax, Pedro; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Rondón, Netxibeth; Esquiva, Gema; Germain, Francisco; de la Villa, Pedro; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell degeneration underlies the pathophysiology of diseases affecting the retina and optic nerve. Several studies have previously evidenced the anti-apoptotic properties of the bile constituent, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, in diverse models of photoreceptor degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced damage in the rat retina using a functional and morphological approach. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid was administered intraperitoneally before and after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Three days after insult, full-field electroretinograms showed reductions in the amplitudes of the positive and negative-scotopic threshold responses, scotopic a- and b-waves and oscillatory potentials. Quantitative morphological evaluation of whole-mount retinas demonstrated a reduction in the density of retinal ganglion cells. Systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuated the functional impairment induced by NMDA, which correlated with a higher retinal ganglion cell density. Our findings sustain the efficacy of tauroursodeoxycholic acid administration in vivo, suggesting it would be a good candidate for the pharmacological treatment of degenerative diseases coursing with retinal ganglion cell loss.

  11. Neuroprotective Effect of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid on N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Rondón, Netxibeth; Esquiva, Gema; Germain, Francisco; de la Villa, Pedro; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell degeneration underlies the pathophysiology of diseases affecting the retina and optic nerve. Several studies have previously evidenced the anti-apoptotic properties of the bile constituent, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, in diverse models of photoreceptor degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced damage in the rat retina using a functional and morphological approach. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid was administered intraperitoneally before and after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Three days after insult, full-field electroretinograms showed reductions in the amplitudes of the positive and negative-scotopic threshold responses, scotopic a- and b-waves and oscillatory potentials. Quantitative morphological evaluation of whole-mount retinas demonstrated a reduction in the density of retinal ganglion cells. Systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuated the functional impairment induced by NMDA, which correlated with a higher retinal ganglion cell density. Our findings sustain the efficacy of tauroursodeoxycholic acid administration in vivo, suggesting it would be a good candidate for the pharmacological treatment of degenerative diseases coursing with retinal ganglion cell loss. PMID:26379056

  12. Activity of retinal ganglion cells following intense, nanosecond laser flashes. Final report, 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Glickman, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of intense, but nonlesion-producing, laser exposures of 20-ns duration were determined on the light responses and spontaneous activity of retinal ganglion cells recorded in situ from the rhesus monkey. (Following a single, 20-ns exposure centered on its receptive field, a ganglion cell produced an 'afterdischarge' of maintained action potentials). The duration of the afterdischarge depended on the diameter of the laser beam on the retina and on the beam's intensity. Laser exposures subtending 0.5 to 2.0 deg, and delivering 45 to 60% of the maximum permissible exposure, elicited afterdischarges that lasted up to 80 s. When the beam diameter was decreased to 0.25 deg, the afterdischarge was reduced to 30 s, and to less than 5 s with the 0.12-deg beam. Light sensitivity after the laser exposure recovered rapidly during the first 10 s and then more slowly, but exponentially, until it reached the preflash level. Color-opponent ganglion cells exhibited a phenomenon called 'response-reversal' after the laser exposure, presumably due to selective adaptation of a mid-wavelength cone-input. Because a 20-ns exposure, regardless of intensity, is likely to photoregenerate more than half of the available visual pigment, the effects of ganglion cell response described here are not likely to be due solely to pigment bleaching.

  13. Electrical Stimulation of Mammalian Retinal Ganglion Cells Using Dense Arrays of Small-Diameter Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekirnjak, Chris; Hottowy, Pawel; Sher, Alexander; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Litke, Alan M.; Chichilnisky, E. J.

    Current epiretinal implants contain a small number of electrodes with diameters of a few hundred microns. Smaller electrodes are desirable to increase the spatial resolution of artificial sight. To lay the foundation for the next generation of retinal prostheses, we assessed the stimulation efficacy of micro-fabricated arrays of 61 platinum disk electrodes with diameters 8-12 μm, spaced 60 μm apart. Isolated pieces of rat, guinea pig, and monkey retina were placed on the multi-electrode array ganglion cell side down and stimulated through individual electrodes with biphasic, charge-balanced current pulses. Spike responses from retinal ganglion cells were recorded either from the same or a neighboring electrode. Most pulses evoked only 1-2 spikes with short latencies (0.3-10 ms), and rarely was more than one recorded ganglion cell stimulated. Threshold charge densities for eliciting spikes in ganglion cells were typically below 0.15 mC/cm2 for pulse durations between 50 and 200 μs, corresponding to charge thresholds of ˜ 100 pC. Stimulation remained effective after several hours and at frequencies up to 100 Hz. Application of cadmium chloride did not abolish evoked spikes, implying direct activation. Thus, electrical stimulation of mammalian retina with small-diameter electrodes is achievable, providing high temporal and spatial precision with low charge densities.

  14. Retinal ganglion cell layer of the Caspian seal Pusa caspica: topography and localization of the high-resolution area.

    PubMed

    Mass, Alla M; Supin, A Y

    2010-01-01

    Retinal topography, cell density and sizes of ganglion cells in the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica) were analyzed in retinal whole mounts stained with cresyl-violet. The topographic distribution of ganglion cells displayed an area of high cell density located in the temporal quadrant of the retina and was similar to the area centralis of terrestrial carnivores. It extended nasally, above the optic disk, as a streak of increased cell density. In different whole mounts, the peak cell density in the high-density area ranged from 1,684 to 1,844 cells/mm² (mean 1,773 cells/mm²). The cell density data predict a retinal resolution of around 8.5 cycles/degree in water. A distinctive feature of the Caspian seal's retina is the large size of ganglion cells and the low cell density compared to terrestrial mammals. The ganglion cell diameter ranged from 10 to 58 μm. Cell size histograms featured bimodal patterns with groups of small and large ganglion cells. The large cells appeared similar to α-cells of terrestrial mammals and constituted 7% of the total ganglion cell population.

  15. Analysis of spiral ganglion cell populations in children with normal and pathological ears.

    PubMed

    Miura, Makoto; Sando, Isamu; Hirsch, Barry E; Orita, Yorihisa

    2002-12-01

    This study analyzed features of total and segmental spiral ganglion cell populations in children with normal ears and those with various pathological conditions. Sixty-three human temporal bone specimens, obtained from 43 children 4 days to 9 years of age, were studied histopathologically. These specimens were divided into 5 diagnostic groups: group 1, normal ears (13 ears); group 2, congenital infectious diseases (13 ears); group 3, chromosomal aberrations (11 ears); group 4, multiple craniofacial anomalies with hereditary or genetic causes (21 ears); and group 5, perinatal and postnatal asphyxia (5 ears). Eighteen of the 63 ears had documented profound deafness. In either normal ears (group 1) or those with various pathological conditions (groups 2 through 5), the total number of ganglion cells did not change as a function of age during the first 10 years. The total number of ganglion cells was significantly larger in group 1 (33,702) than in each of groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 (p < .01), and the number was significantly larger in group 2 than in each of groups 4 and 5 (p < .01 and p < .05, respectively). The ratio of basal to apical ganglion cell populations remained constant in both normal and pathological ears. Each ratio of the number of basal and apical ganglion cells in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 to the mean number in group 1 (basal and apical survival ratios) was at least approximately 40%. There was no statistical difference between these two ratios in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5. The mean (+/-SD) total number of ganglion cells in ears with documented profound deafness was 15,417 +/- 5,944, which is approximately 40% of those present in normal ears. Our results suggest that normally, cochlear neurons are completely present at birth and minimally regress during the first decade of life. In addition, although intergroup differences among various pathological groups were present, the majority of pathological ears had more than 10,000 spiral ganglion cells present. Cochlear

  16. Effects of cholinergic drugs on receptive field properties of rabbit retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Ariel, M.; Daw, N. W.

    1982-01-01

    1. Retinal ganglion cells were recorded extracellularly from the rabbit's eye in situ to study the effects of cholinergic drugs on receptive field properties. Physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and nicotine increased the spontaneous activity of nearly all retinal ganglion cell types. The effectiveness of physostigmine was roughly correlated with the neurone's inherent level of spontaneous activity. Brisk cells, having high rates of spontaneous firing, showed large increases in their maintained discharge, whereas sluggish cells, with few or no spontaneous spikes, showed small and sometimes transient increases in spontaneous activity during physostigmine. 2. The sensitivity of ganglion cells to spots of optimal size and position did not change substantially during the infusion of physostigmine. However, the responsiveness to light (number of spikes per stimulus above the spontaneous level) increased. This effect occurred with sluggish and more complex cells, rarely with brisk cells. 3. Another effect of physostigmine on sluggish and more complex cells was to make these cells `on—off'. The additional response to the inappropriate change in contrast had a long latency and lacked an initial transient burst. 4. Complex receptive field properties such as orientation sensitivity, radial grating inhibition, speed tuning and size specificity were also examined. These inhibitory properties were still present during infusion of physostigmine and, in most cases, the trigger feature of each cell type remained. 5. These results are consistent with pharmacological results on ACh release from the retina. There appear to be two types of release of ACh, having their most powerful influences on separate classes of cells. One release (transient), occurs at light onset and offset and acts primarily on sluggish and more complex ganglion cells; the other release (tonic) is not light-modulated and acts primarily on brisk cells. A wiring diagram for the ACh cells is

  17. Reinnervation of Hair Cells by Auditory Neurons after Selective Removal of Spiral Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Monedero, Rodrigo; Corrales, C. Eduardo; Cuajungco, Math P.; Heller, Stefan; Edge, Albert S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Hearing loss can be caused by primary degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons or by secondary degeneration of these neurons after hair cell loss. The replacement of auditory neurons would be an important step in any attempt to restore auditory function in patients with damaged inner ear neurons or hair cells. Application of β-bungarotoxin, a toxin derived from snake venom, to an explant of the cochlea eradicates spiral ganglion neurons while sparing the other cochlear cell types. The toxin was found to bind to the neurons and to cause apoptotic cell death without affecting hair cells or other inner ear cell types as indicated by TUNEL staining, and, thus, the toxin provides a highly specific means of deafferentation of hair cells. We therefore used the denervated organ of Corti for the study of neuronal regeneration and synaptogenesis with hair cells and found that spiral ganglion neurons obtained from the cochlea of an untreated newborn mouse reinnervated hair cells in the toxin-treated organ of Corti and expressed synaptic vesicle markers at points of contact with hair cells. These findings suggest that it may be possible to replace degenerated neurons by grafting new cells into the organ of Corti. PMID:16408287

  18. Amacrine cells coupled to ganglion cells via gap junctions are highly vulnerable in glaucomatous mouse retinas.

    PubMed

    Akopian, Abram; Kumar, Sandeep; Ramakrishnan, Hariharasubramanian; Viswanathan, Suresh; Bloomfield, Stewart A

    2016-07-13

    We determined whether the structural and functional integrity of amacrine cells (ACs), the largest cohort of neurons in the mammalian retina, are affected in glaucoma. Intraocular injection of microbeads was made in mouse eyes to elevate intraocular pressure as a model of experimental glaucoma. Specific immunocytochemical markers were used to identify AC and displaced (d)ACs subpopulations in both the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers, respectively, and to distinguish them from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Calretinin- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (IR) cells were highly vulnerable to glaucomatous damage, whereas choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive and glycinergic AC subtypes were unaffected. The AC loss began 4 weeks after initial microbead injection, corresponding to the time course of RGC loss. Recordings of electroretinogram (ERG) oscillatory potentials and scotopic threshold responses, which reflect AC and RGC activity, were significantly attenuated in glaucomatous eyes following a time course that matched that of the AC and RGC loss. Moreover, we found that it was the ACs coupled to RGCs via gap junctions that were lost in glaucoma, whereas uncoupled ACs were largely unaffected. Our results suggest that AC loss in glaucoma occurs secondary to RGC death through the gap junction-mediated bystander effect. J. Comp. Neurol., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Directional Excitatory Input to Direction-Selective Ganglion Cells in the Rabbit Retina.

    PubMed

    Percival, Kumiko A; Venkataramani, Sowmya; Smith, Robert G; Rowland Taylor, W

    2017-03-14

    Directional responses in retinal ganglion cells are generated in large part by direction-selective release of GABA from starburst amacrine cells onto direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs). The excitatory inputs to DSGCs are also widely reported to be direction-selective, however, recent evidence suggests that glutamate release from bipolar cells is not directional, and directional excitation seen in patch-clamp analyses may be an artifact resulting from incomplete voltage control. Here we test this voltage-clamp-artifact hypothesis in recordings from 62 On-Off DSGCs in the rabbit retina. The strength of the directional excitatory signal varies considerably across the sample of cells, but is not correlated with the strength of directional inhibition, as required for a voltage-clamp artifact. These results implicate additional mechanisms in generating directional excitatory inputs to DSGCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Immature enteric ganglion cells were observed in a 13-year-old colon signet ring cell carcinoma patient

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huili; Huang, Kun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ming; Wang, Lixia; Lin, Rong; Liu, Hongli; Gao, Jinbo; Shuai, Xiaoming; Liu, Xinghua; Tao, Kaixiong; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: All the enteric ganglion cells are fully mature by 2 to 5 years of age in human. No one had reported the presentation of immature enteric ganglion cells in elder ones. Colorectal carcinoma is also rare in the adolescent population. The coincidence of these 2 rare events in a 13-year-old boy has never been reported elsewhere, which may suggest some linkage between them. Patient Concern: A 13-year-old boy presented with progressive abdominal pain and melena for 3 months. Computed tomography (CT) scan and endoscopic ultrasonography showed significant abnormality in the transverse colon characteristic of marked mural thickening. The biopsy results indicated signet ring cell carcinoma. Diagnoses: A 13-year-old male patient with advanced colon signet ring cell carcinoma. In addition, immature but not mature ganglion cells could be observed in almost all of the slices of the resected nontumorous area of the specimen. Interventions: The transverse colon tumor was resected and the subsequent histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of primary colon signet ring cell carcinoma. Then the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and biological target therapies subsequently. Outcomes: After 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy and biological target therapies, metastasis was however detected within a year. Lessons: In this case, a 13-year-old male patient with advanced colon signet ring cell carcinoma were presented. Unexpectedly, immature ganglion cells could be observed in almost all of the slices of the resected nontumorous area of the specimen. It is critical to raise medical awareness and improve the diagnosis and treatment of the signet ring cell carcinoma. This malignancy and the immature ganglion cells may be associated, possibly caused by some unidentified genetic defects. Genome sequencing, histopathological examination, and long-term follow-up of young patients with related diseases, would help further reveal the potential relationship

  1. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in the river hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius).

    PubMed

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Bertelsen, Mads F; Manger, Paul R

    2017-08-01

    The river hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), one of the closest extant relatives to cetaceans, is a large African even-toed ungulate (Artiodactyla) that grazes and has a semiaquatic lifestyle. Given its unusual phenotype, ecology, and evolutionary history, we sought to measure the topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cell density using stereology and retinal wholemounts. We estimated a total of 243,000 ganglion cells of which 3.4% (8,300) comprise alpha cells. The topographic distribution of both total and alpha cells reveal a dual topographic organization of a temporal and nasal area embedded within a well-defined horizontal streak. Using maximum density of total ganglion cells and eye size (35 mm, axial length), we estimated upper limits of spatial resolving power of 8 cycles/deg (temporal area, 1,800 cells/mm(2) ), 7.7 cycles/deg (nasal area, 1,700 cells/mm(2) ), and 4.2 cycles/deg (horizontal streak, 250 cells/mm(2) ). Enhanced resolution of the temporal area toward the frontal visual field may facilitate grazing, while resolution of the horizontal streak and nasal area may help the discrimination of objects (predators, conspecifics) in the lateral and posterior visual fields, respectively. Given the presumed role of alpha cells to detect brisk transient stimuli, their similar distribution to the total ganglion cell population may facilitate the detection of approaching objects in equivalent portions of the visual field. Our finding of a nasal area in the river hippopotamus retina supports the notion that this specialization may enhance visual sampling in the posterior visual field to compensate for limited neck mobility as suggested for rhinoceroses and cetaceans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Learning Model for L/M Specificity in Ganglion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J.

    2016-01-01

    An unsupervised learning model for developing LM specific wiring at the ganglion cell level would support the research indicating LM specific wiring at the ganglion cell level (Reid and Shapley, 2002). Removing the contributions to the surround from cells of the same cone type improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the chromatic signals. The unsupervised learning model used is Hebbian associative learning, which strengthens the surround input connections according to the correlation of the output with the input. Since the surround units of the same cone type as the center are redundant with the center, their weights end up disappearing. This process can be thought of as a general mechanism for eliminating unnecessary cells in the nervous system.

  3. Nitric oxide differentially modulates ON and OFF responses of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Yong; Liets, Lauren C; Chalupa, Leo M

    2003-08-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that nitric oxide (NO) can regulate diverse retinal functions, but whether this gas is capable of modulating the visual responses of retinal output neurons has not been established. In the present study the effects of NO on rod-driven responses of retinal ganglion cells were tested by making whole cell patch-clamp recordings from morphologically identified ganglion cells in the isolated ferret retina. Bath application of L-arginine, the substrate of nitric oxide synthase, and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, the NO donor, was found to differentially affect on and off discharge patterns. The introduction of these drugs significantly decreased visual responses of retinal ganglion cells, but the effects were more pronounced on off than on on discharges. The peak discharge rates of on responses were usually reduced by about 40%, but not completely blocked. In contrast, off responses were completely blocked in most cells. These differential effects were observed in on-off cells as well as in cells that yielded just on or off discharges. The off responses that were blocked by NO were also blocked by DL-2-amino-phosphonobutyric acid (APB) and strychnine, suggesting the involvement of the APB-sensitive rod pathway.

  4. Morphological diversity of displaced retinal ganglion cells in the rat: a lucifer yellow study.

    PubMed

    Buhl, E H; Dann, J F

    1988-03-08

    Displaced retinal ganglion cells (DRGCs) were retrogradely labelled by injections of the fluorescent dye Fast Blue into the superior colliculi of pigmented rats. Following fixation these cells were intracellularly injected with Lucifer Yellow to determine their dendritic morphology and distribution. Graphic reconstruction of Lucifer Yellow-filled prelabelled neurones revealed a heterogeneous population of DRGCs. Their stratification within the inner plexiform layer was diverse and cells were classified according to their dendritic morphology. The present sample consists largely of unistratifying neurones, the dendrites of which arborized within a narrow sublamina of the inner plexiform layer. They were characterized by a centrally located soma and densely branched dendritic network with little overlap within the branching pattern. In contrast, bistratifying DRGCs possessed a loose and sparsely branched dendritic structure, while diffusely stratifying neurones contained a high degree of dendritic crossing, culminating in a complex network, in which the soma position was biased toward the periphery. One type of DRGC bore a striking resemblance to type 1 neurones (Perry, 1979; Proc. R. Soc. Lond. [Biol.] 204:363-375) in the ganglion cell layer. They were characterized by a large soma (15.5 micron +/- 2.2 micron s.d.) and a dendritic field diameter averaging 288 micron (s.d. +/- 62 micron) and were on average larger than the rest of the displaced population but smaller than type 1 cells in the ganglion cell layer. Since the stratification patterns of the displaced and nondisplaced type 1 neurones were indistinguishable, it is reasonable to assume that the Lucifer Yellow-filled cells in the present study represent the displaced counterpart of regular type 1 ganglion cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Parallel Inhibition of Dopamine Amacrine Cells and Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells in a Non-Image-Forming Visual Circuit of the Mouse Retina.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Helen E; Hardi, Claudia N; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C

    2015-12-02

    An inner retinal microcircuit composed of dopamine (DA)-containing amacrine cells and melanopsin-containing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (M1 ipRGCs) process information about the duration and intensity of light exposures, mediating light adaptation, circadian entrainment, pupillary reflexes, and other aspects of non-image-forming vision. The neural interaction is reciprocal: M1 ipRGCs excite DA amacrine cells, and these, in turn, feed inhibition back onto M1 ipRGCs. We found that the neuropeptide somatostatin [somatotropin release inhibiting factor (SRIF)] also inhibits the intrinsic light response of M1 ipRGCs and postulated that, to tune the bidirectional interaction of M1 ipRGCs and DA amacrine cells, SRIF amacrine cells would provide inhibitory modulation to both cell types. SRIF amacrine cells, DA amacrine cells, and M1 ipRGCs form numerous contacts. DA amacrine cells and M1 ipRGCs express the SRIF receptor subtypes sst(2A) and sst4 respectively. SRIF modulation of the microcircuit was investigated with targeted patch-clamp recordings of DA amacrine cells in TH-RFP mice and M1 ipRGCs in OPN4-EGFP mice. SRIF increases K(+) currents, decreases Ca(2+) currents, and inhibits spike activity in both cell types, actions reproduced by the selective sst(2A) agonist L-054,264 (N-[(1R)-2-[[[(1S*,3R*)-3-(aminomethyl)cyclohexyl]methyl]amino]-1-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-2-oxoethyl]spiro[1H-indene-1,4'-piperidine]-1'-carboxamide) in DA amacrine cells and the selective sst4 agonist L-803,087 (N(2)-[4-(5,7-difluoro-2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxobutyl]-L-arginine methyl ester trifluoroacetate) in M1 ipRGCs. These parallel actions of SRIF may serve to counteract the disinhibition of M1 ipRGCs caused by SRIF inhibition of DA amacrine cells. This allows the actions of SRIF on DA amacrine cells to proceed with adjusting retinal DA levels without destabilizing light responses by M1 ipRGCs, which project to non-image-forming targets in the brain. Copyright © 2015

  6. A computational model of electrical stimulation of the retinal ganglion cell.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, R J; Velte, T J; Humayun, M S; Scarlatis, G N; de Juan, E

    1999-05-01

    Localized retinal electrical stimulation in blind volunteers results in discrete round visual percepts corresponding to the location of the stimulating electrode. The success of such an approach to provide useful vision depends on elucidating the neuronal target of surface electrical stimulation. To determine if electrodes preferentially stimulate ganglion cells directly below them or passing fibers from distant ganglion cells, we developed a compartmental model for electric field stimulation of the retinal ganglion cell (RGC). In this model a RGC is stimulated by extracellular electrical fields with active channels and realistic cell morphology derived directly from a neuronal tracing. Three membrane models were applied: a linear passive model, a Hodgkin-Huxley model with passive dendrites (HH), and a model composed of all active compartments (FCM) with five nonlinear ion channels. Idealized monopolar point and disk stimulating electrodes were positioned above the cell. For the HH and FCM models, the position of lowest cathodal threshold to propagate an action potential was over the soma. Brief (100 microseconds) cathodic stimuli were 20% (HH with disk electrode) to 73% (FCM with point-source) more effective over the soma than over the axon. In the passive model, the axon is preferentially stimulated versus the soma. Although it may be possible to electrically stimulate RGC's near their cell body at lower thresholds than at their axon, these differences are relatively small. Alternative explanations should be sought to explain the focal perceptions observed in previously reported patient trials.

  7. ON ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive in the tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, Kaveri

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) have been well characterized in mammalian systems, both morphologically and electrophysiologically. They show slow, sustained responses to bright light in the absence of photoreceptor-based input, mediated by the photopigment melanopsin. Only one mammalian melanopsin gene is expressed in a small fraction of the retinal ganglion cell population, but there are two genes for melanopsin among nonmammalian vertebrates that are widely expressed in a variety of retinal and extraretinal cell types, along with other photosensitive pigments. The current study provides an electrophysiological study of ipRGCs in the larval tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), a nonmammalian vertebrate with a well-characterized retina. The results show that the ipRGC population is equivalent to the ON ganglion cell population in the tiger salamander retina. This sheds light on the evolutionary trajectory and functional significance of intrinsic photosensitivity through the vertebrate lineage and also affects our understanding of ON cell activity and development. We have characterized the nature of the intrinsic responses of the ON cell population, compared intrinsic and synaptically based receptive fields, and quantified the spectrum of the intrinsic activity. A wider action spectrum of intrinsic photosensitivity was obtained than would be expected for a single opsin photopigment, suggesting the expression of multiple photopigments in the salamander ipRGC. J. Comp. Neurol., 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodials, Inc.

  8. Autophagy promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve axotomy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Muela, N; Germain, F; Mariño, G; Fitze, P S; Boya, P

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential recycling pathway implicated in neurodegeneration either as a pro-survival or a pro-death mechanism. Its role after axonal injury is still uncertain. Axotomy of the optic nerve is a classical model of neurodegeneration. It induces retinal ganglion cell death, a process also occurring in glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. We analyzed autophagy induction and cell survival following optic nerve transection (ONT) in mice. Our results demonstrate activation of autophagy shortly after axotomy with autophagosome formation, upregulation of the autophagy regulator Atg5 and apoptotic death of 50% of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after 5 days. Genetic downregulation of autophagy using knockout mice for Atg4B (another regulator of autophagy) or with specific deletion of Atg5 in retinal ganglion cells, using the Atg5flox/flox mice reduces cell survival after ONT, whereas pharmacological induction of autophagy in vivo increases the number of surviving cells. In conclusion, our data support that autophagy has a cytoprotective role in RGCs after traumatic injury and may provide a new therapeutic strategy to ameliorate retinal diseases. PMID:21701497

  9. Edible wild vegetable, Gymnaster koraiensis protects retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-A; Kang, Kui Dong; Lee, Eun Ha; Nho, Chu Won; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether Gymnaster koraiensis is effective at blunting the negative influence of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on the retinas of rats and on oxidative stress induced cell death in transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5). The ethyl acetate fraction of G. koraiensis (EAGK) and the isolated compound, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3,5-DCQA), were shown to significantly attenuate the negative effect of H(2)O(2) on the RGC-5 cells tested by various procedures. The inclusion of EAGK or 3,5-DCQA in the culture reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and replenished the reduced glutathione levels caused by various radical species such as H(2)O(2,) O(2)()(-) or ()OH. Moreover, EAGK or 3,5-DCQA inhibited lipid peroxidation caused by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in rat brain homogenates. From in vivo experiments, the presence of NMDA in the retina affected the thickness of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) in positive ganglion cells. EAGK or 3,5-DCQA protected the thinning of the IPL and increased TUNEL positive cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Our results clearly demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of EAGK both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, 3,5-DCQA is suggested to be the active compound of EAGK. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [The advances in research on precisely inducing retinal ganglion cells from stem cells].

    PubMed

    Li, K J; Zhu, M Y; Ge, J

    2017-05-11

    The injury and repair of retinal neurons is a common scientific problem in the occurrence, development and prognosis of neuronal visual impairment. Transplant of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) differentiated from stem cells opens a new avenue for treatment of glaucoma and optic neuronal degenerative diseases. For the goal to explore the optimal method for RGCs replacement, this review summarizes the current information regarding the classification and application of stem cells, the growth characteristics of RGCs and the precise methods to induce RGCs, and discusses some important issues that need resolving and are related to RGCs transplantation. It is hoped that this article will provide useful theoretical basis for the research of this field. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 381-385).

  11. Responses and Receptive Fields of Amacrine Cells and Ganglion Cells in the Salamander Retina

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ai-Jun; Wu, Samuel M.

    2013-01-01

    Retinal amacrine cells (ACs) and ganglion cells (GCs) have been shown to display large morphological diversity, and here we show that four types of ACs and three types of GCs exhibit physiologically-distinguishable properties. They are the sustained ON ACs; sustained OFF ACs; transient ON-OFF ACs; transient ON-OFF ACs with wide receptive fields; sustained ON-center/OFF-surround GCs; sustained OFF-center/ON-surround GCs and transient ON-OFF GCs. By comparing response waveforms, receptive fields and relative rod/cone inputs of ACs and GCs with the corresponding parameters of various types of the presynaptic bipolar cells (BCs), we analyze how different types of BCs mediate synaptic inputs to various ACs and GCs. Although more types of third-order retinal neurons may be identified by more refined classification criteria, our observations suggest that many morphologically-distinct ACs and GCs share very similar physiological responses. PMID:20085780

  12. Suppressive actions of betaxolol on ionic currents in retinal ganglion cells may explain its neuroprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, K; Kelly, M E; Baldridge, W H; Barnes, S

    2000-05-01

    Betaxolol, a beta 1-selective adrenoceptor antagonist, is widely used in the treatment of glaucoma. In addition to its ocular hypotensive effects, betaxolol has been suggested to act as a retinal neuroprotective agent (Osborne et al., 1997). To investigate possible mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects, we tested the actions of betaxolol on ion channels and calcium signaling in isolated retinal ganglion cells. Betaxolol (50 microM) reduced by about 20% the high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca channel currents in ganglion cells isolated from tiger salamander retina. In contrast, the beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonists propranolol (10 microM) and timolol (50 microM) had no inhibitory actions on HVA Ca channel currents. The L-type Ca channel antagonist, nisoldipine, blocked the HVA Ca channel current partially and the remaining current was not inhibited by betaxolol. Outward current was inhibited in the presence of betaxolol. Both iberiotoxin (IBTX; 10 nM), a selective inhibitor of large-conductance Ca-activated K channels, and Cd2+ (100 microM), which suppresses Ca-activated K channels subsequent to its block of Ca channels, reduced outward current and the remaining current was not blocked significantly with betaxolol. In the presence of betaxolol, Na channel currents were reduced by about 20%, as were currents evoked by glutamate (10 mM) and GABA (1 mM). Current clamp recordings from isolated ganglion cells showed that betaxolol had several effects on excitability: spike height decreased, repetitive spike activity was suppressed, spike width increased and hyperpolarization following spikes was reduced. Calcium imaging in isolated rat retinal ganglion cells revealed that betaxolol inhibited glutamate-induced increases in [Ca2+]i. These results suggest that betaxolol has a diversity of suppressive actions on ganglion cell ion channels and that, as a consequence, one of the net actions of the drug is to reduce Ca2+ influx. The subsequent reduction in [Ca2+]i may

  13. Optical coherence tomography segmentation reveals ganglion cell layer pathology after optic neuritis.

    PubMed

    Syc, Stephanie B; Saidha, Shiv; Newsome, Scott D; Ratchford, John N; Levy, Michael; Ford, E'tona; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Durbin, Mary K; Oakley, Jonathan D; Meyer, Scott A; Frohman, Elliot M; Calabresi, Peter A

    2012-02-01

    Post-mortem ganglion cell dropout has been observed in multiple sclerosis; however, longitudinal in vivo assessment of retinal neuronal layers following acute optic neuritis remains largely unexplored. Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, measured by optical coherence tomography, has been proposed as an outcome measure in studies of neuroprotective agents in multiple sclerosis, yet potential swelling during the acute stages of optic neuritis may confound baseline measurements. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether patients with multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica develop retinal neuronal layer pathology following acute optic neuritis, and to systematically characterize such changes in vivo over time. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging, including automated retinal layer segmentation, was performed serially in 20 participants during the acute phase of optic neuritis, and again 3 and 6 months later. Imaging was performed cross-sectionally in 98 multiple sclerosis participants, 22 neuromyelitis optica participants and 72 healthy controls. Neuronal thinning was observed in the ganglion cell layer of eyes affected by acute optic neuritis 3 and 6 months after onset (P < 0.001). Baseline ganglion cell layer thicknesses did not demonstrate swelling when compared with contralateral unaffected eyes, whereas peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer oedema was observed in affected eyes (P = 0.008) and subsequently thinned over the course of this study. Ganglion cell layer thickness was lower in both participants with multiple sclerosis and participants with neuromyelitis optica, with and without a history of optic neuritis, when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001) and correlated with visual function. Of all patient groups investigated, those with neuromyelitis optica and a history of optic neuritis exhibited the greatest reduction in ganglion cell layer thickness. Results from our in vivo longitudinal study

  14. Scene from above: retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Hart, Nathan S; Collin, Shaun P; Manger, Paul R

    2013-06-15

    The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is a browser that uses its extensible tongue to selectively collect leaves during foraging. As the tallest extant terrestrial mammal, its elevated head height provides panoramic surveillance of the environment. These aspects of the giraffe's ecology and phenotype suggest that vision is of prime importance. Using Nissl-stained retinal wholemounts and stereological methods, we quantitatively assessed the retinal specializations in the ganglion cell layer of the giraffe. The mean total number of retinal ganglion cells was 1,393,779 and their topographic distribution revealed the presence of a horizontal visual streak and a temporal area. With a mean peak of 14,271 cells/mm(2), upper limits of spatial resolving power in the temporal area ranged from 25 to 27 cycles/degree. We also observed a dorsotemporal extension (anakatabatic area) that tapers toward the nasal retina giving rise to a complete dorsal arch. Using neurofilament-200 immunohistochemistry, we also detected a dorsal arch formed by alpha ganglion cells with density peaks in the temporal (14-15 cells/mm(2)) and dorsonasal (10 cells/mm(2)) regions. As with other artiodactyls, the giraffe shares the presence of a horizontal streak and a temporal area which, respectively, improve resolution along the horizon and in the frontal visual field. The dorsal arch is related to the giraffe's head height and affords enhanced resolution in the inferior visual field. The alpha ganglion cell distribution pattern is unique to the giraffe and enhances acquisition of motion information for the control of tongue movement during foraging and the detection of predators.

  15. Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons and model cells

    PubMed Central

    Rettenmaier, Alexander; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Optical stimulation of the inner ear has recently attracted attention, suggesting a higher frequency resolution compared to electrical cochlear implants due to its high spatial stimulation selectivity. Although the feasibility of the effect is shown in multiple in vivo experiments, the stimulation mechanism remains open to discussion. Here we investigate in single-cell measurements the reaction of spiral ganglion neurons and model cells to irradiation with a nanosecond-pulsed laser beam over a broad wavelength range from 420 nm up to 1950 nm using the patch clamp technique. Cell reactions were wavelength- and pulse-energy-dependent but too small to elicit action potentials in the investigated spiral ganglion neurons. As the applied radiant exposure was much higher than the reported threshold for in vivo experiments in the same laser regime, we conclude that in a stimulation paradigm with nanosecond-pulses, direct neuronal stimulation is not the main cause of optical cochlea stimulation. PMID:24761285

  16. Uniformity detector retinal ganglion cells fire complex spikes and receive only light-evoked inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Sivyer, Benjamin; Taylor, W. Rowland; Vaney, David I.

    2010-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells convey information by increasing their firing in response to an optimal visual stimulus or “trigger feature.” However, one class of ganglion cell responds to changes in the visual scene by decreasing its firing. These cells, termed uniformity detectors in the rabbit retina, are encountered only rarely and the synaptic mechanisms underlying their unusual responses have not been investigated. In this study, patch-clamp recordings of uniformity detectors show that the action potentials underlying the maintained firing arise within “complex spikes.” Both ON and OFF visual stimuli elicit only inhibitory synaptic input, the immediate effect of which is to suppress the maintained firing. However, this inhibition also alters the properties of the “renascent” spiking by increasing the amplitude of the spikes within each burst, suggesting that the effect may increase the efficacy of spike propagation and transmission. PMID:20212117

  17. Uniformity detector retinal ganglion cells fire complex spikes and receive only light-evoked inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sivyer, Benjamin; Taylor, W Rowland; Vaney, David I

    2010-03-23

    Retinal ganglion cells convey information by increasing their firing in response to an optimal visual stimulus or "trigger feature." However, one class of ganglion cell responds to changes in the visual scene by decreasing its firing. These cells, termed uniformity detectors in the rabbit retina, are encountered only rarely and the synaptic mechanisms underlying their unusual responses have not been investigated. In this study, patch-clamp recordings of uniformity detectors show that the action potentials underlying the maintained firing arise within "complex spikes." Both ON and OFF visual stimuli elicit only inhibitory synaptic input, the immediate effect of which is to suppress the maintained firing. However, this inhibition also alters the properties of the "renascent" spiking by increasing the amplitude of the spikes within each burst, suggesting that the effect may increase the efficacy of spike propagation and transmission.

  18. Delayed rectifier K channels contribute to contrast adaptation in mammalian retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Weick, Michael; Demb, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Retinal ganglion cells adapt by reducing their sensitivity during periods of high contrast. Contrast adaptation in the firing response depends on both presynaptic and intrinsic mechanisms. Here, we investigated intrinsic mechanisms for contrast adaptation in OFF Alpha ganglion cells in the in vitro guinea pig retina. Using either visual stimulation or current injection, we show that brief depolarization evoked spiking and suppressed firing during subsequent depolarization. The suppression could be explained by Na channel inactivation, as shown in salamander cells. However, brief hyperpolarization in the physiological range (5–10 mV) also suppressed firing during subsequent depolarization. This suppression was sensitive selectively to blockers of delayed-rectifier K channels (KDR). Somatic membrane patches showed TEA-sensitive KDR currents with activation near −25 mV and removal of inactivation at voltages negative to Vrest. Brief periods of hyperpolarization apparently remove KDR inactivation and thereby increase the channel pool available to suppress excitability during subsequent depolarization. PMID:21745646

  19. Lens injury stimulates adult mouse retinal ganglion cell axon regeneration via both macrophage- and lens-derived factors.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Barbara; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann

    2005-04-01

    In the present study the effects of lens injury on retinal ganglion cell axon/neurite re-growth were investigated in adult mice. In vivo, lens injury promoted successful regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons past the optic nerve lesion site, concomitant with the invasion of macrophages into the eye and the presence of activated retinal astrocytes/Muller cells. In vitro, retinal ganglion cells from lens-lesioned mice grew significantly longer neurites than those from intact mice, which correlated with the presence of enhanced numbers of activated retinal astrocytes/Muller cells. Co-culture of retinal ganglion cells from intact mice with macrophage-rich lesioned lens/vitreous body led to increased neurite lengths compared with co-culture with macrophage-free intact lens/vitreous body, pointing to a neurotrophic effect of macrophages. Furthermore, retinal ganglion cells from mice that had no lens injury but had received intravitreal Zymosan injections to stimulate macrophage invasion into the eye grew significantly longer neurites compared with controls, as did retinal ganglion cells from intact mice co-cultured with macrophage-rich vitreous body from Zymosan-treated mice. The intact lens, but not the intact vitreous body, exerted a neurotrophic effect on retinal ganglion cell neurite outgrowth, suggesting that lens-derived neurotrophic factor(s) conspire with those derived from macrophages in lens injury-stimulated axon regeneration. Together, these results show that lens injury promotes retinal ganglion cell axon regeneration/neurite outgrowth in adult mice, an observation with important implications for axon regeneration studies in transgenic mouse models.

  20. Age-dependent changes in the regulation mechanisms for intracellular calcium ions in ganglion cells of the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Mann, Miriam; Haq, Wadood; Zabel, Thomas; Guenther, Elke; Zrenner, Eberhart; Ladewig, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of intracellular calcium buffering in retinal ganglion cells. We performed a quantitative analysis of calcium homeostasis in ganglion cells of early postnatal and adult mice by simultaneous patch-clamp recordings in sliced tissue and microfluorometric calcium measurements with Fura-2. Endogenous calcium homeostasis was quantified by using the 'added buffer' approach which uses amplitudes and decay time constants of calcium transients to give a standard for intracellular calcium buffering. The recovery phase of depolarization-induced calcium transients was well approximated by a mono-exponential function with a decay time constant that showed a linear dependence on dye concentration. Endogenous calcium binding ratios were found to be 575 (n = 18 cells) in early postnatal and 121 (n = 18 cells) in adult retinal ganglion cells. With respect to ganglion cell degeneration at early postnatal stages, our measurements suggest that neuroprotection of a majority of developing ganglion cells partially results from a specialized calcium homeostasis based on high buffering capacities. Furthermore, the dramatic decrease of the intracellular calcium buffering capacity during ganglion cell development may enhance their vulnerability to neurodegeneration.

  1. Background Light and the Contrast Gain of Primate P and M Retinal Ganglion Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purpura, K.; Kaplan, E.; Shapley, R. M.

    1988-06-01

    Retinal ganglion cells projecting to the monkey lateral geniculate nucleus fall into two classes: those projecting to the magnocellular layers of the nucleus (M cells) have a higher contrast gain to luminance patterns at photopic levels of retinal illumination than those projecting to the parvocellular layers (P cells). We report here that this difference in luminance contrast gain between M and P cells is maintained at low levels of mean retinal illumination. In fact, our results suggest that in the mesopic and scotopic ranges of mean illumination, the M-cell/magnocellular pathway is the predominant conveyor of information about spatial contrast to the visual cortex.

  2. Seasonally Changing Cryptochrome 1b Expression in the Retinal Ganglion Cells of a Migrating Passerine Bird

    PubMed Central

    Nießner, Christine; Gross, Julia Christina; Denzau, Susanne; Peichl, Leo; Fleissner, Gerta; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes, blue-light absorbing proteins involved in the circadian clock, have been proposed to be the receptor molecules of the avian magnetic compass. In birds, several cryptochromes occur: Cryptochrome 2, Cryptochrome 4 and two splice products of Cryptochrome 1, Cry1a and Cry1b. With an antibody not distinguishing between the two splice products, Cryptochrome 1 had been detected in the retinal ganglion cells of garden warblers during migration. A recent study located Cry1a in the outer segments of UV/V-cones in the retina of domestic chickens and European robins, another migratory species. Here we report the presence of cryptochrome 1b (eCry1b) in retinal ganglion cells and displaced ganglion cells of European Robins, Erithacus rubecula. Immuno-histochemistry at the light microscopic and electron microscopic level showed eCry1b in the cell plasma, free in the cytosol as well as bound to membranes. This is supported by immuno-blotting. However, this applies only to robins in the migratory state. After the end of the migratory phase, the amount of eCry1b was markedly reduced and hardly detectable. In robins, the amount of eCry1b in the retinal ganglion cells varies with season: it appears to be strongly expressed only during the migratory period when the birds show nocturnal migratory restlessness. Since the avian magnetic compass does not seem to be restricted to the migratory phase, this seasonal variation makes a role of eCry1b in magnetoreception rather unlikely. Rather, it could be involved in physiological processes controlling migratory restlessness and thus enabling birds to perform their nocturnal flights. PMID:26953690

  3. Cardinal Orientation Selectivity Is Represented by Two Distinct Ganglion Cell Types in Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Amurta

    2016-01-01

    Orientation selectivity (OS) is a prominent and well studied feature of early visual processing in mammals, but recent work has highlighted the possibility that parallel OS circuits might exist in multiple brain locations. Although both classic and modern work has identified an OS mechanism in selective wiring from lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) to primary visual cortex, OS responses have now been found upstream of cortex in mouse LGN and superior colliculus, suggesting a possible origin in the retina. Indeed, retinal OS responses have been reported for decades in rabbit and more recently in mouse. However, we still know very little about the properties and mechanisms of retinal OS in the mouse, including whether there is a distinct OS ganglion cell type, which orientations are represented, and what are the synaptic mechanisms of retinal OS. We have identified two novel types of OS ganglion cells in the mouse retina that are highly selective for horizontal and vertical cardinal orientations. Reconstructions of the dendritic trees of these OS ganglion cells and measurements of their synaptic conductances offer insights into the mechanism of the OS computation at the earliest stage of the visual system. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Orientation selectivity (OS) is one of the most well studied computations in the brain and has become a prominent model system in various areas of sensory neuroscience. Although the cortical mechanism of OS suggested by Hubel and Wiesel (1962) has been investigated intensely, other OS cells exist upstream of cortex as early as the retina and the mechanisms of OS in subcortical regions are much less well understood. We identified two ON retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in mouse that compute OS along the horizontal (nasal–temporal) and vertical (dorsoventral) axes of visual space. We show the relationship between dendritic morphology and OS for each RGC type and reveal new synaptic mechanisms of OS computation in the retina. PMID:26985031

  4. Transplantation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells for repair of injured spiral ganglion neurons in deaf guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sujeong; Cho, Hyong-Ho; Kim, Song-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Bum; Park, Jong-Seong; Jeong, Han-Seong

    2016-06-01

    Excessive noise, ototoxic drugs, infections, autoimmune diseases, and aging can cause loss of spiral ganglion neurons, leading to permanent sensorineural hearing loss in mammals. Stem cells have been confirmed to be able to differentiate into spiral ganglion neurons. Little has been reported on adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for repair of injured spiral ganglion neurons. In this study, we hypothesized that transplantation of neural induced-human ADSCs (NI-hADSCs) can repair the injured spiral ganglion neurons in guinea pigs with neomycin-induced sensorineural hearing loss. NI-hADSCs were induced with culture medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor and forskolin and then injected to the injured cochleae. Guinea pigs that received injection of Hanks' balanced salt solution into the cochleae were used as controls. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that at 8 weeks after cell transplantation, the number of surviving spiral ganglion neurons in the cell transplantation group was significantly increased than that in the control group. Also at 8 weeks after cell transplantation, immunohistochemical staining showed that a greater number of NI-hADSCs in the spiral ganglions were detected in the cell transplantation group than in the control group, and these NI-hADSCs expressed neuronal markers neurofilament protein and microtubule-associated protein 2. Within 8 weeks after cell transplantation, the guinea pigs in the cell transplantation group had a gradually decreased auditory brainstem response threshold, while those in the control group had almost no response to 80 dB of clicks or pure tone burst. These findings suggest that a large amount of NI-hADSCs migrated to the spiral ganglions, survived for a period of time, repaired the injured spiral ganglion cells, and thereby contributed to the recovery of sensorineural hearing loss in guinea pigs.

