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Sample records for gap zinc finger

  1. Identification of a novel zinc finger protein gene (ZNF298) in the GAP2 of human chromosome 21q

    SciTech Connect

    Shibuya, Kazunori; Kudoh, Jun; Okui, Michiyo; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi . E-mail: shimizu@dmb.med.keio.ac.jp

    2005-07-01

    We have isolated a novel zinc finger protein gene, designated ZNF298, as a candidate gene for a particular phenotype of Down syndrome or bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) which maps to human chromosome 21q22.3. ZNF298 gene consists of 25 exons spanning approximately 80 kb in a direction from the telomere to centromere. There are four kinds of transcripts that harbor three types of 3' UTR. These four transcripts (ZNF298a, ZNF298b, ZNF298c, and ZNF298d) contain putative open reading frames encoding 1178, 1198, 555, and 515 amino acids, respectively. ZNF298 gene was ubiquitously expressed in various tissues at very low level. The protein motif analysis revealed that ZNF298 proteins contain a SET [Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax] domain, multiple C2H2-type zinc finger (ZnF{sub C}2H2) domains, several nuclear localization signals (NLSs), and PEST sequences. Nuclear localization of ZNF298 protein was confirmed by transfection of expression vector of GFP-tagged protein into two human cell lines. Interestingly, this gene crosses over a clone gap (GAP2) remaining in the band 21q22.3. We obtained the DNA fragments corresponding to GAP2 using ZNF298 cDNA sequence as anchor primers for PCR and determined its genomic DNA sequence.

  2. Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains.

    PubMed Central

    Vallee, B L; Coleman, J E; Auld, D S

    1991-01-01

    We now recognize three distinct motifs of DNA-binding zinc proteins: (i) zinc fingers, (ii) zinc clusters, and (iii) zinc twists. Until very recently, x-ray crystallographic or NMR three-dimensional structure analyses of DNA-binding zinc proteins have not been available to serve as standards of reference for the zinc binding sites of these families of proteins. Those of the DNA-binding domains of the fungal transcription factor GAL4 and the rat glucocorticoid receptor are the first to have been determined. Both proteins contain two zinc binding sites, and in both, cysteine residues are the sole zinc ligands. In GAL4, two zinc atoms are bound to six cysteine residues which form a "zinc cluster" akin to that of metallothionein; the distance between the two zinc atoms of GAL4 is approximately 3.5 A. In the glucocorticoid receptor, each zinc atom is bound to four cysteine residues; the interatomic zinc-zinc distance is approximately 13 A, and in this instance, a "zinc twist" is represented by a helical DNA recognition site located between the two zinc atoms. Zinc clusters and zinc twists are here recognized as two distinctive motifs in DNA-binding proteins containing multiple zinc atoms. For native "zinc fingers," structural data do not exist as yet; consequently, the interatomic distances between zinc atoms are not known. As further structural data become available, the structural and functional significance of these different motifs in their binding to DNA and other proteins participating in the transmission of the genetic message will become apparent. Images PMID:1846973

  3. Zinc Finger Database (ZiFDB) v2.0: a comprehensive database of C₂H₂ zinc fingers and engineered zinc finger arrays.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fengli; Voytas, Daniel F

    2013-01-01

    ZiFDB (Zinc Finger Database, http://zifdb.msi.umn.edu) is a web-accessible database that houses information on individual C(2)H(2) zinc fingers (ZFs) and engineered zinc finger arrays (ZFAs). ZiFDB serves as a resource for biologists interested in engineering ZFAs for use as sequence-specific DNA-binding reagents. Here, we describe four new features of ZiFDB: (i) the database allows users to input new ZFs and ZFAs; (ii) a shadow database temporarily stores user-submitted data, pending approval by the database curator and subsequent loading into the persistent database; (iii) ZiFDB contains 181 Context-Dependent Assembly (CoDA) ZFAs, which were generated by this newly described ZFA engineering platform; and (iv) the database also now contains 319 F1F2 CoDA units and 334 F2F3 CoDA units that can be used to construct CoDA arrays. In total, the new release of ZiFDB contains 1226 ZFs and 1123 ZFAs.

  4. Gamma Radiation-Induced Damage in the Zinc Finger of the Transcription Factor IIIA

    PubMed Central

    Miao, YuJi; Hu, XiaoDan; Min, Rui; Liu, PeiDang; Zhang, HaiQian

    2016-01-01

    A zinc finger motif is an element of proteins that can specifically recognize and bind to DNA. Because they contain multiple cysteine residues, zinc finger motifs possess redox properties. Ionizing radiation generates a variety of free radicals in organisms. Zinc finger motifs, therefore, may be a target of ionizing radiation. The effect of gamma radiation on the zinc finger motifs in transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA), a zinc finger protein, was investigated. TFIIIA was exposed to different gamma doses from 60Co sources. The dose rates were 0.20 Gy/min and 800 Gy/h, respectively. The binding capacity of zinc finger motifs in TFIIIA was determined using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We found that 1000 Gy of gamma radiation impaired the function of the zinc finger motifs in TFIIIA. The sites of radiation-induced damage in the zinc finger were the thiol groups of cysteine residues and zinc (II) ions. The thiol groups were oxidized to form disulfide bonds and the zinc (II) ions were indicated to be reduced to zinc atoms. These results indicate that the zinc finger motif is a target domain for gamma radiation, which may decrease 5S rRNA expression via impairment of the zinc finger motifs in TFIIIA. PMID:27803644

  5. Toward a Code for the Interactions of Zinc Fingers with DNA: Selection of Randomized Fingers Displayed on Phage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Yen; Klug, Aaron

    1994-11-01

    We have used two selection techniques to study sequence-specific DNA recognition by the zinc finger, a small, modular DNA-binding minidomain. We have chosen zinc fingers because they bind as independent modules and so can be linked together in a peptide designed to bind a predetermined DNA site. In this paper, we describe how a library of zinc fingers displayed on the surface of bacteriophage enables selection of fingers capable of binding to given DNA triplets. The amino acid sequences of selected fingers which bind the same triplet are compared to examine how sequence-specific DNA recognition occurs. Our results can be rationalized in terms of coded interactions between zinc fingers and DNA, involving base contacts from a few α-helical positions. In the paper following this one, we describe a complementary technique which confirms the identity of amino acids capable of DNA sequence discrimination from these positions.

  6. Light-Inducible Gene Regulation with Engineered Zinc Finger Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Polstein, Lauren R.; Gersbach, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The coupling of light-inducible protein-protein interactions with gene regulation systems has enabled the control of gene expression with light. In particular, heterodimer protein pairs from plants can be used to engineer a gene regulation system in mammalian cells that is reversible, repeatable, tunable, controllable in a spatiotemporal manner, and targetable to any DNA sequence. This system, Light-Inducible Transcription using Engineered Zinc finger proteins (LITEZ), is based on the blue light-induced interaction of GIGANTEA and the LOV domain of FKF1 that drives the localization of a transcriptional activator to the DNA-binding site of a highly customizable engineered zinc finger protein. This chapter provides methods for modifying LITEZ to target new DNA sequences, engineering a programmable LED array to illuminate cell cultures, and using the modified LITEZ system to achieve spatiotemporal control of transgene expression in mammalian cells. PMID:24718797

  7. Emerging roles of zinc finger proteins in regulating adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zhang, Lifan; Zhou, Xiang; Du, Min; Jiang, Zhihua; Hausman, Gary J.; Bergen, Werner G.; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins containing the zinc finger domain(s) are named zinc finger proteins (ZFPs), which are one of the largest classes of transcription factors in eukaryotic genomes. A large number of ZFPs have been studied and many of them were found to be involved regulating normal growth and development of cells and tissues through diverse signal transduction pathways. Recent studies revealed that a small but increasing number of ZFPs could function as key transcriptional regulators involved in adipogenesis. As the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders, the investigation of molecular regulatory mechanisms of adipocyte development must be more completely understood to develop novel and long term impact strategies for ameliorating obesity. In this review, we discuss recent work which has documented that ZFPs are important functional contributors to the regulation of adipogenesis. Taken altogether these data lead to the conclusion that ZFPs may become promising targets to combat human obesity. PMID:23760207

  8. Piccolo, a presynaptic zinc finger protein structurally related to bassoon.

    PubMed

    Fenster, S D; Chung, W J; Zhai, R; Cases-Langhoff, C; Voss, B; Garner, A M; Kaempf, U; Kindler, S; Gundelfinger, E D; Garner, C C

    2000-01-01

    Piccolo is a novel component of the presynaptic cytoskeletal matrix (PCM) assembled at the active zone of neurotransmitter release. Analysis of its primary structure reveals that Piccolo is a multidomain zinc finger protein structurally related to Bassoon, another PCM protein. Both proteins were found to be shared components of glutamatergic and GABAergic CNS synapses but not of the cholinergic neuromuscular junction. The Piccolo zinc fingers were found to interact with the dual prenylated rab3A and VAMP2/Synaptobrevin II receptor PRA1. We show that PRA1 is a synaptic vesicle-associated protein that is colocalized with Piccolo in nerve terminals of hippocampal primary neurons. These data suggest that Piccolo plays a role in the trafficking of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at the active zone.

  9. Inactivation of respiratory syncytial virus by zinc finger reactive compounds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infectivity of retroviruses such as HIV-1 and MuLV can be abrogated by compounds targeting zinc finger motif in viral nucleocapsid protein (NC), involved in controlling the processivity of reverse transcription and virus infectivity. Although a member of a different viral family (Pneumoviridae), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) contains a zinc finger protein M2-1 also involved in control of viral polymerase processivity. Given the functional similarity between the two proteins, it was possible that zinc finger-reactive compounds inactivating retroviruses would have a similar effect against RSV by targeting RSV M2-1 protein. Moreover, inactivation of RSV through modification of an internal protein could yield a safer whole virus vaccine than that produced by RSV inactivation with formalin which modifies surface proteins. Results Three compounds were evaluated for their ability to reduce RSV infectivity: 2,2'-dithiodipyridine (AT-2), tetraethylthiuram disulfide and tetramethylthiuram disulfide. All three were capable of inactivating RSV, with AT-2 being the most potent. The mechanism of action of AT-2 was analyzed and it was found that AT-2 treatment indeed results in the modification of RSV M2-1. Altered intramolecular disulfide bond formation in M2-1 protein of AT-2-treated RSV virions might have been responsible for abrogation of RSV infectivity. AT-2-inactivated RSV was found to be moderately immunogenic in the cotton rats S.hispidus and did not cause a vaccine-enhancement seen in animals vaccinated with formalin-inactivated RSV. Increasing immunogenicity of AT-2-inactivated RSV by adjuvant (Ribi), however, led to vaccine-enhanced disease. Conclusions This work presents evidence that compounds that inactivate retroviruses by targeting the zinc finger motif in their nucleocapsid proteins are also effective against RSV. AT-2-inactivated RSV vaccine is not strongly immunogenic in the absence of adjuvants. In the adjuvanted form, however, vaccine induces

  10. Thermodynamic profiling of HIV RREIIB RNA – zinc finger interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Subrata H.; Spring, Alexander M.; Germann, Markus W.

