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Sample records for gannet islands labrador

  1. Endocrine status of a migratory bird potentially exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a case study of northern gannets breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Franci, Cynthia D; Guillemette, Magella; Pelletier, Emilien; Chastel, Olivier; Bonnefoi, Salomé; Verreault, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused the death of a large number of seabirds in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. However, the long term consequences of oil exposure on migratory birds overwintering in this area have received limited attention. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of oil contamination (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) on the circulating status of prolactin and corticosterone, two hormones that influence reproductive success in birds, in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada. Using light-based geolocators, it was found that 23.5% of Northern gannets from Bonaventure Island overwintered in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010-2011; the remainder of this population overwintered along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. PAH concentrations (eight compounds) in gannet blood cells were all found to be under the method limits of quantification, which could be the result of the ability of seabirds to metabolize these compounds and the time elapsed between oil exposure and blood sampling. Corticosterone and prolactin levels as well as body mass did not differ between the two major birds' wintering sites. Moreover, levels of both these hormones did not vary from early to late incubation period. Present results suggest that if Bonaventure Island-breeding Northern gannets had been exposed to oil in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of this historical spill, this exposure could not be associated with changes in hormonal status and body mass in breeding individuals.

  2. Pursuit plunging by northern gannets (Sula bassana) feeding on capelin (Mallotus villosus).

    PubMed Central

    Garthe, S; Benvenuti, S; Montevecchi, W A

    2000-01-01

    Northern gannets (Sula bassana) are considered to obtain prey usually by rapid, vertical, shallow plunge dives. In order to test this contention and investigate underwater foraging behaviour, we attached two types of data-logging systems to 11 parental northern gannets at Funk Island in the North-Wiest Atlantic. We documented, for the first time to the authors' knowledge, gannets performing long, flat-bottomed, U-shaped dives that involved underwater wing propulsion as well as rapid, shallow, V-shaped dives. The median and maximum dive depths and durations were 4.6 and 22.0 m and 8 and 38 s, respectively. Short, shallow dives were usually V-shaped and dives deeper than 8 m and longer than 10 s were usually U-shaped, including a period at constant depth (varying between 4 and 28s with median 8s). Diving occurred throughout the daylight period and deepest dives were performed during late morning. On the basis of motion sensors in the loggers and food collections from telemetered birds, we concluded that extended, deep dives were directed at deep schools of capelin, a small pelagic fish, and we hypothesized that V-shaped dives were aimed at larger, pelagic fishes and squids. Furthermore, these V-shaped dives allowed the birds to surprise their pelagic prey and this may be critical because the maximum swimming speeds of the prey species may exceed the maximum dive speeds of the birds. PMID:12233767

  3. Cretaceous-Tertiary paleobathymetry of Labrador and Baffin shelves, and its significance to evolution of Labrador Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Helenes, J.; Gradstein, F.

    1988-03-01

    The integrated micropaleontological and palynological analyses of 17 wells from offshore Labrador and southern Baffin Island allowed consistent assignments of biozones, ages, and depositional environments to the sections. Resolution attained is approximately at the stage level or finer. Interpretation of the foraminifera and palynomorphs from the Labrador Shelf indicates that the depositional environments were mainly neritic during the Early and early Late Cretaceous, changed to bathyal during the Maastrichtian to late Eocene, and returned to neritic during the Oligocene to Miocene. The sections drilled on the Baffin Shelf do not include Cretaceous sediments, but indicate bathyal environments from Paleocene to early Eocene, and neritic to nonmarine environments from late Eocene to Miocene. The Barremian to Campanian continental to neritic sediments from the Labrador Shelf correspond to the initial rifting phase of the Labrador-Greenland continental plate; whereas the Maastrichtian to late Eocene bathyal sediments correspond to the opening of the southern part of the Labrador Sea with the creation of oceanic crust. The Labrador Sea reached the Baffin shelf area during the Maastrichtian. The Oligocene to Miocene neritic to continental sediments of both the Labrador and Baffin Shelf areas correspond to the filling phase of the basin, with resulting buildup of the continental shelves and slopes.

  4. Habitat-specific foraging strategies in Australasian gannets

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Melanie R.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Knowledge of top predator foraging adaptability is imperative for predicting their biological response to environmental variability. While seabirds have developed highly specialised techniques to locate prey, little is known about intraspecific variation in foraging strategies with many studies deriving information from uniform oceanic environments. Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) typically forage in continental shelf regions on small schooling prey. The present study used GPS and video data loggers to compare habitat-specific foraging strategies at two sites of contrasting oceanographic regimes (deep water near the continental shelf edge, n=23; shallow inshore embayment, n=26), in south-eastern Australia. Individuals from the continental shelf site exhibited pelagic foraging behaviours typical of gannet species, using local enhancement to locate and feed on small schooling fish; in contrast only 50% of the individuals from the inshore site foraged offshore, displaying the typical pelagic foraging strategy. The remainder adopted a strategy of searching sand banks in shallow inshore waters in the absence of conspecifics and other predators for large, single prey items. Furthermore, of the individuals foraging inshore, 93% were male, indicating that the inshore strategy may be sex-specific. Large inter-colony differences in Australasian gannets suggest strong plasticity in foraging behaviours, essential for adapting to environmental change. PMID:27305927

  5. Habitat-specific foraging strategies in Australasian gannets.

    PubMed

    Wells, Melanie R; Angel, Lauren P; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-07-15

    Knowledge of top predator foraging adaptability is imperative for predicting their biological response to environmental variability. While seabirds have developed highly specialised techniques to locate prey, little is known about intraspecific variation in foraging strategies with many studies deriving information from uniform oceanic environments. Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) typically forage in continental shelf regions on small schooling prey. The present study used GPS and video data loggers to compare habitat-specific foraging strategies at two sites of contrasting oceanographic regimes (deep water near the continental shelf edge, n=23; shallow inshore embayment, n=26), in south-eastern Australia. Individuals from the continental shelf site exhibited pelagic foraging behaviours typical of gannet species, using local enhancement to locate and feed on small schooling fish; in contrast only 50% of the individuals from the inshore site foraged offshore, displaying the typical pelagic foraging strategy. The remainder adopted a strategy of searching sand banks in shallow inshore waters in the absence of conspecifics and other predators for large, single prey items. Furthermore, of the individuals foraging inshore, 93% were male, indicating that the inshore strategy may be sex-specific. Large inter-colony differences in Australasian gannets suggest strong plasticity in foraging behaviours, essential for adapting to environmental change.

  6. Nutritional stress in Northern gannets during an unprecedented low reproductive success year: can extreme sea surface temperature event and dietary change be the cause?

    PubMed

    Franci, Cynthia D; Vézina, François; Grégoire, François; Rail, Jean-François; Verreault, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive success of seabirds is tightly associated with availability of their prey for which the spatiotemporal distribution may be influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) from the largest colony in North America (Bonaventure Island, Quebec, Canada) were in negative nutritional state during the unprecedented low reproductive success year of 2012, and whether this was associated with changes in SST anomalies and diet. The incubation period of gannets in 2012 was characterized by a significant decline, from early to late incubation, in plasma triglyceride levels that was associated with an increase in plasma corticosterone levels. However, no changes in plasma glycerol and β-hydroxybutyrate levels were noted. SST anomalies recorded in this area (south of the Gulf of St. Lawrence) during the breeding period were consistently higher in 2012 compared to the previous year (a better reproductive success year). Based on signatures of stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes in gannet red blood cells and in whole fish homogenates of three major preys (mackerel, herring, and capelin), a minor dietary shift was noted between those years and incubation periods. In light of these findings, it is suggested that the extreme warm-water perturbation event that prevailed in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during summer 2012 was associated with a rapid deterioration of nutritional condition of Bonaventure Island gannets during the incubation. These suboptimal physiological changes likely contributed to the dramatic decline in reproductive success reported in this colony.

  7. CFD based investigation on the impact acceleration when a gannet impacts with water during plunge diving.

    PubMed

    Wang, T M; Yang, X B; Liang, J H; Yao, G C; Zhao, W D

    2013-09-01

    Plunge diving is the most commonly used feeding method of a gannet, which can make the gannet transit from air to water rapidly and successfully. A large impact acceleration can be generated due to the air-to-water transition. However, the impact acceleration experienced by the gannet during plunge diving has not been studied. In this paper, this issue is investigated by using the CFD method. The effect of the dropping height and the water-entry inclination angle on the impact acceleration is considered. The results reveal that the impact acceleration along the longitudinal body axis increases with either of the two parameters. The peak time decreases with the dropping height. A quadratic relation is found between the peak impact acceleration and the initial water-entry velocity. According to the computation, when the dropping height is 30 m (most of gannets plunge from about this height), the peak impact acceleration can reach about 23 times the gravitational acceleration, which will exert a considerable force on the gannet body. Furthermore, the pressure distribution of different water-entry inclination angles indicates that the large pressure asymmetry caused by a small oblique angle may lead to a large impact acceleration in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal body axis and cause damage to the neck of the gannet, which partly explains the reason why a gannet performing a high plunge diving in nature enters water with a large oblique angle from the perspective of impact mechanics. The investigation on the plunge-diving behavior in this paper will inspire and promote the development of a biomimetic amphibious robot that transits from air to water with the plunge-diving mode.

  8. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Lauren P.; Wells, Melanie R.; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A.; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope’s Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) – 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor. PMID:26637116

  9. Designing a year-round production system for offshore Labrador

    SciTech Connect

    Jozan, M.M.; Wetzel, V.F.

    1980-08-01

    Of the various production schemes under consideration for use in the iceberg-plagued Labrador Sea, two seem technically feasible in the medium term (5-10 years): a quick-disconnect floating platform equipped with an ice-cutting device and a fixed structure mounted on an artificial island or submerged mound. The first alternative would be a seasonal production system relying on a dynamically positioned platform that could be easily disconnected from the riser when threatened by an oncoming iceberg; smaller ice floes would be broken up by the platform's ice cutter. The most feasible fixed-structure plan is to build a conventional platform on an artificial island or, in deeper waters, on a submerged mound. This alternative offers the room needed for the processing and liquefaction facilities required for tanker transport of natural gas. Labrador Sea hydrocarbons will most likely be transported by tankers rather than pipelines until designers devise means of protecting the pipe from iceberg scour and crossing the deep marginal trough.

  10. Generalized tetanus in a Labrador retriever

    PubMed Central

    Sprott, Kerri-Rae

    2008-01-01

    A 10-week-old, intact female, Labrador retriever was presented for progressive extensor rigidity, facial swelling, and difficulty in walking. Generalized tetanus was diagnosed and treated successfully. PMID:19252716

  11. Visual accommodation and active pursuit of prey underwater in a plunge-diving bird: the Australasian gannet

    PubMed Central

    Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.; Howland, Howard C.; Raubenheimer, David; Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin; Würsig, Bernd; Hauber, Mark E.; Katzir, Gadi

    2012-01-01

    Australasian gannets (Morus serrator), like many other seabird species, locate pelagic prey from the air and perform rapid plunge dives for their capture. Prey are captured underwater either in the momentum (M) phase of the dive while descending through the water column, or the wing flapping (WF) phase while moving, using the wings for propulsion. Detection of prey from the air is clearly visually guided, but it remains unknown whether plunge diving birds also use vision in the underwater phase of the dive. Here we address the question of whether gannets are capable of visually accommodating in the transition from aerial to aquatic vision, and analyse underwater video footage for evidence that gannets use vision in the aquatic phases of hunting. Photokeratometry and infrared video photorefraction revealed that, immediately upon submergence of the head, gannet eyes accommodate and overcome the loss of greater than 45 D (dioptres) of corneal refractive power which occurs in the transition between air and water. Analyses of underwater video showed the highest prey capture rates during WF phase when gannets actively pursue individual fish, a behaviour that very likely involves visual guidance, following the transition after the plunge dive's M phase. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of the capacity for visual accommodation underwater in a plunge diving bird while capturing submerged prey detected from the air. PMID:22874749

  12. Prevalence and composition of fishing gear debris in the nests of northern gannets (Morus bassanus) are related to fishing effort.

    PubMed

    Bond, Alexander L; Montevecchi, William A; Guse, Nils; Regular, Paul M; Garthe, Stefan; Rail, Jean-François

    2012-05-01

    Bycatch and indirect mortality associated with global fishing operations affect non-target species. Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) and other seabirds incorporate marine debris, much of it originating in fisheries, into their nests, at times resulting in entanglement. We compared the prevalence and composition of marine debris in nests at two gannet colonies in Newfoundland before and after a basin-wide ground fish closure in 1992, and at the species' largest colony in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where fishing effort is low. The proportion of nests with marine debris decreased following the fishery closure, and the proportion of nests with fishing gear was related exponentially to the number of gillnets set around breeding colonies. Assessing the composition of gannet nests could provide a useful index of the prevalence of fishing debris and could be used to assess entanglement risk of other animals in the marine environment over decadal scales.

  13. Fine-scale recognition and use of mesoscale fronts by foraging Cape gannets in the Benguela upwelling region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabarros, Philippe S.; Grémillet, David; Demarcq, Hervé; Moseley, Christina; Pichegru, Lorien; Mullers, Ralf H. E.; Stenseth, Nils C.; Machu, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Oceanic structures such as mesoscale fronts may become hotspots of biological activity through concentration and enrichment processes. These fronts generally attract fish and may therefore be targeted by marine top-predators. In the southern Benguela upwelling system, such fronts might be used as environmental cues by foraging seabirds. In this study we analyzed high-frequency foraging tracks (GPS, 1 s sampling) of Cape gannets Morus capensis from two colonies located on the west and east coast of South Africa in relation to mesoscale fronts detected on daily high-resolution chlorophyll-a maps (MODIS, 1 km). We tested the association of (i) searching behavior and (ii) diving activity of foraging birds with mesoscale fronts. We found that Cape gannets shift from transiting to area-restricted search mode (ARS) at a distance from fronts ranging between 2 and 11 km (median is 6.7 km). This suggests that Cape gannets may be able to sense fronts (smell or vision) or other predators, and that such detection triggers an intensified investigation of their surroundings (i.e. ARS). Also we found that diving probability increases near fronts in 11 out of 20 tracks investigated (55%), suggesting that Cape gannets substantially use fronts for feeding; in the remaining cases (45%), birds may have used other cues for feeding including fishing vessels, particularly for gannets breeding on the west coast. We demonstrated in this study that oceanographic structures such as mesoscale fronts are important environmental cues used by a foraging seabird within the rich waters of an upwelling system. There is now need for further investigations on how Cape gannets actually detect these fronts.

  14. The daily catch: Flight altitude and diving behavior of northern gannets feeding on Atlantic mackerel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garthe, Stefan; Guse, Nils; Montevecchi, William A.; Rail, Jean-François; Grégoire, François

    2014-01-01

    Predators utilize a variety of behavioral techniques to capture elusive prey. Behavioral flexibility is essential among generalist predators that pursue a diversity of prey types, and capture efficiency is expected to be intense during the breeding season for parents that engage in self- and offspring-provisioning. We studied the foraging behavior of parental northern gannets in the northwestern Atlantic (Gulf of St. Lawrence) when they were feeding on Atlantic mackerel almost exclusively. Data-loggers recorded short (mean duration: 6.3 s), high speed (inferred vertical speeds of up to 54.0 m*s- 1, equivalent to 194 km*h- 1), and shallow dives (mean depth: 4.2 m; maximum: 9.2 m). Dives tended to occur in bouts, varying between 0.3 and 4.6 per hour (mean = 1.6). During foraging, overall flight heights ranged from 0 to 70 m, with no clear preferences for height. Most plunge-dives were initiated at flight altitudes of 11-60 m (mean ± SE = 37.1 ± 2.8 m; range 3-105 m except for 1 of 162 dives that was initiated at the sea surface). Dive depth and flight altitude at plunge-dive initiation were positively and significantly correlated, though it appears that low flight altitudes were sufficient to reach dive depths at which mackerel were present. Almost all dives were V-shaped indicating that a high acceleration attack is the most effective strategy for gannets feeding on large rapid-swimming prey such as mackerel that owing to thermal preferences does not occur below the thermocline and are thus well available and essentially trapped in the water depths exploited by northern gannets.

  15. Gastroesophageal intussusception in a Labrador retriever.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, K L; Buss, M S; Dhein, C R; Barbee, D D; Seitz, S E

    1998-01-01

    A 14-month-old, intact male Labrador retriever was referred for evaluation of vomiting and regurgitation. A diagnosis of gastroesophageal intussusception with aspiration pneumonia was made. The patient responded favorably to aggressive surgical and medical management. The guarded to poor prognosis for gastroesophageal intussusception makes the successful outcome of this case unique. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9818138

  16. Eating locally: Australasian gannets increase their foraging effort in a restricted range

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Lauren P.; Barker, Sophie; Berlincourt, Maud; Tew, Emma; Warwick-Evans, Victoria; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the breeding season, seabirds adopt a central place foraging strategy and are restricted in their foraging range by the fasting ability of their partner/chick and the cost of commuting between the prey resources and the nest. Because of the spatial and temporal variability of marine ecosystems, individuals must adapt their behaviour to increase foraging success within these constraints. The at-sea movements, foraging behaviour and effort of the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) was determined over three sequential breeding seasons of apparent differing prey abundance to investigate how the species adapts to inter-annual fluctuations in food availability. GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data loggers were used to compare the degree of annual variation within two stages of breeding (incubation and chick rearing) at a small gannet colony situated between two larger, nearby colonies. Interestingly, neither males nor females increased the total distance travelled or duration of foraging trip in any breeding stage (P>0.05 in all cases) despite apparent low prey availability. However, consistently within each breeding stage, mean vectorial dynamic body acceleration (an index of energy expenditure) was greater in years of poorer breeding success (increased by a factor of three to eight), suggesting birds were working harder within their range. Additionally, both males and females increased the proportion of a foraging trip spent foraging in a poorer year across both breeding stages. Individuals from this colony may be limited in their ability to extend their range in years of low prey availability due to competition from conspecifics in nearby colonies and, consequently, increase foraging effort within this restricted foraging area. PMID:26369928

  17. Eating locally: Australasian gannets increase their foraging effort in a restricted range.

    PubMed

    Angel, Lauren P; Barker, Sophie; Berlincourt, Maud; Tew, Emma; Warwick-Evans, Victoria; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-09-14

    During the breeding season, seabirds adopt a central place foraging strategy and are restricted in their foraging range by the fasting ability of their partner/chick and the cost of commuting between the prey resources and the nest. Because of the spatial and temporal variability of marine ecosystems, individuals must adapt their behaviour to increase foraging success within these constraints. The at-sea movements, foraging behaviour and effort of the Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) was determined over three sequential breeding seasons of apparent differing prey abundance to investigate how the species adapts to inter-annual fluctuations in food availability. GPS and tri-axial accelerometer data loggers were used to compare the degree of annual variation within two stages of breeding (incubation and chick rearing) at a small gannet colony situated between two larger, nearby colonies. Interestingly, neither males nor females increased the total distance travelled or duration of foraging trip in any breeding stage (P>0.05 in all cases) despite apparent low prey availability. However, consistently within each breeding stage, mean vectorial dynamic body acceleration (an index of energy expenditure) was greater in years of poorer breeding success (increased by a factor of three to eight), suggesting birds were working harder within their range. Additionally, both males and females increased the proportion of a foraging trip spent foraging in a poorer year across both breeding stages. Individuals from this colony may be limited in their ability to extend their range in years of low prey availability due to competition from conspecifics in nearby colonies and, consequently, increase foraging effort within this restricted foraging area.

  18. Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

    2013-10-15

    The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions.

  19. Variability in Labrador Sea Water formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelderloos, R.

    2012-05-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) transports of a large amount of heat towards the North Atlantic region. Since this circulation is considered to have shown pronounced variability in the past, and a weakening is projected for the 21st century, it is very important to understand and monitor the mechanisms that determine its variability. Deep water formation is one of the most important of these mechanisms as it plays an important role in setting the shape and strength of the AMOC. It only takes place in a few locations in the ocean, one of which is the Labrador Sea. In this thesis two processes that play an important role in determining the variability of Labrador Sea Water formation are studied as well as the possibility to monitor this variability using satellite altimetry measurements. The first process study focused on the restratification period after a deep convection event. The dense water in the area affected by deep convection is then (partly) replaced by more buoyant water originating from the boundary currents that encircle the interior. Using a numerical model in an idealized configuration, the roles of three eddy types that are known to play a role in the restratification process were studied. It was found that the presence of Irminger Rings is essential for a realistic amount of restratification in the Labrador Sea. The second process study focused on the effects of a very fresh surface layer, which makes the surface layer lighter and can, if light enough, inhibit convective mixing. The well-known case of the Great Salinity Anomaly (1969-1971), which was fortuitously well documented by the measurements taken at ocean weather station “Bravo” in the central Labrador Sea, has been analyzed. In contrast to what is commonly assumed, only a combination of the fresh surface layer and the very mild winter conditions in 1969 could have started the convective shutdown, and only a combination of the extremely harsh winter and a

  20. Excess Baggage for Birds: Inappropriate Placement of Tags on Gannets Changes Flight Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vandenabeele, Sylvie P.; Grundy, Edward; Friswell, Michael I.; Grogan, Adam; Votier, Stephen C.; Wilson, Rory P.

    2014-01-01

    Devices attached to flying birds can hugely enhance our understanding of their behavioural ecology for periods when they cannot be observed directly. For this, scientists routinely attach units to either birds' backs or their tails. However, inappropriate payload distribution is critical in aircraft and, since birds and planes are subject to the same laws of physics during flight, we considered aircraft aerodynamic constraints to explain flight patterns displayed by northern gannets Sula bassana equipped with (small ca. 14 g) tail- and back-mounted accelerometers and (larger ca. 30 g) tail-mounted GPS units. Tail-mounted GPS-fitted birds showed significantly higher cumulative numbers of flap-glide cycles and a higher pitch angle of the tail than accelerometer-equipped birds, indicating problems with balancing inappropriately placed weights with knock-on consequences relating to energy expenditure. These problems can be addressed by carefully choosing where to place tags on birds according to the mass of the tags and the lifestyle of the subject species. PMID:24671007

  1. Geothermal potential of Ascension Island, south Atlantic. Phase I. Preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbett, B.S.; Neilson, D.L.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Shane, M.K.

    1982-09-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the potential for an economic geothermal resource at Ascension Island was completed. It is concluded that there is a high potential for the presence of a geothermal resource under the Island. A conceptual plant has been designed assuming the resource potential located near Gannet Hill is developed. A 7% discounted payback of 5.9 years was calculated for the baseline geothermal plant. Geothermal development can be easily integrated into the Ascension Island power system in that a selection of small, portable, skid mounted, turn key power geothermal generating systems are commercially available. Geologic findings and plant analysis are summarized.

  2. Temporal and Spatial Scales of Labrador Sea Water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Labrador Sea Water is an intermediate water found at the same density and depth range in the North Atlantic as the Mediterranean water. It is formed by convection from the sea surface to depths greather than 2 km in winter in the Western Labrador Sea. The processes leading to deep convection begin with the formation of a 200 km scale cyclonic circulation about denser than average upper layer water in the Western Labrador Sea. This circulation pattern is hypothesized to be driven by an ocean/atmosphere heat exchange that has its maximum in this region. By early March, if deep convection is taking place, one sees that this body of denser upper waters penetrates to the top of the deep temperature/salinity maximum marking the core of the North Atlantic Deep Water. We note that the horizontal scale of this body is still 100-200 km normal to the coastline.

  3. Long-term individual foraging site fidelity--why some gannets don't change their spots.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Ewan D; Cleasby, Ian R; Bearhop, Stuart; Bodey, Thomas W; Davies, Rachel D; Miller, Peter I; Newton, Jason; Votier, Stephen C; Hamer, Keith C

    2015-11-01

    Many established models of animal foraging assume that individuals are ecologically equivalent. However, it is increasingly recognized that populations may comprise individuals who differ consistently in their diets and foraging behaviors. For example, recent studies have shown that individual foraging site fidelity (IFSF, when individuals consistently forage in only a small part of their population's home range) occurs in some colonial breeders. Short-term IFSF could result from animals using a win-stay, lose-shift foraging strategy. Alternatively, it may be a consequence of individual specialization. Pelagic seabirds are colonial central-place foragers, classically assumed to use flexible foraging strategies to target widely dispersed, spatiotemporally patchy prey. However, tracking has shown that IFSF occurs in many seabirds, although it is not known whether this persists across years. To test for long-term IFSF and to examine alternative hypotheses concerning its cause, we repeatedly tracked 55 Northern Gannets (Morus bassanus) from a large colony in the North Sea within and across three successive breeding seasons. Gannets foraged in neritic waters, predictably structured by tidal mixing and thermal stratification, but subject to stochastic, wind-induced overturning. Both within and across years, coarse to mesoscale (tens of kilometers) IFSF was significant but not absolute, and foraging birds departed the colony in individually consistent directions. Carbon stable isotope ratios in gannet blood tissues were repeatable within years and nitrogen ratios were also repeatable across years, suggesting long-term individual dietary specialization. Individuals were also consistent across years in habitat use with respect to relative sea surface temperature and in some dive metrics, yet none of these factors accounted for IFSF. Moreover, at the scale of weeks, IFSF did not decay over time and the magnitude of IFSF across years was similar to that within years

  4. Carpal intra-articular blastomycosis in a Labrador retriever.

    PubMed

    Woods, Katharine S; Barry, Maureen; Richardson, Danielle

    2013-02-01

    A 6-month-old male castrated Labrador retriever was presented for coughing and forelimb lameness. Blastomyces dermatitidis was identified in cytology of sputum and synovial fluid. Repeat arthrocentesis 7 months later revealed resolution of septic arthritis. Fungal septic arthritis should be considered for cases of monoarthritis and may respond to oral itraconazole treatment.

  5. The Development of Virtual Schooling in Newfoundland and Labrador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saqlain, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    K-12 online distance education is growing rapidly and many organizations focus on virtual schooling in Canada. The centre for Distance Learning and Innovation (CDLI) was established in 2000 in Newfoundland and Labrador and has been offering numerous opportunities to rural high school students through online distance education. In this paper, the…

  6. Suicide Rates in Aboriginal Communities in Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Nathaniel J.; Mulay, Shree; Valcour, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare suicide rates in Aboriginal communities in Labrador, including Innu, Inuit, and Southern Inuit, with the general population of Newfoundland, Canada. Methods. In partnership with Aboriginal governments, we conducted a population-based study to understand patterns of suicide mortality in Labrador. We analyzed suicide mortality data from 1993 to 2009 from the Vital Statistics Death Database. We combined this with community-based methods, including consultations with Elders, youths, mental health and community workers, primary care clinicians, and government decision-makers. Results. The suicide rate was higher in Labrador than in Newfoundland. This trend persisted across all age groups; however, the disparity was greatest among those aged 10 to 19 years. Males accounted for the majority of deaths, although suicide rates were elevated among females in the Inuit communities. When comparing Aboriginal subregions, the Innu and Inuit communities had the highest age-standardized mortality rates of, respectively, 165.6 and 114.0 suicides per 100 000 person-years. Conclusions. Suicide disproportionately affects Innu and Inuit populations in Labrador. Suicide rates were high among male youths and Inuit females. PMID:27196659

  7. Cenozoic stratigraphic evolution, North Sea and Labrador Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Gradstein, F.M.; Grant, A.C.; Mudford, B.S. ); Berggren, W.A. ); Kaminski, M.A. ); D'Lorio, M.A. ); Cloetingh, S. ); Griffiths, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors are studying Cenozoic correlation patterns, burial trends, and subsidence history of the Central North Sea, Labrador, and Orphan basins. The authors objectives are (1) to detail intraregional mid-high latitude biozonations using noise filtering and probabilistic zonation techniques; (2) to detail paleobathymetric trends from basin margins to centers; (3) to apply this knowledge to model basin evolution, in the perspective of the evolving North Atlantic Ocean; (4) to evaluate causes for the occurrence of major hiatuses and rapid changes of subsidence; and (5) to relate rapid changes in sedimentation in the last few millions of years to model observed undercompaction trends. Cenozoic microfossil assemblages in these basins are similar, related to similarities in sedimentary and paleoeceanographic conditions. In more basinal wells, flysch-type agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages occur, also known from Carpathians, Trinidad, and Moroccan foredeeps. Over 90% of agglutinated taxa are common between these basins, although local stratigraphic ranges vary sufficiently to rely on the concept of average ranges, rather than total ones for correlations. Cenozoic stratigraphic resolution in the North Sea and Labrador basins generally is in 3-5-Ma units. and paleobathymetric zonations define a minimum of five niches, from inner shelf to middle slope regimes. Significant hiatuses occurred in the late Eocene through the Miocene, particularly in northern Labrador and northern North Sea. Subsidence in the Labrador/Grand Banks passive margin half grabens was strongly influenced by Labrador Sea opening between anomalies 34 (Campanian) and 13 (early Oligocene), when subsidence exceeded sedimentation and bathyal conditions prevailed along the margin. Thermally induced subsidence in the central North Sea grabens was considerable in the late Paleocene, when the Norwegian Sea started to open.

  8. Using non-systematic surveys to investigate effects of regional climate variability on Australasian gannets in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Mridula; Dassis, Mariela; Benn, Emily; Stockin, Karen A.; Martinez, Emmanuelle; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E.

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have investigated regional and natural climate variability on seabird populations using ocean reanalysis datasets (e.g. Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA)) that integrate atmospheric information to supplement ocean observations and provide improved estimates of ocean conditions. Herein we use a non-systematic dataset on Australasian gannets (Morus serrator) from 2001 to 2009 to identify potential connections between Gannet Sightings Per Unit Effort (GSPUE) and climate and oceanographic variability in a region of known importance for breeding seabirds, the Hauraki Gulf (HG), New Zealand. While no statistically significant relationships between GSPUE and global climate indices were determined, there was a significant correlation between GSPUE and regional SST anomaly for HG. Also, there appears to be a strong link between global climate indices and regional climate in the HG. Further, based on cross-correlation function coefficients and lagged multiple regression models, we identified potential leading and lagging climate variables, and climate variables but with limited predictive capacity in forecasting future GSPUE. Despite significant inter-annual variability and marginally cooler SSTs since 2001, gannet sightings appear to be increasing. We hypothesize that at present underlying physical changes in the marine ecosystem may be insufficient to affect supply of preferred gannet main prey (pilchard Sardinops spp.), which tolerate a wide thermal range. Our study showcases the potential scientific value of lengthy non-systematic data streams and when designed properly (i.e., contain abundance, flock size, and spatial data), can yield useful information in climate impact studies on seabirds and other marine fauna. Such information can be invaluable for enhancing conservation measures for protected species in fiscally constrained research environments.

  9. Hydrographic changes in the Labrador Sea, 1960 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashayaev, Igor

    2007-05-01

    The Labrador Sea has exhibited significant temperature and salinity variations over the past five decades. The whole basin was extremely warm and salty between the mid-1960s and early 1970s, and fresh and cold between the late 1980s and mid-1990s. The full column salinity change observed between these periods is equivalent to mixing a 6 m thick freshwater layer into the water column of the early 1970s. The freshening and cooling trends reversed in 1994 starting a new phase of heat and salt accumulation in the Labrador Sea sustained throughout the subsequent years. It took only a decade for the whole water column to lose most of its excessive freshwater, reinstate stratification and accumulate enough salt and heat to approach its record high salt and heat contents observed between the late 1960s and the early 1970s. If the recent tendencies persist, the basin’s storages of salt and heat will fairly soon, likely by 2008, exceed their historic highs. The main process responsible for the net cooling and freshening of the Labrador Sea between 1987 and 1994 was deep winter convection, which during this period progressively developed to its record depths. It was caused by the recurrence of severe winters during these years and in its turn produced the deepest, densest and most voluminous Labrador Sea Water (LSW 1987-1994) ever observed. The estimated annual production of this water during the period of 1987-1994 is equivalent to the average volume flux of about 4.5 Sv with some individual annual rates exceeding 7.0 Sv. Once winter convection had lost its strength in the winter of 1994-1995, the deep LSW 1987-1994 layer lost “communication” with the mixed layer above, consequently losing its volume, while gaining heat and salt from the intermediate waters outside the Labrador Sea. While the 1000-2000 m layer was steadily becoming warmer and saltier between 1994 and 2005, the upper 1000 m layer experienced another episode of cooling caused by an abrupt increase in the

  10. An Abyssal Current in the Central Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. M.; Yashayaev, I.; Torres, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) data collected along the repeat hydrographic section AR7W in the Labrador Sea has unveiled a new abyssal current, confined to a narrow trench extending from NW to SE over the entire abyssal basin and crossing AR7W in the center of the basin at about 57.8°N, 51.3°W. Maximum water depth in the trough is 75 - 100 m greater depth than the surrounding topography, and the current extends from about 160 m above the bottom to the bottom (3610 m), headed in a south to southeasterly direction. Maximum speeds of 10-20 cm s-1 occur in the deepest part of the current, implying a net transport of as much as 0.2 Sv of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). Potential temperature and salinity in the bottom-intensified current tend to be well mixed below 3520 m, suggesting that the mixed bottom boundary layer is about 100 m thick. This V-shaped trench is part of the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC), which has been recognized as a turbidity current pathway by petrologists (Chough and Hesse, 1980; Chough et al., 1986). Another small trough intersects the main branch of the NAMOC where the abyssal current is observed, which may account for the varying direction of the current. This network of abyssal channels may provide a pathway for DSOW, entering the Labrador Sea around the southern tip of Greenland, to reach the central Labrador Sea with little delay. Indeed, Yashayaev and Dickson (2008) have noted the rapidity with which signals of hydrographic change in DSOW spread across the entire abyssal basin, reaching the central Labrador Sea within several months after their first appearance at the eastern boundary. Chough, S. K. and R. Hesse (1980). The Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel of the Labrador Sea: III. Head spill vs. body spill deposits from turbidity currents on natural levees. J. of Sedimentary Petrology 50, 227-234. Chough, S. K., R. Hesse, and J. Muller (1987). The Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel of the

  11. Fine scale bio-physical oceanographic characteristics predict the foraging occurrence of contrasting seabird species; Gannet (Morus bassanus) and storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, B. E.; Webb, A.; Palmer, M. R.; Embling, C. B.; Sharples, J.

    2013-10-01

    As we begin to manage our oceans in much more spatial detail we must understand a great deal more about oceanographic habitat preferences of marine mobile top predators. In this unique field study we test a hypothesis on the mechanisms defining mobile predator foraging habitat characteristics by comparing temporally and spatially detailed bio-physical oceanographic data from contrasting topographical locations. We contrast the foraging locations of two very different seabird species, gannets and storm petrels, by repeatedly sampling a bank and a nearby flat area over daily tidal cycles during spring and neap tides. The results suggest that storm petrels are linked to foraging in specific locations where internal waves are produced, which is mainly on banks. These locations can also include the presence of high biomass of chlorophyll. In contrast, the location where more gannets are foraging is significantly influenced by temporal variables with higher densities of foraging birds much more likely during the neap tide than times of spring tide. The foraging times of both species was influenced by differences between the vertical layers of the water column above and below the thermocline; via either vertical shear of horizontal currents or absolute differences in speed between layers. Higher densities of foraging gannets were significantly more likely to be found at ebb tides in both bank and flat regions however over the bank, the density of foraging gannets was higher when the differences in speed between the layers were at a maximum. Both gannets and storm petrels appear to be more likely to forage when wind direction is opposed to tidal direction. This detailed understanding links foraging behaviour to predictable spatial and temporal bio-physical vertical characteristics and thus can be immediately used to explain variance and increase certainty in past abundance and distributional surveys. These results also illuminate the types of variables that should be

  12. Magsat magnetic anomaly contrast across Labrador Sea passive margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Lauren M.; Frey, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    Many passive margins not complicated by nearby anomalous crustal structure have satellite elevation crustal magnetic anomaly contrasts across them that are recognizable in reduced-to-pole versions of the Magsat and POGO data. In the Labrador Sea region this contrast is particularly well developed with strong positive anomalies overlying the continental crust of Greenland and eastern Canada and prominent negative anomalies situated over the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. In this work, forward modeling of the large-scale crustal bodies in this region (continental, oceanic, passive margin, several anomalous structures) was used to show that the Magsat anomaly contrast is due simply to the change in crustal susceptibility and thickness at the continental/oceanic crustal transition. Because the thickness varies more than the average susceptibility from continental to oceanic crust, the strong anomaly contrast is essentially an edge effect due mostly to the change in crustal structure.

  13. Early Holocene meltwater events in the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Christof; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Lewis, Mike

    2016-04-01

    During the early Holocene, the Labrador Sea was strongly influenced by the presence of the remainder of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and its active eastern margin. Glacial advances and retreats lead to episodic release of meltwater and icebergs with potential impact on ocean circulation and climate during the deglaciation. The purpose of this study is to use detrital carbonate (DC) records in the Labrador Sea to study the spatial variability of the carbonate events and inferred sources and routing of glacial meltwater originating from Hudson Strait (HS) as well as potential contributions from Northern Baffin Bay (NBB) ice sheet margins. We use DC in sediment cores as a proxy for glacial meltwater and ice berg drift from these areas. More than 20 sediment cores with published DC, stable oxygen isotope, and radiocarbon stratigraphies provide the data for this study. Our hypothesis is that the complex interplay of current systems, shelf and slope bathymetry and location of meltwater and ice berg injection points will affect the spatial distribution of the DC events. In addition, differences in local ocean reservoir age for shelf, slope and open ocean sites may also contribute to offsets in the apparent ages of DC events. Identification of DC peaks also is influenced by sedimentation rates and sampling resolution. To objectively correlate DC events, we study mostly published core data, removing all earlier assumptions about marine reservoir ages and assess all core chronologies with their associated errors. Our results show that none of the DC events is found in all sites and no record captures all of the DC events. Despite this, some of the larger events occur in several records and allow robust temporal and spatial mapping of the meltwater pathways. Besides the meltwater route due south along the Labrador margin on the shelf, some events show a clear signal in deeper Labrador Sea sites pointing at a more direct injection of freshwater in the subpolar gyre.