  5. Differentiation of human ESCs to retinal ganglion cells using a CRISPR engineered reporter cell line

    PubMed Central

    Sluch, Valentin M.; Davis, Chung-ha O.; Ranganathan, Vinod; Kerr, Justin M.; Krick, Kellin; Martin, Russ; Berlinicke, Cynthia A.; Marsh-Armstrong, Nicholas; Diamond, Jeffrey S.; Mao, Hai-Quan; Zack, Donald J.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) injury and cell death from glaucoma and other forms of optic nerve disease is a major cause of irreversible vision loss and blindness. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived RGCs could provide a source of cells for the development of novel therapeutic molecules as well as for potential cell-based therapies. In addition, such cells could provide insights into human RGC development, gene regulation, and neuronal biology. Here, we report a simple, adherent cell culture protocol for differentiation of hPSCs to RGCs using a CRISPR-engineered RGC fluorescent reporter stem cell line. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting of the differentiated cultures yields a highly purified population of cells that express a range of RGC-enriched markers and exhibit morphological and physiological properties typical of RGCs. Additionally, we demonstrate that aligned nanofiber matrices can be used to guide the axonal outgrowth of hPSC-derived RGCs for in vitro optic nerve-like modeling. Lastly, using this protocol we identified forskolin as a potent promoter of RGC differentiation. PMID:26563826

  6. Hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in ganglion-cell photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, Matthew J; Berson, David M

    2010-12-20

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin and serve as the primary retinal drivers of non-image-forming visual functions such as circadian photoentrainment, the pupillary light reflex, and suppression of melatonin production in the pineal. Past electrophysiological studies of these cells have focused on their intrinsic photosensitivity and synaptic inputs. Much less is known about their voltage-gated channels and how these might shape their output to non-image-forming visual centers. Here, we show that rat ipRGCs retrolabeled from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) express a hyperpolarization-activated inwardly-rectifying current (I(h)). This current is blocked by the known I(h) blockers ZD7288 and extracellular cesium. As in other systems, including other retinal ganglion cells, I(h) in ipRGCs is characterized by slow kinetics and a slightly greater permeability for K(+) than for Na(+). Unlike in other systems, however, I(h) in ipRGCs apparently does not actively contribute to resting membrane potential. We also explore non-specific effects of the common I(h) blocker ZD7288 on rebound depolarization and evoked spiking and discuss possible functional roles of I(h) in non-image-forming vision. This study is the first to characterize I(h) in a well-defined population of retinal ganglion cells, namely SCN-projecting ipRGCs.

  7. Four alpha ganglion cell types in mouse retina: Function, structure, and molecular signatures

    PubMed Central

    Sanes, Joshua R.

    2017-01-01

    The retina communicates with the brain using ≥30 parallel channels, each carried by axons of distinct types of retinal ganglion cells. In every mammalian retina one finds so-called "alpha" ganglion cells (αRGCs), identified by their large cell bodies, stout axons, wide and mono-stratified dendritic fields, and high levels of neurofilament protein. In the mouse, three αRGC types have been described based on responses to light steps: On-sustained, Off-sustained, and Off-transient. Here we employed a transgenic mouse line that labels αRGCs in the live retina, allowing systematic targeted recordings. We characterize the three known types and identify a fourth, with On-transient responses. All four αRGC types share basic aspects of visual signaling, including a large receptive field center, a weak antagonistic surround, and absence of any direction selectivity. They also share a distinctive waveform of the action potential, faster than that of other RGC types. Morphologically, they differ in the level of dendritic stratification within the IPL, which accounts for their response properties. Molecularly, each type has a distinct signature. A comparison across mammals suggests a common theme, in which four large-bodied ganglion cell types split the visual signal into four channels arranged symmetrically with respect to polarity and kinetics. PMID:28753612

  8. Ouabain-Induced Apoptosis in Cochlear Hair Cells and Spiral Ganglion Neurons In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yong; Ding, Dalian; Jiang, Haiyan; Salvi, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ouabain is a common tool to explore the pathophysiological changes in adult mammalian cochlea in vivo. In prior studies, locally administering ouabain via round window membrane demonstrated that the ototoxic effects of ouabain in vivo varied among mammalian species. Little is known about the ototoxic effects in vitro. Thus, we prepared cochlear organotypic cultures from postnatal day-3 rats and treated these cultures with ouabain at 50, 500, and 1000 μM for different time to elucidate the ototoxic effects of ouabain in vitro and to provide insights that could explain the comparative ototoxic effects of ouabain in vivo. Degeneration of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons was evaluated by hair-cell staining and neurofilament labeling, respectively. Annexin V staining was used to detect apoptotic cells. A quantitative RT-PCR apoptosis-focused gene array determined changes in apoptosis-related genes. The results showed that ouabain-induced damage in vitro was dose and time dependent. 500 μM ouabain and 1000 μM ouabain were destructively traumatic to both spiral ganglion neurons and cochlear hair cells in an apoptotic signal-dependent pathway. The major apoptotic pathways in ouabain-induced spiral ganglion neuron apoptosis culminated in the stimulation of the p53 pathway and triggering of apoptosis by a network of proapoptotic signaling pathways. PMID:24228256

  9. Granular cell tumor of the stellate ganglion presenting with Horner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burke, Shane M; Wein, Richard O; Brinckerhoff, Laurence H; Dandekar, Monisha N; Naber, Stephen P; Riesenburger, Ron I

    2015-09-01

    We report a granular cell tumor (GCT) that occurred within the stellate ganglion of a 26-year-old woman who initially presented with a unilateral Horner's syndrome and progressive right upper extremity pain. We also review the literature related to the differential diagnoses of such a cervicothoracic tumor, with particular emphasis on the embryologic origin of these possibilities. GCT are rare tumors of Schwann cell origin which are more often found in subcutaneous locations than in relation to neural elements. In this woman, a mass identified on preoperative imaging was positioned anterolateral to the T1 vertebral body and displaced the vertebral artery anteriorly. During surgery, the lesion was observed within the sympathetic chain in the area of the stellate ganglion. The sympathetic chain was transected above and below the mass in order to achieve an adequate resection. The pathology demonstrated polygonal cells with diffuse eosinophilic granular cytoplasm positive for CD68 (a marker of lysosomes) and S-100 (a marker of neural crest derivatives) which established the diagnosis of GCT. This is the first patient, to our knowledge, with a granular cell tumor arising from the stellate ganglion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional segregation of retinal ganglion cell projections to the optic tectum of rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    Wachowiak, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The interpretation of visual information relies on precise maps of retinal representation in the brain coupled with local circuitry that encodes specific features of the visual scenery. In nonmammalian vertebrates, the main target of ganglion cell projections is the optic tectum. Although the topography of retinotectal projections has been documented for several species, the spatiotemporal patterns of activity and how these depend on background adaptation have not been explored. In this study, we used a combination of electrical and optical recordings to reveal a retinotectal map of ganglion cell projections to the optic tectum of rainbow trout and characterized the spatial and chromatic distribution of ganglion cell fibers coding for increments (ON) and decrements (OFF) of light. Recordings of optic nerve activity under various adapting light backgrounds, which isolated the input of different cone mechanisms, yielded dynamic patterns of ON and OFF input characterized by segregation of these two fiber types. Chromatic adaptation decreased the sensitivity and response latency of affected cone mechanisms, revealing their variable contributions to the ON and OFF responses. Our experiments further demonstrated restricted input from a UV cone mechanism to the anterolateral optic tectum, in accordance with the limited presence of UV cones in the dorsotemporal retina of juvenile rainbow trout. Together, our findings show that retinal inputs to the optic tectum of this species are not homogeneous, exhibit highly dynamic activity patterns, and are likely determined by a combination of biased projections and specific retinal cell distributions and their activity states. PMID:26334009

  11. Multiple components of ganglion cell desensitization in response to prosthetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Daniel K.; Fried, Shelley I.

    2011-02-01

    Retinal prostheses aim to restore functional vision to those blinded by outer retinal diseases using electric stimulation of surviving neurons. Previous work indicates that repetitive stimulation with stimuli that activate the synaptic network reduces the sensitivity of retinal neurons to further stimulation. Such desensitization may contribute to the fading of visual percepts over time reported by human subjects. Here, we show that desensitization may be more complex than previously considered. We recorded spike trains from rabbit retinal ganglion cells and found that desensitization persists in the presence of inhibitory blockers (strychnine and picrotoxin), indicating amacrine cell inhibition is not solely responsible for reducing sensitivity in response to electric stimulation. The threshold for direct activation of the ganglion cell changes little during the simultaneous desensitization of the synaptically mediated response, indicating that desensitization likely occurs upstream of the spike generator. In addition to rapid desensitization acting over hundreds of milliseconds (τ = 176.4 ± 8.8 ms), we report the presence of slow acting desensitization with a time course of seconds (τ = 14.0 ± 1.1 s). The time courses of the two components of desensitization that we found are similar to the two phases of brightness fading seen in human subjects. This suggests that the reduction in ganglion cell firing due to desensitization may be responsible for the fading of visual percepts over time in response to prosthetic stimulation.

  12. Changes in ganglion cell physiology during retinal degeneration influence excitability by prosthetic electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Alice; Ratliff, Charles; Sampath, Alapakkam; Weiland, James

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Here we investigate ganglion cell physiology in healthy and degenerating retina to test its influence on threshold to electrical stimulation. Approach. Age-related Macular Degeneration and Retinitis Pigmentosa cause blindness via outer retinal degeneration. Inner retinal pathways that transmit visual information to the central brain remain intact, so direct electrical stimulation from prosthetic devices offers the possibility for visual restoration. Since inner retinal physiology changes during degeneration, we characterize physiological properties and responses to electrical stimulation in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of both wild type mice and the rd10 mouse model of retinal degeneration. Main results. Our aggregate results support previous observations that elevated thresholds characterize diseased retinas. However, a physiology-driven classification scheme reveals distinct sub-populations of ganglion cells with thresholds either normal or strongly elevated compared to wild-type. When these populations are combined, only a weakly elevated threshold with large variance is observed. The cells with normal threshold are more depolarized at rest and exhibit periodic oscillations. Significance. During degeneration, physiological changes in RGCs affect the threshold stimulation currents required to evoke action potentials.

  13. Is the capacity for optic nerve regeneration related to continued retinal ganglion cell production in the frog?

    PubMed

    Taylor, J S; Jack, J L; Easter, S S

    1989-01-01

    In the central nervous system of fish and frogs, some, but not all, axons can regenerate. Retinal ganglion cells are among those that can. The retinae of fish and frogs produce new retinal neurons, including ganglion cells, for months or years after hatching. We have evaluated the hypothesis that retinal axonal regeneration is obligatorily linked to continued production of new ganglion cells. We used bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry to assess retinal neurogenesis in juvenile, yearling, and 10 year old Xenopus laevis. Retinal ganglion cell genesis was vigorous in the marginal retina of the juveniles, but in the yearlings and the 10 year olds, no new ganglion cells were produced there. Cellular proliferation in the central retina was evident at all three ages, but none of the cells produced centrally were in the ganglion cell layer. Regeneration was examined in vivo by cutting one optic nerve and then, weeks later, injecting the eye with tritiated proline. Autoradiographs of brain sections showed that the optic nerves of all three ages regenerated. Regeneration in vitro was assessed using retinal explants from frogs of all three ages. In all cases, the cultures produced neurites, with some age-specific differences in the patterns of outgrowth. We conclude that retinal axonal regeneration is not linked obligatorily to maintained neurogenesis.

  14. The sensitivity of light-evoked responses of retinal ganglion cells is decreased in nitric oxide synthase gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Yong; van der List, Deborah A; Nemargut, Joseph P; Coombs, Julie L; Chalupa, Leo M

    2007-11-30

    We have shown previously that increasing the production of nitric oxide (NO) results in a dampening of visual responses of retinal ganglion cells (G. Y. Wang, L. C. Liets, & L. M. Chalupa, 2003). To gain further insights into the role of NO in retinal function, we made whole-cell patch clamp recordings from ganglion cells of neural type nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene knockout mice. Here we show that in the dark-adapted state, the sensitivity of retinal ganglion cell to light stimulation is decreased in nNOS knockout animals. The lowest light intensities required to evoke optimal responses and the average intensities that evoked half-maximal responses were significantly higher in nNOS knockouts than in normal mice. Retinal histology and other features of light-evoked responses of ganglion cells in nNOS mice appeared to be indistinguishable from those of normal mice. Collectively, these results, in conjunction with our previous work, provide evidence that increasing levels of NO dampen visual responses of ganglion cells, while a lack of nNOS decreases the sensitivity of these neurons to light. Thus, NO levels in the retina are capable of modulating the information that ganglion cells convey to the visual centers of the brain.

  15. Differential Effects of Short-and Long-Pulsewidth Laser Exposures on Retinal Ganglion Cell Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    light leaking through the DLM. The used for setting the adaptation level. The wavelength and DLM was activated by a control signal from the AIM to... adaptation and visual pigment regeneration in human cones. J Gen Physiol 62:430-447. Kropf A, Hubbard R (1958): The mechanism of bleaching rhodopsin. Ann NY...continuous-wave (CW) argon laser (514.5 nm). which produced exposures of 0. l-msec to 0. 1-sec duration. Ganglion cell activity was recorded in situ

  16. Retinal ganglion cell density of the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis): calculating visual resolution.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, John D; Manger, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    A single right retina from a black rhinoceros was whole mounted, stained and analyzed to determine the visual resolution of the rhinoceros, an animal with reputedly poor eyesight. A range of small (15-microm diameter) to large (100-microm diameter) ganglion cell types was seen across the retina. We observed two regions of high density of retinal ganglion cells at either end of a long, but thin, horizontal streak. The temporal specialization, which receives light from the anterior visual field, exhibited a ganglion cell density of approximately 2000/mm2, while the nasal specialization exhibited a density of approximately 1500/mm2. The retina exhibited a ganglion cell density bias toward the upper half, especially so, the upper temporal quadrant, indicating that the rhinoceros would be processing visual information from the visual field below the anterior horizon for the most part. Our calculations indicate that the rhinoceros has a visual resolution of 6 cycles/degree. While this resolution is one-tenth that of humans (60 cycles/deg) and less than that of the domestic cat (9 cycles/deg), it is comparable to that of the rabbit (6 cycles/deg), and exceeds that seen in a variety of other mammals including seals, dolphins, microbats, and rats. Thus, the reputation of the rhinoceros as a myopic, weakly visual animal is not supported by our observations of the retina. We calculate that the black rhinoceros could readily distinguish a 30 cm wide human at a distance of around 200 m given the appropriate visual background.

  17. Three factors limiting the reliable detection of light by retinal ganglion cells of the cat

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, H. B.; Levick, W. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. Responses of cat retinal ganglion cells have been examined with a view to specifying the characteristics that limit the detection of light stimuli. 2. Threshold is defined as the weakest stimulus that can be reliably detected by examination of the output from a retinal ganglion cell; it depends upon (a) the quantum/spike ratio, which is the mean number of additional quantal absorptions required to produce an additional impulse, (b) the temporal course of the response, which determines the time interval within which the maintained discharge is modified, and (c) the statistical distribution of the number of impulses that occur in this time interval in the absence of the stimulus. 3. The quantum/spike ratio changes greatly when adapting luminance is changed, and this is the predominant factor accounting for changes in increment threshold. 4. The time course of the response changes with adaptation level and area of the stimulus. This may account for the changes in temporal integration that occur in analogous psychophysical experiments. 5. Changes in the irregularity of the maintained discharge also affect the threshold of single ganglion cells. This is only a minor factor in the conditions of most of our experiments, but it may be important when unstabilized images and non-equilibrium adaptation conditions are encountered. PMID:5761942

  18. Moniliform Deformation of Retinal Ganglion Cells by Formaldehyde-Based Fixatives

    PubMed Central

    Stradleigh, Tyler W.; Greenberg, Kenneth P.; Partida, Gloria J.; Pham, Aaron; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Protocols for characterizing cellular phenotypes commonly use chemical fixatives to preserve anatomical features, mechanically stabilize tissue, and stop physiological responses. Formaldehyde, diluted in either phosphate-buffered saline or phosphate buffer, has been widely used in studies of neurons, especially in conjunction with dyes and antibodies. However, previous studies have reported that these fixatives induce the formation of bead-like varicosities in the dendrites and axons of brain and spinal cord neurons. We report here that these formaldehyde formulations can induce bead formation in the dendrites and axons of adult rat and rabbit retinal ganglion cells, and that retinal ganglion cells differ from hippocampal, cortical, cerebellar, and spinal cord neurons in that bead formation is not blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists, a voltage-gated Na+ channel toxin, extracellular Ca2+ ion exclusion, or temperature shifts. Moreover, we describe a modification of formaldehyde-based fixatives that prevents bead formation in retinal ganglion cells visualized by green fluorescent protein expression and by immunohistochemistry. PMID:25283775

  19. Moniliform deformation of retinal ganglion cells by formaldehyde-based fixatives.

    PubMed

    Stradleigh, Tyler W; Greenberg, Kenneth P; Partida, Gloria J; Pham, Aaron; Ishida, Andrew T

    2015-03-01

    Protocols for characterizing cellular phenotypes commonly use chemical fixatives to preserve anatomical features, mechanically stabilize tissue, and stop physiological responses. Formaldehyde, diluted in either phosphate-buffered saline or phosphate buffer, has been widely used in studies of neurons, especially in conjunction with dyes and antibodies. However, previous studies have found that these fixatives induce the formation of bead-like varicosities in the dendrites and axons of brain and spinal cord neurons. We report here that these formaldehyde formulations can induce bead formation in the dendrites and axons of adult rat and rabbit retinal ganglion cells, and that retinal ganglion cells differ from hippocampal, cortical, cerebellar, and spinal cord neurons in that bead formation is not blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists, a voltage-gated Na(+) channel toxin, extracellular Ca(2+) ion exclusion, or temperature shifts. Moreover, we describe a modification of formaldehyde-based fixatives that prevents bead formation in retinal ganglion cells visualized by green fluorescent protein expression and by immunohistochemistry. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of low level laser treatment on the survival of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    So, Kwok-Fai; Leung, Mason Chin Pang; Cui, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Injury to axons close to the neuronal bodies in the mammalian central nervous system causes a large proportion of parenting neurons to degenerate. It is known that optic nerve transection close to the eye in rodents leads to a loss of about half of retinal ganglion cells in 1 week and about 90% in 2 weeks. Using low level laser treatment in the present study, we demonstrated that treatment with helium-neon (660 nm) laser with 15 mW power could delay retinal ganglion cell death after optic nerve axotomy in adult hamsters. The effect was most apparent in the first week with a short period of treatment time (5 minutes) in which 65–66% of retinal ganglion cells survived the optic nerve axotomy whereas 45–47% of retinal ganglion cells did so in optic nerve axotomy controls. We also found that single dose and early commencement of laser irradiation were important in protecting retinal ganglion cells following optic nerve axotomy. These findings thus convincingly show that appropriate laser treatment may be neuroprotective to retinal ganglion cells. PMID:25558230

  1. Allogeneic Transplantation of Müller-Derived Retinal Ganglion Cells Improves Retinal Function in a Feline Model of Ganglion Cell Depletion.

    PubMed

    Becker, Silke; Eastlake, Karen; Jayaram, Hari; Jones, Megan F; Brown, Robert A; McLellan, Gillian J; Charteris, David G; Khaw, Peng T; Limb, G Astrid

    2016-02-01

    Human Müller glia with stem cell characteristics (hMGSCs) have been shown to improve retinal function upon transplantation into rat models of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) depletion. However, their translational potential may depend upon successful engraftment and improvement of retinal function in experimental models with anatomical and functional features resembling those of the human eye. We investigated the effect of allogeneic transplantation of feline Müller glia with the ability to differentiate into cells expressing RGC markers, following ablation of RGCs by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). Unlike previous observations in the rat, transplantation of hMGSC-derived RGCs into the feline vitreous formed aggregates and elicited a severe inflammatory response without improving visual function. In contrast, allogeneic transplantation of feline MGSC (fMGSC)-derived RGCs into the vitrectomized eye improved the scotopic threshold response (STR) of the electroretinogram (ERG). Despite causing functional improvement, the cells did not attach onto the retina and formed aggregates on peripheral vitreous remnants, suggesting that vitreous may constitute a barrier for cell attachment onto the retina. This was confirmed by observations that cellular scaffolds of compressed collagen and enriched preparations of fMGSC-derived RGCs facilitated cell attachment. Although cells did not migrate into the RGC layer or the optic nerve, they significantly improved the STR and the photopic negative response of the ERG, indicative of increased RGC function. These results suggest that MGSCs have a neuroprotective ability that promotes partial recovery of impaired RGC function and indicate that cell attachment onto the retina may be necessary for transplanted cells to confer neuroprotection to the retina. Significance: Müller glia with stem cell characteristics are present in the adult human retina, but they do not have regenerative ability. These cells, however, have potential for

  2. Allogeneic Transplantation of Müller-Derived Retinal Ganglion Cells Improves Retinal Function in a Feline Model of Ganglion Cell Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Silke; Eastlake, Karen; Jayaram, Hari; Jones, Megan F.; Brown, Robert A.; McLellan, Gillian J.; Charteris, David G.; Khaw, Peng T.

    2016-01-01

    Human Müller glia with stem cell characteristics (hMGSCs) have been shown to improve retinal function upon transplantation into rat models of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) depletion. However, their translational potential may depend upon successful engraftment and improvement of retinal function in experimental models with anatomical and functional features resembling those of the human eye. We investigated the effect of allogeneic transplantation of feline Müller glia with the ability to differentiate into cells expressing RGC markers, following ablation of RGCs by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA). Unlike previous observations in the rat, transplantation of hMGSC-derived RGCs into the feline vitreous formed aggregates and elicited a severe inflammatory response without improving visual function. In contrast, allogeneic transplantation of feline MGSC (fMGSC)-derived RGCs into the vitrectomized eye improved the scotopic threshold response (STR) of the electroretinogram (ERG). Despite causing functional improvement, the cells did not attach onto the retina and formed aggregates on peripheral vitreous remnants, suggesting that vitreous may constitute a barrier for cell attachment onto the retina. This was confirmed by observations that cellular scaffolds of compressed collagen and enriched preparations of fMGSC-derived RGCs facilitated cell attachment. Although cells did not migrate into the RGC layer or the optic nerve, they significantly improved the STR and the photopic negative response of the ERG, indicative of increased RGC function. These results suggest that MGSCs have a neuroprotective ability that promotes partial recovery of impaired RGC function and indicate that cell attachment onto the retina may be necessary for transplanted cells to confer neuroprotection to the retina. Significance Müller glia with stem cell characteristics are present in the adult human retina, but they do not have regenerative ability. These cells, however, have potential for

  3. Separability of stimulus parameter encoding by on-off directionally selective rabbit retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Przemyslaw; Dobbins, Allan C.; Gawne, Timothy J.; Grzywacz, Norberto M.

    2011-01-01

    The ganglion cell output of the retina constitutes a bottleneck in sensory processing in that ganglion cells must encode multiple stimulus parameters in their responses. Here we investigate encoding strategies of On-Off directionally selective retinal ganglion cells (On-Off DS RGCs) in rabbits, a class of cells dedicated to representing motion. The exquisite axial discrimination of these cells to preferred vs. null direction motion is well documented: it is invariant with respect to speed, contrast, spatial configuration, spatial frequency, and motion extent. However, these cells have broad direction tuning curves and their responses also vary as a function of other parameters such as speed and contrast. In this study, we examined whether the variation in responses across multiple stimulus parameters is systematic, that is the same for all cells, and separable, such that the response to a stimulus is a product of the effects of each stimulus parameter alone. We extracellularly recorded single On-Off DS RGCs in a superfused eyecup preparation while stimulating them with moving bars. We found that spike count responses of these cells scaled as independent functions of direction, speed, and luminance. Moreover, the speed and luminance functions were common across the whole sample of cells. Based on these findings, we developed a model that accurately predicted responses of On-Off DS RGCs as products of separable functions of direction, speed, and luminance (r = 0.98; P < 0.0001). Such a multiplicatively separable encoding strategy may simplify the decoding of these cells' outputs by the higher visual centers. PMID:21325684

  4. Acquired color vision loss and a possible mechanism of ganglion cell death in glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Nork, T M

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: First, to study the cellular mechanisms of acquired color vision loss in retinal detachment and diabetic retinopathy. Second, to learn why, in glaucoma, the type of color vision deficit that is observed is more characteristic of a retinal injury than it is of an optic neuropathy. Third, to test a hypothesis of photoreceptor-induced, ganglion cell death in glaucoma. METHODS: Various histologic techniques were employed to distinguish the L/M-cones (long/medium wavelength-sensitive cones, or red/green sensitive cones) from the S-cones (short wavelength-sensitive cones, or blue sensitive cones) in humans and monkeys with retinal detachment, humans with diabetic retinopathy, and both humans and monkeys with glaucoma. To test if the photoreceptors were contributing to ganglion cell death, laser photocoagulation was used in a experimental model of glaucoma to focally eliminate the photoreceptors. As a control, optic nerve transection was done following retinal laser photocoagulation in one animal. RESULTS: Selective and widespread loss of the S-cones was found in retinal detachment as well as diabetic retinopathy. By contrast, in human as well as experimental glaucoma, marked swelling of the L/M-cones was the predominant histopathologic feature. Retinal laser photocoagulation followed by experimental glaucoma resulted in selective protection of ganglion cells overlying the laser spots. This was not seen with retinal laser photocoagulation by optic nerve transection. CONCLUSIONS: In retinal detachment and diabetic retinopathy, acquired tritan-like color vision loss could be caused, or contributed to, by selective loss of the S-cones. Both L- and M-cones are affected in glaucoma, which is also consistent with a tritan-like deficit. Although not a therapeutic option, protection of ganglion cells by retinal laser in experimental glaucoma is consistent with an hypothesis of anterograde, photoreceptor-induced, ganglion cell death. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3

  5. Neuroprotection by GH against excitotoxic-induced cell death in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ávila-Mendoza, José; Wu, Yilun; Arellanes-Licea, Elvira Del Carmen; Louie, Marcela; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos; Harvey, Steve

    2016-08-01

    Retinal growth hormone (GH) has been shown to promote cell survival in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) during developmental waves of apoptosis during chicken embryonic development. The possibility that it might also against excitotoxicity-induced cell death was therefore examined in the present study, which utilized quail-derived QNR/D cells as an in vitro RGC model. QNR/D cell death was induced by glutamate in the presence of BSO (buthionine sulfoxamide) (an enhancer of oxidative stress), but this was significantly reduced (P<0.01) in the presence of exogenous recombinant chicken GH (rcGH). Similarly, QNR/D cells that had been prior transfected with a GH plasmid to overexpress secreted and non-secreted GH. This treatment reduced the number of TUNEL-labeled cells and blocked their release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In a further experiment with dissected neuroretinal explants from ED (embryonic day) 10 embryos, rcGH treatment of the explants also reduced (P<0.01) the number of glutamate-BSO-induced apoptotic cells and blocked the explant release of LDH. This neuroprotective action was likely mediated by increased STAT5 phosphorylation and increased bcl-2 production, as induced by exogenous rcGH treatment and the media from GH-overexpressing QNR/D cells. As rcGH treatment and GH-overexpression cells also increased the content of IGF-1 and IGF-1 mRNA this neuroprotective action of GH is likely to be mediated, at least partially, through an IGF-1 mechanism. This possibility is supported by the fact that the siRNA knockdown of GH or IGF-1 significantly reduced QNR/D cell viability, as did the immunoneutralization of IGF-1. GH is therefore neuroprotective against excitotoxicity-induced RGC cell death by anti-apoptotic actions involving IGF-1 stimulation.

  6. Morphology and Tracer Coupling Pattern of Alpha Ganglion Cells in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    VÖLGYI, BÉLA; ABRAMS, JOSEPH; PAUL, DAVID L.; BLOOMFIELD, STEWART A.

    2010-01-01

    Alpha cells are a type of ganglion cell whose morphology appears to be conserved across a number of mammalian retinas. In particular, alpha cells display the largest somata and dendritic arbors at a given eccentricity and tile the retina as independent on- (ON) and off-center (OFF) subtypes. Mammalian alpha cells also express a variable tracer coupling pattern, which often includes homologous (same cell type) coupling to a few neighboring alpha cells and extensive heterologous (different cell type) coupling to two to three amacrine cell types. Here, we use the gap junction-permeant tracer Neurobiotin to determine the architecture and coupling pattern of alpha cells in the mouse retina. We find that alpha cells show the same somatic and dendritic architecture described previously in the mammal. However, alpha cells show varied tracer coupling patterns related to their ON and OFF physiologies. ON alpha cells show no evidence of homologous tracer coupling but are coupled heterologously to at least two types of amacrine cell whose somata lie within the ganglion cell layer. In contrast, OFF alpha cells are coupled to one another in circumscribed arrays as well as to two to three types of amacrine cell with somata occupying the inner nuclear layer. We find that homologous coupling between OFF alpha cells is unaltered in the connexin36 (Cx36) knockout (KO) mouse retina, indicating that it is not dependent on Cx36. However, a subset of the heterologous coupling of ON alpha cells and all the heterologous coupling of OFF alpha cells are eliminated in the KO retina, suggesting that Cx36 comprises most of the junctions made with amacrine cells. PMID:16175559

  7. Gender difference in the neuroprotective effect of rat bone marrow mesenchymal cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Yu, Jian-Xiong

    2016-05-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can reduce retinal ganglion cell death and effectively prevent vision loss. Previously, we found that during differentiation, female rhesus monkey bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells acquire a higher neurogenic potential compared with male rhesus monkey bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. This suggests that female bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have a stronger neuroprotective effect than male bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we first isolated and cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from female and male rats by density gradient centrifugation. Retinal tissue from newborn rats was prepared by enzymatic digestion to obtain primary retinal ganglion cells. Using the transwell system, retinal ganglion cells were co-cultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay. We found a marked increase in apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity of retinal ganglion cells after 24 hours of hypoxia compared with normoxia. Moreover, apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity of retinal ganglion cells significantly decreased with both female and male bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell co-culture under hypoxia compared with culture alone, with more significant effects from female bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results indicate that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells exert a neuroprotective effect against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, and also that female cells have greater neuroprotective ability compared with male cells.

  8. Internalization and synaptogenic effect of GH in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs).

    PubMed

    Fleming, Thomas; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Mora, Janeth; Aizouki, Miray; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos; Harvey, Steve

    2016-08-01

    In the chicken embryo, GH gene expression occurs in the neural retina and retinal GH promotes cell survival and induces axonal growth of retinal ganglion cells. Neuroretinal GH is therefore of functional importance before the appearance of somatotrophs and the onset of pituitary GH secretion to the peripheral plasma (at ED15-17). Endocrine actions of pituitary GH in the development and function of the chicken embryo eye are, however, unknown. This possibility has therefore been investigated in ED15 embryos and using the quail neuroretinal derived cell line (QNR/D). During this research, we studied for the first time, the coexistence of exogenous (endocrine) and local GH (autocrine/paracrine) in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In ovo systemic injections of Cy3-labeled GH demonstrated that GH in the embryo bloodstream was translocated into the neural retina and internalized into RGC's. Pituitary GH may therefore be functionally involved in retinal development during late embryogenesis. Cy3-labelled GH was similarly internalized into QNR/D cells after its addition into incubation media. The uptake of exogenous GH was by a receptor-mediated mechanism and maximal after 30-60min. The exogenous (endocrine) GH induced STAT5 phosphorylation and increased growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) and SNAP-25 immunoreactivity. Ex ovo intravitreal injections of Cy3-GH in ED12 embryos resulted in GH internalization and STAT5 activation. Interestingly, the CY3-labeled GH accumulated in perinuclear regions of the QNR/D cells, but was not found in the cytoplasm of neurite outgrowths, in which endogenous retinal GH is located. This suggests that exogenous (endocrine) and local (autocrine/paracrine) GH are both involved in retinal function in late embryogenesis but they co-exist in separate intracellular compartments within retinal ganglion cells.

  9. Effect of Müller cells on the survival and neuritogenesis in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Ruzafa, N; Vecino, E

    2015-11-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the first affected cells in neuropathies like glaucoma, for that reason it is very important to explore new methods to neuroprotect these neurons. Müller cells are glial cells that provide the neurons with trophic factors and scaffold. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of Müller cells on survival and neurite formation in RGCs. Rat Müller cells were grown until a confluent culture on which rat RGCs were added, using pure culture of rat RGCs as controls. RGCs were labeled with βIII-tubulin, and Müller cells with glutamine synthetase antibodies. In addition, nuclei were stained with DAPI. The number of RGCs and number and neurite length were measured. No differences were found in the number of RGCs between control and cells grown on the substrate of Müller cells. The proportion of RGCs with neurites increased when they grew on Müller (RGCs with 1-3 neurites increased from 19% to 43%. The length of neurites also increased in RGCs grown on Müller cells, with the number of RGCs with neurites from 50 to 200μm increasing from 21% to 41%, and with neurites of more than 200μm the increase was from 6% to 20%. Müller cells support the survival of RGCs and induced an increase in the number and length of neurites of RGCs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Msx2 alters the timing of retinal ganglion cells fate commitment and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shao-Yun; Wang, Jian-Tao

    2010-05-14

    Timing of cell fate commitment determines distinct retinal cell types, which is believed to be controlled by a tightly coordinated regulatory program of proliferation, cell cycle exit and differentiation. Although homeobox protein Msx2 could induce apoptosis of optic vesicle, it is unclear whether Msx2 regulates differentiation and cell fate commitment of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In this study, we show that overexpression of Msx2 transiently suppressed the expression of Cyclin D1 and blocked cell proliferation. Meanwhile, overexpression of Msx2 delayed the expression of RGC-specific differentiation markers (Math5 and Brn3b), which showed that Msx2 could affect the timing of RGCs fate commitment and differentiation by delaying the timing of cell cycle exit of retinal progenitors. These results indicate Msx2 possesses dual regulatory functions in controlling cell cycle progression of retinal RPCs and timing of RGCs differentiation.

  11. Imaging individual neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer of the living eye

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ethan A.; Granger, Charles E.; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Schwarz, Christina; Walters, Sarah; Nozato, Koji; Zhang, Jie; Kawakami, Tomoaki; Fischer, William; Latchney, Lisa R.; Hunter, Jennifer J.; Chung, Mina M.; Williams, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Although imaging of the living retina with adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) provides microscopic access to individual cells, such as photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and blood cells in the retinal vasculature, other important cell classes, such as retinal ganglion cells, have proven much more challenging to image. The near transparency of inner retinal cells is advantageous for vision, as light must pass through them to reach the photoreceptors, but it has prevented them from being directly imaged in vivo. Here we show that the individual somas of neurons within the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer can be imaged with a modification of confocal AOSLO, in both monkeys and humans. Human images of RGC layer neurons did not match the quality of monkey images for several reasons, including safety concerns that limited the light levels permissible for human imaging. We also show that the same technique applied to the photoreceptor layer can resolve ambiguity about cone survival in age-related macular degeneration. The capability to noninvasively image RGC layer neurons in the living eye may one day allow for a better understanding of diseases, such as glaucoma, and accelerate the development of therapeutic strategies that aim to protect these cells. This method may also prove useful for imaging other structures, such as neurons in the brain. PMID:28049835

  12. Visual Neuroscience: A Retinal Ganglion Cell to Report Image Focus?

    PubMed

    Baden, Tom; Schaeffel, Frank; Berens, Philipp

    2017-02-20

    A recent study describes a mouse neuron projecting from the retina to the brain that exhibits exquisitely high sensitivity to high spatial frequency patterns presented over an unusually large receptive field: could this cell be a (de)focus detector?

  13. Transplantation of Human Neural Progenitor Cells Expressing IGF-1 Enhances Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Caiwei; Sun, Yu; Liao, Tiffany; Beattie, Ursula; López, Francisco J.; Chen, Dong Feng; Lashkari, Kameran

    2015-01-01

    We have previously characterized human neuronal progenitor cells (hNP) that can adopt a retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-like morphology within the RGC and nerve fiber layers of the retina. In an effort to determine whether hNPs could be used a candidate cells for targeted delivery of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), we evaluated whether hNPs transfected with an vector that expresses IGF-1 in the form of a fusion protein with tdTomato (TD), would increase RGC survival in vitro and confer neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of glaucoma. RGCs co-cultured with hNPIGF-TD cells displayed enhanced survival, and increased neurite extension and branching as compared to hNPTD or untransfected hNP cells. Application of various IGF-1 signaling blockers or IGF-1 receptor antagonists abrogated these effects. In vivo, using a model of glaucoma we showed that IOP elevation led to reductions in retinal RGC count. In this model, evaluation of retinal flatmounts and optic nerve cross sections indicated that only hNPIGF-TD cells effectively reduced RGC death and showed a trend to improve optic nerve axonal loss. RT-PCR analysis of retina lysates over time showed that the neurotrophic effects of IGF-1 were also attributed to down-regulation of inflammatory and to some extent, angiogenic pathways. This study shows that neuronal progenitor cells that hone into the RGC and nerve fiber layers may be used as vehicles for local production and delivery of a desired NTF. Transplantation of hNPIGF-TD cells improves RGC survival in vitro and protects against RGC loss in a rodent model of glaucoma. Our findings have provided experimental evidence and form the basis for applying cell-based strategies for local delivery of NTFs into the retina. Application of cell-based delivery may be extended to other disease conditions beyond glaucoma. PMID:25923430

  14. A retinal ganglion cell that can signal irradiance continuously for 10 hours.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kwoon Y

    2012-08-15

    A recently discovered type of mammalian retinal ganglion cell encodes environmental light intensity and mediates non-image-forming visual behaviors, such as the pupillary reflex and circadian photoentrainment. These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) generate endogenous, melanopsin-based photoresponses as well as extrinsic, rod/cone-driven responses. Because the ipRGCs' light responses and the behaviors they control are both remarkably tonic, these cells have been hypothesized to be capable of irradiance detection lasting throughout the day. I tested this hypothesis by obtaining multielectrode-array recordings from ipRGCs in a novel rat eyecup preparation that enhances the regeneration of rod/cone photopigments. I found that 10 h constant light could continuously evoke action potentials in these ganglion cells under conditions that stimulated (1) only melanopsin, (2) mainly the rod input, and (3) both intrinsic and extrinsic responses. In response to a 10 h stimulus with gradual intensity changes to simulate sunrise and sunset, ipRGC firing rates slowly increased during the "sunrise" phase and slowly decreased during the "sunset" phase. Furthermore, I recorded from putative ipRGCs of melanopsin-knock-out mice and found that these cells retained the ability to respond in a sustained fashion to 20 min light steps, indicating that melanopsin is not required for such tonic responses. In conclusion, ipRGCs can signal light continuously for at least 10 h and can probably track gradual irradiance changes over the course of the day. These results further suggest that the photoreceptors and ON bipolar cells presynaptic to ipRGCs may be able to respond to light continuously for 10 h.

  15. Comparative study of photoreceptor and retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in Dipsadidae snakes.

    PubMed

    Hauzman, Einat; Bonci, Daniela M O; Grotzner, Sonia R; Mela, Maritana; Liber, André M P; Martins, Sonia L; Ventura, Dora F

    2014-01-01

    The diurnal Dipsadidae snakes Philodryas olfersii and P. patagoniensis are closely related in their phylogeny but inhabit different ecological niches. P. olfersii is arboreal, whereas P. patagoniensis is preferentially terrestrial. The goal of the present study was to compare the density and topography of neurons, photoreceptors, and cells in the ganglion cell layer in the retinas of these two species using immunohistochemistry and Nissl staining procedures and estimate the spatial resolving power of their eyes based on the ganglion cell peak density. Four morphologically distinct types of cones were observed by scanning electron microscopy, 3 of which were labeled with anti-opsin antibodies: large single cones and double cones labeled by the antibody JH492 and small single cones labeled by the antibody JH455. The average densities of photoreceptors and neurons in the ganglion cell layer were similar in both species (∼10,000 and 7,000 cells·mm(-2), respectively). The estimated spatial resolving power was also similar, ranging from 2.4 to 2.7 cycles·degree(-1). However, the distribution of neurons had different specializations. In the arboreal P. olfersii, the isodensity maps had a horizontal visual streak, with a peak density in the central region and a lower density in the dorsal retina. This organization might be relevant for locomotion and hunting behavior in the arboreal layer. In the terrestrial P. patagoniensis, a concentric pattern of decreasing cell density emanated from an area centralis located in the naso-ventral retina. Lower densities were observed in the dorsal region. The ventrally high density improves the resolution in the superior visual field and may be an important adaptation for terrestrial snakes to perceive the approach of predators from above. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Topography and morphology of retinal ganglion cells in Falconiforms: a study on predatory and carrion-eating birds.

    PubMed

    Inzunza, O; Bravo, H; Smith, R L; Angel, M

    1991-02-01

    The topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells and their cell body size have been studied in five Falconiform species, including predatory (chilean eagle Buteo fuscenses australis, and sparrow hawk Falco sparverius) and carrion-eating (chimango caracara Milvago chimango; condor Vultur gryphus, and black vulture Coragyps atratus) birds. All these species had a well defined nasal fovea and a horizontal streak. Instead of a temporal fovea as in eagles and hawks, an afoveate temporal area is present in chimango, condor, and vulture. The highest ganglion cell density was found in the nasal fovea of Falco and Buteo with 65,000 and 62,000 cells/mm2, respectively. A negative correlation between ganglion cell density and cell body size was found in all the species studied. The specializations of the temporal retina showed a rather homogenous population of medium sized neurons, while the nasal foveas showed a homogeneous population of smaller ganglion cells. Finally, the peripheral retina showed a heterogeneous population of large, medium, and small ganglion cells. Predatory behavior appears to be closely related to foveal specializations, and is best exemplified in the eagle and hawk and to a lesser extent in the chimango.

  17. The pattern of retinal ganglion cell dysfunction in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Majander, A; Robson, A G; João, C; Holder, G E; Chinnery, P F; Moore, A T; Votruba, M; Stockman, A; Yu-Wai-Man, P

    2017-09-01

    Leber inherited optic neuropathy (LHON) is characterized by subacute bilateral loss of central vision due to dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Comprehensive visual electrophysiological investigations (including pattern reversal visual evoked potentials, pattern electroretinography and the photopic negative response) performed on 13 patients with acute and chronic LHON indicate early impairment of RGC cell body function and severe axonal dysfunction. Temporal, spatial and chromatic psychophysical tests performed on 7 patients with acute LHON and 4 patients with chronic LHON suggest severe involvement or loss of the midget, parasol and bistratified RGCs associated with all three principal visual pathways. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Selective labeling of retinal ganglion cells with calcium indicators by retrograde loading in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Behrend, Matthew R.; Ahuja, Ashish K.; Humayun, Mark S.; Weiland, James D.; Chow, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present a retrograde loading technique that makes it possible for the first time to rapidly load a calcium indicator in the majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in salamander retina, and then to observe physiological activity of these dye-loaded cells. Dextran-conjugated calcium indicator, dissolved in water, was applied to the optic nerve stump. Following dye loading, the isolated retina was mounted on a microelectrode array to demonstrate that electrical activity and calcium activity were preserved, as the retina responded to electrical stimuli. PMID:19428523

  19. Selective labeling of retinal ganglion cells with calcium indicators by retrograde loading in vitro.

    PubMed

    Behrend, Matthew R; Ahuja, Ashish K; Humayun, Mark S; Weiland, James D; Chow, Robert H

    2009-05-15

    Here we present a retrograde loading technique that makes it possible for the first time to rapidly load a calcium indicator in the majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in salamander retina, and then to observe physiological activity of these dye-loaded cells. Dextran-conjugated calcium indicator, dissolved in water, was applied to the optic nerve stump. Following dye loading, the isolated retina was mounted on a microelectrode array to demonstrate that electrical activity and calcium activity were preserved, as the retina responded to electrical stimuli.