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between the HIV Rev responsive element (RRE) RNA and the HIV regulatory protein Rev, is crucial for the HIV life cycle. We have previously shown that single C2H2 zinc fingers, have the same binding site as the Rev peptide and exhibit nanomolar affinities. In this study, the specific role of amino acid side chains and molecular processes involved with complex formation were investigated by perturbation to the binding energetics via changes in temperature, pH, buffers, salt concentrations as well as zinc finger (znf) and RNA mutations, by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Interestingly, despite the large cationic charge on the znfs, the number of interactions with the RNA phosphate backbone was lower than intuitively expected. The presence of binding induced protonation was established by ITC and localized to a histidine on the znf β-sheet, by NMR. The ΔCp of znf-RNA binding was observed to be substantially negative and could not be accounted for by conventional solvent accessible surface area models. An alternative model (50), based on the extent of hydrogen bond changes as a result of differences in ligand induced water displacement at the binding site, provided reasonable explanation of the trends in ΔCp, as well as ΔH and ΔS. Our studies show that incorporation of favorable interactions at the solvent excluded binding interface can be used to alleviate the unfavorable enthalpic penalties of displacing water molecules from the hydrated RNA surface. PMID:19646998

  11. The interaction of DNA with multi-Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Heermann, Dieter W.

    2015-02-01

    The multi-Cys2His2 (mC2H2) zinc finger protein, like CTCF, plays a central role in the three-dimensional organization of chromatin and gene regulation. The interaction between DNA and mC2H2 zinc finger proteins becomes crucial to better understand how CTCF dynamically shapes the chromatin structure. Here, we study a coarse-grained model of the mC2H2 zinc finger proteins in complexes with DNA, and in particular, we study how a mC2H2 zinc finger protein binds to and searches for its target DNA loci. On the basis of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we present several interesting kinetic conformational properties of the proteins, such as the rotation-coupled sliding, the asymmetrical roles of different zinc fingers and the partial binding partial dangling mode. In addition, two kinds of studied mC2H2 zinc finger proteins, of CG-rich and AT-rich binding motif each, were able to recognize their target sites and slide away from their non-target sites, which shows a proper sequence specificity in our model and the derived force field for mC2H2-DNA interaction. A further application to CTCF shows that the protein binds to a specific DNA duplex only with its central zinc fingers. The zinc finger domains of CTCF asymmetrically bend the DNA, but do not form a DNA loop alone in our simulations.

  12. Density functional theory study of the attack of ebselen on a zinc-finger model.

    PubMed

    Antony, Sonia; Bayse, Craig A

    2013-12-16

    Density functional theory and solvent-assisted proton exchange are used to model the attack of ebselen 1 on a zinc-finger model, an important step in the regulation of zinc signaling by reducible selenium compounds. These calculations show that the formation of a selenosulfide bond from an Se···S intermediate complex between 1 and a Cys2His2 zinc-finger model can occur through a moderate activation barrier that is consistent with experimental observations of the relative rates of Zn(2+) release from zinc-finger transcription factors and metallothionein.

  13. Modular synthetic inverters from zinc finger proteins and small RNAs

    DOE PAGES

    Hsia, Justin; Holtz, William J.; Maharbiz, Michel M.; Arcak, Murat; Keasling, Jay D.; Rao, Christopher V.

    2016-02-17

    Synthetic zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) can be created to target promoter DNA sequences, repressing transcription. The binding of small RNA (sRNA) to ZFP mRNA creates an ultrasensitive response to generate higher effective Hill coefficients. Here we combined three “off the shelf” ZFPs and three sRNAs to create new modular inverters in E. coli and quantify their behavior using induction fold. We found a general ordering of the effects of the ZFPs and sRNAs on induction fold that mostly held true when combining these parts. We then attempted to construct a ring oscillator using our new inverters. In conclusion, our chosenmore » parts performed insufficiently to create oscillations, but we include future directions for improvement upon our work presented here.« less

  14. Modular Synthetic Inverters from Zinc Finger Proteins and Small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Justin; Holtz, William J.; Maharbiz, Michel M.; Arcak, Murat; Keasling, Jay D.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) can be created to target promoter DNA sequences, repressing transcription. The binding of small RNA (sRNA) to ZFP mRNA creates an ultrasensitive response to generate higher effective Hill coefficients. Here we combined three “off the shelf” ZFPs and three sRNAs to create new modular inverters in E. coli and quantify their behavior using induction fold. We found a general ordering of the effects of the ZFPs and sRNAs on induction fold that mostly held true when combining these parts. We then attempted to construct a ring oscillator using our new inverters. Our chosen parts performed insufficiently to create oscillations, but we include future directions for improvement upon our work presented here. PMID:26886888

  15. Editing the Plasmodium vivax genome, using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Moraes Barros, Roberto R; Straimer, Judith; Sa, Juliana M; Salzman, Rebecca E; Melendez-Muniz, Viviana A; Mu, Jianbing; Fidock, David A; Wellems, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a major cause of malaria morbidity worldwide yet has remained genetically intractable. To stably modify this organism, we used zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), which take advantage of homology-directed DNA repair mechanisms at the site of nuclease action. Using ZFNs specific to the gene encoding P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr), we transfected blood specimens from Saimiri boliviensis monkeys infected with the pyrimethamine (Pyr)-susceptible Chesson strain with a ZFN plasmid carrying a Pyr-resistant mutant pvdhfr sequence. We obtained Pyr-resistant parasites in vivo that carried mutant pvdhfr and additional silent mutations designed to confirm editing. These results herald the era of stable P. vivax genetic modifications.

  16. A metallothionein containing a zinc finger within a four-metal cluster protects a bacterium from zinc toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Blindauer, Claudia A.; Harrison, Mark D.; Parkinson, John A.; Robinson, Andrea K.; Cavet, Jennifer S.; Robinson, Nigel J.; Sadler, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Zinc is essential for many cellular processes, including DNA synthesis, transcription, and translation, but excess can be toxic. A zinc-induced gene, smtA, is required for normal zinc-tolerance in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942. Here we report that the protein SmtA contains a cleft lined with Cys-sulfur and His-imidazole ligands that binds four zinc ions in a Zn4Cys9His2 cluster. The thiolate sulfurs of five Cys ligands provide bridges between the two ZnCys4 and two ZnCys3His sites, giving two fused six-membered rings with distorted boat conformations. The inorganic core strongly resembles the Zn4Cys11 cluster of mammalian metallothionein, despite different amino acid sequences, a different linear order of the ligands, and presence of histidine ligands. Also, SmtA contains elements of secondary structure not found in metallothioneins. One of the two Cys4-coordinated zinc ions in SmtA readily exchanges with exogenous metal (111Cd), whereas the other is inert. The thiolate sulfur ligands bound to zinc in this site are buried within the protein. Regions of β-strand and α-helix surround the inert site to form a zinc finger resembling the zinc fingers in GATA and LIM-domain proteins. Eukaryotic zinc fingers interact specifically with other proteins or DNA and an analogous interaction can therefore be anticipated for prokaryotic zinc fingers. SmtA now provides structural proof for the existence of zinc fingers in prokaryotes, and sequences related to the zinc finger motif can be identified in several bacterial genomes. PMID:11493688

  17. 15-zinc finger protein Bloody Fingers is required for zebrafish morphogenetic movements during neurulation.

    PubMed

    Sumanas, Saulius; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Rujuan; Lin, Shuo

    2005-07-01

    A novel zebrafish gene bloody fingers (blf) encoding a 478 amino acid protein containing fifteen C(2)H(2) type zinc fingers was identified by expression screening. As determined by in situ hybridization, blf RNA displays strong ubiquitous early zygotic expression, while during late gastrulation and early somitogenesis, blf expression becomes transiently restricted to the posterior dorsal and lateral mesoderm. During later somitogenesis, blf expression appears only in hematopoietic cells. It is completely eliminated in cloche, moonshine but not in vlad tepes (gata1) mutant embryos. Morpholino (MO) knockdown of the Blf protein results in the defects of morphogenetic movements. Blf-MO-injected embryos (morphants) display shortened and widened axial tissues due to defective convergent extension. Unlike other convergent extension mutants, blf morphants display a split neural tube, resulting in a phenotype similar to the human open neural tube defect spina bifida. In addition, dorsal ectodermal cells delaminate in blf morphants during late somitogenesis. We propose a model explaining the role of blf in convergent extension and neurulation. We conclude that blf plays an important role in regulating morphogenetic movements during gastrulation and neurulation while its role in hematopoiesis may be redundant.

  18. Crystallographic and Biochemical Analysis of the Ran-Binding Zinc Finger Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, James R.; Schwartz, Thomas U.; MIT

    2009-08-13

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) resides in circular openings within the nuclear envelope and serves as the sole conduit to facilitate nucleocytoplasmic transport in eukaryotes. The asymmetric distribution of the small G protein Ran across the nuclear envelope regulates directionality of protein transport. Ran interacts with the NPC of metazoa via two asymmetrically localized components, Nup153 at the nuclear face and Nup358 at the cytoplasmic face. Both nucleoporins contain a stretch of distinct, Ran-binding zinc finger domains. Here, we present six crystal structures of Nup153-zinc fingers in complex with Ran and a 1.48 {angstrom} crystal structure of RanGDP. Crystal engineering allowed us to obtain well diffracting crystals so that all ZnF-Ran complex structures are refined to high resolution. Each of the four zinc finger modules of Nup153 binds one Ran molecule in apparently non-allosteric fashion. The affinity is measurably higher for RanGDP than for RanGTP and varies modestly between the individual zinc fingers. By microcalorimetric and mutational analysis, we determined that one specific hydrogen bond accounts for most of the differences in the binding affinity of individual zinc fingers. Genomic analysis reveals that only in animals do NPCs contain Ran-binding zinc fingers. We speculate that these organisms evolved a mechanism to maintain a high local concentration of Ran at the vicinity of the NPC, using this zinc finger domain as a sink.