  14. Atmospheric Forcing of Ocean Convection in the Labrador Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    affects the ocean. OBJECTIVES The ultimate objective of this study is to understand the relation between atmospheric forcing and deep convection in...during the 1997 and 1998 Labrador Sea Deep Convection Experiments. During the 1997 cruise of the R/V Knorr I performed the radiation and upper-air...the hypothesis. This will be done in collaboration with Harcourt and Garwood of the OPBL group at NPS. WORK COMPLETED I improved a web page

  15. Bayesian Hierarchical Air-Sea Interaction Modeling: Application to the Labrador Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niiler, Pearn P.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives are to: 1) Organize data from 26 MINIMET drifters in the Labrador Sea, including sensor calibration and error checking of ARGOS transmissions. 2) Produce wind direction, barometer, and sea surface temperature time series. In addition, provide data from historical file of 150 SHARP drifters in the Labrador Sea. 3) Work with data interpretation and data-modeling assimilation issues.

  16. A preliminary assessment of the true morels (Morchella) in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary assessment of true morels (Morchella) from Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) was obtained by using DNA sequence data from portions of three genes to identify 20 collections from Newfoundland and one from a remote location in Labrador. To place this work in a broader context, data on 25 co...

  17. Jets over Labrador and Quebec: noise effects on human health.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the noise from low-level flights over Labrador and Quebec is harmful to human health. DATA SOURCE AND SELECTION: Search of MEDLINE for articles on the effect of noise, particularly impulse noise associated with low-level flights, and a search of the references from identified articles. DATA SYNTHESIS: The noise levels from low-level flights could affect hearing acuity. However, the more important consequences appear to be stress-mediated physiologic effects, especially cardiovascular ones, and psychologic distress, particularly in children. Subjective perception of control over the noise has been found to mitigate some physiologic effects. CONCLUSION: There is sufficient evidence to show that the noise from low-level flights is harmful to human health. PMID:2007238

  18. Achromatopsia in three sibling Labrador Retrievers in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Achromatopsia was identified in three Labrador Retriever littermates. The dogs demonstrated day blindness, negotiating obstacles under low-light conditions, but apparently blind when outdoors. One of the dogs presented with immature bilateral diffuse posterior cortical cataracts and clinical signs of day blindness became apparent following cataract extraction surgery. Electroretinography demonstrated an absence of a cone photoreceptor response to a bright stimulus and a flicker response of 30 Hz in all three dogs. No fundic lesions have been apparent ophthalmoscopically in any of the dogs as the initial presentation of each case. No abnormalities were detected with DNA screening for known mutations of the CNGB3 gene in any of the dogs.

  19. Late Quaternary land-sea correlations, northern Labrador, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, P.; Josenhans, H.

    1985-01-01

    Late Quaternary glacial and postglacial units in the Torngat Mountains, northern Labrador, are correlated with units identified on the adjacent continental shelf. The late Wisconsinan Laurentide Ice Sheet drained through major valleys of the Torngat Mountains as outlet glaciers, depositing the Saglek Moraines. These are of regional extent and have been mapped from Saglek Fiord north to Noodleook Fiord. A C-14 date of 18,210 +/- 1900 BP on total organic matter (TOM) from lake sediment dammed by a segment of the Saglek Moraines is interpreted as a maximum date for deposition of the Saglek Moraine system because of possible contamination. Glacial sediments comprising the Saglek Moraines are correlated with upper till mapped in troughs and saddles on the continental shelf. Outlet glaciers depositing a late Wisconsinan unit flowed through Labrador fiords and onto the shelf at low basal shear stresses, particularly on the shelf where, although grounded, they were hydrostatically buoyed up and moved principally by sliding. A glaciomarine unit conformably overlies late Wisconsinan till on the shelf and on the land. This unit is a gravelly clayey silt, contains abundant foraminifera, and has up to 60% limestone in the pebble fraction. C-14 dates suggest deposition of this unit began ca. 10,000 BP on the shelf and 9000 BP on the land, an ended by 8000 BP. Limestone pebbles in this unit suggest a source in part from sediment-laden icebergs and pack-ice from the north. Marine deposition from ca. 8000-0 BP is characterize by basinal sedimentation.

  20. Mid-depth recirculation observed in the interior Labrador and Irminger seas by direct velocity measurements

    PubMed

    Lavender; Davis; Owens

    2000-09-07

    The Labrador Sea is one of the sites where convection exports surface water to the deep ocean in winter as part of the thermohaline circulation. Labrador Sea water is characteristically cold and fresh, and it can be traced at intermediate depths (500-2,000 m) across the North Atlantic Ocean, to the south and to the east of the Labrador Sea. Widespread observations of the ocean currents that lead to this distribution of Labrador Sea water have, however, been difficult and therefore scarce. We have used more than 200 subsurface floats to measure directly basin-wide horizontal velocities at various depths in the Labrador and Irminger seas. We observe unanticipated recirculations of the mid-depth (approximately 700 m) cyclonic boundary currents in both basins, leading to an anticyclonic flow in the interior of the Labrador basin. About 40% of the floats from the region of deep convection left the basin within one year and were rapidly transported in the anticyclonic flow to the Irminger basin, and also eastwards into the subpolar gyre. Surprisingly, the float tracks did not clearly depict the deep western boundary current, which is the expected main pathway of Labrador Sea water in the thermohaline circulation. Rather, the flow along the boundary near Flemish Cap is dominated by eddies that transport water offshore. Our detailed observations of the velocity structure with a high data coverage suggest that we may have to revise our picture of the formation and spreading of Labrador Sea water, and future studies with similar instrumentation will allow new insights on the intermediate depth ocean circulation.

  1. Biogeographical patterns and environmental controls of phytoplankton communities from contrasting hydrographical zones of the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Glaucia M.; Poulton, Alex J.; Yashayaev, Igor M.; Head, Erica J. H.; Stinchcombe, Mark C.; Purdie, Duncan A.

    2016-02-01

    The Labrador Sea is an important oceanic sink for atmospheric CO2 because of intensive convective mixing during winter and extensive phytoplankton blooms that occur during spring and summer. Therefore, a broad-scale investigation of the responses of phytoplankton community composition to environmental forcing is essential for understanding planktonic food-web organisation and biogeochemical functioning in the Labrador Sea. Here, we investigated the phytoplankton community structure (>4 μm) from near surface blooms (<50 m) from spring and early summer (2011-2014) in detail, including species composition and environmental controls. Spring blooms (>1.2 mg chla m-3) occurred on and near the shelves in May and in offshore waters of the central Labrador Sea in June due to haline- and thermal-stratification, respectively. Sea ice-related (Fragilariopsis cylindrus and F. oceanica) and Arctic diatoms (Fossula arctica, Bacterosira bathyomphala and Thalassiosira hyalina) dominated the relatively cold (<0 °C) and fresh (salinity < 33) waters over the Labrador shelf (e.g., on the southwestern side of the Labrador Sea), where sea-ice melt and Arctic outflow predominates. On the northeastern side of the Labrador Sea, intense blooms of the colonial prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis pouchetii and diatoms, such as Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii, Pseudo-nitzschia granii and Chaetoceros socialis, occurred in the lower nutrient waters (nitrate < 3.6 μM) of the West Greenland Current. The central Labrador Sea bloom occurred later in the season (June) and was dominated by Atlantic diatoms, such as Ephemera planamembranacea and Fragilariopsis atlantica. The data presented here demonstrate that the Labrador Sea spring and early summer blooms are composed of contrasting phytoplankton communities, for which taxonomic segregation appears to be controlled by the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of the dominant water masses.

  2. The Last Interglacial Labrador Sea: A Pervasive Millennial Oscillation In Surface Water Conditions Without Labrador Sea Water Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.

    A multi-proxy approach was developed to document secular to millenial changes of potential density in surface, mesopelagic, and bottom waters of the Labrador Sea, thus allowing to reconstruct situations when winter convection with intermediate or deep water formation occurred in the basin. This approach relies on dinocyst-transfer functions providing estimates of sea-surface temperature and salinity that are used to calibrate past-relationships between oxygen 18 contents in calcite and potential density gradients. The oxygen isotope compositions of epipelagic (Globigerina bul- loides), deeper-dwelling (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, left coiling), and benthic (Uvigerina peregrina and Cibicides wuellerstorfi) foraminifera, then allow to extrap- olate density gradients between the corresponding water layers. This approach has been tested in surface sediments in reference to modern hydrographic conditions at several sites from the NW North Atlantic, then used to reconstruct past conditions from high resolution studies of cores raised from the southern Greenland Rise (off Cape Farewell). Results indicate that the modern-like regime established during the early Holocene and full developed after 7 ka only. It is marked by weak density gradi- ents between the surface and intermediate water masses, allowing winter convection down to a lower pycnocline between intermediate and deep-water masses, thus the formation of intermediate Labrador Sea Water (LSW). Contrasting with the middle to late Holocene situation, since the last interglacial and throughout the last climatic cycle, a single and dense water mass seems to have occupied the water column below a generally low-density surface water layer, thus preventing deep convection. There- fore, the production of LSW seems to be feature specific to the present interglacial interval that could soon cease to exist, due to global warming, as suggested by recent ocean model experiments and by the fact that it never occurred during the

  3. Aortic chondroid neoplasia in two Labrador Retriever dogs.

    PubMed

    Kohnken, R; Durham, J A; Premanandan, C; Scansen, B A

    2015-12-01

    In the same week, two Labrador Retriever dogs presented to The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center for cardiac evaluation. The presenting signs in both dogs included: weight loss, weakness, lethargy, and decreased femoral pulses. The first dog presented in cardiogenic shock and biventricular congestive heart failure, which initially responded to treatment; however, the dog was euthanized due to deteriorating clinical condition. In contrast, the second dog had a milder clinical course without signs of congestive heart failure, and remained stable over the 2-month period of clinical evaluation prior to euthanasia. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed a dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype in the first dog, while a space-occupying intraluminal mass originating at the aortic valve with preserved left ventricular systolic function was observed in the second dog. At autopsy, each dog had a large obstructive luminal mass affecting the ascending aorta and arch. Histopathology revealed that the mass in the first dog was consistent with a benign chondroma, while in the second dog the morphologic characteristics, mitotic activity, and infiltrative growth justified a diagnosis of chondrosarcoma. This report presents the contrasting clinical disease progression and findings in two dogs with aortic neoplasia, with a proposed pathogenesis of cardiac failure secondary to aortic neoplasia.

  4. Ice-sheet sourced juxtaposed turbidite systems in Labrador Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hesse, R.; Klaucke, I.; Ryan, William B. F.; Piper, D.J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Ice-sheet sourced Pleistocene turbidite systems of the Labrador Sea are different from non-glacially influenced systems in their facies distribution and depositional processes. Two large-scale sediment dispersal systems are juxtaposed, one mud-dominated and associated with the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC), the other sand-dominated and forming a huge submarine braided sandplain. Co-existence of the two systems reflects grain-size separation of the coarse and fine fractions on an enormous scale, caused by sediment winnowing at the entrance points of meltwater from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) to the sea (Hudson Strait, fiords) and involves a complex interplay of depositional and redepositional processes. The mud-rich NAMOC system is multisourced and represents a basinwide converging system of tributary canyons and channels. It focusses its sand load to the central trunk channel in basin centre, in the fashion of a "reverse" deep-sea fan. The sand plain received its sediment from the Hudson Strait by turbidity currents that were generated either by failure of glacial prodelta slopes at the ice margin, or by direct meltwater discharges with high bedload concentration. We speculate that the latter might have been related to subglacial-lake outburst flooding through the Hudson Strait, possibly associated with ice-rafting (Heinrich) events.

  5. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection (granulocytic anaplasmosis) in a dog from Vancouver Island

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 7-year-old Labrador retriever had nonspecific clinical signs that included lethargy, malaise, and difficult ambulation. The dog was native to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and had never left this area. Morulae were identified in polymorphonuclear cells. Serologic studies and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed canine anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The dog recovered after treatment with tetracycline. PMID:16231653

  6. Varying sediment sources (Hudson Strait, Cumberland Sound, Baffin Bay) to the NW Labrador Sea slope between and during Heinrich events 0 to 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, John T.; Barber, D.C.; Jennings, A.E.; Eberl, D.D.; Maclean, B.; Kirby, M.E.; Stoner, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Core HU97048-007PC was recovered from the continental Labrador Sea slope at a water depth of 945 m, 250 km seaward from the mouth of Cumberland Sound, and 400 km north of Hudson Strait. Cumberland Sound is a structural trough partly floored by Cretaceous mudstones and Paleozoic carbonates. The record extends from ∼10 to 58 ka. On-board logging revealed a complex series of lithofacies, including buff-colored detrital carbonate-rich sediments [Heinrich (H)-events] frequently bracketed by black facies. We investigate the provenance of these facies using quantitative X-ray diffraction on drill-core samples from Paleozoic and Cretaceous bedrock from the SE Baffin Island Shelf, and on the < 2-mm sediment fraction in a transect of five cores from Cumberland Sound to the NW Labrador Sea. A sediment unmixing program was used to discriminate between sediment sources, which included dolomite-rich sediments from Baffin Bay, calcite-rich sediments from Hudson Strait and discrete sources from Cumberland Sound. Results indicated that the bulk of the sediment was derived from Cumberland Sound, but Baffin Bay contributed to sediments coeval with H-0 (Younger Dryas), whereas Hudson Strait was the source during H-events 1–4. Contributions from the Cretaceous outcrops within Cumberland Sound bracket H-events, thus both leading and lagging Hudson Strait-sourced H-events.

  7. Influences Preceding "Nunatsiavut" Self-Determination: Historical, Political and Educational Influences on the People of Northern Labrador (Canada)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kirk David

    2007-01-01

    What were the influences on the Inuit of Northern Labrador preceding the creation of the self-governing territory of Nunatsiavut? What are the preterritorial influences of the Inuit on the territory's five schools? To answer these questions and to share the success of one Indigenous people, the Nunatsiavut Inuit (the Inuit of Northern Labrador,…

  8. The Harvest and Management of Migratory Bird Eggs by Inuit in Nunatsiavut, Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natcher, David; Felt, Larry; Chaulk, Keith; Procter, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of collaborative research conducted in 2007 on the harvest of migratory bird eggs by Inuit households of Nunatsiavut, Labrador. Harvest variability between communities and species is examined, as is the social and ecological factors affecting the 2007 Inuit egg harvest. Representing the first comprehensive account of Inuit egg use in Labrador, this information should be valuable to agencies responsible for managing migratory bird populations in North America and will contribute to a more informed understanding of the complexity and temporal variability in subsistence harvesting among Labrador Inuit. It is argued that the recognition of this complexity will be critical as the Nunatsiavut Government and other wildlife management agencies formulate management policies that are supportive rather, than constraining, to Inuit resource use in the future.

  9. Modelling the circulation and deep water formation in the Labrador Sea: sensitivity to Nordic Sea exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czeschel, L.; Böning, C. W.

    2003-04-01

    Using an eddy-permitting model of the North Atlantic Ocean (part of the FLAME hierarchy) we investigate the impact of variable freshwater fluxes on the circulation, deep convection and the mixing between the boundary currents and the interior of the Labrador Sea. In this study, we use different forcing functions at the northern boundary (70N) to simulate variable freshwater (heat) exchanges with the Nordic Seas. In contrast to restoring to a climatology in a sponge layer, model versions with a prescribed streamfunction in an open boundary formulation give a better agreement with observational estimates of the circulation in this area. Varying the strength of the streamfunction at the northern boundary leads to fluctuations in the transport of the western boundary currents (East/West Greenland Current and Labrador Current) and thus to different freshwater budgets in the Labrador Sea.

  10. Remote visualisation of Labrador convection in large oceanic datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, L. J.; Killworth, P. D.; Cornell, V. C.; Challenor, P. G.

    2005-10-01

    The oceans relinquish O(1PW) of heat into the atmosphere at high latitudes, the lion's share of which originates in localised hotspots of violent convective mixing, but despite their small horizontal scale - O(10-100km) - these features may penetrate deeply into the thermocline and are vital in maintaining the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). Accurate modelling of the MOC, therefore, requires a large-scale numerical model with very fine resolution.The global high-resolution ocean model, Ocean Circulation Climate Advanced Model (OCCAM) has been developed and run at the Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) for many years. It was configured to resolve the energetic scales of oceanic motions, and its output is stored at the Manchester Supercomputer Centre. Although this community resource represents a treasure trove of potential new insights into the nature of the world ocean, it remains relatively unexploited for a number of reasons, not the least of which is its sheer size.A system being developed at SOC under the auspices of the Grid for Ocean Diagnostics, Interactive Visualisation and Analysis (GODIVA) project makes the remote visualisation of very large volumes of data on modest hardware (e.g. a laptop with no special graphics capability) a present reality. The GODIVA system is enabling the unresolved question of oceanic convection and its relationship to large-scale flows to be investigated; a question that lies at the heart of many current climate change issues.In this article, one aspect of the GODIVA is presented, and used to locate and visualise regions of convective mixing in the OCCAM Labrador Sea.

  11. Dogslife: A cohort study of Labrador Retrievers in the UK.

    PubMed

    Pugh, C A; Bronsvoort, B M de C; Handel, I G; Summers, K M; Clements, D N

    2015-12-01

    Studies of animals that visit primary and secondary veterinary centres dominate companion animal epidemiology. Dogslife is a research initiative that collects data directly from owners about the health and lifestyle of Kennel Club (KC) registered Labrador Retrievers (LR) in the UK. The ultimate aim is to seek associations between canine lifestyle and health. A selection of data from Dogslife regarding the height, weight and lifestyle of 4307 LR up to four years of age is reported here. The majority of the dogs were household pets, living with at least one other pet, in families or households with more than one adult. The dogs typically ate diets of dried food and daily meal frequency decreased as the dogs aged. Working dogs spent more time exercising than pets, and dogs in Wales and Scotland were exercised more than their counterparts in England. Dogs in households with children spent less time exercising than dogs in other types of households. There was considerable variation in height and weight measurements indicative of a highly heterogeneous population. The average male height at the shoulders was 2-3cm taller than the UK breed standard. Dog weights continued to increase between one and four years of age. Those with chocolate coloured coats were heavier than their yellow and black counterparts. Greater dog weight was also associated with dogs whose owners reported restricting their dog's exercise due to where they lived. These findings highlight the utility of wide public engagement in the collation of phenotypic measures, providing a unique insight into the physical development and lifestyle of a cohort of LRs. In combination with concurrently collected data on the health of the cohort, phenotypic data from the Dogslife Project will contribute to understanding the relationship between dog lifestyle and health.

  12. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement.

  13. Successfully Implementing a Native Teacher Education Program through Distance Education in Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Dennis B.

    Since 1978, Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada) has offered preservice and inservice teacher education courses to seven isolated Native communities in Labrador. The courses may lead to a 2-year degree with teacher certification or to a 5-year baccalaureate degree. Students are usually Native teachers and teacher aides in community…

  14. Grammar without Speech Production: The Case of Labrador Inuttitut Heritage Receptive Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherkina-Lieber, Marina; Perez-Leroux, Ana T.; Johns, Alana

    2011-01-01

    We examine morphosyntactic knowledge of Labrador Inuttitut by Inuit receptive bilinguals (RBs)--heritage speakers who are capable of comprehension, but produce little or no speech. A grammaticality judgment study suggests that RBs possess sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations, though to a lesser degree than fluent bilinguals. Low-proficiency…

  15. The Rocky Crags and Seascapes of Outdoor Education and Outdoor Recreation in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    Four formal outdoor education programs in Newfoundland and Labrador are briefly described: Brother Brennan Environmental Education Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, and College of the North Atlantic. Cooperation among these formal environmental and outdoor recreation programs, informal community outdoor…

  16. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement. PMID:25392557

  17. Educational Psychologists' Perspectives on Their Professional Practice in Newfoundland and Labrador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.; Joy, Rhonda M.

    2010-01-01

    Educational psychology is in the midst of examination and potential change in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Unfortunately, there has been a paucity of published empirical research investigating educational psychology in the province. The current study surveyed educational psychologists from the four English districts in Newfoundland…

  18. Educational and School Psychology in Newfoundland and Labrador: A 15-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Rhonda; Paul, Heather; Adey, Keith; Wilmott, Angela; Harris, Gregory E.

    2016-01-01

    Educational psychology is an important profession in the Newfoundland and Labrador school system. Educational psychologists have core training in the areas of education and psychology and offer a variety of services to students, families, and teachers in the school system. This article builds on Martin's reflections by exploring the evolution of…

  19. Natural and forced air temperature variability in the Labrador region of Canada during the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Robert G.; Viau, Andre E.

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of Labrador air temperatures over the past century (1881-2011) shows multi-scale climate variability and strong linkages with ocean-atmospheric modes of variability and external forcings. The Arctic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and El Nino Southern Oscillation are shown to be the dominant seasonal and interannual drivers of regional air temperature variability for most of the past century. Several global climate models show disagreement with observations on the rate of recent warming which suggests that models are currently unable to reproduce regional climate variability in Labrador air temperature. Using a combination of empirical statistical modeling and global climate models, we show that 33 % of the variability in annual Labrador air temperatures over the period 1881-2011 can be explained by natural factors alone; however, the inclusion of anthropogenic forcing increases the explained variance to 65 %. Rapid warming over the past 17 years is shown to be linked to both natural and anthropogenic factors with several anomalously warm years being primarily linked to recent anomalies in the Arctic Oscillation and North Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Evidence is also presented that both empirical statistical models and global climate models underestimate the regional air temperature response to ocean salinity anomalies and volcanic eruptions. These results provide important insight into the predictability of future regional climate impacts for the Labrador region.

  20. Age-related thoracic radiographic changes in golden and labrador retriever muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Labruyère, Julien J; Thibaud, Jean Laurent; Barthélémy, Inès; Leperlier, Dimitri; Saunders, Jimmy H; Blot, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Golden retriever and Labrador retriever muscular dystrophy are inherited progressive degenerative myopathies that are used as models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in man. Thoracic lesions were reported to be the most consistent radiographic finding in golden retriever dogs in a study where radiographs were performed at a single-time point. Muscular dystrophy worsens clinically over time and longitudinal studies in dogs are lacking. Thus our goal was to describe the thoracic abnormalities of golden retriever and Labrador retriever dogs, to determine the timing of first expression and their evolution with time. To this purpose, we retrospectively reviewed 390 monthly radiographic studies of 38 golden retrievers and six Labrador retrievers with muscular dystrophy. The same thoracic lesions were found in both golden and Labrador retrievers. They included, in decreasing frequency, flattened and/or scalloped diaphragmatic shape (43/44), pulmonary hyperinflation (34/44), hiatal hernia (34/44), cranial pectus excavatum (23/44), bronchopneumonia (22/44), and megaesophagus (14/44). The last three lesions were not reported in a previous radiographic study in golden retriever dogs. In all but two dogs the thoracic changes were detected between 4 and 10 months and were persistent or worsened over time. Clinically, muscular dystrophy should be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with a combination of these thoracic radiographic findings.

  1. Matriculating Eastward: Maritime Student Migration to Newfoundland & Labrador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Dale; Greene, Melanie; Bourgeois, Monique; Sharpe, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the number of both out-of-province Canadian and international students enrolled at Memorial University of Newfoundland has increased substantially. During this period, the enrollment levels of students from the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island have undergone an increase of approximately ten-fold.…

  2. NASOPHARYNGEAL FLORA IN HEALTH AND DURING RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN ISOLATED COMMUNITIES IN ALABAMA AND LABRADOR

    PubMed Central

    Burky, E. L.; Smillie, W. G.

    1929-01-01

    Studies of the bacterial flora of the nasopharynx were made in isolated communities in South Alabama and Labrador. The basic flora was determined in both communities. In Alabama an epidemic of common colds was studied. In Labrador cases of sporadic colds and an epidemic of tracheitis were studied. Gram-negative cocci were found in nearly all normal individuals in moderate numbers. In pathological states there was a suppression of these organisms. Staphylococci were found in small numbers in about half of the normal individuals. In pathological conditions they disappeared from most of those affected but were found in increased numbers in a few individuals. Pfeiffer bacilli were absent or present only in small numbers in normal individuals. During the epidemic of colds in Alabama there was an increase in the number of strains recovered and an increase in the relative numbers of the bacilli in each throat. The highest prevalence was found one month after the epidemic had reached its height. In Labrador a similar increase was coincident with an epidemic of tracheitis. During normal periods the majority of the Pfeiffer strains were of the para non-indol-forming type. During epidemic periods the strains recovered were largely true indol-forming B. Pfeifferi. Hemolytic streptococci were rarely found in normals. During disease prevalence periods they appeared in a small number of persons. In Alabama, indifferent streptococci resembled the hemolytic streptococci in their distribution. In Labrador they were found to be widely distributed in both health and disease and composed apparently a part of the normal flora. Green streptococci were found to be widely distributed in fairly large numbers both in health and disease. Intermediates, or organisms midway between green streptococci and pneumococci, were found in moderate numbers in each series of persons studied. Early in the Alabama epidemic they were present in large numbers in nearly all persons. Pneumococci were not found

  3. Spring phytoplankton communities of the Labrador Sea (2005-2014): pigment signatures, photophysiology and elemental ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Glaucia M.; Poulton, Alex J.; Yashayaev, Igor M.; Head, Erica J. H.; Purdie, Duncan A.

    2017-03-01

    The Labrador Sea is an ideal region to study the biogeographical, physiological, and biogeochemical implications of phytoplankton community composition due to sharp transitions between distinct water masses across its shelves and central basin. We have investigated the multi-year (2005-2014) distributions of late spring and early summer (May to June) phytoplankton communities in the various hydrographic settings of the Labrador Sea. Our analysis is based on pigment markers (using CHEMTAX analysis), and photophysiological and biogeochemical characteristics associated with each phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most abundant group, blooming first in shallow mixed layers of haline-stratified Arctic shelf waters. Along with diatoms, chlorophytes co-dominated at the western end of the section (particularly in the polar waters of the Labrador Current (LC)), whilst Phaeocystis co-dominated in the east (modified polar waters of the West Greenland Current (WGC)). Pre-bloom conditions occurred in deeper mixed layers of the central Labrador Sea in May, where a mixed assemblage of flagellates (dinoflagellates, prasinophytes, prymnesiophytes, particularly coccolithophores, and chrysophytes/pelagophytes) occurred in low-chlorophyll areas, succeeding to blooms of diatoms and dinoflagellates in thermally stratified Atlantic waters in June. Light-saturated photosynthetic rates and saturation irradiance levels were highest at stations where diatoms were the dominant phytoplankton group ( > 70 % of total chlorophyll a), as opposed to stations where flagellates were more abundant (from 40 up to 70 % of total chlorophyll a). Phytoplankton communities from the WGC (Phaeocystis and diatoms) had lower light-limited photosynthetic rates, with little evidence of photoinhibition, indicating greater tolerance to a high light environment. By contrast, communities from the central Labrador Sea (dinoflagellates and diatoms), which bloomed later in the season (June), appeared to be more

  4. Changes of the deep circulation and erosional inputs in the Labrador Sea over the late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippova, A.; Frank, M.; Kienast, M.; Hillarie-Marcel, C.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of Labrador Sea Water has been one of the main contributors to the Atlantic thermohaline circulation influences the strength of NADW formation. In addition, the Labrador Sea has received weathering inputs of highly variable strength and sources. A high resolution downcore record recovered from south of Greenland (core MD99-2227) together with surface sediment samples from western part of Labrador Sea provides detailed information on deep sea and surface water circulation and through the Latest Quaternary. Radiogenic Nd, Pb and Hf isotopes are used as proxies for changes in water mass mixing and weathering inputs. Nd isotope data produced by leaching early sedimentary ferromanganese coatings reflect seawater compositions and show a pronounced trend towards less radiogenic values from the LGM to 12 kyr and then became less radiogenic again through the Holocene, which was most likely either linked to enhanced erosional input in the course of the retreat of the Laurentide Ice sheet or indicates enhanced contributions of a highly unradiogenic water mass such as Labrador Sea Water or diminished contributions of radiogenic Denmark Strait Overflow water. A major change in isotopic composition at 12 kyr towards more radiogenic isotope compositions is also observed in the leached 208,207,206Pb/204Pb data. Most notably, there was a pronounced change in the Pb isotope compositions at 8 kyr as well, which is not reflected by Nd or Hf isotope data and which reflects a major change in source provenance of the weathering inputs, most likely linked to the 8.2 kyr event, during which glacially dammed lakes Agassiz and Ojibway rapidly drained into the North Atlantic. This interpretation will be compared to the evidence from the radiogenic isotope evolution of the detrital fraction and of the clays. In contrast, with time leached Hf isotope data appear to be too radiogenic for Labrador Seawater but also show a marked unradiogenic peak at 12 kyr pointing to a strong

  5. Rare-earth elements and Nd and Pb isotopes as source indicators for Labrador Sea clay-size sediments during Heinrich event 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Barber, David; Andrews, John T.; Taylor, H.; Lamothe, P.

    2003-01-01

    Elemental abundances and Nd and Pb isotope ratios were determined on samples from the carbonate-free, clay-size fractions of sediments from intervals above, within, and below Heinrich event 2 (H-2) in core HU87-9 from the Northwest Labrador Sea slope. In HU87-9, rare-earth element (REE) distributions and elemental concentrations within the H-2 event are distinct from those outside this event, ??Nd(0) and 206Pb/204Pb data also indicate different values for sediments deposited within and outside the H-2 event. Comparisons of REE patterns from the H-2 interval with those from bedrock units in Baffin Island, northern Quebec, and Labrador indicate that the Lake Harbour Group (LHG), which crops out on the north side of the Hudson Strait, is the most probable bedrock source of the clay-size fraction found within the H-2 interval in HU87-9. The Tasiuyak Gneiss (TG) and Lac Lomier Complex (LLC) have REE patterns (including a negative Eu anomaly) similar to those found in H-2 sediments; however, the La/Yb ratios of these units are smaller than those associated with H-2 sediments. The Nd and Pb isotope data support and complement REE-based interpretations of provenance; i.e., the Nd-Pb signatures of sediments deposited at the HU87-9 site during the H-2 event are similar to Nd-Pb signatures obtained on diamicts from the western end of Hudson Strait. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. Recent increases in Arctic freshwater flux affects Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning circulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Dixon, Timothy H; Myers, Paul G; Bonin, Jennifer; Chambers, Don; van den Broeke, M R

    2016-01-22

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is an important component of ocean thermohaline circulation. Melting of Greenland's ice sheet is freshening the North Atlantic; however, whether the augmented freshwater flux is disrupting the AMOC is unclear. Dense Labrador Sea Water (LSW), formed by winter cooling of saline North Atlantic water and subsequent convection, is a key component of the deep southward return flow of the AMOC. Although LSW formation recently decreased, it also reached historically high values in the mid-1990s, making the connection to the freshwater flux unclear. Here we derive a new estimate of the recent freshwater flux from Greenland using updated GRACE satellite data, present new flux estimates for heat and salt from the North Atlantic into the Labrador Sea and explain recent variations in LSW formation. We suggest that changes in LSW can be directly linked to recent freshening, and suggest a possible link to AMOC weakening.

  7. Recent increases in Arctic freshwater flux affects Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qian; Dixon, Timothy H.; Myers, Paul G.; Bonin, Jennifer; Chambers, Don; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is an important component of ocean thermohaline circulation. Melting of Greenland's ice sheet is freshening the North Atlantic; however, whether the augmented freshwater flux is disrupting the AMOC is unclear. Dense Labrador Sea Water (LSW), formed by winter cooling of saline North Atlantic water and subsequent convection, is a key component of the deep southward return flow of the AMOC. Although LSW formation recently decreased, it also reached historically high values in the mid-1990s, making the connection to the freshwater flux unclear. Here we derive a new estimate of the recent freshwater flux from Greenland using updated GRACE satellite data, present new flux estimates for heat and salt from the North Atlantic into the Labrador Sea and explain recent variations in LSW formation. We suggest that changes in LSW can be directly linked to recent freshening, and suggest a possible link to AMOC weakening.

  8. Linking the 8.2 ka Event and its Freshwater Forcing in the Labrador Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Jeremy S.; Carlson, Anders E.; Winsor, Kelsey; Klinkhammer, Gary P.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Andrews, John T.; Strasser, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 8.2 ka event was the last deglacial abrupt climate event. A reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) attributed to the drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz may have caused the event, but the freshwater signature of Lake Agassiz discharge has yet to be identified in (delta)18O of foraminiferal calcite records from the Labrador Sea, calling into question the connection between freshwater discharge to the North Atlantic and AMOC strength. Using Mg/Ca-paleothermometry, we demonstrate that approx. 3 C of near-surface ocean cooling masked an 1.0 % decrease in western Labrador Sea (delta)18O of seawater concurrent with Lake Agassiz drainage. Comparison with North Atlantic (delta)18O of seawater records shows that the freshwater discharge was transported to regions of deep-water formation where it could perturb AMOC and force the 8.2 ka event.

  9. On the mid-depth circulation in the Labrador and Irminger Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käse, R. H.; Biastoch, A.; Stammer, D. B.

    A numerical circulation model with 1/6° resolution and an accurate topography formulation explains details of the observed circulation in the Irminger and Labrador Seas that were recently revealed by Lavender et al. [2000]. We show that the recirculation pattern is established through a locally wind induced flow controlled by the bottom topography and enhanced through remote baroclinic forcing by the dense plume of Denmark Strait overflow water. The basic circulation is a robust feature in a hierarchy of model setups. It exists in the purely barotropic case driven by steady winds and is even maintained when realistic daily forcing is added. The narrow recirculation zone is manifested by a sea level depression spanning from the Denmark Strait across the Irminger into the Labrador Sea.

  10. Recent increases in Arctic freshwater flux affects Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning circulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Dixon, Timothy H.; Myers, Paul G.; Bonin, Jennifer; Chambers, Don; van den Broeke, M. R.; Ribergaard, Mads H.; Mortensen, John

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is an important component of ocean thermohaline circulation. Melting of Greenland's ice sheet is freshening the North Atlantic; however, whether the augmented freshwater flux is disrupting the AMOC is unclear. Dense Labrador Sea Water (LSW), formed by winter cooling of saline North Atlantic water and subsequent convection, is a key component of the deep southward return flow of the AMOC. Although LSW formation recently decreased, it also reached historically high values in the mid-1990s, making the connection to the freshwater flux unclear. Here we derive a new estimate of the recent freshwater flux from Greenland using updated GRACE satellite data, present new flux estimates for heat and salt from the North Atlantic into the Labrador Sea and explain recent variations in LSW formation. We suggest that changes in LSW can be directly linked to recent freshening, and suggest a possible link to AMOC weakening. PMID:26796579

  11. Successful treatment of Solanum dulcamara intoxication in a Labrador retriever puppy

    PubMed Central

    Kees, Megan; Beckel, Nicole; Sharp, Claire

    2015-01-01

    A 10-week-old intact male Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute onset of weakness, ataxia, and generalized muscle tremors. The puppy was suffering respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) depression, was mildly pyrexic, and vomited plant material that was identified as creeping nightshade (Solanum dulcamara). He responded well to supportive care and was discharged successfully. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of Solanum dulcamara toxicity occurring in a dog. PMID:26663926

  12. Seasonal variations of phytoplankton dynamics in Nunatsiavut fjords (Labrador, Canada) and their relationships with environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simo-Matchim, Armelle-Galine; Gosselin, Michel; Blais, Marjolaine; Gratton, Yves; Tremblay, Jean-Éric

    2016-04-01

    We assessed phytoplankton dynamics and its environmental control in four Labrador fjords (Nachvak, Saglek, Okak, and Anaktalak) during summer, early fall and late fall. Primary production and chlorophyll a (chl a) biomass were measured at seven optical depths, including the depth of subsurface chl a maximum (SCM). Phytoplankton abundance, size structure and taxonomy were determined at the SCM. Principal component analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling were used to analyze relationships between production, biomass and community composition in relation to environmental variables. We observed a marked seasonal variability, with significant differences in phytoplankton structure and function between summer and fall. Surprisingly, primary production and chl a biomass were not significantly different from one fjord to another. The highest values of primary production (1730 mg C m- 2 day- 1) and chl a biomass (96 mg chl a m- 2) were measured during the summer bloom, and those high values indicate that Labrador fjords are highly productive ecosystems. The summer community showed relatively high abundance of nanophytoplankton (2-20 μm) while the fall community was characterized by low primary production and chl a biomass as well as relatively high abundance of picophytoplankton (< 2 μm). The low value of carbon potentially exported out of the euphotic zone throughout the study (≤ 31% of total primary production) suggests that phytoplankton production was mainly grazed by microzooplankton rather than being exported to greater depths. We observed a mixed assemblage of diatoms and flagellates in summer, whereas the fall community was largely dominated by flagellates. Seasonal variations in phytoplankton dynamics were mainly controlled by the strength of the vertical stratification and by the large differences in day length due to the northerly location of Labrador fjords. This study documents for the very first time phytoplankton structure and function in

  13. Dogslife: A web-based longitudinal study of Labrador Retriever health in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dogslife is the first large-scale internet-based longitudinal study of canine health. The study has been designed to examine how environmental and genetic factors influence the health and development of a birth cohort of UK-based pedigree Labrador Retrievers. Results In the first 12 months of the study 1,407 Kennel Club (KC) registered eligible dogs were recruited, at a mean age of 119 days of age (SD 69 days, range 3 days – 504 days). Recruitment rates varied depending upon the study team’s ability to contact owners. Where owners authorised the provision of contact details 8.4% of dogs were recruited compared to 1.3% where no direct contact was possible. The proportion of dogs recruited was higher for owners who transferred the registration of their puppy from the breeder to themselves with the KC, and for owners who were sent an e-mail or postcard requesting participation in the project. Compliance with monthly updates was highly variable. For the 280 dogs that were aged 400 days or more on the 30th June 2011, we estimated between 39% and 45% of owners were still actively involved in the project. Initial evaluation suggests that the cohort is representative of the general population of the KC registered Labrador Retrievers eligible to enrol with the project. Clinical signs of illnesses were reported in 44.3% of Labrador Retrievers registered with Dogslife (median age of first illness 138 days), although only 44.1% of these resulted in a veterinary presentation (median age 316 days). Conclusions The web-based platform has enabled the recruitment of a representative population of KC registered Labrador Retrievers, providing the first large-scale longitudinal population-based study of dog health. The use of multiple different methods (e-mail, post and telephone) of contact with dog owners was essential to maximise recruitment and retention of the cohort. PMID:23332044

  14. Successful treatment of Solanum dulcamara intoxication in a Labrador retriever puppy.

    PubMed

    Kees, Megan; Beckel, Nicole; Sharp, Claire

    2015-12-01

    A 10-week-old intact male Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute onset of weakness, ataxia, and generalized muscle tremors. The puppy was suffering respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) depression, was mildly pyrexic, and vomited plant material that was identified as creeping nightshade (Solanum dulcamara). He responded well to supportive care and was discharged successfully. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Solanum dulcamara toxicity occurring in a dog.