  20. Empirical Derivation of Correction Factors for Human Spiral Ganglion Cell Nucleus and Nucleolus Count Units.

    PubMed

    Robert, Mark E; Linthicum, Fred H

    2016-01-01

    Profile count method for estimating cell number in sectioned tissue applies a correction factor for double count (resulting from transection during sectioning) of count units selected to represent the cell. For human spiral ganglion cell counts, we attempted to address apparent confusion between published correction factors for nucleus and nucleolus count units that are identical despite the role of count unit diameter in a commonly used correction factor formula. We examined a portion of human cochlea to empirically derive correction factors for the 2 count units, using 3-dimensional reconstruction software to identify double counts. The Neurotology and House Histological Temporal Bone Laboratory at University of California at Los Angeles. Using a fully sectioned and stained human temporal bone, we identified and generated digital images of sections of the modiolar region of the lower first turn of cochlea, identified count units with a light microscope, labeled them on corresponding digital sections, and used 3-dimensional reconstruction software to identify double-counted count units. For 25 consecutive sections, we determined that double-count correction factors for nucleus count unit (0.91) and nucleolus count unit (0.92) matched the published factors. We discovered that nuclei and, therefore, spiral ganglion cells were undercounted by 6.3% when using nucleolus count units. We determined that correction factors for count units must include an element for undercounting spiral ganglion cells as well as the double-count element. We recommend a correction factor of 0.91 for the nucleus count unit and 0.98 for the nucleolus count unit when using 20-µm sections. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  1. Properties of the ON bistratified ganglion cell in the rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Hideo; Tian, Lian-Ming; Massey, Stephen C; Mills, Stephen L

    2013-05-01

    The identity of the types of different neurons in mammalian retinae is now close to being completely known for a few mammalian species; comparison reveals strong homologies for many neurons across the order. Still, there remain some cell types rarely encountered and inadequately described, despite not being rare in relative frequency. Here we describe in detail an additional ganglion cell type in rabbit that is bistratified with dendrites in both sublaminae, yet spikes only at light onset and has no response bias to the direction of moving bars. This ON bistratified ganglion cell type is most easily distinguished by the unusual behavior of its dendritic arbors. While dendrites that arborize in sublamina b terminate at that level, those that ascend to arborize in sublamina a do not normally terminate there. Instead, when they reach the approximate radius of the dendrites in sublamina b, they dive sharply back down to ramify in sublamina b. Here they continue to course even further away from the soma at the same level as the branches wholly contained in sublamina b, thereby forming an annulus of secondary ON dendrites in sublamina b. This pattern of branching creates a bistratified dendritic field of approximately equal area in the two sublaminae initially, to which is then added an external annulus of dendrites only in sublamina b whose origin is entirely from processes descending from sublamina a. It is coupled to a population of wide-field amacrine cells upon which the dendrites of the ganglion cell often terminate. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Morphometry of synaptophysin immunoreactive ganglion cells in Auerbach plexus in patients with colorectal cancer. Is this a new prognostic factor?

    PubMed

    Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria E; Ciołkiewicz, Mariusz; Pogumirski, Józef; Sulkowski, Stanisław; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate morphometric parameters of synaptophysin (Syn-38) immunoreactive ganglion cells in colorectal cancer (within and at various distances from neoplastic infiltration) in postoperative material from 60 patients. We analysed the intensity of Syn-38 expression in Auerbach ganglion neurones, mean number of these cells in the ganglion, and their longitudinal and transverse diameters. The results showed a statistically significant reduction in the number of neurones in intramural ganglia of the large intestine located in neoplastic infiltration and in its close proximity. The size of ganglion cells was directly proportional to the distance from cancer infiltration and inversely proportional to Syn-38 content, which may be explained by degenerative changes and dysfunction of these cells. This correlation was significant in the case of cells with the cytoplasmatic Syn-38 immunoreactivity pattern, but did not refer to the cells with perimembranous pattern, which seemed to be undamaged. Morphometric analysis of synaptophysin immunoreactive ganglion cells in Auerbach plexus in colorectal cancer may be a new useful marker for the description of changes in the intestinal nervous system as well as a prognostic factor for colorectal cancer.

  3. Low-voltage activated calcium currents in ganglion cells of the tiger salamander retina: experiment and simulation.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Dori; Miller, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    We examined the functional properties of a low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium current in ganglion cells of the neotenous tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) retina. Our analysis was based on whole-cell recordings from acutely dissociated ganglion cell bodies identified by retrograde dye injections. Using a continuously perfused cell preparation, the LVA current was isolated with the use of potassium channel blocking agents added to the bathing medium and the pipette solution, while tetrodotoxin was added to the bathing medium to block Na+ channels. Approximately 70% of ganglion cells had an easily identified LVA current. The LVA current activated at membrane potentials more positive than -90 mV, and inactivated rapidly. It was relatively insensitive to nickel (IC50 > 500 microM) and amiloride (IC50 > 750 microM). Voltage- and current-clamp studies allowed us to generate a model of this current using the NEURON simulation program. Studies were also carried out to measure the LVA Ca2+ current in ganglion cells with dendrites to confirm that it had a significant dendritic representation. Physiological mechanisms that may depend on LVA Ca2+ currents are discussed with an emphasis on the role that dendrites play in ganglion cell function.

  4. Connexin 36 and Rod Bipolar Cell Independent Rod Pathways Drive Retinal Ganglion Cells and Optokinetic Reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Cameron S.; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad; van der Heijden, Meike; Lo, Eric M.; Paul, David; Bramblett, Debra E.; Lem, Janis; Simons, David L.; Wu, Samuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Rod pathways are a parallel set of synaptic connections which enable night vision by relaying and processing rod photoreceptor light responses. We use dim light stimuli to isolate rod pathway contributions to downstream light responses then characterize these contributions in knockout mice lacking rod transducin-α (Trα), or certain pathway components associated with subsets of rod pathways. These comparisons reveal that rod pathway driven light sensitivity in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is entirely dependent on Trα, but partially independent of connexin 36 (Cx36) and rod bipolar cells. Pharmacological experiments show that rod pathway-driven and Cx36-independent RGC ON responses are also metabotropic glutamate receptor 6-dependent. To validate the RGC findings in awake, behaving animals we measured optokinetic reflexes (OKRs), which are sensitive to changes in ON pathways. Scotopic OKR contrast sensitivity was lost in Trα−/− mice, but indistinguishable from controls in Cx36−/− and rod bipolar cell knockout mice. Mesopic OKRs were also altered in mutant mice: Trα−/− mice had decreased spatial acuity, rod BC knockouts had decreased sensitivity, and Cx36−/− mice had increased sensitivity. These results provide compelling evidence against the complete Cx36 or rod BC dependence of night vision's ON component. Further, the findings suggest the parallel nature of rod pathways provides considerable redundancy to scotopic light sensitivity but distinct contributions to mesopic responses through complicated interactions with cone pathways. PMID:26718442

  5. Cyan fluorescent protein expression in ganglion and amacrine cells in a thy1-CFP transgenic mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Alejandro; Huynh, Uyen-Chi N.; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) expression in the retina of the thy1-CFP (B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-CFP)23Jrs/J) transgenic mouse line. Methods CFP expression was characterized using morphometric methods and immunohistochemistry with antibodies to neurofilament light (NF-L), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), POU-domain protein (Brn3a) and calretinin, which immunolabel ganglion cells, and syntaxin 1 (HPC-1), glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), GABA plasma membrane transporter-1 (GAT-1), and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which immunolabel amacrine cells. Results CFP was extensively expressed in the inner retina, primarily in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), nerve fiber layer, and optic nerve. CFP fluorescent cell bodies were in all retinal regions and their processes ramified in all laminae of the IPL. Some small, weakly CFP fluorescent somata were in the inner nuclear layer (INL). CFP-containing somata in the GCL ranged from 6 to 20 μm in diameter, and they had a density of 2636±347 cells/mm2 at 1.5 mm from the optic nerve head. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated colocalization of CFP with the ganglion cell markers NF-L, NeuN, Brn3a, and calretinin. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to HPC-1, GAD67, GAT-1, and ChAT indicated that the small, weakly fluorescent CFP cells in the INL and GCL were cholinergic amacrine cells. Conclusions The total number and density of CFP-fluorescent cells in the GCL were within the range of previous estimates of the total number of ganglion cells in the C57BL/6J line. Together these findings suggest that most ganglion cells in the thy1-CFP mouse line 23 express CFP. In conclusion, the thy1-CFP mouse line is highly useful for studies requiring the identification of ganglion cells. PMID:18728756

  6. Optical properties of retinal tissue and the potential of adaptive optics to visualize retinal ganglion cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Prasse, Martina; Rauscher, Franziska Georgia; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas; Francke, Mike

    2013-08-01

    Many efforts have been made to improve the diagnostic tools used to identify and to estimate the progress of ganglion cell and nerve fibre degeneration in glaucoma. Imaging by optical coherence tomography and measurements of the dimensions of the optic nerve head and the nerve fibre layer in central retinal areas is currently used to estimate the grade of pathological changes. The visualization and quantification of ganglion cells and nerve fibres directly in patients would dramatically improve glaucoma diagnostics. We have investigated the optical properties of cellular structures of retinal tissue in order to establish a means of visualizing and quantifying ganglion cells in the living retina without staining. We have characterized the optical properties of retinal tissue in several species including humans. Nerve fibres, blood vessels, ganglion cells and their cell processes have been visualized at high image resolution by means of the reflection mode of a confocal laser scanning microscope. The potential of adaptive optics in current imaging systems and the possibilities of imaging single ganglion cells non-invasively in patients are discussed.

  7. Horseradish peroxidase dye tracing and embryonic statoacoustic ganglion cell transplantation in the rat auditory nerve trunk.

    PubMed

    Palmgren, Björn; Jin, Zhe; Jiao, Yu; Kostyszyn, Beata; Olivius, Petri

    2011-03-04

    At present severe damage to hair cells and sensory neurons in the inner ear results in non-treatable auditory disorders. Cell implantation is a potential treatment for various neurological disorders and has already been used in clinical practice. In the inner ear, delivery of therapeutic substances including neurotrophic factors and stem cells provide strategies that in the future may ameliorate or restore hearing impairment. In order to describe a surgical auditory nerve trunk approach, in the present paper we injected the neuronal tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the central part of the nerve by an intra cranial approach. We further evaluated the applicability of the present approach by implanting statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) cells into the same location of the auditory nerve in normal hearing rats or animals deafened by application of β-bungarotoxin to the round window niche. The HRP results illustrate labeling in the cochlear nucleus in the brain stem as well as peripherally in the spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea. The transplanted SAGs were observed within the auditory nerve trunk but no more peripheral than the CNS-PNS transitional zone. Interestingly, the auditory nerve injection did not impair auditory function, as evidenced by the auditory brainstem response. The present findings illustrate that an auditory nerve trunk approach may well access the entire auditory nerve and does not compromise auditory function. We suggest that such an approach might compose a suitable route for cell transplantation into this sensory cranial nerve. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Eye Histology and Ganglion Cell Topography of Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Smodlaka, Hrvoje; Khamas, Wael A; Palmer, Lauren; Lui, Bryan; Borovac, Josip A; Cohn, Brian A; Schmitz, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Northern elephant seals are one of the deepest diving marine mammals. As northern elephant seals often reach the bathypelagic zone, it is usually assumed that their eyes possess evolutionary adaptations that provide better ability to see in dim or scotopic environments. The purpose of this study was to carefully describe anatomical and histological traits of the eye that may improve light sensitivity. Northern elephant seals have large, somewhat elliptical eyes, with equatorial and anteroposterior diameters of 5.03 and 4.4 cm, respectively. The cornea is large in diameter and the lens is completely spherical. The iris has pronounced constrictor and dilator muscles, whereas the ciliary muscle is notably less developed. The tapetum lucidum is more prominent than in other pinnipeds, making up about 63% of retinal thickness in the posterior aspect of the globe. Within the retina, the pigmented epithelium lacks pigment except for the region close to the ora serrata. Parts of the photoreceptor and outer nuclear layers are folded. Although the photoreceptor layer is composed predominantly of rods, cone photoreceptors were also observed. Cells within the retinal ganglion cell layer are arranged in a single level. Ganglion cells reach their maximum density (∼1,300 cells per mm(2) ) dorsal to the optic disc, whereas the periphery of the retina is sparsely populated (<100 cells per mm(2) ). All above mentioned features are consistent with the predicted evolutionary adaptations to the photic environment of the bathypelagic zone. Anat Rec, 299:798-805, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Somatic tetraploidy in specific chick retinal ganglion cells induced by nerve growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Sandra M.; Escoll, Pedro; de la Hera, Antonio; Frade, José M.

    2009-01-01

    A subset of neurons in the normal vertebrate nervous system contains double the normal amount of DNA in their nuclei. These neurons are all thought to derive from aberrant mitoses in neuronal precursor cells. Here we show that endogenous NGF induces DNA replication in a subpopulation of differentiating chick retinal ganglion cells that express both the neurotrophin receptor p75 and the E2F1 transcription factor, but that lack the retinoblastoma protein. Many of these neurons avoid G2/M transition and remain alive in the retina as tetraploid cells with large cell somas and extensive dendritic trees, and most of them express β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits, a specific marker of retinal ganglion cells innervating lamina F in the stratum-griseum-et-fibrosum-superficiale of the tectal cortex. Tetraploid neurons were also observed in the adult mouse retina. Thus, a developmental program leading to somatic tetraploidy in specific retinal neurons exists in vertebrates. This program might occur in other vertebrate neurons during normal or pathological situations. PMID:20018664

  10. Visual pattern discrimination by population retinal ganglion cells' activities during natural movie stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Ru-Bin; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2014-02-01

    In the visual system, neurons often fire in synchrony, and it is believed that synchronous activities of group neurons are more efficient than single cell response in transmitting neural signals to down-stream neurons. However, whether dynamic natural stimuli are encoded by dynamic spatiotemporal firing patterns of synchronous group neurons still needs to be investigated. In this paper we recorded the activities of population ganglion cells in bullfrog retina in response to time-varying natural images (natural scene movie) using multi-electrode arrays. In response to some different brief section pairs of the movie, synchronous groups of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) fired with similar but different spike events. We attempted to discriminate the movie sections based on temporal firing patterns of single cells and spatiotemporal firing patterns of the synchronous groups of RGCs characterized by a measurement of subsequence distribution discrepancy. The discrimination performance was assessed by a classification method based on Support Vector Machines. Our results show that different movie sections of the natural movie elicited reliable dynamic spatiotemporal activity patterns of the synchronous RGCs, which are more efficient in discriminating different movie sections than the temporal patterns of the single cells' spike events. These results suggest that, during natural vision, the down-stream neurons may decode the visual information from the dynamic spatiotemporal patterns of the synchronous group of RGCs' activities.

  11. Calpain Inhibition Attenuates Apoptosis of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Acute Optic Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amena W.; Das, Arabinda; Guyton, M. Kelly; Ray, Swapan K.; Rohrer, Baerbel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Optic neuritis (ON), inflammation of the optic nerve, is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and is initiated by the attack of autoreactive T cells against self-myelin antigens, resulting in demyelination, degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and cumulative visual impairment. Methods. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in Lewis rats on day 0, and animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of calpain inhibitor (calpeptin) or vehicle from day 1 until killed. Retinal cell death was analyzed by DNA fragmentation, and surviving ganglion cells were quantified after double labeling of retinal tissue with TUNEL and Brn3a. The expression of apoptotic and inflammatory proteins was determined by Western blotting. Results. It was demonstrated that calpain inhibition downregulates expression of proapoptotic proteins and the proinflammatory molecule nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the retina of Lewis rats with acute EAE. Immunofluorescent labeling revealed that apoptotic cells in the RGC layer of vehicle-treated EAE animals were Brn3a positive, and a moderate dose of calpeptin dramatically reduced the frequency of apoptotic RGCs. Conclusions. These results suggest that calpain inhibition might be a useful supplement to immunomodulatory therapies such as corticosteroids in ON, due to its neuroprotective effect on RGCs. PMID:21613375

  12. A method for electrophysiological characterization of hamster retinal ganglion cells using a high-density CMOS microelectrode array

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ian L.; Russell, Thomas L.; Farrow, Karl; Fiscella, Michele; Franke, Felix; Müller, Jan; Jäckel, David; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of neuronal cell types in the mammalian retina is important for the understanding of human retinal disease and the advancement of sight-restoring technology, such as retinal prosthetic devices. A somewhat less utilized animal model for retinal research is the hamster, which has a visual system that is characterized by an area centralis and a wide visual field with a broad binocular component. The hamster retina is optimally suited for recording on the microelectrode array (MEA), because it intrinsically lies flat on the MEA surface and yields robust, large-amplitude signals. However, information in the literature about hamster retinal ganglion cell functional types is scarce. The goal of our work is to develop a method featuring a high-density (HD) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) MEA technology along with a sequence of standardized visual stimuli in order to categorize ganglion cells in isolated Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) retina. Since the HD-MEA is capable of recording at a higher spatial resolution than most MEA systems (17.5 μm electrode pitch), we were able to record from a large proportion of RGCs within a selected region. Secondly, we chose our stimuli so that they could be run during the experiment without intervention or computation steps. The visual stimulus set was designed to activate the receptive fields of most ganglion cells in parallel and to incorporate various visual features to which different cell types respond uniquely. Based on the ganglion cell responses, basic cell properties were determined: direction selectivity, speed tuning, width tuning, transience, and latency. These properties were clustered to identify ganglion cell types in the hamster retina. Ultimately, we recorded up to a cell density of 2780 cells/mm2 at 2 mm (42°) from the optic nerve head. Using five parameters extracted from the responses to visual stimuli, we obtained seven ganglion cell types. PMID:26528115

  13. Isolation of rod and cone contributions to cat ganglion cells by a method of light exchange.

    PubMed

    Rodieck, R W; Rushton, W A

    1976-01-01

    1. The great majority of cat retinal ganglion cells are known to receive signals from rods and from a single (green) cone type. The centre region of the receptive fields of these cells was stimulated by a spot that changed back and forth from orange to white. By adjusting the intensity of the white spot relative to that of the orange a condition could be established at which the photon-catch rate of the rods remained unchanged during the orange-white exchange. At this intensity setting, termed the rod isolept, rods are thus unstimulated by the exchange, however intense, and the ganglion-cell response was found to be due entirely to the green cones. At another intensity setting of the white spot relative to the orange (cone isolept), the photon catch of the green cones remained unchanged during the exchange and ganglion-cell responses were found to arise entirely from the rods. 2. A neutral wedge in the combined exchange beam (but not in the steady background that covered the whole receptive field) regulated the size of the exchange stimulus and thus the magnitude of the ganglion-cell discharge heard from a loud speaker to the exchange. Exchange threshold was the wedge setting at which this change in firing rate could only just be heard. 3. At the cone isolept, cones remain unstimulated however intense the exchange stimulus, and the rod increment threshold curve was determined over its full range from absolute threshold up to saturation. Likewise, at the rod isolept, the cone increment threshold curve was determined over the same intensity range as for the rods. Rod saturation was found to occur at the point where the cone increment threshold curve began to rise from its absolute threshold level toward its Weber region. 4. The exchange approach also enabled both rod and cone dark-adaptation curves following a strong bleaching exposure to be obtained in the same experiment by moving successively between the cone and rod isolepts. At the cone isolept the time course

  14. Retinal ganglion cells in the Pacific redfin, Tribolodon brandtii dybowski, 1872: morphology and diversity.

    PubMed

    Pushchin, Igor; Karetin, Yuriy

    2014-04-15

    We studied the morphology and diversity of retinal ganglion cells in the Pacific redfin, Tribolodon brandtii. These cells were retrogradely labeled with horseradish peroxidase and examined in retinal whole mounts. A sample of 203 cells was drawn with a camera lucida. A total of 19 structural parameters were estimated for each cell, and a variety of clustering algorithms were used to classify the cells. The optimal solution was determined by using silhouette analysis. It was based on three variables associated with dendritic field size and dendrite stratification in the retina. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA-on-ranks with post hoc Mann-Whitney U tests showed significant pairwise between-cluster differences in two or more of the original variables. In total, eight cell types were discovered. The advantages and drawbacks of the methodology adopted are discussed. The present classification is compared with classifications proposed for other teleosts.

  15. Time-Lapse Retinal Ganglion Cell Dendritic Field Degeneration Imaged in Organotypic Retinal Explant Culture

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Thomas V.; Oglesby, Ericka N.; Steinhart, Matthew R.; Cone-Kimball, Elizabeth; Jefferys, Joan; Quigley, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop an ex vivo organotypic retinal explant culture system suitable for multiple time-point imaging of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendritic arbors over a period of 1 week, and capable of detecting dendrite neuroprotection conferred by experimental treatments. Methods Thy1-YFP mouse retinas were explanted and maintained in organotypic culture. Retinal ganglion cell dendritic arbors were imaged repeatedly using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Maximal projection z-stacks were traced by two masked investigators and dendritic fields were analyzed for characteristics including branch number, size, and complexity. One group of explants was treated with brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) added to the culture media. Changes in individual dendritic fields over time were detected using pair-wise comparison testing. Results Retinal ganglion cells in mouse retinal explant culture began to degenerate after 3 days with 52.4% surviving at 7 days. Dendritic field parameters showed minimal change over 8 hours in culture. Intra- and interobserver measurements of dendrite characteristics were strongly correlated (Spearman rank correlations consistently > 0.80). Statistically significant (P < 0.001) dendritic tree degeneration was detected following 7 days in culture including: 40% to 50% decreases in number of branch segments, number of junctions, number of terminal branches, and total branch length. Scholl analyses similarly demonstrated a significant decrease in dendritic field complexity. Treatment of explants with BDNF+CNTF significantly attenuated dendritic field degeneration. Conclusions Retinal explant culture of Thy1-YFP tissue provides a useful model for time-lapse imaging of RGC dendritic field degeneration over a course of several days, and is capable of detecting neuroprotective amelioration of dendritic pruning within individual RGCs. PMID:26811145

  16. Channelrhodopsin-2 gene transduced into retinal ganglion cells restores functional vision in genetically blind rats.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hiroshi; Sugano, Eriko; Isago, Hitomi; Hiroi, Teru; Wang, Zhuo; Ohta, Emi; Tamai, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that transduction of the channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) gene, a microbial-type rhodopsin gene, into retinal ganglion cells of genetically blind rats will restore functional vision, we recorded visually evoked potentials and tested the experimental rats for the presence of optomotor responses. The N-terminal fragment of the ChR2 gene was fused to the fluorescent protein Venus and inserted into an adeno-associated virus to make AAV2-ChR2V. AAV2-ChR2V was injected intravitreally into the eyes of 6-month-old dystrophic RCS (rdy/rdy) rats. Visual function was evaluated six weeks after the injection by recording visually evoked potentials (VEPs) and testing optomotor responses. The expression of ChR2V in the retina was investigated histologically. We found that VEPs could not be recorded from 6-month-old dystrophic RCS rats that had not been injected with AAV2-ChR2V. In contrast, VEPs were elicited from RCS rats six weeks after injection with AAV2-ChR2V. The VEPs were recorded at stimulation rates <20Hz, which was the same as that of normal rats. Optomotor responses were also significantly better after the AAV2-ChR2V injection. Expression of ChR2V was observed mainly in the retinal ganglion cells. These findings demonstrate that visual function can be restored in blind rats by transducing the ChR2V gene into retinal ganglion cells.

  17. Macular nerve fibre and ganglion cell layer changes in acute Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Nicole; Savini, Giacomo; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; La Morgia, Chiara; Triolo, Giacinto; Giglio, Rosa; Carbonelli, Michele; Parisi, Vincenzo; Sadun, Alfredo A; Bandello, Francesco; Carelli, Valerio; Barboni, Piero

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate longitudinal retinal ganglion cell inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) and macular retinal nerve fibre layer (mRNFL) thickness changes in acute Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Six eyes of four patients with LHON underwent SD-OCT (optical coherence tomography) at month 1, 3, 6 and 12 after visual loss. In two eyes, the examination was carried out in the presymptomatic stage. The relationship and curves for area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) were generated to assess the ability of each parameter to detect ganglion cell loss. Significant longitudinal thinning of GC-IPL and mRNFL was detected in LHON. GC-IPL thinning was detectable in the deviation map during the presymptomatic stage in the inner ring of the nasal sector and then it progressively extended following a centrifugal and spiral pattern. Similarly, mRNFL thinning began in the inferonasal sector and it progressively extended. No further statistically significant changes were detected after month 3. The highest level of AUROC values at 1 month were detected in the nasal sectors and inferonasal mRNFL thickness reached AUROC value=1. All the parameters were equally able to detect ganglion cell loss from month 2 to 12. The natural history of GC-IPL thinning follows a specific pattern of reduction, reflecting the anatomical course of papillomacular fibres. Month 6 represents the end of GC-IPL loss. GC-IPL and mRNFL thinning is detectable before onset of visual loss. These observations can help future therapeutic approaches for both LHON carriers at high risk of conversion and patients with acute early LHON. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Response variability to high rates of electric stimulation in retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Changsi; Ren, Qiushi; Desai, Neal J.; Rizzo, Joseph F.

    2011-01-01

    To improve the quality of prosthetic vision, it is important to understand how retinal neurons respond to electric stimulation. Previous studies present conflicting reports as to the maximum rate at which retinal ganglion cells can “follow” pulse trains, i.e., generate one spike for each pulse of the train. In the present study, we measured the response of 5 different types of rabbit retinal ganglion cells to pulse trains of 100–700 Hz. Surprisingly, we found significant heterogeneity in the ability of different types to follow pulse trains. For example, brisk transient (BT) ganglion cells could reliably follow pulse rates up to 600 pulses per second (PPS). In contrast, other types could not even follow rates of 200 PPS. There was additional heterogeneity in the response patterns across those types that could not follow high-rate trains. For example, some types generated action potentials in response to approximately every other pulse, whereas other types generated one spike per pulse for a few consecutive pulses and then did not generate any spikes in response to the next few pulses. Interestingly, in the types that could not follow high-rate trains, we found a second type of response: many pulses of the train elicited a biphasic waveform with an amplitude much smaller than that of standard action potentials. This small waveform was often observed following every pulse for which a standard spike was not elicited. A possible origin of the small waveform and its implication for effective retinal stimulation are discussed. PMID:21490287

  19. Schwann cells promote the survival of rat retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve section.

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, L; Carmignoto, G; Perry, V H; Candeo, P; Ferrari, G

    1990-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) are known to play an important role for the regeneration of mammalian peripheral nerves. Their effect is likely due to the production of neuronotrophic and/or supportive factors. Here we study the effect of intraocular transplant of SCs on the survival of rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after the intracranial section of the optic nerve. SCs were injected intraocularly in adult hooded rats. Surviving RGCs were retrogradely labeled with horseradish peroxidase applied to the proximal stump of the optic nerve. Results show that intraocular transplants of SCs promote the survival of a large number of RGCs for periods as long as 9 and 14 weeks after optic nerve section. In experimental retinae, surviving RGCs were 2- to 8-fold more numerous than in controls. This finding suggests that SCs are the source of factors that promote the survival of RGCs. Nerve growth factor is produced by SCs, and the intraocular injection of nerve growth factor has been previously shown to promote RGC survival. The rescuing effect of SCs on RGCs is greater than that obtained by intraocular injection of nerve growth factor. This greater effect may be due to the action of other neurotrophic factors produced by SCs or by transplanted SCs producing NGF in a sustained fashion. Images PMID:2308946

  20. FK962 induces neurite outgrowth in cultured monkey trigeminal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Emi; Walkup, Ryan D; Shearer, Thomas R; Azuma, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Corneal sensation, cell proliferation, and wound healing all depend on adequate corneal innervation. Disruption of corneal innervation can lead to dry eye and delayed wound healing. Our studies in rats and rabbits show that the substituted fluorobenzamide drug FK962 accelerates the extension of neuronal processes and recovery of corneal sensitivity. The purpose of the present study was 1) to determine whether FK962 induces sprouting and elongation of neurites in cultured monkey trigeminal ganglion cells, and 2) to investigate the involvement of the neurotrophic peptide GDNF in FK962-induced neurite elongation. Dissociated, cultured trigeminal ganglion cells, containing neuronal and Schwann cells were cultured for 48 h with or without FK962. Neuronal elongation was evaluated by immunostaining with a neurofilament-specific antibody. Culture with or without GDNF, or with antibody against GDNF, was used to determine the role of GDNF in FK962-induced neurite elongation. FK962 or GDNF were found to significantly induce neurite elongation. The GDNF antibody significantly inhibited elongation induced by FK962. GDNF was found to be a mediator of FK962-induced neurite elongation in a relevant primate model. FK962 may be a candidate drug for treatment of neurotrophic disorders in the human cornea.

  1. Upregulation of Gem relates to retinal ganglion cells apoptosis after optic nerve crush in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Huang, Hui; Wu, Yu; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Li; Chen, Lifei; Zeng, Siming; Li, Li; Li, Min

    2014-10-01

    GTP-binding protein Gem, a member protein of the Ras superfamily, can regulate actin cytoskeleton reorganization mediated by Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK). One attractive activity of the ROCK is playing a potential role in physiological and pathological process in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) apoptosis. However, the function of Gem in retina is still with limited understanding. To investigate whether Gem is involved in optic nerve injury, we performed an optic nerve crush (ONC) model in adult rats. Western blot analysis indicated that Gem was significantly increased in the retina at the 3rd day after ONC. Meanwhile, double-immunofluorescent staining showed that Gem expression was mainly up-regulated in ganglion cell layer and co-localized with NeuN (a marker of RGCs). Additionally, the co-localizations of Gem/active-caspase-3 and Gem/TUNEL-positive cells were detected in RGCs. Furthermore, the expression of active-caspase-3 and TUNEL-positive cells was parallel with that of Gem. Finally, expression pattern of ROCK family (only ROCK2 but not ROCK1) was increased in the differentiated process, which was collected with the expression of GEM and active-caspase-3. Based on the present results, it is suggested that Gem might play a crucial role in RGCs apoptosis after ONC, which might be involved in ROCK pathway.

  2. Retinal Ganglion Cell Topography of Five Species of Ground-Foraging Birds

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Tracy; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Birds that forage on the ground have been studied extensively in relation to behavioral trade-offs between foraging and scanning for predators; however, we know little about the topography of their retinas, which can influence how they gather visual information. We characterized the density of retinal ganglion cells across the retina and estimated visual acuity of four Passeriformes (European starling Sturnus vulgaris, brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater, house sparrow Passer domesticus, house finch Carpodacus mexicanus) and one Columbiforme (mourning dove Zenaida macroura) that forage on the ground. We used cresyl violet to stain retinal ganglion cells and estimated visual acuity based on cell density and eye size. All species contained a single area centralis, where cell densities were >20,000 cells/mm2. The proportion of the retina that fell in each of five cell density ranges varied between species. European starlings and house finches had the largest area of high cell density, mourning doves had the smallest. The largest proportion of the retina (>35%) of brown-headed cowbird and house sparrow was in the second-lowest cell density range. Considering the 25th percentile of highest cell densities, house finches and European starlings showed the highest cell densities and mourning doves the lowest. Estimated visual acuity increased from house finch, house sparrow, brown-headed cowbird, European starling to mourning dove, and was associated with both retinal area and cell density. Our findings suggest that these ground foragers do not have highly specialized retinas in relation to other types of foragers (e.g. tree foragers), probably because foraging on seeds and insects from the ground is not as visually demanding; however, the studied species showed variability in retinal topography that may be related to foraging techniques, eye size constraints, and size of the area centralis. PMID:20516656

  3. Mechanisms by which cell geometry controls repetitive impulse firing in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Fohlmeister, J F; Miller, R F

    1997-10-01

    Models for generating repetitive impulse activity were developed based on multicompartmental representations of ganglion cell morphology in the amphibian retina. Each model includes five nonlinear ion channels and one linear (leakage) channel. Compartmental distribution of ion channel type and density was designed to simulate whole cell recording experiments carried out in the intact retina-eyecup preparation. Correspondence between the model and physiology emphasized channel-specific details in the impulse waveform, based on phase plot analysis, frequency versus current (F/I) properties, and interspike trajectories for current injected into the soma, as well as the ability to conduct impulses in both orthodromic and antidromic directions. Two general types of model are developed, including equivalent cylinder representations and more realistic compartmentalizations of dendritic morphology. These multicompartmental models include representations for dendritic trees, soma, axon hillock, a thin axonal segment, and axon distal to thin segment. A large number of compartments (Cell geometry, including the thin axonal segment, places significant constraints on the location of ion channels required to support impulse initiation and propagation in both the ortho- and antidromic directions. The site of

  4. Connexin43 mimetic peptide reduces vascular leak and retinal ganglion cell death following retinal ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Kerr, Nathan M; Zhang, Jie; Eady, Elizabeth K; O'Carroll, Simon J; Nicholson, Louise F B; Johnson, Cameron S; Green, Colin R

    2012-02-01

    Connexin43 gap junction protein is expressed in astrocytes and the vascular endothelium in the central nervous system. It is upregulated following central nervous system injury and is recognized as playing an important role in modulating the extent of damage. Studies that have transiently blocked connexin43 in spinal cord injury and central nervous system epileptic models have reported neuronal rescue. The purpose of this study was to investigate neuronal rescue following retinal ischaemia-reperfusion by transiently blocking connexin43 activity using a connexin43 mimetic peptide. A further aim was to evaluate the effect of transiently blocking connexin43 on vascular permeability as this is known to increase following central nervous system ischaemia. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to 60 min of retinal ischaemia. Treatment groups consisted of no treatment, connexin43 mimetic peptide and scrambled peptide. Retinas were then evaluated at 1-2, 4, 8 and 24 h, and 7 and 21 days post-ischaemia. Evans blue dye leak from retinal blood vessels was used to assess vascular leakage. Blood vessel integrity was examined using isolectin-B4 labelling. Connexin43 levels and astrocyte activation (glial fibrillary acidic protein) were assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Retinal whole mounts and retinal ganglion cell counts were used to quantify neurodegeneration. An in vitro cell culture model of endothelial cell ischaemia was used to assess the effect of connexin43 mimetic peptide on endothelial cell survival and connexin43 hemichannel opening using propidium iodide dye uptake. We found that retinal ischaemia-reperfusion induced significant vascular leakage and disruption at 1-2, 4 and 24 h following injury with a peak at 4 h. Connexin43 immunoreactivity was significantly increased at 1-2, 4, 8 and 24 h post ischaemia-reperfusion injury co-localizing with activated astrocytes, Muller cells and vascular endothelial cells. Connexin43 mimetic peptide

  5. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated stimulation of retinal ganglion cell photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Puneet; Hartwick, Andrew T E

    2016-09-01

    Melanopsin-dependent phototransduction in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) involves a Gq-coupled phospholipase C (PLC) signaling cascade. Acetylcholine, released in the mammalian retina by starburst amacrine cells, can also activate Gq-PLC pathways through certain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Using multielectrode array recordings of rat retinas, we demonstrate that robust spiking responses can be evoked in neonatal and adult ipRGCs after bath application of the muscarinic agonist carbachol. The stimulatory action of carbachol on ipRGCs was a direct effect, as confirmed through calcium imaging experiments on isolated ipRGCs in purified cultures. Using flickering (6 Hz) yellow light stimuli at irradiances below the threshold for melanopsin activation, spiking responses could be elicited in ipRGCs that were suppressed by mAChR antagonism. Therefore, this work identified a novel melanopsin-independent pathway for stimulating sustained spiking in ganglion cell photoreceptors. This mAChR-mediated pathway could enhance ipRGC spiking responses in conditions known to evoke retinal acetylcholine release, such as those involving flickering or moving visual stimuli. Furthermore, this work identifies a pharmacological approach for light-independent ipRGC stimulation that could be targeted by mAChR agonists.

  6. THE INJURY RESISTANT ABILITY OF MELANOPSIN-EXPRESSING INTRINSICALLY PHOTOSENSITIVE RETINAL GANGLION CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Q.; Ren, C.; Sollars, P. J.; Pickard, G. E.; So, K.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons in the mammalian retina expressing the photopigment melanopsin have been identified as a class of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). This discovery more than a decade ago has opened up an exciting new field of retinal research, and following the initial identification of photosensitive ganglion cells, several subtypes have been described. A number of studies have shown that ipRGCs subserve photoentrainment of circadian rhythms. They also influence other non-image forming functions of the visual system, such as the pupillary light reflex, sleep, cognition, mood, light aversion and development of the retina. These novel photosensitive neurons also influence form vision by contributing to contrast detection. Furthermore, studies have shown that ipRGCs are more injury-resistant following optic nerve injury, in animal models of glaucoma, and in patients with mitochondrial optic neuropathies, i.e., Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy and dominant optic atrophy. There is also an indication that these cells may be resistant to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Herein we provide an overview of ipRGCs and discuss the injury-resistant character of these neurons under certain pathological and experimental conditions. PMID:25446359

  7. The RNA binding protein RBPMS is a selective marker of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Allen R.; de Sevilla Müller, Luis Pérez; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    There are few neurochemical markers that reliably identify retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which are a heterogeneous population of cells that integrate and transmit the visual signal from the retina to the central visual nuclei. We have developed and characterized a new set of affinity purified guinea pig and rabbit antibodies against RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS). On Western blots these antibodies recognize a single band at ~24 kDa, corresponding to RBPMS, and they strongly label RGC and displaced RGC (dRGC) somata in mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit and monkey retina. RBPMS immunoreactive cells and RGCs identified by other techniques have a similar range of somal diameters and areas. The density of RBPMS cells in mouse and rat retina is comparable to earlier semi-quantitative estimates of RGCs. RBPMS is mainly expressed in medium and large DAPI-, DRAQ5-, NeuroTrace- and NeuN-stained cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL), and RBPMS is not expressed in syntaxin (HPC-1) immunoreactive cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and GCL, consistent with their identity as RGCs, and not displaced amacrine cells. In mouse and rat retina, most RBPMS cells are lost following optic nerve crush or transection at three weeks, and all Brn3a, SMI-32 and melanopsin immunoreactive RGCs also express RBPMS immunoreactivity. RBPMS immunoreactivity is localized to CFP-fluorescent RGCs in the B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-CFP)23Jrs/J mouse line. These findings show that antibodies against RBPMS are robust reagents that exclusively identify RGCs and dRGCs in multiple mammalian species, and they will be especially useful for quantification of RGCs. PMID:24318667

  8. The physiological basis of heterochromatic flicker photometry demonstrated in the ganglion cells of the macaque retina.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, B B; Martin, P R; Valberg, A

    1988-01-01

    1. Heterochromatic flicker photometry is a way of measuring the spectral sensitivity of the human eye. Two lights of different colour are sinusoidally alternated at, typically, 10-20 Hz, and their relative intensities adjusted by the observer until the sensation of flicker is minimized. This technique has been used to define the human photopic luminosity, or V lambda, function on which photometry is based. 2. We have studied the responses of macaque retinal ganglion cells using this stimulus paradigm. The responses of the phasic ganglion cells go through a minimum at relative radiances very similar to that predicted from the V lambda function. At this point, defined as equal luminance, an abrupt change in response phase was observed. A small residual response at twice the flicker frequency was apparent under some conditions. 3. The spectral sensitivity of parafoveal phasic cells measured in this way corresponded very closely to that of human observers minimizing flicker on the same apparatus. 4. Minima in phasic cell activity were independent of flicker frequency, as is the case in the psychophysical task. 5. The response minima of phasic cells obey the laws of additivity and transitivity which are important characteristics of heterochromatic flicker photometry. 6. As the relative intensities of the lights were altered responses of tonic, spectrally opponent cells usually underwent a gradual phase change with vigorous responses at equal luminance. The responses of tonic cells treated individually or as a population could not be related to the V lambda function in any meaningful way. 7. We conclude that the phasic, magnocellular cell system of the primate visual pathway underlies performance in the psychophysical task of heterochromatic flicker photometry. It is likely that other tasks in which spectral sensitivity conforms to the V lambda function also rely on this cell system. PMID:3253435

  9. Primary culture of glial cells from mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion: a valuable tool for studying glial cell biology.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves

    2010-12-15

    Central nervous system glial cells as astrocytes and microglia have been investigated in vitro and many intracellular pathways have been clarified upon various stimuli. Peripheral glial cells, however, are not as deeply investigated in vitro despite its importance role in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Based on our previous experience of culturing neuronal cells, our objective was to standardize and morphologically characterize a primary culture of mouse superior cervical ganglion glial cells in order to obtain a useful tool to study peripheral glial cell biology. Superior cervical ganglia from neonatal C57BL6 mice were enzymatically and mechanically dissociated and cells were plated on diluted Matrigel coated wells in a final concentration of 10,000cells/well. Five to 8 days post plating, glial cell cultures were fixed for morphological and immunocytochemical characterization. Glial cells showed a flat and irregular shape, two or three long cytoplasm processes, and round, oval or long shaped nuclei, with regular outline. Cell proliferation and mitosis were detected both qualitative and quantitatively. Glial cells were able to maintain their phenotype in our culture model including immunoreactivity against glial cell marker GFAP. This is the first description of immunocytochemical characterization of mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion glial cells in primary culture. This work discusses the uses and limitations of our model as a tool to study many aspects of peripheral glial cell biology.

  10. Imaging light responses of retinal ganglion cells in the living mouse eye

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lu; Geng, Ying; Osakada, Fumitaka; Sharma, Robin; Cetin, Ali H.; Callaway, Edward M.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports development of a novel method for high-resolution in vivo imaging of the function of individual mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that overcomes many limitations of available methods for recording RGC physiology. The technique combines insertion of a genetically encoded calcium indicator into RGCs with imaging of calcium responses over many days with FACILE (functional adaptive optics cellular imaging in the living eye). FACILE extends the most common method for RGC physiology, in vitro physiology, by allowing repeated imaging of the function of each cell over many sessions and by avoiding damage to the retina during removal from the eye. This makes it possible to track changes in the response of individual cells during morphological development or degeneration. FACILE also overcomes limitations of existing in vivo imaging methods, providing fine spatial and temporal detail, structure-function comparison, and simultaneous analysis of multiple cells. PMID:23407356

  11. Glutamate release from satellite glial cells of the murine trigeminal ganglion.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Lysann; Warwick, Rebekah A; Pannicke, Thomas; Reichenbach, Andreas; Grosche, Antje; Hanani, Menachem

    2014-08-22

    It has been proposed that glutamate serves as a mediator between neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia and that SGCs release glutamate. Using a novel method, we studied glutamate release from SGCs from murine trigeminal ganglia. Sensory neurons with adhering SGCs were enzymatically isolated from wild type and transgenic mice in which vesicular exocytosis was suppressed in glial cells. Extracellular glutamate was detected by microfluorimetry. After loading the cells with a photolabile Ca(2+) chelator, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was raised in SGCs by a UV pulse, which resulted in glutamate release. The amount of released glutamate was decreased in cells with suppressed exocytosis and after pharmacological block of hemichannels. The data demonstrate that SGCs of the trigeminal ganglion release glutamate in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative ultrastructural observations on retinal ganglion cell layer of rat after intraorbital optic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Barron, K D; Dentinger, M P; Krohel, G; Easton, S K; Mankes, R

    1986-06-01

    Rat retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) was examined ultrastructurally 1-180 days after intraorbital crushing of one optic nerve. It was confirmed quantitatively that axotomized ganglion cells lost cisternal membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and showed disintegration of Nissl bodies and ribosomal rosettes 3 days postoperatively. Between 60 and 180 days after neurotomy there was partial reversion of the RER towards normal. At postoperative intervals of 14-60 days, chromatin aggregation became conspicuous and some nuclei were prominently furrowed and contained electron-dense inclusions. Concurrently, profiles of dead ganglion cells were encountered. Mean mitochondrial area increased in axotomized neurons but mitochondrial density declined, while the Golgi apparatus, lamellar specializations of the RER and the size of nuclei did not change significantly. Cytoplasmic atrophy was profound, however. Small nerve cells of the GCL appeared morphologically distinct from ganglion cells and did not undergo appreciable alteration. A decline in neuronal density, approximating 35%, occurred between the third and seventh postoperative day and progressed slowly thereafter. Neuronal density was 32% of normal 180 days postoperatively. A temporary increase in glial density 3-28 days after operation was due to microglial hyperplasia. Müller cell and astrocytic processes hypertrophied, infiltrated nerve fibre bundles, and surrounded and intruded into neuronal somata. Bundles of unmyelinated small axons, invested by astrocytes and basal lamina, were present within the necrotic cavity of the lesioned nerve 28-90 days postoperatively and had cytologic features of regenerative axonal sprouts. We conclude that intraorbital optic nerve crush is followed by a noteworthy degree of regenerative axonal sprouting which occurs and persists against a background of slow but relentless decline in the retinal ganglion cell population. This slow decline follows a rapidly-sustained loss

  13. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules on adult stem cells after neuronal differentiation of inner ear spiral ganglion neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kyoung Ho; Yeo, Sang Won; Troy, Frederic A.