  19. Zinc finger peptide based optic sensor for detection of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neelam; Kaur, Gagandeep

    2016-12-15

    In the present work, polyacrylamide gel has been used as a matrix for the immobilization of zinc finger peptide and fluorescent dye acrydine orange on the micro well plate to fabricate the fluorescence based biosensor for the detection of zinc ions in milk samples. The fluorescent dye moves in the hydrophobic groove formed after folding of the peptide in the presence of zinc ions. Under optimized conditions, linear range was observed between 0.001µg/l to 10µg/l of Zinc ions, with a lowest detection limit of 0.001µg/l and response time of 5min. Presented biosensor has shown 20% decrease in fluorescent intensity values after 5 regenerations and stable for more than one month, stored at 4°C. Interference study with other metal ions like lead, cadmium and copper showed a negligible change in fluorescence intensity in comparison to zinc ions. Developed bio sensing system was found to be novel, quick, reliable, miniaturized, stable, reproducible and repeatable and specific for zinc ion, which has been applied to various milk samples.

  20. Zinc finger peptide based optic sensor for detection of zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neelam; Kaur, Gagandeep

    2016-12-15

    In the present work, polyacrylamide gel has been used as a matrix for the immobilization of zinc finger peptide and fluorescent dye acrydine orange on the micro well plate to fabricate the fluorescence based biosensor for the detection of zinc ions in milk samples. The fluorescent dye moves in the hydrophobic groove formed after folding of the peptide in the presence of zinc ions. Under optimized conditions, linear range was observed between 0.001µg/l to 10µg/l of Zinc ions, with a lowest detection limit of 0.001µg/l and response time of 5min. Presented biosensor has shown 20% decrease in fluorescent intensity values after 5 regenerations and stable for more than one month, stored at 4°C. Interference study with other metal ions like lead, cadmium and copper showed a negligible change in fluorescence intensity in comparison to zinc ions. Developed bio sensing system was found to be novel, quick, reliable, miniaturized, stable, reproducible and repeatable and specific for zinc ion, which has been applied to various milk samples. PMID:27424265

  1. Determination of the base recognition positions of zinc fingers from sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, G H

    1992-01-01

    The CC/HH zinc finger is a small independently folded DNA recognition motif found in many eukaryotic proteins, which ligates zinc through two cysteine and two histidine ligands. A database of 1340 zinc fingers from 221 proteins has been constructed and a program for analysis of aligned sequences written. This paper describes sequence analysis aimed at determining the amino acid positions that recognize the DNA bases, by comparing two types of sequence variation. Using the idea that long runs of adjacent zinc fingers have arisen from internal gene duplication, the conservation of each position of the finger within the runs was calculated. The conservation of each position of the finger between homologous proteins from different species was also noted. A correlation of the two types of conservation showed clusters of related amino acids. One cluster of three positions was found to be especially variable within long runs, but highly conserved between corresponding fingers of homologous proteins; these positions are predicted to be the base contact positions. They match the amino acid positions that contact the bases in the co-crystal structure determined by Pavletich and Pabo [Science, 240, 809-817 (1991)]. An adjacent cluster of four positions on the plot may also be associated with DNA binding. This analysis shows that the base recognition positions can be identified even in the absence of a known structure for a zinc finger. These results are applicable to zinc fingers where the structure of the complex is unknown, in particular suggesting that the individual finger--DNA interaction seen in the Zif268--DNA structure has been conserved in many zinc finger--DNA interactions. Images PMID:1425585

  2. Evaluation of Novel Design Strategies for Developing Zinc Finger Nucleases Tools for Treating Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Christian; Sherman, William; Pallis, Jani; Bajwa, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are associated with cell death and apoptosis by binding at countless undesired locations. This cytotoxicity is associated with the binding ability of engineered zinc finger domains to bind dissimilar DNA sequences with high affinity. In general, binding preferences of transcription factors are associated with significant degenerated diversity and complexity which convolutes the design and engineering of precise DNA binding domains. Evolutionary success of natural zinc finger proteins, however, evinces that nature created specific evolutionary traits and strategies, such as modularity and rank-specific recognition to cope with binding complexity that are critical for creating clinical viable tools to precisely modify the human genome. Our findings indicate preservation of general modularity and significant alteration of the rank-specific binding preferences of the three-finger binding domain of transcription factor SP1 when exchanging amino acids in the 2nd finger. PMID:24808958

  3. Sequence Discrimination by Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of a DNA Binding Zinc Finger Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogos, Joseph A.; Hsu, Tien; Bolton, Jesse; Kafatos, Fotis C.

    1992-09-01

    Two major developmentally regulated isoforms of the Drosophila chorion transcription factor CF2 differ by an extra zinc finger within the DNA binding domain. The preferred DNA binding sites were determined and are distinguished by an internal duplication of TAT in the site recognized by the isoform with the extra finger. The results are consistent with modular interactions between zinc fingers and trinucleotides and also suggest rules for recognition of AT-rich DNA sites by zinc finger proteins. The results show how modular finger interactions with trinucleotides can be used, in conjunction with alternative splicing, to alter the binding specificity and increase the spectrum of sites recognized by a DNA binding domain. Thus, CF2 may potentially regulate distinct sets of target genes during development.

  4. Evaluation of Novel Design Strategies for Developing Zinc Finger Nucleases Tools for Treating Human Diseases

    DOE PAGES

    Bach, Christian; Sherman, William; Pallis, Jani; Patra, Prabir; Bajwa, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are associated with cell death and apoptosis by binding at countless undesired locations. This cytotoxicity is associated with the binding ability of engineered zinc finger domains to bind dissimilar DNA sequences with high affinity. In general, binding preferences of transcription factors are associated with significant degenerated diversity and complexity which convolutes the design and engineering of precise DNA binding domains. Evolutionary success of natural zinc finger proteins, however, evinces that nature created specific evolutionary traits and strategies, such as modularity and rank-specific recognition to cope with binding complexity that are critical for creating clinical viable toolsmore » to precisely modify the human genome. Our findings indicate preservation of general modularity and significant alteration of the rank-specific binding preferences of the three-finger binding domain of transcription factor SP1 when exchanging amino acids in the 2nd finger.« less

  5. Solution structure of the zinc finger HIT domain in protein FON

    PubMed Central

    He, Fahu; Umehara, Takashi; Tsuda, Kengo; Inoue, Makoto; Kigawa, Takanori; Matsuda, Takayoshi; Yabuki, Takashi; Aoki, Masaaki; Seki, Eiko; Terada, Takaho; Shirouzu, Mikako; Tanaka, Akiko; Sugano, Sumio; Muto, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2007-01-01

    The zinc finger HIT domain is a sequence motif found in many proteins, including thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 3 (TRIP-3), which is possibly involved in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Novel zinc finger motifs are suggested to play important roles in gene regulation and chromatin remodeling. Here, we determined the high-resolution solution structure of the zinc finger HIT domain in ZNHIT2 (protein FON) from Homo sapiens, by an NMR method based on 567 upper distance limits derived from NOE intensities measured in three-dimensional NOESY spectra. The structure yielded a backbone RMSD to the mean coordinates of 0.19 Å for the structured residues 12–48. The fold consists of two consecutive antiparallel β-sheets and two short C-terminal helices packed against the second β-sheet, and binds two zinc ions. Both zinc ions are coordinated tetrahedrally via a CCCC-CCHC motif to the ligand residues of the zf-HIT domain in an interleaved manner. The tertiary structure of the zinc finger HIT domain closely resembles the folds of the B-box, RING finger, and PHD domains with a cross-brace zinc coordination mode, but is distinct from them. The unique three-dimensional structure of the zinc finger HIT domain revealed a novel zinc-binding fold, as a new member of the treble clef domain family. On the basis of the structural data, we discuss the possible functional roles of the zinc finger HIT domain. PMID:17656577

  6. Length-encoded multiplex binding site determination: application to zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Desjarlais, J R; Berg, J M

    1994-01-01

    The screening of combinatorial libraries is becoming a powerful method for identifying or refining the structures of ligands for binding proteins, enzymes, and other receptors. We describe an oligonucleotide library search procedure in which the identity of each member is encoded in the length of oligonucleotides. This encoding scheme allows binding-site preferences to be evaluated via DNA length determination by denaturing gel electrophoresis. We have applied this method to determine the binding-site preferences for 18 Cys2His2 zinc finger domains as the central domain within a fixed context of flanking zinc fingers. An advantage of the method is that the relative affinities of all members of the library can be estimated in addition to simply determining the sequence of the optimal or consensus ligand. The zinc finger domain specificities determined will be useful for modular zinc finger protein design. Images PMID:7972017

  7. Reactivity of Cys4 zinc finger domains with gold(III) complexes: insights into the formation of "gold fingers".

    PubMed

    Jacques, Aurélie; Lebrun, Colette; Casini, Angela; Kieffer, Isabelle; Proux, Olivier; Latour, Jean-Marc; Sénèque, Olivier

    2015-04-20

    Gold(I) complexes such as auranofin or aurothiomalate have been used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis for several decades. Several gold(I) and gold(III) complexes have also shown in vitro anticancer properties against human cancer cell lines, including cell lines resistant to cisplatin. Because of the thiophilicity of gold, cysteine-containing proteins appear as likely targets for gold complexes. Among them, zinc finger proteins have attracted attention and, recently, gold(I) and gold(III) complexes have been shown to inhibit poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which is an essential protein involved in DNA repair and in cancer resistance to chemotherapies. In this Article, we characterize the reactivity of the gold(III) complex [Au(III)(terpy)Cl]Cl2 (Auterpy) with a model of Zn(Cys)4 "zinc ribbon" zinc finger by a combination of absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism, mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We show that the Zn(Cys)4 site of Zn·LZR is rapidly oxidized by Auterpy to form a disulfide bond. The Zn(2+) ion is released, and the two remaining cysteines coordinate the Au(+) ion that is produced during the redox reaction. Subsequent oxidation of these cysteines can take place in conditions of excess gold(III) complex. In the presence of excess free thiols mimicking the presence of glutathione in cells, mixing of the zinc finger model and gold(III) complex yields a different product: complex (Au(I))2·LZR with two Au(+) ions bound to cysteines is formed. Thus, on the basis of detailed speciation and kinetic measurements, we demonstrate herein that the destruction of Zn(Cys)4 zinc fingers by gold(III) complexes to achieve the formation of "gold fingers" is worth consideration, either directly or mediated by reducing agents.