  15. Acquisition of a visual discrimination and reversal learning task by Labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Lazarowski, Lucia; Foster, Melanie L; Gruen, Margaret E; Sherman, Barbara L; Case, Beth C; Fish, Richard E; Milgram, Norton W; Dorman, David C

    2014-05-01

    Optimal cognitive ability is likely important for military working dogs (MWD) trained to detect explosives. An assessment of a dog's ability to rapidly learn discriminations might be useful in the MWD selection process. In this study, visual discrimination and reversal tasks were used to assess cognitive performance in Labrador retrievers selected for an explosives detection program using a modified version of the Toronto General Testing Apparatus (TGTA), a system developed for assessing performance in a battery of neuropsychological tests in canines. The results of the current study revealed that, as previously found with beagles tested using the TGTA, Labrador retrievers (N = 16) readily acquired both tasks and learned the discrimination task significantly faster than the reversal task. The present study confirmed that the modified TGTA system is suitable for cognitive evaluations in Labrador retriever MWDs and can be used to further explore effects of sex, phenotype, age, and other factors in relation to canine cognition and learning, and may provide an additional screening tool for MWD selection.

  16. D-penicillamine treatment of copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Fieten, Hille; Dirksen, Karen; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Winter, Esther A; Watson, Adrian L; Leegwater, Peter A J; Rothuizen, Jan

    2013-06-01

    d-penicillamine is effectively used in the lifelong treatment of copper toxicosis in Bedlington terriers and Wilson's disease in humans. A complex form of copper-associated hepatitis has recently been characterized in the Labrador retriever. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of d-penicillamine treatment for copper-associated hepatitis in this breed, to study the effects on hepatic copper, iron and zinc concentrations, and to evaluate parameters to predict optimal duration of treatment. Forty-three client owned Labrador retrievers that were diagnosed with increased hepatic copper were treated with d-penicillamine and underwent at least one follow-up examination including a liver biopsy for histopathological scoring of inflammatory lesions. Hepatic copper, iron and zinc concentrations were determined in the initial and follow-up biopsies by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The influence of initial hepatic copper concentration, sex, age, d-penicillamine formulation and the occurrence of side effects were investigated for their influence on hepatic copper concentration after a certain period of treatment by generalized mixed modelling. d-penicillamine proved to be effective in reducing hepatic copper concentration and associated inflammatory lesions. Parameters derived from the model can be used to estimate the necessary duration of d-penicillamine treatment for Labrador retrievers with increased hepatic copper concentration. Continuous, lifelong d-penicillamine treatment is not recommended in this breed, as there may be a risk for hepatic copper and zinc deficiency.

  17. LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

  18. Muscular dystrophy in a family of Labrador Retrievers with no muscle dystrophin and a mild phenotype.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Natassia M; Guo, Ling T; Estrela, Elicia; Kunkel, Louis M; Zatz, Mayana; Shelton, G Diane

    2015-05-01

    Animal models of dystrophin deficient muscular dystrophy, most notably canine X-linked muscular dystrophy, play an important role in developing new therapies for human Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Although the canine disease is a model of the human disease, the variable severity of clinical presentations in the canine may be problematic for pre-clinical trials, but also informative. Here we describe a family of Labrador Retrievers with three generations of male dogs having markedly increased serum creatine kinase activity, absence of membrane dystrophin, but with undetectable clinical signs of muscle weakness. Clinically normal young male Labrador Retriever puppies were evaluated prior to surgical neuter by screening laboratory blood work, including serum creatine kinase activity. Serum creatine kinase activities were markedly increased in the absence of clinical signs of muscle weakness. Evaluation of muscle biopsies confirmed a dystrophic phenotype with both degeneration and regeneration. Further evaluations by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis confirmed the absence of muscle dystrophin. Although dystrophin was not identified in the muscles, we did not find any detectable deletions or duplications in the dystrophin gene. Sequencing is now ongoing to search for point mutations. Our findings in this family of Labrador Retriever dogs lend support to the hypothesis that, in exceptional situations, muscle with no dystrophin may be functional. Unlocking the secrets that protect these dogs from a severe clinical myopathy is a great challenge which may have important implications for future treatment of human muscular dystrophies.

  19. Recent changes in area and thickness of Torngat Mountain glaciers (northern Labrador, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrand, Nicholas E.; Way, Robert G.; Bell, Trevor; Sharp, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    The Torngat Mountains National Park, northern Labrador, Canada, contains more than 120 small glaciers: the only remaining glaciers in continental northeast North America. These small cirque glaciers exist in a unique topo-climatic setting, experiencing temperate maritime summer conditions yet very cold and dry winters, and may provide insights into the deglaciation dynamics of similar small glaciers in temperate mountain settings. Due to their size and remote location, very little information exists regarding the health of these glaciers. Just a single study has been published on the contemporary glaciology of the Torngat Mountains, focusing on net mass balances from 1981 to 1984. This paper addresses the extent to which glaciologically relevant climate variables have changed in northern Labrador in concert with 20th-century Arctic warming, and how these changes have affected Torngat Mountain glaciers. Field surveys and remote-sensing analyses were used to measure regional glacier area loss of 27 % from 1950 to 2005, substantial rates of ice surface thinning (up to 6 m yr-1) and volume losses at Abraham, Hidden, and Minaret glaciers, between 2005 and 2011. Glacier mass balances appear to be controlled by variations in winter precipitation and, increasingly, by strong summer and autumn atmospheric warming since the early 1990s, though further observations are required to fully understand mass balance sensitivities. This study provides the first comprehensive contemporary assessment of Labrador glaciers and will inform both regional impact assessments and syntheses of global glacier mass balance.

  20. A High-resolution Detrital and Oxygen Isotope Record from Flemish Pass, Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deJesus, E.; Hoffman, J. S.; Clark, P. U.; Mix, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution records of deglacial paleoceanographic change along the Labrador shelf are scarce. However, they are required in order to characterize and understand possible ice-ocean interactions involving the eastern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). We have generated a high-resolution stable isotope and detrital stratigraphic record for core HU2001043-008 (990m, 48° N, 45° W) from Flemish Pass, Labrador Sea, to better understand the role of LIS ice-rafting events in abrupt climate changes during the last glaciation. Samples at two-centimeter resolution were disaggregated, washed, and picked for Neogloboquandrina pachyderma (sinistral) for stable isotope and radiocarbon analysis. The δ18O signal in foraminiferal calcite allows us to examine surface-ocean changes that may indicate an influx of freshwater, which may or may not be related to an LIS ice-rafting event. Our results will help in developing a better understanding of the source of LIS ice-rafting events, precursory indicators of the events, and how these events are associated with changes in deep-water formation in the Labrador Sea.

  1. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  2. Eastern and Western Boundary Currents in the Labrador Sea, 1995-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. M.; Torres, D. J.; Yashayaev, I.

    2010-12-01

    Since 1995, the annual occupation of AR7W in the Labrador Sea has usually included LADCP data in addition to hydrographic measurements and tracers. We have previously presented results discussing the section-wide circulation for particular years, comparison with geostrophic velocities, and heat flux as determined from individual as well as composite sections. In this work, we present boundary current transports for a sampling of AR7W sections from 1995 through 2008. Both eastern and western boundary currents (EBCs, WBCs) are examined by combining LADCP data with density (or hydrographic) measurements from ships and profiling floats (Argo, PALACE). The transport estimates from LADCP data are also compared with the currents based on along-track multi-mission altimetry and with the lagrangian velocities from historic float and drifter trajectories. We find that WBC transports are mostly weaker than EBC transports, with slightly less variability year to year. Transports may be underestimated by 2 - 4 Sv when LADCP data are not available far enough onshore, so we extrapolate the velocities (carefully) to improve our estimate. Geostrophic velocities from hydrographic data can also be used to extend the coverage. WBC transports are about 32 Sv in the mean, but range from 22 to as much as 55 Sv. EBC transports range from 26 to 70 (!) Sv, with a mean of about 45 Sv. Higher transports, year to year, result from a combination of greater current width and faster velocities. Baroclinic transport relative to 1500 dbars for the upper level current ranges from 2.5 - 4.6 Sv, in good agreement with Lazier and Wright (1993). Using hydrographic data to determine transport in prescribed density layers, we find reasonable agreement with other recent observations in the Labrador Sea: for the western boundaries, Fischer et al. (2004) and Dengler et al. (2006) (CTD, LADCP and moored array data near 53 N and 56 N, respectively); for the eastern boundaries, Holliday et al. (2009), their

  3. Privacy protection and public goods: building a genetic database for health research in Newfoundland and Labrador

    PubMed Central

    Pullman, Daryl; Perrot-Daley, Astrid; Hodgkinson, Kathy; Street, Catherine; Rahman, Proton

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a legal and ethical analysis of some of the implementation challenges faced by the Population Therapeutics Research Group (PTRG) at Memorial University (Canada), in using genealogical information offered by individuals for its genetics research database. Materials and methods This paper describes the unique historical and genetic characteristics of the Newfoundland and Labrador founder population, which gave rise to the opportunity for PTRG to build the Newfoundland Genealogy Database containing digitized records of all pre-confederation (1949) census records of the Newfoundland founder population. In addition to building the database, PTRG has developed the Heritability Analytics Infrastructure, a data management structure that stores genotype, phenotype, and pedigree information in a single database, and custom linkage software (KINNECT) to perform pedigree linkages on the genealogy database. Discussion A newly adopted legal regimen in Newfoundland and Labrador is discussed. It incorporates health privacy legislation with a unique research ethics statute governing the composition and activities of research ethics boards and, for the first time in Canada, elevating the status of national research ethics guidelines into law. The discussion looks at this integration of legal and ethical principles which provides a flexible and seamless framework for balancing the privacy rights and welfare interests of individuals, families, and larger societies in the creation and use of research data infrastructures as public goods. Conclusion The complementary legal and ethical frameworks that now coexist in Newfoundland and Labrador provide the legislative authority, ethical legitimacy, and practical flexibility needed to find a workable balance between privacy interests and public goods. Such an approach may also be instructive for other jurisdictions as they seek to construct and use biobanks and related research platforms for genetic research. PMID

  4. Variability of Labrador Sea Water transported through Flemish Pass during 1993-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Linn; Kieke, Dagmar; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Colbourne, Eugene; Yashayaev, Igor; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Varotsou, Eirini; Serra, Nuno; Rhein, Monika

    2015-08-01

    Flemish Pass, located at the western subpolar margin, is a passage (sill depth 1200 m) that is constrained by the Grand Banks and the underwater plateau Flemish Cap. In addition to the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) pathway offshore of Flemish Cap, Flemish Pass represents another southward transport pathway for two modes of Labrador Sea Water (LSW), the lightest component of North Atlantic Deep Water carried with the DWBC. This pathway avoids potential stirring regions east of Flemish Cap and deflection into the interior North Atlantic. Ship-based velocity measurements between 2009 and 2013 at 47°N in Flemish Pass and in the DWBC east of Flemish Cap revealed a considerable southward transport of Upper LSW through Flemish Pass (15-27%, -1.0 to -1.5 Sv). About 98% of the denser Deep LSW were carried around Flemish Cap as Flemish Pass is too shallow for considerable transport of Deep LSW. Hydrographic time series from ship-based measurements show a significant warming of 0.3°C/decade and a salinification of 0.03/decade of the Upper LSW in Flemish Pass between 1993 and 2013. Almost identical trends were found for the evolution in the Labrador Sea and in the DWBC east of Flemish Cap. This indicates that the long-term hydrographic variability of Upper LSW in Flemish Pass as well as in the DWBC at 47°N is dominated by changes in the Labrador Sea, which are advected southward. Fifty years of numerical ocean model simulations in Flemish Pass suggest that these trends are part of a multidecadal cycle.

  5. Reference values of M-mode echocardiographic parameters and indices in conscious Labrador Retriever dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gugjoo, M. B.; Hoque, M.; Saxena, A. C.; Shamsuz Zama, M. M.; Dey, S.

    2014-01-01

    Breed-wise standard echocardiographic values in dogs have been reported as there is variation in body and chest conformation which limits the application of data of one breed for other breed. Labrador Retrievers being originated from hunting dogs, might have different echocardiographic values from standard normal range of other dog breeds. So, the present study was aimed to determine the M-mode echocardiographic reference ranges in Labrador Retriever dogs and to evaluate the effect of body weight and gender on these parameters. The data obtained were also compared with that of the other dog breeds. Conscious clinically healthy Labrador Retriever dogs (n=24) of both sexes were made the subject of the study. All the measurements were made from a right parasternal long axis left ventricular outflow tract view and the parameters measured were: left ventricular dimensions, left ventricular function, left ventricular volumes, left atrial and aortic root diameter and mitral valve parameters. Data obtained were also compared with that available for other dog breeds. Significant correlation (P<0.05) with body weight was obtained for some of the left ventricular, atrial and mitral valve parameters, being strong for LAD, AOD, LVIDd, LVIDs, IVSd and IVSs (r>0.5); moderate for LVPWd, LVPWs, EPSS, EF Slope and SV (r=0.3 to 0.5); weak for EDV and ESV (r<0.3). Non-significant effect of gender was seen on all the echocardiographic parameters. However, some of the parameters had a significant breed effect. It is expected that the obtained data will be valuable for the progress of studies on small animal cardiology. PMID:27175128

  6. Adult-onset lymphoplasmacytic orchitis in a Labrador retriever stud dog.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Autumn P; von Dehn, Benita J; Schlafer, Donald H

    2015-03-01

    A formerly fertile 5-year-old 45-kg Labrador retriever was evaluated for azoospermia noted during routine semen collection for an artificial insemination. Over the past 3 years, the dog had sired 4 litters of anticipated size for the breed out of 5 breedings, the most recent a litter of 10 conceived and whelped 2 months previously. Physical examination findings were normal with the exception of bilaterally small and soft testes. An open excisional wedge biopsy of the right testis was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathology findings supported an immunologic, autoimmune pathogenesis that had resulted in infertility over the previous 4 months.

  7. Two new species of true morels from Newfoundland and Labrador: cosmopolitan Morchella eohespera and parochial M. laurentiana.

    PubMed

    Voitk, Andrus; Beug, Michael W; O'Donnell, Kerry; Burzynski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies of true morels (Morchella) in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador resulted in the discovery of two undescribed species in the M. elata clade that we initially distinguished by the informal designations Mel-19 and Mel-36. The latter species, also collected in New Brunswick, Canada, is hitherto known only from the St Lawrence River Basin. Mel-36 is described here as a novel, phylogenetically distinct species, M. laurentiana. Before the discovery of Mel-19 in Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick and Washington state it was only known from central China and central and northern Europe. Mel-19 is described here as a novel species, M. eohespera.

  8. An Investigation of Cancer Rates in the Argentia Region, Newfoundland and Labrador: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Pauline; Godwin, Marshall; Peach, Mandy; Fortier, Jacqueline; Bornstein, Stephen; Buehler, Sharon; McCrate, Farah; Pike, Andrea; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Cullen, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Argentia region of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, was home to a US naval base during a 40-year period between the 1940s and the 1990s. Activities on the base resulted in contamination of the soil and groundwater in the region with chemicals such as heavy metals and dioxins, and residents have expressed concern about higher rates of cancer in their community. This study investigated the rate of cancer diagnosis that is disproportionately high in the Argentia region. Methods. Cases of cancer diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were obtained for the Argentia region, two comparison communities, and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Crude and age-standardized incidence rates of cancer diagnosis were calculated and compared. The crude incidence rate was adjusted for differences in age demographics using census data, and age-standardized incidence rates were compared. Results. Although the Argentia region had a higher crude rate of cancer diagnosis, the age-standardized incidence rate did not differ significantly from the comparison communities or the provincial average. Argentia has an aging population, which may have influenced the perception of increased cancer diagnosis in the community. Conclusions. We did not detect an increased burden of cancer in the Argentia region. PMID:26633979

  9. A COL11A2 mutation in Labrador retrievers with mild disproportionate dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Frischknecht, Mirjam; Niehof-Oellers, Helena; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Drögemüller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Dolf, Gaudenz; Tellhelm, Bernd; Lang, Johann; Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso

    2013-01-01

    We describe a mild form of disproportionate dwarfism in Labrador Retrievers, which is not associated with any obvious health problems such as secondary arthrosis. We designate this phenotype as skeletal dysplasia 2 (SD2). It is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance primarily in working lines of the Labrador Retriever breed. Using 23 cases and 37 controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 4.44 Mb interval on chromosome 12. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at 30x coverage and detected 92 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Only two of these variants, located in the lymphotoxin A (LTA) and collagen alpha-2(XI) chain gene (COL11A2), respectively, were perfectly associated with the trait. Previously described COL11A2 variants in humans or mice lead to skeletal dysplasias and/or deafness. The dog variant associated with disproportionate dwarfism, COL11A2:c.143G>C or p.R48P, probably has only a minor effect on collagen XI function, which might explain the comparatively mild phenotype seen in our study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of COL11A2 mutations. We speculate that non-pathogenic COL11A2 variants might even contribute to the heritable variation in height.

  10. Incidence of the mask phenotype M264V mutation in Labrador Retrievers.

    PubMed

    Conant, E K; Juras, R; Cothran, E G

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) chips allows for the rapid typing of multiple markers for many individuals at one time. Our lab routinely types dogs using a custom designed combined panel of SNPs for parentage verification and a number of genes for diagnostic tests using an OpenArray platform manufactured by BioTrove (Woburn, MA, USA). By utilizing the same SNP panel across a wide array of canine breeds it is possible to detect trait-associated SNPs in breeds not thought to carry those traits. We genotyped 245 Labrador Retrievers on the canine SNP chip and found 13 animals heterozygous for the M264V mutation associated with autosomal dominant mask trait, and one animal homozygous for this trait. The color genotypes for these animals were further examined. In standard colored Labradors (black, chocolate, and yellow), the mask phenotype would never be distinguishable. As illustrated by this example, we feel this SNP panel is a valuable method for discovering traits not known to exist in a breed.

  11. Further intensification of deep convection in the Labrador Sea in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashayaev, Igor; Loder, John W.

    2017-02-01

    There has been a progressive deepening of winter convection in the Labrador Sea since 2012, with the individual profile maximum depth exceeding 1800 m since 2014 and reaching 2100 m in 2016. This increase, during repeated positive phases of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), resembles that during the formation of the record depth (2500 m) Labrador Sea Water (LSW) class in 1987-1994, attributed to repeated positive NAO forcing having provided critical preconditioning. The 2012-2016 LSW class is one of the deepest and most persistent ever observed (back to 1938). Year-round observations from profiling Argo floats since 2002 complemented by annual surveys are providing novel information on the seasonal-to-decadal evolution of LSW, such as its variable density, the recent multiyear preconditioning, and its 2016 density being the highest since the mid-1990s. These findings should help international observation programs and numerical model studies investigating LSW influences on the subpolar North Atlantic and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.

  12. A Prototype of a Receptive Lexical Test for a Polysynthetic Heritage Language: The Case of Inuttitut in Labrador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherkina-Lieber, Marina; Helms-Park, Rena

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the process of designing, administering, and assessing a language-sensitive and culture-specific lexical test of Labrador Inuttitut (a dialect of Inuktitut, an Eskimo-Aleut language). This process presented numerous challenges, from choosing citation forms in a polysynthetic language to dealing with a lack of word frequency…

  13. Two new species of true morels from Newfoundland and Labrador: cosmopolitan Morchella eohespera and parochial M. laurentiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies of true morels (Morchella) in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) resulted in the surprising discovery of two undescribed species in the M. elata clade, which we initially distinguished by the informal designations Mel-19 and Mel-3...

  14. EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION CONFERENCE IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR, AN ABSTRACT OF THE PROCEEDINGS (ST. JOHN'S, NEWFOUNDLAND, SEPTEMBER 6-9, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, LEWIS, ED.

    THE PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR ARE PRESENTED AS BACKGROUND TO THE USE OF EDUCATIONAL TV IN SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES AS WELL AS FOR ADULT EDUCATION. ETV SYSTEMS AND PROGRAMING INCLUDING SATELLITE SYSTEMS ARE DISCUSSED. QUESTIONS OF BALANCE AND STUDIO TEACHING ARE RAISED UNDER THE SUBJECT OF TEACHING TEAMS. SOURCES…

  15. Geochronological and lead-isotope evidences for rapid crust formation in middle-proterozoic time: The Labrador example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaerer, Urs

    1988-01-01

    Extensive U-Pb geochronological studies in the Grenville and Makkovik provinces have shown that eastern Labrador is underlain by two distinct crustal blocks. In order to substantiate the juvenile character of the middle-Proterozoic crustal block, the isotopic compositon of lead in leached k-feldspars from the same rocks were analyzed. The results of the analysis are briefly discussed.

  16. A shell-derived time history of bomb {sup 14}C on Georges Bank and its Labrador Sea implications

    SciTech Connect

    Weidman, C.R.; Jones, G.A.

    1993-08-15

    Bomb-produced radiocarbon has been used in the past as an important tracer of ocean circulation and as a valuable tool for calculating CO{sub 2} air-sea exchange. However, previous studies of the ocean`s time-varying bomb {sup 14}C record have been confined exclusively to analyzing banded corals, and thus their application has been limited to the lower latitudes. The first time history of bomb {sup 14}C from the high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean is obtained from a 54-year-old mollusc specimen, (Bivalvia) Arctica islandica, which was collected live from Georges Bank (41{degrees}N) in 1990. The annual growth bands of its shell were analyzed for {Delta}{sup 14}C using accelerator mass spectrometry, producing a {Delta}{sup 14}C time history from 1939 to 1990. The depleted condition of the Georges Bank bomb {sup 14}C signal relative to two coral-derived North Atlantic {Delta}{sup 14}C time histories suggests a significant deepwater source for the waters on Georges Bank. Supported by previous work linking the origin of waters on Georges Bank to the Labrador Sea, the {Delta}{sup 14}C budget on Georges Bank is modeled as Labrador Sea water, which largely becomes confined to the shelf and partially equilibrates with the atmosphere during a 1-year transit time from the Labrador Sea to Georges Bank. This model is also used to estimate a time history of bomb {sup 14}C for the Labrador Sea. Prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C values calculated for the surface Labrador Sea suggest that a greater inventory of bomb {sup 14}C has accumulated here than has previously been reported. Deduced variations in the ventilation and/or {sup 14}CO{sub 2} uptake rates in the Labrador Sea correspond with observed changes in surface salinity of the Labrador Sea, suggesting a reduction in deepwater formation during the late 1960s and 1970s. 59 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Mechanisms of decadal variability in the Labrador Sea and the wider North Atlantic in a high-resolution climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Pablo; Robson, Jon; Sutton, Rowan T.; Andrews, Martin B.

    2016-12-01

    A necessary step before assessing the performance of decadal predictions is the evaluation of the processes that bring memory to the climate system, both in climate models and observations. These mechanisms are particularly relevant in the North Atlantic, where the ocean circulation, related to both the Subpolar Gyre and the Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), is thought to be important for driving significant heat content anomalies. Recently, a rapid decline in observed densities in the deep Labrador Sea has pointed to an ongoing slowdown of the AMOC strength taking place since the mid 90s, a decline also hinted by in-situ observations from the RAPID array. This study explores the use of Labrador Sea densities as a precursor of the ocean circulation changes, by analysing a 300-year long simulation with the state-of-the-art coupled model HadGEM3-GC2. The major drivers of Labrador Sea density variability are investigated, and are characterised by three major contributions. First, the integrated effect of local surface heat fluxes, mainly driven by year-to-year changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation, which accounts for 62% of the total variance. Additionally, two multidecadal-to-centennial contributions from the Greenland-Scotland Ridge outflows are quantified; the first associated with freshwater exports via the East Greenland Current, and the second with density changes in the Denmark Strait Overflow. Finally, evidence is shown that decadal trends in Labrador Sea densities are followed by important atmospheric impacts. In particular, a positive winter NAO response appears to follow the negative Labrador Sea density trends, and provides a phase reversal mechanism.

  18. Sedimentary regime of deep submarine canyons around Fylla Banke, northeastern Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Dorthe; Kuijpers, Antoon; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Nielsen, Tove

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary regime of deep submarine canyons around the Fylla Banke, northeastern Labrador Sea Dorthe Paulsen (1), Antoon Kuijpers (2), Marit-Solveig Seidenkrantz (3) and Tove Nielsen (2) 1) Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K 2) Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgde 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. 3) Centre for Past Climate Studies, Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University. Hoegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C The southern end of the Davis Strait, the comparatively shallow-water area separating the Labrador Sea from the Baffin Bay, is cut by two deep submarine canyons of west Greenland, on the western and eastern side of the Fylla Banke, respectively. The purpose of this study is to investigate Late Pleistocene sedimentary processes governing the area of the two canyons in order to test if gravity flows or ocean currents are the most important factors governing canyon sedimentary processes in this region. Furthermore, an account is given on the formation of the two canyons in order to explain the significant difference between them. The study was carried out based on seismic profiles combined with bathymetric information, and a single sidescan sonar profile from one of the canyons (western canyon). Sedimentary information and an age model are derived from of a 5-m long gravity core (TTR13-AT-479G) collected from the mouth of the western canyon (southern end). The data indicates that the sedimentary regime is today highly affected by northward transport of the ocean currents and that gravity flows (southward from shallower to deep waters) are only of limited significance today. The deep southern end of the canyons are influenced by the upper parts of the deep North Atlantic Deep Water, but the majority of the sediment transport is linked to the strong northward flow of the lower parts of the West Greenland Current. For comparison the sediment

  19. Labrador Sea surface temperature control on the summer weather in the Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnatiuk, Natalia; Vihma, Timo; Bobylev, Leonid

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have addressed the linkages between the Arctic Amplification and mid-latitude weather patterns. Most of them have focused on the effects of changes in sea ice, terrestrial snow or open ocean SST on the air temperature in selected mid-latitude areas. However, when analysing such potential linkages, one should be aware that from the point of view of the atmosphere it is almost the same whether the thermal forcing originates from the sea ice melt, snowmelt, or changes in SST. Most important is to quantify how the atmosphere responds to anomalies in the surface temperature and then affects weather patterns in remote areas. For this purpose, we studied the hemispheric-scale relationships between anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere Earth surface temperature (Ts) and 2-m air temperature (T2m) in mid-latitudes (Central and Eastern Europe). Using regression analyses based on the ERA-Interim reanalysis data, we assessed the said temperature relationships with focus on the lagged monthly and inter-seasonal linkages. Technically we divided the Northern Hemisphere in equal areas with a size of 15x10 degrees and calculated correlation coefficients for the monthly mean temperatures between all defined regions from one side and the Central/East European study regions from another side over the period 1979-2014. Using this approach, we found that the strongest links in the considered kind of relationships take place between spring sea surface temperature in the Labrador Sea and summer air (T2m) temperature in the Eastern Europe. In order to confirm the correlation results obtained, to identify thermal forcing factors and to assess their relative importance, we analysed the multiyear averages and anomalies of various meteorological parameters for 10 coldest and 10 warmest springs and summers in the period 1979-2014: surface pressure, total precipitation, sea-ice and total cloud cover, wind components, surface solar radiation downwards, surface heat fluxes and air

  20. Freshening of the Labrador Sea Surface Waters in the 1990s: Another Great Salinity Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Both the observed and simulated time series of the Labrador Sea surface salinities show a major freshening event since the middles. It continues the series of decoder events of the 1970s and 1980s from which the freshening in the early 1970's was named as the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA). These events are especially distinguishable in the late summer (August and September) time series. The observed data suggests that the 1990's freshening may equal the GSA in magnitude. This recent event is associated with a large reduction in the overturning rate between the early and latter part of the 1990s. Both the observations and model results indicate that the surface salinity conditions appear to be returning towards normal daring 1999 and 2000 in the coastal area, but offshore, the model predicts the freshening to linger on after peaking 1997.

  1. Local contamination, and not feeding preferences, explains elevated PCB concentrations in Labrador ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Iverson, Sara J; Fisk, Aaron T; Macdonald, Robie W; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2015-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in high trophic level species typically reflect the contributions of myriad sources, such that source apportionment is rarely possible. The release of PCBs by a military radar station into Saglek Bay, Labrador contaminated the local marine food web. For instance, while heavier (higher chlorinated) PCB profiles in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida) were previously attributed to this local source, differences in feeding preferences among seals could not be ruled out as a contributing factor. Herein, similar fatty acid profiles between those seals with 'local' PCB profiles and those with 'long-range' or background profiles indicate little support for the possibility that differential feeding ecologies underlay the divergent PCB profiles. Ringed seals appeared to feed predominantly on zooplankton (Mysis oculata and Themisto libellula), followed by the dusky snailfish (Liparis gibbus), arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). Principal components analysis (PCA) and PCB homolog profiles illustrated the extent of contamination of the Saglek food web, which had very different (and much heavier) PCB profiles than those food web members contaminated by 'long-range' sources. Locally contaminated prey had PCB levels that were higher (2- to 544-fold) than prey contaminated by 'long-range' sources and exceeded wildlife consumption guidelines for PCBs. The application of multivariate analyses to two distinct datasets, including PCB congeners (n=50) and fatty acids (n=65), afforded the opportunity to clearly distinguish the contribution of locally-released PCBs to a ringed seal food web from those delivered via long-ranged transport. Results from the present study strongly suggest that habitat use rather than differences in prey selection is the primary mechanism explaining the divergent PCB patterns in Labrador ringed seals.

  2. Proterozoic massif anorthosites and related rocks in Labrador: the anorthosite-charnockite connection

    SciTech Connect

    Emslie, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Massif anorthosites of Labrador are closely associated in space and time with voluminous, felsic, fayalite- and ferrous pyroxene-bearing igneous rocks. These include charnockites, monzonites, biotite-hornblende granites, and locally syenites. Igneous charnockites form major parts of some of the granitic complexes. In Mistastin batholith for example, charnockitic assemblages comprise about 35% of a total area of 6500 sq. km. Feldspar pairs and coexisting fayalite-opx-qtz in these rocks indicate P and T near 3.5 kb, 750/sup 0/C, assumed to represent near solidus equilibration. Diorites and monzonites intruded by charnockite have mesoperthites implying crystallization T>900/sup 0/C presumably recording earlier stages of crystallization. Oxide and silicate assemblages indicate redox conditions between FMQ and WM oxygen buffers and water pressures well below Ptotal. Younger biotite-hornblende granites and quartz syenites lack Ti-mt. but retain fayalite suggesting that magmatic crystallization was largely closed to water and oxygen. Initial Sr isotope ratios in charnockite-granite suites of central labrador support derivation of the magmas largely or entirely from crustal source rocks. Compositions of mafic silicates and plagioclase, associated Fe-Ti oxide concentrations, trace elements and Sr isotopes in massif anorthosites are in accord with the rocks being crystallization products of substantially fractionated, originally more mafic, mantle magmas. Close association of high temperature, water-poor, reduced crustal melts is consistent with a fusion process in which heat supply and oxygen buffering were controlled by fractional crystallization of a substantial body of mafic magma subjacent to continental crust.

  3. DMSP and DMS dynamics and microzooplankton grazing in the Labrador Sea: application of the dilution technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Gordon V.; Levasseur, Maurice; Cantin, Guy; Michaud, Sonia

    2000-12-01

    We adapted the dilution technique to study microzooplankton grazing of algal dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) vs. Chl a, and to estimate the impact of microzooplankton grazing on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in the Labrador Sea. Phytoplankton numbers were dominated by autotrophic nanoflagellates in the Labrador basin, but diatoms and colonial Phaeocystis pouchetii contributed significantly to phytomass at several high chlorophyll stations and on the Newfoundland and Greenland shelfs. Throughout the region, growth of algal Chl a and DMSP was generally high (0.2-1 d -1), but grazing rates were lower and more variable, characteristic of the early spring bloom period. Production and consumption of Chl a vs. DMSP followed no clear pattern, and sometimes diverged greatly, likely because of their differing distributions among algal prey taxa and size class. In several experiments where Phaeocystis was abundant, we observed DMS production proportional to grazing rate, and we found clear evidence of DMS production by this haptophyte following physical stress such as sparging or filtration. It is possible that grazing-activated DMSP cleavage by Phaeocystis contributes to grazer deterrence: protozoa and copepods apparently avoided healthy colonies (as judged by relative growth and grazing rates of Chl a and DMSP), and grazing of Phaeocystis was significant only at one station where cells were in poor condition. Although we hoped to examine selective grazing on or against DMSP-containing algal prey, the dilution technique cannot differentiate selective ingestion and varying digestion rates of Chl a and DMSP. We also found that the dilution method alone was poorly suited for assessing the impact of grazing on dissolved sulfur pools, because of rapid microbial consumption and the artifactual release of DMSP and DMS during filtration. Measuring and understanding the many processes affecting organosulfur cycling by the microbial food web in natural populations remain a

  4. Olfactory discrimination and generalization of ammonium nitrate and structurally related odorants in Labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Lazarowski, Lucia; Foster, Melanie L; Gruen, Margaret E; Sherman, Barbara L; Fish, Richard E; Milgram, Norton W; Dorman, David C

    2015-11-01

    A critical aspect of canine explosive detection involves the animal's ability respond to novel, untrained odors based on prior experience with training odors. In the current study, adult Labrador retrievers (N = 15) were initially trained to discriminate between a rewarded odor (vanillin) and an unrewarded odor (ethanol) by manipulating scented objects with their nose in order to receive a food reward using a canine-adapted discrimination training apparatus. All dogs successfully learned this olfactory discrimination task (≥80 % correct in a mean of 296 trials). Next, dogs were trained on an ammonium nitrate (AN, NH4NO3) olfactory discrimination task [acquired in 60-240 trials, with a mean (±SEM) number of trials to criterion of 120.0 ± 15.6] and then tested for their ability to respond to untrained ammonium- and/or nitrate-containing chemicals as well as variants of AN compounds. Dogs did not respond to sodium nitrate or ammonium sulfate compounds at rates significantly higher than chance (58.8 ± 4.5 and 57.7 ± 3.3 % correct, respectively). Transfer performance to fertilizer-grade AN, AN mixed in Iraqi soil, and AN and flaked aluminum was significantly higher than chance (66.7 ± 3.2, 73.3 ± 4.0, 68.9 ± 4.0 % correct, respectively); however, substantial individual differences were observed. Only 53, 60, and 64 % of dogs had a correct response rate with fertilizer-grade AN, AN and Iraqi soil, and AN and flaked aluminum, respectively, that were greater than chance. Our results suggest that dogs do not readily generalize from AN to similar AN-based odorants at reliable levels desired for explosive detection dogs and that performance varies significantly within Labrador retrievers selected for an explosive detection program.

  5. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  6. Phytoplankton biomass cycles in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre: A similar mechanism for two different blooms in the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacour, Léo.; Claustre, Hervé; Prieur, Louis; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    An analysis of seasonal variations in climatological surface chlorophyll points to distinct biogeographical zones in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. In particular, the Labrador Sea appears well delineated into two regions on either side of the 60°N parallel, with very different climatological phytoplankton biomass cycles. Indeed, north of 60°N, an early and short spring bloom occurs in late April, while south of 60°N, the bloom gradually develops 1 month later and significant biomass persists all summer long. Nevertheless, at climatological scale, the first-order mechanism that controls the bloom is identical for both bioregions. The light-mixing regime can explain the bloom onset in both bioregions. In the Labrador Sea, the blooms seem to rely on a mean community compensation irradiance threshold value of 2.5 mol photon m-2 d-1 over the mixed layer.

  7. The impact of Labrador Sea temperature and salinity variability on density and the subpolar AMOC in a decadal prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menary, Matthew B.; Hermanson, Leon; Dunstone, Nick J.

    2016-12-01

    Labrador Sea density variability is important for Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) dynamics and hence decadal variability in the Atlantic. We investigate whether temperature or salinity dominate top 500 m interannual Labrador Sea density variability in gridded observations, an assimilation of the observations, and a set of multiannual hindcasts. We find that salinity dominates in the observations and assimilation. In the hindcasts salinity remains dominant for the first year but from year three these revert to the same temperature dominance seen in the underlying climate model. This is due to damping of the interannual salinity variability, possibly caused by unrealistically large convection that develops. Crucially, the hindcasts have high correlation skill in temperature/salinity throughout, but no skill in density, dynamic sea level, or the subpolar AMOC due to the incorrect drivers. This highlights the importance of correctly simulating both the sign and magnitude of temperature/salinity variability in a prediction system.

  8. Two new species and new provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W; Bourdon, Caroline; Gilbert, Amélie; Labrecque, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Two new species, Atheta pseudovestita Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., Silusa prettyae Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., are described, and 16 new provincial records, including one new country record, of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, bionomics information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A new checklist with 189 species of aleocharines recorded from the province is presented.

  9. Two new species and new provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae)

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W.; Bourdon, Caroline; Gilbert, Amélie; Labrecque, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Atheta pseudovestita Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., Silusa prettyae Klimaszewski & Langor, sp. n., are described, and 16 new provincial records, including one new country record, of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, bionomics information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A new checklist with 189 species of aleocharines recorded from the province is presented. PMID:27408552

  10. Links Between the Deep Western Boundary Current, Labrador Sea Water Formation and Export, and the Meridional Overturning Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Paul G.; Kulan, Nilgun

    2010-05-01

    Based on an isopyncal analysis of historical data, 3-year overlapping triad fields of objectively analysed temperature and salinity are produced for the Labrador Sea, covering 1949-1999. These fields are then used to spectrally nudge an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model of the sub-polar gyre, otherwise forced by inter annually varying surface forcing based upon the Coordinated Ocean Reference Experiment (CORE). High frequency output from the reanalysis is used to examine Labrador Sea Water formation and its export. A number of different apprpoaches are used to estimate Labrador Sea Water formation, including an instanteous kinematic approach to calculate the annual rate of water mass subduction at a given density range. Historical transports are computed along sections at 53 and 56N for several different water masses for comparison with recent observations, showing a decline in the stength of the deep western boundary current with time. The variability of the strength of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) from the reanalysis is also examined in both depth and density space. Linkages between MOC variability and water mass formation variability is considered.