    2014-10-17

    Highlights: • PolySia expressed on neurons primarily during early stages of neuronal development. • PolySia–NCAM is expressed on neural stem cells from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion. • PolySia is a biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. - Abstract: During brain development, polysialylated (polySia) neural cell adhesion molecules (polySia–NCAMs) modulate cell–cell adhesive interactions involved in synaptogenesis, neural plasticity, myelination, and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. Our findings show that polySia–NCAM is expressed on NSC isolated from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion (GPSG), and in neurons and Schwann cells after differentiation of the NSC with epidermal, glia, fibroblast growth factors (GFs) and neurotrophins. These differentiated cells were immunoreactive with mAb’s to polySia, NCAM, β-III tubulin, nestin, S-100 and stained with BrdU. NSC could regenerate and be differentiated into neurons and Schwann cells. We conclude: (1) polySia is expressed on NSC isolated from adult GPSG and on neurons and Schwann cells differentiated from these NSC; (2) polySia is expressed on neurons primarily during the early stage of neuronal development and is expressed on Schwann cells at points of cell–cell contact; (3) polySia is a functional biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. These new findings suggest that replacement of defective cells in the inner ear of hearing impaired patients using adult spiral ganglion neurons may offer potential hope to improve the quality of life for patients with auditory dysfunction and impaired hearing disorders.

  14. Different types of ganglion cell in the cardiac plexus of guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, F R; Hirst, G D; Klemm, M F; Steele, P A

    1995-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from the parasympathetic ganglion cells that lie in the epicardium of the left atrium of guinea-pig heart near the interatrial septum. 2. Three distinct types of neurone were identified on the basis of their electrophysiological properties. In one group of neurones, S cells, somatic action potentials were followed by brief after-hyperpolarizations. In the other two sets of neurones, somatic action potentials were followed by prolonged after-hyperpolarizations. The neurones with prominent after-hyperpolarization were further subdivided: one group of neurones, P cells, showed inward rectification at membrane potentials near the resting membrane potential whilst neurones in the other group, SAH cells, did so only at more negative potentials. 3. In the group of neurones that displayed inward rectification at potentials near rest, rectification resulted from the activation of an inward current, which resembled the hyperpolarization-activated inward current present in cardiac muscle pacemaker cells. 4. The three different types of neurone received different patterns of synaptic input. Each SAH cell received a synaptic excitatory connection from the vagus which in most cells released sufficient transmitter to initiate an action potential in that cell; several SAH cells also received a separate connection, which could be activated by local stimulation. Although most S cells failed to receive a synaptic input from the vagus, all of those tested received an excitatory synaptic input which could be activated by local stimulation. Virtually all P cells failed to receive a synaptic input from the vagus; in addition, local stimulation failed to initiate synaptic potentials in P cells. 5. When the structure of cardiac ganglion cells was determined, by loading the cells with either biocytin or neurobiotin, it was found that most cells lacked extensive dendritic processes. S cells were invariably monopolar, most P cells were dipolar or

  15. Loss of Melanopsin-Expressing Ganglion Cell Subtypes and Dendritic Degeneration in the Aging Human Retina

    PubMed Central

    Esquiva, Gema; Lax, Pedro; Pérez-Santonja, Juan J.; García-Fernández, José M.; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are, among other things, involved in several non-image-forming visual functions, including light entrainment of circadian rhythms. Considering the profound impact of aging on visual function and ophthalmic diseases, here we evaluate changes in mRGCs throughout the life span in humans. In 24 post-mortem retinas from anonymous human donors aged 10–81 years, we assessed the distribution, number and morphology of mRGCs by immunostaining vertical retinal sections and whole-mount retinas with antibodies against melanopsin. Human retinas showed melanopsin immunoreactivity in the cell body, axon and dendrites of a subset of ganglion cells at all ages tested. Nearly half of the mRGCs (51%) were located within the ganglion cell layer (GCL), and stratified in the outer (M1, 12%) or inner (M2, 16%) margin of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) or in both plexuses (M3, 23%). M1 and M2 cells conformed fairly irregular mosaics, while M3 cell distribution was slightly more regular. The rest of the mRGCs were more regularly arranged in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and stratified in the outer margin of the IPL (M1d, 49%). The quantity of each cell type decrease after age 70, when the total number of mRGCs was 31% lower than in donors aged 30–50 years. Moreover, in retinas with an age greater than 50 years, mRGCs evidenced a decrease in the dendritic area that was both progressive and age-dependent, as well as fewer branch points and terminal neurite tips per cell and a smaller Sholl area. After 70 years of age, the distribution profile of the mRGCs was closer to a random pattern than was observed in younger retinas. We conclude that advanced age is associated with a loss in density and dendritic arborization of the mRGCs in human retinas, possibly accounting for the more frequent occurrence of circadian rhythm disorders in elderly persons. PMID:28420980

  16. Loss of Melanopsin-Expressing Ganglion Cell Subtypes and Dendritic Degeneration in the Aging Human Retina.

    PubMed

    Esquiva, Gema; Lax, Pedro; Pérez-Santonja, Juan J; García-Fernández, José M; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are, among other things, involved in several non-image-forming visual functions, including light entrainment of circadian rhythms. Considering the profound impact of aging on visual function and ophthalmic diseases, here we evaluate changes in mRGCs throughout the life span in humans. In 24 post-mortem retinas from anonymous human donors aged 10-81 years, we assessed the distribution, number and morphology of mRGCs by immunostaining vertical retinal sections and whole-mount retinas with antibodies against melanopsin. Human retinas showed melanopsin immunoreactivity in the cell body, axon and dendrites of a subset of ganglion cells at all ages tested. Nearly half of the mRGCs (51%) were located within the ganglion cell layer (GCL), and stratified in the outer (M1, 12%) or inner (M2, 16%) margin of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) or in both plexuses (M3, 23%). M1 and M2 cells conformed fairly irregular mosaics, while M3 cell distribution was slightly more regular. The rest of the mRGCs were more regularly arranged in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and stratified in the outer margin of the IPL (M1d, 49%). The quantity of each cell type decrease after age 70, when the total number of mRGCs was 31% lower than in donors aged 30-50 years. Moreover, in retinas with an age greater than 50 years, mRGCs evidenced a decrease in the dendritic area that was both progressive and age-dependent, as well as fewer branch points and terminal neurite tips per cell and a smaller Sholl area. After 70 years of age, the distribution profile of the mRGCs was closer to a random pattern than was observed in younger retinas. We conclude that advanced age is associated with a loss in density and dendritic arborization of the mRGCs in human retinas, possibly accounting for the more frequent occurrence of circadian rhythm disorders in elderly persons.

  17. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules on adult stem cells after neuronal differentiation of inner ear spiral ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung Ho; Yeo, Sang Won; Troy, Frederic A

    2014-10-17

    During brain development, polysialylated (polySia) neural cell adhesion molecules (polySia-NCAMs) modulate cell-cell adhesive interactions involved in synaptogenesis, neural plasticity, myelination, and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. Our findings show that polySia-NCAM is expressed on NSC isolated from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion (GPSG), and in neurons and Schwann cells after differentiation of the NSC with epidermal, glia, fibroblast growth factors (GFs) and neurotrophins. These differentiated cells were immunoreactive with mAb's to polySia, NCAM, β-III tubulin, nestin, S-100 and stained with BrdU. NSC could regenerate and be differentiated into neurons and Schwann cells. We conclude: (1) polySia is expressed on NSC isolated from adult GPSG and on neurons and Schwann cells differentiated from these NSC; (2) polySia is expressed on neurons primarily during the early stage of neuronal development and is expressed on Schwann cells at points of cell-cell contact; (3) polySia is a functional biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. These new findings suggest that replacement of defective cells in the inner ear of hearing impaired patients using adult spiral ganglion neurons may offer potential hope to improve the quality of life for patients with auditory dysfunction and impaired hearing disorders.

  18. Hyperpolarization of rabbit superior cervical ganglion cells due to activity of an electrogenic sodium pump

    PubMed Central

    Lees, G.M.; Wallis, D.I.

    1974-01-01

    1 The mechanisms underlying the hyperpolarization which follows depolarization of rabbit superior cervical ganglion cells by acetylcholine, have been investigated and compared with the mechanisms responsible for the hyperpolarizations induced by orthodromic stimulation of the ganglion. 2 The amplitude of the drug-induced hyperpolarization (after-hyperpolarization) was diminished when [Na+]0 and the duration of the preceding depolarization were reduced. 3 In K+-free solutions, the amplitude of the after-hyperpolarization was often diminished and its rate of development was reduced. In 12.5 mM K+-Krebs solutions, the amplitude and rate of development of the after-hyperpolarization were increased; the potential was still present when the resting potential was at or close to EK. 4 Ouabain (10 μM) prevented or greatly diminished the after-hyperpolarization. The rates of onset and decay of the after-hyperpolarization were reduced in glucose-free solutions. 5 It is, therefore, concluded that the after-hypolarization is due to the activity of an electrogenic sodium pump. 6 The positive after-potential associated with the ganglionic action potential was increased in K+-free solutions and diminished when the resting potential approached EK, indicating that it is due to a period of increased K+ conductance. In the presence of high concentrations of hexamethonium (276 μM), the P wave was not selectively depressed by ouabain and has been shown by other workers to be due to a mechanism not involving an increased potassium conductance. It is concluded, therefore, that the positive after-potential, the P wave and the after-hyperpolarization are due to different mechanisms. PMID:4823465

  19. Regional correlation among ganglion cell complex, nerve fiber layer, and visual field loss in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Le, Phuc V; Tan, Ou; Chopra, Vikas; Francis, Brian A; Ragab, Omar; Varma, Rohit; Huang, David

    2013-06-21

    To analyze the relationship among macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, peripapillary nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness, and visual field (VF) defects in patients with glaucoma. A Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system was used to map the macula and peripapillary regions of the retina in 56 eyes of 38 patients with perimetric glaucoma. The macular GCC and peripapillary NFL thicknesses were mapped and standard automated perimetry (SAP) was performed. Loss of GCC and NFL were correlated with the VF map on both a point-by-point and regional basis. Correlation between GCC thickness and peripapillary NFL thickness produced a detailed correspondence map that demonstrates the arcuate course of the NFL in the macula. Corresponding regions within the GCC, NFL, and VF maps demonstrate significant correlation, once parafoveal retinal ganglion cell (RGC) displacement is taken into account. There are significant point-specific and regional correlations between GCC loss, NFL loss, and deficits on SAP. Using these different data sources together may improve our understanding of glaucomatous damage and aid in the management of patients with glaucoma.

  20. Regional Correlation Among Ganglion Cell Complex, Nerve Fiber Layer, and Visual Field Loss in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Le, Phuc V.; Tan, Ou; Chopra, Vikas; Francis, Brian A.; Ragab, Omar; Varma, Rohit; Huang, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze the relationship among macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, peripapillary nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness, and visual field (VF) defects in patients with glaucoma. Methods. A Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system was used to map the macula and peripapillary regions of the retina in 56 eyes of 38 patients with perimetric glaucoma. The macular GCC and peripapillary NFL thicknesses were mapped and standard automated perimetry (SAP) was performed. Loss of GCC and NFL were correlated with the VF map on both a point-by-point and regional basis. Results. Correlation between GCC thickness and peripapillary NFL thickness produced a detailed correspondence map that demonstrates the arcuate course of the NFL in the macula. Corresponding regions within the GCC, NFL, and VF maps demonstrate significant correlation, once parafoveal retinal ganglion cell (RGC) displacement is taken into account. Conclusions. There are significant point-specific and regional correlations between GCC loss, NFL loss, and deficits on SAP. Using these different data sources together may improve our understanding of glaucomatous damage and aid in the management of patients with glaucoma. PMID:23716631

  1. Assessment of macular ganglion cell loss patterns in neurologic lesions that mimic glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Shon, Kilhwan; Sung, Kyung Rim

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate patterns of macular retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients with neurologic lesions mimicking glaucoma. We evaluated four patients with neurological lesions who showed characteristic patterns of RGC loss, as determined by ganglion cell thickness (GCT) mapping. Case 1 was a 30-year-old man who had been treated with glaucoma medication. A left homonymous vertical pattern of RGC loss was observed in his GCT map and a past brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a hemorrhagic lesion around the right optic radiation. Case 2 was a 72-year-old man with a pituitary adenoma who had a binasal vertical pattern of RGC loss that corresponded with bitemporal hemianopsia. Case 3 was a 77-year-old man treated for suspected glaucoma. His GCT map showed a right inferior quadratic pattern of loss, indicating a right superior homonymous quadranopsia in his visual field (VF). His brain MRI revealed a left posterior cerebral artery territory infarct. Case 4 was a 38-year-old woman with an unreliable VF who was referred for suspected glaucoma. Her GCT map revealed a left homonymous vertical pattern of RGC loss, which may have been related to a previous head trauma. Evaluation of the patterns of macular RGC loss may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of RGC-related diseases, including glaucoma and neurologic lesions. When a patient's VF is unavailable, this method may be an effective tool for diagnosing and monitoring transneuronal retrograde degeneration-related structural changes.

  2. Assessment of optic disc and ganglion cell layer in diabetes mellitus type 2

    PubMed Central

    Pekel, Evre; Tufaner, Gökhan; Kaya, Hüseyin; Kaşıkçı, Alper; Deda, Gökhan; Pekel, Gökhan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the optic disc parameters, retinal nerve fiber (RNFL), and macular ganglion cell layers between patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 and healthy controls. In this cross-sectional study, 69 eyes of 69 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy and 47 eyes of 47 healthy controls were included. Optic disc parameters (i.e., rim area, disc area, cup to disc ratio, cup volume), RNFL, and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layers (GCL + IPL) thickness were measured by means of spectral domain optical coherence tomography. There were not statistically significant differences between the diabetic patients and healthy controls in terms of RNFL thickness (P = .32), rim area (P = .20), disc area (P = .16), cup volume (P = .12), and average macular GCL + IPL thickness (P = .11). Nevertheless, binocular RNFL thickness symmetry percentage (P =.03), average cup to disc ratio (P = .02), and superior-nasal macular GCL + IPL thickness (P = .04) were statistically significantly different in the diabetic and control groups. Diabetic patients without retinopathy have more binocular RNFL thickness asymmetry, higher cup to disc ratio, and thinner sectoral macular GCL + IPL when compared to healthy controls. Our results may support the statement that DM causes inner retinal neurodegenerative changes. PMID:28723781

  3. Reciprocal signaling between spiral ganglion neurons and Schwann cells involves neuregulin and neurotrophins.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M R; Vijapurkar, U; Koland, J G; Green, S H

    2001-11-01

    To investigate the role of neuron-glial cell interactions in the auditory nerve, we asked whether spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) express neuregulin and whether neuregulin regulates proliferation and/or neurotrophin expression in spiral ganglion Schwann cells (SGSCs). Using immunocytochemistry, we found that type I and type II SGNs express neuregulin in vivo and in vitro. Cultured SGSCs express the neuregulin receptors ErbB2 and ErbB3, but not ErbB4. Neuregulin activates ErbB2 and ErbB3 in cultured SGSCs, evidenced by increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptors following neuregulin treatment. Neuregulin treatment increased the proliferation rate of cultured SGSCs by 2.5-fold. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) also increased SGSC proliferation. The mitogenic effect of neuregulin and FGF-2 was blocked by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling but not by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3'-OH kinase. Using RT-PCR, we found that cultured SGSCs express neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), raising the possibility that SGSCs contribute to the trophic support of SGNs. Treatment with neither neuregulin nor TGF-beta increased neurotrophin expression in cultured SGSCs, as had been observed in developing sympathetic ganglia, but appeared to negatively regulate NT-3 expression. Thus, neuregulin and neurotrophins may mediate reciprocal neuron-glial interactions in the auditory nerve.

  4. The sodium channel band shapes the response to electric stimulation in retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, J; Tang, S; Molnar, A; Desai, N J; Fried, S I

    2011-01-01

    To improve the quality of prosthetic vision, it is desirable to understand how targeted retinal neurons respond to stimulation. Unfortunately, the factors that shape the response of a single neuron to stimulation are not well understood. A dense band of voltage gated sodium channels within the proximal axon of retinal ganglion cells is the site most sensitive to electric stimulation, suggesting that band properties are likely to influence the response to stimulation. Here, we examined how three band properties influence sensitivity using a morphologically realistic ganglion cell model in NEURON. Longer bands were more sensitive to short-duration pulses than shorter bands and increasing the distance between band and soma also increased sensitivity. Simulations using the known limits of band length and location resulted in a sensitivity difference of approximately two. Additional simulations tested how changes to sodium channel conductance within the band influenced threshold and found that the sensitivity difference increased to a factor of nearly three. This is close to the factor of 5 difference measured in physiological studies suggesting that band properties contribute significantly to the sensitivity differences found between different types of retinal neurons. PMID:21558602

  5. Coding Properties of Three Intrinsically Distinct Retinal Ganglion Cells under Periodic Stimuli: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Yi-Hong; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    As the sole output neurons in the retina, ganglion cells play significant roles in transforming visual information into spike trains, and then transmitting them to the higher visual centers. However, coding strategies that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) adopt to accomplish these processes are not completely clear yet. To clarify these issues, we investigate the coding properties of three types of RGCs (repetitive spiking, tonic firing, and phasic firing) by two different measures (spike-rate and spike-latency). Model results show that for periodic stimuli, repetitive spiking RGC and tonic RGC exhibit similar spike-rate patterns. Their spike- rates decrease gradually with increased stimulus frequency, moreover, variation of stimulus amplitude would change the two RGCs' spike-rate patterns. For phasic RGC, it activates strongly at medium levels of frequency when the stimulus amplitude is low. While if high stimulus amplitude is applied, phasic RGC switches to respond strongly at low frequencies. These results suggest that stimulus amplitude is a prominent factor in regulating RGCs in encoding periodic signals. Similar conclusions can be drawn when analyzes spike-latency patterns of the three RGCs. More importantly, the above phenomena can be accurately reproduced by Hodgkin's three classes of neurons, indicating that RGCs can perform the typical three classes of firing dynamics, depending on the distinctions of ion channel densities. Consequently, model results from the three RGCs may be not specific, but can also applicable to neurons in other brain regions which exhibit part(s) or all of the Hodgkin's three excitabilities. PMID:27721751

  6. The sodium channel band shapes the response to electric stimulation in retinal ganglion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, J.; Tang, S.; Molnar, A.; Desai, N. J.; Fried, S. I.

    2011-06-01

    To improve the quality of prosthetic vision, it is desirable to understand how targeted retinal neurons respond to stimulation. Unfortunately, the factors that shape the response of a single neuron to stimulation are not well understood. A dense band of voltage-gated sodium channels within the proximal axon of retinal ganglion cells is the site most sensitive to electric stimulation, suggesting that band properties are likely to influence the response to stimulation. Here, we examined how three band properties influence sensitivity using a morphologically realistic ganglion cell model in NEURON. Longer bands were more sensitive to short-duration pulses than shorter bands and increasing the distance between band and soma also increased sensitivity. Simulations using the known limits of band length and location resulted in a sensitivity difference of approximately 2. Additional simulations tested how changes to sodium channel conductance within the band influenced threshold and found that the sensitivity difference increased to a factor of nearly 3. This is close to the factor of 5 difference measured in physiological studies suggesting that band properties contribute significantly to the sensitivity differences found between different types of retinal neurons.

  7. GAP-43 expression is upregulated in retinal ganglion cells after ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Dijk, Frederike; Bergen, Arthur A B; Kamphuis, Willem

    2007-05-01

    In response to injury, the adult mammalian retina shows signs of structural remodeling, possibly in an attempt to preserve or regain some of its functional neural connections. In order to study the mechanisms involved in injury-induced plasticity, we have studied changes in growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) after retinal ischemia/reperfusion in the rat. GAP-43 is a marker for neuronal remodeling and is involved in synapse formation. Ischemic injury of the rat retina was induced by 60 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion times varying from 2h up to 4 weeks. GAP-43 mRNA levels were significantly increased between 12h and 72 h reperfusion with a peak around 24h. GAP-43 specific antibodies showed that the total amount of GAP-43 labeling in the inner plexiform layer was diminished after 12h of reperfusion by approximately 35% and remained at this level up to 1 week postischemia despite the reduction in thickness of this layer during this period resulting from the ischemia-induced cell loss. At 2 and 4 weeks reperfusion, the amount of labeling was reduced by 70%, simultaneously with a decrease of GAP-43 transcript level. Between 72 h up to 2 weeks postischemia, the induction of intense GAP-43 labeling was observed in NeuN- and beta-tubulin-positive ganglion cell somata and in horizontally and vertically oriented processes in the inner plexiform layer. Ischemia also induced GAP-43 expression in some GFAP-positive Müller cells. Double-labeling showed that in controls and after ischemia GAP-43 was expressed by some amacrine cells of the glycinergic (glycine transporter 1), calretinin-positive, and dopaminergic (tyrosine hydroxylase) subpopulations. No increase of GAP-43 expression levels was found in these amacrine cells. The results demonstrate that ganglion cells show an elevated expression of GAP-43 after ischemia-inflicted damage. These findings suggest a temporal window during which ganglion cells may remodel their neuronal network in the damaged retina.

  8. Replacement of Nerve-Growth Factor by Ganglionic Non-Neuronal Cells for the Survival In Vitro of Dissociated Ganglionic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Patricia; Raiborn, Charles; Varon, Silvio

    1972-01-01

    Nerve-growth factor is known to cause a considerable increase in the number of neurons putting out processes and surviving in cell cultures of dissociated dorsal-root and sympathetic ganglia from embryonic chicks. Similar effects of nerve-growth factor have now been noted with cultures of dissociated dorsal-root ganglia from newborn mice or rats. In all three sensory ganglionic systems, the effects of the nerve-growth factor on fiber production and neuronal survival could be mimicked, in the absence of the factor, by adequate increase of the non-neuronal cells in the cultures. The results suggest a hypothesis that views the role of the nerve-growth factor as subordinate to that of the non-neuronal cells. PMID:4509314

  9. Retinal ganglion cell distribution and spatial resolving power in the Japanese catshark Scyliorhinus torazame.

    PubMed

    Muguruma, Kaori; Takei, Shiro; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells (GCs) is linked with the visual capabilities and behavioral ecology of vertebrates. Studies on the distribution of different types of GCs, however, have been conducted in only a few species of elasmobranchs. In the present study, the distribution and peak cell density of GCs, and spatial resolving power (SRP) were examined in the Japanese catshark, Scyliorhinus torazame. Distinct populations of GCs were identified in the ganglion cell layer of S. torazame based on soma size: small and large GCs, which showed different spatial distribution patterns. A horizontal streak of high cell density was recognized in the dorsal retina for small GCs. The highest cell density occurred within the streak, and the peak SRPs of the three fish investigated in the present study were 2.32, 2.64, and 3.01 cycles/deg. In contrast, two spots of high cell density, or areae gigantocellulares, were identified for large GCs, one in the temporal and the other in the nasal retina. The highest cell density occurred in the temporal or nasal area gigantocellularis (SRP: 1.36, 1.55 and 1.83 cycles/deg). This is the first study reporting an elasmobranch species with a horizontal visual streak of small GCs and two areae gigantocellulares. The horizontal streak of small GCs in the dorsal retina, which serves for the inferior visual field, is likely important for food search on the bottom, and the areae gigantocellulares may be important to the detection of prey and/or predators approaching from the front or behind the catshark.

  10. Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion-cell photoreceptors: cellular diversity and role in pattern vision

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Jennifer L.; Dumitrescu, Olivia N.; Wong, Kwoon Y.; Alam, Nazia M.; Chen, Shih-Kuo; LeGates, Tara; Renna, Jordan M.; Prusky, Glen T.; Berson, David M.; Hattar, Samer

    2010-01-01

    Using the photopigment melanopsin, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) respond directly to light to drive circadian clock resetting and pupillary constriction. We now report that ipRGCs are more abundant and diverse than previously appreciated, project more widely within the brain, and can support spatial visual perception. A Cre-based melanopsin reporter mouse line revealed at least five subtypes of ipRGCs with distinct morphological and physiological characteristics. Collectively, these cells project beyond the known brain targets of ipRGCs to heavily innervate the superior colliculus and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, retinotopically-organized nuclei mediating object localization and discrimination. Mice lacking classical rod-cone photoreception, and thus entirely dependent on melanopsin for light detection, were able to discriminate grating stimuli from equiluminant gray, and had measurable visual acuity. Thus, non-classical retinal photoreception occurs within diverse cell types, and influences circuits and functions encompassing luminance as well as spatial information. PMID:20624591

  11. Neurotransmission in the carotid body: transmitters and modulators between glomus cells and petrosal ganglion nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Iturriaga, Rodrigo; Alcayaga, Julio

    2004-12-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor. The most accepted model of arterial chemoreception postulates that carotid body glomus (type I) cells are the primary receptors, which are synaptically connected to the nerve terminals of petrosal ganglion (PG) neurons. In response to natural stimuli, glomus cells are expected to release one (or more) transmitter(s) which, acting on the peripheral nerve terminals of processes from chemosensory petrosal neurons, increases the sensory discharge. Among several molecules present in glomus cells, acetylcholine and adenosine nucleotides and dopamine are considered as excitatory transmitter candidates. In this review, we will examine recent evidence supporting the notion that acetylcholine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate are the main excitatory transmitters in the cat and rat carotid bodies. On the other hand, dopamine may act as a modulator of the chemoreception process in the cat, but as an excitatory transmitter in the rabbit carotid body.

  12. Accelerated Intoxication of GABAergic Synapses by Botulinum Neurotoxin A Disinhibits Stem Cell-Derived Neuron Networks Prior to Network Silencing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-23

    synaptic neurotransmission, confirming that ESNs replicate the functional pathophysiology responsible for clinical botulism. Quantitation of spontaneous...cell-based model to replicate the in vivo pathophysiologies responsible for clinical botulism, but the presence of synaptically driven network responses...2013). Furthermore, the direct admin- istration of BoNT has been proposed as a potential therapeu- tic for several indications, including epilepsy

  13. Survey on Amacrine Cells Coupling to Retrograde-Identified Ganglion Cells in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Ji-Jie; Paul, David L.; Wu, Samuel M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Retinal amacrine cells (ACs) may make inhibitory chemical synapses and potentially excitatory gap junctions on ganglion cells (GCs). The total number and subtypes of ACs coupled to the entire GC population were investigated in wild-type and three lines of transgenic mice. Methods. GCs and GC-coupled ACs were identified by the previously established LY-NB (Lucifer yellow–Neurobiotin) retrograde double-labeling technique, in conjunction with specific antibodies and confocal microscopy. Results. GC-coupled ACs (NB-positive and LY-negative) comprised nearly 11% of displaced ACs and 4% of conventional ACs in wild-type mice, and were 9% and 4% of displaced ACs in Cx45−/− and Cx36/45−/− mice, respectively. Their somas were small in Cx36/45−/− mice, but variable in other strains. They were mostly γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (IR) and located in the GC layer. They comprised only a small portion in the AC subpopulations, including GABA-IR, glycine-IR, calretinin-IR, 5-HT-accumulating, and ON-type choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) ACs in wild-type and ChAT transgenic mice (ChAT- tdTomato). In the distal 80% of the inner plexiform layer (IPL), dense GC dendrites coexisted with rich glycine-IR and GABA-IR. In the inner 20% of the IPL, sparse GC dendrites presented with a major GABA band and sparse glycine-IR. Conclusions. Various subtypes of ACs may couple to GCs. ACs of the same immunoreactivity may either couple or not couple to GCs. Cx36 and Cx45 dominate GC-AC coupling except for small ACs. The overall potency of GC-AC coupling is moderate, especially in the proximal 20% of the IPL, where inhibitory chemical signals are dominated by GABA ACs. PMID:23821205

  14. Specific inhibition of TRPV4 enhances retinal ganglion cell survival in adult porcine retinal explants.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Linnéa; Arnér, Karin; Ghosh, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Signaling through the polymodal cation channel Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) has been implicated in retinal neuronal degeneration. To further outline the involvement of this channel in this process, we here explore modulation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) activity on neuronal health and glial activation in an in vitro model of retinal degeneration. For this purpose, adult porcine retinal explants were cultured using a previously established standard protocol for up to 5 days with specific TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A (GSK), or specific antagonist RN-1734, or culture medium only. Glial and neuronal cell health were evaluated by a battery of immunohistochemical markers, as well as morphological staining. Specific inhibition of TRPV4 by RN-1734 significantly enhanced ganglion cell survival, improved the maintenance of the retinal laminar architecture, reduced apoptotic cell death and attenuated the gliotic response as well as preserved the expression of TRPV4 in the plexiform layers and ganglion cells. In contrast, culture controls, as well as specimens treated with GSK, displayed rapid remodeling and neurodegeneration as well as a downregulation of TRPV4 and the Müller cell homeostatic mediator glutamine synthetase. Our results indicate that TRPV4 signaling is an important contributor to the retinal degeneration in this model, affecting neuronal cell health and glial homeostasis. The finding that pharmacological inhibition of the receptor significantly attenuates neuronal degeneration and gliosis in vitro, suggests that TRPV4 signaling may be an interesting pharmaceutical target to explore for treatment of retinal degenerative disease.

  15. Synaptic pathways that shape the excitatory drive in an OFF retinal ganglion cell.

    PubMed

    Buldyrev, Ilya; Puthussery, Theresa; Taylor, W Rowland

    2012-04-01

    Different types of retinal ganglion cells represent distinct spatiotemporal filters that respond selectively to specific features in the visual input. Much about the circuitry and synaptic mechanisms that underlie such specificity remains to be determined. This study examines how N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling combines with other excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms to shape the output of small-field OFF brisk-sustained ganglion cells (OFF-BSGCs) in the rabbit retina. We used voltage clamp to separately resolve NMDA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and inhibitory inputs elicited by stimulation of the receptive field center. Three converging circuits were identified. First is a direct glutamatergic input, arising from OFF cone bipolar cells (CBCs), which is mediated by synaptic NMDA and AMPA receptors. The NMDA input was saturated at 10% contrast, whereas the AMPA input increased monotonically up to 60% contrast. We propose that NMDA inputs selectively enhance sensitivity to low contrasts. The OFF bipolar cells, mediating this direct excitatory input, express dendritic kainate (KA) receptors, which are resistant to the nonselective AMPA/KA receptor antagonist, 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide disodium salt (NBQX), but are suppressed by a GluK1- and GluK3-selective antagonist, (S)-1-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-3-(2-carboxy-thiophene-3-yl-methyl)-5-methylpyrimidine-2,4-dione (UBP-310). The second circuit entails glycinergic crossover inhibition, arising from ON-CBCs and mediated by AII amacrine cells, which modulate glutamate release from the OFF-CBC terminals. The third circuit also comprises glycinergic crossover inhibition, which is driven by the ON pathway; however, this inhibition impinges directly on the OFF-BSGCs and is mediated by an unknown glycinergic amacrine cell that expresses AMPA but not KA receptors.

  16. The Effect of Cochlear-Implant-Mediated Electrical Stimulation on Spiral Ganglion Cells in Congenitally Deaf White Cats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Iris; Limb, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    It has long been observed that loss of auditory receptor cells is associated with the progressive degeneration of spiral ganglion cells. Chronic electrical stimulation via cochlear implantation has been used in an attempt to slow the rate of degeneration in cats neonatally deafened by ototoxic agents but with mixed results. The present study examined this issue using white cats with a history of hereditary deafness as an alternative animal model. Nineteen cats provided new data for this study: four normal-hearing cats, seven congenitally deaf white cats, and eight congenitally deaf white cats with unilateral cochlear implants. Data from additional cats were collected from the literature. Electrical stimulation began at 3 to 4 or 6 to 7 months after birth, and cats received stimulation for approximately 7 h a day, 5 days a week for 12 weeks. Quantitative analysis of spiral ganglion cell counts, cell density, and cell body size showed no marked improvement between cochlear-implanted and congenitally deaf subjects. Average ganglion cell size from cochlear-implanted and congenitally deaf cats was statistically similar and smaller than that of normal-hearing cats. Cell density from cats with cochlear implants tended to decrease within the upper basal and middle cochlear turns in comparison to congenitally deaf cats but remained at congenitally deaf levels within the lower basal and apical cochlear turns. These results provide no evidence that chronic electrical stimulation enhances spiral ganglion cell survival, cell density, or cell size compared to that of unstimulated congenitally deaf cats. Regardless of ganglion neuron status, there is unambiguous restoration of auditory nerve synapses in the cochlear nucleus of these cats implanted at the earlier age. PMID:20821032

  17. Characterization of GABA- and glycine-induced currents of solitary rodent retinal ganglion cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Tauck, D L; Frosch, M P; Lipton, S A

    1988-10-01

    Ganglion cells were fluorescently labeled, dissociated from 7- to 11-day-old rodent retinas, and placed in tissue culture. Whole-cell recordings with patch electrodes were obtained from solitary cells lacking processes, which permitted a high-quality space clamp. Both GABA (1-200 microM) and glycine (10-300 microM) produced large increases in membrane conductance in virtually every ganglion cell tested, including ganglion cells from different size classes in both rats and mice. Taurine evoked responses similar to those of glycine, but considerably greater concentrations of taurine (150-300 microM) were necessary to observe any effect. Since 20 microM GABA produced approximately the same response as 100 microM glycine, the effects of these two concentrations were compared under various conditions. When recording with chloride distributed equally across the membrane, the reversal potential of the agonist-induced currents was approximately 0 mV. When the internal chloride was reduced by substitution with aspartate, the reversal potential shifted in a negative direction by about 42 mV, indicating that the current was carried mainly by chloride ions. Strychnine (1-5 microM) completely and reversibly blocked the actions of glycine (100 microM) but not those of GABA (20 microM); however, higher concentrations of strychnine (20 microM) nearly totally inhibited the current elicited by GABA (20 microM). The responses to glycine (100 microM) were not affected by bicuculline methiodide (20 microM) or picrotoxinin (20 microM). In contrast, bicuculline methiodide (10 microM) and picrotoxinin (10 microM) reversibly blocked the current evoked by GABA (20 microM); d-tubocurarine (100 microM) only slightly decreased the response to GABA (20 microM). The antagonists were effective over a wide range of holding potentials (-90 mV to +30 mV). The responses to a steady application of both GABA and glycine decayed in a few seconds when recorded under conditions of both symmetric and

  18. A high frequency resonance in the responses of retinal ganglion cells to rapidly modulated stimuli: A computer model

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, J.A.; DENNING, K.S.; GEORGE, J.S.; MARSHAK, D.W.; KENYON, G.T.

    2012-01-01

    Brisk Y-type ganglion cells in the cat retina exhibit a high frequency resonance (HFR) in their responses to large, rapidly modulated stimuli. We used a computer model to test whether negative feedback mediated by axon-bearing amacrine cells onto ganglion cells could account for the experimentally observed properties of HFRs. Temporal modulation transfer functions (tMTFs) recorded from model ganglion cells exhibited HFR peaks whose amplitude, width, and locations were qualitatively consistent with experimental data. Moreover, the wide spatial distribution of axon-mediated feedback accounted for the observed increase in HFR amplitude with stimulus size. Model phase plots were qualitatively similar to those recorded from Y ganglion cells, including an anomalous phase advance that in our model coincided with the amplification of low-order harmonics that overlapped the HFR peak. When axon-mediated feedback in the model was directed primarily to bipolar cells, whose synaptic output was graded, or else when the model was replaced with a simple cascade of linear filters, it was possible to produce large HFR peaks but the region of anomalous phase advance was always eliminated, suggesting the critical involvement of strongly non-linear feedback loops. To investigate whether HFRs might contribute to visual processing, we simulated high frequency ocular tremor by rapidly modulating a naturalistic image. Visual signals riding on top of the imposed jitter conveyed an enhanced representation of large objects. We conclude that by amplifying responses to ocular tremor, HFRs may selectively enhance the processing of large image features. PMID:17020633

  19. Impairment of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells associated with late stages of retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Esquiva, Gema; Lax, Pedro; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2013-07-10

    To evaluate quantitative and qualitative age-related changes in intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in transgenic P23H rats, an animal model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP) was examined. ipRGC density, morphology, and integrity were characterized by immunohistochemistry in retinas extracted from P23H and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats aged 4, 12, and 18 months. Differences between SD and P23H rats throughout the experimental stages, as well as the interactions among them, were morphologically evaluated. In rat retinas, we have identified ipRGCs with dendrites stratifying in either the outer margin (M1) or inner side (M2) of the inner plexiform layer, and in both the outer and inner plexuses (M3). A small group of M1 cells had their somas located in the inner nuclear layer (M1d). In SD rats, ipRGCs showed no significant changes associated with age, in terms of either mean cell density or the morphologic parameters analyzed. However, the mean density of ipRGCs in P23H rats fell by approximately 67% between 4 and 18 months of age. Moreover, ipRGCs in these animals showed a progressive age-dependent decrease in the dendritic area, the number of branch points and terminal neurite tips per cell, and the Sholl area. In the P23H rat model of retinitis pigmentosa, density, wholeness, and dendritic arborization of melanopsin-containing ganglion cells decrease in advanced stages of the degenerative disease.

  20. Chromatic Properties of Horizontal and Ganglion Cell Responses Follow a Dual Gradient in Cone Opsin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lu; Smith, Robert G; Sterling, Peter; Brainard, David H.

    2007-01-01

    In guinea pig retina, immunostaining reveals a dual gradient of opsins: cones expressing opsin sensitive to medium wavelengths (M) predominate in the upper retina, whereas cones expressing opsin sensitive to shorter wavelengths (S) predominate in the lower retina. Whether these gradients correspond to functional gradients in postreceptoral neurons is essentially unknown. Using monochromatic flashes, we measured the relative weights with which M, S, and rod signals contribute to horizontal cell responses. For a background that produced 4.76 log10 photoisomerizations per rod per second (Rh*/rod/s), mean weights in superior retina were 52% (M), 2% (S), and 46% (rod). Mean weights in inferior retina were 9% (M), 50% (S), and 41% (rod). In superior retina, cone opsin weights agreed quantitatively with relative pigment density estimates from immunostaining. In inferior retina, cone opsin weights agreed qualitatively with relative pigment density estimates, but quantitative comparison was impossible because individual cones coexpress both opsins to varying and unquantifiable degrees. We further characterized the functional gradients in horizontal and brisk-transient ganglion cells using flickering stimuli produced by various mixtures of blue and green primary lights. Cone weights for both cell types resembled those obtained for horizontal cells using monochromatic flashes. Because the brisk-transient ganglion cell is thought to mediate behavioral detection of luminance contrast, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the dual gradient of cone opsins assists achromatic contrast detection against different spectral backgrounds. In our preparation, rod responses did not completely saturate, even at background light levels typical of outdoor sunlight (5.14 log10 Rh*/rod/s). PMID:17122060

  1. The trophic effect of ouabain on retinal ganglion cells is mediated by IL-1β and TNF-α

    SciTech Connect

    Salles von-Held-Ventura, Juliana; Mázala-de-Oliveira, Thalita; Cândida da Rocha Oliveira, Amanda; Granja, Marcelo Gomes; Giestal-de-Araujo, Elizabeth

    2016-09-09

    Ouabain is a steroid hormone that binds to the enzyme Na{sup +}, K{sup +} – ATPase and stimulates different intracellular pathways controlling growth, proliferation and cell survival. IL-1β and TNF-α are pleiotropic molecules, conventionally regarded as pro-inflammatory cytokines with well-known effects in the immune system. In addition, IL-1β and TNF-α also play important roles in the nervous system including neuroprotective effects. Previous data from our group showed that ouabain treatment is able to induce an increase in retinal ganglion cell survival kept in mixed retinal cell cultures. The aim of this work was to investigate if IL-1β and TNF-α could be mediating the trophic effect of ouabain on retinal ganglion cells. Our results show that the trophic effect of ouabain on retinal ganglion cell was inhibited by either anti-IL-1β or anti-TNF-α antibodies. In agreement, IL-1β or TNF-α increased the retinal ganglion cells survival in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, ouabain treatment induces a temporal release of TNF-α and IL-1β from retinal cell cultures. Interestingly, TNF-α and IL-1β regulate each other intracellular levels. Our results suggest that ouabain treatment triggers the activation of TNF-α and IL-1β signaling pathways leading to an increase in retinal ganglion cell survival. - Highlights: • Pro-inflammatory cytokines regulates the ouabain effect on RGC survival. • Ouabain treatment modulates the intracellular levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. • Ouabain induces the release of TNF-α and IL-1β in retinal cell cultures.

  2. Proteolytic degradation of glutamate decarboxylase mediates disinhibition of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells in cathepsin D-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tokiko; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Yamasaki, Ryo; Yamada, Jun; Zhang, Jian; Ukai, Kiyoharu; Koike, Masato; Mine, Kazunori; von Figura, Kurt; Peters, Christoph; Saftig, Paul; Fukuda, Takaichi; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    Although of clinical importance, little is known about the mechanism of seizure in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). In the present study, we have attempted to elucidate the mechanism underlying the seizure of cathepsin D-deficient (CD-/-) mice that show a novel type of lysosomal storage disease with a phenotype resembling late infantile NCL. In hippocampal slices prepared from CD-/- mice at post-natal day (P)24, spontaneous burst discharges were recorded from CA3 pyramidal cells. At P24, the mean amplitude of IPSPs after stimulation of the mossy fibres was significantly smaller than that of wild-type mice, which was substantiated by the decreased level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in the hippocampus measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At this stage, activated microglia were found to accumulate in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal CA3 subfield of CD-/- mice. However, there was no significant change in the numerical density of GABAergic interneurons in the CA3 subfield of CD-/- mice at P24, estimated by counting the number of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 67-immunoreactive somata. In the hippocampus and the cortex of CD-/- mice at P24, some GABAergic interneurons displayed extremely high somatic granular immunoreactivites for GAD67, suggesting the lysosomal accumulation of GAD67. GAD67 levels in axon terminals abutting on to perisomatic regions of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells was not significantly changed in CD-/- mice even at P24, whereas the total protein levels of GAD67 in both the hippocampus and the cortex of CD-/- mice after P24 were significantly decreased as a result of degradation. Furthermore, the recombinant human GAD65/67 was rapidly digested by the lysosomal fraction prepared from the whole brain of wild-type and CD-/- mice. These observations strongly suggest that the reduction of GABA contents, presumably because of lysosomal degradation of GAD67 and lysosomal accumulation of its degraded forms

  3. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on retinal ganglion cell survival in an optic nerve crush model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruixing; Wang, Yanling; Pu, Mingliang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine whether alpha lipoic acid (ALA) promotes the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC) injury and to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of ALA in the retina in this ONC injury model. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180–220 g) were subjected to ONC injury surgery. ALA (63 mg/kg) was injected intravenously 1 day before or after the ONC injury. Animals were euthanized after 10 days, and the number of ganglion cells positive for RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (Rbpms), which is an RGC marker, were counted on the whole mount retinas. In addition, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting were performed to examine the localization and levels of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT4/5) in the retinas in all experimental groups. To determine whether the EPO/EPOR signaling pathway was involved in the ALA antioxidant pathway, the rats were subjected to ruxolitinib (INCB018424, 0.25 mg/kg, bid, intraperitoneal, i.p.) treatment after the animals were injected intravenously with ALA 1 day before ONC injury. Results The average number of Rbpms-positive cells/mm2 in the control group (sham-operated group), the ONC group, the ALA-ONC group, and the ONC-ALA group retinas was 2219±28, 418±8, 848±22, and 613±18/mm2, respectively. The ALA-ONC and ONC-ALA groups showed a statistically significantly increased RGC survival rate compared to the ONC group. There were statistical differences in the RGC survival rates between the ALA-ONC (39%) and ONC-ALA groups (28%; p<0.05). Immunofluorescent labeling showed that EPOR and NT4/5 expression was significant in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL). At the same time, western blot analysis revealed that ALA induced upregulation of EPOR protein and NT4/5 protein expression in the retina after ONC injury. However, INCB018424 reversed the protective effects of ALA on the ONC retinas. Conclusions ALA has

  4. Immortalized human dorsal root ganglion cells differentiate into neurons with nociceptive properties.

    PubMed

    Raymon, H K; Thode, S; Zhou, J; Friedman, G C; Pardinas, J R; Barrere, C; Johnson, R M; Sah, D W

    1999-07-01

    A renewable source of human sensory neurons would greatly facilitate basic research and drug development. We had established previously conditionally immortalized human CNS cell lines that can differentiate into functional neurons (). We report here the development of an immortalized human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) clonal cell line, HD10.6, with a tetracycline-regulatable v-myc oncogene. In the proliferative condition, HD10.6 cells have a doubling time of 1.2 d and exhibit a neuronal precursor morphology. After differentiation of clone HD10.6 for 7 d in the presence of tetracycline, v-myc expression was suppressed, and >50% of the cells exhibited typical neuronal morphology, stained positively for neuronal cytoskeletal markers, and fired action potentials in response to current injection. Furthermore, this cell line was fate-restricted to a neuronal phenotype; even in culture conditions that promote Schwann cell or smooth muscle differentiation of neural crest stem cells, HD10.6 differentiated exclusively into neurons. Moreover, differentiated HD10.6 cells expressed sensory neuron-associated transcription factors and exhibited capsaicin sensitivity. Taken together, these data indicate that we have established an immortalized human DRG cell line that can differentiate into sensory neurons with nociceptive properties. The cell line HD10.6 represents the first example of a human sensory neuronal line and will be valuable for basic research, as well as for the discovery of novel drug targets and clinical candidates.