  8. Involvement of plant C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger transcription factors in stress responses.

    PubMed

    Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Agnieszka

    2012-04-01

    Abiotic and biotic stresses frequently impose constraints on plant distribution and affect agricultural productivity. Various aspects of the multiplicity and the complexity of stress responsive gene networks have been previously studied. Many of individual transcription factors in plants and their family classes that regulate the expression of several genes in responses to environmental stresses have been identified. One such class of transcription regulators is the C(2)H(2) class of zinc finger proteins. Numerous members of the C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger family have been shown to play diverse roles in the plant stress response and the hormone signal transduction. Transcription profiling analyses have demonstrated that the transcript level of many C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger proteins is elevated under different abiotic stress conditions such as low temperature, salt, drought, osmotic stress and oxidative stress. Some C(2)H(2)-type proteins are additionally involved in the biotic stress signaling pathway. Moreover, it has been reported that overexpression of some C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger protein genes resulted in both the activation of some stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to various stresses. Current genetic studies have focused on possible interactions between different zinc finger transcription factors during stresses to regulate transcription. This review highlights the role of the C(2)H(2) class of the zinc finger proteins in regulating abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in the plants.

  9. Thermodynamic profiling of HIV RREIIB RNA-zinc finger interactions.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Subrata H; Spring, Alexander M; Germann, Markus W

    2009-10-23

    The interactions between the HIV Rev-responsive element (RRE) RNA and the HIV regulatory protein Rev, are crucial for the HIV life-cycle. Earlier, we showed that single C(2)H(2) zinc fingers (znfs) have the same binding site as the Rev peptide and exhibit nanomolar affinity. In this study, the specific role of amino acid side chains and molecular processes involved with complex formation were investigated by perturbation of the binding energetics via changes in temperature, pH, buffers, and salt concentrations, as well as znf and RNA mutations, by isothermal titration calorimetry. Interestingly, despite the large cationic charge on the znfs, the number of interactions with the RNA phosphate backbone was lower than intuitively expected. The presence of binding induced protonation was established by ITC and localized by NMR to a histidine on the znf beta-sheet. The DeltaC(p) of znf-RNA binding was observed to be substantially negative and could not be accounted for by conventional solvent-accessible surface area models. An alternative model, based on the extent of hydrogen bond changes as a result of differences in ligand-induced water displacement at the binding site, provided reasonable explanation of the trends in DeltaC(p), as well as DeltaH and DeltaS. Our studies show that incorporation of favorable interactions at the solvent-excluded binding interface can be used to alleviate the unfavorable enthalpic penalties of displacing water molecules from the hydrated RNA surface.

  10. Sequence-specific DNA binding by glucocorticoid receptor "zinc finger peptides".

    PubMed

    Archer, T K; Hager, G L; Omichinski, J G

    1990-10-01

    Steroid hormone receptors can activate or repress transcription from responsive loci by binding to DNA. We have examined the mechanism of DNA binding by individually synthesizing the putative "zinc finger peptides" from the rat glucocorticoid receptor. Atomic absorption studies show that the peptides will bind zinc on an equimolar basis, and circular dichroism experiments demonstrate a significant alteration in secondary structure in the presence of zinc. The results from a series of experiments establish that metal ion is required for binding to DNA and that the amino-terminal zinc finger shows a significantly greater affinity for glucocorticoid response element-containing DNA over control DNA. These observations indicate that a single synthetic "zinc finger peptide" is able to bind to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. PMID:2120703

  11. A multiscale approach to simulating the conformational properties of unbound multi-C₂H₂ zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Wade, Rebecca C; Heermann, Dieter W

    2015-09-01

    The conformational properties of unbound multi-Cys2 His2 (mC2H2) zinc finger proteins, in which zinc finger domains are connected by flexible linkers, are studied by a multiscale approach. Three methods on different length scales are utilized. First, atomic detail molecular dynamics simulations of one zinc finger and its adjacent flexible linker confirmed that the zinc finger is more rigid than the flexible linker. Second, the end-to-end distance distributions of mC2H2 zinc finger proteins are computed using an efficient atomistic pivoting algorithm, which only takes excluded volume interactions into consideration. The end-to-end distance distribution gradually changes its profile, from left-tailed to right-tailed, as the number of zinc fingers increases. This is explained by using a worm-like chain model. For proteins of a few zinc fingers, an effective bending constraint favors an extended conformation. Only for proteins containing more than nine zinc fingers, is a somewhat compacted conformation preferred. Third, a mesoscale model is modified to study both the local and the global conformational properties of multi-C2H2 zinc finger proteins. Simulations of the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), an important mC2H2 zinc finger protein for genome spatial organization, are presented.

  12. Natural zinc ribbon HNH endonucleases and engineered zinc finger nicking endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuang-yong; Gupta, Yogesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Many bacteriophage and prophage genomes encode an HNH endonuclease (HNHE) next to their cohesive end site and terminase genes. The HNH catalytic domain contains the conserved catalytic residues His-Asn-His and a zinc-binding site [CxxC]2. An additional zinc ribbon (ZR) domain with one to two zinc-binding sites ([CxxxxC], [CxxxxH], [CxxxC], [HxxxH], [CxxC] or [CxxH]) is frequently found at the N-terminus or C-terminus of the HNHE or a ZR domain protein (ZRP) located adjacent to the HNHE. We expressed and purified 10 such HNHEs and characterized their cleavage sites. These HNHEs are site-specific and strand-specific nicking endonucleases (NEase or nickase) with 3- to 7-bp specificities. A minimal HNH nicking domain of 76 amino acid residues was identified from Bacillus phage γ HNHE and subsequently fused to a zinc finger protein to generate a chimeric NEase with a new specificity (12–13 bp). The identification of a large pool of previously unknown natural NEases and engineered NEases provides more ‘tools’ for DNA manipulation and molecular diagnostics. The small modular HNH nicking domain can be used to generate rare NEases applicable to targeted genome editing. In addition, the engineered ZF nickase is useful for evaluation of off-target sites in vitro before performing cell-based gene modification. PMID:23125367

  13. Transcriptional cofactors of the FOG family interact with GATA proteins by means of multiple zinc fingers.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, A H; Liew, C; Holmes, M; Kowalski, K; Mackay, J; Crossley, M

    1999-01-01

    Friend of GATA-1 (FOG-1) is a zinc finger protein that has been shown to interact physically with the erythroid DNA-binding protein GATA-1 and modulate its transcriptional activity. Recently, two new members of the FOG family have been identified: a mammalian protein, FOG-2, that also associates with GATA-1 and other mammalian GATA factors; and U-shaped, a Drosophila protein that interacts with the Drosophila GATA protein Pannier. FOG proteins contain multiple zinc fingers and it has been shown previously that the sixth finger of FOG-1 interacts specifically with the N-finger but not the C-finger of GATA-1. Here we show that fingers 1, 5 and 9 of FOG-1 also interact with the N-finger of GATA-1 and that FOG-2 and U-shaped also contain multiple GATA-interacting fingers. We define the key contact residues and show that these residues are highly conserved in GATA-interacting fingers. We examine the effect of selectively mutating the four interacting fingers of FOG-1 and show that each contributes to FOG-1's ability to modulate GATA-1 activity. Finally, we show that FOG-1 can repress GATA-1-mediated activation and present evidence that this ability involves the recently described CtBP co-repressor proteins that recognize all known FOG proteins. PMID:10329627

  14. Finger millet (Eleucine coracana) flour as a vehicle for fortification with zinc.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Bhumika; Platel, Kalpana

    2010-01-01

    Millets, being less expensive compared to cereals and the staple for the poorer sections of population, could be the choice for fortification with micronutrients such as zinc. In view of this, finger millet, widely grown and commonly consumed in southern India, was explored as a vehicle for fortification with zinc in this investigation. Finger millet flour fortified with either zinc oxide or zinc stearate so as to provide 50mg zinc per kg flour, was specifically examined for the bioaccessibility of the fortified mineral, as measured by in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion procedure and storage stability. Addition of the zinc salts increased the bioaccessible zinc content by 1.5-3 times that of the unfortified flour. Inclusion of EDTA along with the fortified salt significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of zinc from the fortified flours, the increase being three-fold. Inclusion of citric acid along with the zinc salt and EDTA during fortification did not have any additional beneficial effect on zinc bioaccessiblity. Moisture and free fatty acid contents of the stored fortified flours indicated the keeping quality of the same, up to 60 days. Both zinc oxide and zinc stearate were equally effective as fortificants, when used in combination with EDTA as a co-fortificant. The preparation of either roti or dumpling from the fortified flours stored up to 60 days did not result in any significant compromise in the bioaccessible zinc content. Thus, the present study has revealed that finger millet flour can effectively be used as a vehicle for zinc fortification to derive additional amounts of bioaccessible zinc, with reasonably good storage stability, to combat zinc deficiency.