  11. Ontogenetic effects on gazing behaviour: a case study of kennel dogs (Labrador Retrievers) in the impossible task paradigm.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, Biagio; Scandurra, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Life experiences and living conditions can influence the problem-solving strategies and the communicative abilities of dogs with humans. The goals of this study were to determine any behavioural differences between Labrador Retrievers living in a kennel and those living in a house as pets and to assess whether kennel dogs show preferences in social behaviours for their caretaker relative to a stranger when they are faced with an unsolvable task. Nine Labrador Retrievers living in a kennel from birth and ten Labrador Retrievers living in a family as pets were tested. The experimental procedure consisted of three "solvable" tasks in which the dogs could easily retrieve food from a container followed by an "unsolvable" task in which the container was hermetically locked. Dogs of both groups spent the same amount of time interacting with the experimental apparatus. Kennel dogs gazed towards people for less time and with higher latency than pet dogs; however, there were no significant preferences in gazing towards the stranger versus the caretaker in both groups. These findings demonstrated that kennel dogs are less prone to use human-directed gazing behaviour when they are faced with an unsolvable problem, taking the humans into account to solve a task less than do the pet dogs.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl profiles in ringed seals (Pusa Hispida) reveal historical contamination by a military radar station in Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Fisk, Aaron T; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2014-03-01

    Significant amounts of soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered at a military radar station in Saglek Bay, Labrador, Canada, in 1996. Subsequent work showed elevated PCB concentrations in local marine sediments, in the benthic-associated food web, and in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida). The benthic-associated food web clearly reflected local PCB contamination, but the high PCB concentrations found in some ringed seals remained unexplained. In the present study, the authors assess the extent to which this local PCB source at Saglek Bay is contributing to the contamination of ringed seals in northern Labrador. Among 63 ringed seals sampled along the northern Labrador coast, 5 (8%) had PCB levels that were higher than recorded anywhere else in the Canadian Arctic. In addition, compared with seals exhibiting a long-range signal, 45% and 60% of subadults and adult males, respectively, exhibited heavier PCB congener profiles as characterized by principal components analysis, >1.6-fold higher PCB/organochlorine pesticides ratios, and higher PCB concentration-weighted average log octanol-water partition coefficient values, consistent with a local source. Despite the spatially confined nature of contaminated sediments in Saglek Bay, the influence of this PCB source is not inconsequential; PCB concentrations in locally contaminated adult males are 2-fold higher than concentrations in those exposed only to long-range PCB sources and exceed an established threshold of 1.3 mg/kg for adverse health effects in seals.

  13. On the ecology of Calanus finmarchicus in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparison of population dynamics and environmental conditions in areas of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland Shelf and Norwegian Sea Atlantic and Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, Erica J. H.; Melle, Webjørn; Pepin, Pierre; Bagøien, Espen; Broms, Cecilie

    2013-07-01

    The Norwegian Sea is generally warmer than the Labrador Sea because it is influenced more by Atlantic Water inflows from the south, whereas the latter receives relatively larger inputs of Arctic Water from the north. Despite its more northerly location, the spring bloom generally starts earlier in the Norwegian Sea. Within each of the two seas, however, there are regional and interannual differences in temperature and the timing of the spring bloom. The responses of Calanus finmarchicus populations to these differences in environmental conditions include differences in physical characteristics (e.g. female size), physiological rates (egg production rates) and seasonal cycles of abundance. Females are generally larger in the Labrador Sea and have higher egg production rates for a given chlorophyll concentration than do those in the Norwegian Sea. Within and among areas in both seas, as temperatures increase and spring blooms tend to occur earlier, C. finmarchicus start to reproduce earlier, the new generation develops faster, and in some areas a second generation ensues. In areas where near surface temperatures are relatively high in summer and/or where phytoplankton growth rates are relatively low in summer or autumn, reproduction and development cease, and C. finmarchicus desert the surface layers for their overwintering depths. This occurs in the Norwegian Sea in summer and in the central Labrador Sea in autumn. By contrast, in areas where near surface temperatures remain cool in summer and where phytoplankton growth persists through the autumn, reproduction and development can continue through summer and autumn, probably until winter vertical mixing prevents phytoplankton growth. This occurs on the southern Newfoundland Shelf. Even in areas where the growth season is prolonged, however, a proportion of the first generation, and probably subsequent generations, descends to overwinter. If the size of the overwintering population is used as an index of net

  14. Direct dating and characterization of the Pope's Hill REE Deposit, Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafe, A. N.; Hanchar, J. M.; Fisher, C.; Piccoli, P. M.; Crowley, J. L.; Dimmell, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Pope's Hill rare earth element (REE) trend (PHT) is located approximately 100 km southwest of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, along the Trans Labrador Highway, in central Labrador. Whole-rock geochemical analyses of the main REE-bearing unit indicate total rare earth element contents ranging from 1 to 22 weight percent (wt%) REE3+. The REE-enriched unit is hosted within a hydrothermally altered syenite, trending northeast and traceable for approximately 2.8km. Samples of ore, host rock, and country rock, were collected from throughout the trend in order to: 1) quantify which phases concentrate the REE and their abundances and distribution in the ore; and 2) use in situ LA-ICPMS and ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology and in situ Sm-Nd isotopes using LA-MC-ICPMS in monazite from the ore and host rock to constrain the timing of mineralization and determine the source of the REE. These data will help develop predictive models for this type of mineral deposit elsewhere. The PHT is defined as the host syenite and REE-enriched segregations; two contrasting lithologies. The rare earth element minerals (REE) occur in millimeter- to centimeter-scale pods that are locally discontinuous. The REE are hosted in a variety of silicate, phosphate, carbonate, and niobate phases; with a majority hosted in allanite(-Ce), titanite(-Ce), monazite(-Ce), britholite(-Ce); and a minor percentage in REE-carbonates and fergusonite(-Nd). Both apatite and titanite occur in two different compositional forms that range in chemistry from end-member stoichiometric apatite and titanite to highly REE-enriched - apatite-britholite and titanite(-Ce), where chemical substitutions, such as Si4+ + REE3+ substitute for Ca2+ + P5+ in apatite and REE3+ + Fe3+ substitute for Ca2+ + Ti4+ in titanite in order to incorporate up to ~40 wt% REE2O3 in both minerals. The U-Pb geochronology indicate that allanite, titanite(-Ce), monazite and fergusonite crystallized from ~1060 to ~940 Ma, a period spanning ~120 Ma. Sm-Nd tracer

  15. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in thoracic radiographs of Indian Spitz, Labrador retriever and Mongrel dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bodh, Deepti; Hoque, Mozammel; Saxena, Abhishek Chandra; Gugjoo, Mudasir Bashir; Bist, Deepika; Chaudhary, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To establish reference values of vertebral heart score (VHS) in Indian Spitz, Labrador retriever, and Mongrel dogs; to assess applicability of VHS in these three dog breeds; to determine if breed, recumbency side, gender, body weight, and thoracic depth (TD) to thoracic width (TW) ratio has an influence on the VHS measurement in these dog breeds. Materials and Methods: A total of 60, client owned, clinically healthy Indian Spitz (n=20, mean age = 4.25±2.15 years, body weight = 11.87±2.7 kg), Labrador retriever (n=20, mean age = 4.75±1.91 years, body weight = 27.31±5.43 kg), and Mongrel dogs (n=20, mean age = 4.25±1.52 years, body weight = 16.25±3.99 kg), having no radiological and clinical signs of cardiovascular or pulmonary disease were included in the study. All dogs were restrained manually and left lateral (LL) and right lateral (RL) radiographic views were obtained. The size of heart in lateral radiographs was calculated using VHS method. Besides, the TD, TW and TD: TW were calculated to determine the type of thoracic conformation in the dog breeds. In addition to this, the effect of breed, side of recumbency, gender, body weight, and TD to TW ratio on the calculation of VHS was determined. Results: VHS was calculated in all the animals of the breeds. VHS in Spitz and Labrador retriever was significantly (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively) >9.7±0.5 v. RL and LL VHS in Mongrel dog was significantly (p<0.037) >9.7±0.5 v. Significant (p<0.05) differences in the VHS were observed among Spitz, Labrador retriever and Mongrel dogs, being higher for Labrador retriever followed by Spitz and Mongrel dogs. VHS in RL recumbency was significantly (p<0.001) greater than VHS in LL recumbency in all three breeds. LL and RL VHS correlated significantly with each other in Spitz (r=0.58; p=0.02), Labrador retriever (r=0.87; p<0.0001), and Mongrel dogs (r=0.93; p<0.0001). Significant (p<0.05) differences in the TD and TW were observed among Spitz, Labrador retriever

  16. Availability of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi to Black Spruce above the Present Treeline in Eastern Labrador

    PubMed Central

    Reithmeier, Laura; Kernaghan, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host+) and the other half were free of host plants (host−). Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host− soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line. PMID:24204858

  17. Magma evolution in the Nain Complex, Labrador, and implications for the origin of anorthosite

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of over 50 chilled margins of plutons and contemporaneous dikes in the anorthositic Nain Complex reveal a well-defined trend of liquid evolution along a plagioclase-olivine cotectic. Fractional crystallization of olivine and plagioclase has resulted in extreme enrichment of TiO/sub 2/ and FeO/sub T/ and depletion of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the more evolved compositions. The contemporaneous Harp Dikes and Seal Lake Volcanics of southern Labrador also fall along this trend. Although rare, other dikes in the Nain complex are very olivine-rich and the olivine is quench-textured. Modeling of major and trace elements indicates that the leucotroctolitic liquids can be derived from the melatroctolites by olivine removal, and that the more evolved cotectic liquids can be derived from the leucotroctolitic liquids by removal of o1 + plag in a 25:75 ratio. If the equilibrium saturation surface of plagioclase is ignored, continued olivine removal from the leucotroctolites is capable of producing compositions very similar to compositions of hypothesized anorthositic magmas. In the Nain Complex, field evidence for supersaturation of plagioclase is abundant. Since all of the compositions discussed above are low in normative diopside, it may be that such liquids are less capable of nucleating plagioclase than liquid with more normal diopside contents, thus permitting the supersaturation.

  18. Cumulative incidence and risk factors for limber tail in the Dogslife labrador retriever cohort

    PubMed Central

    de C. Bronsvoort, B. M.; Handel, I. G.; Rose, E.; Summers, K.; Clements, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Limber tail is a condition that typically affects larger working breeds causing tail limpness and pain, resolving without veterinary intervention. It is poorly understood and the disease burden has not been well characterised. Data collected from owners of the Dogslife cohort of Labrador Retrievers have been used to describe incidents and a case–control study was undertaken to elucidate risk factors with 38 cases and 86 controls. The cumulative incidence of unexplained tail limpness was 9.7 per cent. Swimming is not a necessary precursor for limber tail, but it is a risk factor (OR=4.7) and working dogs were more susceptible than non-working dogs (OR=5.1). Higher latitudes were shown to be a risk factor for developing the condition and the case dogs were more related to each other than might be expected by chance. This suggests that dogs may have an underlying genetic predisposition to developing the condition. This study is the first, large-scale investigation of limber tail and the findings reveal an unexpectedly high illness burden. Anecdotally, accepted risk factors have been confirmed and the extent of their impact has been quantified. Identifying latitude and a potential underlying genetic predisposition suggests avenues for future work on this painful and distressing condition. PMID:27353875

  19. Bermuda and Appalachian-Labrador rises: Common non-hotspot processes

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, P.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Other than the Corner Rise-New England seamounts and associated White Mountains, most postbreakup intraplate igneous activity and topographic uplift in the western North Atlantic and eastern North America do not readily conform to simple hotspot models. For examples, the Bermuda Rise trends normal to its predicted hotspot trace. On continental crust, Cretaceous-Eocene igneous activity is scattered along a northeast-trending belt {approximately}500-1,000 km west of and paralleling the continent-ocean boundary. Corresponding activity in the western Atlantic generated seamounts preferentially clustered in a belt {approximately}1,000 km east of the boundary. The Eocene volcanism on Bermuda is paired with coeval magmatism of the Shenandoah igneous province, and both magmatic belts are associated with northeast-trending topographic bulges - the Appalachian-Labrador Rise to the west and the Bermuda Rise (Eocene ) to the east. The above observations suggest the existence of paired asthenosphere upwelling, paralleling and controlled by the deep thermal contrast across the northeast-trending continental margin. Such convection geometry, apparently fixed to the North American plate rather than to hotspots, is consistent with recent convection models by B. Hager. The additional importance of plate-kinematic reorganizations (causing midplate stress enhancement) is suggested by episodic igneous activity ca. 90-100 Ma and 40-45 Ma.

  20. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. A Study of Education, Out-Migration of Young Adults, and the Impact of Information and Communications Technologies on the Economies of Rural Communities in Newfoundland and Labrador [Avalon West School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jean; Handrigan, Rachel; Stone, Gordon; Downey, Sherman

    2002-01-01

    This research project is a study of education, out-migration of young adults, and the impact of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) on the education and economies of rural communities in Newfoundland and Labrador. A qualitative study of Newfoundland and Labrador's rural schools were conducted from January to August 2001. This report…

  2. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  3. Arguing for a multi-hazard mapping program in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterson, Martin; Neil, Stapleton

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes efforts to implement a Provincial multi-hazard mapping program, and will explore the challenges associated with this process. Newfoundland and Labrador is on the eastern edge of North America, has a large land area (405,212 km2) and a small population (510,000; 2009 estimate). The province currently has no legislative framework to control development in hazardous areas, but recent landslides in the communities of Daniel's Harbour and Trout River, both of which forced the relocation of residents, emphasize the need for action. There are two factors which confirm the need for a natural hazard mapping program: the documented history of natural disasters, and the future potential impacts of climate change. Despite being relatively far removed from the impacts of earthquake and volcanic activity, Newfoundland and Labrador has a long history of natural disasters. Rockfall, landslide, avalanche and flood events have killed at least 176 people over the past 225 years, many in their own homes. Some of the fatalities resulted from the adjacency of homes to places of employment, and of communities and roads to steep slopes. Others were likely the result of chance, and were thus unavoidable. Still others were the result of poor planning, albeit unwitting. Increasingly however, aesthetics have replaced pragmatism as a selection criterion for housing developments, with residential construction being contemplated for many coastal areas. The issue is exacerbated by the impacts of climate change, which while not a universal bane for the Province, will likely result in rising sea level and enhanced coastal erosion. Much of the Province's coastline is receding at up to 30 cm (and locally higher) per year. Sea level is anticipated to rise by 70cm to over 100 cm by 2099, based on IPCC predictions, plus the effects of enhanced ice sheet melting, plus (or minus) continued local isostatic adjustment. The history of geological disasters, coupled with pressures on

  4. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M.; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43–47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity. PMID:26656105

  5. Advection of North Atlantic Deep Water from the Labrador Sea to the southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhein, Monika; Kieke, Dagmar; Steinfeldt, Reiner

    2015-04-01

    Recently formed Labrador Seawater (LSW) and overflow water from Denmark Strait (DSOW) are main components of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Both exhibit a distinct chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) maximum. Here we use 25 years of CFC observations in the Atlantic to study the main features of the circulation of LSW and DSOW. From the CFC data, the age and fraction of young deep water are inferred. Due to the superior spatial data resolution compared to former attempts, regional differences in the spreading velocity and pathways of young deep water become evident, dependent on the regional circulation. The observed distributions of young LSW and DSOW showed that the DWBC is the fastest pathway to reach the southern hemisphere. The downstream decrease of the fractions of young LSW in the DWBC is slower compared to model studies. From 47°N to 42°N, DWBC transports of young LSW and DSOW decrease by 44% and 49%, respectively. At 26°N, the DWBC transport of young water is still 39% of the LSW formation rate and 44% of the DSOW overflow transport. Interior pathways also exist, especially in the subpolar North Atlantic and in the transition zone between the subpolar and subtropical gyre. Compared to DSOW, the distributions indicate a higher tendency for LSW to follow additional interior pathways. North of 45°N the major part of LSW is younger than 20 years. The general weakening of new LSW formation since the 1990s worked toward a homogenization between the LSW in the western and the eastern subpolar North Atlantic.

  6. Failures in children's protection in Newfoundland and Labrador: from the Hughes (1991) to Markesteyn and Day (2006) inquiries and beyond.

    PubMed

    Devine, Mike; Kimberley, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The death in 2003 of Zachary Turner, a child in receipt of children’s protection services in Foxtrap, Newfoundland, sparked an independent inquiry into his death. Subsequently, other reviews were completed of children’s protection services. These were not the first reviews or inquiries of this kind in Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1991, Justice Samuel Hughes had conducted a public inquiry into children’s protection services. This article is a critical historical analysis of selected aspects of children’s protection services. The authors uncover repeated failures by government in its child protection systems and discuss implications for future concerns.

  7. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  8. The "warm" Marine Isotope Stage 31 in the Labrador Sea: Low surface salinities and cold subsurface waters prevented winter convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, A. M. R.; Vernal, A.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2016-09-01

    Surface and subsurface conditions in the Labrador Sea during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 31 at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1305 off southwest Greenland are reconstructed based on dinocyst and foraminifer assemblages. Isotopic compositions of planktonic (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, Np) and benthic (Cibicides wuellerstorfi, Cw, and Oridorsalis umbonatus, Ou) foraminifera provide further information about water properties in the mesopelagic layer as well as at the seafloor. Dinocyst proxy reconstructions indicate low salinities (32-34.5), cool winters (3-6°C), and mild summers (10-15°C) in the surface water layer during the MIS 31 "optimum". However, planktonic foraminifer assemblages largely dominated by Np suggest relatively cold subsurface conditions in winter and summer (<4°C). Lower δ13C values in Np versus Cw further suggest either a lesser-ventilated mesopelagic layer than the bottom one or high organic matter oxidation rates at Np habitat depth. The dinocyst and planktonic foraminifer records together suggest a strong stratification between the surface and subsurface water layers. Isotopic and micropaleontological data thus converge toward paleoceanographical conditions unsuitable for convection and intermediate or deep water formation in the Labrador Sea during the warm MIS 31 interglacial, a situation comparable to the one that prevailed during the warm MIS 5e.

  9. Response to Natural Hazards: Multi-Level Governance Challenges in Newfoundland & Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, N.; Tomblin, S.

    2009-04-01

    Newfoundland and Labrador's perspective on emergency measures in response to natural hazards is shaped by several factors. Climate, meteorology, and terrain are the dominant factors both in the occurrence of events and the responses to them. The economy, dominated by resource-based activities, is a significant influence in accentuating exposure to natural hazards. In this situation, the role of earth scientists is critical. However, effective input from geographers, geomorphologists, and climatologists requires an understanding of the governance regime. For emergency services, both formal public policy responses, informal mechanisms, and the interfacing that exists between public policy mechanisms and social forces are significant. In an era where more and more problems are considered as "interdependent", and require different governmental, social, and professional expertise forces to come together to address objectives, there is interest in exploring and analyzing patterns of communication, interactions and policy learning across inherited silos. A major political-policy struggle is the challenge of managing rural-urban differences in capacity and perspective. Another challenge involves finding ways for professions to merge their protocols and cultures. Embracing best practices associated with natural hazards and emergency preparedness is influenced by the power and independence of various groups involved. Critical events provide windows of opportunity for urging new approaches, but whether these become institutionalized or not normally depends on the interplay of ideas, interests, individuals, and institutions. In coping with natural hazards, renewing governance required finding new incentives to integrate across jurisdictions and disciplinary and governmental-society boundaries. Perception and response to natural hazards is very much connected with the historical-policy context. The pace of effective response indicates the impact of culture, capacity

  10. Morphodynamics and Sedimentology of a Falling Stage Sandy Fjord Delta, Goose River, Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slingerland, R.; Edmonds, D. A.; Parsons, D. R.; Best, J. L.; Royce, J.; Burpee, A.; Cederberg, J.; Caldwell, R.; Nijhuis, A.; McGuffin, A.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment size and degree of cohesion are thought to exert a strong control on the morphodynamic processes, planform shape and clinoform stratigraphy of deltas. To test model predictions concerning these two parameters, we present a morphometric and stratigraphic analysis of a sandy delta formed where the Goose River flows into Goose Bay at the western end of Lake Melville, Labrador. Goose River delta sediments consist of arkosic, heavy-mineral-rich sand (D50 = 225 to 600 microns) with very little silt and clay, placing this delta at the coarser-grained, non-cohesive end of the spectrum. The delta started to form approx. 7000 years ago as the Laurentide ice sheet retreated and post-glacial rebound created a relative base level fall of approximately 4 mm/yr. The current tidal range in Goose Bay averages 0.5 m, and the average wave height is negligible. Results from our 2012 field season show that the delta planform consists of two moribund lobes at elevations of ~ 5 m and ~ 2 m and a presently active delta at sea level. Aerial photography from 1951 to 2012 show there has been surprisingly little progradation despite active channel change at the six-month timescale and an assumed base level fall of 244 mm during that period. A topographic section along a dipline consists of three treads and two clinoform risers. The bottomset tread is a virtually featureless fjord bottom at ~35 m from which a first clinoform rises to a second tread at ~-15 m. The second tread is a sandy platform onto which an upper clinoform downlaps. This upper sandy clinoform ranges in dip from 9 to 17 dg. and passes into the topset at an elevation of ~ -1 m. The topset consists of braid-like trapezoidal unit bars that in GPR show little evidence of wave, alongshore current, or ice reworking, even though they are submerged at higher high tides. The planform, bar geometries and facies, and clinoform dips and dip-directions are remarkably consistent with model predictions from Delft3d.

  11. Pre-Elsonian mafic magmatism in the Nain Igneous Complex, Labrador: the bridges layered intrusion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wiebe, R.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Snyder, Diane

    1992-01-01

    Decades of work on the pristine, unmetamorphosed, and well exposed anorthositic, mafic and granitic rocks of the Nain igneous complex, Labrador, have led to the conclusion that all plutonic rocks in that area were emplaced in a short time intercal at about 1300 ?? 10 Ma). We report here new isotopic data for mafic intrusive rocks that appear to have crystallized several hundred Ma earlier than the bulk of the plutonic activity in the Nain complex. The Bridges layered intrusion (BLI) is a small (15-20 km2) lens of layered mafic rocks about 1.5 km thick, surrounded and intruded by anorthositic, leuconoritic and leucotroctolitic plutons in the middle of the coastal section of the Nain igneous complex. BLI shows very well developed magmatic structures, including channel scours, slump structures, and ubiquitous modally graded layering. Most rocks, however, show granular textures indicative of recrystallization, presumably caused by emplacement of younger anorthositic rocks. BLI contains cumulate rocks with slightly more primitive mineral compositions (An60-83, Fo66-71) than those of other mafic intrusions in the Nain igneous complex, including Kiglapait. SmNd isotopic data for 7 BLI whole-rocks ranging in composition between olivine melagabbro and olivine leucogabbro yield an age of 1667 ?? 75 Ma, which we interpret as the time of primary crystallization. The internal isotopic systematics of the BLI have been reset, probably by intrusion of adjacent anorthositic plutons. A SmNd mineral isochron (plag, whole-rock, mafics) for a BLI olivine melagabbro gives an age of 1283 ?? 22 Ma, equivalent within error of a mineral array (plag, whole-rock, opx, cpx) for an adjacent, igneous-textured, leuconorite vein (1266 ?? 152 Ma). The initial Nd ratio for BLI corresponds to ??{lunate}Nd = -3.18 ?? 0.44. Other whole-rock samples, however, some with vein-like alteration (Chlorite, serpentine, amphiboles), show ??{lunate}Nd values as low as -9.1, suggesting variable contamination by

  12. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  13. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... deepest ocean trench. Anatahan had no known historical eruptions until May 2003. The evacuation of the island's residents in 1990 was ... earthquake swarm that suggested the possibility of impending volcanic activity. The Micronesian Megapode is an endangered species of ...

  14. "Borrowed Black": A Labrador Fantasy from the Book by Ellen Bryan Obed, Adapted for Stage by Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia. Cue Sheet for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Victoria

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Borrowed Black: A Labrador Fantasy," by the Mermaid Theatre of Nova Scotia. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven reproducible activity sheets for use in class, addressing: (1) The Story (orienting students to the…

  15. Mitochondrial population structure and post-glacial dispersal of longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus in Labrador, Canada: evidence for multiple refugial origins and limited ongoing gene flow.

    PubMed

    Langille, B L; Perry, R; Keefe, D; Barker, O; Marshall, H D

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and eighty-seven longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus were collected from 14 lakes in Labrador, 52 from three lakes in Ontario, 43 from two lakes in British Columbia and 32 from a lake in Yukon; a total of 414 in all. The resulting 34 haplotypes (20 in Labrador) contained moderate haplotypic diversity (h = 0·657) and relatively low nucleotide diversity (π = 3·730 × 10(-3) . Mean ϕST (0·453, P < 0·05) over all populations revealed distinct genetic structuring among C. catostomus populations across Canada, based on province, which was validated by the analysis and spatial analysis of molecular variance (c. 80% variation between provinces). These results probably reflect the historical imprint of recolonization from different refugia and possibly indicate limited ongoing gene flow within provinces. A haplotype network revealed one major and two minor clades within Labrador that were assigned to the Atlantic, Beringian and Mississippian refugia, respectively, with tests of neutrality and mismatch distribution indicative of a recent population expansion in Labrador, dated between c. 3500 and 8300 years ago.

  16. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  17. Geochemistry of approximately 1.9 Ga sedimentary rocks from northeastern Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K I; Fujisawa, H; Holland, H D; Ohmoto, H

    1997-01-01

    Fifty-eight rock chips from fifteen samples of sedimentary rocks from the Ramah Group (approximately 1.9 Ga) in northeastern Labrador, Canada, were analyzed for major and minor elements, including C and S, to elucidate weathering processes on the Earth's surface about 1.9 Ga ago. The samples come from the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight, and Nullataktok Formations. Two rock series, graywackes-gray shales of the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight and Nullataktok Formations, and black shales of the Nullataktok Formation, are distinguishable on the basis of lithology, mineralogy, and major and trace element chemistry. The black shales show lower concentrations than the graywackes-gray shales in TiO2 (0.3-0.7 wt% vs. 0.7-1.8 wt%), Al2O3 (9.5-20.1 wt% vs. 13.0-25.0 wt%), and sigma Fe (<1 wt% vs. 3.8-13.9 wt% as FeO). Contents of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Ce, Y, Rb, Y, Co, and Ni are also lower in the black shales. The source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments were probably Archean gneisses with compositions similar to those in Labrador and western Greenland. The major element chemistry of source rocks for the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks was estimated from the Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the sedimentary rocks and the relationship between the major element contents (e.g., SiO2 wt%) and Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the Archean gneisses. This approach is justified, because the Al/Ti ratios of shales generally retain their source rock values; however, the Zr/Al, Zr/Ti, and Cr/Ni ratios fractionate during the transport of sediments. The measured SiO2 contents of shales in the Ramah Group are generally higher than the estimated SiO2 contents of source rocks by approximately 5 wt%. This correction may also have to be applied when estimating average crustal compositions from shales. Two provenances were recognized for the Ramah Group sediments. Provenance I was comprised mostly of rocks of bimodal compositions, one with SiO2 contents approximately 45 wt% and the other approximately 65 wt%, and was the

  18. Geochemistry of approximately 1.9 Ga sedimentary rocks from northeastern Labrador, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, K. I.; Fujisawa, H.; Holland, H. D.; Ohmoto, H.

    1997-01-01

    Fifty-eight rock chips from fifteen samples of sedimentary rocks from the Ramah Group (approximately 1.9 Ga) in northeastern Labrador, Canada, were analyzed for major and minor elements, including C and S, to elucidate weathering processes on the Earth's surface about 1.9 Ga ago. The samples come from the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight, and Nullataktok Formations. Two rock series, graywackes-gray shales of the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight and Nullataktok Formations, and black shales of the Nullataktok Formation, are distinguishable on the basis of lithology, mineralogy, and major and trace element chemistry. The black shales show lower concentrations than the graywackes-gray shales in TiO2 (0.3-0.7 wt% vs. 0.7-1.8 wt%), Al2O3 (9.5-20.1 wt% vs. 13.0-25.0 wt%), and sigma Fe (<1 wt% vs. 3.8-13.9 wt% as FeO). Contents of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Ce, Y, Rb, Y, Co, and Ni are also lower in the black shales. The source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments were probably Archean gneisses with compositions similar to those in Labrador and western Greenland. The major element chemistry of source rocks for the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks was estimated from the Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the sedimentary rocks and the relationship between the major element contents (e.g., SiO2 wt%) and Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the Archean gneisses. This approach is justified, because the Al/Ti ratios of shales generally retain their source rock values; however, the Zr/Al, Zr/Ti, and Cr/Ni ratios fractionate during the transport of sediments. The measured SiO2 contents of shales in the Ramah Group are generally higher than the estimated SiO2 contents of source rocks by approximately 5 wt%. This correction may also have to be applied when estimating average crustal compositions from shales. Two provenances were recognized for the Ramah Group sediments. Provenance I was comprised mostly of rocks of bimodal compositions, one with SiO2 contents approximately 45 wt% and the other approximately 65 wt%, and was the

  19. Geochemistry of ˜1.9 Ga sedimentary rocks from northeastern Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Holland, Heinrich D.; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    1997-10-01

    Fifty-eight rock chips from fifteen samples of sedimentary rocks from the Ramah Group (˜1.9 Ga) in northeastern Labrador, Canada, were analyzed for major and minor elements, including C and S, to elucidate weathering processes on the Earth's surface about 1.9 Ga ago. The samples come from the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight, and Nullataktok Formations. Two rock series, graywacke-gray shales of the Rowsell Harbour, Reddick Bight and Nullataktok Formations, and black shales of the Nullataktok Formation, are distinguishable on the basis of lithology, mineralogy, and major and trace element chemistry. The black shales show lower concentrations than the graywackes-gray shales in TiO 2 (0.3-0.7 wt% vs. 0.7-1.8 wt%), Al 20 3 (9.5-20.1 wt% vs. 13.0-25.0 wt%), and ΣFe (<1 wt% vs. 3.8-13.9 wt% vs FeO). Contents of Zr, Th, U, Nb, Ce, Y, Rb, Y, Co, and Ni are also lower in the black shales. The source rocks for the Ramah Group sediments were probably Archean gneisses with compositions similar to those in Labrador and western Greenland. The major element chemistry of source rocks for the Ramah Group sedimentary rocks was estimated from the Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the sedimentary rocks and the relationship between the major element contents (e.g., SiO 2 wt%) and Al2O3/TiO2 ratios of the Archean gneisses. This approach is justified, because the Al/Ti ratios of shales generally retain their source rock values; however, the Zr/Al, Zr/Ti, and Cr/Ni ratios fractionate during the transport of sediments. The measured SiO 2 contents of shales in the Ramah Group are generally higher than the estimated SiO 2 contents of source rocks by ˜5 wt%. This correction may also have to be applied when estimating average crustal compositions from shales. Two provenances were recognized for the Ramah Group sediments. Provenance I was comprised mostly of rocks of bimodal compositions, one with SiO 2 contents ˜45 wt% and the other ˜65 wt%, and was the source for most sedimentary rocks of the Ramah

  20. Pleistocene glacial/interglacial contrasts in the Labrador Sea prior and after the Mid-Brunhes transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; de Vernal, Anne; Teboulle, Oury; Aubry, Aurélie; Fréchette, Bianca

    2016-04-01

    Isotopic, microfaunal and palynological records from the northern (Eirik Ridge) and southern (Orphan Knoll) Labrador Sea -LS- (Eirik Ridge and Orphan Knoll) are used to document paleoceanographic conditions in the basin during a few interglacials from MIS 31, to MIS 5e, with some specific attention to MIS 13, 11 and 5e. Most features, particularly oxygen isotope records in planktics highlight a major difference between the pre Mid-Brunhes (MB) and post-MB intervals (i.e, before MIS 11 and from MIS 11 to MIS 1), with the exception of MIS 7 showing features resembling those of the pre-MB interglacials. In a similar fashion, glacials from MIS 12 and later differ significantly from earlier ones by their more pronounced 18O-enrichments in planktic foraminifers, thus possibly larger continental ice volume. Another feature of interest concerning glacials is found in the relative abundance of reworked palynomorphs, in the Northern Labrador Sea record, during pre-MB glacials (MIS 12 and earlier) and during a short mid-MIS 7 glacial excursion. These reworked microfossils suggest significant ice streaming over Paleozoic outcrops either along the western Scandinavian Ice Sheet margin and/or in the Fram Strait area. Within interglacials, MIS 13 records large amplitude coolings, the presence of continental ice over NE Canada indicated by sporadic detrital carbonate-rich IRD-pulses. Evidence for the persistence of a relatively large interglacial Greenland Ice Sheet is found for post MIS 11 interglacials only. Finally, density conditions in surface water (calculated using paleo-SSTs and paleo-SSs from dinocysts), suggest that if convection with production of Labrador Sea Water (LSW), as observed since ca 7 ka BP, was unlikely during most interglacials (and notably MIS 5e), but very likely during MIS 11, due to relatively high salinity conditions at surface. A conclusion from this overview of t mid- to late Pleistocene glacial vs interglacial stages is that glacials were pre

  1. Gender and snow crab occupational asthma in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Howse, Dana; Gautrin, Denyse; Neis, Barbara . E-mail: bneis@mun.ca; Cartier, Andre; Horth-Susin, Lise; Jong, Michael; Swanson, Mark C.

    2006-06-15

    Fish and shellfish processing employs many thousands of people globally, with shellfish processing becoming more important in recent years. Shellfish processing is associated with multiple occupational health and safety (OHS) risks. Snow crab occupational asthma (OA) is work-related asthma associated with processing snow crab. We present a gender analysis of findings from a 3-year multifaceted study of snow crab OA in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The study was carried out in four snow crab processing communities between 2001 and 2004. An anonymous survey questionnaire on knowledge, beliefs, and concerns related to processing snow crab administered to 158 workers attending community meetings at the start of the research found that women were significantly more likely than men to associate certain health problems, especially chest tightness, difficulty breathing, and cough, with crab processing (P<0.001). Worker health assessments carried out with 215 processing workers (187 current/28 former; 120 female/95 male) found that female participants were more likely to be diagnosed as almost certain/highly probable snow crab OA and allergy (P=0.001) and to be sensitized to snow crab (P=0.01) than male participants. Work histories from the health assessments were used to classify processing jobs as male or female. Allergen sampling (211 allergen samples: 115 area, 96 personal breathing zone) indicated that the plant areas where these male jobs were concentrated were associated with lower levels of aerosolized crab allergens (the agents responsible for OA to snow crab) than areas associated with female jobs. This difference was statistically significant in the two plants with poor ventilation (p<0.001 and P=0.017 for these plants). A gender analysis of work history data showed that female health assessment participants were likely to have worked longer processing snow crab than males (5 years versus 3.5 years, respectively). Cross-referencing of work history results

  2. Drivers of interannual variability of ventilation and biological pump in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay from 1963-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro de la Guardia, Laura; Claret, Mariona; Hu, Xianmin; Myers, Paul G.; Galbraith, Eric G.

    2016-04-01

    The Labrador Sea is one of the few places in the world's ocean where winter cooling of the surface water leads to deep convection. This process is a window for a large exchange of gas between the deep ocean and the atmosphere. When deep convection ceases in late spring, the gasses exchanged remain trapped within the ocean interior, thus it influences CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and oxygenation of the deep ocean. Meanwhile, during deep mixing, surface waters are replenish with nutrients, which precondition phytoplankton productivity the following summer,w which influence the amount of biogenic carbon exported from the surface to the ocean interior during the summer and fall. In Baffin Bay, less is known about the process regulating ventilation and carbon pump, and given that the regional environment is changing quickly in response to raising temperatures and melting of the Greenland glaciers, we decided to include this basin in our analysis. Here we study the long term (1963 to 2013) variability of oxygen and biogenic carbon concentration in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay using a fully coupled 3D biogeochemical-ocean-sea ice model simulation on the framework of BLING-NEMO-LIM2 at 1/4 degree resolution. Our goal is to identify the dominant parameters controlling ventilation and the biological pump in these basins. We focus on the 5 decades evolution of dissolved oxygen between 600-1500m (as a measure of ventilation), and export production at 100m and surface primary productivity (as a measure of biological pump). Using multiple regression we determine the role of sea ice concentration, sea ice thickness, wind strength, mixed layer depth, surface ocean stratification, spring nutrient concentration, and strength of boundary current on the interannual and decadal variation of ventilation and the biological pump in each basin.