  5. Structure and Function of Bistratified Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Tiffany M.; Kofuji, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    A subpopulation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) expresses the photopigment melanopsin, rendering these cells intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs). These cells are critical for competent circadian entrainment, pupillary light reflex, and other non-image-forming photic responses. Research has now demonstrated the presence of multiple subpopulations of ipRGC based on the dendritic stratification in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), those monostratified in the Off sublamina (M1), those monostratified in the On sublamina (M2,4,5), and those bistratified in both the On and Off sublaminas (M3). Despite evidence that M1 and M2 cells are distinct subpopulations of ipRGC based on distinct morphological and physiological properties, the inclusion of M3 cells as a distinct subtype has remained controversial. Aside from the identification of M3 cells as a morphological subpopulation of ipRGC, to date there have been no functional descriptions of M3 cell physiology or synaptic inputs. Our data provide the first in-depth description of M3 cell structural and functional properties. We report that M3 cells form a morphologically heterogeneous population, but one that is physiologically homogeneous with properties similar to those of M2 cells. PMID:21452206

  6. Optic neuropathies: characteristic features and mechanisms of retinal ganglion cell loss.

    PubMed

    You, Yuyi; Gupta, Vivek K; Li, Jonathan C; Klistorner, Alexander; Graham, Stuart L

    2013-01-01

    Optic neuropathy refers to dysfunction and/or degeneration of axons of the optic nerve with subsequent optic nerve atrophy. A common feature of different optic neuropathies is retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis and axonal damage. Glaucoma and optic neuritis are the two major degenerative causes of optic nerve damage. Here, we review the anatomy and pathology of the optic nerve, and etiological categories of optic neuropathies, and discuss rodent models that can mimic these conditions. Electrophysiology can reveal signature features of RGC damage using the pattern electroretinogram (PERG), scotopic threshold response (STR) and photopic negative response (PhNR). The amplitude of the visual evoked potential (VEP) also reflects RGC axonal damage. The neurotrophin-mediated survival pathways, as well as the extrinsic and intrinsic cell apoptotic pathways, play a critical role in the pathogenesis of RGC loss. Finally, promising neuroprotective approaches based on the molecular signaling are analyzed for the treatment of optic neuropathies.

  7. Neuronal Transcriptional Repressor REST Suppresses an Atoh7-Independent Program for Initiating Retinal Ganglion Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Chai-An; Tsai, Wen-Wei; Cho, Jang-Hyeon; Pan, Ping; Barton, Michelle Craig; Klein, William H.

    2010-01-01

    As neuronal progenitors differentiate into neurons, they acquire a unique set of transcription factors. The transcriptional repressor REST prevents progenitors from undergoing differentiation. Notably, REST binding sites are often associated with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genes whose expression in the retina is positively controlled by Atoh7, a factor essential for RGC formation. The key regulators that enable a retinal progenitor cell (RPC) to commit to an RGC fate have not been identified. We show here that REST suppresses RGC gene expression in RPCs. REST inactivation causes aberrant expression of RGC transcription factors in proliferating RPCs, independent of Atoh7, resulting in increased RGC formation. Strikingly, inactivating REST in Atoh7-null retinas restores transcription factor expression, which partially activates downstream RGC genes but is insufficient to prevent RGC loss. Our results demonstrate an Atoh7-independent program for initial activation of RGC genes and suggest a novel role for REST in preventing premature expression in RPCs. PMID:20969844

  8. Identification of ganglion cell neurites in human subretinal and epiretinal membranes

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Geoffrey P; Betts, Kellen E; Sethi, Charanjit S; Charteris, David G; Lesnik‐Oberstein, Sarit Y; Avery, Robert L; Fisher, Steven K

    2007-01-01

    Aim To determine whether neural elements are present in subretinal and epiretinal proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) membranes as well as in diabetic, fibrovascular membranes removed from patients during vitrectomy surgery. Methods Human subretinal and epiretinal membranes of varying durations were immunolabelled with different combinations of antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, neurofilament protein and laminin. Results Anti‐neurofilament‐labelled neurites from presumptive ganglion cells were frequently found in epiretinal membranes and occasionally found in subretinal membranes. In addition, the neurites were only observed in regions that also contained glial processes. Conclusions These data demonstrate that neuronal processes are commonly found in human peri‐retinal cellular membranes similar to that demonstrated in animal models. These data also suggest that glial cells growing out of the neural retina form a permissive substrate for neurite growth and thus may hold clues to factors that support this growth. PMID:17108012

  9. Use of fluorescently labelled calmodulins as tools to measure subcellular calmodulin activation in living dorsal root ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Milikan, J M; Bolsover, S R

    2000-01-01

    We have used fluorescently labelled calmodulins to probe the activity of calmodulin in living dorsal root ganglion cells. Calmodulin labelled with the fluorophore 5-([4,6 dichlorotriazin-2yl]amino)-fluorescein (FL-CaM) does not change its fluorescence when it binds calcium, while calmodulin labelled at lysine 75 with 2-chloro-(6-(4-N,N-diethylamino-phenyl)-1,4,5-triazin-4-yl (TA-CaM), an environment-sensitive probe, increases its fluorescence when it binds calcium. We micro-injected FL-CaM or TA-CaM into rat dorsal root ganglion cells and found that both probes localise to the cell nucleus. In contrast, endogenous cellular calmodulin, in dorsal root ganglion cells as in hippocampal neurones, is predominantly cytosolic unless the neurones are depolarised, then it moves to the nucleus. FL-CaM and TA-CaM, introduced into dorsal root ganglion cells via a patch pipette, also immediately move to the nucleus, indicating that the nuclear localisation is a property of the labelled calmodulins. Although the subcellular distribution of FL-CaM and TA-CaM does not necessarily match that of endogenous calmodulin, we show that FL-CaM can be used as a control for TA-CaM when studying calmodulin activation in different cellular compartments.

  10. Influence of the sodium channel band on retinal ganglion cell excitation during electric stimulation - A modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Werginz, P.; Fried, S. I.; Rattay, F.

    2015-01-01

    Electric stimulation using retinal implants allows blind people to re-experience a rudimentary kind of vision. The elicited percepts or so called ’phosphenes’ are highly inconstant and therefore do not restore vision properly. The better knowledge of how retinal neurons, especially retinal ganglion cells, respond to electric stimulation will help to develop more sophisticated stimulation strategies. Special anatomic and physiologic properties like a band of highly dense sodium channels in retinal ganglion cells may help to achieve a focal activation of target cells and as a result better restoration of vision. A portion of retinal ganglion cell axons, about 40 μm from the soma and between 25 and 40μm in length, shows a specific biophysical property. Electrode locations close to a band of highly dense sodium channels which was identified immunochemically show lowest thresholds during electric stimulation. The (modeled) thresholds for this kind of structure result in lowest thresholds as well. The influence on the location where action potentials are generated within the axon is far reaching. When a stimulating electrode is positioned far outside the actual band region the site of spike initiation still remains within the sodium channel band. These findings suggest to further examine the key mechanisms of activation for retinal ganglion cells because focal activation without influencing passing axons of neurons located far away can improve the outcome of electric stimulation and therefore the development of retinal implants. PMID:24560986

  11. Topographic specializations in the retinal ganglion cell layer correlate with lateralized visual behavior, ecology, and evolution in cockatoos.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Collin, Shaun P; Hart, Nathan S

    2014-10-15

    Cockatoos are a unique avian group inhabiting a diversity of arboreal and terrestrial microhabitats. Most species display strong lateralized visual behaviors using their left eye/foot to assist with food manipulation during foraging. In this study, we used retinal wholemounts and stereological methods to investigate whether the topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in cockatoos reflects their lateralized behaviors and microhabitat diversity. We found that all species studied possess a horizontal visual streak and a shallow central fovea that afford increased spatial resolution in the lateral visual field. Arboreal cockatoos have a well-defined dorsotemporal area, in contrast to terrestrial cockatoos, in which this specialization is inconspicuous or absent. Terrestrial cockatoos also have a triangular extension of increased ganglion cell density directed toward the dorsotemporal retinal periphery. Both the dorsotemporal area and the triangular extension enhance spatial resolution in the frontal and inferior visual fields, which potentially assists with binocular coordination during foraging. We found significantly higher ganglion cell densities in the left (52,000-72,000 cells/mm2) compared with the right (42,500-50,000 cells/mm2) perifoveal region of species that have strong left eye-left foot lateralized behaviors. In contrast, cockatoo species that show no lateralized behaviors have equivalent retinal ganglion cell densities in both left and right perifoveal regions (42,500-52,500 cells/mm2). Retinal ganglion cell peak densities in the dorsotemporal area showed no significant difference between left and right eyes for any species, suggesting that cockatoos use both eyes to extract information in the binocular visual field, independent of the degree of lateralization.

  12. Sustained and transient discharges of retinal ganglion cells during spontaneous eye movements of cat.

    PubMed

    Noda, H

    1975-02-14

    Discharges of 223 retinal ganglion cells during spontaneous eye movements (saccades) across a stationary grating pattern were studied in chronically prepared cats. Of these 83 showed sustained responses to local differences in luminance of the grating stripes (S-units); 84 showed transient responses to saccades and did not register local differences in luminance (T-units); and 56 showed mixed responses, i.e., transient responses to saccades and sustained firings in response to local luminance (M-units). When tested with diffuse light, 93.9% of the S-units showed either ON-sustained or OFF-sustained responses; 95.2% of the T-units showed either ON-transient, OFF-transient, or ON-OFF-transient responses; and 50% of the M-units showed ON-OFF responses. In the overall responses properties, most S-units corresponded to the X-cells, most T-units to the Y-cells of retinal ganglion cells previously known from acute experiments. Under normal conditions of active eye movements, the major function of the S-units would be to register the differences in luminance in their receptive fields, and subserve the mechansim of form recognition. The major function of the T-units would be to register information related to quick image motion, induced either by eye or object movements, and subserve the mechanism of detecting the dynamic aspects of visual stimuli. The other important functions of the T-units are their possible participation in the afferent routes for two recently proposed mechanisms; one for goal-directed saccades and the other for saccadic suppression. The M-units would possess the functions of both S- and T-units.

  13. Morphology and Immunoreactivity of Retrogradely Double-Labeled Ganglion Cells in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Samuel M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the specificity and reliability of a retrograde double-labeling technique that was recently established for identification of retinal ganglion cells (GCs) and to characterize the morphology of displaced (d)GCs (dGs). Methods. A mixture of the gap-junction–impermeable dye Lucifer yellow (LY) and the permeable dye neurobiotin (NB) was applied to the optic nerve stump for retrograde labeling of GCs and the cells coupled with them. A confocal microscope was adopted for morphologic observation. Results. GCs were identified by LY labeling, and they were all clearly labeled by NB. Cells coupled to GCs contained a weak NB signal but no LY. LY and NB revealed axon bundles, somas and dendrites of GCs. The retrogradely identified GCs numbered approximately 50,000 per retina, and they constituted 44% of the total neurons in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Somas of retrogradely identified dGs were usually negative for glycine, ChAT (choline acetyltransferase), bNOS (brain-type nitric oxidase), GAD (glutamate decarboxylase), and glial markers, and occasionally, they were weakly GABA-positive. dGs averaged 760 per retina and composed 1.7% of total GCs. Sixteen morphologic subtypes of dGs were encountered, three of which were distinct from known GCs. dGs sent dendrites to either sublaminas of the IPL, mostly sublamina a. Conclusions. The retrograde labeling is reliable for identification of GCs. dGs participate in ON and OFF light pathways but favor the OFF pathway. ChAT, bNOS, glycine, and GAD remain reliable AC markers in the GCL. GCs may couple to GABAergic ACs, and the gap junctions likely pass NB and GABA. PMID:21482641

  14. Viral-mediated Labeling and Transplantation of Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) Cells for In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Daniel; Wu, Pei-Rung; Sorrells, Shawn F.; Arnold, Christine; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Rubenstein, John L. R.

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic cortical interneurons, derived from the embryonic medial and caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE and CGE), are functionally and morphologically diverse. Inroads have been made in understanding the roles of distinct cortical interneuron subgroups, however, there are still many mechanisms to be worked out that may contribute to the development and maturation of different types of GABAergic cells. Moreover, altered GABAergic signaling may contribute to phenotypes of autism, schizophrenia and epilepsy. Specific Cre-driver lines have begun to parcel out the functions of unique interneuron subgroups. Despite the advances in mouse models, it is often difficult to efficiently study GABAergic cortical interneuron progenitors with molecular approaches in vivo. One important technique used to study the cell autonomous programming of these cells is transplantation of MGE cells into host cortices. These transplanted cells migrate extensively, differentiate, and functionally integrate. In addition, MGE cells can be efficiently transduced with lentivirus immediately prior to transplantation, allowing for a multitude of molecular approaches. Here we detail a protocol to efficiently transduce MGE cells before transplantation for in vivo analysis, using available Cre-driver lines and Cre-dependent expression vectors. This approach is advantageous because it combines precise genetic manipulation with the ability of these cells to disperse after transplantation, permitting greater cell-type specific resolution in vivo. PMID:25938985

  15. A morphological classification of retinal ganglion cells in the Japanese catshark Scyliorhinus torazame.

    PubMed

    Muguruma, Kaori; Stell, William K; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (GCs) in the Japanese catshark Scyliorhinus torazame were labeled retrogradely with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA3000). First the labeled cells were classified into 5 morphological types (types I-III: small GCs; types IV and V: large GCs) according to the size of the soma and the dendritic arborization pattern as seen in retinal wholemounts. Type I cells were stellate, with dendrites radiating in different directions. Type II cells had bipolar dendritic trees, with 2 primary dendrites extending in opposite directions. Type III cells had a single thick primary dendrite. Type IV cells were stellate, with dendrites covering a large area centered on the cell body. Type V cells were asymmetric, with most dendrites extending opposite to the axon as a large, fan-shaped dendritic field. Subsequently a wholemount was cross-sectioned, and we classified cells further into multiple subtypes according to the level of dendritic arborization within the inner plexiform layer. The present results suggest the existence of many types of GCs in elasmobranchs in addition to the 3 types of large GCs that have been characterized previously. Some of the newly described GC subtypes in the catshark retina appear to be similar to some of those reported in actinopterygians.

  16. Norrin treatment improves ganglion cell survival in an oxygen-induced retinopathy model of retinal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Wendy A; Drenser, Kimberly A; Wong, Sui Chien; Cheng, Mei; Vercellone, Joseph; Roumayah, Kevin K; Feeney, Erin V; Deshpande, Mrinalini; Guzman, Alvaro E; Trese, Michael; Mitton, Kenneth P

    2017-08-18

    Treatment of a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) with recombinant human Norrin (Norrie Disease Protein, gene: NDP) accelerates regrowth of the microvasculature into central ischemic regions of the neural retina, which are generated after treatment with 75% oxygen. While this reduces the average duration and severity of ischemia overall, we do not know if this accelerated recovery of the microvasculature results in any significant survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The purpose of this study was to investigate ganglion cell survival with and without the intravitreal injection of Norrin in the murine model of oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR), using two strains of mice: C57BL/6J and Thy1-YFP mice. Intravitreal injections of Norrin or vehicle were done after five days of exposure to 75% oxygen from ages P7 to P12. The C57BL/J mice were followed by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT), and the average nerve fiber layer (NFL) and inner-plexiform layer (IPL) thicknesses were measured at twenty-four locations per retina at P42. Additionally, some C57BL/J retinas were flat mounted and immunostained for the RGC marker, Brn3a, to compare the population density of surviving retinal ganglion cells. Using homozygous Thy1-YFP mice, single intrinsically fluorescent RGCs were imaged in live animals with a Micron-III imaging system at ages P21, 28 and P42. The relative percentage of YFP-fluorescent RGCs with dendritic arbors were compared. At age P42, the NFL was thicker in Norrin-injected OIR eyes, 14.4 μm, compared to Vehicle-injected OIR eyes, 13.3 μm (p = 0.01). In the superior retina, the average thickness of the IPL was greater in Norrin-injected OIR eyes, 37.7 μm, compared to Vehicle-injected OIR eyes, 34.6 μm (p = 0.04). Retinas from Norrin injected OIR mice had significantly more surviving RGCs (p = 0.03) than vehicle-injected mice. Based upon NFL thickness and counts of RGCs, we conclude that Norrin treatment, early in

  17. Time sequence of auditory nerve and spiral ganglion cell degeneration following chronic kanamycin-induced deafness in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Kong, W J; Yin, Z D; Fan, G R; Li, D; Huang, X

    2010-05-17

    We investigated the time sequence of morphological changes of the spiral ganglion cell (SGC) and auditory nerve (AN) following chronic kanamycin-induced deafness. Guinea pigs were treated with kanamycin by subcutaneous injection at 500 mg/kg per day for 7 days. Histological changes in hair cells, SGCs, Schwann cells and the area of the cross-sectional of the AN with vestibular ganglion (VG) in the internal acoustic meatus were quantified at 1, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 70 days after kanamycin treatment. Outer hair cells decreased at 7 and 14 days. Loss of inner hair cells occurred at 14 and 28 days. The cross-sectional area of the AN with VG increased at 1 day and decreased shortly following loss of SGCs and Schwann cells at 7, 14 and 28 days after deafening. There was a similar time course of morphological changes in the overall cochlea and the basal turn. Thus, the effects of kanamycin on hair cells, spiral ganglion and Schwann cells are progressive. Early degeneration of SGC and Schwann cell mainly results from the direct toxic effect of kanamycin. However, multiple factors such as loss of hair cell, degeneration of Schwann cell and the progressive damage of kanamycin, may participate in the late degeneration process of SGCs. The molecular mechanism of the degeneration of SGC and Schwann cell should be investigated in the future. Moreover, there is a different time sequence of cell degeneration between acute and chronic deafness by kanamycin.

  18. Melanopsin‐expressing ganglion cells on macaque and human retinas form two morphologically distinct populations

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hsi‐Wen; Ren, Xiaozhi; Peterson, Beth B.; Marshak, David W.; Yau, King‐Wai; Gamlin, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The long‐term goal of this research is to understand how retinal ganglion cells that express the photopigment melanopsin, also known as OPN4, contribute to vision in humans and other primates. Here we report the results of anatomical studies using our polyclonal antibody specifically against human melanopsin that confirm and extend previous descriptions of melanopsin cells in primates. In macaque and human retina, two distinct populations of melanopsin cells were identified based on dendritic stratification in either the inner or the outer portion of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Variation in dendritic field size and cell density with eccentricity was confirmed, and dendritic spines, a new feature of melanopsin cells, were described. The spines were the sites of input from DB6 diffuse bipolar cell axon terminals to the inner stratifying type of melanopsin cells. The outer stratifying melanopsin type received inputs from DB6 bipolar cells via a sparse outer axonal arbor. Outer stratifying melanopsin cells also received inputs from axon terminals of dopaminergic amacrine cells. On the outer stratifying melanopsin cells, ribbon synapses from bipolar cells and conventional synapses from amacrine cells were identified in electron microscopic immunolabeling experiments. Both inner and outer stratifying melanopsin cell types were retrogradely labeled following tracer injection in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). In addition, a method for targeting melanopsin cells for intracellular injection using their intrinsic fluorescence was developed. This technique was used to demonstrate that melanopsin cells were tracer coupled to amacrine cells and would be applicable to electrophysiological experiments in the future. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2845–2872, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26972791

  19. Melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells on macaque and human retinas form two morphologically distinct populations.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsi-Wen; Ren, Xiaozhi; Peterson, Beth B; Marshak, David W; Yau, King-Wai; Gamlin, Paul D; Dacey, Dennis M

    2016-10-01

    The long-term goal of this research is to understand how retinal ganglion cells that express the photopigment melanopsin, also known as OPN4, contribute to vision in humans and other primates. Here we report the results of anatomical studies using our polyclonal antibody specifically against human melanopsin that confirm and extend previous descriptions of melanopsin cells in primates. In macaque and human retina, two distinct populations of melanopsin cells were identified based on dendritic stratification in either the inner or the outer portion of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Variation in dendritic field size and cell density with eccentricity was confirmed, and dendritic spines, a new feature of melanopsin cells, were described. The spines were the sites of input from DB6 diffuse bipolar cell axon terminals to the inner stratifying type of melanopsin cells. The outer stratifying melanopsin type received inputs from DB6 bipolar cells via a sparse outer axonal arbor. Outer stratifying melanopsin cells also received inputs from axon terminals of dopaminergic amacrine cells. On the outer stratifying melanopsin cells, ribbon synapses from bipolar cells and conventional synapses from amacrine cells were identified in electron microscopic immunolabeling experiments. Both inner and outer stratifying melanopsin cell types were retrogradely labeled following tracer injection in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). In addition, a method for targeting melanopsin cells for intracellular injection using their intrinsic fluorescence was developed. This technique was used to demonstrate that melanopsin cells were tracer coupled to amacrine cells and would be applicable to electrophysiological experiments in the future. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2845-2872, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Isolated dorsal root ganglion neurones inhibit receptor-dependent adenylyl cyclase activity in associated glial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ng, KY; Yeung, BHS; Wong, YH; Wise, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hyper-nociceptive PGE2 EP4 receptors and prostacyclin (IP) receptors are present in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones and glial cells in culture. The present study has investigated the cell-specific expression of two other Gs-protein coupled hyper-nociceptive receptor systems: β-adrenoceptors and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors in isolated DRG cells and has examined the influence of neurone–glial cell interactions in regulating adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. Experimental Approach Agonist-stimulated AC activity was determined in mixed DRG cell cultures from adult rats and compared with activity in DRG neurone-enriched cell cultures and pure DRG glial cell cultures. Key Results Pharmacological analysis showed the presence of Gs-coupled β2-adrenoceptors and CGRP receptors, but not β1-adrenoceptors, in all three DRG cell preparations. Agonist-stimulated AC activity was weakest in DRG neurone-enriched cell cultures. DRG neurones inhibited IP receptor-stimulated glial cell AC activity by a process dependent on both cell–cell contact and neurone-derived soluble factors, but this is unlikely to involve purine or glutamine receptor activation. Conclusions and Implications Gs-coupled hyper-nociceptive receptors are readily expressed on DRG glial cells in isolated cell cultures and the activity of CGRP, EP4 and IP receptors, but not β2-adrenoceptors, in glial cells is inhibited by DRG neurones. Studies using isolated DRG cells should be aware that hyper-nociceptive ligands may stimulate receptors on glial cells in addition to neurones, and that variable numbers of neurones and glial cells will influence absolute measures of AC activity and affect downstream functional responses. PMID:22924655

  1. Red light of the visual spectrum attenuates cell death in culture and retinal ganglion cell death in situ.

    PubMed

    Del Olmo-Aguado, Susana; Núñez-Álvarez, Claudia; Osborne, Neville N

    2016-09-01

    To ascertain whether red light, known to enhance mitochondrial function, can blunt chemical insults to cell cultures and ischaemic insults to the rat retina. Raised intraocular pressure (IOP, 140 mmHg, 60 min) or ischaemia was delivered in complete darkness or in the presence of low intensity red light (16.5 watts/m(2) , 3000 lux, 625-635 nm) to one eye of each rat. Animals were killed at specific times after ischemia and retinas analysis for ganglion cell numbers, the localization of specific antigens or for changes in defined RNAs. RGC-5 cell cultures were also exposed to various chemical insults in the presence or absence of red light. Significant differences were determined by t-test and anova. Elevation of IOP causes changes in the localization of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), calretinin, calbindin, choline acetyltransferase, ganglion cell numbers and an elevation (GFAP, vimentin, HO-1 and mTORC1) or reduction (Thy-1 and Brn3a) of mRNAs in the rat retina. These negative effects to the rat retina caused by ischaemia are reduced by red light. Moreover, chemical insults to cell cultures are blunted by red light. Low, non-toxic levels of red light focussed on the retina for a short period of time are sufficient to attenuate an insult of raised IOP to the rat retina. Since mitochondrial dysfunctions are thought to play a major role in ganglion cell death in glaucoma, we propose the potential use of red light therapy for the treatment of the disease. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Selective degeneration of the parvocellular-projecting retinal ganglion cells in a New World monkey, Saimiri sciureus.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J J; Eskin, T A; Merigan, W H

    1989-10-16

    Selective degeneration of retinal ganglion cells projecting to parvocellular layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) was observed in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) exposed to a range of doses of acrylamide monomer. Similar acrylamide-induced neuronal loss has previously been reported in parvocellular-projecting ganglion cells of macaques, but no such selective degeneration has been found in acrylamide-dosed rats, squirrels, rabbits or cats. The extent of ganglion cell loss observed in the present study suggests that in the squirrel monkey, as in the macaque, a majority of ganglion cells project to parvocellular layers of the LGN. The locus of optic tract degeneration suggests that the squirrel monkey parvocellular pathway passes in dorsolateral optic tract, as does that of the macaque. Patterns of decreases in cytochrome oxidase activity confirm that, in both of these primates, geniculocortical pathways driven by these vulnerable neurons project to cortical layers 4A and 4C beta. These results suggest close parallels in the neuroanatomical projections and toxic vulnerability of the parvocellular-projecting pathway in New and Old World monkeys. They indicate that acrylamide intoxication can be used to selectively damage this pathway in order to study the functional roles of parallel visual pathways in both New and Old World monkeys.

  3. Estimation of Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Glaucomatous Eyes With a Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect

    PubMed Central

    Tatham, Andrew J.; Meira-Freitas, Daniel; Weinreb, Robert N.; Marvasti, Amir H.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) losses associated with a relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in glaucoma. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted including both eyes of 103 participants from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. A total of 77 subjects had glaucoma in at least one eye and 26 were healthy. Pupil responses were assessed using an automated pupillometer that records the magnitude of RAPD as an “RAPD score.” Standard automated perimetry (SAP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) also were performed. Retinal ganglion cell counts were estimated using empirical formulas that combine estimates from SAP and OCT. The estimated percentage RGC loss was calculated using the combined structure function index (CSFI). Results. There was good correlation between RAPD magnitude and intereye differences in estimated RGCs (R2 = 0.492, P < 0.001), mean deviation (R2 = 0.546, P < 0.001), retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (R2 = 0.362, P < 0.001), and CSFI (R2 = 0.484, P < 0.001). Therefore, a high RAPD score is likely to indicate large asymmetric RGC losses. The relationship between intereye difference in RGC counts and RAPD score was described best by the formula; RGC difference = 21,896 + 353,272 * RAPD score. No healthy subjects had an absolute RAPD score > 0.3, which was associated with asymmetry of 105,982 cells (or 12%). Conclusions. Good correlation between the magnitude of RAPD and intereye differences in mean deviation and estimated RGC counts suggests pupillometry may be useful for quantifying asymmetric damage in glaucoma. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00221897.) PMID:24282221

  4. Pharmacological Inhibition of Caspase-2 Protects Axotomised Retinal Ganglion Cells from Apoptosis in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Ahmed, Zubair

    2012-01-01

    Severing the axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) by crushing the optic nerve (ONC) causes the majority of RGC to degenerate and die, primarily by apoptosis. We showed recently that after ONC in adult rats, caspase-2 activation occurred specifically in RGC while no localisation of caspase-3 was observed in ganglion cells but in cells of the inner nuclear layer. We further showed that inhibition of caspase-2 using a single injection of stably modified siRNA to caspase-2 protected almost all RGC from death at 7 days, offering significant protection for up to 1 month after ONC. In the present study, we confirmed that cleaved caspase-2 was localised and activated in RGC (and occasional neurons in the inner nuclear layer), while TUNEL+ RGC were also observed after ONC. We then investigated if suppression of caspase-2 using serial intravitreal injections of the pharmacological inhibitor z-VDVAD-fmk (z-VDVAD) protected RGC from death for 15 days after ONC. Treatment of eyes with z-VDVAD suppressed cleaved caspase-2 activation by >85% at 3–4 days after ONC. Increasing concentrations of z-VDVAD protected greater numbers of RGC from death at 15 days after ONC, up to a maximum of 60% using 4000 ng/ml of z-VDVAD, compared to PBS treated controls. The 15-day treatment with 4000 ng/ml of z-VDVAD after ONC suppressed levels of cleaved caspase-2 but no significant changes in levels of cleaved caspase-3, -6, -7 or -8 were detected. Although suppression of caspase-2 protected 60% of RGC from death, RGC axon regeneration was not promoted. These results suggest that caspase-2 specifically mediates death of RGC after ONC and that suppression of caspase-2 may be a useful therapeutic strategy to enhance RGC survival not only after axotomy but also in diseases where RGC death occurs such as glaucoma and optic neuritis. PMID:23285297

  5. Can Retinal Ganglion Cell Dipoles Seed Iso-Orientation Domains in the Visual Cortex?

    PubMed Central

    Schottdorf, Manuel; Eglen, Stephen J.; Wolf, Fred; Keil, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that the emergence of roughly periodic orientation preference maps (OPMs) in the primary visual cortex (V1) of carnivores and primates can be explained by a so-called statistical connectivity model. This model assumes that input to V1 neurons is dominated by feed-forward projections originating from a small set of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The typical spacing between adjacent cortical orientation columns preferring the same orientation then arises via Moiré-Interference between hexagonal ON/OFF RGC mosaics. While this Moiré-Interference critically depends on long-range hexagonal order within the RGC mosaics, a recent statistical analysis of RGC receptive field positions found no evidence for such long-range positional order. Hexagonal order may be only one of several ways to obtain spatially repetitive OPMs in the statistical connectivity model. Here, we investigate a more general requirement on the spatial structure of RGC mosaics that can seed the emergence of spatially repetitive cortical OPMs, namely that angular correlations between so-called RGC dipoles exhibit a spatial structure similar to that of OPM autocorrelation functions. Both in cat beta cell mosaics as well as primate parasol receptive field mosaics we find that RGC dipole angles are spatially uncorrelated. To help assess the level of these correlations, we introduce a novel point process that generates mosaics with realistic nearest neighbor statistics and a tunable degree of spatial correlations of dipole angles. Using this process, we show that given the size of available data sets, the presence of even weak angular correlations in the data is very unlikely. We conclude that the layout of ON/OFF ganglion cell mosaics lacks the spatial structure necessary to seed iso-orientation domains in the primary visual cortex. PMID:24475081

  6. Rescuing axons from degeneration does not affect retinal ganglion cell death

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, S.; Mietto, B.S.; Paula, C.; Muniz, T.; Martinez, A.M.B.; Gardino, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    After a traumatic injury to the central nervous system, the distal stumps of axons undergo Wallerian degeneration (WD), an event that comprises cytoskeleton and myelin breakdown, astrocytic gliosis, and overexpression of proteins that inhibit axonal regrowth. By contrast, injured neuronal cell bodies show features characteristic of attempts to initiate the regenerative process of elongating their axons. The main molecular event that leads to WD is an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration, which activates calpains, calcium-dependent proteases that degrade cytoskeleton proteins. The aim of our study was to investigate whether preventing axonal degeneration would impact the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after crushing the optic nerve. We observed that male Wistar rats (weighing 200-400 g; n=18) treated with an exogenous calpain inhibitor (20 mM) administered via direct application of the inhibitor embedded within the copolymer resin Evlax immediately following optic nerve crush showed a delay in the onset of WD. This delayed onset was characterized by a decrease in the number of degenerated fibers (P<0.05) and an increase in the number of preserved fibers (P<0.05) 4 days after injury. Additionally, most preserved fibers showed a normal G-ratio. These results indicated that calpain inhibition prevented the degeneration of optic nerve fibers, rescuing axons from the process of axonal degeneration. However, analysis of retinal ganglion cell survival demonstrated no difference between the calpain inhibitor- and vehicle-treated groups, suggesting that although the calpain inhibitor prevented axonal degeneration, it had no effect on RGC survival after optic nerve damage. PMID:27007653

  7. Absence of galectin-3 promotes neuroprotection in retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Carla Andreia; De Lima, Silmara Veline; Mendonça, Henrique Rocha; Goulart, Camila de Oliveira; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco

    2017-03-01

    A trauma to the mature central nervous system (CNS) often leads to persistent deficits, due to the inability of axons to regenerate after being injured. Increasing evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic genes can present a major obstacle to promoting neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells and consequently succeed in axonal regeneration. This study evaluated the effect of the absence of galectin-3 (Gal-3) on retinal ganglion cells (RGC) survival and axonal regeneration/degeneration after optic nerve crush injury. Two weeks after crush there was a 2.6 fold increase in the rate of cell survival in Gal-3-/- mice (1283±79.15) compared to WT animals (495.4±53.96). However, no regeneration was observed in the Gal-3-/- mice two weeks after lesion. Furthermore, axonal degeneration presented a particular pattern on those mice; Electron Microscopy (EM) analysis showed incomplete axon degeneration while the WT mice presented an advanced stage of degeneration. This suggests that the removal of the nerve fibers in the Gal 3-/- mice could be deficient and this would cause a delay in the process of Wallerian degeneration once there is a decrease in the number of macrophages/microglia in the nerve. This study demonstrates how the absence of Gal-3 can affect RGC survival and optic nerve regeneration/degeneration after lesion. Our results suggest that the absence of Gal-3 plays an important role in the survival of RGC and thus can be a potential target for therapeutic intervention in RGC neuroprotection.

  8. Disinhibited social behavior among internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Tarullo, Amanda R; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-01-01

    Postinstitutionalized children frequently demonstrate persistent socioemotional difficulties. For example, some postinstitutionalized children display an unusual lack of social reserve with unfamiliar adults. This behavior, which has been referred to as indiscriminate friendliness, disinhibited attachment behavior, and disinhibited social behavior, was examined by comparing children internationally adopted from institutional care to children internationally adopted from foster care and children raised by their biological families. Etiological factors and behavioral correlates were also investigated. Both groups of adopted children displayed more disinhibited social behavior than the nonadopted children. Of the etiological factors examined, only the length of time in institutional care was related to disinhibited social behavior. Disinhibited social behavior was not significantly correlated with general cognitive ability, attachment-related behaviors, or basic emotion abilities. However, this behavior was negatively associated with inhibitory control abilities even after controlling for the length of time in institutional care. These results suggest that disinhibited social behavior might reflect underlying deficits in inhibitory control.

  9. Using perimetric data to estimate ganglion cell loss for detecting progression of glaucoma: a comparison of models.

    PubMed

    Price, Derek A; Swanson, William H; Horner, Douglas G

    2017-07-01

    Models relating perimetric sensitivities to ganglion cell numbers have been proposed for combining structural and functional measures from patients with glaucoma. Here we compared seven models for ability to differentiate progressing and stable patients, testing the hypothesis that the model incorporating local spatial scale would have the best performance. The models were compared for the United Kingdom Glaucoma Treatment Study (UKGTS) data for the right eyes of 489 patients recently diagnosed with glaucoma. The SITA 24-2 program was utilised for perimetry and Stratus OCT fast scanning protocol for thickness of circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL). The first analysis defined progression in terms of decline in RNFL thickness. The highest and lowest quintiles (22 subjects per group) were identified for change in thickness of inferior temporal (IT), superior temporal (ST), and global RNFL (μm year(-1) ); a two-way anova was used to look for differences between the models in ability to discriminate the two quintiles. The second analysis defined a 'progression group' as those who were flagged by the UKGTS criteria as having progressive loss in perimetric sensitivity, and a 'no progression' group as those with rate of change in Mean Deviation (MD) closest to 0 dB year(-1) (87 subjects per group). The third analysis characterised variability of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) models for the two groups in the second analysis, using the standard deviation of residuals from linear regression of ganglion cell number over time to compute Coefficient of Variation (CoV). The first analysis produced a negative result because the three anovas found no effect of model or interaction of model and group (F6,294 < 3.1, p > 0.08). There was an effect of group only for the anova with the ST sector (F6,294 = 12.2, p < 0.001). The second analysis also produced a negative result, because ROC areas were in the range 0.69-0.72 for all models. The third analysis found that even when

  10. RARβ regulates neuronal cell death and differentiation in the avian ciliary ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Boerries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Programmed cell death during chicken ciliary ganglion (CG) development is mostly discussed as an extrinsically regulated process, guided either by the establishment of a functional balance between preganglionic and postganglionic activity or the availability of target‐derived neurotrophic factors. We found that the expression of the gene coding for the nuclear retinoic acid receptor β (RARB) is transiently upregulated prior to and during the execution phase of cell death in the CG. Using retroviral vectors, the expression of RARB was knocked down during embryonic development in ovo. The knockdown led to a significant increase in CG neuron number after the cell death phase. BrdU injections and active caspase‐3 staining revealed that this increase in neuron number was due to an inhibition of apoptosis during the normal cell death phase. Furthermore, apoptotic neuron numbers were significantly increased at a stage when cell death is normally completed. While the cholinergic phenotype of the neurons remained unchanged after RARB knockdown, the expression of the proneural gene Cash1 was increased, but somatostatin‐like immunoreactivity, a hallmark of the mature choroid neuron population, was decreased. Taken together, these results point toward a delay in neuronal differentiation as well as cell death. The availability of nuclear retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) and RARβ‐induced transcription of genes could therefore be a new intrinsic cue for the maturation of CG neurons and their predisposition to undergo cell death. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 75: 1204–1218, 2015 PMID:25663354

  11. Electrical activity of ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tianruo; Tsai, David; Morley, John W.; Suaning, Gregg J.; Kameneva, Tatiana; Lovell, Nigel H.; Dokos, Socrates

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) demonstrate a large range of variation in their ionic channel properties and morphologies. Cell-specific properties are responsible for the unique way RGCs process synaptic inputs, as well as artificial electrical signals such as that from a visual prosthesis. A cell-specific computational modelling approach allows us to examine the functional significance of regional membrane channel expression and cell morphology. Approach. In this study, an existing RGC ionic model was extended by including a hyperpolarization activated non-selective cationic current as well as a T-type calcium current identified in recent experimental findings. Biophysically-defined model parameters were simultaneously optimized against multiple experimental recordings from ON and OFF RGCs. Main results. With well-defined cell-specific model parameters and the incorporation of detailed cell morphologies, these models were able to closely reconstruct and predict ON and OFF RGC response properties recorded experimentally. Significance. The resulting models were used to study the contribution of different ion channel properties and spatial structure of neurons to RGC activation. The techniques of this study are generally applicable to other excitable cell models, increasing the utility of theoretical models in accurately predicting the response of real biological neurons.

  12. Synchronized Firings in Retinal Ganglion Cells in Response to Natural Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Wen-Zhong; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2011-02-01

    The response of synchronously firing groups of population retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to natural movies (NMs) and pseudo-random white-noise checker-board flickering (CB, as control) are investigated using an information-theoretic algorithm. The main results are: (1) the population RGCs tend to fire in synchrony far more frequently than expected by chance during both NM and CB stimulation; (2) more synchronous groups could be formed and each group contains more neurons under NM than CB stimulation; (3) the individual neurons also participate in more groups and have more distinct partners in NM than CB stimulation. All these results suggest that the synchronized firings in RGCs are more extensive and diverse, which may account for more effective information processing in representing the natural visual environment.

  13. Dendritic and synaptic protection: is it enough to save the retinal ganglion cell body and axon?

    PubMed

    Morquette, Junie Barbara; Di Polo, Adriana

    2008-06-01

    Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies have been traditionally viewed as diseases of the optic nerve that lead to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. Accordingly, the primary aim of neuroprotective strategies has been to preserve RGC axons and soma. RGCs are complex and highly polarized central neurons, and their pathologic response in disease is likely to be an integration of signals from all cellular compartments-axons, soma, dendrites, and synaptic contacts. We focus on the role of dendrites and dendritic spines in normal neuronal function, neurologic disorders, and glaucoma. The need to understand the mechanisms underlying RGC dendrite and synapse degeneration in glaucoma and other optic neuropathies is compelling, as it may provide insight into novel therapeutic strategies to prevent vision loss.

  14. Activation of retinal ganglion cells following epiretinal electrical stimulation with hexagonally arranged bipolar electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramian, Miganoosh; Lovell, Nigel H.; Morley, John W.; Suaning, Gregg J.; Dokos, Socrates

    2011-06-01

    We investigated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) responses to epiretinal electrical stimulation delivered by hexagonally arranged bipolar (Hex) electrodes, in order to assess the feasibility of this electrode arrangement for future retinal implant devices. In vitro experiments were performed using rabbit retinal preparations, with results compared to a computational model of axonal stimulation. Single-unit RGC responses to electrical stimulation were recorded with extracellular microelectrodes. With 100 µs/phase biphasic pulses, the threshold charge densities were 24.0 ± 11.2 and 7.7 ± 3.2 µC cm-2 for 50 and 125 µm diameter Hex electrodes, respectively. Threshold profiles and response characteristics strongly suggested that RGC axons were the neural activation site. Both the model and in vitro data indicated that localized tissue stimulation is achieved with Hex electrodes.

  15. Early nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor max is associated with retinal ganglion cell death independent of caspase activity.

    PubMed

    Petrs-Silva, Hilda; de Freitas, Fabíola G; Linden, Rafael; Chiarini, Luciana B

    2004-02-01

    We examined the behavior of the transcription factor Max during retrograde neuronal degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. Using immunohistochemistry, we found a progressive redistribution of full-length Max from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and dendrites of the ganglion cells following axon damage. Then, the axotomized cells lose all their content of Max, while undergoing nuclear pyknosis and apoptotic cell death. After treatment of retinal explants with either anisomycin or thapsigargin, the rate of nuclear exclusion of Max accompanied the rate of cell death as modulated by either drug. Treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor abolished both TUNEL staining and immunoreactivity for activated caspase-3, but did not affect the subcellular redistribution of Max immunoreactivity after axotomy. The data show that nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor Max is an early event, which precedes and is independent of the activation of caspases, during apoptotic cell death in the central nervous system.