  15. Towards understanding the molecular recognition process in prokaryotic zinc-finger domain.

    PubMed

    Russo, Luigi; Palmieri, Maddalena; Caso, Jolanda Valentina; D'Abrosca, Gianluca; Diana, Donatella; Malgieri, Gaetano; Baglivo, Ilaria; Isernia, Carla; Pedone, Paolo V; Fattorusso, Roberto

    2015-02-16

    Eukaryotic Cys2His2 zinc finger domain is one of the most common and important structural motifs involved in protein-DNA interaction. The recognition motif is characterized by the tetrahedral coordination of a zinc ion by conserved cysteine and histidine residues. We have characterized the prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc finger motif, included in the DNA binding region (Ros87) of Ros protein from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, demonstrating that, although possessing a similar zinc coordination sphere, this domain presents significant differences from its eukaryotic counterpart. Furthermore, basic residues flanking the zinc binding region on either side have been demonstrated, by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) experiments, to be essential for Ros DNA binding. In spite of this wealth of knowledge, the structural details of the mechanism through which the prokaryotic zinc fingers recognize their target genes are still unclear. Here, to gain insights into the molecular DNA recognition process of prokaryotic zinc finger domains we applied a strategy in which we performed molecular docking studies using a combination of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations data. The results demonstrate that the MD ensemble provides a reasonable picture of Ros87 backbone dynamics in solution. The Ros87-DNA model indicates that the interaction involves the first two residue of the first α-helix, and several residues located in the basic regions flanking the zinc finger domain. Interestingly, the prokaryotic zinc finger domain, mainly with the C-terminal tail that is wrapped around the DNA, binds a more extended recognition site than the eukaryotic counterpart. Our analysis demonstrates that the introduction of the protein flexibility in docking studies can improve, in terms of accuracy, the quality of the obtained models and could be particularly useful for protein showing high conformational heterogeneity as well as for computational drug design

  16. Structural and functional characterization of Cys4 zinc finger motif in the recombination mediator protein RecR.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qun; Liu, Yan-Ping; Yan, Xiao-Xue; Liang, Dong-Cai

    2014-12-01

    Zinc finger motif widely exists in protein structure, which can play different roles in different proteins. RecR is an important recombination mediator protein (RMP) in the RecFOR pathway and zinc finger motif is the most conserved domain in RecR protein. However, the function of this zinc finger motif in RecR is unclear. Here, we have studied the structures of the single cysteine and double cysteines mutation within the zinc finger motif in Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis RecR (TTERecR). We have also studied the DNA binding ability as well as TTERecO protein binding ability of single, double and even triple cysteines mutation of the zinc finger motif, and the mutants do not alter DNA binding by RecR nor the interaction between RecR and RecO. The function of TTERecR zinc finger motif is to maintain the stability of the three-dimensional structure. PMID:25460918

  17. Disruption of the RAG2 zinc finger motif impairs protein stability and causes immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Liu, Haifeng; Shi, Zhubing; Song, Guangrong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Yuzhang; Zhou, Zhaocai; Liu, Xiaolong

    2016-04-01

    Although the RAG2 core domain is the minimal region required for V(D)J recombination, the noncore region also plays important roles in the regulation of recombination, and mutations in this region are often related to severe combined immunodeficiency. A complete understanding of the functions of the RAG2 noncore region and the potential contributions of its individual residues has not yet been achieved. Here, we show that the zinc finger motif within the noncore region of RAG2 is indispensable for maintaining the stability of the RAG2 protein. The zinc finger motif in the noncore region of RAG2 is highly conserved from zebrafish to humans. Knock-in mice carrying a zinc finger mutation (C478Y) exhibit decreased V(D)J recombination efficiency and serious impairment in T/B-cell development due to RAG2 instability. Further studies also reveal the importance of the zinc finger motif for RAG2 stability. Moreover, mice harboring a RAG2 noncore region mutation (N474S), which is located near C478 but is not zinc-binding, exhibit no impairment in either RAG2 stability or T/B-cell development. Taken together, our findings contribute to defining critical functions of the RAG2 zinc finger motif and provide insights into the relationships between the mutations within this motif and immunodeficiency diseases. PMID:26692406

  18. Quantum chemical modelling of reactivity and selectivity of 1,2-dithiolanes towards retroviral and cellular zinc fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topol, Igor A.; Nemukhin, Alexander V.; Burt, Stanley K.

    Interactions of 1,2-dithiolane species with zinc-containing sites, which mimic the zinc finger domains of retroviral and the cellular zinc finger proteins, have been investigated by quantum chemistry tools. According to the calculations, the immediate domains of zinc binding sites in the cellular and retroviral zinc fingers interact differently with such agents of the disulphide family. Thus, when approaching the model cellular-type domains, the molecules of 1,2-dithiolanes experience considerable potential barriers along the reaction path. However, these species react practically barrier-less with the model retroviral-type domains at the correlated DFT level. The results of the quantum chemical modelling provide firm support to the selectivity of 1,2-dithiolanes towards retroviral and cellular zinc fingers. This can be of great practical importance for the design of therapeutics that accomplish functional inactivation of the zinc fingers of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) retroviral type nucleocapsid protein NCp7.

  19. An unusual arrangement of 13 zinc fingers in the vertebrate gene Z13.

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, T C; Hopwood, B; Rathjen, P D; Wells, J R

    1995-01-01

    The zinc finger is a protein domain that imparts specific nucleic acid-binding activity on a wide range of functionally important proteins. In this paper we report the molecular cloning and characterization of a novel murine zinc-finger gene, mZ13. Analysis of mZ13 cDNAs revealed that the gene expresses a 794-amino-acid protein encoded by a 2.7 kb transcript. The protein has an unusual arrangement of 13 zinc fingers into a 'hand' of 12 tandem fingers and a single isolated finger near the C-terminus. This structural organization is conserved with the probable chicken homologue, cZ13. mZ13 also contained an additional domain at the N-terminus which has previously been implicated in the regulation of zinc-finger transcription factor DNA-binding, via protein-protein interactions. mZ13 expression was detected in a wide range of murine embryonic and adult tissues. The structural organization of mZ13 and its expression profile suggest that it may function as a housekeeping DNA-binding protein that regulates the expression of specific genes. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7575457

  20. The artificial zinc finger coding gene 'Jazz' binds the utrophin promoter and activates transcription.

    PubMed

    Corbi, N; Libri, V; Fanciulli, M; Tinsley, J M; Davies, K E; Passananti, C

    2000-06-01

    Up-regulation of utrophin gene expression is recognized as a plausible therapeutic approach in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We have designed and engineered new zinc finger-based transcription factors capable of binding and activating transcription from the promoter of the dystrophin-related gene, utrophin. Using the recognition 'code' that proposes specific rules between zinc finger primary structure and potential DNA binding sites, we engineered a new gene named 'Jazz' that encodes for a three-zinc finger peptide. Jazz belongs to the Cys2-His2 zinc finger type and was engineered to target the nine base pair DNA sequence: 5'-GCT-GCT-GCG-3', present in the promoter region of both the human and mouse utrophin gene. The entire zinc finger alpha-helix region, containing the amino acid positions that are crucial for DNA binding, was specifically chosen on the basis of the contacts more frequently represented in the available list of the 'code'. Here we demonstrate that Jazz protein binds specifically to the double-stranded DNA target, with a dissociation constant of about 32 nM. Band shift and super-shift experiments confirmed the high affinity and specificity of Jazz protein for its DNA target. Moreover, we show that chimeric proteins, named Gal4-Jazz and Sp1-Jazz, are able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the human utrophin promoter.

  1. Inhibition of Wilms tumor 1 transactivation by bone marrow zinc finger 2, a novel transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Ho; Lwu, Shelly; Kim, Jungho; Pelletier, Jerry

    2002-11-22

    The Wilms tumor suppressor gene, wt1, encodes a zinc finger transcription factor that has been implicated in the regulation of a number of genes. Protein-protein interactions are known to modulate the transcription regulatory functions of Wilms tumor (WT1) and have also implicated WT1 in splicing. In this report, we identify a novel WT1-interacting protein, bone marrow zinc finger 2 (BMZF2), by affinity chromatography utilizing immobilized WT1 protein. BMZF2 is a potential transcription factor with 18 zinc fingers. The BMZF2 mRNA is mainly expressed in fetal tissues, and the protein is predominantly nuclear. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments are consistent with an in vivo association between WT1 and BMZF2. Glutathione S-transferase pulldown assays and far Western blots revealed that zinc fingers VI-X (amino acids 231-370) are required for interaction with the zinc finger region of WT1. Functionally, BMZF2 inhibits transcriptional activation by WT1. Moreover, a chimeric protein generated by fusion of BMZF2 to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain significantly decreases promoter activity of a reporter containing GAL4 DNA-binding sites, suggesting the presence of an active repressor domain within BMZF2. Our results suggest that BMZF2 interferes with the transactivation potential of WT1. PMID:12239212

  2. Purification of proteins containing zinc finger domains using Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Voráčková, Irena; Suchanová, Šárka; Ulbrich, Pavel; Diehl, William E.; Ruml, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Heterologous proteins are frequently purified by Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) based on their modification with a hexa-histidine affinity tag (His-tag). The terminal His-tag can, however, alter functional properties of the tagged protein. Numerous strategies for the tag removal have been developed including chemical treatment and insertion of protease target sequences in the protein sequence. Instead of using these approaches, we took an advantage of natural interaction of zinc finger domains with metal ions to purify functionally similar retroviral proteins from two different retroviruses. We found that these proteins exhibited significantly different affinities to the immobilized metal ions, despite that both contain the same type of zinc finger motif (i.e. CCHC). While zinc finger proteins may differ in biochemical properties, the multitude of IMAC platforms should allow relatively simple yet specific method for their isolation in native state. PMID:21600288

  3. The zinc finger domain of IKKγ (NEMO) protein in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Shifera, Amde Selassie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) gamma (IKKγ), also known as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) essential modulator (NEMO), is a component of the IKK complex that is essential for the activation of the NF-κB pathway. The NF-κB pathway plays a major role in the regulation of the expression of genes that are involved in immune response, inflammation, cell adhesion, cell survival and development. As part of the IKK complex, IKKγ plays a regulatory role by linking the complex to upstream signalling molecules. IKKγ contains two coiled-coil regions, a leucine zipper domain and a highly conserved zinc finger domain. Mutations affecting IKKγ have been associated with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency (HED-ID), with the majority of these mutations affecting the C-terminal region of the protein where the zinc finger is located. The zinc finger of IKKγ is needed for NF-κB activation in a cell- and stimulus-specific manner. The major mechanism by which the zinc finger plays this role appears to be the recognition of polyubiquitinated upstream signalling intermediates. This assertion reinforces the current notion that ubiquitination plays a major role in mediating protein–protein interactions in the NF-κB signalling pathway. Because the zinc finger domain of IKKγ is very likely involved in mediating interactions with ubiquitinated proteins, investigations that look for upstream activators or inhibitors of the IKK complex that bind to and interact with the zinc finger of IKKγ are required to gain a better insight into the exact roles of this domain and into the pathogenesis of HED-ID. PMID:20345847