  3. Water mass circulation and weathering inputs in the Labrador Sea based on coupled Hf-Nd isotope compositions and rare earth element distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippova, Alexandra; Frank, Martin; Kienast, Markus; Rickli, Jörg; Hathorne, Ed; Yashayaev, Igor M.; Pahnke, Katharina

    2017-02-01

    The Labrador Sea is one of the key areas for deep water formation driving the Atlantic thermohaline circulation and thus plays an important role in Northern Hemisphere climatic fluctuations. In order to better constrain the overturning processes and the origins of the distinct water masses, combined dissolved Hf-Nd isotopic compositions and rare earth element (REE) distribution patterns were obtained from four water depth profiles along a section across the Labrador Sea. These were complemented by one surface sample off the southern tip of Greenland, three shallow water samples off the coast of Newfoundland, and two deep water samples off Nova Scotia. Although light REEs are markedly enriched in the surface waters off the coast of Newfoundland compared to north Atlantic waters, the REE concentration profiles are essentially invariant throughout the water column across the Labrador Sea. The hafnium concentrations of surface waters exhibit a narrow range between 0.6 and 1 pmol/kg but are not significantly higher than at depth. Neodymium isotope signatures (ɛNd) vary from unradiogenic values between -16.8 and -14.9 at the surface to more radiogenic values near -11.0 at the bottom of the Labrador Sea mainly reflecting the advection of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water and North East Atlantic Deep Water, the signatures of which are influenced by weathering contributions from Icelandic basalts. Unlike Nd, water column radiogenic Hf isotope signatures (ɛHf) are more variable representing diverse weathering inputs from the surrounding landmasses. The least radiogenic seawater ɛHf signatures (up to -11.7) are found in surface waters close to Greenland and near the Canadian margin. This reflects the influence of recirculating Irminger Current Waters, which are affected by highly unradiogenic inputs from Greenland. A three to four ɛHf unit difference is observed between Denmark Strait Overflow Water (ɛHf ∼ -4) and North East Atlantic Deep Water (ɛHf ∼ -0

  4. Microsatellite variation and genetic structure of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in Labrador and neighboring Atlantic Canada: evidence for ongoing gene flow and dual routes of post-Wisconsinan colonization

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Brettney L; Perry, Robert C; Keefe, Donald G; Perry, Elizabeth A; Dawn Marshall, H

    2012-01-01

    In conservation genetics and management, it is important to understand the contribution of historical and contemporary processes to geographic patterns of genetic structure in order to characterize and preserve diversity. As part of a 10-year monitoring program by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we measured the population genetic structure of the world's most northern native populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Labrador to gather baseline data to facilitate monitoring of future impacts of the recently opened Trans-Labrador Highway. Six-locus microsatellite profiles were obtained from 1130 fish representing 32 populations from six local regions. Genetic diversity in brook trout populations in Labrador (average HE= 0.620) is within the spectrum of variability found in other brook trout across their northeastern range, with limited ongoing gene flow occurring between populations (average pairwise FST= 0.139). Evidence for some contribution of historical processes shaping genetic structure was inferred from an isolation-by-distance analysis, while dual routes of post-Wisconsinan recolonization were indicated by STRUCTURE analysis: K= 2 was the most likely number of genetic groups, revealing a separation between northern and west-central Labrador from all remaining populations. Our results represent the first data from the nuclear genome of brook trout in Labrador and emphasize the usefulness of microsatellite data for revealing the extent to which genetic structure is shaped by both historical and contemporary processes. PMID:22837834

  5. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador - Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Emslie, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Trace element and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions of anorthosites and related rocks, and of younger mafic dikes from Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains in Labrador, Canada are estimated and compared. The effects of crustal component contaminants on the isotopic compositions of the dikes are investigated. The correlation between the isotopic data and the crustal contamination model is studied. It is observed that for Harp Lake the initial Sr ratios are higher and the Nd values are lower than Mealy samples, and the data do not correspond to the crustal contamination model; however, the Pb isotope data favor a crustal contamination model. It is noted that the Labrador segment of the Grenville Front appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton, and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture.

  6. Speculations on nature and extent of Archean basement in Labrador as indicated by SR, ND and PB isotopic systematics of proterozoic intrusives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Emslie, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic compositions of mid to late Proterozoic (approximately 1.6 to 1.1 Ga) massif-type anorthosites and mafic intrusives in the eastern Canadian shield are correlated with geographic location. Complexes in the Grenville province have positive epsilon sub Nd values and initial Sr-87/Sr-86 (I sub Sr) generally less than 0.703, suggesting derivation from depleted mantle. In Labrador, similar complexes close to or northwest of a line roughly corresponding to the Grenville Front have negative epsilon sub Nd values and I sub Sr 0.703. This contrast was intrepreted as reflecting either enriched mantle under the Nain Province, or contamination of the Nain intrusives with older crustal components. Lead isotopic compositions, however, favor the latter. The possibility of using these Proterozoic intrusives as tracers to characterize the nature and extent of older basement types in Labrador is discussed.

  7. Wind, current and swell influences on the ice extent and flux in the Grand Banks-Labrador sea area as observed in the LIMEX '87 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Susan Digby; Carsey, Frank; Holt, Benjamin

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents data collected by airborne and satellite instruments during the Labrador Ice Margin Experiment, that demonstrate the effects of oceanic and atmospheric processes on the ice conditions in the Grand Banks-Labrador sea area. Special consideration is given to the development of algorithms for extracting information from SAR data. It is shown that SAR data can be used to monitor ice extent, determine ice motion, locate shear zones, monitor the penetration of swell into the ice, estimate floe sizes, and establish the dimensions of the ice velocity zones. It is also shown that the complex interaction of the ice cover with winds, currents, swell, and coastlines is similar to the dynamics established for a number of sites in both polar regions.

  8. Influence of diet on growth, condition and reproductive capacity in Newfoundland and Labrador cod ( Gadus morhua): Insights from stable carbon isotopes ( δ13C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Graham D.; Rideout, Rick M.; Fudge, Susan B.; Rose, George A.

    2007-11-01

    Cod populations in Newfoundland and Labrador waters have shown differing growth, condition and recruitment since near-universal declines in these properties during the cold period of the late 1980s and early 1990s. To assess the influence of variable prey communities on these parameters, we compared cod energetics and diet in populations off Labrador and the northeast and south coasts of Newfoundland. Many properties were highest in the southern group(s) and lowest in the northern group(s), including growth, somatic condition, liver index and age-at-maturity. Most differences could be explained by variations in diet, as measured by stomach contents and stable carbon isotopes ( δ13C). The diet of Labrador cod consisted almost entirely of northern shrimp ( Pandalus borealis), and these cod displayed the most benthic δ13C signatures. Northeast cod had a more varied diet that included capelin and other fish, but still had mostly benthic δ13C signatures, suggesting the importance of benthic prey like shrimp in this population. South coast cod exhibited the most varied diet, including capelin ( Mallotus villosus), zooplankton, crabs and other fish, and had the most pelagic δ13C signatures. Among and within populations, the benefits of a more pelagic diet in medium-sized (30-69 cm) cod included higher somatic condition, higher liver index (lipid stores) and greater spawning potential (decreased incidence of atresia). It is hypothesized that major rebuilding of Newfoundland and Labrador cod stocks will require a return to a system that supports mostly pelagic feeding (i.e. capelin) in cod.

  9. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  10. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  11. Investigating the Effects of Climatic Change and Fire Dynamics on Peatland C Accumulation in Coastal Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, A.; Lesser, D.; Bourakovsky, A.; Hamley, C.; Adams, C.; Westervelt, A.; Camill, P.; Umbanhowar, C. E., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    High-latitude Canadian peatlands store a significant stock of soil carbon that has the potential to become mobilized to the atmosphere if climate warming leads to changes in the net balance of plant productivity and decomposition. We completed a detailed study of C accumulation rates from the sediment record in coastal eastern Canada to help to determine the relative impacts of regional climate vs. local processes, such as hydrology and fire disturbance, on rates of C storage. Seven cores from subarctic peatlands in Labrador were analyzed to determine the influence of fires on carbon storage over the past 8,000 years, specifically over known warm periods. Calibrated radiocarbon dates, bulk density, and percent carbon were used to calculate carbon accumulation rates. Areal charcoal concentration was used as a proxy for fire severity. Carbon accumulation rates appear to be most strongly controlled by changing regional climatic regimes. From 8,000 cal yr BP to the present, rates of accumulation averaged 23.1 ± 6.7 gC m-2 yr-1. C accumulation rates were highest during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM, 6,000 - 4,000 cal yr BP), averaging 29.6 ± 2.4 g C m-2 yr-1 compared to 22.7 ± 3.7 and 15.9 ± 2.9 g C m-2 yr-1 before and after the HTM, respectively. Samples containing macroscopic charcoal had an average concentration of 0.62 mm2 cm-3 with a maximum concentration found of 3.51 mm2 cm-3. Consistently low charcoal concentrations indicate that fire was neither common nor severe in these wetter peatlands, implying that fires have historically not been a significant control on C accumulation in Labrador, likely due to the high net moisture of the region. Our work supports a growing body of evidence from high latitude peatlands suggesting that future warming conditions, in the absence of shifts in disturbance regimes, could lead to greater soil C sequestration.

  12. The Use of an Open Field Model to Assess Sound-Induced Fear and Anxiety Associated Behaviors in Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Margaret E.; Case, Beth C.; Foster, Melanie L.; Lazarowski, Lucia; Fish, Richard E.; Landsberg, Gary; DePuy, Venita; Dorman, David C.; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the playing of thunderstorm recordings during an open-field task elicits fearful or anxious responses in adult beagles. The goal of our study was to apply this open field test to assess sound-induced behaviors in Labrador retrievers drawn from a pool of candidate improvised explosive devices (IED)-detection dogs. Being robust to fear-inducing sounds and recovering quickly is a critical requirement of these military working dogs. This study presented male and female dogs, with 3 minutes of either ambient noise (Days 1, 3 and 5), recorded thunderstorm (Day 2), or gunfire (Day 4) sounds in an open field arena. Behavioral and physiological responses were assessed and compared to control (ambient noise) periods. An observer blinded to sound treatment analyzed video records of the 9-minute daily test sessions. Additional assessments included measurement of distance traveled (activity), heart rate, body temperature, and salivary cortisol concentrations. Overall, there was a decline in distance traveled and heart rate within each day and over the five-day test period, suggesting that dogs habituated to the open field arena. Behavioral postures and expressions were assessed using a standardized rubric to score behaviors linked to canine fear and anxiety. These fear/anxiety scores were used to evaluate changes in behaviors following exposure to a sound stressor. Compared to control periods, there was an overall increase in fear/anxiety scores during thunderstorm and gunfire sound stimuli treatment periods. Fear/anxiety scores were correlated with distance traveled, and heart rate. Fear/anxiety scores in response to thunderstorm and gunfire were correlated. Dogs showed higher fear/anxiety scores during periods after the sound stimuli compared to control periods. In general, candidate IED-detection Labrador retrievers responded to sound stimuli and recovered quickly, although dogs stratified in their response to sound stimuli. Some dogs were

  13. On the formation of ultra-thick sedimentary basins on rifted margins: a comparison of the Scotian and Labrador margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louden, K.; Funck, T.

    2003-12-01

    Sedimentary basins that form on rifted continental margins exhibit a great variety of shapes and sizes. In particular, the total sediment thickness can vary significantly and in certain sub-basins can approach 15-20 km. The deeper structure of these ultra-thick basins is typically not well resolved by seismic reflection profiles due to poor penetration within the thickest parts of the basin. Wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profiles can help resolve these deeper features. We compare two such sub-basins that occur on the eastern Canadian margins, where reflection and refraction profiles are able to define the complete sedimentary and crustal structures: the Sable sub-basin on the northeast Nova Scotian margin and the Hopedale sub-basin on the central Labrador margin. We compare the development of these basins by converting the sediment refraction velocities to density and back-stripping assuming local isostasy. Although these basins formed during completely different episodes of rifting on different types of continental crust, we find a surprising similarity in the characteristics of crustal thinning across each margin, especially for the lower crust. Initial thinning of the crust by 50-60% occurs within 50 km followed by more gradual thinning over the subsequent 100 km. This leaves a tongue of lower continental crust extending 150 km seaward of the unstretched continental crust. This outer region becomes the location of the thickest initial sediment deposition, followed by up-building and out-building of the shelf. The local form of this deposition differs between the two margins: with much larger syn- and immediately post-rift sediments on the Scotian margin and thicker recent deposition on the Labrador margin, probably controlled by the local availability of sediment fill. Comparison with previous models of rifting based on borehole observations for the Scotia margin compare well with the overall width of the rifting (150 km), but our results suggest more

  14. The Use of an Open Field Model to Assess Sound-Induced Fear and Anxiety Associated Behaviors in Labrador Retrievers.

    PubMed

    Gruen, Margaret E; Case, Beth C; Foster, Melanie L; Lazarowski, Lucia; Fish, Richard E; Landsberg, Gary; DePuy, Venita; Dorman, David C; Sherman, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the playing of thunderstorm recordings during an open-field task elicits fearful or anxious responses in adult beagles. The goal of our study was to apply this open field test to assess sound-induced behaviors in Labrador retrievers drawn from a pool of candidate improvised explosive devices (IED)-detection dogs. Being robust to fear-inducing sounds and recovering quickly is a critical requirement of these military working dogs. This study presented male and female dogs, with 3 minutes of either ambient noise (Days 1, 3 and 5), recorded thunderstorm (Day 2), or gunfire (Day 4) sounds in an open field arena. Behavioral and physiological responses were assessed and compared to control (ambient noise) periods. An observer blinded to sound treatment analyzed video records of the 9-minute daily test sessions. Additional assessments included measurement of distance traveled (activity), heart rate, body temperature, and salivary cortisol concentrations. Overall, there was a decline in distance traveled and heart rate within each day and over the five-day test period, suggesting that dogs habituated to the open field arena. Behavioral postures and expressions were assessed using a standardized rubric to score behaviors linked to canine fear and anxiety. These fear/anxiety scores were used to evaluate changes in behaviors following exposure to a sound stressor. Compared to control periods, there was an overall increase in fear/anxiety scores during thunderstorm and gunfire sound stimuli treatment periods. Fear/anxiety scores were correlated with distance traveled, and heart rate. Fear/anxiety scores in response to thunderstorm and gunfire were correlated. Dogs showed higher fear/anxiety scores during periods after the sound stimuli compared to control periods. In general, candidate IED-detection Labrador retrievers responded to sound stimuli and recovered quickly, although dogs stratified in their response to sound stimuli. Some dogs were

  15. Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador: Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wooden, J.L.; Emslie, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    We report Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of mid-Proterozoic anorthosites and related rocks (1.45-1.65 Ga) and of younger olivine diabase dikes (1.4 Ga) from two complexes on either side of the Grenville Front in Labrador. Anorthositic or diabasic samples from the Mealy Mountains (Grenville Province) and Harp Lake (Nain-Churchill Provinces) complexes have very similar major, minor and trace element compositions, but distinctly different isotopic signatures. All Mealy Mountains samples have ISr = 0.7025-0.7033, ??{lunate}Nd = +0.6 to +5.6 and Pb isotopic compositions consistent with derivation from a mantle source depleted with respect to Nd/Sm and Rb/Sr. Pb isotopic compositions for the Mealy Mountains samples are slightly more radiogenic than model mantle compositions. All Harp Lake samples have ISr = 0.7032-0.7066, ??{lunate}Nd = -0.3 to -4.4 and variable, but generally unradiogenic 207Pb 204Pb and 206Pb 204Pb compared to model mantle, suggesting mixing between a mantle-derived component and a U-depleted crustal contaminant. Crustal contaminants are probably a variety of Archean high-grade quartzofeldspathic gneisses with low U/Pb ratios and include a component that must be isotopically similar to the early Archean (>3.6 Ga) Uivak gneisses of Labrador or the Amitsoq gneisses of west Greenland. This would imply that the ancient gneiss complex of coastal Labrador and Greenland is larger than indicated by present surface exposure and may extend in the subsurface as far west as the Labrador Trough. If Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains samples were subjected to the same degree of contamination, as suggested by their chemical similarities, then the Mealy contaminants must be much younger, probably early or middle Proterozoic in age. The Labrador segment of the Grenville Front, therefore, appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture. ?? 1986.

  16. Protective factors for mental health and well-being in a changing climate: Perspectives from Inuit youth in Nunatsiavut, Labrador.

    PubMed

    Petrasek MacDonald, Joanna; Cunsolo Willox, Ashlee; Ford, James D; Shiwak, Inez; Wood, Michele

    2015-09-01

    The Canadian Arctic is experiencing rapid changes in climatic conditions, with implications for Inuit communities widely documented. Youth have been identified as an at-risk population, with likely impacts on mental health and well-being. This study identifies and characterizes youth-specific protective factors that enhance well-being in light of a rapidly changing climate, and examines how climatic and environmental change challenges these. In-depth conversational interviews were conducted with youth aged 15-25 from the five communities of the Nunatsiavut region of Labrador, Canada: Nain, Hopedale, Postville, Makkovik, and Rigolet. Five key protective factors were identified as enhancing their mental health and well-being: being on the land; connecting to Inuit culture; strong communities; relationships with family and friends; and staying busy. Changing sea ice and weather conditions were widely reported to be compromising these protective factors by reducing access to the land, and increasing the danger of land-based activities. This study contributes to existing work on Northern climate change adaptation by identifying factors that enhance youth resilience and, if incorporated into adaptation strategies, may contribute to creating successful and effective adaptation responses.

  17. Stable isotope analysis of some representative fish and invertebrates of the Newfoundland and Labrador continental shelf food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Graham D.; Rose, George A.

    2005-06-01

    We examined stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of 17 fish and 16 invertebrate taxa common to the Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) continental shelf food web. Particular sampling emphasis was placed on Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and related prey species (e.g. shrimp, Pandalus borealis, and capelin, Mallotus villosus). We found highly significant ( p < 0.0001) differences between near-shore (bays) and offshore (shelf edge) δ15N signatures for cod, 'other fish' (pooled) and invertebrates (pooled). In contrast, there were only minor differences in δ13C signatures of 'other fish' ( p < 0.05) and no difference for cod and invertebrates among the two habitats. We sampled at two times of the year (January and June) and found no systematic effect of season on both δ13C and δ15N in cod, 'other fish' and invertebrates. We calculated isotopic fractionation factors for cod from the entire shelf (mixed diet) and for cod with diets composed mainly of capelin or shrimp. These values ranged between 2.2‰ and 3.9‰ for δ15N and -0.4‰ and 0.8‰ for δ13C and, for δ15N, may reflect diet-related differences in bioenergetic status. We discuss potential mechanisms for near-shore versus offshore enrichment of δ15N signatures, and demonstrate the implications of this spatial variation on δ15N-derived trophic position estimates.

  18. Atmospheric forcing during active convection in the Labrador Sea and its impact on mixed-layer depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Lena M.; Pickart, Robert S.; Moore, G. W. K.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrographic data from the Labrador Sea collected in February-March 1997, together with atmospheric reanalysis fields, are used to explore relationships between the air-sea fluxes and the observed mixed-layer depths. The strongest winds and highest heat fluxes occurred in February, due to the nature and tracks of the storms. While greater numbers of storms occurred earlier and later in the winter, the storms in February followed a more organized track extending from the Gulf Stream region to the Irminger Sea where they slowed and deepened. The canonical low-pressure system that drives convection is located east of the southern tip of Greenland, with strong westerly winds advecting cold air off the ice edge over the warm ocean. The deepest mixed layers were observed in the western interior basin, although the variability in mixed-layer depth was greater in the eastern interior basin. The overall trend in mixed-layer depth through the winter in both regions of the basin was consistent with that predicted by a 1-D mixed-layer model. We argue that the deeper mixed layers in the west were due to the enhanced heat fluxes on that side of the basin as opposed to oceanic preconditioning.

  19. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  20. Hemilaryngeal reconstruction using an axial island cheek flap supported by Marlex and stainless steel wire mesh.

    PubMed

    Winek, T G; Sasaki, T M; Luallin, D; Cook, D W; Galey, W T; Baker, H W

    1988-10-01

    The defect that remains after an extended hemilaryngectomy continues to be a challenge to the reconstructing surgeon. The reconstruction ideally must provide airway protection against aspiration, allow for phonation, and provide a durable mucosal surface. It also must be accomplished in one stage. Nine Labrador dogs underwent successful reconstruction of the hemilarynx using an axial island cheek flap based on the facial artery and vein. Adequate laryngeal function was demonstrated by maintenance of body weight, normal barium swallows, return of strong bark, and no evidence of aspiration pneumonia. Pathologic review confirmed a viable mucosal surface and incorporation of the Marlex and stainless steel wire mesh in a fibrous reaction. We have concluded that this method of reconstruction provides a result superior to currently used techniques.

  1. Ag-plasma modification enhances bone apposition around titanium dental implants: an animal study in Labrador dogs.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shichong; Cao, Huiliang; Zhao, Xu; Lo, Hueiwen; Zhuang, Longfei; Gu, Yingxin; Shi, Junyu; Liu, Xuanyong; Lai, Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants with proper antibacterial ability as well as ideal osseointegration are being actively pursued. The antimicrobial ability of titanium implants can be significantly enhanced via modification with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, the high mobility of Ag NPs results in their potential cytotoxicity. The silver plasma immersion ion-implantation (Ag-PIII) technique may remedy the defect. Accordingly, Ag-PIII technique was employed in this study in an attempt to reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance osseointegration of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants. Briefly, 48 dental implants, divided equally into one control and three test groups (further treated by Ag-PIII technique with three different implantation parameters), were inserted in the mandibles of six Labrador dogs. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to investigate the surface topography, chemical states, and silver release of SLA- and Ag-PIII-treated titanium dental implants. The implant stability quotient examination, Microcomputed tomography evaluation, histological observations, and histomorphometric analysis were performed to assess the osseointegration effect in vivo. The results demonstrated that normal soft tissue healing around dental implants was observed in all the groups, whereas the implant stability quotient values in Ag-PIII groups were higher than that in the SLA group. In addition, all the Ag-PIII groups, compared to the SLA-group, exhibited enhanced new bone formation, bone mineral density, and trabecular pattern. With regard to osteogenic indicators, the implants treated with Ag-PIII for 30 minutes and 60 minutes, with the diameter of the Ag NPs ranging from 5-25 nm, were better than those treated with Ag-PIII for 90 minutes, with the Ag NPs diameter out of that range. These results suggest that Ag-PIII technique can reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance

  2. Silicate-Oxide Equilibria in the Wilson Lake Terrane, Labrador - Evidence for a Pre- Metamorphic Oxidizing Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, F. J.; Stout, J. H.

    2006-05-01

    The presence of Fe3+ and Ti in silicates and their presumed equilibration with Fe2+-Fe3+-Ti oxide minerals has long been recognized as an important factor in metamorphic phase equilibria. The Red Wine Mountains massif is a granulite facies unit in the Wilson Lake terrane of central Labrador, where this equilibration is especially important for estimating both temperature and fO2 during peak metamorphism. Peak assemblages are sapphirine + quartz, and orthopyroxene + sillimanite + quartz. The coexisting oxides, which are largely responsible for the pronounced aeromagnetic high of the massif, consist of nearly pure magnetite and an exsolved titanohematite. Estimates of fO2 based on magnetite + integrated titanohematite compositions are slightly below that defined by the pure magnetite-hematite buffer. This assemblage is also responsible for the magnetic signature of metagabbro and metanorite dikes, a fact which challenges the conventional wisdom that the high Fe3+ content of the host paragneisses was inherited from a highly oxidized ferruginous shale. We suggest here that prior to granulite facies metamorphism, an oxidizing hydrothermal event either coeval or following the emplacement of mafic dikes into the paragneiss host was responsible for the highly oxidized nature of the massif as a whole. Subsequent metamorphism then produced the observed assemblages. This scenario is supported by recent U-Pb zircon and monazite ages of ca. 1626 ± 10 Ma, which indicate that both metagabbro dikes and host paragneiss were metamorphosed at the same time. Dike emplacement and the oxidizing event must have preceded 1626 Ma. The implications of this pre-metamorphic oxidizing event is that Fe3+ becomes an inherent and fixed component in the chemical system during metamorphism. Phase relationships, preliminary thermodynamic modeling, and geothermobarometric constraints indicate that peak temperatures are lower than those previously determined for Fe3+-absent systems. More appropriate

  3. Analysis of Labrador Sea Water in the subpolar North Atlantic by using sulphurhexafluoride as a transient tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieke, Dagmar; Rhein, Monika; Bulsiewicz, Klaus; Tanhua, Toste

    2010-05-01

    In this study we investigate two different modes of Labrador Sea Water (upper and deep LSW) by means of combined measurements of sulphurhexafluoride (SF6) and chlorofluorocarbon (component CFC-12). In 2008 and 2009, two basin-wide surveys including hydrographic and tracer measurements have been conducted in the western subpolar North Atlantic. Both surveys aimed at estimating the recent formation and describing subsequent spreading of these two LSW types in the subpolar gyre. The SF6 signal observed in the water column of the subpolar gyre, basically, has two sources. On the one hand side, SF6 has been artificially added to the ocean in the framework of an deliberate tracer release experiment conducted in the Nordic Seas back in 1996. While leaving the Greenland Sea parts of this signal entered the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) which represents the bottom layer in the subpolar gyre. Away from the overflow regions LSW is well separated from the bottom layer by Iceland Scotland Overflow Water that originates in the eastern basin and has a tracer minimum. The tracer load in the LSW layers stems from atmosphere-ocean interaction. This transient signal has a well known atmospheric time history with an linearly increasing trend, whereas tracers chlorofluorocarbons meanwhile have a stagnant or even declining atmospheric history. SF6 is therefore much more appropriate to clearly allocate any gain of SF6 in the LSW layers to water mass formation during winter time. In this study we will present first basin-wide inventories from combined SF6 and CFC-12 measurement and analyze and compare the different fingerprints of LSW formation and spreading. Respective results will be compared to a large-scale survey conducted in 2003 that also yielded SF6 and CFC-12 data.

  4. History of Cesarean Section Associated with Childhood Onset of T1DM in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J.; Gill, N.; Sikdar, K.; Penney, S.; Newhook, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has one of the highest incidences of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) worldwide. Rates of T1DM are increasing and the search for environmental factors that may be contributing to this increase is continuing. Methods. This was a population-based case control design involving the linkage of data from a diabetes database with live birth registration data. 266 children aged 0–15 years with T1DM were compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Chi-square analysis and multivariate conditional logistic regression were carried out to assess maternal and infant factors (including maternal age, marital status, education, T1DM, hypertension, birth order, delivery method, gestational age, size-for-gestational-age, and birth weight). Results. Cases of T1DM were more likely to be large-for-gestational-age (P = 0.024) and delivered by C-section (P = 0.009) as compared to controls. C-section delivery was associated with increased risk of T1DM (HR 1.41, P = 0.015) when birth weight and gestational age were included in the model, but not when size-for-gestational-age was included (HR 1.3, P = 0.076). Conclusions. Birth by C-section was found to be a risk factor for the development of T1DM in a region with high rates of T1DM and birth by C-section. These findings may have an impact on health practice, health care planning, and future research. PMID:22829848

  5. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of the Mistastin Lake impact structure (Labrador, Canada): Implications for geomagnetic perturbation and shock effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, Gwenaël; Gilder, Stuart A.; Marion, Cassandra L.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Pohl, Jean; Petersen, Nikolai; Sylvester, Paul J.

    2015-05-01

    We carried out an integrated rock magnetic and paleomagnetic study of the ∼36 Ma Mistastin Lake (Labrador, Canada) meteorite impact structure in order to investigate whether energy from the collision influenced the geodynamo and to assess the effects of shock on the magnetic properties of the target basement rocks. Stepwise demagnetization of 114 specimens isolates a well-defined magnetization component throughout the crater whose overall mean deviates slightly from the expected direction for North America at the time of impact. Paleointensity results from seven samples meeting stringent selection criteria show no significant difference with a global compilation from 40 to 30 Ma. The combined results, including those from a ∼80 m-thick profile of an impact melt unit (Discovery Hill), lend no support that the impact caused an aberration of the geodynamo within a few centuries of a bolide collision that created the ∼28 km-diameter crater. Both titanium-rich and titanium-poor titanomagnetite carry the magnetic remanence in the impact melt rocks; their relative proportions, compositions and domain states are cooling rate dependent. Magnetic hysteresis parameters of the magnetite-bearing anorthositic basement rocks reveal systematic changes as a function of distance from the crater's center with an increasing prevalence of single domain-like grains toward the center. Changes with radial distance are also found in the character of the Verwey transition in magnetite. Basement rocks were thermally overprinted when lying less than a meter from the impact melt rocks; Mesoproterozoic basement rocks more than a meter below the impact melt rocks hold similar magnetization directions to those expected from a 1500 Ma result for Laurentia. No evidence exists that shock heating of the basement rocks exceeded 200 °C at distances of 6-7 km from the crater's center.

  6. Glacier change from the early Little Ice Age to 2005 in the Torngat Mountains, northern Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Robert G.; Bell, Trevor; Barrand, Nicholas E.

    2015-10-01

    The glaciers of the Torngat Mountains of northern Labrador are the southernmost of the Canadian Arctic and the easternmost of continental North America. Currently, 195 small mountain glaciers cover an area in excess of 24 km2, confined mostly to small cirques and upland depressions. Using a combination of field and remote sensing methods this study reconstructs and dates the areal extent of Torngat glaciers at their Neoglacial maximums, enabling the first assessment of regional glacier change over the past several centuries. Mapped glacier paleomargins (n = 165) are compared to current (2005) glaciers and ice masses, showing a 52.5% reduction in glacier area, with at least 11 former glaciers altogether disappearing. Glacier change is spatially homogenous and independent of most geographic and topographic factors; however, glacier elevation and glacier size mitigated total change. Previously established lichen growth stations were revisited, and growth rates recalculated based on 30-year-long records, enabling the construction of locally derived low- and high-altitude lichen growth curves. Using growth rates and in situ lichen measurements, the retreat from maximum Neoglacial moraine extents are suggested to have occurred between A.D. 1581 and 1673. These findings indicate a similar magnitude of post-LIA retreat to mountain glaciers elsewhere, yet a much earlier timing ( 200 years) of retreat than other glaciers in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Though no definitive answer explaining this discrepancy is presented, evidence suggests that regional climate dynamics and the importance of solar radiation for Torngat glaciers may play an important role in local glacierization.

  7. Ag-plasma modification enhances bone apposition around titanium dental implants: an animal study in Labrador dogs

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Shichong; Cao, Huiliang; Zhao, Xu; Lo, Hueiwen; Zhuang, Longfei; Gu, Yingxin; Shi, Junyu; Liu, Xuanyong; Lai, Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants with proper antibacterial ability as well as ideal osseointegration are being actively pursued. The antimicrobial ability of titanium implants can be significantly enhanced via modification with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). However, the high mobility of Ag NPs results in their potential cytotoxicity. The silver plasma immersion ion-implantation (Ag-PIII) technique may remedy the defect. Accordingly, Ag-PIII technique was employed in this study in an attempt to reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and enhance osseointegration of sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) dental implants. Briefly, 48 dental implants, divided equally into one control and three test groups (further treated by Ag-PIII technique with three different implantation parameters), were inserted in the mandibles of six Labrador dogs. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to investigate the surface topography, chemical states, and silver release of SLA- and Ag-PIII-treated titanium dental implants. The implant stability quotient examination, Microcomputed tomography evaluation, histological observations, and histomorphometric analysis were performed to assess the osseointegration effect in vivo. The results demonstrated that normal soft tissue healing around dental implants was observed in all the groups, whereas the implant stability quotient values in Ag-PIII groups were higher than that in the SLA group. In addition, all the Ag-PIII groups, compared to the SLA-group, exhibited enhanced new bone formation, bone mineral density, and trabecular pattern. With regard to osteogenic indicators, the implants treated with Ag-PIII for 30 minutes and 60 minutes, with the diameter of the Ag NPs ranging from 5–25 nm, were better than those treated with Ag-PIII for 90 minutes, with the Ag NPs diameter out of that range. These results suggest that Ag-PIII technique can reduce the mobility of Ag NPs and

  8. Neutron activation analysis and X-ray Rayleigh and Raman scattering of hair and nail clippings as noninvasive bioindicators for Cu liver status in Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Maria Izabel Maretti Silveira; Bortoleto, Gisele G.; Hoffmann, Gaby; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The heritability of chronic hepatitis in the Labrador Retriever is studied with the aim of identifying the related gene mutation. Identification of cases and controls is largely based on instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Cu determination in liver biopsies. The burden for these companion animals may be reduced if nail clippings and hair (fur) could serve as a noninvasive indicator for the hepatic Cu concentrations. No correlation was found between hepatic Cu concentrations and Cu concentrations in hair and nail samples. However, hair and nail samples were also analyzed by X-ray tube excitation, taking advantage of the X-ray Compton, Rayleigh, and Raman scattering which reflects the organic components such as the type of melanin. Principal component analysis provided first indications that some differentiation between healthy and sick dogs could indeed be obtained from hair and nail analysis. Figure Principal component analysis of scattered region of x-ray fluorescence spectra of Labrador dog nails, demonstrating the differentiation towards dogs with high and low Cu liver levels (respectively positive and negative PC2 values) reflecting hepatitis, as well as gender (PC1: negative values for female and positive values for males) PMID:18264701

  9. A High-Resolution Labrador Sea Surface and Subsurface Water Foraminiferal δ18O Record and its Relation to Heinrich Events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Z. E.; Hoffman, J. S.; Clark, P. U.

    2015-12-01

    Heinrich events are characterized by episodic iceberg discharge events from the Laurentide ice sheet via the Hudson Strait Ice Stream (HSIS) and into the North Atlantic. Although their occurrence throughout late Pleistocene glaciations has been well documented in the oceanic sediment record, the triggering mechanism for Heinrich events is still poorly understood. Recent work (Marcott et al., 2011) has shown that subsurface ocean (~1200 m) warming in response to a shutdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) could lead to accelerated melting and destabilization of an ice shelf fronting the Laurentide Ice Sheet and subsequently trigger Heinrich events. However, evidence for this subsurface warming remains restricted to one core site. Here we use Labrador Sea cores HU2001043-008pc/twc and HU2006040-006pc from the Flemish Cap and Hamilton Spur, respectively, to assess spatial and depth coverage of this signal. We infer surface and subsurface temperature variability using δ18O in benthic and planktic foraminifera. We also develop a corresponding suite of other sediment core proxies in order to identify Heinrich layers, including X-Ray Fluorescence, Ca/Sr, and % dolomite/calcite data. This research will allow us to evaluate changes in the thermodynamic structure of the Labrador basin due to changes in the strength of the AMOC and their relation to Heinrich events. Results will be used to substantiate existing research and coupled ocean-atmospheric models that suggest a reduced AMOC and associated subsurface warming as the trigger for Heinrich events.

  10. Chemostratigraphy and geochronology of the Kaniapiskau Supergroup, Labrador Trough indicate a major tectonic reorganization event hidden in the first cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekker, A.; Davis, D.; Wing, B.

    2009-05-01

    Deposition of the Paleoproterozoic Kaniapiskau Supergroup in the Labrador Trough started before 2.16 Ga and continued until shortly after ca. 1.88 Ga and is conventionally viewed as the result of three cycles of sedimentation in a single basin. The lower part of the first cycle is usually interpreted as rift to passive margin deposits, while the second and third cycles were likely deposited in the foreland basin. The age and depositional setting of the middle and upper parts of the lower cycle remains poorly constrained. We combine results of chemostratigraphic study of carbonates of the Kaniapiskau Supergroup with U-Pb geochronology of detrital zircons from the basal and middle parts of the first cycle to improve age constraints, understanding of tectonic setting, and correlation with other Paleoproterozoic basins along the eastern margin of the Superior Craton. The basal Chakonipau Formation has the youngest detrital zircon with an age of 2241 +/- 18 Ma, further constraining rifting between 2.22 and 2.16 Ga. The overlying lower part of the first cycle contains carbonates with highly positive carbon isotope values, typical for the 2.22-2.1 Ga Lomagundi Event. It is capped by black shales representing a flooding event and overlying turbiditic greywackes. Carbonates in the overlying upper part of the first cycle do not carry a 13C-enrichment and were therefore deposited after ca. 2.1 Ga. We infer a major break in sedimentation at the base of the Bacchus Formation consistent with its transgressive position over various units from the lower part of the first cycle. The flooding and deposition of immature sediments suggests a major reorganization in the basin likely related to the distal response to tectonic stresses. Similar events are also recognized in the Mistassini Basin, ~400 km SW along the margin of the Superior Craton and in other basins worldwide (e.g. on the Wyoming and Fennoscandian cratons), where black shales and turbidites straddle the end of the

  11. Antimicrobial resistance risk factors and characterisation of faecal E. coli isolated from healthy Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Vanessa M; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Nuttall, Tim; McEwan, Neil; Dawson, Susan; Williams, Nicola J

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are increasingly detected from canine samples but few studies have examined commensal isolates in healthy community dogs. We aimed to characterise faecal Escherichia coli from 73 healthy non-veterinarian-visiting and non-antimicrobial treated Labrador retrievers, recruited from dog shows in the North West United Kingdom between November 2010 and June 2011. Each enrolled dog provided one faecal sample for our study. E. coli were isolated from 72/73 (99%) faecal samples. Disc diffusion susceptibility tests were determined for a range of antimicrobials, including phenotypic extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC-production. PCR assay detected phylogenetic groups and resistance genes (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaCIT, qnr), and conjugation experiments were performed to investigate potential transfer of mobile genetic elements. Multivariable logistic regression examined potential risk factors from owner-questionnaires for the presence of antimicrobial resistant faecal E. coli. Antimicrobial resistant, multi-drug resistant (≥3 antimicrobial classes; MDR) and AmpC-producing E. coli were detected in 63%, 30% and 16% of samples, respectively. ESBL-producing E. coli was detected from only one sample and conjugation experiments found that blaCTX-M and blaCIT were transferred from commensal E. coli to a recipient strain. Most isolates were phylogenetic groups B1 and A. Group B2 isolates were associated with lower prevalence of resistance to at least one antimicrobial (P<0.001) and MDR (P<0.001). Significant at P<0.003, was the consumption of raw meat for clavulanate-amoxicillin (OR: 9.57; 95% CI: 2.0-45.7) and third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR) (OR: 10.9; 95% CI: 2.2-54.0). AMR E. coli were surprisingly prevalent in this group of non-antimicrobial treated and non-veterinarian-visiting dogs and consumption of raw meat was a significant risk factor for antimicrobial resistance. These findings are of concern due

  12. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  13. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  14. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  15. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    PubMed

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  17. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional variants in

  19. Strontium and neodymium isotopic variations in early Archean gneisses affected by middle to late Archean high-grade metamorphic processes: West Greenland and Labrador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collerson, K. D.; Mcculloch, M. T.; Bridgwater, D.; Mcgregor, V. R.; Nutman, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    Relicts of continental crust formed more than 3400 Ma ago are preserved fortuitously in most cratons. The cratons provide the most direct information about crust and mantle evolutionary processes during the first billion years of Earth history. In view of their polymetamorphic character, these terrains are commonly affected by subsequent tectonothermal events. Hence, their isotope systematics may be severely disturbed as a result of bulk chemical change or local isotopic homogenization. This leads to equivocal age and source information for different components within these terrains. The Sr and Nd isotopic data are presented for early Archean gneisses from the North Atlantic Craton in west Greenland and northern Labrador which were affected by younger metamorphic events.

  20. A major increase in winter snowfall during the middle Holocene on western Greenland caused by reduced sea ice in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Elizabeth K.; Briner, Jason P.; Ryan-Henry, John J.; Huang, Yongsong

    2016-05-01

    Precipitation is predicted to increase in the Arctic as temperature increases and sea ice retreats. Yet the mechanisms controlling precipitation in the Arctic are poorly understood and quantified only by the short, sparse instrumental record. We use hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) of lipid biomarkers in lake sediments from western Greenland to reconstruct precipitation seasonality and summer temperature during the past 8 kyr. Aquatic biomarker δ2H was 100‰ more negative from 6 to 4 ka than during the early and late Holocene, which we interpret to reflect increased winter snowfall. The middle Holocene also had high summer air temperature, decreased early winter sea ice in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea, and a strong, warm West Greenland Current. These results corroborate model predictions of winter snowfall increases caused by sea ice retreat and furthermore suggest that warm currents advecting more heat into the polar seas may enhance Arctic evaporation and snowfall.