  16. Topographic prominence discriminator for the detection of short-latency spikes of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Ahn, Jungryul; Park, Dae Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Kwangsoo; Cho, Dong-Il Dan; Senok, Solomon S; Koo, Kyo-In; Goo, Yong Sook

    2017-02-01

    Direct stimulation of retinal ganglion cells in degenerate retinas by implanting epi-retinal prostheses is a recognized strategy for restoration of visual perception in patients with retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. Elucidating the best stimulus-response paradigms in the laboratory using multielectrode arrays (MEA) is complicated by the fact that the short-latency spikes (within 10 ms) elicited by direct retinal ganglion cell (RGC) stimulation are obscured by the stimulus artifact which is generated by the electrical stimulator. We developed an artifact subtraction algorithm based on topographic prominence discrimination, wherein the duration of prominences within the stimulus artifact is used as a strategy for identifying the artifact for subtraction and clarifying the obfuscated spikes which are then quantified using standard thresholding. We found that the prominence discrimination based filters perform creditably in simulation conditions by successfully isolating randomly inserted spikes in the presence of simple and even complex residual artifacts. We also show that the algorithm successfully isolated short-latency spikes in an MEA-based recording from degenerate mouse retinas, where the amplitude and frequency characteristics of the stimulus artifact vary according to the distance of the recording electrode from the stimulating electrode. By ROC analysis of false positive and false negative first spike detection rates in a dataset of one hundred and eight RGCs from four retinal patches, we found that the performance of our algorithm is comparable to that of a generally-used artifact subtraction filter algorithm which uses a strategy of local polynomial approximation (SALPA). We conclude that the application of topographic prominence discrimination is a valid and useful method for subtraction of stimulation artifacts with variable amplitudes and shapes. We propose that our algorithm may be used as stand-alone or supplementary to

  17. Retinal Ganglion Cell Damage in an Experimental Rodent Model of Blast-Mediated Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Kabhilan; Kecova, Helga; Hernandez-Merino, Elena; Kardon, Randy H.; Harper, Matthew M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate retina and optic nerve damage following experimental blast injury. Methods. Healthy adult mice were exposed to an overpressure blast wave using a custom-built blast chamber. The effects of blast exposure on retina and optic nerve function and structure were evaluated using the pattern electroretinogram (pERG), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the chromatic pupil light reflex. Results. Assessment of the pupil response to light demonstrated decreased maximum pupil constriction diameter in blast-injured mice using red light or blue light stimuli 24 hours after injury compared with baseline in the eye exposed to direct blast injury. A decrease in the pupil light reflex was not observed chronically following blast exposure. We observed a biphasic pERG decrease with the acute injury recovering by 24 hours postblast and the chronic injury appearing at 4 months postblast injury. Furthermore, at 3 months following injury, a significant decrease in the retinal nerve fiber layer was observed using OCT compared with controls. Histologic analysis of the retina and optic nerve revealed punctate regions of reduced cellularity in the ganglion cell layer and damage to optic nerves. Additionally, a significant upregulation of proteins associated with oxidative stress was observed acutely following blast exposure compared with control mice. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that decrements in retinal ganglion cell responses can be detected after blast injury using noninvasive functional and structural tests. These objective responses may serve as surrogate tests for higher CNS functions following traumatic brain injury that are difficult to quantify. PMID:23620426

  18. Frequency transfer properties of the spike generating mechanism of cat retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Lankheet, M J; Molenaar, J; van de Grind, W A

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic properties of the spike generating (SG) mechanism of retinal ganglion cells have been studied from intracellular recordings in the cat eye. Intracellularly recorded light flicker responses were separated by computer into spike trains and corresponding generator potentials. Both the spike train and the generator potential responses to temporally modulated light spots were analysed in terms of amplitude and phase plots. The differences in dynamic properties between the two response measures reveal that the SG-mechanism affects the temporal frequency transfer properties of retinal ganglion cells to a considerable extent. With respect to the transfer of the amplitude of the first harmonic the SG-mechanism has differentiating (or high-pass) properties. This means that the responses to high temporal stimulus frequencies are amplified relatively much more than are the responses to lower frequencies. Furthermore, the SG-mechanism causes a phase lead of the spike train response relative to the generator potential by, on average, 37 degrees. The measured frequency responses, among other things, have been used to verify and to quantify the SG-model that we proposed in a previous paper (Lankheet, Molenaar & van de Grind, 1989). With this model it proved possible to reproduce the spike train responses as model output from the corresponding measured generator potentials as model input. A good qualitative and quantitative correspondence between model output and the measured spike trains was obtained for a wide range of stimulus frequencies and with fixed values of the model parameters. With parameter values that optimized this correspondence the model allowed us to investigate the dynamic behaviour of the SG-mechanism in more detail. It also provides a reliable and validated method to predict the shape of the generator potential from the spike train (the "inversion problem").

  19. Color vision impairment in multiple sclerosis points to retinal ganglion cell damage.

    PubMed

    Lampert, E J; Andorra, M; Torres-Torres, R; Ortiz-Pérez, S; Llufriu, S; Sepúlveda, M; Sola, N; Saiz, A; Sánchez-Dalmau, B; Villoslada, P; Martínez-Lapiscina, Elena H

    2015-11-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) results in color vision impairment regardless of optic neuritis (ON). The exact location of injury remains undefined. The objective of this study is to identify the region leading to dyschromatopsia in MS patients' NON-eyes. We evaluated Spearman correlations between color vision and measures of different regions in the afferent visual pathway in 106 MS patients. Regions with significant correlations were included in logistic regression models to assess their independent role in dyschromatopsia. We evaluated color vision with Hardy-Rand-Rittler plates and retinal damage using Optical Coherence Tomography. We ran SIENAX to measure Normalized Brain Parenchymal Volume (NBPV), FIRST for thalamus volume and Freesurfer for visual cortex areas. We found moderate, significant correlations between color vision and macular retinal nerve fiber layer (rho = 0.289, p = 0.003), ganglion cell complex (GCC = GCIP) (rho = 0.353, p < 0.001), thalamus (rho = 0.361, p < 0.001), and lesion volume within the optic radiations (rho = -0.230, p = 0.030). Only GCC thickness remained significant (p = 0.023) in the logistic regression model. In the final model including lesion load and NBPV as markers of diffuse neuroaxonal damage, GCC remained associated with dyschromatopsia [OR = 0.88 95 % CI (0.80-0.97) p = 0.016]. This association remained significant when we also added sex, age, and disease duration as covariates in the regression model. Dyschromatopsia in NON-eyes is due to damage of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in MS. Color vision can serve as a marker of RGC damage in MS.

  20. Cobalamin C Deficiency Shows a Rapidly Progressing Maculopathy With Severe Photoreceptor and Ganglion Cell Loss.

    PubMed

    Bonafede, Lucas; Ficicioglu, Can H; Serrano, Leona; Han, Grace; Morgan, Jessica I W; Mills, Monte D; Forbes, Brian J; Davidson, Stefanie L; Binenbaum, Gil; Kaplan, Paige B; Nichols, Charles W; Verloo, Patrick; Leroy, Bart P; Maguire, Albert M; Aleman, Tomas S

    2015-12-01

    To describe in detail the retinal structure and function of a group of patients with cobalamin C (cblC) disease. Patients (n = 11, age 4 months to 15 years) with cblC disease (9/11, early onset) diagnosed by newborn screening underwent complete ophthalmic examinations, fundus photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed in a subset of patients. Patients carried homozygous or compound heterozygote mutations in the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C (MMACHC) gene. Late-onset patients had a normal exam. All early-onset patients showed a maculopathy; older subjects had a retina-wide degeneration (n = 4; >7 years of age). In general, retinal changes were first observed before 1 year of age and progressed within months to a well-established maculopathy. Pseudocolobomas were documented in three patients. Measurable visual acuities ranged from 20/200 to 20/540. Nystagmus was present in 8/11 patients; 5/6 patients had normal ERGs; 1/6 had reduced rod-mediated responses. Spectral-domain OCT showed macular thinning, with severe ganglion cell layer (GCL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) loss. Inner retinal thickening was observed in areas of total GCL/ONL loss. A normal lamination pattern in the peripapillary nasal retina was often seen despite severe central and/or retina-wide disease. Patients with early-onset cblC and MMACHC mutations showed an early-onset, unusually fast-progressing maculopathy with severe central ONL and GCL loss. An abnormally thickened inner retina supports a remodeling response to both photoreceptor and ganglion cell degeneration and/or an interference with normal development in early-onset cblC.

  1. Retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection induced by activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mata, David; Linn, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The α7nAChR agonist, PNU-282987, has previously been shown to have a neuroprotective effect against loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in an in vivo glaucoma model when the agent was injected into the vitreous chamber of adult Long Evans rat eyes. Here, we characterized the neuroprotective effect of PNU-282987 at the nerve fiber and retinal ganglion cell layer, determined that neuroprotection occurred when the agonist was applied as eye drops and verified detection of the agonist in the retina, using LC/MS/MS. To induce glaucoma-like conditions in adult Long Evans rats, hypertonic saline was injected into the episcleral veins to induce scar tissue and increase intraocular pressure. Within one month, this procedure produced significant loss of RGCs compared to untreated conditions. RGCs were quantified after immunostaining with an antibody against Thy 1.1 and imaged using a confocal microscope. In dose-response studies, concentrations of PNU-282987 were applied to the animal’s right eye two times each day, while the left eye acted as an internal control. Eye drops of PNU-282987 resulted in neuroprotection against RGC loss in a dose-dependent manner using concentrations between 100 µM and 2 mM PNU-282987. LC/MS/MS results demonstrated that PNU-282987 was detected in the retina when applied as eye drops, relatively small amounts of PNU-282987 were measured in blood plasma and no PNU-282987 was detected in cardiac tissue. These results support the hypothesis that eye drop application of PNU-282987 can prevent loss of RGCs associated with glaucoma, which can lead to neuroprotective treatments for diseases that involve α7nAChRs. PMID:26239818

  2. Cobalamin C Deficiency Shows a Rapidly Progressing Maculopathy With Severe Photoreceptor and Ganglion Cell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Bonafede, Lucas; Ficicioglu, Can H.; Serrano, Leona; Han, Grace; Morgan, Jessica I. W.; Mills, Monte D.; Forbes, Brian J.; Davidson, Stefanie L.; Binenbaum, Gil; Kaplan, Paige B.; Nichols, Charles W.; Verloo, Patrick; Leroy, Bart P.; Maguire, Albert M.; Aleman, Tomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe in detail the retinal structure and function of a group of patients with cobalamin C (cblC) disease. Methods Patients (n = 11, age 4 months to 15 years) with cblC disease (9/11, early onset) diagnosed by newborn screening underwent complete ophthalmic examinations, fundus photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed in a subset of patients. Results Patients carried homozygous or compound heterozygote mutations in the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C (MMACHC) gene. Late-onset patients had a normal exam. All early-onset patients showed a maculopathy; older subjects had a retina-wide degeneration (n = 4; >7 years of age). In general, retinal changes were first observed before 1 year of age and progressed within months to a well-established maculopathy. Pseudocolobomas were documented in three patients. Measurable visual acuities ranged from 20/200 to 20/540. Nystagmus was present in 8/11 patients; 5/6 patients had normal ERGs; 1/6 had reduced rod-mediated responses. Spectral-domain OCT showed macular thinning, with severe ganglion cell layer (GCL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) loss. Inner retinal thickening was observed in areas of total GCL/ONL loss. A normal lamination pattern in the peripapillary nasal retina was often seen despite severe central and/or retina-wide disease. Conclusions Patients with early-onset cblC and MMACHC mutations showed an early-onset, unusually fast-progressing maculopathy with severe central ONL and GCL loss. An abnormally thickened inner retina supports a remodeling response to both photoreceptor and ganglion cell degeneration and/or an interference with normal development in early-onset cblC. PMID:26658511

  3. Distribution and function of polycystin-2 in mouse retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaja, Simon; Mafe, Oloruntoyin A.; Parikh, Ruby A.; Kandula, Prasanthi; Reddy, Chanakyaram A.; Gregg, Elaine V.; Xin, Hua; Mitchell, Peter; Grillo, Michael A.; Koulen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The polycystin family of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels form Ca2+ regulated cation channels with distinct subcellullar localizations and functions. As part of heteromultimeric channels and multi-protein complexes, polycystins control intracellular Ca2+ signals and more generally the translation of extracellular signals and stimuli to intracellular responses. Polycystin-2 channels have been cloned from retina, but their distribution and function in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have not yet been established. In the present study, we determined cellular and subcellular localization as well as functional properties of polycystin-2 channels in RGCs. Polycystin-2 expression and distribution in RGCs was assessed by immunohistochemistry on vertical cryostat section of mouse retina as well as primary cultured mouse RGCs, using fluorescence microscopy. Biophysical and pharmacological properties of polycystin-2 channels isolated from primary cultured RGCs were determined using planar lipid bilayer electrophysiology. We detected polycystin-2 immunoreactivity both in the ganglion cell layer as well as in primary cultured RGCs. Subcellular analysis revealed strong cytosolic localization pattern of polycystin-2. Polycystin-2 channel current was Ca2+ activated, had a maximum slope conductance of 114 pS and could be blocked in a dose-dependent manner by increasing concentrations of Mg2+. The cytosolic localization of polycystin-2 in RGCs is in accordance with its function as intracellular Ca2+ release channel. We conclude that polycystin-2 forms functional channels in RGCs, of which biophysical and pharmacological properties are similar to polycystin-2 channels reported for other tissues and organisms. Our data suggest a potential role for polycystin-2 in RGC Ca2+ signaling. PMID:22155264

  4. Topographic prominence discriminator for the detection of short-latency spikes of retinal ganglion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Ahn, Jungryul; Park, Dae Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Kwangsoo; Cho, Dong-il Dan; Senok, Solomon S.; Koo, Kyo-in; Goo, Yong Sook

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Direct stimulation of retinal ganglion cells in degenerate retinas by implanting epi-retinal prostheses is a recognized strategy for restoration of visual perception in patients with retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. Elucidating the best stimulus-response paradigms in the laboratory using multielectrode arrays (MEA) is complicated by the fact that the short-latency spikes (within 10 ms) elicited by direct retinal ganglion cell (RGC) stimulation are obscured by the stimulus artifact which is generated by the electrical stimulator. Approach. We developed an artifact subtraction algorithm based on topographic prominence discrimination, wherein the duration of prominences within the stimulus artifact is used as a strategy for identifying the artifact for subtraction and clarifying the obfuscated spikes which are then quantified using standard thresholding. Main results. We found that the prominence discrimination based filters perform creditably in simulation conditions by successfully isolating randomly inserted spikes in the presence of simple and even complex residual artifacts. We also show that the algorithm successfully isolated short-latency spikes in an MEA-based recording from degenerate mouse retinas, where the amplitude and frequency characteristics of the stimulus artifact vary according to the distance of the recording electrode from the stimulating electrode. By ROC analysis of false positive and false negative first spike detection rates in a dataset of one hundred and eight RGCs from four retinal patches, we found that the performance of our algorithm is comparable to that of a generally-used artifact subtraction filter algorithm which uses a strategy of local polynomial approximation (SALPA). Significance. We conclude that the application of topographic prominence discrimination is a valid and useful method for subtraction of stimulation artifacts with variable amplitudes and shapes. We propose that our algorithm

  5. Asymmetric inheritance of the apical domain and self-renewal of retinal ganglion cell progenitors depend on Anillin function.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Alessio; Duchemin, Anne-Laure; Albadri, Shahad; Patzel, Eva; Bornhorst, Dorothee; González Avalos, Paula; Lemke, Steffen; Machate, Anja; Brand, Michael; Sel, Saadettin; Di Donato, Vincenzo; Del Bene, Filippo; Zolessi, Flavio R; Ramialison, Mirana; Poggi, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    Divisions that generate one neuronal lineage-committed and one self-renewing cell maintain the balance of proliferation and differentiation for the generation of neuronal diversity. The asymmetric inheritance of apical domains and components of the cell division machinery has been implicated in this process, and might involve interactions with cell fate determinants in regulatory feedback loops of an as yet unknown nature. Here, we report the dynamics of Anillin - an essential F-actin regulator and furrow component - and its contribution to progenitor cell divisions in the developing zebrafish retina. We find that asymmetrically dividing retinal ganglion cell progenitors position the Anillin-rich midbody at the apical domain of the differentiating daughter. anillin hypomorphic conditions disrupt asymmetric apical domain inheritance and affect daughter cell fate. Consequently, the retinal cell type composition is profoundly affected, such that the ganglion cell layer is dramatically expanded. This study provides the first in vivo evidence for the requirement of Anillin during asymmetric neurogenic divisions. It also provides insights into a reciprocal regulation between Anillin and the ganglion cell fate determinant Ath5, suggesting a mechanism whereby the balance of proliferation and differentiation is accomplished during progenitor cell divisions in vivo.

  6. Effect of ATF3-deletion on apoptosis of cultured retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ming-Ming; Wang, Ya-Chen; Li, Yi; Guo, Xiao-Dan; Chen, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3)-deletion on apoptosis of cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). METHODS Three ATF3 siRNA (ATF3-rat-651, ATF3-rat-319, ATF3-rat-520) were constructed, and were transiently transfected into RGC-5 cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine ATF3 expression and the most effective ATF3 siRNA was selected for further studies. Flow cytometry was applied to investigate the effects of ATF3 deletion on RGC-5 apoptosis under elevated hydrostatic pressure. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to validate differentially expressed genes and proteins in ATF3-knockdown RGC-5 cells. RESULTS ATF3 specific siRNA effectively down-regulated ATF3 expression and significantly inhibited cell apoptosis in RGC-5 cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot confirmed that ATF3 knockdown remarkably decreased Jun-B and increased c-Jun at both mRNA and protein levels in RGC-5 cells. CONCLUSION ATF/cAMP-response element-binding family of transcription factors may be involved in the development of glaucoma and could be novel treatment targets for glaucoma. PMID:28546922

  7. The ciliary margin zone of the mammalian retina generates retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Marcucci, Florencia; Murcia-Belmonte, Veronica; Coca, Yaiza; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Wang, Qing; Kuwajima, Takaaki; Khalid, Sania; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Herrera, Eloisa; Mason, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retina of lower vertebrates grows continuously by integrating new neurons generated from progenitors in the ciliary margin zone (CMZ). Whether the mammalian CMZ provides the neural retina with retinal cells is controversial. Live-imaging of embryonic retina expressing eGFP in the CMZ shows that cells migrate laterally from the CMZ to the neural retina where differentiated retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) reside. As Cyclin D2, a cell-cycle regulator, is enriched in ventral CMZ, we analyzed Cyclin D2−/− mice to test whether the CMZ is a source of retinal cells. Neurogenesis is diminished in Cyclin D2 mutants, leading to a reduction of RGCs in the ventral retina. In line with these findings, in the albino retina, the decreased production of ipsilateral RGCs is correlated with fewer Cyclin D2+ cells. Together, these results implicate the mammalian CMZ as a neurogenic site that produces RGCs and whose proper generation depends on Cyclin D2 activity. PMID:28009286

  8. Extrasynaptic glutamate and inhibitory neurotransmission modulate ganglion cell participation during glutamatergic retinal waves.

    PubMed

    Firl, Alana; Sack, Georgeann S; Newman, Zachary L; Tani, Hiroaki; Feller, Marla B

    2013-04-01

    During the first 2 wk of mouse postnatal development, transient retinal circuits give rise to the spontaneous initiation and lateral propagation of depolarizations across the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Glutamatergic retinal waves occur during the second postnatal week, when GCL depolarizations are mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors. Bipolar cells are the primary source of glutamate in the inner retina, indicating that the propagation of waves depends on their activation. Using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based optical sensor of glutamate FLII81E-1μ, we found that retinal waves are accompanied by a large transient increase in extrasynaptic glutamate throughout the inner plexiform layer. Using two-photon Ca(2+) imaging to record spontaneous Ca(2+) transients in large populations of cells, we found that despite this spatially diffuse source of depolarization, only a subset of neurons in the GCL and inner nuclear layer (INL) are robustly depolarized during retinal waves. Application of the glutamate transporter blocker dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (25 μM) led to a significant increase in cell participation in both layers, indicating that the concentration of extrasynaptic glutamate affects cell participation in both the INL and GCL. In contrast, blocking inhibitory transmission with the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine and the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine increased cell participation in the GCL without significantly affecting the INL. These data indicate that during development, glutamate spillover provides a spatially diffuse source of depolarization, but that inhibitory circuits dictate which neurons within the GCL participate in retinal waves.

  9. Novel Methodology for Creating Macaque Retinas with Sortable Photoreceptors and Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Shreyasi; Strang, Christianne E.; Alexander, John J.; Scalabrino, Miranda L.; Lynch Hill, Julie; Kasuga, Daniel T.; Witherspoon, C. Douglas; Boye, Sanford L.; Gamlin, Paul D.; Boye, Shannon E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to generate macaque retinas with sortable cell populations would be of great benefit to both basic and translational studies of the primate retina. The purpose of our study was therefore to develop methods to achieve this goal by selectively labeling, in life, photoreceptors (PRs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with separate fluorescent markers. Methods: Labeling of macaque (Macaca fascicularis) PRs and RGCs was accomplished by subretinal delivery of AAV5-hGRK1-GFP, and retrograde transport of micro-ruby™ from the lateral geniculate nucleus, respectively. Retinas were anatomically separated into different regions. Dissociation conditions were optimized, and cells from each region underwent fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). Expression of retinal cell type- specific genes was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR to characterize isolated cell populations. Results: We show that macaque PRs and RGCs can be simultaneously labeled in-life and enriched populations isolated by FACS. Recovery from different retinal regions indicated efficient isolation/enrichment for PRs and RGCs, with the macula being particularly amendable to this technique. Conclusions: The methods and materials presented here allow for the identification of novel reagents designed to target RGCs and/or photoreceptors in a species that is phylogenetically and anatomically similar to human. These techniques will enable screening of intravitreally-delivered AAV capsid libraries for variants with increased tropism for PRs and/or RGCs and the evaluation of vector tropism and/or cellular promoter activity of gene therapy vectors in a clinically relevant species. PMID:27990105

  10. Novel Methodology for Creating Macaque Retinas with Sortable Photoreceptors and Ganglion Cells.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shreyasi; Strang, Christianne E; Alexander, John J; Scalabrino, Miranda L; Lynch Hill, Julie; Kasuga, Daniel T; Witherspoon, C Douglas; Boye, Sanford L; Gamlin, Paul D; Boye, Shannon E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to generate macaque retinas with sortable cell populations would be of great benefit to both basic and translational studies of the primate retina. The purpose of our study was therefore to develop methods to achieve this goal by selectively labeling, in life, photoreceptors (PRs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with separate fluorescent markers. Methods: Labeling of macaque (Macaca fascicularis) PRs and RGCs was accomplished by subretinal delivery of AAV5-hGRK1-GFP, and retrograde transport of micro-ruby™ from the lateral geniculate nucleus, respectively. Retinas were anatomically separated into different regions. Dissociation conditions were optimized, and cells from each region underwent fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). Expression of retinal cell type- specific genes was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR to characterize isolated cell populations. Results: We show that macaque PRs and RGCs can be simultaneously labeled in-life and enriched populations isolated by FACS. Recovery from different retinal regions indicated efficient isolation/enrichment for PRs and RGCs, with the macula being particularly amendable to this technique. Conclusions: The methods and materials presented here allow for the identification of novel reagents designed to target RGCs and/or photoreceptors in a species that is phylogenetically and anatomically similar to human. These techniques will enable screening of intravitreally-delivered AAV capsid libraries for variants with increased tropism for PRs and/or RGCs and the evaluation of vector tropism and/or cellular promoter activity of gene therapy vectors in a clinically relevant species.

  11. Stem cell transplantation via the cochlear lateral wall for replacement of degenerated spiral ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng-Zhi; He, Ya; Jiang, Xing-Wang; Chen, Fu-Quan; Chen, Yang; Shi, Li; Chen, Jun; Chen, Xin; Li, Xu; Xue, Tao; Wang, Yafei; Mi, Wen-Juan; Qiu, Jian-Hua

    2013-04-01

    Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are poorly regenerated in the mammalian inner ear. Because of this, stem cell transplantation has been used to replace injured SGNs, and several studies have addressed this approach. However, the difficulty of delivering stem cells into the cochlea and encouraging their migration to Rosenthal's canal (RC), where the SGNs are located, severely restricts this therapeutic strategy. In this study, we attempted to establish a new stem cell transplantation route into the cochlea via the cochlear lateral wall (CLW). First, we tested the precision of this route by injecting Fluorogold into the CLW and next assessed its safety by mock surgeries. Then, using a degenerated SGN animal model, we transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs), derived from the olfactory bulb of C57BL/6-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice, via the CLW route and examined the cells' distribution in the cochlea. We found the CLW transplantation route is precise and safe. In addition, NSCs migrated into RC with a high efficiency and differentiated into neurons in a degenerated SGN rat model after the CLW transplantation. This result revealed that the basilar membrane (BM) may have crevices permitting the migration of NSCs. The result of this study demonstrates a novel route for cell transplantation to the inner ear, which is important for the replacement of degenerated SGNs and may contribute to the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Schwann cells genetically modified to express neurotrophins promote spiral ganglion neuron survival in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pettingill, Lisa N.; Minter, Ricki L.; Shepherd, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The intracochlear infusion of neurotrophic factors via a mini-osmotic pump has been shown to prevent deafness-induced spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) degeneration; however, the use of pumps may increase the incidence of infection within the cochlea, making this technique unsuitable for neurotrophin administration in a clinical setting. Cell- and gene-based therapies are potential therapeutic options. This study investigated whether Schwann cells which were genetically modified to over-express the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurotrophin 3 (Ntf3, formerly NT-3) could support SGN survival in an in vitro model of deafness. Co-culture of either BDNF over-expressing Schwann cells or Ntf3 over-expressing Schwann cells with SGNs from early postnatal rats significantly enhanced neuronal survival in comparison to both control Schwann cells and conventional recombinant neurotrophin proteins. Transplantation of neurotrophin over-expressing Schwann cells into the cochlea may provide an alternative means of delivering neurotrophic factors to the deaf cochlea for therapeutic purposes. PMID:18304740

  13. Nuclear translocation and overexpression of GAPDH by the hyper-pressure in retinal ganglion cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Choong-Il; Lee, Sung-Ho; Seong, Gong-Je; Kim, Yeon-Hyang; Lee, Mi-Young . E-mail: miyoung@sch.ac.kr

    2006-03-24

    To investigate the effect of hyper-pressure on retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5), RGC-5 cells were exposed to an ambient hydrostatic pressure of 100 mm Hg. Upon treatment, the proliferation of RGC-5 cells was inhibited and neuronal apoptosis was detected by specific apoptosis marker TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling). To probe into the mechanism mediating the apoptosis of RGC-5 cells in 100 mm Hg, protein profile alterations following hyper-pressure treatment were examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by MALDI-TOF. Out of the 400 protein spots of RGC-5 cells detected on 2-DE gels, 37 differentially expressed protein spots were further identified using in gel tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry. Among these proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was significantly expressed 10 times more in 100 mm Hg than in normal pressure. The accumulation of GAPDH in the nucleus and its translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus in 100 mm Hg were observed using a microscope. These results suggest that the hyper-pressure-induced apoptosis in RGC-5 cells may be involved with not only the increase of GAPDH expression, but also the accumulation and the translocalization of GAPDH to the nucleus.

  14. Photoresponse diversity among the five types of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiwu; Stafford, Ben K; Godin, Ashley L; King, W Michael; Wong, Kwoon Y

    2014-04-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate non-image-forming visual responses, including pupillary constriction, circadian photoentrainment and suppression of pineal melatonin secretion. Five morphological types of ipRGCs, M1-M5, have been identified in mice. In order to understand their functions better, we studied the photoresponses of all five cell types, by whole-cell recording from fluorescently labelled ipRGCs visualized using multiphoton microscopy. All ipRGC types generated melanopsin-based ('intrinsic') as well as synaptically driven ('extrinsic') light responses. The intrinsic photoresponses of M1 cells were lower threshold, higher amplitude and faster than those of M2-M5. The peak amplitudes of extrinsic light responses differed among the ipRGC types; however, the responses of all cell types had comparable thresholds, kinetics and waveforms, and all cells received rod input. While all five types exhibited inhibitory amacrine-cell and excitatory bipolar-cell inputs from the 'on' channel, M1 and M3 received additional 'off'-channel inhibition, possibly through their 'off'-sublamina dendrites. The M2-M5 ipRGCs had centre-surround-organized receptive fields, implicating a capacity to detect spatial contrast. In contrast, the receptive fields of M1 cells lacked surround antagonism, which might be caused by the surround of the inhibitory input nullifying the surround of the excitatory input. All ipRGCs responded robustly to a wide range of motion speeds, and M1-M4 cells appeared tuned to different speeds, suggesting that they might analyse the speed of motion. Retrograde labelling revealed that M1-M4 cells project to the superior colliculus, suggesting that the contrast and motion information signalled by these cells could be used by this sensorimotor area to detect novel objects and motion in the visual field.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of antibodies on retinal ganglion cells in an adolescent retina organ culture.

    PubMed

    Bell, Katharina; Wilding, Corina; Funke, Sebastian; Perumal, Natarajan; Beck, Sabine; Wolters, Dominik; Holz-Müller, Jana; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Grus, Franz H

    2016-10-01

    Glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by a progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (rgc). Up- and down-regulated autoantibody immunoreactivities in glaucoma patients have been demonstrated. Previous studies showed protective effects of down-regulated antibodies [gamma (γ)-synuclein and glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]) on neuroretinal cells. The aim of this study was to test these protective antibody effects on rgc in an organ culture model and to get a better understanding of cell-cell interactions of the retina in the context of the protective effect. We used an adolescent retinal organ culture (pig) with an incubation time of up to 4 days. Retinal explants were incubated with different antibodies for 24 h (anti-GFAP, anti-γ-synuclein and anti-myoglobin antibody as a control). Brn3a and TUNEL staining were performed. We also conducted glutamine synthetase staining and quantification of the retinal explants. Mass spectrometry analyses were performed as well as protein analyses via microarray. We detected a continuous decrease of rgc/mm in the retinal explants throughout the 4 days of incubation with increased TUNEL rgc staining. Immunohistochemical analyses showed a protective effect of anti-γ-synuclein (increased rgc/mm of 41%) and anti-GFAP antibodies (increased rgc/mm of 37%). Mass spectrometric, microarray and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated Müller cell involvement and decreased endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the antibody-treated retinae. We could detect that the tested antibodies have a protective effect on rgc which seems to be the result of reduced stress levels in the retina as well as a shift of glutamine synthetase localization in the endfeet of the Müller cells towards the inner retinal layer. Loss of retinal ganglion cells (rgc) in glaucoma leads to blindness. Several antibodies are down-regulated in glaucoma patients. Our aim was to test if these antibodies have a protective effect of rgc in a

  16. Neural Stem Cells Injected into the Sound-Damaged Cochlea Migrate Throughout the Cochlea and Express Markers of Hair Cells, Supporting Cells, and Spiral Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Deborah A.; Gray, Brianna; Anderson, Julia K.; Bobbin, Richard P.; Snyder, Evan Y.; Cotanche, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    Most cases of hearing loss are caused by the death or dysfunction of one of the many cochlear cell types. We examined whether cells from a neural stem cell line could replace cochlear cell types lost after exposure to intense noise. For this purpose, we transplanted a clonal stem cell line into the scala tympani of sound damaged mice and guinea pigs. Utilizing morphological, protein expression and genetic criteria, stem cells were found with characteristics of both neural tissues (satellite, spiral ganglion and Schwann cells) and cells of the organ of Corti (hair cells, supporting cells). Additionally, noise-exposed, stem cell-injected animals exhibited a small but significant increase in the number of satellite cells and Type I spiral ganglion neurons compared to non-injected noise-exposed animals. These results indicate that cells of this neural stem cell line migrate from the scala tympani to Rosenthal's canal and the organ of Corti. Moreover, it suggests that cells of this neural stem cell line may derive some information needed from the microenvironment of the cochlea to differentiate into replacement cells in the cochlea. PMID:17659854

  17. Imipramine protects retinal ganglion cells from oxidative stress through the tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming-lei; Liu, Guo-hua; Guo, Jin; Yu, Shu-juan; Huang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is irreversible in glaucoma and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB)-associated signaling pathways have been implicated in the process. In this study, we attempted to examine whether imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, may protect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced RGC degeneration through the activation of the TrkB pathway in RGC-5 cell lines. RGC-5 cell lines were pre-treated with imipramine 30 minutes before exposure to H2O2. Western blot assay showed that in H2O2 -damaged RGC-5 cells, imipramine activated TrkB pathways through extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/TrkB phosphorylation. TUNEL staining assay also demonstrated that imipramine ameliorated H2O2 -induced apoptosis in RGC-5 cells. Finally, TrkB-IgG intervention was able to reverse the protective effect of imipramine on H2O2 -induced RGC-5 apoptosis. Imipramine therefore protects RGCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through the TrkB signaling pathway. PMID:27127489

  18. Ipsilateral and Contralateral Retinal Ganglion Cells Express Distinct Genes during Decussation at the Optic Chiasm

    PubMed Central

    Marcucci, Florencia; Cerullo, Isadora

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of transcriptomic technologies within the last decade has facilitated high-throughput identification of gene expression differences that define distinct cell types as well as the molecular pathways that drive their specification. The retinal projection neurons, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), can be categorized into distinct morphological and functional subtypes and by the laterality of their projections. Here, we present a method for purifying the sparse population of ipsilaterally projecting RGCs in mouse retina from their contralaterally projecting counterparts during embryonic development through rapid retrograde labeling followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Through microarray analysis, we uncovered the distinct molecular signatures that define and distinguish ipsilateral and contralateral RGCs during the critical period of axonal outgrowth and decussation, with more than 300 genes differentially expressed within these two cell populations. Among the differentially expressed genes confirmed through in vivo expression validation, several genes that mark “immaturity” are expressed within postmitotic ipsilateral RGCs. Moreover, at least one complementary pair, Igf1 and Igfbp5, is upregulated in contralateral or ipsilateral RGCs, respectively, and may represent signaling pathways that determine ipsilateral versus contralateral RGC identity. Importantly, the cell cycle regulator cyclin D2 is highly expressed in peripheral ventral retina with a dynamic expression pattern that peaks during the period of ipsilateral RGC production. Thus, the molecular signatures of ipsilateral and contralateral RGCs and the mechanisms that regulate their differentiation are more diverse than previously expected. PMID:27957530

  19. Morphological signs of apoptosis in axotomized ganglion cells of the rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Germain, F; Fernández, E; de la Villa, P

    2007-02-09

    Optic nerve section in mammals induces apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, a small population of RGCs survives for a relatively long time. These cells experience significant morphological changes due to the apoptotic process, but some of these changes are not clearly differentiated from those experienced in necrotic cells. In the present work, rabbit RGCs were studied 1 month after optic nerve section using light microscopy after neurobiotin injection, transmission electron microscopy (EM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Apoptosis was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling and characteristic signs of apoptosis were observed in the EM images. Ultrastructural analyses showed vacuolar degeneration in the cytoplasm and normal cellular structure loss. Signs of membrane changes were observed in axotomized RGCs by SEM. Early changes seen in the cell membrane suggest that axotomy may cause important changes in the cytoskeleton. We conclude that characteristic signs of apoptosis at the cell membrane level are clearly observed in rabbit RGCs after axotomy and they may be responsible for the cellular death.

  20. Dendritic Calcium Signaling in ON and OFF Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, David J.; Gartland, Andrew J.; Euler, Thomas; Detwiler, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the output cells of the retina; they convert synaptic input into spike output that carries visual information to the brain. Synaptic inputs are received, integrated and communicated to the spike initiation zone of the axon by dendrites whose properties are poorly understood. Here simultaneous patch clamp recording and 2-photon Ca2+ imaging are used to study voltage- and light-evoked Ca2+ signals in the dendrites of identified types of mouse RGCs from parallel ON and OFF pathways, which encode the onset and offset of light, respectively. The results show pathway-specific differences in voltage-dependent Ca2+ signaling. While both ON and OFF cells express high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ channels, only OFF RGCs also express low-voltage-activated (LVA) Ca2+ channels. LVA Ca2+ channels in OFF cells are de-inactivated by hyperpolarization from the resting potential and give rise to rebound excited Ca2+ spikes at the termination of a step of either hyperpolarizing current or light. This suggests that the differential expression of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in ON and OFF RGC dendrites contribute to differences in the way the two cell types process visual stimuli. PMID:20505081

  1. Temporal response of ganglion cells of the macaque retina to cone-specific modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, T.; Lee, B. B.; Kremers, J.

    1995-03-01

    The temporal response of cone inputs to macaque retinal ganglion cells were compared with cone-specific sinusoidal modulation used to isolate each cone type. For all cell types of the parvocellular (PC) pathway, temporal responsivity was similar for short (S)-, middle (M)-, and long (L)-wavelength-sensitive cone inputs, apart from small latency differences between inputs to center and surround. The temporal response resembled that expected from receptor physiology. Responses of cells of the magnocellular pathway to M- or L-cone modulation showed more complex properties indicative of postreceptoral processing. Human psychophysical temporal-sensitivity functions were acquired with S-cone modulation under conditions similar to those for the physiological measurements. Ratios of psychophysical to physiological data from S-cone cells (the only cells that respond to this stimulus) yielded an estimate of the central filter acting upon PC-pathway signals. The filter characteristic could be described by a four-stage low-pass filter with corner frequency 3-5 Hz.

  2. Imaging of single retinal ganglion cell with differential interference contrast microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Juyeong; Kim, Yu Jeong; Kim, Chul-Ki; Lee, Taik Jin; Seo, Mina; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deok Ha; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Ki-Ho; Kim, Seok Hwan; Kim, Jae Hun

    2017-02-01

    Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy, characterized by the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Therefore, monitoring the change of number or morphology of RGC is essential for the early detection as well as investigation of pathophysiology of glaucoma. Since RGC layer is transparent and hyporeflective, the direct optical visualization of RGCs has not been successful so far. Therefore, glaucoma evaluation mostly depends on indirect diagnostic methods such as the evaluation of optic disc morphology or retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurement by optical coherence tomography. We have previously demonstrated single photoreceptor cell imaging with differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Herein, we successfully visualized single RGC using DIC microscopy. Since RGC layer is much less reflective than photoreceptor layer, various techniques including the control of light wavelength and bandwidth using a tunable band pass filter were adopted to reduce the chromatic aberration in z-axis for higher and clearer resolution. To verify that the imaged cells were the RGCs, the flat-mounted retina of Sprague-Dawley rat, in which the RGCs were retrogradely labeled with fluorescence, was observed by both fluorescence and DIC microscopies for direct comparison. We have confirmed that the cell images obtained by fluorescence microscopy were perfectly matched with cell images by DIC microscopy. As conclusion, we have visualized single RGC with DIC microscopy, and confirmed with fluorescence microscopy.

  3. Hyperexcitable neurons and altered non-neuronal cells in the compressed spinal ganglion

    PubMed Central

    LaMotte, Robert H.; Chao, MA

    2009-01-01

    The cell body or soma in the dosal root ganglion (DRG) is normally excitable and this excitability can increase and persist after an injury of peripheral sensory neurons. In a rat model of radicular pain, an intraforaminal implantation of a rod that chronically compressed the lumbar DRG (“CCD” model) resulted in neuronal somal hyperexcitability and spontaneous activity that was accompanied by hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral hind paw. By the 5th day after onset of CCD, there was a novel upregulation in neuronal expression of the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2) and also its receptor, CCR2. The neurons developed, in response to topically applied MCP-1, an excitatory response that they normally do not have. CCD also activated non-neuronal cells including, for example, the endothelial cells as evidenced by angiogenesis in the form of an increased number of capillaries in the DRG after 7 days. A working hypothesis is that the CCD induced changes in neurons and non-neuronal cells that may act together to promote the survival of the injured tissue. The release of ligands such as CCL2, in addition to possibly activating nociceptive neurons (maintaining the pain), may also act to preserve injured cells in the face of ischemia and hypoxia, for example, by promoting angiogenesis. Thus, somal hyperexcitability, as often said of inflammation, may represent a double edged sword. PMID:18958366

  4. Hyperexcitable neurons and altered non-neuronal cells in the compressed spinal ganglion.

    PubMed

    LaMotte, Robert H; Ma, Chao

    2008-10-25

    The cell body or soma in the dosal root ganglion (DRG) is normally excitable and this excitability can increase and persist after an injury of peripheral sensory neurons. In a rat model of radicular pain, an intraforaminal implantation of a rod that chronically compressed the lumbar DRG ("CCD" model) resulted in neuronal somal hyperexcitability and spontaneous activity that was accompanied by hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral hind paw. By the 5th day after onset of CCD, there was a novel upregulation in neuronal expression of the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2) and also its receptor, CCR2. The neurons developed, in response to topically applied MCP-1, an excitatory response that they normally do not have. CCD also activated non-neuronal cells including, for example, the endothelial cells as evidenced by angiogenesis in the form of an increased number of capillaries in the DRG after 7 days. A working hypothesis is that the CCD induced changes in neurons and non-neuronal cells that may act together to promote the survival of the injured tissue. The release of ligands such as CCL2, in addition to possibly activating nociceptive neurons (maintaining the pain), may also act to preserve injured cells in the face of ischemia and hypoxia, for example, by promoting angiogenesis. Thus, somal hyperexcitability, as often said of inflammation, may represent a double edged sword.

  5. A general principle governs vision-dependent dendritic patterning of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Ping; Sun, Jin Hao; Tian, Ning

    2014-10-15

    Dendritic arbors of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) collect information over a certain area of the visual scene. The coverage territory and the arbor density of dendrites determine what fraction of the visual field is sampled by a single cell and at what resolution. However, it is not clear whether visual stimulation is required for the establishment of branching patterns of RGCs, and whether a general principle directs the dendritic patterning of diverse RGCs. By analyzing the geometric structures of RGC dendrites, we found that dendritic arbors of RGCs underwent a substantial spatial rearrangement after eye-opening. Light deprivation blocked both the dendritic growth and the branch patterning, suggesting that visual stimulation is required for the acquisition of specific branching patterns of RGCs. We further showed that vision-dependent dendritic growth and arbor refinement occurred mainly in the middle portion of the dendritic tree. This nonproportional growth and selective refinement suggest that the late-stage dendritic development of RGCs is not a passive stretching with the growth of eyes, but rather an active process of selective growth/elimination of dendritic arbors of RGCs driven by visual activity. Finally, our data showed that there was a power law relationship between the coverage territory and dendritic arbor density of RGCs on a cell-by-cell basis. RGCs were systematically less dense when they cover larger territories regardless of their cell type, retinal location, or developmental stage. These results suggest that a general structural design principle directs the vision-dependent patterning of RGC dendrites.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and enhance neuroprotective effects in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yi; Xu, Nuo; Xu, Wei; Xu, Guoxing

    2017-04-01

    The apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells leads to visual impairment and blindness in ocular neurodegenerative diseases, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Mounting evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of DR. In the present study, we investigated whether bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have protective ability to relieve hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury on retinal ganglion cells in vitro. An immortalized retinal ganglion cells, RGC-5 cells, were exposed to an indicated concentration of H2O2 for 24 h. Cell viability was analyzed by CCK-8 assay to find out a certain concentration to build H2O2 oxidative damage model. Morphological changes in RGC-5 cells were observed under optical microscope, and cell apoptosis was detected with Hoechst fluorescence staining. Then, BMSCs were co-cultured with RGC-5 cells in a transwell culture system for 24 h and 48 h. Flow cytometry was performed to qualify the apoptosis rate of RGC-5 cells. Conditioned medium was collected for evaluation the inflammatory cytokines by ELISA. The content of intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was assayed by thiobarbituric acid and xanthine oxidase method, respectively. qRT-PCR and ELISA were conducted for analysis of the expression changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), respectively. After H2O2 exposure, the morphological varieties were observed as cytoplasm shrinking and paramorphia together with nuclear gathering. Meanwhile, the apoptotic cells had hyperfluorescence with Hoechst 33258 staining. Co-culture with BMSCs significantly inhibited retinal cell death. It was found that BMSCs reduced H2O2-induced inflammatory factors IL-1β and TNF-α, down-regulated intracellular oxidant factor MDA, up-regulated intracellular antioxidant factor SOD, and increased neurotrophins BDNF and CNTF expression. BMSCs may enhance protective effect of RGC-5 cells in H2O2-induced

  7. Regenerative Responses and Axon Pathfinding of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Chronically Injured Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yungher, Benjamin J.; Ribeiro, Márcio; Park, Kevin K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Enhanced regeneration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons can be achieved by modification of numerous neuronal-intrinsic factors. However, axon growth initiation and the pathfinding behavior of these axons after traumatic injury remain poorly understood outside of acute injury paradigms, despite the clinical relevance of more chronic settings. We therefore examined RGC axon regeneration following therapeutic delivery that is postponed until 2 months after optic nerve crush injury. Methods Optic nerve regeneration was induced by virally mediated (adeno-associated virus) ciliary neurotrophic factor (AAV-CNTF) administered either immediately or 56 days after optic nerve crush in wild-type or Bax knockout (KO) mice. Retinal ganglion nerve axon regeneration was assessed 21 and 56 days after viral injection. Immunohistochemical analysis of RGC injury signals and extrinsic factors in the optic nerve were also examined at 5 and 56 days post crush. Results In addition to sustained expression of injury response proteins in surviving RGCs, we observe axon regrowth in wild-type and apoptosis-deficient Bax KO mice following AAV-CNTF treatment. Fewer instances of aberrant axon growth are seen, at least in the area near the lesion site, in animals given treatment 56 days after crush injury compared to the animals given treatment immediately after injury. We also find evidence of long distance growth into a visual target in Bax KO mice despite postponed initiation of this regenerative program. Conclusions These studies provide evidence against an intrinsic critical period for RGC axon regeneration or degradation of injury signals. Regeneration results from Bax KO mice imply highly sustained regenerative capacity in RGCs, highlighting the importance of long-lasting neuroprotective strategies as well as of RGC axon guidance research in chronically injured animals. PMID:28324115

  8. Palmitic acid triggers cell apoptosis in RGC-5 retinal ganglion cells through the Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Panshi; Tang, Shu; Zhang, Haifeng; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zeng, Zhiwen; Wen, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Hallmarks of the pathophysiology of glaucoma are oxidative stress and apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Lipotoxicity, involving a series of pathological cellular responses after exposure to elevated levels of fatty acids, leads to oxidative stress and cell death in various cell types. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B/Forkhead box O1 (PI3K/Akt/FoxO1) pathway is crucial for cell survival and apoptosis. More importantly, FoxO1 gene has been reported to confer relatively higher risks for eye diseases including glaucoma. However, little information is available regarding the interaction between FoxO1 and RGC apoptosis, much less a precise mechanism. In the present study, immortalized rat retinal ganglion cell line 5 (RGC-5) was used as a model to study the toxicity of palmitic acid (PA), as well as underlying mechanisms. We found that PA exposure significantly decreased cell viability by enhancing apoptosis in RGC-5 cells, as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry. PA also induced a remarkable increase in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde. Moreover, PA significantly decreased the level of phospho-Akt and phospho-FoxO1 in cells. Finally, shRNA knockdown and plasmid overexpression studies displayed that downregulation of Akt protein or upregulation of FoxO1 protein augmented cell death, while knockdown of FoxO1 or overexpression of Akt1 abolished PA-induced cell death. Collectively, our results indicated that PA-induced cell death is mediated through modulation of Akt/FoxO1 pathway activity.