  4. The (unusual) aspartic acid in the metal coordination sphere of the prokaryotic zinc finger domain.

    PubMed

    D'Abrosca, Gianluca; Russo, Luigi; Palmieri, Maddalena; Baglivo, Ilaria; Netti, Fortuna; de Paola, Ivan; Zaccaro, Laura; Farina, Biancamaria; Iacovino, Rosa; Pedone, Paolo Vincenzo; Isernia, Carla; Fattorusso, Roberto; Malgieri, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of choices of protein ligands and coordination geometries leads to diverse Zn(II) binding sites in zinc-proteins, allowing a range of important biological roles. The prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc finger domain (originally found in the Ros protein from Agrobacterium tumefaciens) tetrahedrally coordinates zinc through two cysteine and two histidine residues and it does not adopt a correct fold in the absence of the metal ion. Ros is the first structurally characterized member of a family of bacterial proteins that presents several amino acid changes in the positions occupied in Ros by the zinc coordinating residues. In particular, the second position is very often occupied by an aspartic acid although the coordination of structural zinc by an aspartate in eukaryotic zinc fingers is very unusual. Here, by appropriately mutating the protein Ros, we characterize the aspartate role within the coordination sphere of this family of proteins demonstrating how the presence of this residue only slightly perturbs the functional structure of the prokaryotic zinc finger domain while it greatly influences its thermodynamic properties. PMID:27238756

  5. Solution NMR characterization of Sgf73(1-104) indicates that Zn ion is required to stabilize zinc finger motif

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chaohua; Wu, Minhao; Li, Pan; Shi, Chaowei; Tian, Changlin; Zang, Jianye

    2010-07-02

    Zinc finger motif contains a zinc ion coordinated by several conserved amino acid residues. Yeast Sgf73 protein was identified as a component of SAGA (Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase) multi-subunit complex and Sgf73 protein was known to contain two zinc finger motifs. Sgf73(1-104), containing the first zinc finger motif, was necessary to modulate the deubiquitinase activity of SAGA complex. Here, Sgf73(1-104) was over-expressed using bacterial expression system and purified for solution NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) structural studies. Secondary structure and site-specific relaxation analysis of Sgf73(1-104) were achieved after solution NMR backbone assignment. Solution NMR and circular dichroism analysis of Sgf73(1-104) after zinc ion removal using chelation reagent EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid) demonstrated that zinc ion was required to maintain stable conformation of the zinc finger motif.

  6. Zinc finger nuclease technology: advances and obstacles in modelling and treating genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Jabalameli, Hamid Reza; Zahednasab, Hamid; Karimi-Moghaddam, Amin; Jabalameli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-03-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are engineered restriction enzymes designed to target specific DNA sequences within the genome. Assembly of zinc finger DNA-binding domain to a DNA-cleavage domain enables the enzyme machinery to target unique locus in the genome and invoke endogenous DNA repair mechanisms. This machinery offers a versatile approach in allele editing and gene therapy. Here we discuss the architecture of ZFNs and strategies for generating targeted modifications within the genome. We review advances in gene therapy and modelling of the disease using these enzymes and finally, discuss the practical obstacles in using this technology.

  7. Characterization of zinc finger protein 496 that interacts with Jumonji/Jarid2.

    PubMed

    Mysliwiec, Matthew Robert; Kim, Tae-Gyun; Lee, Youngsook

    2007-06-12

    Jumonij (JMJ)/Jarid2 plays important roles in embryonic development and functions as a transcriptional repressor. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we have identified a cofactor of JMJ, the zinc finger protein 496 (Zfp496) that contains a SCAN, KRAB and zinc finger domain. Our molecular analyses indicate that Zfp496 functions as a transcriptional activator. Further, Zfp496 inhibits the transcriptional repression of JMJ and JMJ represses the transcriptional activation of Zfp496. This study demonstrates that JMJ physically and functionally interacts with Zfp496, which will provide important insights into endogenous target gene regulation by both factors.

  8. Efficient cleavage of DNA oligonucleotides by a non-FokI-type zinc finger nuclease containing one His₄-type finger domain derived from the first finger domain of Sp1.

    PubMed

    Negi, Shigeru; Yoshioka, Michiko; Mima, Hiroko; Mastumoto, Makoto; Suzuki, Michiko; Yokoyama, Mao; Kano, Koji; Sugiura, Yukio

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we sought to improve the hydrolytic activity of a His4-type single finger domain (f2), which was previously derived from the second finger domain (f2') of the Sp1 zinc finger protein (Sp1wt), which has 3 tandem finger domains (f1', f2', and f3'). To this end, 2 His4-type single finger domains were generated by mutating 2 Cys residues participating in Zn(II) coordination with the His residues in the first (f1') and third finger (f3') domains of Sp1wt. Circular dichroism spectroscopy results showed that the first and second His4-type zinc finger domains (f1 and f2) adopted folded ββα structures in the presence of Zn(II), but that the third His4-type zinc finger domain (f3) did not. Non-FokI-type zinc finger nucleases containing 3 or 4 finger domains were also prepared by combining a His4-type zinc finger domain with the Sp1wt scaffold. We studied their DNA-binding abilities and hydrolytic activities against DNA oligonucleotides by performing gel-mobility-shift assays. The results showed that f1 had higher hydrolytic activity for a DNA oligonucleotide with a GC box (5'-GGG GCG GGG-3'), compared with that of f2, although both His4-type single finger domains had similar DNA-binding affinities. The difference in the hydrolytic activity between f1 and f2 was ascribed not only to the zinc coordinate structure, but also to its folding structure and the stability of finger domain. PMID:26316464

  9. Specific zinc-finger architecture required for HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein's nucleic acid chaperone function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mark C.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2002-01-01

    The nucleocapsid protein (NC) of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) is a nucleic acid chaperone that facilitates the rearrangement of nucleic acid secondary structure during reverse transcription. HIV-1 NC contains two CCHC-type zinc binding domains. Here, we use optical tweezers to stretch single λ-DNA molecules through the helix-to-coil transition in the presence of wild-type and several mutant forms of HIV-1 NC with altered zinc-finger domains. Although all forms of NC lowered the cooperativity of the DNA helix–coil transition, subtle changes in the zinc-finger structures reduced NC's effect on the transition. The change in cooperativity of the DNA helix–coil transition correlates strongly with in vitro nucleic acid chaperone activity measurements and in vivo HIV-1 replication studies using the same NC mutants. Moreover, Moloney murine leukemia virus NC, which contains a single zinc finger, had little effect on transition cooperativity. These results suggest that a specific two-zinc-finger architecture is required to destabilize nucleic acids for optimal chaperone activity during reverse transcription in complex retroviruses such as HIV-1. PMID:12084921

  10. C terminal retroviral-type zinc finger domain from the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein is structurally similar to the N-terminal zinc finger domain

    SciTech Connect

    South, T.L.; Blake, P.R. ); Hare, D.R.; Summers, M.F. )

    1991-06-25

    Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic and computational methods were employed for the structure determination of an 18-residue peptide with the amino acid sequence of the C-terminal retriviral-type (r.t.) zinc finger domain from the nucleocapsid protein (NCP) of HIV-1 (Zn(HIV1-F2)). Unlike results obtained for the first retroviral-type zinc finger peptide, Zn (HIV1-F1) broad signals indicative of confomational lability were observed in the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of An(HIV1-F2) at 25 C. The NMR signals narrowed upon cooling to {minus}2 C, enabling complete {sup 1}H NMR signal assignment via standard two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Distance restraints obtained from qualitative analysis of 2D nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) data were sued to generate 30 distance geometry (DG) structures with penalties in the range 0.02-0.03 {angstrom}{sup 2}. All structures were qualitatively consistent with the experimental NOESY spectrum based on comparisons with 2D NOESY back-calculated spectra. These results indicate that the r.t. zinc finger sequences observed in retroviral NCPs, simple plant virus coat proteins, and in a human single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein share a common structural motif.

  11. Differential binding of monomethylarsonous acid compared to arsenite and arsenic trioxide with zinc finger peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xixi; Sun, Xi; Mobarak, Charlotte; Gandolfi, A Jay; Burchiel, Scott W; Hudson, Laurie G; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-04-21

    Arsenic is an environmental toxin that enhances the carcinogenic effect of DNA-damaging agents, such as ultraviolet radiation and benzo[a]pyrene. Interaction with zinc finger proteins has been shown to be an important molecular mechanism for arsenic toxicity and cocarcinogenesis. Arsenicals such as arsenite, arsenic trioxide (ATO), and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) have been reported to interact with cysteine residues of zinc finger domains, but little is known about potential differences in their selectivity of interaction. Herein we analyzed the interaction of arsenite, MMA(III), and ATO with C2H2, C3H1, and C4 configurations of zinc fingers using UV-vis, cobalt, fluorescence, and mass spectrometry. We observed that arsenite and ATO both selectively bound to C3H1 and C4 zinc fingers, while MMA(III) interacted with all three configurations of zinc finger peptides. Structurally and functionally, arsenite and ATO caused conformational changes and zinc loss on C3H1 and C4 zinc finger peptide and protein, respectively, whereas MMA(III) changed conformation and displaced zinc on all three types of zinc fingers. The differential selectivity was also demonstrated in zinc finger proteins isolated from cells treated with these arsenicals. Our results show that trivalent inorganic arsenic compounds, arsenite and ATO, have the same selectivity and behavior when interacting with zinc finger proteins, while methylation removes the selectivity. These findings provide insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential effects of inorganic versus methylated arsenicals, as well as the role of in vivo arsenic methylation in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  12. DUF581 Is Plant Specific FCS-Like Zinc Finger Involved in Protein-Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    K, Muhammed Jamsheer; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2014-01-01

    Zinc fingers are a ubiquitous class of protein domain with considerable variation in structure and function. Zf-FCS is a highly diverged group of C2-C2 zinc finger which is present in animals, prokaryotes and viruses, but not in plants. In this study we identified that a plant specific domain of unknown function, DUF581 is a zf-FCS type zinc finger. Based on HMM-HMM comparison and signature motif similarity we named this domain as FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) domain. A genome wide survey identified that FLZ domain containing genes are bryophytic in origin and this gene family is expanded in spermatophytes. Expression analysis of selected FLZ gene family members of A. thaliana identified an overlapping expression pattern suggesting a possible redundancy in their function. Unlike the zf-FCS domain, the FLZ domain found to be highly conserved in sequence and structure. Using a combination of bioinformatic and protein-protein interaction tools, we identified that FLZ domain is involved in protein-protein interaction. PMID:24901469

  13. DUF581 is plant specific FCS-like zinc finger involved in protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    K, Muhammed Jamsheer; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2014-01-01

    Zinc fingers are a ubiquitous class of protein domain with considerable variation in structure and function. Zf-FCS is a highly diverged group of C2-C2 zinc finger which is present in animals, prokaryotes and viruses, but not in plants. In this study we identified that a plant specific domain of unknown function, DUF581 is a zf-FCS type zinc finger. Based on HMM-HMM comparison and signature motif similarity we named this domain as FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) domain. A genome wide survey identified that FLZ domain containing genes are bryophytic in origin and this gene family is expanded in spermatophytes. Expression analysis of selected FLZ gene family members of A. thaliana identified an overlapping expression pattern suggesting a possible redundancy in their function. Unlike the zf-FCS domain, the FLZ domain found to be highly conserved in sequence and structure. Using a combination of bioinformatic and protein-protein interaction tools, we identified that FLZ domain is involved in protein-protein interaction.