  1. Studies of Labrador Sea Water formation and variability in the subpolar North Atlantic in the light of international partnership and collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieke, Dagmar; Yashayaev, Igor

    2015-03-01

    Labrador Sea Water (LSW), the lightest contribution to North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and one of the most prominent water masses of the subpolar North Atlantic, has seen remarkable changes over the past century. LSW originates in the Labrador Sea, where it is formed through wintertime ocean convection of varying intensity, depth and spatial extent. Formation of LSW, followed by its respective injection into the mid-depth circulation system, is mandatory for ventilating and renewing water layers of the interior ocean. Indispensably important for unraveling the history of variability in formation and properties of LSW as well as for mapping its large-scale spreading and export are sustained physical and chemical observations from the deep ocean. These observations started at the beginning of the 20th century from occasional mostly national surveys and today constitute large-scale multi-national collaborative efforts including a vast arsenal of sophisticated instrumentation. In a historical context, we revisit major milestones over the past 100 years which have established and are constantly adding to shaping today's knowledge on LSW, and present first details on the latest vintage of LSW generated during the strong winter of 2013/2014. Respective Argo data reveal mixed-layer depths greater than 1700 m marking formation of a new cold and fresh anomaly that has spread since then over the subpolar North Atlantic. We further summarize the on-going observational efforts in the subpolar North Atlantic and present a compilation of hydrographic standard lines that serve to provide top-to-bottom information on NADW components.

  2. Paleoceanography of marine isotope stage 31 (ca. 1.07 Ma) in the Labrador Sea based on palynological, microfaunal and isotopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, Aurelie; de Vernal, Anne; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    We have documented the paleoceanography of marine isotope stage (MIS) 31 (ca. 1.07 Ma) at IODP Site 1305 off southwest Greenland in the Labrador Sea, based on dinocyst and foraminifer populations in addition to isotopic measurements in planktonic foraminiferal shells. The planktonic foraminifer assemblages are dominated by the mesopelagic species Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral (Nps). Current interpretations of Nps dominance would thus point to a polar type environment. However, dinocyst assemblages are dominated by Operculodinium centrocarpum, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus and Bitectatodinium tepikiense, which rather indicate temperate-subpolar environnement conditions in the photic zone. Assuming that Nps ecological requirements were unchanged, reconciling the two observations lead to hypothesize a strong stratification of the surface water layer over a subsurface water mass, with Nps ocupying the pycnocline in between. We tentatively applied the modern analogue technique (MAT) to reconstruct surface water conditions from the dinocyst assemblages. Good analogues are found in the modern dinocyst database (n=1492), notably along the southeast Canadian margins and northwest European margins. They indicate a low salinity in the surface waters (32-34.5), a large seasonal amplitude of temperatures with cool winters (3-6° C) and mild summer (10-15° C). Stable isotope measurements in Nps point to δ18O ranging 1.5-2.2o throughout most of the interval, thus significantly lower than those measured during the Holocene (>2.2o at this very site. Benthic isotopic values (~3.2o are in accordance with the global stack of Lisiecki and Raymo (Paleoceanography, 2005). This suggests the presence of relatively warm water intermediate mass in between the bottom and surface water masses. The isotopic, micropaleontological and dinocyst results together show that conditions were unfavorable for convection and intermediate or deep water formation in the Labrador Sea during this

  3. Evolution and geochemistry of the Tertiary calc-alkaline plutons in the Adak Island region of the central Aleutian oceanic island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Suzanne; Citron, Gary P.; Kay, Robert W.; Jicha, Brian; Tibbetts, Ashley

    2014-05-01

    Calc-alkaline plutons are major crustal building blocks of continental margin mountain belts like the Mesozoic to Tertiary Andes and the Sierra Nevada, but are rare in oceanic island arcs. Some of the most calc-alkaline I-type island arc plutons are in the Central Aleutians with the most extreme signatures, as indicated by FeO/MgO ratios of < ~2 at 48-70% wt. % SiO2, in the ~10 km wide Oligocene Hidden Bay pluton on southern Adak Island and the 10 km wide Miocene Kagalaska pluton to the north on eastern Adak and the adjacent Kagalaska Island. Although small compared to most continental plutons, similarities in intrusive units, mineralogy and chemistry suggest common formation processes. The Aleutian calc-alkaline plutonic rocks mainly differ from continental plutons in having more oceanic like isotopic (87Sr/86Sr = 0.703-0.7033; Epsilon Nd = 9-7.8) and LIL (e.g., higher K/Rb) ratios. The Adak region plutons differ from Tertiary plutons on Unalaska Island further east in being more K-rich and in having a more oxidized and lower-temperature mineralogy. From a regional perspective, the Adak area plutons intrude Eocene/Oligocene Finger Bay Formation mafic volcanic and sedimentary rocks and postdate the small ~38 Ma tholeiitic Finger Bay pluton. The chemistry of these older magmatic rocks is basically similar to that of young Central Aleutian magmatic rocks with boninites and arc tholeiitic magmas seemingly being absent. The formation of the calc-alkaline plutons seems to require a sufficient crustal thickness, fluid concentration and contractional stress such that magma chambers can stabilize significant amounts of pargasitic hornblende. Seismic receiver function analyses (Janiszewski et al., 2013) indicate the modern Adak crust is ~ 37 km thick. Existing and new hornblende, plagioclase and biotite Ar/Ar ages from 16 Hidden Bay pluton and Gannet Lake stock gabbro, porphyritic diorite, diorite, granodiorite, leucogranodiorite and aplite samples range from 34.6 to 30

  4. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  5. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  6. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... an obstacle to the westerly winds, and wake patterns in the cloud layers are visible downstream of the island's location. In the lower left ... the lower right image, the island is partially obscured by cumulus clouds, and a spiral cloud pattern associated with an atmospheric ...

  7. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  8. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  9. Prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in two subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in Newfoundland and Labrador, and foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wolves (Canis lupus), and husky dogs (Canis familiaris) as potential definitive hosts.

    PubMed

    Khan, R A; Evans, L

    2006-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of Sarcocystis spp. infecting 2 subspecies of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting Newfoundland and Labrador and its potential definitive hosts. Muscle samples of caribou were obtained, primarily from hunters, and feces of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and wolves (Canis lupus), from trappers, and Husky dogs (Canis familiaris), from owners. Histological sections of muscle and flotation methods for feces were used for parasitic detection. Sarcocystis sp. infected more than 50% of barren-ground caribou (R. t. tarandus) from 4 locations in Newfoundland, but it was significantly greater in the north, where 99% of woodland caribou (R. t. caribou) from Labrador harbored the infection. Sporocysts were observed in 27 of 32 red foxes from eastern and northern Newfoundland, whereas 15 of 15 wolves and 22 of the 38 Husky dogs were infected. Wolves and red foxes probably acquired the infection through scavenging, and Husky dogs, from meat they were fed.

  10. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  11. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  12. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of ...

  13. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  14. "Treasure Island" and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riach, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the sense of rupture or difference inherent in children's literature between the author or adult and the reader or child, as they concern Robert Louis Stevenson's novel "Treasure Island." (TB)

  15. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Heat Island Compendium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  17. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  18. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... Island. DATES: This rule will be effective and enforced from 7:50 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on October 5,...

  19. Chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol in the troposphere over the Hudson Bay lowlands and Quebec-Labrador regions of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelska, K.; Talbot, R. W.; Klemm, K.; Lefer, B.; Klemm, O.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B.; Barrie, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols were collected in the boundary layer and free troposphere over continental and coastal subarctic regions of Canada during the July-August 1990 joint U.S.-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) SB/Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). The samples were analyzed for the following water soluble species: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium, chloride, oxalate, methylsulfonate, and total amine nitrogen. Ammonium and sulfate were the major water soluble components of these aerosols. The nearly neutral (overall) chemical composition of summertime aerosol particles contrasts their strongly acidic wintertime composition. Aerosol samples were separated into several air mass categories and characterized in terms of chemical composition, associated mixing ratios of gaseous compounds, and meteorological parameters. The fundamental category represented particles associated with"background"air masses. The summertime atmospheric aerosols in background air over the North American subarctic and Arctic regions were characterized by relatively small and spatially uniform mixing ratios of the measured species. These aerosol particles were aged to the extent that they had lost their primary source signature. The chemical profile of the background air aerosols was frequently modified by additions from biomass fire plumes, aged tropical marine air, and intrusions of upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric air. Aerosols in boundary layer background air over the boreal forested region of Quebec-Labrador had significantly larger mixing ratios of ammonium and sulfate relative to the Hudson Bay region. This may reflect infiltration of anthropogenic pollution or be due to natural emissions from this region.

  20. City mouse, country mouse: a mixed-methods evaluation of perceived communication barriers between rural family physicians and urban consultants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Renouf, Tia; Alani, Sabrina; Whalen, Desmond; Harty, Chris; Pollard, Megan; Morrison, Megan; Coombs-Thorne, Heidi; Dubrowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine perceived communication barriers between urban consultants and rural family physicians practising routine and emergency care in remote subarctic Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Design This study used a mixed-methods design. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through exploratory surveys, comprised of closed and open-ended questions. The quantitative data was analysed using comparative statistical analyses, and a thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. Participants 52 self-identified rural family physicians and 23 urban consultants were recruited via email. Rural participants were also recruited at the Family Medicine Rural Preceptor meetings in St John's, NL. Setting Rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL completed a survey assessing perceived barriers to effective communication. Results Data confirmed that both groups perceived communication difficulties with one another; with 23.1% rural and 27.8% urban, rating the difficulties as frequent (p=0.935); 71.2% rural and 72.2% urban as sometimes (p=0.825); 5.8% rural and 0% urban acknowledged never perceiving difficulties (p=0.714). Overall, 87.1% of participants indicated that perceived communication difficulties impacted patient care. Primary trends that emerged as perceived barriers for rural physicians were time constraints and misunderstanding of site limitations. Urban consultants' perceived barriers were inadequate patient information and lack of native language skills. Conclusions Barriers to effective communication are perceived between rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL. PMID:27154475

  1. Chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol in the troposphere over the Hudson Bay lowlands and Quebec-Labrador regions of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorzelska, K.; Talbot, R. W.; Klemm, K.; Lefer, B.; Klemm, O.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B.; Barrie, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols were collected in the boundary layer and free troposphere over continental and coastal subarctic regions of Canada during the July - August 1990 joint U.S.-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B/Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). The samples were analyzed for the following water soluble species: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium, chloride, oxalate, methylsulfonate, and total amine nitrogen. Ammonium and sulfate were the major water soluble components of these aerosols. The nearly neutral (overall) chemical composition of summertime aerosol particles contrasts their strongly acidic wintertime composition. Aerosol samples were separated into several air mass categories and characterized in terms of chemical composition, associated mixing ratios of gaseous compounds, and meteorological parameters. The fundamental category represented particles associated with 'background' air masses. The summertime atmospheric aerosols in background air over the North American subarctic and Arctic regions were characterized by relatively small and spatially uniform mixing ratios of the measured species. These aerosol particles were aged to the extent that they had lost their primary source signature. The chemical profile of the background air aerosols was frequently modified by additions from biomass fire plumes, aged tropical marine air, and intrusions of upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric air. Aerosols in boundary layer background air over the boreal forest region of Quebec-Labrador had significantly larger mixing ratios of ammonium and sulfate relative to the Hudson Bay region. This may reflect infiltration of anthropogenic pollution or be due to natural emissions from this region.

  2. Impact of Body Mass Index on Short-Term Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Anne B.; Lester, Kendra K.; Midodzi, William K.; Pearce, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) is associated with advanced cardiovascular disease requiring procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Studies report better outcomes in obese patients having these procedures but results are conflicting or inconsistent. Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has the highest rate of obesity in Canada. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between BMI and vascular and nonvascular complications in patients undergoing PCI in NL. Methods. We studied 6473 patients identified in the APPROACH-NL database who underwent PCI from May 2006 to December 2013. BMI categories included normal, 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25.0 (n = 1073); overweight, 25.0 ≤ BMI < 30 (n = 2608); and obese, BMI ≥ 30.0 (n = 2792). Results. Patients with obesity were younger and had a higher incidence of diabetes, hypertension, and family history of cardiac disease. Obese patients experienced less vascular complications (normal, overweight, and obese: 8.2%, 7.2%, and 5.3%, p = 0.001). No significant differences were observed for in-lab (4.0%, 3.3%, and 3.1%, p = 0.386) or postprocedural (1.0%, 0.8%, and 0.9%, p = 0.725) nonvascular complications. After adjusting for covariates, BMI was not a significant factor associated with adverse outcomes. Conclusion. Overweight and obesity were not independent correlates of short-term vascular and nonvascular complications among patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27668118

  3. Age-associated and breed-associated variations in haematological and biochemical variables in young labrador retriever and miniature schnauzer dogs

    PubMed Central

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J.; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Schweigert, Florian J.; Zentek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Breed, sex and age effects on haematological and biochemical variables were investigated in 24 labrador retriever and 25 miniature schnauzer dogs during the first year of life. Blood samples were taken regularly between weeks 8 and 52. White blood cell and red blood cell counts, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, platelet count as well as total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatine and urea were evaluated. For all haematological and biochemical parameters, there were significant effects of age on test results. Statistically significant effects for breed and the breed×age interaction on test results were observed for most of the parameters with the exception of haemoglobin. Variations in test results illustrate growth related alterations in body tissue and metabolism leading to dynamic and marked changes in haematological and biochemical parameters, which have to be considered for the interpretation of clinical data obtained from dogs in the first year of life. PMID:27252875

  4. Comparison between core temperatures measured telemetrically using the CorTemp® ingestible temperature sensor and rectal temperature in healthy Labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Osinchuk, Stephanie; Taylor, Susan M; Shmon, Cindy L; Pharr, John; Campbell, John

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the CorTemp(®) ingestible telemetric core body temperature sensor in dogs, to establish the relationship between rectal temperature and telemetrically measured core body temperature at rest and during exercise, and to examine the effect of sensor location in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on measured core temperature. CorTemp(®) sensors were administered orally to fasted Labrador retriever dogs and radiographs were taken to document sensor location. Core and rectal temperatures were monitored throughout the day in 6 resting dogs and during a 10-minute strenuous retrieving exercise in 6 dogs. Time required for the sensor to leave the stomach (120 to 610 min) was variable. Measured core temperature was consistently higher than rectal temperature across all GI locations but temperature differences based on GI location were not significant (P = 0.5218). Resting dogs had a core temperature that was on average 0.4°C above their rectal temperature with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between 1.2°C and -0.5°C. Core temperature in exercising dogs was on average 0.3°C higher than their concurrent rectal temperature, with LoA of +1.6°C and -1.1°C.

  5. Mosquito Survey, Island of Rota (Mariana Islands)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    and has also been collected from Tinfan, The adult of Aedes albopictus a severe pest and it is considered to be an important vector of dengue fever . Bionomic...evidence of local The introduction of Aedes albopictus has brought an acknowledged vector of dengue fever to the island. This is potentially...distance away from human habitation. The adults are ready biters. Medical importance: Vector of dengue fever . 2. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse

  6. Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

    2012-12-01

    Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will

  7. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  8. Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

    2002-01-01

    The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously

  9. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated).

  10. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  11. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  12. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  13. Time series measurements of transient tracers and tracer-derived transport in the Deep Western Boundary Current between the Labrador Sea and the subtropical Atlantic Ocean at Line W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John N.; Smethie, William M.; Yashayev, Igor; Curry, Ruth; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko

    2016-11-01

    Time series measurements of the nuclear fuel reprocessing tracer 129I and the gas ventilation tracer CFC-11 were undertaken on the AR7W section in the Labrador Sea (1997-2014) and on Line W (2004-2014), located over the US continental slope off Cape Cod, to determine advection and mixing time scales for the transport of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) within the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). Tracer measurements were also conducted in 2010 over the continental rise southeast of Bermuda to intercept the equatorward flow of DSOW by interior pathways. The Labrador Sea tracer and hydrographic time series data were used as input functions in a boundary current model that employs transit time distributions to simulate the effects of mixing and advection on downstream tracer distributions. Model simulations of tracer levels in the boundary current core and adjacent interior (shoulder) region with which mixing occurs were compared with the Line W time series measurements to determine boundary current model parameters. These results indicate that DSOW is transported from the Labrador Sea to Line W via the DWBC on a time scale of 5-6 years corresponding to a mean flow velocity of 2.7 cm/s while mixing between the core and interior regions occurs with a time constant of 2.6 years. A tracer section over the southern flank of the Bermuda rise indicates that the flow of DSOW that separated from the DWBC had undergone transport through interior pathways on a time scale of 9 years with a mixing time constant of 4 years.

  14. Seasonal and depth-dependent variations in the size and lipid contents of stage 5 copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus in the waters of the Newfoundland Shelf and the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Pierre; Head, Erica J. H.

    2009-06-01

    We report on the variation in energy reserves of individual C5 copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus from the Newfoundland continental shelf and the Labrador Sea collected from surface and overwintering (or bottom) depths prior to, during and after the expected timing of the onset of diapause. Overall, the trend was for a decreasing average prosome length as the year progressed for all locations although the decline was smallest in the Labrador Sea and greatest in the deep waters of the continental shelf. The size of the oil sac was closely linked to the weight of the copepodite but the form of this relationship showed substantial variations with depth and season. We show a clear increase in the relative oil sac volume for C. finmarchicus between late spring and late summer, by which time some animals had descended to diapause depths. The progressive decrease in oil sac volume of animals sampled at depth in the Labrador Sea between September and December suggests a significant loss of energy reserves during diapause. From the distribution of volumes and body sizes in December we estimate that 23-53% of individuals would not be able to meet the energetic cost of moulting and early gonad development. Overall, some of our observations appear to invalidate earlier hypotheses concerning the governing role of lipids in the life history of C. finmarchicus. However, assessment of the factors that influence entry into dormancy should be based on the relative probabilities of alternative strategies for successful reproduction (e.g. entering dormancy vs. continuing into a second generation).

  15. Energy intake, growth rate and body composition of young Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers fed different dietary levels of vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-06-28

    Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal).

  16. Geology of the Eoarchean, > 3.95 Ga, Nulliak supracrustal rocks in the Saglek Block, northern Labrador, Canada: The oldest geological evidence for plate tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Aoki, Shogo; Sawaki, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Akira; Tashiro, Takayuki; Koshida, Keiko; Shimojo, Masanori; Aoki, Kazumasa; Collerson, Kenneth D.

    2015-11-01

    The Earth is a unique planet, which has been highly evolved, diversified and complicated through geologic time, and underwent many key events, including giant impact, magma ocean, core formation, large-scale mantle differentiation and late heavy bombardment, especially in its dawn. But, our knowledge of early Earth is limited due to the lack of the Hadean supracrustal rocks. The supracrustal rocks with the Eoarchean ages provide key evidence for the Earth's early evolution, but few supracrustal rocks have been comprehensively investigated. Therefore, we mapped in seven areas of the Saglek Block, northern Labrador, where ancient supracrustal sequences are interleaved with a diverse assemblage of orthogneisses. Early studies suggested that some of them have the Mesoarchean ages because of the lack of the Mesoarchean Saglek dyke, but we found the Saglek dykes in the areas to recognize the Eoarchean Nulliak supracrustal rocks and Uivak Gneiss in all the areas. Recent reassessment of U-Pb dating and cathodoluminescence observation of zircons from the oldest suites of the Uivak Gneiss showed that the Uivak Gneiss has the Eoarchean age, > 3.95 Ga, and forms the Iqaluk-Uivak Gneiss series. Because our geological survey clearly showed that the Iqaluk-Uivak Gneisses were intruded into the Nulliak supracrustal belts, the Nulliak supracrustal rocks are the oldest supracrustal rock in the world. The supracrustal belts consist of piles of fault-bounded blocks, which are composed of the ultramafic rocks, mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks in ascending order, similar to modern ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS). In addition, small-scale duplex structures are found over the areas. The presence of duplex structure and OPS indicates that the > 3.95 Ga Nulliak supracrustal belts originate from an accretionary complex. The presence of the accretionary complex, ophiolite and granitic continental crust provides the oldest evidence for the plate tectonics on the early Earth.

  17. Chemical composition of the atmospheric aerosol in the troposphere over the Hudson Bay lowlands and Quebec-Labrador regions of Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Gorzelska, K.; Talbot, R.W.; Lefer, B.; Klemm, K.; Klemm, O.; Gregory, G.L.; Anderson, B.; Barrie, L.A.

    1994-01-20

    Atmospheric aerosols were collected in the boundary layer and free troposphere over continental and coastal subarctic regions of Canada during the July-August 1990 joint US-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B/Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). The samples were analyzed for the following water soluble species: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium, chloride, oxalate, methylsulfonate, and total amine nitrogen. Ammonium and sulfate were the major water soluble components of these aerosols. The nearly neutral (overall) chemical composition of summertime aerosol particles contrasts their strongly acidic wintertime composition. Aerosol samples were separated into several air mass categories and characterized in terms of chemical composition, associated mixing ratios of gaseous compounds, and meteorological parameters. The fundamental category represented particles associated with {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} air masses. The summertime atmospheric aerosols in background air over the North American subarctic and Arctic regions were characterized by relatively small and spatially uniform mixing ratios of the measured species. These aerosol particles were aged to the extent that they had lost their primary source signature. The chemical profile of the background air aerosols was frequently modified by additions from biomass fire plumes, aged tropical marine air, and intrusions of upper troposphere/lower stratospheric air. Aerosols in boundary layer background air over the boreal forested region of Quebec-Labrador had significantly larger mixing ratios of ammonium and sulfate relative to the Hudson Bay region. This may reflect infiltration of anthropogenic pollution or be due to natural emissions from this region. 71 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Dietary N-nitroso compounds and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Wang, Peizhon Peter; Zhao, Jing; Green, Roger; Sun, Zhuoyu; Roebothan, Barbara; Squires, Josh; Buehler, Sharon; Dicks, Elizabeth; Zhao, Jinhui; Cotterchio, Michelle; Campbell, Peter T; Jain, Meera; Parfrey, Patrick S; Mclaughlin, John R

    2014-03-28

    Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case-control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest v. lowest quintiles: OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·96; P for trend = 0·005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·35; P for trend = 0·01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·10; P for trend = 0·20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and low vitamin E intakes (OR 3·01, 95 % CI 1·43, 6·51; P for interaction = 0·017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk.

  19. Dietary N-nitroso compounds and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Zhao, Jing; Green, Roger; Sun, Zhuoyu; Roebothan, Barbara; Squires, Josh; Buehler, Sharon; Dicks, Elizabeth; Zhao, Jinhui; Cotterchio, Michelle; Campbell, Peter T.; Jain, Meera; Parfrey, Patrick S.; Mclaughlin, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case-control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador, and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95% CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest vs lowest quintiles, OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.03,1.96; p-trend=0.005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.11,2.35; p-trend=0.01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03,2.10; p-trend=0.20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and vitamin E intakes (OR:3.01; 95% CI: 1.43,6.51; p-interaction=0.017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk. PMID:24160559

  20. Palynology of IODP Site U1307 at the Pliocene to Pleistocene transition: sea-surface conditions in the Labrador Sea and pollen input from the Greenland vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, Aurelie; de Vernal, Anne

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the marine and terrestrial palynological record from marine core sediment collected in the Labrador Sea off southwest Greenland (IODP 1307, 58.5058°N, -46.4005°W) in order to assess on the vegetation over southern Greenland from pollen and spore and reconstruct oceanic condition from dinocysts during the Pliocene to Pleistocene transition (around 2.58Ma), when permanent ice started to developed in the Northern Hemisphere. The study sequence that encompasses from 3.0 to 2.5 Ma is characterized by high species diversity of dinocysts, most of the assemblages being characterized by modern taxa. s. The dominance of Bitectatodinium sp., Operculodinium centrocarpum, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus and Brigantedinium sp., suggest cool, low saline environment characterized by stratified surface water mass, not unlike those prevailing presently along the the southeast Canadian margins. However, the overall palynological assemblage contains abundant acritarcha, notably Cymatiosphaera sp. and Lavradosphaera sp., which probably belong to Prasinophytes (green algae) and are often associated with epicontinental marine environments in the fossil marine records. The pollen assemblages are characterizedby high proportion of Pinus sp., which has exceptional dispersal properties often resulting in long distance transport and making it difficult to identify precisely the location of the source vegetation. Nevertheless, the occurrence of Picea sp., , Tsuga sp., Corylus sp., Alnus sp. and Betula sp. in late Pliocene assemblages suggest input from boreal-type forest located in a relatively proximal source, likely the southwest Greenland. In the early Pleistocene, lower pollen concentrations together with higher proportion of herbaceous taxa may indicate that more open tundra-like vegetation established in the source area.

  1. Distribution and feeding of Benthosema glaciale in the western Labrador Sea: Fish-zooplankton interaction and the consequence to calanoid copepod populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the distribution of major calanoid copepods in the western Labrador Sea in relation to that of the myctophid Benthosema glaciale, and investigated patterns of prey composition and feeding periodicity by the latter to assess the potential impact of mesopelagic fish on copepod populations that reside in the deep ocean. Hydroacoustic surveys indicated that B. glaciale and the deep-scattering layer are widely distributed throughout the region with limited evidence of patchiness, with an average abundance of 6 fish m-2 and biomass of 9.3 g m-2. There was clear evidence of diurnal variations in feeding activity that was achieved through vertical migration from several hundred meters depths to the surface layer. B. glaciale fed principally on calanoid copepods, with prey size dependent on the length of the fish but the relative variability in prey size was independent of predator length. Average rations were generally less than 1% of body weight per day, and the patterns of diurnal vertical migration by myctophids suggest that individuals fed once every two days rather than daily. The estimated mortality caused by B. glaciale on the calanoid populations, which considers most sources of uncertainty, ranged from 0.002 to 1.8% d-1, with the mid-point of these estimates being ˜0.15% d-1, which is well below the estimated mortality rates of 10-20% d-1 based on vertical life tables. From observations from this and other ecosystems, understanding and contrasting the drivers of population dynamics and productivity of calanoid copepods in different deep basins of the North Atlantic will likely require a more comprehensive characterization of the plankton and pelagic and oceanic fish faunas of the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones and their trophic relationships and interactions.

  2. Influence of environmental changes in the north-western Atlantic Ocean on a parasite, Echinorhynchus gadi (Acanthocephala) of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) occurring off coastal Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Khan, R A

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of environmental change on an endoparasite, Echinorhynchus gadi (Acanthocephala) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) over a 30-year period off the coast of Labrador in the north-western Atlantic, North Atlantic Fisheries Organization subareas 2J-3K. Cod, once an abundant fish species that had been commercially exploited for many decades, declined precipitously during the mid-1980s onwards. This decline was attributed to climatic changes that affected the entire food chain from zooplankton to fish, sea birds and marine mammals. A monitoring programme was introduced, sampling cod by otter trawling using research vessels. The fish, after capture, were frozen at - 20 degrees C, subsequently thawed and the digestive tract removed and examined for the parasite in 2006. Data from samples taken in 1976, 1980-81, 1986, 1990, 2000 and 2003 were compared statistically with those collected in 2006. The results indicate a decline in the prevalence and mean abundance of E. gadi in 1986 with a minimum in 2000 but increasing gradually in 2003 and 2006. These changes were coincident initially with a decline of oceanic temperature and the entire food web, including capelin (Mallotus villosus), a preferred prey of cod and primary source of E. gadi. The increase in prevalence and mean abundance of the parasite in 2006 were associated with an increase of oceanic temperature and the return of small schools of capelin to offshore areas. Cod older than 4 years harboured a greater abundance of E. gadi than younger fish, while no difference was observed between the sexes. The results suggest that the abundance of E. gadi can be useful as a bioindicator of environmental changes in the north-western Atlantic.

  3. Effect of dietary moisture and sodium content on urine composition and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy miniature schnauzers and labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, A E; Hynds, W K; Markwell, P J

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this series of studies was to evaluate two possible feeding strategies as methods for reducing the risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in two breeds of healthy dog. The studies compared the effect of dietary moisture (Study 1) and dietary sodium (Na), (Study 2) on urine composition of labrador retrievers (LR) and miniature schnauzers (MS). A nutritionally complete dry dog food was fed to 16 dogs (eight LR, eight MS; Study 1) and 15 dogs (seven LR, eight MS; Study 2) for 24 days (Study 1), or 36 days (Study 2). The dogs were fed the diet alone (7% moisture, 0.06 g Na/100 kcal), or supplemented with deionised water to 73% moisture (Study 1), or dietary Na, to deliver 0.20 or 0.30 g Na per 100 kcal (Study 2). Urine pH, volume, specific gravity, and concentrations of 12 analytes were measured for each dog. Urinary relative supersaturations (RSS) with CaOx were calculated from these values. The effects of supplemental Na or water were established using t tests (Study 1) or analysis of variance, and multiple range tests (least significant difference) (Study 2); P<0.05 was considered significant. Increasing dietary moisture significantly increased total moisture intake (P=0.001), and reduced urine specific gravity (P=0.003), urinary oxalate concentration (P=0.04), and CaOx relative supersaturation (P=0.04) in the MS. Urinary parameters remained unchanged in the LR, indicating that feeding a high moisture diet may reduce the risk of CaOx formation in high-risk breeds. Increasing dietary Na led to production of urine with a significantly lower CaOx RSS in both breeds, indicating that sodium supplementation to dry diet formats may reduce the risk of CaOx formation. These feeding strategies should be considered when evaluating methods for preventing CaOx formation within high-risk groups.

  4. Terrestrial ecosystem recovery following removal of a PCB point source at a former pole vault line radar station in Northern Labrador.

    PubMed

    Ficko, Sarah A; Luttmer, Carol; Zeeb, Barbara A; Reimer, Kenneth

    2013-09-01

    Saglek Bay (LAB-2), located on the northeast coast of Labrador is a former Polevault station that was operated by the U.S. Air Force from 1953 to 1971 when it was abandoned. An environmental assessment carried out in 1996 determined that the site was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with concentrations in soils far exceeding the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) regulation of 50 μg/g in three areas of the site (Beach, Site Summit, Antenna Hill). This led to remediation work carried out between 1999 and 2004 to remove and/or isolate all PCB-contaminated soil exceeding 50 μg/g and to further remediate parts of the site to <5 μg/g PCBs. In this study, spatial and temporal trends of PCB concentrations in soil, vegetation (Betula glandulosa and Salix spp.), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were investigated over a period of fourteen (1997-2011) years in an effort to track ecosystem recovery following the removal of the PCB point sources. The data collected shows that PCB levels in vegetation samples are approximately four times lower in 2011 than pre-remediation in 1997. Similarly, PCB concentrations in deer mice in 2011 are approximately three times lower than those measured in 1997/98. Spatial trends in vegetation and deer mice continue to demonstrate that areas close to the former point sources of PCBs have higher PCB concentrations than those further away (and higher than background levels) and these residual PCB levels are not likely to decrease in the foreseeable future given the persistent nature of PCBs in general in the environment, and in particular in cold climates.

  5. Comparison of remote sensing reflectance from above-water and in-water measurements west of Greenland, Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and west of Iceland.

    PubMed

    Garaba, Shungudzemwoyo P; Zielinski, Oliver

    2013-07-01

    The need to obtain ocean color essential climate variables (OC-ECVs) using hyperspectral technology has gained increased interest in recent years. Assessing ocean color on a large scale in high latitude environments using satellite remote sensing is constrained by polar environmental conditions. Nevertheless, on a small scale we can assess ocean color using above-water and in-water remote sensing. Unfortunately, above-water remote sensing can only determine apparent optical properties leaving the sea surface and is susceptible to near surface environmental conditions for example sky and sunglint. Consequently, we have to rely on accurate in-water remote sensing as it can provide both synoptic inherent and apparent optical properties of seawater. We use normalized water leaving radiance LWN or the equivalent remote sensing reflectance RRS from 27 stations to compare the differences in above-water and in-water OC-ECVs. Analysis of above-water and in-water RRS spectra provided very good match-ups (R2 > 0.97, MSE < 1.8*10(-7)) for all stations. The unbiased percent differences (UPD) between above-water and in-water approaches were determined at common OC-ECVs spectral bands (410, 440, 490, 510 and 555) nm and the classic band ratio (490/555) nm. The spectral average UPD ranged (5 - 110) % and band ratio UPD ranged (0 - 12) %, the latter showing that the 5% uncertainty threshold for ocean color radiometric products is attainable. UPD analysis of these stations West of Greenland, Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait and West of Iceland also suggests that the differences observed are likely a result of environmental and instrumental perturbations.

  6. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed.

  7. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  8. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  9. Prince Edward Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Vianne

    2003-01-01

    This article profiles the educational system of Prince Edward Island and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. (Contains references.) (CR)

  10. Magnetic-island formation

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given.

  11. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  12. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  13. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  14. FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  15. Tectonic Map of the Ellesmerian and Eurekan deformation belts on Svalbard, North Greenland and the Queen Elizabeth Islands (Canadian Arctic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piepjohn, Karsten; von Gosen, Werner; Tessensohn, Franz; Reinhardt, Lutz; McClelland, William C.; Dallmann, Winfried; Gaedicke, Christoph; Harrison, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The tectonic map presented here shows the distribution of the major post-Ellesmerian and pre-Eurekan sedimentary basins, parts of the Caledonian Orogen, the Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt, structures of the Cenozoic Eurekan deformation, and areas affected by the Eurekan overprint. The present continental margin of North America towards the Arctic Ocean between the Queen Elizabeth Islands and Northeast Greenland and the present west margin of the Barents Shelf are characterized by the Paleozoic Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt, the Cenozoic Eurekan deformation, and, in parts, the Caledonian Orogen. In many areas, the structural trends of the Ellesmerian and Eurekan deformations are more or less parallel, and often, structures of the Ellesmerian Orogeny are affected or reactivated by the Eurekan deformation. While the Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt is dominated by orthogonal compression and the formation of wide fold-and-thrust zones on Ellesmere Island, North Greenland and Spitsbergen, the Eurekan deformation is characterized by a complex network of regional fold-and-thrust belts (Spitsbergen, central Ellesmere Island), large distinct thrust zones (Ellesmere Island, North Greenland) and a great number of strike-slip faults (Spitsbergen, Ellesmere Island). The Ellesmerian Fold-and-Thrust Belt was most probably related to the approach and docking of the Pearya Terrane (northernmost part of Ellesmere Island) and Spitsbergen against the north margin of Laurasia (Ellesmere Island/North Greenland) in the earliest Carboniferous. The Eurekan deformation was related to plate tectonic movements during the final break-up of Laurasia and the opening of Labrador Sea/Baffin Bay west, the Eurasian Basin north, and the Norwegian/Greenland seas east of Greenland. The tectonic map presented here shows the German contribution to the Tectonic Map of the Arctic 1:5,000,000 (TeMAr) as part of the international project "Atlas of geological maps of Circumpolar Arctic at 1

  16. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  17. Widespread tungsten isotope anomalies and W mobility in crustal and mantle rocks of the Eoarchean Saglek Block, northern Labrador, Canada: Implications for early Earth processes and W recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingao; Touboul, Mathieu; Ishikawa, Akira; Walker, Richard J.; Graham Pearson, D.

    2016-08-01

    Well-resolved 182W isotope anomalies, relative to the present mantle, in Hadean-Archean terrestrial rocks have been interpreted to reflect the effects of variable late accretion and early mantle differentiation processes. To further explore these early Earth processes, we have carried out W concentration and isotopic measurements of Eoarchean ultramafic rocks, including lithospheric mantle rocks, meta-komatiites, a layered ultramafic body and associated crustal gneisses and amphibolites from the Uivak gneiss terrane of the Saglek Block, northern Labrador, Canada. These analyses are augmented by in situ W concentration measurements of individual phases in order to examine the major hosts of W in these rocks. Although the W budget in some rocks can be largely explained by a combination of their major phases, W in other rocks is hosted mainly in secondary grain-boundary assemblages, as well as in cryptic, unidentified W-bearing 'nugget' minerals. Whole rock W concentrations in the ultramafic rocks show unexpected enrichments relative, to elements with similar incompatibilities. By contrast, W concentrations are low in the Uivak gneisses. These data, along with the in situ W concentration data, suggest metamorphic transport/re-distribution of W from the regional felsic rocks, the Uivak gneiss precursors, to the spatially associated ultramafic rocks. All but one sample from the lithologically varied Eoarchean Saglek suite is characterized by generally uniform ∼ + 11 ppm enrichments in 182W relative to Earth's modern mantle. Modeling shows that the W isotopic enrichments in the ultramafic rocks were primarily inherited from the surrounding 182W-rich felsic precursor rocks, and that the W isotopic composition of the original ultramafic rocks cannot be determined. The observed W isotopic composition of mafic to ultramafic rocks in intimate contact with ancient crust should be viewed with caution in order to plate constraints on the early Hf-W isotopic evolution of the

  18. Issues of geologically-focused situational awareness in robotic planetary missions: Lessons from an analogue mission at Mistastin Lake impact structure, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonenko, I.; Osinski, G. R.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Cupelli, L.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Mader, M. M.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Preston, L. J.; Shankar, B.; Unrau, T.; Veillette, D.