  9. Immature enteric ganglion cells were observed in a 13-year-old colon signet ring cell carcinoma patient: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Huili; Huang, Kun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ming; Wang, Lixia; Lin, Rong; Liu, Hongli; Gao, Jinbo; Shuai, Xiaoming; Liu, Xinghua; Tao, Kaixiong; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng

    2017-06-01

    All the enteric ganglion cells are fully mature by 2 to 5 years of age in human. No one had reported the presentation of immature enteric ganglion cells in elder ones. Colorectal carcinoma is also rare in the adolescent population. The coincidence of these 2 rare events in a 13-year-old boy has never been reported elsewhere, which may suggest some linkage between them. A 13-year-old boy presented with progressive abdominal pain and melena for 3 months. Computed tomography (CT) scan and endoscopic ultrasonography showed significant abnormality in the transverse colon characteristic of marked mural thickening. The biopsy results indicated signet ring cell carcinoma. A 13-year-old male patient with advanced colon signet ring cell carcinoma. In addition, immature but not mature ganglion cells could be observed in almost all of the slices of the resected nontumorous area of the specimen. The transverse colon tumor was resected and the subsequent histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of primary colon signet ring cell carcinoma. Then the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and biological target therapies subsequently. After 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy and biological target therapies, metastasis was however detected within a year. In this case, a 13-year-old male patient with advanced colon signet ring cell carcinoma were presented. Unexpectedly, immature ganglion cells could be observed in almost all of the slices of the resected nontumorous area of the specimen. It is critical to raise medical awareness and improve the diagnosis and treatment of the signet ring cell carcinoma. This malignancy and the immature ganglion cells may be associated, possibly caused by some unidentified genetic defects. Genome sequencing, histopathological examination, and long-term follow-up of young patients with related diseases, would help further reveal the potential relationship between tumorigenesis and ganglion cells' immaturity, contributing to understanding the

  10. Identification of Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages containing transit amplifying ganglion mother cells.

    PubMed

    Boone, Jason Q; Doe, Chris Q

    2008-08-01

    Mammalian neural stem cells generate transit amplifying progenitors that expand the neuronal population, but these type of progenitors have not been studied in Drosophila. The Drosophila larval brain contains approximately 100 neural stem cells (neuroblasts) per brain lobe, which are thought to bud off smaller ganglion mother cells (GMCs) that each produce two post-mitotic neurons. Here, we use molecular markers and clonal analysis to identify a novel neuroblast cell lineage containing "transit amplifying GMCs" (TA-GMCs). TA-GMCs differ from canonical GMCs in several ways: each TA-GMC has nuclear Deadpan, cytoplasmic Prospero, forms Prospero crescents at mitosis, and generates up to 10 neurons; canonical GMCs lack Deadpan, have nuclear Prospero, lack Prospero crescents at mitosis, and generate two neurons. We conclude that there are at least two types of neuroblast lineages: a Type I lineage where GMCs generate two neurons, and a type II lineage where TA-GMCs have longer lineages. Type II lineages allow more neurons to be produced faster than Type I lineages, which may be advantageous in a rapidly developing organism like Drosophila. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2008.

  11. Ginsenoside Rb1 protects rat retinal ganglion cells against hypoxia and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaochun; Chen, Juying; Huang, Wendong; Zeng, Zhi; Yang, Yongfei; Zhu, Banghao

    2013-11-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) on apoptosis induced by hypoxia and oxidative stress in a retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5). The underlying mechanism was also investigated. RGC-5 cells were pretreated with 10 µmol/l Rb1 for 24 h and exposed to 400 µmol/l cobalt chloride (CoCl2) for 48 h or 600 µmol/l H2O2 for 24 h. The percentage of cells actively undergoing apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. The expression of caspases was determined using western blot analysis. CoCl2 and H2O2 treatments significantly increased the apoptotic percentages to 24.5 and 21.63%, respectively. Pretreatment of Rb1 reduced the total apoptotic percentages to 15.12 and 12.03%, respectively. The expression of cleaved caspase-3, -9 and -8 was increased in the CoCl2-treated group, however, caspase-3 was not increased in the H2O2-treated group. Pretreatment of Rb1 reduced the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and -9 in the CoCl2-treated group, but reduced only cleaved caspase-9 in the H2O2-treated group. These results suggest that Rb1 may prevent RGC-5 cells from apoptosis against hypoxia and oxidative stress via the mitochondrial pathway.

  12. Identification of Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages containing transit amplifying ganglion mother cells

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Jason Q.; Doe, Chris Q.

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian neural stem cells generate transit amplifying progenitors that expand the neuronal population, but these type of progenitors have not been studied in Drosophila. The Drosophila larval brain contains ~100 neural stem cells (neuroblasts) per brain lobe, which are thought to bud off smaller ganglion mother cells (GMCs) that each produce two post-mitotic neurons. Here we use molecular markers and clonal analysis to identify a novel neuroblast cell lineage containing "transit amplifying GMCs" (TA-GMCs). TA-GMCs differ from canonical GMCs in several ways: each TA-GMC has nuclear Deadpan, cytoplasmic Prospero, forms Prospero crescents at mitosis, and generates up to 10 neurons; canonical GMCs lack Deadpan, have nuclear Prospero, lack Prospero crescents at mitosis, and generate two neurons. We conclude that there are at least two types of neuroblast lineages: a type I lineage where GMCs generate two neurons, and a type II lineage where TA-GMCs have longer lineages. Type II lineages allow more neurons to be produced faster than type I lineages, which may be advantageous in a rapidly developing organism like Drosophila. PMID:18548484

  13. Dendritic Morphology of Caudal Periaqueductal Gray Projecting Retinal Ganglion Cells in Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chaoran; Pu, Mingliang; Cui, Qi; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the morphological features of the caudal periaqueductal gray (cPAG)-projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in Mongolian gerbils using retrograde labeling, in vitro intracellular injection, confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction approaches. cPAG-projecting RGCs exhibit small somata (10–17 µm) and irregular dendritic fields (201–298 µm). Sizes of somata and dendritic fields do not show obvious variation at different distance from the optic disk (eccentricity). Dendrites are moderately branched. Morphological analysis (n = 23) reveals that cPAG-projecting RGCs ramified in sublamina a and b in the inner plexiform layer. These cells exhibit different stratification patterns based on the thickness of dendritic bands in sublaminas a and b: majority of analyzed cells (16 out of 23) have two bands of arborizations share similar thickness. The rest of analyzed cells (7 out of 23) exhibit thinner band in sublamina a than in sublamina b. Together, the present study suggests that cPAG of Mongolian gerbil could receive direct retinal inputs from two types of bistratified RGCs. Furthermore, a small subset of melanopsin-expressing RGCs (total 41 in 6 animals) is shown to innervate the rostral PAG (rPAG). Functional characteristics of these non-visual center projecting RGCs remain to be determined. PMID:25054882

  14. Macaque retinal ganglion cell responses to visual patterns: harmonic composition, noise, and psychophysical detectability.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Bonnie; Lee, Barry B; Cao, Dingcai

    2016-06-01

    The goal of these experiments was to test how well cell responses to visual patterns can be predicted from the sinewave tuning curve. Magnocellular (MC) and parvocellular (PC) ganglion cell responses to different spatial waveforms (sinewave, squarewave, and ramp waveforms) were measured across a range of spatial frequencies. Sinewave spatial tuning curves were fit with standard Gaussian models. From these fits, waveforms and spatial tuning of a cell's responses to the other waveforms were predicted for different harmonics by scaling in amplitude for the power in the waveform's Fourier expansion series over spatial frequency. Since higher spatial harmonics move at a higher temporal frequency, an additional scaling for each harmonic by the MC (bandpass) or PC (lowpass) temporal response was included, together with response phase. Finally, the model included a rectifying nonlinearity. This provided a largely satisfactory estimation of MC and PC cell responses to complex waveforms. As a consequence of their transient responses, MC responses to complex waveforms were found to have significantly more energy in higher spatial harmonic components than PC responses. Response variance (noise) was also quantified as a function of harmonic component. Noise increased to some degree for the higher harmonics. The data are relevant for psychophysical detection or discrimination of visual patterns, and we discuss the results in this context.

  15. The Nissl substance of living and fixed spinal ganglion cells. II. An ultraviolet absorption study.

    PubMed

    DEITCH, A D; MOSES, M J

    1957-05-25

    Living chick spinal ganglion neurons grown for 19 to 25 days in vitro were photographed with a color-translating ultraviolet microscope (UV-91) at 265, 287, and 310 mmicro. This instrument was unique in permitting rapid accumulation of ultraviolet information with minimal damage to the cell. In the photographs taken at 265 mmicro of the living neurons, discrete ultraviolet-absorbing cytoplasmic masses were observed which were found to be virtually unchanged in appearance after formalin fixation. These were identical with the Nissl bodies of the same cells seen after staining with basic dyes. The correlation of ultraviolet absorption, ribonuclease extraction, and staining experiments with acid and basic dyes confirmed the ribonucleoprotein nature of these Nissl bodies in the living and fixed cells. No change in distribution or concentration of ultraviolet-absorbing substance was observed in the first 12 ultraviolet photographs of a neuron, and it is concluded that the cells had not been subjected to significant ultraviolet damage during the period of photography. On the basis of these observations, as well as previous findings with phase contrast microscopy, it is concluded that Nissl bodies preexist in the living neuron as discrete aggregates containing high concentrations of nucleoprotein.

  16. Nerve growth factor protects against palmitic acid-induced injury in retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Pan-shi; Tang, Shu; Zhang, Hai-feng; Guo, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Zhi-wen; Wen, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports an important role for nerve growth factor (NGF) in diabetic retinopathy. We hypothesized that NGF has a protective effect on rat retinal ganglion RGC-5 cells injured by palmitic acid (PA), a metabolic factor implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications. Our results show that PA exposure caused apoptosis of RGC-5 cells, while NGF protected against PA insult in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, NGF significantly attenuated the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in RGC-5 cells. Pathway inhibitor tests showed that the protective effect of NGF was completely reversed by LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), Akt VIII inhibitor, and PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor). Western blot analysis revealed that NGF induced the phosphorylation of Akt/FoxO1 and ERK1/2 and reversed the PA-evoked reduction in the levels of these proteins. These results indicate that NGF protects RGC-5 cells against PA-induced injury through anti-oxidation and inhibition of apoptosis by modulation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:28123432

  17. Manganese is toxic to spiral ganglion neurons and hair cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dalian; Roth, Jerome; Salvi, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Occupational exposure to high atmospheric levels of Mn produces a severe and debilitating disorder known as manganism characterized by extrapyramidal disturbances similar to that seen in Parkinson's disease. Epidemiological and case studies suggest that persistent exposures to Mn may have deleterious effects on other organs including the auditory system and hearing. Mn accumulates in the inner ear following acute exposure raising the possibility that it can damage the sensory hair cells that convert sound into neural activity or spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) that transmit acoustic information from the hair cells to the brain via the auditory nerve. In this paper we demonstrate for first time that Mn causes significant damage to the sensory hair cells, peripheral auditory nerve fibers (ANF) and SGN in cochlear organotypic cultures isolated from postnatal day three rats. The peripheral ANF that make synaptic contact with the sensory hair cells were particularly vulnerable to Mn toxicity; damage occurred at concentrations as low 0.01 mM and increased with dose and duration of Mn exposure. Sensory hair cells, in contrast, were slightly more resistant to Mn toxicity than the ANF. Mn induced an atypical pattern of sensory cell damage; Mn was more toxic to inner hair cells (IHC) than outer hair cells (OHC) and in addition, IHC loss was relatively uniform along the length of the cochlea. Mn also caused significant loss and shrinkage of SGN soma. These findings are the first to demonstrate that Mn can produce severe lesions to both neurons and hair cells in the postnatal inner ear.

  18. Differential responses to high-frequency electrical stimulation in ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twyford, Perry; Cai, Changsi; Fried, Shelley

    2014-04-01

    Objective. The field of retinal prosthetics for artificial vision has advanced considerably in recent years, however clinical outcomes remain inconsistent. The performance of retinal prostheses is likely limited by the inability of electrical stimuli to preferentially activate different types of retinal ganglion cell (RGC). Approach. Here we examine the response of rabbit RGCs to high-frequency stimulation, using biphasic pulses applied at 2000 pulses per second. Responses were recorded using cell-attached patch clamp methods, and stimulation was applied epiretinally via a small cone electrode. Main results. When prolonged stimulus trains were applied to OFF-brisk transient (BT) RGCs, the cells exhibited a non-monotonic relationship between response strength and stimulus amplitude; this response pattern was different from those elicited previously by other electrical stimuli. When the amplitude of the stimulus was modulated transiently from a non-zero baseline amplitude, ON-BT and OFF-BT cells exhibited different activity patterns: ON cells showed an increase in activity while OFF cells exhibited a decrease in activity. Using a different envelope to modulate the amplitude of the stimulus, we observed the opposite effect: ON cells exhibited a decrease in activity while OFF cells show an increase in activity. Significance. As ON and OFF RGCs often exhibit opposing activity patterns in response to light stimulation, this work suggests that high-frequency electrical stimulation of RGCs may be able to elicit responses that are more physiological than traditional pulsatile stimuli. Additionally, the prospect of an electrical stimulus capable of cell-type specific selective activation has broad applications throughout the fields of neural stimulation and neuroprostheses.

  19. Manganese is Toxic to Spiral Ganglion Neurons and Hair Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dalian; Roth, Jerome; Salvi, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high atmospheric levels of Mn produces a severe and debilitating disorder known as manganism characterized by extrapyramidal disturbances similar to that seen in Parkinson’s disease. Epidemiological and case studies suggest that persistent exposures to Mn may have deleterious effects on other organs including the auditory system and hearing. Mn accumulates in the inner ear following acute exposure raising the possibility that it can damage the sensory hair cells that convert sound into neural activity or spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) that transmit acoustic information from the hair cells to the brain via the auditory nerve. In this paper we demonstrate for first time that Mn causes significant damage to the sensory hair cells, peripheral auditory nerve fibers (ANF) and SGN in cochlear organotypic cultures isolated from postnatal day three rats. The peripheral ANF that make synaptic contact with the sensory hair cells were particularly vulnerable to Mn toxicity; damage occurred at concentrations as low 0.01 mM and increased with dose and duration of Mn exposure. Sensory hair cells, in contrast, were slightly more resistant to Mn toxicity than the ANF. Mn induced an atypical pattern of sensory cell damage; Mn was more toxic to inner hair cells (IHC) than outer hair cells (OHC) and in addition, IHC loss was relatively uniform along the length of the cochlea. Mn also caused significant loss and shrinkage of SGN soma. These findings are the first to demonstrate that Mn can produce severe lesions to both neurons and hair cells in the postnatal inner ear. PMID:21182863

  20. Apelin-36 is protective against N-methyl-D-aspartic-acid-induced retinal ganglion cell death in the mice.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kenji; Murakami, Yuta; Sawada, Shohei; Ushikubo, Hiroko; Mori, Asami; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Ishii, Kunio

    2016-11-15

    Retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma is caused at least in part by a large Ca(2+) influx through N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. Apelin is a peptide originally found in the tissue extracts of bovine stomach. Recent studies have been shown that apelin protects against the ischemic-reperfused injury in the brain. We examined whether apelin had protective effects on the NMDA-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death using B6.Cg-TgN(Thy1-CFP)23Jrs/J transgenic mice, which express the enhanced cyan fluorescent protein in RGCs in the retina, in vivo. The mice were anesthetized by ketamine and xylazine, and NMDA (40 nmol/eye) was intravitreally injected. We evaluated the effects of apelin-13, [Glp(1)]-apelin-13, a potent agonist of apelin receptor, and apelin-36 on the NMDA-induced retinal ganglion cell death. NMDA-induced retinal ganglion cell loss was clearly seen 7 days after NMDA injection. Intravitreal apelin-36 (0.33 nmol/eye), but not apelin-13 (1 nmol/eye) nor [Glp(1)]-apelin-13 (1 nmol/eye), simultaneously injected with NMDA significantly reduced the cell loss. The protective effect of apelin-36 was not reduced by ML221 (0.1 nmol/eye; 5-[(4-Nitrobenzoyl)oxy]-2-[(2-pyrimidinylthio)methyl]-4H-pyran-4-one), an apelin receptor antagonist, GF109203X (0.03 nmol/eye), a protein kinase C inhibitor, U0126 (0.2 nmol/eye), a MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor, LY294002 (0.1 nmol/eye), a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, Akti 1/2 (0.05 nmol/eye), an Akt inhibitor, or 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (0.2 nmol/eye), a casein kinase-2 inhibitor. In addition, human apelin-36 did not affect the kainic-acid (20 nmol/eye)-induced ganglion cell death. The present study suggests that apelin-36 protects against the NMDA-induced ganglion cell death independently of the activation of apelin receptor in the murine retina in vivo.

  1. Alcohol Disinhibition of Behaviors in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Topper, Stephen M.; Aguilar, Sara C.; Topper, Viktoria Y.; Elbel, Erin; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol has a wide variety of effects on physiology and behavior. One of the most well-recognized behavioral effects is disinhibition, where behaviors that are normally suppressed are displayed following intoxication. A large body of evidence has shown that alcohol-induced disinhibition in humans affects attention, verbal, sexual, and locomotor behaviors. Similar behavioral disinhibition is also seen in many animal models of ethanol response, from invertebrates to mammals and primates. Here we describe several examples of disinhibition in the nematode C. elegans. The nematode displays distinct behavioral states associated with locomotion (crawling on land and swimming in water) that are mediated by dopamine. On land, animals crawl and feed freely, but these behaviors are inhibited in water. We found that additional behaviors, including a variety of escape responses are also inhibited in water. Whereas alcohol non-specifically impaired locomotion, feeding, and escape responses in worms on land, alcohol specifically disinhibited these behaviors in worms immersed in water. Loss of dopamine signaling relieved disinhibition of feeding behavior, while loss of the D1-like dopamine receptor DOP-4 impaired the ethanol-induced disinhibition of crawling. The powerful genetics and simple nervous system of C. elegans may help uncover conserved molecular mechanisms that underlie alcohol-induced disinhibition of behaviors in higher animals. PMID:24681782

  2. Postnatal maturational changes in rat pelvic autonomic ganglion cells: a mixture of steroid-dependent and -independent effects.

    PubMed

    Kanjhan, R; Osborne, P B; Ouyang, M; Keast, J R

    2003-01-01

    Androgens have potent effects on the maturation and maintenance of a number of neural pathways involved in reproductive behaviors in males. Most studies in this area have focused on central pathways, but androgen receptors are expressed by many peripheral neurons innervating reproductive organs, and previous studies have demonstrated structural and chemical changes in these neurons at puberty and after castration. We have performed the first electrophysiological comparison of pelvic autonomic ganglion neurons in male rats before and after puberty and following pre- or postpubertal castration. Studies were performed in vitro on intact ganglia with hypogastric and pelvic nerves attached to allow synaptic activation of sympathetic or parasympathetic neurons, respectively. Pelvic ganglion neurons underwent many changes in their passive and active membrane properties over the pubertal period, and some of these changes were dependent on exposure to circulating androgens. The most pronounced steroid-dependent effects were on membrane capacitance (soma size) in sympathetic neurons and duration of the action potential afterhyperpolarization in tonic neurons. Our study also showed that rat pelvic ganglion cells and their synaptic inputs were more diverse than previously reported. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that rat pelvic ganglion neurons undergo considerable postnatal changes in their electrophysiological properties. The steroid dependence of some of these changes indicates that circulating androgens may influence reproductive behaviors at many locations within the nervous system not just in the brain and spinal cord.

  3. Retinal Ganglion Cell Count Estimates Associated with Early Development of Visual Field Defects in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Felipe A.; Lisboa, Renato; Weinreb, Robert N.; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Girkin, Christopher; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To estimate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) losses associated with the earliest development of visual field defects in glaucoma. Design Observational cohort study. Participants The study group included 53 eyes of 53 patients suspected of having glaucoma who were followed as part of the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma (DIGS) study. These eyes had normal standard automated perimetry (SAP) visual fields at baseline and developed repeatable (3 consecutive) abnormal tests during a median follow-up of 6.7 years. An age-matched control group of 124 eyes of 124 healthy subjects recruited from the general population was included. Methods Estimates of RGC counts were obtained using a previously published model which combines estimates of RGC numbers from SAP sensitivity thresholds and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). For eyes converting to glaucoma, estimates of RGC counts were obtained at the time (within ± 3 months) of the first abnormal visual field, representing the time of earliest detection of visual field losses. Main Outcome Measures Estimates of RGC counts in eyes converting to glaucoma versus healthy eyes. Results The average RGC count estimate in the eyes with early visual field defects was 652057 ± 115829 cells, which was significantly lower than the average of 910584 ± 142412 cells found in healthy eyes (P<0.001). Compared to the average number of RGCs in the healthy group, glaucoma eyes had an average RGC loss of 28.4%, ranging from 6% to 57%, at the time of the earliest visual field defect on SAP. RGC counts performed significantly better than the SDOCT average RNFL thickness parameter in discriminating glaucomatous from healthy eyes with ROC curve areas of 0.95 ± 0.02 versus 0.88 ±0.03, respectively (P=0.001). Conclusion Glaucomatous eyes with the earliest detectable visual field loss on automated perimetry may already show substantial loss of retinal ganglion cells

  4. Axonal Degeneration in Retinal Ganglion Cells Is Associated with a Membrane Polarity-Sensitive Redox Process

    PubMed Central

    Catrinescu, Maria-Magdalena; Binan, Loïc; Costantino, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is a pathophysiological mechanism common to several neurodegenerative diseases. The slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) mutation, which results in reduced axonal degeneration in the central and peripheral nervous systems, has provided insight into a redox-dependent mechanism by which axons undergo self-destruction. We studied early molecular events in axonal degeneration with single-axon laser axotomy and time-lapse imaging, monitoring the initial changes in transected axons of purified retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from wild-type and WldS rat retinas using a polarity-sensitive annexin-based biosensor (annexin B12-Cys101,Cys260-N,N′-dimethyl-N-(iodoacetyl)-N′-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) ethylenediamine). Transected axons demonstrated a rapid and progressive change in membrane phospholipid polarity, manifested as phosphatidylserine externalization, which was significantly delayed and propagated more slowly in axotomized WldS RGCs compared with wild-type axons. Delivery of bis(3-propionic acid methyl ester)phenylphosphine borane complex, a cell-permeable intracellular disulfide-reducing drug, slowed the onset and velocity of phosphatidylserine externalization in wild-type axons significantly, replicating the WldS phenotype, whereas extracellular redox modulation reversed the WldS phenotype. These findings are consistent with an intra-axonal redox mechanism for axonal degeneration associated with the initiation and propagation of phosphatidylserine externalization after axotomy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Axonal degeneration is a neuronal process independent of somal apoptosis, the propagation of which is unclear. We combined single-cell laser axotomy with time-lapse imaging to study the dynamics of phosphatidylserine externalization immediately after axonal injury in purified retinal ganglion cells. The extension of phosphatidylserine externalization was slowed and delayed in Wallerian degeneration slow (WldS) axons and this phenotype could

  5. Selective Vulnerability of Specific Retinal Ganglion Cell Types and Synapses after Transient Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Rebecca E.; Ullian, Erik M.; Wong, Rachel O.L.

    2016-01-01

    Key issues concerning ganglion cell type-specific loss and synaptic changes in animal models of experimental glaucoma remain highly debated. Importantly, changes in the structure and function of various RGC types that occur early, within 14 d after acute, transient intraocular pressure elevation, have not been previously assessed. Using biolistic transfection of individual RGCs and multielectrode array recordings to measure light responses in mice, we examined the effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension on the structure and function of a subset of RGCs. Among the α-like RGCs studied, αOFF-transient RGCs exhibited higher rates of cell death, with corresponding reductions in dendritic area, dendritic complexity, and synapse density. Functionally, OFF-transient RGCs displayed decreases in spontaneous activity and receptive field size. In contrast, neither αOFF-sustained nor αON-sustained RGCs displayed decreases in light responses, although they did exhibit a decrease in excitatory postsynaptic sites, suggesting that synapse loss may be one of the earliest signs of degeneration. Interestingly, presynaptic ribbon density decreased to a greater degree in the OFF sublamina of the inner plexiform layer, corroborating the hypothesis that RGCs with dendrites stratifying in the OFF sublamina may be damaged early. Indeed, OFF arbors of ON-OFF RGCs lose complexity more rapidly than ON arbors. Our results reveal type-specific differences in RGC responses to injury with a selective vulnerability of αOFF-transient RGCs, and furthermore, an increased susceptibility of synapses in the OFF sublamina. The selective vulnerability of specific RGC types offers new avenues for the design of more sensitive functional tests and targeted neuroprotection. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Conflicting reports regarding the selective vulnerability of specific retinal ganglion cell (RGC) types in glaucoma exist. We examine, for the first time, the effects of transient intraocular pressure

  6. Stage-specific differentiation of iPSCs toward retinal ganglion cell lineage

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fei; Chen, Mengfei; Liu, Ying; Hu, Huiling; Xiong, Yunfan; Xu, Chaochao; Liu, Yuchun; Li, Kangjun; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose As an alternative and desirable approach for regenerative medicine, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology raises the possibility of developing patient-tailored cell therapies to treat intractable degenerative diseases in the future. This study was undertaken to guide human Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts-derived iPSCs (TiPSCs) to differentiate along the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) lineage, aiming at producing appropriate cellular material for RGC regeneration. Methods By mimicking RGC genesis, we deliberately administered the whole differentiation process and directed the stage-specific differentiation of human TiPSCs toward an RGC fate via manipulation of the retinal inducers (DKK1+Noggin+Lefty A) alongside master gene (Atoh7) sequentially. Throughout this stepwise differentiation process, changes in primitive neuroectodermal, eye field, and RGC marker expression were monitored with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunocytochemistry, and/or flow cytometry. Results Upon retinal differentiation, a large fraction of the cells developed characteristics of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in response to simulated environment signaling (DKK1+Noggin+Lefty A), which was selectively recovered with manual isolation approaches and then maintained in the presence of mitogen for multiple passages. Thereafter, overexpression of ATOH7 further promoted RGC specification in TiPSC-derived RPCs. A subset of transfected cells displayed RGC-specific expression patterns, including Brn3b, iSlet1, calretinin, and Tuj, and approximately 23% of Brn3b-positive RGC-like cells were obtained finally. Conclusions Our DKK1+Noggin+Lefty A/Atoh7-based RGC-induction regime could efficiently direct TiPSCs to differentiate along RGC lineage in a stage-specific manner, which may provide a benefit to develop possible cell therapies to treat retinal degenerative diseases such as glaucoma. PMID:27293372

  7. Pushing the envelope of retinal ganglion cell genesis: context dependent function of Math5 (Atoh7)

    PubMed Central

    Prasov, Lev; Glaser, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The basic-helix-loop helix factor Math5 (Atoh7) is required for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) development. However, only 10% of Math5-expressing cells adopt the RGC fate, and most become photoreceptors. In principle, Math5 may actively bias progenitors towards RGC fate or passively confer competence to respond to instructive factors. To distinguish these mechanisms, we misexpressed Math5 in a wide population of precursors using a Crx BAC or 2.4 kb promoter, and followed cell fates with Cre recombinase. In mice, the Crx cone-rod homeobox gene and Math5 are expressed shortly after cell cycle exit, in temporally distinct, but overlapping populations of neurogenic cells that give rise to 85% and 3% of the adult retina, respectively. The Crx > Math5 transgenes did not stimulate RGC fate or alter the timing of RGC births. Likewise, retroviral Math5 overexpression in retinal explants did not bias progenitors towards the RGC fate or induce cell cycle exit. The Crx>Math5 transgene did reduce the abundance of early-born (E15.5) photoreceptors two-fold, suggesting a limited cell fate shift. Nonetheless, retinal histology was grossly normal, despite widespread persistent Math5 expression. In an RGC-deficient (Math5 knockout) environment, Crx>Math5 partially rescued RGC and optic nerve development, but the temporal envelope of RGC births was not extended. The number of early-born RGCs (before E13) remained very low, and this was correlated with axon pathfinding defects and cell death. Together, these results suggest that Math5 is not sufficient to stimulate RGC fate. Our findings highlight the robust homeostatic mechanisms, and role of pioneering neurons in RGC development. PMID:22609278

  8. Differential Calcium Signaling Mediated by Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells and Their Unmyelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Sargoy, Allison; Sun, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant calcium regulation has been implicated as a causative factor in the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in numerous injury models of optic neuropathy. Since calcium has dual roles in maintaining homeostasis and triggering apoptotic pathways in healthy and injured cells, respectively, investigation of voltage-gated Ca channel (VGCC) regulation as a potential strategy to reduce the loss of RGCs is warranted. The accessibility and structure of the retina provide advantages for the investigation of the mechanisms of calcium signalling in both the somata of ganglion cells as well as their unmyelinated axons. The goal of the present study was to determine the distribution of VGCC subtypes in the cell bodies and axons of ganglion cells in the normal retina and to define their contribution to calcium signals in these cellular compartments. We report L-type Ca channel α1C and α1D subunit immunoreactivity in rat RGC somata and axons. The N-type Ca channel α1B subunit was in RGC somata and axons, while the P/Q-type Ca channel α1A subunit was only in the RGC somata. We patch clamped isolated ganglion cells and biophysically identified T-type Ca channels. Calcium imaging studies of RGCs in wholemounted retinas showed that selective Ca channel antagonists reduced depolarization-evoked calcium signals mediated by L-, N-, P/Q- and T-type Ca channels in the cell bodies but only by L-type Ca channels in the axons. This differential contribution of VGCC subtypes to calcium signals in RGC somata and their axons may provide insight into the development of target-specific strategies to spare the loss of RGCs and their axons following injury. PMID:24416240

  9. Inhibition of calcium channels by neurokinin receptor and signal transduction in hamster submandibular ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Endoh, T; Suzuki, T

    1999-04-16

    Both substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) are known as neurotransmitters of the submandibular ganglion (SMG) neurons. SP released from collaterals of the sensory nerves also regulates the excitability of SMG neurons. It has recently been shown that neurokinins (NK) inhibit calcium channels in various neurons. In this study, the effects of NK on voltage-dependent calcium channel current (I(Ca)) in SMG cells were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording method. NK-1 receptor agonist and SP caused inhibition of I(Ca) in SMG cells in a dose-dependent manner. NK-1 receptor agonist inhibited L-, N- and P/Q-type I(Ca) components. GDP-beta-S included in the pipette solution reduced the NK-1 receptor agonist-induced inhibition of I(Ca). In addition, NK-1 receptor agonist-induced inhibition of I(Ca) was reduced by stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) but not cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The results provided evidence for a signal transduction pathway in which calcium channel inhibition by NK receptors required activation of G-protein and PKC-affected step phosphorylation in SMG neurons.

  10. Homotypic constraints dominate positioning of on- and off-center beta retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    EGLEN, STEPHEN J.; DIGGLE, PETER J.; TROY, JOHN B.

    2006-01-01

    Beta retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of the cat are classified as either on-center or off-center, according to their response to light. The cell bodies of these on- and off-center RGCs are spatially distributed into regular patterns, known as retinal mosaics. In this paper, we investigate the nature of spatial dependencies between the positioning of on- and off-center RGCs by analysing maps of RGCs and simulating these patterns. We introduce principled approaches to parameter estimation, along with likelihood-based techniques to evaluate different hypotheses. Spatial constraints between cells within-type and between-type are assumed to be controlled by two univariate interaction functions and one bivariate interaction function. By making different assumptions on the shape of the bivariate interaction function, we can compare the hypothesis of statistical independence against the alternative hypothesis of functional independence, where interactions between type are limited to preventing somal overlap. Our findings suggest that the mosaics of on- and off-center beta RGCs are likely to be generated assuming functional independence between the two types. By contrast, allowing a more general form of bivariate interaction function did not improve the likelihood of generating the observed maps. On- and off-center beta RGCs are therefore likely to be positioned subject only to homotypic constraints and the physical constraint that no two somas of opposite type can occupy the same position. PMID:16469193

  11. Activation of autophagy induces retinal ganglion cell death in a chronic hypertensive glaucoma model

    PubMed Central

    Park, H-Y Lopilly; Kim, J H; Park, C K

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is reported to have important roles in relation to regulated cell death pathways and neurodegeneration. This study used chronic hypertensive glaucoma rat model to investigate whether the autophagy pathway has a role in the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. Under electron microscopy, autophagosomes were markedly accumulated in the dendrites and cytoplasm of RGCs after IOP elevation. Western blot analysis showed that LC3-II/LC3-I and beclin-1 were upregulated throughout the 8-weeks period after IOP elevation. The pattern of LC3 immunostaining showed autophagy activation in the cytoplasm of RGCs to increase and peak at 4 weeks after IOP elevation. Most of these LC3B-positive RGCs underwent apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling, and inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine decreased RGC apoptosis. The activated pattern shows that autophagy is initially activated in the dendrites of the RGCs, but, thereafter autophagy is mainly activated in the cytoplasm of RGCs. This may show that autophagy is differently regulated in different compartments of the neuron. This present study showed that autophgy is activated in RGCs and has a role in autophagic cell death after chronic IOP elevation. PMID:22476098

  12. Differential gene expression profiling of large and small retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Dmitry; Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Barakat, David J.; Nathanson, Lubov; Shestopalov, Valery I.

    2014-01-01

    Different sub-populations of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) vary in their sensitivity to pathological conditions such as retinal ischemia, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of such groups will likely reveal molecular determinants of differential sensitivity to stress. However, gene expression profiling of primary neuronal sub-populations represent a challenge due to the cellular heterogeneity of retinal tissue. In this manuscript, we report the use of a fluorescent neural tracer to specifically label and selectively isolate RGCs with different soma sizes by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for the purpose of differential gene expression profiling. We identified 145 genes that were more active in the large RGCs and 312 genes in the small RGCs. Differential data were validated by quantitative RT-PCR, several corresponding proteins were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Functional characterization revealed differential activity of genes implicated in synaptic transmission, neurotransmitter secretion, axon guidance, chemotaxis, ion transport and tolerance to stress. An in silico reconstruction of cellular networks suggested that differences in pathway activity between the two sub-populations of RGCs are controlled by networks interconnected by SP-1, Erk2(MAPK1), Egr1, Egr2 and, potentially, regulated via transcription factors C/EBPbeta, HSF1, STAT1- and c-Myc. The results show that FACS-aided purification of retrogradely labeled cells can be effectively utilized for transcriptional profiling of adult retinal neurons. PMID:18640154

  13. Fast estimation of motion from selected populations of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Cerquera, Alexander; Freund, Jan

    2011-02-01

    We explore how the reconstruction efficiency of fast spike population codes varies with population size, population composition and code complexity. Our study is based on experiments with moving light patterns which are projected onto the isolated retina of a turtle Pseudemys scripta elegans. The stimulus features to reconstruct are sequences of velocities kept constant throughout segments of 500 ms. The reconstruction is based on the spikes of a retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population recorded extracellularly via a multielectrode array. Subsequent spike sorting yields the parallel spike trains of 107 RGCs as input to the reconstruction method, here a discriminant analysis trained and tested in jack-knife fashion. Motivated by behavioral response times, we concentrate on fast reconstruction, i.e., within 150 ms following a trigger event defined via significant changes of the population spike rate. Therefore, valid codes involve only few (≤3) spikes per cell. Using only the latency t(1) of each cell (with reference to the trigger event) corresponds to the most parsimonious population code considered. We evaluate the gain in reconstruction efficiency when supplementing t(1) by spike times t(2) and t(3). Furthermore, we investigate whether sub-populations of smaller size benefit significantly from a selection process or whether random compilations are equally efficient. As selection criteria we try different concepts (directionality, reliability, and discriminability). Finally, we discuss the implications of a selection process and its inter-relation with code complexity for optimized reconstruction.

  14. The spatial distribution of glutamatergic inputs to dendrites of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Tatjana C; Koizumi, Amane; Masland, Richard H

    2008-09-10

    The spatial pattern of excitatory glutamatergic input was visualized in a large series of ganglion cells of the rabbit retina, by using particle-mediated gene transfer of an expression plasmid for postsynaptic density 95-green fluorescent protein (PSD95-GFP). PSD95-GFP was confirmed as a marker of excitatory input by co-localization with synaptic ribbons (RIBEYE and kinesin II) and glutamate receptor subunits. Despite wide variation in the size, morphology, and functional complexity of the cells, the distribution of excitatory synaptic inputs followed a single set of rules: 1) the linear density of synaptic inputs (PSD95 sites/linear mum) varied surprisingly little and showed little specialization within the arbor; 2) the total density of excitatory inputs across individual arbors peaked in a ring-shaped region surrounding the soma, which is in accord with high-resolution maps of receptive field sensitivity in the rabbit; and 3) the areal density scaled inversely with the total area of the dendritic arbor, so that narrow dendritic arbors receive more synapses per unit area than large ones. To achieve sensitivity comparable to that of large cells, those that report upon a small region of visual space may need to receive a denser synaptic input from within that space.

  15. Gene delivery into mouse retinal ganglion cells by in utero electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Frigola, Cristina; Carreres, Maria Isabel; Vegar, Celia; Herrera, Eloisa

    2007-01-01

    Background The neural retina is a highly structured tissue of the central nervous system that is formed by seven different cell types that are arranged in layers. Despite much effort, the genetic mechanisms that underlie retinal development are still poorly understood. In recent years, large-scale genomic analyses have identified candidate genes that may play a role in retinal neurogenesis, axon guidance and other key processes during the development of the visual system. Thus, new and rapid techniques are now required to carry out high-throughput analyses of all these candidate genes in mammals. Gene delivery techniques have been described to express exogenous proteins in the retina of newborn mice but these approaches do not efficiently introduce genes into the only retinal cell type that transmits visual information to the brain, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Results Here we show that RGCs can be targeted for gene expression by in utero electroporation of the eye of mouse embryos. Accordingly, using this technique we have monitored the morphology of electroporated RGCs expressing reporter genes at different developmental stages, as well as their projection to higher visual targets. Conclusion Our method to deliver ectopic genes into mouse embryonic retinas enables us to follow the course of the entire retinofugal pathway by visualizing RGC bodies and axons. Thus, this technique will permit to perform functional studies in vivo focusing on neurogenesis, axon guidance, axon projection patterning or neural connectivity in mammals. PMID:17875204

  16. Regulation of Neonatal Development of Retinal Ganglion Cell Dendrites by Neurotrophin-3 Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaorong; Robinson, Michael L.; Schreiber, Ann Marie; Wu, Vincent; LaVail, Matthew M.; Cang, Jianhua; Copenhagen, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The morphology of dendrites constrains and reflects the nature of synaptic inputs to neurons. The visual system has served as a useful model to show how visual function is determined by the arborization patterns of neuronal processes. In retina, light ON and light OFF responding ganglion cells selectively elaborate their dendritic arbors in distinct sublamina, where they receive, respectively, inputs from ON and OFF bipolar cells. During neonatal maturation, the bi-laminarly distributed dendritic arbors of ON-OFF RGCs are refined to more narrowly localized monolaminar structures characteristic of ON or OFF RGCs. Recently, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to regulate this laminar refinement, and, additionally, to enhance the development of dendritic branches selectively of ON RGCs. Although other related neurotrophins are known to regulate neuronal process formation in the central nervous system, little is known about their action in maturing retina. Here, we report that overexpression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in the eye accelerates RGC laminar refinement before eye opening. Furthermore, NT-3 overexpression increases dendritic branch number but reduces dendritic elongation preferentially in ON-OFF RGCs, a process that also occurs before eye opening. NT-3 overexpression does affect dendritic maturation in ON RGCs, but to a much less degree. Taken together, our results suggest that NT-3 and BDNF exhibit overlapping effects in laminar refinement but distinct RGC-cell-type specific effects in shaping dendritic arborization during postnatal development. PMID:19350645

  17. [Exclusive radiotherapy for a facial basal cell carcinoma with trigeminal ganglion involvement].

    PubMed

    Longeac, M; Lapeyre, M; Delbet Dupas, C; Barthélémy, I; Pham Dang, N

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinomas with symptomatic perineural invasion are rare entities. We report the case of a 60year-old man (with a grafted kidney), surgically treated in 2007 for a sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma infiltrating the left nostril. Five years later, a painful left hemifacial hypoesthesia associated with an ulcus rodens of the nasolabial fold appeared. A biopsy confirmed a recurrence. MRI showed an enhancement of the trigeminal ganglion. The patient had a trigeminal perineural invasion secondary to a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma. He received a local intensity-modulated radiotherapy alone (70Gy in 33 sessions), administered from the skin tumour to the skull base. Three years after the end of treatment, the patient is in radiological and clinical remission, with partial recovery of the hypoesthesia. Evolution was marked by iterative corneal ulcers and decreased visual acuity. Modalities of treatment by surgery and/or radiation therapy and complications are poorly described in the literature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Retinal Waves Modulate an Intraretinal Circuit of Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, David A.; Kirkby, Lowry A.