  14. Transgenic mice expressing an artificial zinc finger regulator targeting an endogenous gene.

    PubMed

    Passananti, Claudio; Corbi, Nicoletta; Onori, Annalisa; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    Zinc finger (ZF) proteins belonging to the Cys2-His2 class provide a simple and versatile framework to design novel artificial transcription factors (ATFs) targeted to the desired genes. Our work is based on ZF ATFs engineered to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin-related gene utrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In particular, on the basis of the "recognition code" that defines specific rules between zinc finger primary structure and potential DNA-binding sites we engineered and selected a new family of artificial transcription factors, whose DNA-binding domain consists in a three zinc finger peptide called "Jazz." Jazz protein binds specifically the 9 bp DNA sequence (5(')-GCT-GCT-GCG-3(')) present in the promoter region of both the human and mouse utrophin gene. We generated a transgenic mouse expressing Jazz protein fused to the strong transcriptional activation domain VP16 and under the control of the muscle specific promoter of the myosin light chain gene. Vp16-Jazz mice display a strong up-regulation of the utrophin at both mRNA and protein levels. To our knowledge, this represents the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger-based transcription factor.

  15. Alteration of zif268 zinc-finger motifs gives rise to non-native zinc-co-ordination sites but preserves wild-type DNA recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Green, A; Sarkar, B

    1998-01-01

    Zinc fingers are among the major structural motifs found in proteins that are involved in eukaryotic gene regulation. Many of these zinc-finger domains are involved in DNA binding. This study investigated whether the zinc-co-ordinating (Cys)2(His)2 motif found in the three zinc fingers of zif268 could be replaced by a (Cys)4 motif while still preserving DNA recognition. (Cys)2(His)2-to-(Cys)4 mutations were generated in each of the three zinc fingers of zif268 individually, as well as in fingers 1 and 3, and fingers 2 and 3 together. Whereas finger 1 and finger 3 tolerate the switch, such an alteration in finger 2 renders the polypeptide incapable of DNA recognition. The protein-DNA interaction was examined in greater detail by using a methylation-interference assay. The mutant polypeptides containing the (Cys)4 motif in fingers 1 or 3 recognize DNA in a manner identical to the wild-type protein, suggesting that the (Cys)4 motif appears to give rise to a properly folded finger. Additional results indicate that a zif268 variant containing a (Cys)2(His)(Ala) arrangement in finger 1 is also capable of DNA recognition in a manner identical to the wild-type polypeptide. This appears to be the first time that such alterations, in the context of an intact DNA-binding domain, have still allowed for specific DNA recognition. Taken together, the work presented here enhances our understanding of the relationship between metal ligation and DNA-binding by zinc fingers. PMID:9639566

  16. Towards a Black-Box for Biological EXAFS Data Analysis - I. Identification of Zinc Finger Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Wellenreuther, Gerd; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram

    2007-02-02

    EXAFS allows the determination of metal binding motifs in proteins. Here we present an algorithm for the identification of one subgroup, the Zinc finger proteins, by an automated refinement of biological EXAFS data. In combination with scoring criteria inspired by high resolution crystal structures these refinements led to the identification of these motifs, that playing an important role in protein-DNA and protein-RNA interactions. Robust criteria were identified investigating several EXAFS data sets from different zinc binding proteins. For all structural zinc motifs the automated EXAFS refinement led to results consistent with published ones.

  17. Spectroscopic studies of wild-type and mutant "zinc finger" peptides: determinants of domain folding and structure.

    PubMed

    Párraga, G; Horvath, S; Hood, L; Young, E T; Klevit, R E

    1990-01-01

    The "zinc finger" model [Miller, J., McLachlan, A. D. & Klug, A. (1985) EMBO J. 4, 1609-1614; Brown, R. S., Sander, C. & Argos, P. (1985) FEBS Lett. 186, 271-274] makes both specific structural and specific functional predictions about zinc finger consensus sequences that can be tested with a combination of genetic, molecular biological, and biophysical techniques. The yeast transcription factor ADR1 contains two adjacent zinc finger domains; genetic and deletion analyses showed that amino acid substitutions and deletions in the zinc finger domains resulted in the loss of protein activity. To test the structural and folding predictions of the zinc finger model, peptides encompassing each of the ADR1 fingers were synthesized (ADR1a and ADR1b) as well as a mutant finger peptide (del138) deleted for a single amino acid residue. The folding and metal-binding characteristics of these were assessed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and visible spectroscopy. While a single unique conformational species was detected for the two wild-type peptides upon tetrahedral binding of zinc, the deletion peptide did not bind zinc with tetrahedral geometry, nor did it fold into a zinc finger domain. The metal-binding and folding results found with the mutant peptide were similar to those obtained when thiol alkylation or imidazole protonation of the wild-type peptides was performed. These data indicate that ligand spacing and both thiol and imidazole participation in zinc binding are specific and necessary requirements for zinc finger folding, which provides direct support for the initial predictions of the model.

  18. Spectroscopic studies of wild-type and mutant "zinc finger" peptides: determinants of domain folding and structure.

    PubMed Central

    Párraga, G; Horvath, S; Hood, L; Young, E T; Klevit, R E

    1990-01-01

    The "zinc finger" model [Miller, J., McLachlan, A. D. & Klug, A. (1985) EMBO J. 4, 1609-1614; Brown, R. S., Sander, C. & Argos, P. (1985) FEBS Lett. 186, 271-274] makes both specific structural and specific functional predictions about zinc finger consensus sequences that can be tested with a combination of genetic, molecular biological, and biophysical techniques. The yeast transcription factor ADR1 contains two adjacent zinc finger domains; genetic and deletion analyses showed that amino acid substitutions and deletions in the zinc finger domains resulted in the loss of protein activity. To test the structural and folding predictions of the zinc finger model, peptides encompassing each of the ADR1 fingers were synthesized (ADR1a and ADR1b) as well as a mutant finger peptide (del138) deleted for a single amino acid residue. The folding and metal-binding characteristics of these were assessed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and visible spectroscopy. While a single unique conformational species was detected for the two wild-type peptides upon tetrahedral binding of zinc, the deletion peptide did not bind zinc with tetrahedral geometry, nor did it fold into a zinc finger domain. The metal-binding and folding results found with the mutant peptide were similar to those obtained when thiol alkylation or imidazole protonation of the wild-type peptides was performed. These data indicate that ligand spacing and both thiol and imidazole participation in zinc binding are specific and necessary requirements for zinc finger folding, which provides direct support for the initial predictions of the model. PMID:2104978

  19. Cysteine residues in the zinc finger and amino acids adjacent to the finger are necessary for DNA binding by the LAC9 regulatory protein of Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed Central

    Witte, M M; Dickson, R C

    1988-01-01

    LAC9 is a positive regulatory protein that controls transcription of the lactose-galactose regulon in Kluyveromyces lactis. LAC9 is homologous to the GAL4 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both proteins have a single "zinc finger" which plays a role in DNA binding. We previously hypothesized (L. V. Wray, M. M. Witte, R. C. Dickson, and M. I. Riley, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:1111-1121, 1987) that the DNA-binding domain of the LAC9 protein consisted of the zinc finger as well as a region of amino acids on the carboxyl-terminal side of the zinc finger. In this study we used oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis to introduce 13 single-amino-acid changes into the proposed DNA-binding domain of the LAC9 protein. Variant LAC9 proteins carrying an amino acid substitution in any one of the four highly conserved Cys residues of the zinc finger had reduced DNA-binding activity, suggesting that each Cys is necessary for DNA binding. Three of four variant LAC9 proteins with amino acid substitutions located on the carboxyl-terminal side of the zinc finger had reduced DNA-binding activity. These results support our hypothesis that the DNA-binding domain of the LAC9 protein is composed of the zinc finger and the adjacent region on the carboxyl side of the zinc finger, a region that has the potential to form an alpha-helix. Finally, LAC9 proteins containing His residues substituted for the conserved Cys residues also had reduced DNA-binding activity, indicating that His residues are not equivalent to Cys residues, as had been previously thought. Images PMID:3146691

  20. Characterization of a mouse multigene family that encodes zinc finger structures.

    PubMed Central

    Chavrier, P; Lemaire, P; Revelant, O; Bravo, R; Charnay, P

    1988-01-01

    The Drosophila segmentation gene Krüppel encodes multiple tandemly repeated units predicted to form DNA-binding zinc fingers. We have isolated 23 bacteriophages, containing nonoverlapping inserts from a mouse genomic DNA library, on the basis of cross-hybridization under nonstringent conditions to a probe corresponding to the Krüppel finger region. Nucleotide sequence analysis of six phage DNAs indicated that they all contained regions with similarity to Krüppel and potentially encoded zinc finger domains. Within these regions, the level of similarity to Krüppel was particularly high between successive fingers. Northern (RNA) blotting analysis suggested that the mouse sequences belonged to different genes, the expression of some of which was modulated during cell differentiation and development. Hybridization experiments suggested that the similarity between some of the genes extended outside of the finger regions. In conclusion, our data suggest that the mouse genome contains a large family of evolutionarily related genes encoding possible trans-acting factors. These genes are likely to play a regulatory role at the transcriptional level. Images PMID:2452975

  1. Repurposing TRASH: emergence of the enzyme organomercurial lyase from a non-catalytic zinc finger scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2014-10-01

    The mercury resistance pathway enzyme organomercurial lyase (MerB) catalyzes the conversion of organomercurials to ionic mercury (Hg(2+)). Here, we provide evidence for the emergence of this enzyme from a TRASH-like, non-enzymatic, treble-clef zinc finger ancestor by domain duplication and fusion. Surprisingly, the structure-stabilizing metal-binding core of the treble-clef appears to have been repurposed in evolution to serve a catalytic role. Novel enzymatic functions are believed to have evolved from ancestral generalist catalytic scaffolds or from already specialized enzymes with catalytic promiscuity. The emergence of MerB from a zinc finger ancestor serves as a rare example of how a novel enzyme may emerge from a non-catalytic scaffold with a related binding function.