    2013-07-01

    Remote robotic data provides different information than that obtained from immersion in the field. This significantly affects the geological situational awareness experienced by members of a mission control science team. In order to optimize science return from planetary robotic missions, these limitations must be understood and their effects mitigated to fully leverage the field experience of scientists at mission control.Results from a 13-day analogue deployment at the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, Canada suggest that scale, relief, geological detail, and time are intertwined issues that impact the mission control science team's effectiveness in interpreting the geology of an area. These issues are evaluated and several mitigation options are suggested. Scale was found to be difficult to interpret without the reference of known objects, even when numerical scale data were available. For this reason, embedding intuitive scale-indicating features into image data is recommended. Since relief is not conveyed in 2D images, both 3D data and observations from multiple angles are required. Furthermore, the 3D data must be observed in animation or as anaglyphs, since without such assistance much of the relief information in 3D data is not communicated. Geological detail may also be missed due to the time required to collect, analyze, and request data.We also suggest that these issues can be addressed, in part, by an improved understanding of the operational time costs and benefits of scientific data collection. Robotic activities operate on inherently slow time-scales. This fact needs to be embraced and accommodated. Instead of focusing too quickly on the details of a target of interest, thereby potentially minimizing science return, time should be allocated at first to more broad data collection at that target, including preliminary surveys, multiple observations from various vantage points, and progressively smaller scale of focus. This operational model

  19. Using multiple sulfur isotopes to link biological isotope fractionation in a sedimentary protolith to a magmatic Ni-sulfide deposit: Voisey's Bay Ni deposit, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebert, R. S.; Bekker, A.; Wing, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    It is generally accepted that crustal contamination is required for the formation of significant magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits. Either the addition of external S or SiO2 promote early sulfide saturation. The most direct indicator of S addition by this contaminant is S isotopes. However, the traditional use of δ34S values is inadequate in deposits where Archean sedimentary sulfides incorporated into these deposits might not have significantly different δ34S values from those of mantle S. Even in sediments that have variable δ34S values, δ34S signature can be reset to magmatic values by equilibrating large amounts of silicate magma with initial sulfide melt. However, sedimentary rocks contain isotope evidence of biological fractionation processes in the relationship between δ33S and δ34S values. We used multiple S isotope data to constrain the relationship between δ33S and δ34S values, identify biological S isotope fractionation in the metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of the Tasiuyak Gneiss, and compare this relationship to that in the Voisey's Bay magmatic Ni-deposit. The Voisey's Bay Ni-sulfide deposit, Labrador is hosted by a troctolitic conduit system. The Voisey's Bay intrusion is a part of the Nain plutonic suite and intruded at approximately 1.3 Ga along the boundary between the Proterozoic Tasiuyak Gneiss of the Churchill province and Archean gneisses of the Nain province. The general model suggests assimilation of a large amount of sulfidic Tasiuyak gneiss, leading to sulfur saturation prior to emplacement, even though the Tasiuyak gneiss does not have a high concentration of sulfur. High-temperature equilibrium relationships are not present in our measured δ33S and δ34S values from the Voisey's Bay deposit. Instead they indicate that a kinetic process is responsible for S isotope fractionations in the mineralization and troctolite, similar to that recorded by the Tasiuyak gneiss. The observed relationship between δ33S and δ34S values is

  20. U, Th and Pa insights into sedimentological and paleoceanographic changes off Hudson Strait (Labrador Sea) during the last ∼37 ka with special attention to methodological issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuttin, Laurence; Maccali, Jenny; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2015-05-01

    A ∼9 m-long sediment core spanning the last ∼37 ka has been raised from the lower Labrador continental slope, off the Hudson Strait shelf edge. It has been analyzed for its U, Th and Pa isotope contents, along with current sedimentological parameters, as a means to retrieve information about sedimentological changes in response to northeastern Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) margin instabilities. The sequence yielded a high-resolution record of subglacial detrital carbonate pulses from Hudson Strait assigned to "Heinrich events" H2 and H1, whereas H0 was missing. Large variations in bulk sediment U- and Th-contents as well as in 234U/238U activity ratio are observed throughout the sequence, leading to large uncertainties when calculating excesses in 231Pa and 230Th (231Paxs and 230Thxs) over their supported and in-growth fractions (i.e., inherited from detrital minerals and produced from authigenic and diagenetic U-uptake). In particular, 234U excesses or deficits vs 238U (-115‰ < δ234U < +126‰) are observed throughout the sequence, suggesting occasional U-uptake from the water column and/or some late diagenetic mobility along discrete redox gradients, despite the overall low and little variable organic carbon content (0.3 ± 0.1%) observed. The above uncertainties in 231Paxs and 230Thxs estimates and the large variability in geochemical and sedimentary fluxes off the northeastern LIS margin, lead us to downgrade the potential paleoceanographic information yielded by these isotopes in such a setting. Nonetheless, the H2 and H1 layers are highlighted by very low initial excesses in both 230Thxs and 231Paxs, indicating their extremely fast deposition. Throughout most of the sedimentary sequence, the calculated initial 230Thxs fluxes are nearly in balance with 230Th production in the overlying water column. Exceptions are the H2 layer, an interval succeeding H1, and the post-glacial sediment. The estimated initial (231Paxs/230Thxs) ratios are generally lower than

  1. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  2. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  3. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule, technical amendment. SUMMARY: This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall...

  4. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  5. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  6. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  7. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  8. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  9. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  10. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  11. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

  12. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  13. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  14. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  15. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  17. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  18. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  19. The submental island flap.

    PubMed

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F

    1996-03-01

    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  20. Fire Island National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayagandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    These lidar-derived topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. The aims of the partnership that created this product are to develop advanced survey techniques for mapping barrier island geomorphology and habitats, and to enable the monitoring of ecological and geological change within National Seashores. This product is based on data from an innovative airborne lidar instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL).

  1. Rain on small tropical islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

    2011-04-01

    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow

  2. Trace element composition of olivine - implications for the evolution of the olivine gabbro-troctolite-hosted Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit, Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulle, F.; Layne, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Voisey's Bay intrusion is part of the Nain Plutonic Suite, which transects the 1.85 Ga collisional boundary between the Proterozoic Churchill Province and the Archean Nain Province in Eastern Labrador. The intrusion comprises a group of troctolitic to olivine gabbroic bodies linked by olivine gabbro dikes; together these rocks host the world-class Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit. Zones of massive and disseminated sulfide mineralization (Reid Brook, Discovery Hill, Mini-Ovoid and Ovoid) occur within a dike and at the entry line of this dike into a larger intrusion termed the Eastern Deeps [1, 2, 3]. At least two pulses of magma have generated the intrusion and the associated sulfide mineralization; an initial surge that achieved sulfide saturation by interacting with upper crustal rocks, and a later pulse of fresh, undepleted magma that forced the initial magma upwards and both remobilized the immiscible sulfide liquid and upgraded it in metal content [1, 2, 3]. Previous research [1, 2] has shown that the Ni content of olivine from the distinct sulfide-bearing host rocks is highly variable, and also indicative of both magma mixing and interaction of silicate magmas with sulfide. To further validate the significance of the olivine chemistry as a tracer for ore-forming petrological processes, we have determined the abundances of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn in olivines from the various mafic lithologies of the Eastern Deeps intrusion using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. We present systematic variations in Mn, Co, Ni and Zn with Fo-content in olivines for both sulfide-free and sulfide-bearing zones. Olivines from mineralized and brecciated troctolitic/gabbroic zones display significantly higher Mn (up to 11,000 ppm) and Zn (up to 550 ppm) concentrations than those from nominally barren counterparts. The barren troctolite, broadly termed normal troctolite (NT), is a petrographically homogenous plagioclase and olivine cumulate. However, olivine

  3. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  4. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-22

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.

  5. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule...

  6. 'King George Island' Brushed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.

  7. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  9. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites.

  10. Groundwater vulnerability on small islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.

  11. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    PubMed

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  12. The Cambrian of Bennett Island (New Siberian Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danukalova, M. K.; Kuzmichev, A. B.; Korovnikov, I. V.

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents new data on the Cambrian stratigraphy of Bennett Island, one of the least explored East Arctic islands. The section, about 500 m of total thickness, comprises four lithological units that store a record of the deposition history: (1) clastic sediments including storm sandstones; (2) shallow-marine mudstone; (3) lagoonal variegated mudstone and limestone; (4) black shale. It is suggested to classify the units as formations with their proper names. The section spans all epoches of the Cambrian stratigraphy constrained by trilobite fossils. In the Cambrian, territory of the island belonged to Siberia rather than to some exotic terrane, judging by abundant endemic Siberian trilobite species in the Bennett section. This inference is supported by synchronicity in recorded deposition events of Bennett Island and northeastern Siberia (Kharaulakh Mountains). The Cambrian sediments of the two areas were deposited in different parts of a single shallow sea which extended as far as Taimyr.

  13. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  14. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  15. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  16. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  17. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  18. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  19. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  20. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  1. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  2. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  3. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  4. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  5. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  6. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  7. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone.... This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during,...

  8. 75 FR 28643 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges, Lee and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife... conservation plan and environmental assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and... Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs. We started the process through a notice in the...

  9. [Relationships between island characteristics and arthropod diversity in Thousand-Island Lake].

    PubMed

    Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun

    2009-09-01

    In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.

  10. Possible Association of Oyster Terrain Mound Features in the Peconic Estuary on Long Island, NY With 8.2ka Meltwater Pulse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, J.; Flood, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    Mound features revealed by multibeam bathymetry and seismic profiles are associated with an oyster terrain that covers an extensive area of the Peconic Estuary on Long Island, NY. These mounds may capture high resolution paleoclimate records of the 8.2ka melt water pulse. One of the puzzles of the 8.2ka event is the lack of a strong signal in the salinity or δ180 near the suggested outburst path via the Hudson Strait and Labrador Sea. The Peconic Estuary is situated where one might find evidence of this outburst, downstream from the modern currents exiting the Labrador Sea and to the north of the signature reported to be found off of Cape Hatteras near the present Gulf Stream North Wall. By examining the characteristics of these features based on the multibeam backscatter and bathymetry data obtained as part of an ongoing project we can distinguish relatively high backscatter regions associated with a mound morphology typified by exposed mounds of approximately 2m in height. The mounds' surfaces are associated with stained unarticulated oyster shells in grab samples, but no living oysters. These oysters are far thicker with many growth bands than the thin young oysters associated with modern Long Island aquaculture or harvested oyster beds and are often full of pits and holes. The mounds topped by oyster shells are hypothesized to be oyster bioherms that started to form around the time of the 8.2ka meltwater pulse (mwp), and as such should serve as proxies of climate around this time period. Examination of seismic profiles over this mound terrain reinforces the idea that these are indeed older features by revealing buried mounds under at least 3m of sediment that fall within the exposed mound range of 6m to at least 18m. It also reveals even greater relief of most exposed mound morphologies below the surface with many buried and exposed mounds reaching greater than 4m in relief. It would have required thousands of years to bury mounds at a steady low sedimentation

  11. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    large-scale wind field, and the oceanic general circulation in which the island is embedded. First, we plan to address the so- called “island rule...Figure 1). The gliders occupied two lines perpendicular to shore on the east side of the island. In addition to the standard Sea- Bird CTD and...of island wake effects to observe the difference in the eddy field on either side of the island. IMPACT/APPLICATIONS All temperature and

  12. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  13. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

  14. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  15. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  16. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  17. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  18. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  19. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  20. Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

    2014-09-01

    Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

  1. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  2. Small population instability and island settlement patterns.

    PubMed

    Williamson, I; Sabath, M D

    1984-03-01

    This study used data from the Marshall Islands to examine the relationship between settlement pattern within an island group to the stability of potential population inhabiting those islands. It was hypothesized that extinction probability (based on island carrying capacity, frequency and amplitude of fluctuation in resources determining carrying capacity, and the net costs of contact and exchange between population units) will determine island settlement patterns, resulting in nonsettlement of islands with low carrying capacities and settlement of all islands with high carrying capacities. The Marshall Island group includes both settled and unsettled islands, and represents a homogeneous culture that has remained unchanged for many generations. The mesophytic index (rainfall x land area), used as an indicator of atoll human carrying capacity, was related to island settlement patterns. No atolls with mesophytic indices exceeding 2000 units were uninhabited, although 4 with values under 2000 units were inhabited, suggesting an overlap zone between inhabitable and uninhabitable islands. Population size and settlement existence were also related. Only 2 of 21 inhabited islands had populations below 100, and none of the uninhabited islands contained more than 78 individuals. These results may be of relevance to earlier atoll colonization patterns. The prerequisites for atoll colonization appear to have been colonizing groups exceeding 80 individuals, contact with an established population source, and a horticultural subsistence mode and maritime technology. It is concluded that small population instability should be considered in terms of the colonization process and settlement pattern of island groups.

  3. Glacially-megalineated limestone terrain of Anticosti Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada; onset zone of the Laurentian Channel Ice Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nick; Putkinen, Niko

    2014-03-01

    Anticosti is a large elongate island (240 km long, 60 km wide) in eastern Canada within the northern part of a deep water trough (Gulf of St. Lawrence) that terminates at the Atlantic continental shelf edge. The island's Pleistocene glaciological significance is that its long axis lay transverse to ice from the Quebec and Labrador sectors of the Laurentide Ice Sheet moving south from the relatively high-standing Canadian Shield. Recent glaciological reconstructions place a fast-flowing ice stream along the axis of the Gulf of St. Lawrence but supporting geologic evidence in terms of recognizing its hard-bedded onset zone and downstream streamlined soft bed is limited. Anticosti Island consists of gently southward-dipping limestone plains composed of Ordovician and Silurian limestones (Vaureal, Becscie and Jupiter formations) with north-facing escarpments transverse to regional ice flow. Glacial deposits are largely absent and limestone plains in the higher central plateau of the island retain a relict apparently ‘preglacial’ drainage system consisting of deeply-incised dendritic bedrock valleys. In contrast, the bedrock geomorphology of the lower lying western and eastern limestone plains of the island is strikingly different having been extensively modified by glacial erosion. Escarpments are glacially megalineated with a distinct ‘zig-zag’ planform reflecting northward-projecting bullet-shaped ‘noses’ (identified as rock drumlins) up to 2 km wide at their base and 4 km in length with rare megagrooved upper surfaces. Drumlins are separated by southward-closing, funnel-shaped ‘through valleys’ where former dendritic valleys have been extensively altered by the streaming of basal ice through gaps in the escarpments. Glacially-megalineated bedrock terrain such as on the western and eastern flanks of Anticosti Island is elsewhere associated with the hard-bedded onset zones of fast flowing ice streams and provides important ground truth for the

  4. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  5. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  6. Island morphologies in epitaxial growth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessinger, Uwe; Leskovar, M.; Rumaner, Lee; Ohuchi, Fumio; Olmstead, Marjorie A.; Ueno, Keiji; Koma, Atsushi

    1996-03-01

    Growth of epitaxial films commonly occurs through the coalescence of individual islands. The morphology of islands has therefore a key importance for the film qualities desired. A uniform layer-by-layer growth of the film is achieved when islands in the first layer coalesce to form a uniform layer before a second layer nucleates; a non-uniform multi-layer growth results from multiple layers successively nucleating on top of each other before the first layer coalesces. We developed a kinetic model based on an analytic solution of the diffusion equation between nucleation events to calculate the evolving island morphology during growth. The morphologies depend on deposition rate, substrate temperature, and activation energies for surface diffusion on the substrate and deposited material. By applying this theory to atomic force microscopy data of GaSe multi-layer islands, we extract a value for the activation energy for Ga diffusion across steps of GaSe. Supported by NSF Grant No. ECS-9209652, DOE Grant No. DE-FG06-94ER45516, and the Japanese New Energy Development Organization.

  7. A review of the contributions of fisheries and climate variability to contrasting dynamics in two Arcto-boreal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks: Persistent high productivity in the Barents Sea and collapse on the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, George R.; Nakken, Odd; Brattey, John

    2013-07-01

    Stocks of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) across the North Atlantic and adjacent seas have been fished intensively for years, and many are now severely depleted. In order to promote recovery and sustainable harvesting, it is essential to understand factors that have contributed to the declines and to variability in rates of recovery. Considerable insight may be gleaned by comparing and contrasting the histories of the Northeast Arctic (NEA) cod in the Barents Sea - Svalbard area of the northeast Atlantic and the “northern cod” on the Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) shelf in the northwest Atlantic. These two stocks, which were among the 3 largest cod stocks during the middle of the 20th century, are Arcto-boreal, and have many species of prey and predators in common. The biomass of NEA cod has varied considerably over time, and in 2009 was a little above 60% of its maximum observed level, which occurred in the late 1940s and early 1950s. In contrast, the biomass of NL cod decreased steadily from the early 1960s to the late 1970s, increased somewhat during the 1980s, and crashed during the early 1990s to an extremely low level, at which it remained for a decade before showing recent indications of improvement. Although both stocks were influenced by similar changes in harvesting strategies and environmental circumstances, both biotic and abiotic, there are two events which stand out as being particularly influential. First, crises developed in the management of both stocks in the late 1980s. For NEA cod, the crisis was environmental, caused by the collapse of capelin (Mallotus villosus), the main food for adult cod, whereas for NL cod the crisis was caused by a sudden large reduction in scientific perception of stock size. The difference in response to these crises strongly influenced subsequent stock dynamics. Catches of NEA cod were reduced considerably, preventing severe overharvesting of the cod that at that time experienced low productivity, whereas catches of NL

  8. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

  9. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo–West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  10. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  11. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    DOE PAGES

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturatedmore » island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.« less

  12. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  13. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  14. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  15. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-07-21

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands.

  16. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. 9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 103, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR PLAN. DATED APRIL 7, 1942. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR AFTER REMODELING INTO OFFICE SPACE. DATED FEBRUARY 13, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  10. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO SCALE CENTERED ON BUILDING (12/30/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  11. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST CORNER OF LOBBY OF BUILDING (12/29/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  12. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT NORTHWEST CORNER FROM ACROSS TARMAC (12/25/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  13. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHWEST CORNER OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST AT WEST FAÇADE WITH SCALE POLE (01/02/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  14. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT WEST SIDE SHOWING FLAG, GUN, ENGINES (12/29/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  15. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST CORNER FROM BEHIND CONTROL TOWER (12/28/2007) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  16. WEST SIDE OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST SIDE OF WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING NORTHEAST AT SOUTHWEST CORNER SHOWING OVERHANGS (01/02/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  17. 23. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. VERTICAL WESTINGHOUSE GENERATORS IN 1919 ADDITION. DATED FEBRUARY 19, 1919. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 160, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. Showcasing bioscience in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Spero, Denice

    2013-02-01

    There are a number of well-recognized bioscience companies located in the greater Providence area. They represent a significant and growing source of jobs and future revenue, which promises to play a role in the revitalization and expansion of Rhode Island's economy. In an effort to support these companies and to showcase their research, the Rhode Island Medical Journal is highlighting five of these innovative enterprises in this issue. The companies selected are members of the Rhode Island BioScience Leaders organization, and their research spans a wide range of science, from biologics and informatics to innovative coatings for medical devices. They include ProThera Biologics, EpiVax, Tivorsan Pharmaceuticals, BioIntraface, and VeroScience.

  19. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

  20. Recharge Data for Hawaii Island

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for Hawaii Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.

  1. The Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  2. Biodiversity on island chains: Neutral model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Patrick B.

    2010-11-01

    A neutral ecology model is simulated on an island chain, in which neighboring islands can exchange individuals but only the first island is able to receive immigrants from a metacommunity. It is found by several measures that α -diversity decreases along the chain. Subtle changes in taxon abundance distributions can be detected when islands in the chain are compared to diversity-matched single islands. The island chain is found to have unexpectedly rich dynamics. Significant β -diversity correlations are found between islands in the chain, which are absent between diversity-matched single islands. The results potentially apply to human microbial biodiversity and biogeography and suggest that measurements of interindividual and intraindividual β -diversity may give insights into microbial community assembly mechanisms.

  3. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  4. Libraries in Rhode Island: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/rhodeisland.html Libraries in Rhode Island To use the sharing features ... Island Hospital / a Lifespan Partner Peters Health Sciences Library 593 Eddy Street Providence, RI 02903-4971 401- ...

  5. Slope protection for artificial island

    SciTech Connect

    Czerniak, M.T.; Collins, J.I.; Shak, A.T.

    1981-08-01

    The technology under development to protect artificial-island production platforms from Arctic sea and ice damage involves three major considerations: (1) sea conditions during the ice-free season, (2) ice conditions during winter, and (3) construction constraints imposed by material availability, transportation problems, and length of the construction season. So far, researchers have evaluated 15 different slope-protection systems on the basis of reliability, construction-cost, and maintenance-cost factors, choosing 8 candidates for wave and ice model testing. The cases of interest involve exploration and production islands in shallow and deeper water applications.

  6. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  7. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank...

  8. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... (TACAN) System from the legal description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The U.S. Army notified the FAA that the Kwajalein TACAN was decommissioned....

  9. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank...

  10. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank...

  11. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank...

  12. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank...

  13. 77 FR 71531 - Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake... Lake Erie during the annual Kelley's Island Swim. This special local regulated area is necessary to... Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH in the Federal Register (77...

  14. 77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity... all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and immediately after the...

  15. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  16. Concepts for Functional Restoration of Barrier Islands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Frisian barrier islands to sea-level rise: An investigation of past and future evolution. Geomorphology 15, 57-65. Farley, P. P. 1923. Coney Island ...ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-74 September 2009 Concepts for Functional Restoration of Barrier Islands by Julie Dean Rosati PURPOSE: This Coastal and...Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) presents guid- ance for functional restoration of barrier islands . The concept of functional restoration

  17. Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaiian Island Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Pearl and Hermes Reef (28.0N, 176.0W) in the Hawaiian Island Chain, are seen with several small sandy islands, forming an atoll that caps a seamount on the long chain that extends some 1,500 miles northwestward from the more familiar Hawaiian Islands proper. Pearl and Hermes Reef lies about 100 miles southeast of Midway island. A reticulate network of coral patch reefs separates the lagoon into more or less isolated pools.

  18. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-15

    the potential for long-term sustainability are presented. Galveston Island is a 47 km long sand barrier island along the upper Texas coast (Figure...1 SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR GALVESTON ISLAND , TEXAS ASHLEY E. FREY1, ANDREW MORANG1, DAVID B. KING1, ROBERT C. THOMAS2 1. U.S. Army...Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The shoreline along the

  19. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  20. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  1. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  2. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  3. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  4. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  5. Rhododendron groenlandicum (Labrador tea), an antidiabetic plant from the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Canadian Eastern James Bay Cree, improves renal integrity in the diet-induced obese mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Shilin; Brault, Antoine; Sanchez Villavicencio, Mayra; Haddad, Pierre S

    2016-10-01

    Content Our team has identified Labrador tea [Rhododendron groenlandicum L. (Ericaceae)] as a potential antidiabetic plant from the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Eastern James Bay Cree. In a previous in vivo study, the plant extract was tested in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese model using C57BL/6 mice and it improved glycaemia, insulinaemia and glucose tolerance. Objective In the present study, we assessed the plant's potential renoprotective effects. Materials and methods Rhododendron groenlandicum was administered at 250 mg/kg/d to mice fed HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity and mild diabetes. Histological (periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Masson and Oil Red O staining), immunohistochemical (IHC) and biochemical parameters were assessed to evaluate the renoprotective potential of R. groenlandicum treatment for an additional 8 weeks. Results Microalbuminuria and renal fibrosis were developed in HFD-fed mice. Meanwhile, there was a tendency for R. groenlandicum to improve microalbuminuria, with the values of albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) reducing from 0.69 to 0.53. Renal fibrosis value was originally 4.85 arbitrary units (AU) in HFD-fed mice, dropped to 3.27 AU after receiving R. groenlandicum treatment. Rhododendron groenlandicum reduced renal steatosis by nearly one-half, whereas the expression of Bcl-2-modifying factor (BMF) diminished from 13.96 AU to 9.43 AU. Discussion and conclusions Taken altogether, the results suggest that R. groenlandicum treatment can improve renal function impaired by HFD.

  6. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  7. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  8. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1...

  9. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt...

  10. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary and Secondary) Designated area Does not meet... Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1 X Remainder of AQCR X 1 EPA designation replaces...

  11. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  12. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt...

  13. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1...

  14. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  15. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1...

  16. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  17. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt...

  18. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1...

  19. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt...

  20. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt...

  1. The island-mainland species turnover relationship.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B; Algar, Adam C

    2012-10-07

    Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M-M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland-island (M-I) and island-island (I-I) species turnover with predictions of the M-M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M-M model should successfully predict M-I and I-I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M-I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I-I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland-island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts.

  2. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  3. Pleistocene glaciation on st. George, pribilof islands.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, D M; Einarsson, T

    1966-04-15

    A small ice cap (covering about 12 square kilometers) and at least two-probably four-cirque glaciers (each covering less than 1 square kilometer) occurred on St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, probably during the Illinoian; Glaciation. Snowbanks persisted during a later cold cycle, probably during the Wisconsin Glaciation, with no glaciers existing. We found no evidence of glaciation on other Pribilof islands.

  4. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  5. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  6. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  7. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″...

  8. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  9. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  15. Chaos in easter island ecology.

    PubMed

    Sprott, J C

    2011-10-01

    This paper demonstrates that a recently proposed dynamical model for the ecology of Easter Island admits periodic and chaotic attractors, not previously reported. Such behavior may more realistically depict the population dynamics of general ecosystems and illustrates the power of simple models to produce the kind of complex behavior that is ubiquitous in such systems.

  16. HISTORIC WETLANDS OF PRUDENCE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten wetland sites around Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island have been selected for a multidisciplinary study. These wetland sites are being studied to develop indicators of "wetland health." The study includes assessing the ecological conditions of the wetlands in the past, and the c...

  17. Birds are islands for parasites.

    PubMed

    Koop, Jennifer A H; DeMatteo, Karen E; Parker, Patricia G; Whiteman, Noah K

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host-parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites.

  18. The Manitoulin Island Space Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Dianna

    1991-01-01

    Describes a space education program in rural Manitoulin Island, Ontario. Reports that gifted and talented students examined space exploration, built models, met with astronauts, and designed multimedia presentations. Explains that the students also hosted a one-day conference on space for students, teachers, and parents and later visited…

  19. Barrier island bistability induced by biophysical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

    2015-02-01

    Barrier islands represent about 10% of the world’s coastline, sustain rich ecosystems, host valuable infrastructure and protect mainland coasts from storms. Future climate-change-induced increases in the intensity and frequency of major hurricanes and accelerations in sea-level rise will have a significant impact on barrier islands--leading to increased coastal hazards and flooding--yet our understanding of island response to external drivers remains limited. Here, we find that island response is intrinsically bistable and controlled by previously unrecognized dynamics: the competing, and quantifiable, effects of storm erosion, sea-level rise, and the aeolian and biological processes that enable and drive dune recovery. When the biophysical processes driving dune recovery dominate, islands tend to be high in elevation and vulnerability to storms is minimized. Alternatively, when the effects of storm erosion dominate, islands may become trapped in a perpetual state of low elevation and maximum vulnerability to storms, even under mild storm conditions. When sea-level rise dominates, islands become unstable and face possible disintegration. This quantification of barrier island dynamics is supported by data from the Virginia Barrier Islands, USA and provides a broader context for considering island response to climate change and the likelihood of potentially abrupt transitions in island state.

  20. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, John

    2011-08-16

    The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  1. Island-finding ability of marine turtles.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Akesson, Susanne; Broderick, Annette C; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J; Papi, Floriano; Luschi, Paolo

    2003-08-07

    Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) swim from foraging grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic. To test the hypothesis that turtles use wind-borne cues to locate Ascension Island we found turtles that had just completed nesting and then moved three individuals 50 km northwest (downwind) of the island and three individuals 50 km southeast (upwind). Their subsequent movements were tracked by satellite. Turtles released downwind returned to Ascension Island within 1, 2 and 4 days, respectively. By contrast, those released upwind had far more difficulty in relocating Ascension Island, two eventually returning after 10 and 27 days and the third heading back to Brazil after failing to find its way back to the island. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that wind-borne cues are used by turtles to locate Ascension Island.

  2. Worldwide patterns of bird colouration on islands.

    PubMed

    Doutrelant, Claire; Paquet, Matthieu; Renoult, Julien P; Grégoire, Arnaud; Crochet, Pierre-André; Covas, Rita

    2016-05-01

    Island environments share distinctive characteristics that offer unique opportunities to investigate parallel evolution. Previous research has produced evidence of an island syndrome for morphological traits, life-history strategies and ecological niches, but little is known about the response to insularity of other important traits such as animal signals. Here, we tested whether birds' plumage colouration is part of the island syndrome. We analysed with spectrophotometry the colouration of 116 species endemic to islands and their 116 closest mainland relatives. We found a pattern of reduced brightness and colour intensity for both sexes on islands. In addition, we found a decrease in the number of colour patches on islands that, in males, was associated with a decrease in the number of same-family sympatric species. These results demonstrate a worldwide pattern of parallel colour changes on islands and suggest that a relaxation of selection on species recognition may be one of the mechanisms involved.

  3. Island-finding ability of marine turtles.

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Graeme C; Akesson, Susanne; Broderick, Annette C; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J; Papi, Floriano; Luschi, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) swim from foraging grounds along the Brazilian coast to Ascension Island to nest, over 2200 km distant in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic. To test the hypothesis that turtles use wind-borne cues to locate Ascension Island we found turtles that had just completed nesting and then moved three individuals 50 km northwest (downwind) of the island and three individuals 50 km southeast (upwind). Their subsequent movements were tracked by satellite. Turtles released downwind returned to Ascension Island within 1, 2 and 4 days, respectively. By contrast, those released upwind had far more difficulty in relocating Ascension Island, two eventually returning after 10 and 27 days and the third heading back to Brazil after failing to find its way back to the island. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that wind-borne cues are used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. PMID:12952621

  4. Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pytlinski, J.T. )

    1992-01-01

    All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

  5. Generalized water-table map of Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, H.E.; Veeger, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The map shows the altitude of water table surface above seal level in the glacial deposits that form Block Island. Because the sediments are only moderately permeable, the water table is close to the to the surface in most parts of the island, even in hilly areas. The map represents a generalized water-table configuration on the basis of data from many different sampling periods; because the data were collected at different times, they should not be used to determine a specific depth to water at a particular site. Water levels measured in 117 shallow wells (less than 35 feet deep) from June through September 1962 and from March through September 1988-90--periods when water levels were at about the same altitude above sea level--ranged from less than 1 to 24 feet below land surface and averaged about 6 feet below land surface.

  6. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  7. Threats to avifauna on oceanic islands.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Heather S; Skibiel, Amy L; Karels, Tim J; Dobson, F Stephen

    2007-02-01

    Results of the study by Blackburn et al. (2004a) of avifauna on oceanic islands suggest that distance from the mainland and time since European colonization have major influences on species extinctions and that island area is a significant but secondary contributing factor. After augmenting the data of the study on geographical properties for some of the islands they examined, we used a causal analysis approach with structural equation modeling to reexamine their conclusions. In our model geographical properties of islands, such as island area and isolation, were considered constraints on biological factors, such as the number of introduced mammalian predators and existing number of avifauna, that can directly or indirectly influence extinction. Of the variables we tested, island area had the greatest total influence on the threat of extinction due to its direct and indirect effects on the size of island avifauna. Larger islands had both a greater number of threatened bird species and more avifauna, increasing the number of species that could become threatened with extinction. Island isolation also had a significant, positive, and direct effect on threats to island avifauna because islands farther from the mainland had fewer current extant avifauna. Time since European colonization had a significant negative, but relatively weaker, influence on threats compared with the traditional biogeographic factors of island area and distance to the mainland. We also tested the hypothesis that the amount of threat is proportionally lower on islands that have had more extinctions (i.e., there is a "filter effect"). Because the proportion of bird extinctions potentially explained only 2.3% of the variation in the proportion of threatened species on islands, our results did not support this hypothesis. Causal modeling provided a powerful tool for examining threat of extinction patterns of known and hypothesized pathways of influence.

  8. Inverter Anti-Islanding with Advanced Grid Support in Single- and Multi-Inverter Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Hoke, Andy

    2016-08-16

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.

  9. Modeling Study for Tangier Island Jetties, Tangier Island, Virginia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    8 6 1.5.1 Task 1. Metocean forcing (winds, waves, tides, currents, water levels) Because Tangier Island is not exposed to open ocean waves...Rubble- Mound Breakwater Heads,” J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Eng, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 114-122. Zundel, A. K. (2006). Surface- Water Modeling...environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental

  10. Hydrogeology and water resources of Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veeger, A.I.; Johnston, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is present on Block Island as a lens of freshwater that overlies saltwater. Yields of 2 to 5 gallons per minute are obtainable throughout the island, and yields of 25 gallons per minute are possible at many wells. Annual water use during 1990 is estimated to have been 53 million gallons, of which approximately 17 million gallons was delivered from a water company at Sands Pond. Demand by water company customers from May through October averages 74,000 gallons per day. The sustainable yield of Sands Pond during the drought years estimated to be only 45,000 gallons per day. Withdrawal of the remaining 29,000 gallons per day from Fresh Pond, proposed as an alternative source, would produce an estimated water-level decline of less than 1 foot. Block Island consists of a Pleistocene moraine deposit that includes meltwater deposits, till, sediment-flow deposits, and glacially transported blocks of Cretaceous strata and pre-Late Wisconsinan glacial deposits. The water table is a subdued reflection of the land-surface topography and flow is generally from the central, topographic highs toward the coast. Layers of low hydraulic- conductivity material impede vertical flow, creating steep vertical gradients. No evidence of widespread ground-water contamination was found during this study. Nitrate concentrations were below Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels at each of the 83 sites sampled. No evidence of dissolved organic constituents was found in groundwater at the 10 sites sampled, and ground-water samples collected near the landfill showed no evidence of contamination from landfill leachate. Dissolved-iron concentrations exceeded the Federal Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level in groundwater at 26 of 76 wells sampled. High iron concentrations were found predominantly in the eastern and northern parts of the island and are attributed to the presence of iron-bearing minerals and organic matter in the aquifer.

  11. Prediction of genomic islands in seven human pathogens using the Z-Island method.

    PubMed

    Wei, W; Guo, F-B

    2011-10-05

    We adopted the method of Zhang and Zhang (the Z-Island method) to identify genomic islands in seven human pathogens, analyzing their chromosomal DNA sequences. The Z-Island method is a theoretical method for predicting genomic islands in bacterial genomes; it consists of determination of the cumulative GC profile and computation of codon usage bias. Thirty-one genomic islands were found in seven pathogens using this method. Further analysis demonstrated that most have the known conserved features; this increases the probability that they are real genomic islands. Eleven genomic islands were found to code for products involved in causing disease (virulence factors) or in resistance to antibiotics (resistance factors). This finding could be useful for research on the pathogenicity of these bacteria and helpful in the treatment of the diseases that they cause. In a comparison of the distribution of mobility elements in genomic islands predicted by different methods, the Z-Island method gave lower false-positive rates. The Z-Island method was found to detect more known genomic islands than the two methods that we compared it with, SIGI-HMM and IslandPick. Furthermore, it maintained a better balance between specificity and sensitivity. The only inconvenience is that the steps for finding genomic islands by the Z-Island method are semi-automatic.

  12. Marine aerosol source regions to Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, and influence from the tropical Pacific, 1979-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criscitiello, Alison S.; Marshall, Shawn J.; Evans, Matthew J.; Kinnard, Christophe; Norman, Ann-Lise; Sharp, Martin J.

    2016-08-01

    Using a coastal ice core collected from Prince of Wales (POW) Icefield on Ellesmere Island, we investigate source regions of sea ice-modulated chemical species (methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and chloride (Cl-)) to POW Icefield and the influence of large-scale atmospheric variability on the transport of these marine aerosols (1979-2001). Our key findings are (1) MSA in the POW Icefield core is derived primarily from productivity in the sea ice zone of Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea, with influence from waters within the North Water (NOW) polynya, (2) sea ice formation processes within the NOW polynya may be a significant source of sea-salt aerosols to the POW core site, in addition to offshore open water source regions primarily in Hudson Bay, and (3) the tropical Pacific influences the source and transport of marine aerosols to POW Icefield through its remote control on regional winds and sea ice variability. Regression analyses during times of MSA deposition reveal sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies favorable for opening of the NOW polynya and subsequent oceanic dimethyl sulfide production. Regression analyses during times of Cl- deposition reveal SLP anomalies that indicate a broader oceanic region of sea-salt sources to the core site. These results are supported by Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer- and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager-based sea ice reconstructions and air mass transport density analyses and suggest that the marine biogenic record may capture local polynya variability, while sea-salt transport to the site from larger offshore source regions in Baffin Bay is likely. Regression analyses show a link to tropical dynamics via an atmospheric Rossby wave.

  13. Island biology: looking towards the future

    PubMed Central

    Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R.; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2014-01-01

    Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014—an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7–11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries1—demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements. PMID:25339655

  14. Island biology: looking towards the future.

    PubMed

    Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2014-10-01

    Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014-an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7-11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries(1)-demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements.

  15. Tsunami damage along the Andaman Islands coasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Among the first places to be affected by the massive tidal wave that ripped across the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, were the Andaman Islands. Located approximately 850 kilometers north of the epicenter of the earthquake that triggered the tsunami, the islands were not only among the first land masses to be swept under the wave, they have also been rattled by a series of aftershocks. Administrated by the Indian government, about 300,000 people live on the remote island chain, including several indigenous tribes. As of January 3, over 6,000 were confirmed dead or missing in the Andaman Islands. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the Andaman Islands on January 3, 2005. Compared to previous images of the islands, the beaches along the west side of the islands have been stripped bare, leaving a strip of bright tan land along the coast. The change is most notable on North Sentinel Island, home of the Sentinelese aboriginals, and on Interview Island, where the formerly green coastline has been replaced with an abnormally bright ring of bare sand. The large image reveals additional damage along all the islands of the Andaman chain.

  16. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  17. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    would quickly sweep away any pollutant emissions. Therefore, no impacts are anticipated. Construction of the concrete storage pads would be...contain carbon monoxide (CO), a criteria pollutant under the Clean Air Act for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), have been... pollutants and the resulting air quality. The climate is maritime and chiefly controlled by the easterly trade winds, which dominate the island

  18. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  19. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  20. Processes of barrier island erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Sallenger, A.H. Jr. ); Williams, S.J. )

    1989-09-01

    During 1986, the US Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a 5-year study of the processes causing the extreme rates (up to 20 m/year) of erosion of Louisiana's barrier islands. These processes must be better understood in order to predict future erosion and to assess management and erosion mitigation plans. The study is divided into three parts: the geologic development of barrier islands, the critical processes leading to erosion, and applications of results. This paper provides an overview of the part of the study on critical processes. The process part includes modeling erosion of the barrier islands due to sea level rise, the net loss of sand offshore, gradients in longshore transport, and overwash. Evidence indicates that the low-lying barrier beaches on much of the Louisiana coast do not approach an equilibrium configuration. These beaches, which, in many places, are not protected by dunes, are overwashed even during moderate storms and apparently are not evolving to a configuration that limits overwash. As a result, even with stable sea level, the beaches will continue to overwash and migrate landward during storms. Commonly used methods of modeling beach response to rising sea level assume beaches approach an equilibrium configuration, hence applying these methods to coastal Louisiana is problematical.