    2016-01-01

    Before the maturation of rod and cone photoreceptors, the developing retina relies on light detection by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) to drive early light-dependent behaviors. ipRGCs are output neurons of the retina; however, they also form functional microcircuits within the retina itself. Whether ipRGC microcircuits exist during development and whether they influence early light detection remain unknown. Here, we investigate the neural circuit that underlies the ipRGC-driven light response in developing mice. We use a combination of calcium imaging, tracer coupling, and electrophysiology experiments to show that ipRGCs form extensive gap junction networks that strongly contribute to the overall light response of the developing retina. Interestingly, we found that gap junction coupling was modulated by spontaneous retinal waves, such that acute blockade of waves dramatically increased the extent of coupling and hence increased the number of light-responsive neurons. Moreover, using an optical sensor, we found that this wave-dependent modulation of coupling is driven by dopamine that is phasically released by retinal waves. Our results demonstrate that ipRGCs form gap junction microcircuits during development that are modulated by retinal waves; these circuits determine the extent of the light response and thus potentially impact the processing of early visual information and light-dependent developmental functions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Light-dependent functions in early development are mediated by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Here we show that ipRGCs form an extensive gap junction network with other retinal neurons, including other ipRGCs, which shapes the retina's overall light response. Blocking cholinergic retinal waves, which are the primary source of neural activity before maturation of photoreceptors, increased the extent of ipRGC gap junction networks, thus increasing the number of light

  19. Methane rescues retinal ganglion cells and limits retinal mitochondrial dysfunction following optic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruobing; Sun, Qinglei; Xia, Fangzhou; Chen, Zeli; Wu, Jiangchun; Zhang, Yuelu; Xu, Jiajun; Liu, Lin

    2017-06-01

    Secondary degeneration is a common event in traumatic central nervous system disorders, which involves neuronal apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Exogenous methane exerts the therapeutic effects in many organ injury. Our study aims to investigate the potential neuroprotection of methane in a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ONC and administrated intraperitoneally with methane-saturated or normal saline (10 ml/kg) once per day for one week after ONC. The retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) density was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Fluoro-Gold retrogradely labeling. Visual function was evaluated by flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP). The retinal apoptosis was measured by terminal-deoxy-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and the expression of apoptosis-related factors, such as phosphorylated Bcl-2-associated death promoter (pBAD), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (pGSK-3β), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 extra large (Bcl-xL). Retinal mitochondrial function was assessed by the mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, citrate synthase activity and ATP content. Methane treatment significantly improved the RGC loss and visual dysfunction following ONC. As expected, methane also remarkably inhibited the retinal neural apoptosis, such as the fewer TUNEL-positive cells in ganglion cell layer, accompanied by the up-regulations of anti-apoptotic factors (pGSK-3β, pBAD, Bcl-xL) and the down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor (Bax). Furthermore, methane treatment suppressed up-regulations of critical mitochondrial components (PGC-1α, NRF1 and TFAM) mRNA and mtDNA copy number, as well as improved the reduction of functional mitochondria markers, including citrate synthase

  20. Retinal Waves Modulate an Intraretinal Circuit of Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, David A; Kirkby, Lowry A; Feller, Marla B

    2016-06-29

    Before the maturation of rod and cone photoreceptors, the developing retina relies on light detection by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) to drive early light-dependent behaviors. ipRGCs are output neurons of the retina; however, they also form functional microcircuits within the retina itself. Whether ipRGC microcircuits exist during development and whether they influence early light detection remain unknown. Here, we investigate the neural circuit that underlies the ipRGC-driven light response in developing mice. We use a combination of calcium imaging, tracer coupling, and electrophysiology experiments to show that ipRGCs form extensive gap junction networks that strongly contribute to the overall light response of the developing retina. Interestingly, we found that gap junction coupling was modulated by spontaneous retinal waves, such that acute blockade of waves dramatically increased the extent of coupling and hence increased the number of light-responsive neurons. Moreover, using an optical sensor, we found that this wave-dependent modulation of coupling is driven by dopamine that is phasically released by retinal waves. Our results demonstrate that ipRGCs form gap junction microcircuits during development that are modulated by retinal waves; these circuits determine the extent of the light response and thus potentially impact the processing of early visual information and light-dependent developmental functions. Light-dependent functions in early development are mediated by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Here we show that ipRGCs form an extensive gap junction network with other retinal neurons, including other ipRGCs, which shapes the retina's overall light response. Blocking cholinergic retinal waves, which are the primary source of neural activity before maturation of photoreceptors, increased the extent of ipRGC gap junction networks, thus increasing the number of light-responsive cells. We

  1. Retinal ganglion cells in the eastern newt Notophthalmus viridescens: topography, morphology, and diversity.

    PubMed

    Pushchin, Igor I; Karetin, Yuriy A

    2009-10-20

    The topography and morphology of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the eastern newt were studied. Cells were retrogradely labeled with tetramethylrhodamine-conjugated dextran amines or horseradish peroxidase and examined in retinal wholemounts. Their total number was 18,025 +/- 3,602 (mean +/- SEM). The spatial density of RGCs varied from 2,100 cells/mm(2) in the retinal periphery to 4,500 cells/mm(2) in the dorsotemporal retina. No prominent retinal specializations were found. The spatial resolution estimated from the spatial density of RGCs varied from 1.4 cycles per degree in the periphery to 1.95 cycles per degree in the region of the peak RGC density. A sample of 68 cells was camera lucida drawn and subjected to quantitative analysis. A total of 21 parameters related to RGC morphology and stratification in the retina were estimated. Partitionings obtained by using different clustering algorithms combined with automatic variable weighting and dimensionality reduction techniques were compared, and an effective solution was found by using silhouette analysis. A total of seven clusters were identified and associated with potential cell types. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA-on-Ranks with post hoc Mann-Whitney U tests showed significant pairwise between-cluster differences in one or more of the clustering variables. The average silhouette values of the clusters were reasonably high, ranging from 0.52 to 0.79. Cells assigned to the same cluster displayed similar morphology and stratification in the retina. The advantages and limitations of the methodology adopted are discussed. The present classification is compared with known morphological and physiological RGC classifications in other salamanders.

  2. Long-term Fluorometholone Topical Use Induces Ganglion Cell Damage in Rats Analyzed With Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Hui; Liao, Po-Lin; Hsiao, George; Li, Ching-Hao; Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Tsai, Chi-Hao; Wu, Man-Ru; Lin, Fan-Li; Ho, Jau-Der; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Cheng, Yu-Wen

    2015-10-01

    To determine the toxic effects of long-term topical usage of fluorometholone (FLM) on ganglion cells using a direct in vivo retinopathological Brown Norway (BN) rat model. The BN rat retinal model was investigated with a minimum of 3 rats and a maximum of 4 rats per group. Rats received vehicle and 0.02% FLM suspension via topical administration 3 times a day for 28 days. The fundus images and retinal vessels were detected on days 1, 14, and 28 using Micron III retinal imaging microscope and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA). For retinal structures, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images were taken after FFA on days 1, 14, and 28 using an SD-OCT Imaging System. For retinal function, electrical signal transduction of photoreceptors and bipolar cells was determined by electroretinographic (ERG) recording on days 1 and 28 and IOP detection. At the end of the experiment on day 28, immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay were performed to investigate apoptosis in ganglion cells. Total retina and nerve fiber layer (NFL) to the inner plexiform layer (IPL) were significantly thinner following 28 days of FLM treatment. Hematoxylin and eosin stain showed that there were NFL and ganglion cell layer deformations in the FLM group. With FLM treatment, TUNEL assay showed approximately a 4.68-fold increase in apoptotic cells. Moreover, FLM decreased ERG b-wave amplitude by about 56%. Using ophthalmofundoscopy devices, after 28 days of topical administration, FLM decreased NFL-IPL and total retina thickness. This suggests that long-term FLM induces adverse effects with respect to ganglion cell apoptosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Immuocytochemical analysis of spatial organization of photoreceptors and amacrine and ganglion cells in the tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Zhuo; Wu, Samuel M

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, using double- or triple-label immunocytochemistry in conjunction with confocal microscopy, we aimed to examine the population and distribution of photoreceptors, GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells, and ganglion cells, which are basic but important parameters for studying the structure-function relationship of the salamander retina. We found that the outer nuclear layer (ONL) contained 82,019 +/- 3203 photoreceptors, of which 52% were rods and 48% were cones. The density of photoreceptors peaked at approximately 8000 cells/mm2 in the ventral and dropped to approximately 4000 cells/mm2 in the dorsal retina. In addition, the rod/cone ratio was less than 1 in the central retina but larger than I in the periphery. Moreover, in the proximal region of the inner nuclear layer (INL3), the total number of cells was 50,576 +/- 8400. GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells made up approximately 78% of all cells in this layer, including 43% GABAergic, 32% glycinergic, and 3% GABA/glycine colocalized amacrine cells. The density of these amacrine cells was approximately 6500 cells/mm2 in the ventral and approximately 3200 cells/mm2 in the dorsal area. The ratio of GABAergic to glycinergic amacrine cells was larger than 1. Furthermore, in the ganglion cell layer (GCL), among a total of 36,007 +/- 2010 cells, ganglion cells accounted for 65.7 +/- 1.5% of the total cells, whereas displaced GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells comprised about 4% of the cells in this layer. The ganglion cell density was approximately 1800 cells/mm2 in the ventral and approximately 600 cells/mm2 in the dorsal retina. Our data demonstrate that all three major cell types are not uniformly distributed across the salamander retina. Instead, they exhibit a higher density in the ventral than in the dorsal retina and their spatial arrangement is associated with the retinal topography. These findings provide a basic anatomical reference for the electrophysiological study of

  4. Reprogramming amacrine and photoreceptor progenitors into retinal ganglion cells by replacing Neurod1 with Atoh7.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chai-An; Cho, Jang-Hyeon; Wang, Jing; Gao, Zhiguang; Pan, Ping; Tsai, Wen-Wei; Frishman, Laura J; Klein, William H

    2013-02-01

    The specification of the seven retinal cell types from a common pool of retina progenitor cells (RPCs) involves complex interactions between the intrinsic program and the environment. The proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional regulators are key components for the intrinsic programming of RPCs and are essential for the formation of the diverse retinal cell types. However, the extent to which an RPC can re-adjust its inherent program and the mechanisms through which the expression of a particular bHLH factor influences RPC fate is unclear. Previously, we have shown that Neurod1 inserted into the Atoh7 locus activates the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) program in Atoh7-expressing RPCs but not in Neurod1-expressing RPCs, suggesting that Atoh7-expressing RPCs are not able to adopt the cell fate determined by Neurod1, but rather are pre-programmed to produce RGCs. Here, we show that Neurod1-expressing RPCs, which are destined to produce amacrine and photoreceptor cells, can be re-programmed into RGCs when Atoh7 is inserted into the Neurod1 locus. These results suggest that Atoh7 acts dominantly to convert a RPC subpopulation not destined for an RGC fate to adopt that fate. Thus, Atoh7-expressing and Neurod1-expressing RPCs are intrinsically different in their behavior. Additionally, ChIP-Seq analysis identified an Atoh7-dependent enhancer within the intronic region of Nrxn3. The enhancer recognized and used Atoh7 in the developing retina to regulate expression of Nrxn3, but could be forced to use Neurod1 when placed in a different regulatory context. The results indicate that Atoh7 and Neurod1 activate distinct sets of genes in vivo, despite their common DNA-binding element.

  5. The temporal properties of the response of macaque ganglion cells and central mechanisms of flicker detection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barry B.; Sun, Hao; Zucchini, Walter

    2008-01-01

    This analysis assesses sensitivity of primate ganglion cells to sinusoidal modulation as a function of temporal frequency, based on the structure of their impulse trains; sensitivity to luminance and chromatic modulation was compared to human psychophysical sensitivity to similar stimuli. Each stimulus cycle was Fourier analyzed, and response amplitudes subjected to neurometric analysis; this assumes a detector with duration inversely proportional to frequency, that is, the stimulus epoch analyzed is a single cycle rather than a fixed duration, and provides an upper bound for a detection by an observer who bases judgments on a single cell. Signal-to-noise ratio for a given Fourier amplitude rapidly decreased with temporal frequency. This is a consequence of the statistics of impulse trains making up the response; at higher temporal frequencies, there are fewer impulses per cycle. Performance of this “single-cell” observer was then compared with that of modeled central detection mechanisms of fixed duration. For chromatic modulation, a filter/detector with a time constant of ~40 ms operating upon the parvocellular (PC) pathway provided a match to psychophysical results, whereas for luminance modulation, a filter/detection mechanism operating upon the magnocellular (MC) pathway with a time constant of ~5–10 ms provided a suitable match. The effects of summation and nonlinear interactions between cell inputs to detection are also considered in terms of enhanced sensitivity and “sharpness” of thresholds, that is, the steepness of the neurometric function. For both luminance (MC cells) and chromatic modulation (PC cells), restricted convergence (<20 cells) appears adequate to provide sharp thresholds and sensitivity comparable to psychophysical performance. PMID:18217796

  6. Apigenin prevents TNF-α induced apoptosis of primary rat retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, M-S; Zhu, B-J; Luo, D-W

    2014-11-25

    TNF-α has recently been identified to be a mediator of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, while glial cells are relatively protected against this death stimulus. Exposure of RGCs to TNF-α is thought to contribute to RGC apoptosis. Apigenin is a flavone with powerful anti-inflammatory properties that exists naturally in various plants and Chinese medicine. In our study, MTT assays showed that apigenin significantly inhibited the decrease of RGC viability induced by TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with apigenin prevented TNF-α-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as shown by flow cytometry. The production of ATP and the total oxygen uptake were also promoted after apigenin administration. TNF-α stimulation led to a significant reduction of bcl-2 and enhancement of bax, which was reversed by apigenin treatment. Apigenin treatment also alleviated the increased caspase-3 activity induced by TNF-α. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay indicated that apigenin dose-dependently decreased NF-κB activation induced by TNF-α, but had no significant effect on activation of AP-1. Collectively, these data demonstrated that apigenin alleviated TNF-α-induced apoptosis through inhibition of caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB. Therefore, apigenin may be developed as an anti-apoptotic drug to treat retinopathy.

  7. Allicin protects auditory hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons from cisplatin - Induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianmin; Li, Xiaofei; Song, Yongdong; Li, He; Bai, Xiaohui; Liu, Wenwen; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo; Fan, Zhaomin

    2017-04-01

    Cisplatin is a broad-spectrum anticancer drug that is commonly used in the clinic. Ototoxicity is one of the major side effects of this drug, which caused irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Allicin, the main biologically active compound derived from garlic, has been shown to exert various anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative activities in vitro and in vivo studies. We took advantage of C57 mice intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin alone or with cisplatin and allicin combined, to investigate whether allicin plays a protective role in vivo against cisplatin ototoxicity. The result showed that C57 mice in cisplatin group exhibited increased shift in auditory brainstem response, whereas the auditory fuction of mice in allicin + cisplatin group was protected in most frequencies, which was accordance with observed damages of outer hair cells (OHCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in the cochlea. Allicin markedly protected SGN mitochondria from damage and releasing cytochrome c, and significantly reduced pro-apoptosis factor expressions activated by cisplatin, including Bax, cleaved-caspase-9, cleaved-caspase-3and p53. Furthermore, allicin reduced the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA), but increased the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). All data suggested that allicin could prevent hearing loss induced by cisplatin effectively, of which allicin protected SGNs from apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway while protected OHCs and supporting cells (SCs) from apoptosis through p53 pathway.

  8. Serum Response Factor Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells Against High-Glucose Damage.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Junhong; Zhang, Hongbing; Tian, Ying; Liang, Houcheng; Ma, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Serum response factor (SRF), which encodes the MADS-box family of related proteins, is a common transcription factor related to the expression of genes associated with cell survival. However, SRF's role in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after high-glucose injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the protective role of SRF after high-glucose injury and its underlying mechanism. The in vitro RGC model subjected to high glucose was established by employing a 50 mmol/L glucose culture environment. As detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, SRF was significantly upregulated in RGCs treated with high glucose. Overexpression of SRF significantly promoted survival among RGCs exposed to high glucose and inhibited RGC apoptosis. Knockdown of SRF exerted an inverse effect. Moreover, SRF upregulation enhanced expression of an antioxidant protein, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), via control of the Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1). SRF upregulation also affected RGC survival after high-glucose treatment. Our findings showed that overexpression of SRF promoted survival of RGCs after high-glucose injury by regulating Fra-1 and Nrf2.

  9. Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Kevin K; Luo, Xueting; Mooney, Skyler J; Yungher, Benjamin J; Belin, Stephane; Wang, Chen; Holmes, Melissa M; He, Zhigang

    2017-02-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), axonal damage often triggers neuronal cell death and glial activation, with very limited spontaneous axon regeneration. In this study, we performed optic nerve injury in adult naked mole-rats, the longest living rodent, with a maximum life span exceeding 30 years, and found that injury responses in this species are quite distinct from those in other mammalian species. In contrast to what is seen in other mammals, the majority of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive with relatively high spontaneous axon regeneration. Furthermore, injured RGCs display activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), whereas astrocytes in the optic nerve robustly occupy and fill the lesion area days after injury. These neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic injury responses are reminiscent of those in "cold-blooded" animals, such as fish and amphibians, suggesting that the naked mole-rat is a powerful model for exploring the mechanisms of neuronal injury responses and axon regeneration in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:380-388, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Characterizing and modeling the intrinsic light response of rat ganglion-cell photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Walch, Olivia J; Zhang, L Samantha; Reifler, Aaron N; Dolikian, Michael E; Forger, Daniel B; Wong, Kwoon Y

    2015-11-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate both image-forming vision and non-image-forming visual responses such as pupillary constriction and circadian photoentrainment. Five types of ipRGCs, named M1-M5, have been discovered in rodents. To further investigate their photoresponse properties, we made multielectrode array spike recordings from rat ipRGCs, classified them into M1, M2/M4, and M3/M5 clusters, and measured their intrinsic, melanopsin-based responses to single and flickering light pulses. Results showed that ipRGC spiking can track flickers up to ∼0.2 Hz in frequency and that flicker intervals between 5 and 14 s evoke the most spikes. We also learned that melanopsin's integration time is intensity and cluster dependent. Using these data, we constructed a mathematical model for each cluster's intrinsic photoresponse. We found that the data for the M1 cluster are best fit by a model that assumes a large photoresponse, causing the cell to enter depolarization block. Our models also led us to hypothesize that the M2/M4 and M3/M5 clusters experience comparable photoexcitation but that the M3/M5 cascade decays significantly faster than the M2/M4 cascade, resulting in different response waveforms between these clusters. These mathematical models will help predict how each ipRGC cluster might respond to stimuli of any waveform and could inform the invention of lighting technologies that promote health through melanopsin stimulation.

  11. Inhibitory input to the direction-selective ganglion cell is saturated at low contrast

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. Rowland; Smith, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) respond selectively to motion toward a “preferred” direction, but much less to motion toward the opposite “null” direction. Directional signals in the DSGC depend on GABAergic inhibition and are observed over a wide range of speeds, which precludes motion detection based on a fixed temporal correlation. A voltage-clamp analysis, using narrow bar stimuli similar in width to the receptive field center, demonstrated that inhibition to DSGCs saturates rapidly above a threshold contrast. However, for wide bar stimuli that activate both the center and surround, inhibition depends more linearly on contrast. Excitation for both wide and narrow bars was also more linear. We propose that positive feedback, likely within the starburst amacrine cell or its network, produces steep saturation of inhibition at relatively low contrast. This mechanism renders GABA release essentially contrast and speed invariant, which enhances directional signals for small objects and thereby increases the signal-to-noise ratio for direction-selective signals in the spike train over a wide range of stimulus conditions. The steep saturation of inhibition confers to a neuron immunity to noise in its spike train, because when inhibition is strong no spikes are initiated. PMID:26063782

  12. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss is Delayed Following Optic Nerve Crush in NLRP3 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Puyang, Zhen; Feng, Liang; Chen, Hui; Liang, Peiji; Troy, John B.; Liu, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome, a sensor for a variety of pathogen- and host-derived threats, consists of the adaptor ASC (Apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a Caspase Activation and Recruitment Domain (CARD)), pro-caspase-1, and NLRP3 (NOD-Like Receptor family Pyrin domain containing 3). NLRP3-induced neuroinflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of eye diseases, but it remains unclear whether activation of NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Here we examined NLRP3-induced neuroinflammation and RGC survival following partial optic nerve crush (pONC) injury. We showed that NLRP3 was up-regulated in retinal microglial cells following pONC, propagating from the injury site to the optic nerve head and finally the entire retina within one day. Activation of NLRP3-ASC inflammasome led to the up-regulation of caspase-1 and a proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In NLRP3 knockout mice, up-regulation of ASC, caspase-1, and IL-1β were all reduced, and, importantly, RGC and axon loss was substantially delayed following pONC injury. The average survival time of RGCs in NLRP3 knockout mice was about one week longer than for control animals. Taken together, our study demonstrated that ablating the NLRP3 gene significantly reduced neuroinflammation and delayed RGC loss after optic nerve crush injury. PMID:26893104

  13. Combination of rod and cone inputs in parasol ganglion cells of the magnocellular pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dingcai; Lee, Barry B.; Sun, Hao

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how rod and cone inputs are combined in the magnocellular (MC) pathway in the mesopic luminance range, when both rods and cones are active. Responses of parafoveal MC ganglion cells from macaque retina were measured as a function of temporal frequency (0.62–20 Hz) or contrast (0.05–0.55) at mesopic light levels (0.2, 2, 20, and 200 td). Stimuli were of three modulation types: (1) isolated rod stimuli (only rod signals were modulated), (2) isolated cone stimuli (only cone luminance signals from long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones were modulated), and (3) combined rod and cone stimuli (both rod and cone luminance signals were modulated in phase, as with conventional stimuli). The results showed that under mesopic conditions, the relative rod and cone inputs to the MC cells varied with light level and they are combined linearly prior to saturation. Further, rod contrast gain is relatively stable over the mesopic range while cone contrast gain increased with light level. Finally, the measured rod and cone inputs are consistent with the measured human temporal contrast sensitivity functions under comparable stimulation conditions. PMID:20884499

  14. Gap Junctions Are Essential for Generating the Correlated Spike Activity of Neighboring Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paul, David L.; Wang, Jack T.; Huberman, Andrew D.; Bloomfield, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons throughout the brain show spike activity that is temporally correlated to that expressed by their neighbors, yet the generating mechanism(s) remains unclear. In the retina, ganglion cells (GCs) show robust, concerted spiking that shapes the information transmitted to central targets. Here we report the synaptic circuits responsible for generating the different types of concerted spiking of GC neighbors in the mouse retina. The most precise concerted spiking was generated by reciprocal electrical coupling of GC neighbors via gap junctions, whereas indirect electrical coupling to a common cohort of amacrine cells generated the correlated activity with medium precision. In contrast, the correlated spiking with the lowest temporal precision was produced by shared synaptic inputs carrying photoreceptor noise. Overall, our results demonstrate that different synaptic circuits generate the discrete types of GC correlated activity. Moreover, our findings expand our understanding of the roles of gap junctions in the retina, showing that they are essential for generating all forms of concerted GC activity transmitted to central brain targets. PMID:23936012

  15. Micropatterned Methacrylate Polymers Direct Spiral Ganglion Neurite and Schwann Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Joseph C.; Tuft, Bradley W.; Clinger, John D.; Levine, Rachel; Figueroa, Lucas Sievens; Guymon, C. Allan; Hansen, Marlan R.

    2011-01-01

    Significant advances in the functional outcomes achieved with cochlear implantation will likely require tissue-engineering approaches to improve the neural prosthesis interface. One strategy is to direct spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) axon growth in a highly organized fashion to approximate or contact stimulating electrodes. Here we assessed the ability of micropatterns induced by photopolymerization in methacrylate (MA) polymer systems to direct cultured neonatal rat SGN neurite growth and alignment of SG Schwann cells (SGSCs). SGN survival and neurite length were comparable among various polymer compositions. Remarkably, there was no significant difference in SGN survival or neurite length between laminin and non-laminin coated MA polymer substrates, suggesting high biocompatibility with SG tissue. Micropatterning with photopolymerization generated microchannels with a ridge periodicity of 50 µm and channel depths of 0.6–1.0 µm. SGN neurites grew within the grooves of the microchannels. These topographies strongly induced alignment of dissociated SGN neurites and SGSCs to parallel the pattern. By contrast, fibroblasts failed to align with the micropattern suggesting cell specific responses to topographical cues. SGN neurites extending from explants turned to parallel the pattern as they encountered the microchannels. The extent of turning was significantly correlated with angle at which the neurite initially encountered the pattern. These results indicate that SGN neurites respond to microtopographical features and that these features can be used to direct neurite growth in a highly organized fashion. PMID:21616131

  16. N-(4-pyridyl) methyl carbamate inhibits fast potassium currents in guinea pig dorsal root ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjing; Smith, Daniel; Bryn, Steven; Borgens, Richard; Shi, Riyi

    2009-02-15

    Axonal demyelination is a critical pathological phenomenon associated with spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous studies demonstrated that 4-Aminopyridine, a fast potassium channel blocker, enhances impulse conduction on damaged and/or demyelinated axons, allowing for functional recovery in spinal cord injuries and MS, but with severe therapeutic limitations. To continue to explore the therapeutic value of blocking fast potassium channels while circumventing the side effects of 4-AP, we have developed three novel 4-AP derivatives that enhance impulse conduction in spinal cord trauma. In the current study, we have shown that one of these three derivatives, N-(4-pyridyl) methyl carbamates (MC), significantly inhibits a fast, I(A) like potassium current in guinea pig dorsal root ganglion cells in a whole cell patch clamp configuration. This inhibition of I(A) likely plays a critical role in MC's ability to restore conduction in mechanically injured spinal cord axons and may present a viable alternative to 4-AP for individuals with spinal cord injury or MS. From this, compounds with greater efficacy and perhaps less side effects will likely emerge in the near future, which will greatly enhance the functional restoration and lessen the suffering of SCI and MS patients.

  17. The retinal projectome reveals brain-area-specific visual representations generated by ganglion cell diversity.

    PubMed

    Robles, Estuardo; Laurell, Eva; Baier, Herwig

    2014-09-22

    Visual information is transmitted to the vertebrate brain exclusively via the axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The functional diversity of RGCs generates multiple representations of the visual environment that are transmitted to several brain areas. However, in no vertebrate species has a complete wiring diagram of RGC axonal projections been constructed. We employed sparse genetic labeling and in vivo imaging of the larval zebrafish to generate a cellular-resolution map of projections from the retina to the brain. Our data define 20 stereotyped axonal projection patterns, the majority of which innervate multiple brain areas. Morphometric analysis of pre- and postsynaptic RGC structure revealed more than 50 structural RGC types with unique combinations of dendritic and axonal morphologies, exceeding current estimates of RGC diversity in vertebrates. These single-cell projection mapping data indicate that specific projection patterns are nonuniformly specified in the retina to generate retinotopically biased visual maps throughout the brain. The retinal projectome also successfully predicted a functional subdivision of the pretectum. Our data indicate that RGC projection patterns are precisely coordinated to generate brain-area-specific visual representations originating from RGCs with distinct dendritic morphologies and topographic distributions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The types of retinal ganglion cells: current status and implications for neuronal classification.

    PubMed

    Sanes, Joshua R; Masland, Richard H

    2015-07-08

    In the retina, photoreceptors pass visual information to interneurons, which process it and pass it to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Axons of RGCs then travel through the optic nerve, telling the rest of the brain all it will ever know about the visual world. Research over the past several decades has made clear that most RGCs are not merely light detectors, but rather feature detectors, which send a diverse set of parallel, highly processed images of the world on to higher centers. Here, we review progress in classification of RGCs by physiological, morphological, and molecular criteria, making a particular effort to distinguish those cell types that are definitive from those for which information is partial. We focus on the mouse, in which molecular and genetic methods are most advanced. We argue that there are around 30 RGC types and that we can now account for well over half of all RGCs. We also use RGCs to examine the general problem of neuronal classification, arguing that insights and methods from the retina can guide the classification enterprise in other brain regions.

  19. NF-Protocadherin Regulates Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Behaviour in the Developing Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Louis C.; Harris, William A.; Holt, Christine E.; Piper, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules play a central role in mediating axonal tract development within the nascent nervous system. NF-protocadherin (NFPC), a member of the non-clustered protocadherin family, has been shown to regulate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon and dendrite initiation, as well as influencing axonal navigation within the mid-optic tract. However, whether NFPC mediates RGC axonal behaviour at other positions within the optic pathway remains unclear. Here we report that NFPC plays an important role in RGC axonogenesis, but not in intraretinal guidance. Moreover, axons with reduced NFPC levels exhibit insensitivity to Netrin-1, an attractive guidance cue expressed at the optic nerve head. Netrin-1 induces rapid turnover of NFPC localized to RGC growth cones, suggesting that the regulation of NFPC protein levels may underlie Netrin-1-mediated entry of RGC axons into the optic nerve head. At the tectum, we further reveal a function for NFPC in controlling RGC axonal entry into the final target area. Collectively, our results expand our understanding of the role of NFPC in RGC guidance and illustrate that this adhesion molecule contributes to axon behaviour at multiple points in the optic pathway. PMID:26489017

  20. Early macular retinal ganglion cell loss in dominant optic atrophy: genotype-phenotype correlation.

    PubMed

    Barboni, Piero; Savini, Giacomo; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; Caporali, Leonardo; Milesi, Jacopo; Borrelli, Enrico; La Morgia, Chiara; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Triolo, Giacinto; Lembo, Andrea; Carta, Arturo; De Negri, Annamaria; Sadun, Federico; Rizzo, Giovanni; Parisi, Vincenzo; Pierro, Luisa; Bianchi Marzoli, Stefania; Zeviani, Massimo; Sadun, Alfredo A; Bandello, Francesco; Carelli, Valerio

    2014-09-01

    To assess the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber and macular retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in patients with dominant optic atrophy (DOA) stratified by OPA1 mutation type. Cross-sectional study. We studied 39 patients from 28 pedigrees with DOA harboring heterozygous mutations in the OPA1 gene along with 45 age-matched healthy subjects. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) of patients with DOA were evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and compared to those of controls. Patients' eyes were divided into 4 groups based on increasing severity of visual loss (DOA1 to DOA4) and were stratified by OPA1 mutation type. The average thicknesses of the RNFL and GC-IPL were smaller in patients with DOA than in healthy controls (P < 0.0001). RNFL analysis showed a significant reduction of the average, superior and inferior quadrants thicknesses in the DOA4 group compared to the DOA1 group (P = 0.001, P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). GC-IPL analysis showed a significant thinning in the superotemporal and superior sectors in the patients with DOA2 compared to those with DOA1 (P = 0.046 and P = 0.04, respectively). Stratifying by mutation type, average, superior and nasal RNFL thinning was significantly more severe in missense mutations and had a presumed dominant-negative effect compared to mutations causing haploinsufficiency. The present study demonstrates that in DOA, loss of macular RGCs is the earliest pathologic event, better reflected by GC-IPL measurements, whereas RNFL thickness is a measure of spared axons in late stages of the disease. Thus, mild cases (DOA2) show significant macular RGC loss as opposed to substantial maintenance of RNFL thickness, which is significantly decreased only in severe cases (DOA4). A clear genotype/phenotype correlation emerged, stratifying OCT measures by OPA1 mutation type, missense mutations being the most severe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetically Identified Suppressed-by-Contrast Retinal Ganglion Cells Reliably Signal Self-Generated Visual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Nai-Wen; Pearson, James T.; Heller, Charles R.; Demas, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Spike trains of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the sole source of visual information to the brain; and understanding how the ∼20 RGC types in mammalian retinae respond to diverse visual features and events is fundamental to understanding vision. Suppressed-by-contrast (SbC) RGCs stand apart from all other RGC types in that they reduce rather than increase firing rates in response to light increments (ON) and decrements (OFF). Here, we genetically identify and morphologically characterize SbC-RGCs in mice, and target them for patch-clamp recordings under two-photon guidance. We find that strong ON inhibition (glycine > GABA) outweighs weak ON excitation, and that inhibition (glycine > GABA) coincides with decreases in excitation at light OFF. These input patterns explain the suppressive spike responses of SbC-RGCs, which are observed in dim and bright light conditions. Inhibition to SbC-RGC is driven by rectified receptive field subunits, leading us to hypothesize that SbC-RGCs could signal pattern-independent changes in the retinal image. Indeed, we find that shifts of random textures matching saccade-like eye movements in mice elicit robust inhibitory inputs and suppress spiking of SbC-RGCs over a wide range of texture contrasts and spatial frequencies. Similarly, stimuli based on kinematic analyses of mouse blinking consistently suppress SbC-RGC spiking. Receiver operating characteristics show that SbC-RGCs are reliable indicators of self-generated visual stimuli that may contribute to central processing of blinks and saccades. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study genetically identifies and morphologically characterizes suppressed-by-contrast retinal ganglion cells (SbC-RGCs) in mice. Targeted patch-clamp recordings from SbC-RGCs under two-photon guidance elucidate the synaptic mechanisms mediating spike suppression to contrast steps, and reveal that SbC-RGCs respond reliably to stimuli mimicking saccade-like eye movements and blinks. The similarity of

  2. Inner nuclear layer thickening is inversley proportional to retinal ganglion cell loss in optic neuritis.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Megha; Wang, Chen Yu; Barnett, Michael H; Garrick, Raymond; Parratt, John; Graham, Stuart L; Sriram, Prema; Yiannikas, Con; Klistorner, Alexandr

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between retinal ganglion cell loss and changes in the inner nuclear layer (INL) in optic neuritis (ON). 36 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with a history of ON and 36 age and sex-matched controls underwent Optical Coherence Tomography. The paramacular retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), combined ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers (GCL/IPL) and inner nuclear layer (INL) thickness were measured at 36 points around the fovea. To remove inter-subject variability, the difference in thickness of each layer between the ON and fellow eye of each patient was calculated. A topographic analysis was conducted. The INL of the ON patients was thicker than the controls (42.9µm versus 39.6µm, p=0.002). ON patients also had a thinner RNFL (27.8µm versus 32.2µm, p<0.001) and GCL/IPL (69.3µm versus 98.1µm, p<0.001). Among the controls, there was no correlation between RNFL and GCL/IPL as well as RNFL and INL, but a positive correlation was seen between GCL/IPL and INL (r=0.65, p<0.001). In the ON group, there was a positive correlation between RNFL and GCL/IPL (r=0.80, p<0.001) but a negative correlation between RNFL and INL (r=-0.61, p<0.001) as well as GCL/IPL and INL (r=-0.44, p=0.007). The negative correlation between GCL/IPL and INL strengthened in the ON group when inter-subject variability was removed (r=-0.75, p<0.001). Microcysts within the INL were present in 5 ON patients, mainly in the superior and infero-nasal paramacular regions. While patients with microcysts lay at the far end of the correlation curve between GCL/IPL and INL (i.e. larger INL and smaller GCL/IPL compared to other patients), their exclusion did not affect the correlation (r= -0.76, p<0.001). INL enlargement in MS-related ON is associated with the severity of GCL loss. This is a continuous relationship and patients with INL microcysts may represent the extreme end of the scale.

  3. Inner Nuclear Layer Thickening Is Inversley Proportional to Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Optic Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Megha; Wang, Chen Yu; Barnett, Michael H.; Garrick, Raymond; Parratt, John; Graham, Stuart L.; Sriram, Prema; Yiannikas, Con; Klistorner, Alexandr

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine the relationship between retinal ganglion cell loss and changes in the inner nuclear layer (INL) in optic neuritis (ON). Methods 36 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with a history of ON and 36 age and sex-matched controls underwent Optical Coherence Tomography. The paramacular retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), combined ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers (GCL/IPL) and inner nuclear layer (INL) thickness were measured at 36 points around the fovea. To remove inter-subject variability, the difference in thickness of each layer between the ON and fellow eye of each patient was calculated. A topographic analysis was conducted. Results The INL of the ON patients was thicker than the controls (42.9µm versus 39.6µm, p=0.002). ON patients also had a thinner RNFL (27.8µm versus 32.2µm, p<0.001) and GCL/IPL (69.3µm versus 98.1µm, p<0.001). Among the controls, there was no correlation between RNFL and GCL/IPL as well as RNFL and INL, but a positive correlation was seen between GCL/IPL and INL (r=0.65, p<0.001). In the ON group, there was a positive correlation between RNFL and GCL/IPL (r=0.80, p<0.001) but a negative correlation between RNFL and INL (r=-0.61, p<0.001) as well as GCL/IPL and INL (r=-0.44, p=0.007). The negative correlation between GCL/IPL and INL strengthened in the ON group when inter-subject variability was removed (r=-0.75, p<0.001). Microcysts within the INL were present in 5 ON patients, mainly in the superior and infero-nasal paramacular regions. While patients with microcysts lay at the far end of the correlation curve between GCL/IPL and INL (i.e. larger INL and smaller GCL/IPL compared to other patients), their exclusion did not affect the correlation (r= -0.76, p<0.001). Conclusions INL enlargement in MS-related ON is associated with the severity of GCL loss. This is a continuous relationship and patients with INL microcysts may represent the extreme end of the scale. PMID:24098599

  4. Changes in axonally transported proteins during axon regeneration in toad retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to understand the regulation of the transition of a mature neuron to the growth, or regenerating, state we have analyzed the composition of the axonally transported proteins in the retinal ganglion cells of the toad Bufo marinus after inducing axon regeneration by crushing the optic nerve. At increasing intervals after axotomy, we labeled the retinal ganglion cells with [35S]methionine and subsequently analyzed the labeled transported polypeptides in the crushed optic nerve by means of one- and two-dimensional electrophoretic techniques. The most significant conclusion from these experiments is that, while the transition from the mature to the regenerating state does not require a gross qualitative alteration in the composition of axonally transported proteins, the relative labeling of a small subset of rapidly transported proteins is altered dramatically (changes of more than 20-fold) and reproducibly (more than 30 animals) by axotomy. One of these growth-associated proteins (GAPs) was soluble in an aqueous buffer, while three were associated with a crude membrane fraction. The labeling of all three of the membrane- associated GAPs increased during the first 8 d after axotomy, and they continued to be labeled for at least 4 wk. The modulation of these proteins after axotomy is consistent with the possibility that they are involve in growth-specific functions and that the altered expression of a small number of genes is a crucial regulatory event in the transition of a mature neuron to a growth state. In addition to these selective changes in rapidly transported proteins, we observed the following more general metabolic correlates of the regeneration process: The total radioactive label associated with the most rapidly transported proteins (groups I and II) increased three to fourfold during the first 8 d after the nerve was crushed, while the total label associated with more slowly moving proteins (group IV) increased about 10-fold during this same

  5. Gene transfection mediated by polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol nanocarrier prevents cisplatin-induced spiral ganglion cell damage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guan-gui; Mao, Min; Qiu, Li-zi; Liu, Qi-ming

    2015-01-01

    Polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PEG), a novel nanocarrier, has been used for transfection and gene therapy in a variety of cells. In our previous study, we successfully carried out PEI-PEG-mediated gene transfer in spiral ganglion cells. It remains unclear whether PEI-PEG could be used for gene therapy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in the inner ear. In the present study, we performed PEI-PEG-mediated XIAP gene transfection in the cochlea of Sprague-Dawley rats, via scala tympani fenestration, before daily cisplatin injections. Auditory brainstem reflex tests demonstrated the protective effects of XIAP gene therapy on auditory function. Immunohistochemical staining revealed XIAP protein expression in the cytoplasm of cells in the spiral ganglion, the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis. Reverse transcription-PCR detected high levels of XIAP mRNA expression in the cochlea. The present findings suggest that PEI-PEG nanocarrier-mediated XIAP gene transfection results in XIAP expression in the cochlea, prevents damage to cochlear spiral ganglion cells, and protects hearing. PMID:25878591

  6. Appearance and Distribution of Neuronal Cell Surface and Synaptic Vesicle Antigens in the Developing Rat Superior Cervical Ganglion1

    PubMed Central

    Greif, Karen F.; Reichardt, Louis F.

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against a neuronal cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan and against a synaptic vesicle protein were used to study the postnatal development of ganglionic neurons and synapses in the rat superior cervical ganglion. Antigen levels in developing ganglia were quantitated by radioimmune assays. Localization of antigens in adult and developing ganglia was carried out using peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemistry at the light microscopic level. Ultrastructural staining patterns in adult ganglia also were studied. The time course of antigen increases parallels those in previous reports on the accumulation of neurotransmitter enzymes within the ganglion. Both synaptic and surface antigens increase postnatally, with the most rapid changes occurring during the 2nd week. Antibodies stain adult tissue in patterns consistent with the expected distribution of antigens: antibodies directed against synaptic vesicles stain synaptic terminals and cell cytoplasm and those directed against surface proteoglycan stain the plasma membranes of neuronal cell bodies and processes. Variable staining of the cell cytoplasm also is observed. No apparent changes in antigen distribution are observed with the light microscope during development. Variations in the time course of the development of antigens associated with different portions of the proteoglycan molecule suggest that the intracellular processing of this molecule may vary during development. PMID:6212651

  7. Research on ganglion cell responses after laser exposure of the retina. Final report Jan 77-Dec 78

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbarsht, M.L.

    1980-05-01

    Electrophysiological recordings were made from retinal ganglion cells in the macula (including fovea) of several species of Macaque monkeys. After exposure to high-intensity argon or HeNe lasers both above and below the lesion level, the receptive fields lacked a peripheral portion. This was accompanied by a slight increase in the central portion of the receptive field. Some quite large receptive fields were found around the fovea, often extending through it. The large receptive fields could also extend through the site of a laser lesion. No unsymmetrical changes in the receptive field were seen, even in receptive fields adjacent to, or partially within, a laser lesion site. Histological examination did not show any changes in the retinal organization adjacent to laser lesion even where the ganglion cells had center-only receptive fields.

  8. Effect of Heat Shock Protein 72 Expression on Etoposide-induced Cell Death of Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Seongsoo; Im, Ji-Eun; Kim, Tae Eun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether the expression of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) protects rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) from apoptotic cell death. Methods Hsp72 expression in RGC-5 cells transduced with replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus was analyzed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. The effect of Hsp72 expression on etoposide-induced apoptotic cell death was examined by microscopic analysis and confirmed by cell proliferation assay. Results Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence clearly showed adenovirus-mediated Hsp72 expression in RGC-5 cells. Treatment with etoposide resulted in the death of a proportion of the cells by apoptosis. However, this apoptotic cell death was significantly reduced in cells expressing Hsp72, with the reduction in cell death correlating to the level of Hsp72 expression. Conclusions Over-expression of Hsp72 alone is sufficient to rescue neuronal cells from apoptotic cell death, suggesting that fine-tuning its expression may be an effective neuroprotective approach in retinal degenerative disease. PMID:23372380

  9. Correspondence between visual and electrical input filters of ON and OFF mouse retinal ganglion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, S.; Jalligampala, A.; Zrenner, E.; Rathbun, D. L.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Over the past two decades retinal prostheses have made major strides in restoring functional vision to patients blinded by diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. Presently, implants use single pulses to activate the retina. Though this stimulation paradigm has proved beneficial to patients, an unresolved problem is the inability to selectively stimulate the on and off visual pathways. To this end our goal was to test, using white noise, voltage-controlled, cathodic, monophasic pulse stimulation, whether different retinal ganglion cell (RGC) types in the wild type retina have different electrical input filters. This is an important precursor to addressing pathway-selective stimulation. Approach. Using full-field visual flash and electrical and visual Gaussian noise stimulation, combined with the technique of spike-triggered averaging (STA), we calculate the electrical and visual input filters for different types of RGCs (classified as on, off or on-off based on their response to the flash stimuli). Main results. Examining the STAs, we found that the spiking activity of on cells during electrical stimulation correlates with a decrease in the voltage magnitude preceding a spike, while the spiking activity of off cells correlates with an increase in the voltage preceding a spike. No electrical preference was found for on-off cells. Comparing STAs of wild type and rd10 mice revealed narrower electrical STA deflections with shorter latencies in rd10. Significance. This study is the first comparison of visual cell types and their corresponding temporal electrical input filters in the retina. The altered input filters in degenerated rd10 retinas are consistent with photoreceptor stimulation underlying visual type-specific electrical STA shapes in wild type retina. It is therefore conceivable that existing implants could target partially degenerated photoreceptors that have only lost their outer segments, but not somas, to selectively activate the on and off

  10. The rat retina has five types of ganglion-cell photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Reifler, Aaron N.; Chervenak, Andrew P.; Dolikian, Michael E.; Benenati, Brian A.; Meyers, Benjamin S.; Demertzis, Zachary D.; Lynch, Andrew M.; Li, Benjamin Y.; Wachter, Rebecca D.; Abufarha, Fady S.; Dulka, Eden A.; Pack, Weston; Zhao, Xiwu; Wong, Kwoon Y.

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are inner retinal photoreceptors that mediate non-image-forming visual functions, e.g. pupillary constriction, regulation of pineal melatonin release, and circadian photoentrainment. Five types of ipRGCs were recently discovered in mouse, but whether they exist in other mammals remained unknown. We report that the rat also has five types of ipRGCs, whose morphologies match those of mouse ipRGCs; this is the first demonstration of all five cell types in a non-mouse species. Through immunostaining and λmax measurements, we showed that melan