  1. Detrital carbonate peaks on the Labrador shelf, a 13-7 ka template for freshwater forcing from the Hudson Strait outlet of the Laurentide Ice Sheet into the subpolar gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John; Pearce, Christof; Wilson, Lindsay; Ólfasdótttir, Sædís

    2015-01-01

    The Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) was a large, dynamic ice sheet in the early Holocene. The glacial events through Hudson Strait leading to its eventual demise are recorded in the well-dated Labrador shelf core, MD99-2236 from the Cartwright Saddle. We develop a detailed history of the timing of ice-sheet discharge events from the Hudson Strait outlet of the LIS during the Holocene using high-resolution detrital carbonate, ice rafted detritus (IRD), δ18O, and sediment color data. Eight detrital carbonate peaks (DCPs) associated with IRD peaks and light oxygen isotope events punctuate the MD99-2236 record between 11.5 and 8.0 ka. We use the stratigraphy of the DCPs developed from MD99-2236 to select the appropriate ΔR to calibrate the ages of recorded glacial events in Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait such that they match the DCPs in MD99-2236. We associate the eight DCPs with H0, Gold Cove advance, Noble Inlet advance, initial retreat of the Hudson Strait ice stream (HSIS) from Hudson Strait, opening of the Tyrrell Sea, and drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. The opening of Foxe Channel and retreat of glacial ice from Foxe Basin are represented by a shoulder in the carbonate data. ΔR of 350 years applied to the radiocarbon ages constraining glacial events H0 through the opening of the Tyrell Sea provided the best match with the MD99-2236 DCPs; ΔR values and ages from the literature are used for the younger events. A very close age match was achieved between the 8.2 ka cold event in the Greenland ice cores, DCP7 (8.15 ka BP), and the drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway. Our stratigraphic comparison between the DCPs in MD99-2236 and the calibrated ages of Hudson Strait/Bay deglacial events shows that the retreat of the HSIS, the opening of the Tyrell Sea, and the catastrophic drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway at 8.2 ka are separate events that have been combined in previous estimates of the timing of the 8.2 ka event from marine records

  2. A statistical model of magnetic islands in a current layer

    SciTech Connect

    Fermo, R. L.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2010-01-15

    This letter describes a statistical model of the dynamics of magnetic islands in very large current layers that develop in space plasma. Two parameters characterize the island distribution: the flux psi contained in the island and the area A it encloses. The integrodifferential evolution equation for this distribution function is based on rules that govern the small-scale generation of secondary islands, the rates of island growth, and island merging. The numerical solutions of this equation produce island distributions relevant to the magnetosphere and solar corona. The solution of a differential equation for large islands explicitly shows the role merging plays in island growth.

  3. S saturation history of Nain Plutonic Suite mafic intrusions: origin of the Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightfoot, Peter C.; Keays, Reid R.; Evans-Lamswood, Dawn; Wheeler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    ores have higher Ni and Pd tenor than the Eastern Deeps massive sulfides; this is consistent with both a higher R factor and greater degree of silicate parental magma evolution in the Ovoid than the Eastern Deeps. The disseminated sulfides surrounding the Eastern Deeps deposit have some of the highest Ni and Pd tenors at Voisey's Bay, which are indicative of not only more primitive magmas but also higher R factors than the Ovoid or the Eastern Deeps. VTT and normal-textured troctolite of the Eastern Deeps that contain trace sulfide have 0.1-3 ppb Pt and 0.1-3 ppb Pd, whereas weakly to heavily mineralized variable troctolites in the same unit have one to two orders of magnitude higher abundances of Pt and Pd. Troctolites and olivine gabbros from other parts of the Voisey's Bay Intrusion and other Nain Plutonic Suite Intrusions, including the Kiglapait, Newark Bay, Barth Island, Mushua, and Nain Bay South Intrusion, also have low platinum group element abundances. Although it is possible that this is a signature of a widespread sulfide saturation event that pre-dated ore formation at Voisey's Bay, it is more likely that platinum group element (PGE) depletion is a product of the source melting process where low degrees of melting resulted in the retention of PGE in the mantle source. If so, this indicates that PGE depletion should be used with caution as an exploration tool in the Nain Plutonic Suite.

  4. 36 CFR 7.12 - Gulf Islands National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... land surfaces; any estuary, lagoon, pond or tidal flat; or any waters temporarily covering a beach... Seashore except in the following closed areas: (i) The lakes, ponds, lagoons and inlets of Cat Island, East Ship Island, West Ship Island, Horn Island, and Petit Bois Island; (ii) The lagoons of Perdido...

  5. 36 CFR 7.12 - Gulf Islands National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... land surfaces; any estuary, lagoon, pond or tidal flat; or any waters temporarily covering a beach... Seashore except in the following closed areas: (i) The lakes, ponds, lagoons and inlets of Cat Island, East Ship Island, West Ship Island, Horn Island, and Petit Bois Island; (ii) The lagoons of Perdido...

  6. 36 CFR 7.12 - Gulf Islands National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... land surfaces; any estuary, lagoon, pond or tidal flat; or any waters temporarily covering a beach... Seashore except in the following closed areas: (i) The lakes, ponds, lagoons and inlets of Cat Island, East Ship Island, West Ship Island, Horn Island, and Petit Bois Island; (ii) The lagoons of Perdido...

  7. 36 CFR 7.12 - Gulf Islands National Seashore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... land surfaces; any estuary, lagoon, pond or tidal flat; or any waters temporarily covering a beach... Seashore except in the following closed areas: (i) The lakes, ponds, lagoons and inlets of Cat Island, East Ship Island, West Ship Island, Horn Island, and Petit Bois Island; (ii) The lagoons of Perdido...

  8. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS, BEFORE REMOVAL OF CHIMNEY, FINIALS, GINGERBREAD, AND VARIEGATED SLATE ROOFING. DATED C. 1876. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 321, Rodman Avenue & Rock Island Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  10. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  11. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  12. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  13. 32 CFR 935.60 - Wake Island Judicial Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wake Island Judicial Authority. 935.60 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.60 Wake Island Judicial Authority. (a) The judicial authority under this part is vested in the Wake Island Court and the Wake Island Court of Appeals. (b)...

  14. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  15. Deer Island Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    http://geology.deq.state.ms.us/coastal/NOAA_DATA/ Publications/Presentations/ Harrison /MAS_DeerIslandGeology_Pres.pdf. Accessed 2 February 2013. U.S... Harrison County, Mississippi. USACE, Mobile District (USACE SAM). 2010. Post-Authorization Change Report - Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration, Deer Island... Harrison County, Mississippi. USACE, Mobile District (USACE SAM). 2013. Design Documentation Report – Deer Island Breach Repair and Planting, Harrison County, Mississippi.

  16. Island-Trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    from the government of Palau to allow us to deliver some water and food to the officers. Governor Patris of Hatohobei State and the Coral Reef ...black. 4 0.5 m s−1 Merir Helen Reef 0 to 200 m 131 131.5 132 132.5 133 133.5 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 Figure 5: The NECC’s depth-mean eastward currents...flow by Helen Reef and Merir Island were noted between the 2013 and 2014 cruises and even between repeated surveys on each cruise. While some

  17. The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. ); Handley, L. ); Michot, T. ); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

  18. Molecular Evolutionary Consequences of Island Colonization

    PubMed Central

    James, Jennifer E.; Lanfear, Robert; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Island endemics are expected to have low effective population sizes (Ne), first because some may experience population bottlenecks when they are founded, and second because they have restricted ranges. Therefore, we expect island species to have reduced genetic diversity, inefficient selection, and reduced adaptive potential compared with their mainland counterparts. We used both polymorphism and substitution data to address these predictions, improving on the approach of recent studies that only used substitution data. This allowed us to directly test the assumption that island species have small values of Ne. We found that island species had significantly less genetic diversity than mainland species; however, this pattern could be attributed to a subset of island species that appeared to have undergone a recent population bottleneck. When these species were excluded from the analysis, island and mainland species had similar levels of genetic diversity, despite island species occupying considerably smaller areas than their mainland counterparts. We also found no overall difference between island and mainland species in terms of the effectiveness of selection or the mutation rate. Our evidence suggests that island colonization has no lasting impact on molecular evolution. This surprising result highlights gaps in our knowledge of the relationship between census and effective population size. PMID:27358424

  19. Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer

    Long, Chuck

    2010-07-15

    During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data

  20. Quantifying Barrier Island Recovery Following a Hurricane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, B.; Houser, C.

    2014-12-01

    Barrier islands are dynamic landscapes that are believed to minimize storm impact to mainland communities and also provide important ecological services in the coastal environment. The protection afforded by the island and the services it provides, however, depend on island resiliency in the face of accelerated sea level rise, which is in turn dependent on the rate of island recovery following storm events that may also change in both frequency and magnitude in the future. These changes in frequency may affect even large dunes and their resiliency, resulting in the island transitioning from a high to a low elevation. Previous research has shown that the condition of the foredune depends on the recovery of the nearshore and beach profile and the ability of vegetation to capture aeolian-transported sediment. An inability of the foredune to recover may result in mainland susceptibility to storm energy, inability for ecosystems to recover and thrive, and sediment budget instability. In this study, LiDAR data is used to quantify the rates of dune recovery at Fire Island, NY, the Outer Banks, NC, Santa Rosa Island, FL, and Matagorda Island, TX. Preliminary results indicate foredune recovery varies significantly both alongshore and in the cross-shore, suggesting that barrier island response and recovery to storm events cannot be considered from a strictly two-dimensional (cross-shore) perspective.

  1. Molecular Evolutionary Consequences of Island Colonization.

    PubMed

    James, Jennifer E; Lanfear, Robert; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2016-07-02

    Island endemics are expected to have low effective population sizes (Ne), first because some may experience population bottlenecks when they are founded, and second because they have restricted ranges. Therefore, we expect island species to have reduced genetic diversity, inefficient selection, and reduced adaptive potential compared with their mainland counterparts. We used both polymorphism and substitution data to address these predictions, improving on the approach of recent studies that only used substitution data. This allowed us to directly test the assumption that island species have small values of Ne We found that island species had significantly less genetic diversity than mainland species; however, this pattern could be attributed to a subset of island species that appeared to have undergone a recent population bottleneck. When these species were excluded from the analysis, island and mainland species had similar levels of genetic diversity, despite island species occupying considerably smaller areas than their mainland counterparts. We also found no overall difference between island and mainland species in terms of the effectiveness of selection or the mutation rate. Our evidence suggests that island colonization has no lasting impact on molecular evolution. This surprising result highlights gaps in our knowledge of the relationship between census and effective population size.

  2. Dendrochronology of Strain-Relaxed Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Merdzhanova, T.; Kiravittaya, S.; Rastelli, A.; Stoffel, M.; Denker, U.; Schmidt, O.G.

    2006-06-09

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes.

  3. Dendrochronology of strain-relaxed islands.

    PubMed

    Merdzhanova, T; Kiravittaya, S; Rastelli, A; Stoffel, M; Denker, U; Schmidt, O G

    2006-06-09

    We report on the observation and study of tree-ring structures below dislocated SiGe islands (superdomes) grown on Si(001) substrates. Analogous to the study of tree rings (dendrochronology), these footprints enable us to gain unambiguous information on the growth and evolution of superdomes and their neighboring islands. The temperature dependence of the critical volume for dislocation introduction is measured and related to the composition of the islands. We show clearly that island coalescence is the dominant pathway towards dislocation nucleation at low temperatures, while at higher temperatures anomalous coarsening is effective and leads to the formation of a depletion region around superdomes.

  4. Recovering endemic plants of the Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    At the California Channel Islands, off the state’s southern coast, cold waters from the north mix with warmer waters from the south. Each of the eight Channel Islands, which were never connected to the mainland, developed unique floras as colonizing plants adapted to their new island homes. This part of California is one of only five Mediterranean climate regions in the world, characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Thus, the islands support a truly unusual assemblage of plants and animals found nowhere else.

  5. Climate change: Effects on reef island resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1988-06-27

    The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

  6. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  7. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  8. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  9. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  10. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  11. 33 CFR 80.712 - Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... westernmost extremity of Bull Point on Capers Island to Port Royal Sound Channel Range Rear Light, latitude 32... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Morris Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 80.712 Section 80.712 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. Imagery and Imaginary of Islander Identity: Older People and Migration in Irish Small-Island Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas; Walsh, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the imagery and imaginaries of islander identity and makes an original contribution to the fields of gerontology and nissology. Drawing on data collected through in-depth interviews with 19 older residents of two small-island communities located off the island of Ireland, we address the central roles played by older people in…

  13. 78 FR 35135 - Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake... Kelley's Island Swim from. This special local regulated area is necessary to protect swimmers from vessel... Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie, Lakeside, OH, which was published in the December 3, 2012,...

  14. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted Whistle... southernmost extremity of Kiawah Island to latitude 32°31′ N. longitude 80°07.8′ W. (North Edisto River Entrance Lighted Whistle Buoy “2NE”); thence to Botany Bay Island in approximate position latitude...

  15. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted Whistle... southernmost extremity of Kiawah Island to latitude 32°31′ N. longitude 80°07.8′ W. (North Edisto River Entrance Lighted Whistle Buoy “2NE”); thence to Botany Bay Island in approximate position latitude...

  16. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted Whistle... southernmost extremity of Kiawah Island to latitude 32°31′ N. longitude 80°07.8′ W. (North Edisto River Entrance Lighted Whistle Buoy “2NE”); thence to Botany Bay Island in approximate position latitude...

  17. Hydrogeology of the Galapagos Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ozouville, N.; Pryet, A.; Violette, S.; de Marsily, G.; Deffontaines, B.; Auken, E.

    2010-12-01

    Due to the heterogeneity of geological formations, volcanic islands present complex and contrasting hydrogeological settings. A young discipline in the Galapagos, hydrogeology requires an understanding of geology, geomorphology, climate and hydrology. Throughout history, navigators, scientists and inhabitants noted the lack of surface freshwater; and water availability limited settlement of the islands. Today, this limitation is overcome through groundwater exploitation and expensive desalination, fed by economic growth. This shift has freed the field of hydrogeology from the existing premise of water being the principal drive for human development. Within this context, our approach is to lead a pluri-disciplinary research to characterize Galapagos hydrogeology. It involves a long-term commitment with international, national and local partners. Field investigations conducted on the inhabited islands of Santa Cruz, San Cristobal, Isabela and Floreana reveal three types of aquifers. A low-lying basal aquifer outcrops on Santa Cruz and Isabela. Due to the high permeability of fractured shield series forming coastal aprons, intruding sea water mixes with discharging freshwater, and confers a high salt content to groundwater. In order to characterize the hydraulic properties of this aquifer, the propagation of the tidal signal into the basal aquifer has been investigated through piezometric monitoring in three open coastal fractures and the deep well on Santa Cruz. Springs are scarce in the Archipelago, but have been identified historically on Santa Cruz and Floreana, located on the flanks of volcanic cones, and fed by small perched aquifers. On San Cristobal, high-level aquifers feed springs on the southern mountainside that contribute to a network of permanent rivers that reach the sea, a unique feature in the whole archipelago. They are independent from El Junco, a unique summital freshwater, and semi-endoreic lake. Internal resistivity structure of Santa Cruz and

  18. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  19. 16. Photocopy of illustration from Rattray, Jeannette Edwards, Gardiner's Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of illustration from Rattray, Jeannette Edwards, Gardiner's Island, East Hampton, 1958; Photograph by Morton Pennypacker of painting MANOR HOUSE, GARDINER'S ISLAND, 1639 - Gardiner's Island Windmill, Napeague, Suffolk County, NY

  20. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  1. 82. Map of Analostan Island from Map of the City ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. Map of Analostan Island from Map of the City of Washington by Robert King Plate No. 1 - General John Mason House, Analostan Island or Theodore Roosevelt Island, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 8. JAMESTOWN ISLAND LOOP ROAD, VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF WINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. JAMESTOWN ISLAND LOOP ROAD, VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF WINE MAKING SIGN (STOP 5). NOTE WICKET MADE OF VINES IN FOREGROUND. - Jamestown Island Loop Road, Jamestown Island, Jamestown, James City County, VA

  3. 6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest Pumpkin Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  4. 26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department of Public Finance, Real Estate Owned by the City of New York under Jurisdiction of the Department of Public Charities, 1909.) - Island Hospital, Roosevelt Island, New York County, NY

  5. Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

  6. Karst aquifers on small islands--the island of Olib, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Tatjana; Munda, Boris

    2012-10-01

    Water supply is a major problem in the Adriatic islands, especially during the summer tourism season, and represents a limiting factor to the islands' further economic development. Much attention has been given to water supply solutions, primarily in terms of attempting to use the existing island water. Unfortunately, few islands have favourable hydrological conditions to accumulate significant quantities of surface water or groundwater. In the period from 2001 to 2004, investigations were conducted on many islands to define their own freshwater or partially brackish water resources since desalinisation technology could resolve a significant part of the water supply demand on small and distant islands. Due to the specificity and complexity of research in karst areas, the study was conducted in phases and included the geological and hydrogeological reconnaissance of the island, aimed at locating possible areas on the island where the necessary quantities of groundwater of adequate quality could be captured; a detailed hydrogeological mapping of the specified areas, geophysical investigation and test drilling; and, over several days, test pumping of the most promising borehole. One of the islands investigated was the island of Olib. The conducted surveys indicated that it is possible to pump about 3.5 L/s of groundwater from the karst aquifer of the island of Olib, which fully complies with the sanitary quality of drinking water.

  7. Effects of magnetic islands on drift wave instability

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, P.; Lin, Z. Holod, I.; Xiao, C.

    2014-12-15

    Magnetic islands have been implemented in the gyrokinetic toroidal code to study the effects of the islands on microturbulence. The pressure profile flattening is verified in the simulation with the islands. Simulations of ion temperature gradient instability find that different toroidal modes are linearly coupled together and that toroidal spectra become broader when the island width increases. The real frequencies and growth rates of different toroidal modes approach each other with the averaged value independent of the island width. The linear mode structures are enhanced at the island separatrices and weakened at the island centers, consistent with the flattening of the pressure profile inside the islands.

  8. Long Island Sound Curricular Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Diana, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Long Island Sound is an estuary of national significance and provides important economic, recreational, and aesthetic value to the citizens of Connecticut and New York. Investigations have been conducted regarding living marine resources and nutrient loading. However, Long Island Sound is often overlooked as an educational resource. This guide is…

  9. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  10. Kaskaskia Island Drainage and Levee District, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    Kaskaskia Island because of its association with man. It produces a painful bite which is very slow to heal. The black widow spider, Latrodectus ... mactans (Fabricius) also prefers upland forest situations, but may be a possible inhabitant of the island. Two ticks, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), the

  11. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    PubMed Central

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. Results: More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990–1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion: The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.) PMID:25353012

  12. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  13. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  14. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  15. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  16. Sustainable Living on the Tiwi Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burne, Cris; McKaige, Barbie

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on how the people of the Tiwi Islands (which lie in the Arafura Sea located off the coast of Darwin in Australia's Northern Territory) have carefully observed the rhythms and patterns of their country, developing a complex and precise way of living sustainably in their island environment. In 2015, the Tiwi people shared their…

  17. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  18. Cyclic Linearization and Island Repair in Sluicing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Chunan

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic Linearization is adopted to account for the island repair of Sluicing in English. The extraction of wh-phrase out of certain islands undergoes non-successive-cyclic movement, which yields conflicting ordering statements. The derivation can be rescued by deleting all ordering statements in IP, including those conflicting ones. Two arguments…

  19. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  20. Early hominin biogeography in Island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Larick, Roy; Ciochon, Russell L

    2015-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia covers Eurasia's tropical expanse of continental shelf and active subduction zones. Cutting between island landmasses, Wallace's Line separates Sunda and the Eastern Island Arc (the Arc) into distinct tectonic and faunal provinces. West of the line, on Sunda, Java Island yields many fossils of Homo erectus. East of the line, on the Arc, Flores Island provides one skeleton and isolated remains of Homo floresiensis. Luzon Island in the Philippines has another fossil hominin. Sulawesi preserves early hominin archeology. This insular divergence sets up a unique regional context for early hominin dispersal, isolation, and extinction. The evidence is reviewed across three Pleistocene climate periods. Patterns are discussed in relation to the pulse of global sea-level shifts, as well as regional geo-tectonics, catastrophes, stegodon dispersal, and paleogenomics. Several patterns imply evolutionary processes typical of oceanic islands. Early hominins apparently responded to changing island conditions for a million-and-a-half years, likely becoming extinct during the period in which Homo sapiens colonized the region.

  1. Rhode Island Public Library Trustees Handbook. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, Frank P., Comp.

    2006-01-01

    Since the Office of Library and Information Services published the first Rhode Island trustees manual in 1980, Rhode Island public libraries have continued to respond to an ever increasing demand for service. In so doing, they consistently have taken advantage of new opportunities to provide this service more efficiently and effectively via…

  2. We, the Asian and Pacific Islander Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dwight L.; And Others

    Demographic data are presented about the people who have immigrated to the United States from Asia and the Pacific Islands. Twelve figures (pie charts, bar graphs, and maps), and eight tables provide detailed, statistical information on such things as (1) distribution of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States, (2) states with the…

  3. Professional Development for Rhode Island School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, James; Brittingham, Barbara E.

    This report presents the results of a survey of Rhode Island school administrators (n=523) and open-ended interviews of administrators (n=28) that would provide information for the design of leadership and staff development activities as part of Rhode Island's LEAD project--an attempt to improve the leadership capacity of school administrators.…

  4. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, John

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The purpose of this paper is to review the literature pertaining to the bat faunas of the western Indian Ocean islands, particularly in light of the identification of many new species on Madagascar and the taxonomic reassignment of others, and to summarise details of their general biology, feeding ecology, reproduction and conservation. Abstract The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species. PMID:26486500

  5. Andrew shortens lifetime of Louisiana Barrier Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.

  6. Palaeotsunamis in the Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, J.; Chague-Goff, C.; Dominey-Howes, D.; McAdoo, B.; Cronin, S.; Bonte-Grapetin, Michael; Nichol, S.; Horrocks, M.; Cisternas, M.; Lamarche, G.; Pelletier, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dudley, W.

    2011-01-01

    The recent 29 September 2009 South Pacific and 27 February 2010 Chilean events are a graphic reminder that the tsunami hazard and risk for the Pacific Ocean region should not be forgotten. Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) generally have short (<150 years) historic records, which means that to understand their tsunami hazard and risk researchers must study evidence for prehistoric events. However, our current state of knowledge of palaeotsunamis in PICs as opposed to their circum-Pacific counterparts is minimal at best. We briefly outline the limited extent of our current knowledge and propose an innovative methodology for future research in the Pacific. Each PIC represents a point source of information in the Pacific Ocean and this would allow their palaeotsunami records to be treated akin to palaeo-DART?? (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) buoys. Contemporaneous palaeotsunamis from local, regional and distant sources could be identified by using the spatial distribution of island records throughout the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with robust event chronologies. This would be highly innovative and, more importantly, would help provide the building blocks necessary to achieve more meaningful disaster risk reduction for PICs. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  7. [Tuberculosis epidemiology in Mayotte Island].

    PubMed

    Woessner, J; Receveur, M C; Malvy, D; Taytard, A

    2008-10-01

    Mayotte is a French territory island, part of the Comoros Archipelago in the Indian Ocean with 200,000 inhabitants. The tuberculosis control program started in 1976, although available epidemiological data remains incomplete. We conducted a retrospective hospital-based survey in 202 outpatients and hospital medical records from the Hospital Centre of the main city to contribute to the epidemiological evaluation of tuberculosis patterns. The tuberculosis frequency remains unchanged since 2000. It affects a young population partly coming from the other neighbouring Comoro Islands (69%) with illegal immigrate status (53% in 2004). The systematic diagnostic screening efficiency of the condition appears marginal. Pulmonary involvement is the most frequent clinical manifestation (78%), although severe extrapulmonary manifestations are not exceptional. Co-infection with HIV and multi resistance to antituberculosis agents are not frequent. Up to 60% of cases have been proven to be bacteriologically linked. The notification rate remains critically low with an estimate of 39% of notifications to the local sanitary authorities in charge of secondary cases screening. The case coverage seems limited both by low socio-economical status and poor health facility accessibility The loss of follow up is dramatically high, 41% on the overall period, and up to 51% in 2004. Our results make mandatory the reinforcement of a tuberculosis survey and control involvement within the context of this French territory. Screening, care and follow up are to be implemented particularly for vulnerable and precarious groups and for patients.

  8. Hydrogeology of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.; Cabrera, Maria del Carmen; Lambán, Luis Javier; Valverde, Margarida

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic-rock aquifers are the most extensive and productive aquifers in the Hawaiian Islands. These aquifers contain different types of groundwater systems depending on the geologic setting in which they occur. The most common groundwater systems include coastal freshwater-lens systems in the dike-free flanks of the volcanoes and dike-impounded systems within the dike-intruded areas of the volcanoes. In some areas, a thick (hundreds of meters) freshwater lens may develop because of the presence of a coastal confining unit, or caprock, that impedes the discharge of groundwater from the volcanic-rock aquifer, or because the permeability of the volcanic rocks forming the aquifer is low. In other areas with low groundwater-recharge rates and that lack a caprock, the freshwater lens may be thin or brackish water may exist immediately below the water table. Dike-impounded groundwater systems commonly have high water levels (hundreds of meters above sea level) and contribute to the base flow of streams where the water table intersects the stream. Recent numerical modeling studies have enhanced the conceptual understanding of groundwater systems in the Hawaiian Islands.

  9. Observations in Nonurban Heat Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, A. W.; Ferrick, M. G.

    1998-02-01

    The urban heat island is a well-known and well-described temperature anomaly, but other types of heat islands are also infrequently reported. A 10 km × 30 km data field containing more than 100 individual winter morning air temperature measurement points was examined for areas characteristically warmer than surrounding areas. The very small `downtown' of Hanover, New Hampshire, was found to be 1°-2°C warmer than nearby open areas at the same elevation. The same technique was applied to examine the morning air temperature within a nearby hamlet consisting of about 60 wooden buildings within an area less than 0.3 km2. The bulk of observations and observations stratified by snow and sky cover showed no systematic difference between hamlet air temperatures and those obtained in surrounding terrain. Morning air temperatures along a freezing river were measured and found to be systematically warmer than nearby air temperatures for several days, until a significant snowfall diminished the ice growth rate. A thorough examination of temperature profiles near the river showed that the increase in air temperature beneath the overnight inversion during this freezing period was proportional to the heat release resulting from river ice growth.

  10. Pathogenicity Islands in Bacterial Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Herbert; Hensel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this review, we focus on a group of mobile genetic elements designated pathogenicity islands (PAI). These elements play a pivotal role in the virulence of bacterial pathogens of humans and are also essential for virulence in pathogens of animals and plants. Characteristic molecular features of PAI of important human pathogens and their role in pathogenesis are described. The availability of a large number of genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria and their benign relatives currently offers a unique opportunity for the identification of novel pathogen-specific genomic islands. However, this knowledge has to be complemented by improved model systems for the analysis of virulence functions of bacterial pathogens. PAI apparently have been acquired during the speciation of pathogens from their nonpathogenic or environmental ancestors. The acquisition of PAI not only is an ancient evolutionary event that led to the appearance of bacterial pathogens on a timescale of millions of years but also may represent a mechanism that contributes to the appearance of new pathogens within a human life span. The acquisition of knowledge about PAI, their structure, their mobility, and the pathogenicity factors they encode not only is helpful in gaining a better understanding of bacterial evolution and interactions of pathogens with eukaryotic host cells but also may have important practical implications such as providing delivery systems for vaccination, tools for cell biology, and tools for the development of new strategies for therapy of bacterial infections. PMID:14726454

  11. Geology of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.

    1946-01-01

    A brief summary of the geography, climate, and geomorphology is given. Streams develop slowly after the extinction of a volcano because of the high permeability of the rock. Once established they cut rapidly because of the steep slopes and fractured condition of the rock. Stream erosion varies enormously on different slopes of the same mountain due to the great differences in rainfall and to other causes. Six reasons are given for the development of amphitheater-headed valleys. Marine erosion has formed cliffs as much as 1,000 feet high on the leeward side and 3,000 feet high on the windward side of some of the domes. The islands have undergone a complex series of emergences and submergences leaving marine fossiliferous limestone up to 1,070 feet above sea level and valleys drowned more than 1,200 feet. Twelve terrace levels are recognized. Some are definitely eustatic.A synopsis is given of the present knowledge of the geology of each volcanic mountain, as well as a table of the rock units, and geologic maps of all major islands. The volcanoes pass through four major phases between birth and extinction and are built around one minor and two major rift zones. The volcanoes began their history above sea level in the Tertiary. Most of them became dormant either before or during the early Quaternary. Activity was renewed in the late Quaternary. Mauna Kea was glaciated in the late Pleistocene. The character of each islet in the archipelago is tabulated.

  12. SeaWinds - South Georgia Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Winds are blocked by an island mountain barrier that produces a long 'shadow' of low winds on the downwind side of the island stretching for hundreds of kilometers (about 500 miles long) in this image produced from data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite.

    South Georgia Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean (approximately 1,500 kilometers, or miles, east of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, is only 170 kilometers long (about 106 miles) and 30 kilometers (about 19 miles)wide, but contains 13 peaks exceeding 2,000 meters (more than 6,500 feet) in height. The island thus acts as a significant barrier to the surface winds in this forbidding part of the world oceans.

    Mountainous islands and steep coastal topography can modify the surface wind field for many hundreds of kilometers seaward. The detailed air-sea-land interaction processes involved are not well understood, largely because of a lack of accurate, high-resolution, extensive wind speed and direction measurements. The broad-swath, all-weather SeaWinds instrument on NASA's QuikScat satellite is providing unique measurements of ocean winds, revealing previously unknown wind patterns caused by island topography and allowing development of improved models for coastal ocean winds.

    This image shows QuikScat measurements of wind speed and direction during a single pass over South Georgia Island on September 13, 1999. The island itself is shown as black (for heights less than 750 meters(less than half a mile), green (for heights between 750 and 1,500 meters (less than half a mile to about one mile), and red (for regions greater than 1,500 meters, or about one mile in altitude). The white area surrounding the island represents the region where land contamination does not allow wind measurements to be made. The horizontal and vertical coordinates are in kilometers, with origin on the island at latitude 54.5 degrees south, longitude 30 degrees east.

    This large-scale view shows regions of

  13. Island nucleation and growth with anomalous diffusion.

    PubMed

    Amar, Jacques G; Semaan, Mikhael

    2016-06-01

    While most studies of submonolayer island nucleation and growth have been based on the assumption of ordinary monomer diffusion corresponding to diffusion exponent μ=1, in some cases either subdiffusive (μ<1) or superdiffusive (μ>1) behavior may occur. Here we present general expressions for the exponents describing the flux dependence of the island and monomer densities as a function of the critical island size i, substrate dimension d, island fractal dimension d_{f}, and diffusion exponent μ, where 0≤μ≤2. Our results are compared with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations for the case of irreversible island growth (i=1) with 0≤μ≤2 and d=2 as well as simulation results for d=1, 3, and 4, and excellent agreement is found.

  14. Incoherent Ag islands growth on Ni(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, J. B.; Braems, I.; Bellec, A.; Chacon, C.; Creuze, J.; Girard, Y.; Gueddani, S.; Lagoute, J.; Repain, V.; Rousset, S.

    2017-02-01

    Growth of two-dimensional superstructure and island morphologies of silver atoms evaporated on a nickel (100) surface are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. Near-equilibrium islands form at moderate annealing temperature (lower than 500 K) and present two kinds of morphologies. While they share a common monolayer c(2×8) superstructure, two distinct populations of islands coexist: rounded islands grown on the surface and spindle-shaped islands grown inside the Ni surface. The latter present a clear saturation of their density with increasing coverage. These shapes are mostly dominated by boundary energies as confirmed by a simple two-dimensional Wulff model whose parameters are derived using molecular statics simulations. Further annealing to 700 K leads to long Ag strips decorating the Ni step edges.

  15. Submonolayer growth with decorated island edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrla, Miroslav; Krug, Joachim; Šmilauer, Pavel

    2000-05-01

    We study the dynamics of island nucleation in the presence of adsorbates using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a two-species growth model. Adatoms (A atoms) and impurities (B atoms) are codeposited, diffuse and aggregate subject to attractive AA and AB interactions. Activated exchange of adatoms with impurities is identified as the key process to maintain decoration of island edges by impurities during growth. While the presence of impurities strongly increases the island density, a change in the scaling of island density with flux, predicted by a rate equation theory for attachment-limited growth [D. Kandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997) 499], is not observed. We argue that, within the present model, even completely covered island edges do not provide efficient barriers to attachment.

  16. Island-size distribution and capture numbers in three-dimensonal nucleation: Dependence on island morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royston, John; Amar, Jacques G.

    2009-10-01

    The scaling of the monomer and island densities, island-size distribution (ISD), and capture-number distribution (CND) as a function of the fraction of occupied sites (coverage) and ratio Dh/F of the monomer hopping rate Dh to the (per site) monomer creation rate F are studied for the case of irreversible nucleation and growth of fractal islands in three dimensions (d=3) . We note that our model is a three-dimensional analog of submonolayer growth in the absence of island relaxation and may also be viewed as a simplified model of the early stages of vacancy cluster nucleation and growth under irradiation. In contrast to results previously obtained for point-islands in d=3 , for which mean-field behavior corresponding to a CND which is independent of island size was observed, our results indicate that for fractal islands the scaled CND increases approximately linearly with island size in the asymptotic limit of large Dh/F . In addition, while the peak height of the scaled ISD for fractal islands appears to diverge with increasing Dh/F , the dependence on Dh/F is much weaker than for point-islands in d=3 . The results of a self-consistent rate-equation calculation for the coverage and Dh/F dependence of the average island and monomer densities are also presented and good agreement with simulation results is obtained. For the case of point-islands, the value of the exponent χ describing the Dh/F dependence of the island density at fixed coverage, e.g., Nsat˜(Dh/F)-χ , is in good agreement with the value (χ=1/3) expected for irreversible growth. However, for both compact and fractal islands in d=3 , our results indicate that the value of χ (χ≃0.42) is significantly larger. In order to explain this behavior, an analytical expression [e.g., χ=df/(3df-2) ] for the dependence of χ on island fractal dimension df in d=3 is derived and found to give reasonable agreement with our simulation and rate-equation results for the case of point-islands (df=∞) , compact

  17. What are the Spratly Islands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Charles S.; Vijayan, V. R.

    2010-10-01

    Seismic records, combined with dredged samples and a core, indicate that the Spratly Islands of the Dangerous Ground Province are constructed of presently active carbonate build-ups, known to extend back continuously at least to the Pleistocene and presumed to have initiated in the Miocene, most likely upon the crests of sea-floor cuestas that trend north-east-south-west parallel to the sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies of the contiguous abyssal plain of the southern part of the South China Sea. The cuestas range from spectacular to subdued, constructed of Triassic and Cretaceous strata and no older rocks have been identified from dredges. The cuesta axes plunge towards the south-west away from the islands, suggesting that the reefs began colonising their more elevated parts, but the timing is uncertain. The highest seismically recorded cuesta crest is in 440 m of water and the islands and reefs are generally closely surrounded by water deeper than 1500 m. Since the so-called Mid-Miocene Unconformity (MMU), the region has been undergoing post-rift thermal subsidence. However, the nearby seismic lines show no evidence of drowned carbonate reefs. It is suggested that the coral-algal reefs colonised the crests of the most elevated cuestas that have maintained stability as shown by the 165 m core of one reef indicating periodic exposure with caliche horizons. Deepening water has protected the build-ups from extinction by post-rift draping strata in contrast to the Central Luconia Province, and the build-ups have been able to keep up with regional thermal subsidence. The dredged Mesozoic strata indicate that the Dangerous Ground is not exotic and should be interpreted as an integral part of the pre-rift Sundaland continent that included South China, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, western Sarawak and possibly part of Sabah. Igneous and metamorphic samples have been dredged. Although individual spot K/Ar dates cannot be accepted at face value, such rocks can also be

  18. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

    The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

    The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes

  19. Geologic Map of Baranof Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Himmelberg, Glen R.; Zumsteg, Cathy L.; Layer, Paul W.; Friedman, Richard M.; Roeske, Sarah M.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2015-01-01

    This map updates the geology of Baranof Island based on fieldwork, petrographic analyses, paleontologic ages, and isotopic ages. These new data provide constraints on depositional and metamorphic ages of lithostratigraphic rock units and the timing of structures that separate them. Kinematic analyses and thermobarometric calculations provide insights on the regional tectonic processes that affected the rocks on Baranof Island. The rocks on Baranof Island are components of a Paleozoic to Early Tertiary oceanic volcanic arc complex, including sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on and adjacent to the arc complex, deformed, and accreted. The arc complex consists of greenschist to amphibolite facies Paleozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks overlain by lower-grade Triassic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks and intruded by Jurassic calc-alkaline plutons. The Paleozoic rocks correlate well in age and lithology with rocks of the Sicker and Buttle Lake Groups of the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island and differ from rocks of the Skolai Group that constitute basement to type-Wrangellia in the Wrangell Mountains. The Jurassic intrusive rocks are correlative with plutons that intrude the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island but are lacking in the Wrangell Mountains. The rocks accreted beneath the arc complex are referred to as the Baranof Accretionary Complex in this report and are correlated with the Chugach Accretionary Complex of southern and southeastern Alaska and with the Pacific Rim Complex on Vancouver Island. Stratigraphic correlations between upper- and lower-plate rocks on Baranof Island and western Chichagof Island with rocks on Haida Gwaii and Vancouver Island, in addition to correlative ages of intrusive rocks and restorations of the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte, Chatham Strait, and Peril Strait Faults that define the Baranof-Chichagof block, suggest Baranof Island was near Vancouver Island at the time of initiation of arc

  20. SRTM Stereo Pair: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This stereoscopic view was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Also, colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to pink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters (4300 feet) of total relief. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shading and colors back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The 3-D perception is achieved by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the