  2. A zinc finger protein that regulates oligodendrocyte specification, migration and myelination in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Harwin; Talbot, William S

    2015-12-01

    Precise control of oligodendrocyte migration and development is crucial for myelination of axons in the central nervous system (CNS), but important questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms controlling these processes. In a zebrafish screen for myelination mutants, we identified a mutation in zinc finger protein 16-like (znf16l). znf16l mutant larvae have reduced myelin basic protein (mbp) expression and reduced CNS myelin. Marker, time-lapse and ultrastructural studies indicated that oligodendrocyte specification, migration and myelination are disrupted in znf16l mutants. Transgenic studies indicated that znf16l acts autonomously in oligodendrocytes. Expression of Zfp488 from mouse rescued mbp expression in znf16l mutants, indicating that these homologs have overlapping functions. Our results defined the function of a new zinc finger protein with specific function in oligodendrocyte specification, migration and myelination in the developing CNS.

  3. Identification and preliminary characterization of a protein motif related to the zinc finger.

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, R; Hanson, I M; Borden, K L; Martin, S; O'Reilly, N J; Evan, G I; Rahman, D; Pappin, D J; Trowsdale, J; Freemont, P S

    1993-01-01

    We have identified a protein motif, related to the zinc finger, which defines a newly discovered family of proteins. The motif was found in the sequence of the human RING1 gene, which is proximal to the major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome six. We propose naming this motif the "RING finger" and it is found in 27 proteins, all of which have putative DNA binding functions. We have synthesized a peptide corresponding to the RING1 motif and examined a number of properties, including metal and DNA binding. We provide evidence to support the suggestion that the RING finger motif is the DNA binding domain of this newly defined family of proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:7681583

  4. Transient cold shock enhances zinc-finger nuclease-mediated gene disruption.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Yannick; Choi, Vivian M; Xia, Danny F; Vo, Thuy D; Gregory, Philip D; Holmes, Michael C

    2010-06-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are powerful tools for editing the genomes of cell lines and model organisms. Given the breadth of their potential application, simple methods that increase ZFN activity, thus ensuring genome modification, are highly attractive. Here we show that transient hypothermia generally and robustly increased the level of stable, ZFN-induced gene disruption, thereby providing a simple technique to enhance the experimental efficacy of ZFNs.

  5. Design of a zinc finger protein binding a sequence upstream of the A20 gene

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yong; Ying, Dajun; Hou, Chunli; Cui, Xiaoping; Zhu, Chuhong

    2008-01-01

    Background Artificial transcription factors (ATFs) are composed of DNA-binding and functional domains. These domains can be fused together to create proteins that can bind a chosen DNA sequence. To construct a valid ATF, it is necessary to design suitable DNA-binding and functional domains. The Cys2-His2 zinc finger motif is the ideal structural scaffold on which to construct a sequence-specific protein. A20 is a cytoplasmic zinc finger protein that inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated programmed cell death. A20 has been shown to prevent TNF-induced cytotoxicity in a variety of cell types including fibroblasts, B lymphocytes, WEHI 164 cells, NIH 3T3 cells and endothelial cells. Results In order to design a zinc finger protein (ZFP) structural domain that binds specific target sequences in the A20 gene promoter region, the structure and sequence composition of this promoter were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The target sequences in the A20 promoter were submitted to the on-line ZF Tools server of the Barbas Laboratory, Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), to obtain a specific 18 bp target sequence and also the amino acid sequence of a ZFP that would bind to it. Sequence characterization and structural modeling of the predicted ZFP were performed by bioinformatics methods. The optimized DNA sequence of this artificial ZFP was recombined into the eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-EGFP to construct pIRES2-EGFP/ZFP-flag recombinants, and the expression and biological activity of the ZFP were analyzed by RT-PCR, western blotting and EMSA, respectively. The ZFP was designed successfully and exhibited biological activity. Conclusion It is feasible to design specific zinc finger proteins by bioinformatics methods. PMID:18366681

  6. An improved predictive recognition model for Cys2-His2 zinc finger proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankit; Christensen, Ryan G.; Bell, Heather A.; Goodwin, Mathew; Patel, Ronak Y.; Pandey, Manishi; Enuameh, Metewo Selase; Rayla, Amy L.; Zhu, Cong; Thibodeau-Beganny, Stacey; Brodsky, Michael H.; Joung, J. Keith; Wolfe, Scot A.; Stormo, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Cys2-His2 zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are the largest family of transcription factors in higher metazoans. They also represent the most diverse family with regards to the composition of their recognition sequences. Although there are a number of ZFPs with characterized DNA-binding preferences, the specificity of the vast majority of ZFPs is unknown and cannot be directly inferred by homology due to the diversity of recognition residues present within individual fingers. Given the large number of unique zinc fingers and assemblies present across eukaryotes, a comprehensive predictive recognition model that could accurately estimate the DNA-binding specificity of any ZFP based on its amino acid sequence would have great utility. Toward this goal, we have used the DNA-binding specificities of 678 two-finger modules from both natural and artificial sources to construct a random forest-based predictive model for ZFP recognition. We find that our recognition model outperforms previously described determinant-based recognition models for ZFPs, and can successfully estimate the specificity of naturally occurring ZFPs with previously defined specificities. PMID:24523353

  7. A structural approach reveals how neighbouring C2H2 zinc fingers influence DNA binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Garton, Michael; Najafabadi, Hamed S; Schmitges, Frank W; Radovani, Ernest; Hughes, Timothy R; Kim, Philip M

    2015-10-30

    Development of an accurate protein-DNA recognition code that can predict DNA specificity from protein sequence is a central problem in biology. C2H2 zinc fingers constitute by far the largest family of DNA binding domains and their binding specificity has been studied intensively. However, despite decades of research, accurate prediction of DNA specificity remains elusive. A major obstacle is thought to be the inability of current methods to account for the influence of neighbouring domains. Here we show that this problem can be addressed using a structural approach: we build structural models for all C2H2-ZF-DNA complexes with known binding motifs and find six distinct binding modes. Each mode changes the orientation of specificity residues with respect to the DNA, thereby modulating base preference. Most importantly, the structural analysis shows that residues at the domain interface strongly and predictably influence the binding mode, and hence specificity. Accounting for predicted binding mode significantly improves prediction accuracy of predicted motifs. This new insight into the fundamental behaviour of C2H2-ZFs has implications for both improving the prediction of natural zinc finger-binding sites, and for prioritizing further experiments to complete the code. It also provides a new design feature for zinc finger engineering. PMID:26384429

  8. Role of the POZ zinc finger transcription factor FBI-1 in human and murine adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Laudes, Matthias; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Sewter, Ciaran; Rochford, Justin J; Considine, Robert V; Sethi, Jaswinder K; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2004-03-19

    Poxvirus zinc finger (POZ) zinc finger domain transcription factors have been shown to play a role in the control of growth arrest and differentiation in several types of mesenchymal cells but not, as yet, adipocytes. We found that a POZ domain protein, factor that binds to inducer of short transcripts-1 (FBI-1), was induced during both murine and human preadipocyte differentiation with maximal expression levels seen at days 2-4. FBI-1 mRNA was expressed in human adipose tissue with the highest levels found in samples from morbidly obese subjects. Murine cell lines constitutively expressing FBI-1 showed evidence for accelerated adipogenesis with earlier induction of markers of differentiation and enhanced lipid accumulation, suggesting that FBI-1 may be an active participant in the differentiation process. Consistent with the properties of this family of proteins in other cell systems, 3T3L1 cells stably overexpressing FBI-1 showed reduced DNA synthesis and reduced expression of cyclin A, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and p107, proteins known to be involved in the regulation of mitotic clonal expansion. In addition, FBI-1 reduced the transcriptional activity of the cyclin A promoter. Thus, FBI-1, a POZ zinc finger transcription factor, is induced during the early phases of human and murine preadipocyte differentiation where it may contribute to adipogenesis through influencing the switch from cellular proliferation to terminal differentiation.

  9. Role of the POZ Zinc Finger Transcription Factor FBI-1 in Human and Murine Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Laudes, Matthias; Christodoulides, Constantinos; Sewter, Ciaran; Rochford, Justin J.; Considine, Robert V.; Sethi, Jaswinder K.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; O’Rahilly, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Poxvirus zinc finger (POZ) zinc finger domain transcription factors have been shown to play a role in the control of growth arrest and differentiation in several types of mesenchymal cells but not, as yet, adipocytes. We found that a POZ domain protein, factor that binds to inducer of short transcripts-1 (FBI-1), was induced during both murine and human preadipocyte differentiation with maximal expression levels seen at days 2–4. FBI-1 mRNA was expressed in human adipose tissue with the highest levels found in samples from morbidly obese subjects. Murine cell lines constitutively expressing FBI-1 showed evidence for accelerated adipogenesis with earlier induction of markers of differentiation and enhanced lipid accumulation, suggesting that FBI-1 may be an active participant in the differentiation process. Consistent with the properties of this family of proteins in other cell systems, 3T3L1 cells stably overexpressing FBI-1 showed reduced DNA synthesis and reduced expression of cyclin A, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and p107, proteins known to be involved in the regulation of mitotic clonal expansion. In addition, FBI-1 reduced the transcriptional activity of the cyclin A promoter. Thus, FBI-1, a POZ zinc finger transcription factor, is induced during the early phases of human and murine preadipocyte differentiation where it may contribute to adipogenesis through influencing the switch from cellular proliferation to terminal differentiation. PMID:14701838

  10. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin {alpha}. {yields} Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. {yields} Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin {alpha} in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin {alpha} including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin {alpha}. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  11. The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN protein is able to specifically bind DNA through its single Cys2-His2 zinc finger motif.

    PubMed

    Dathan, Nina; Zaccaro, Laura; Esposito, Sabrina; Isernia, Carla; Omichinski, James G; Riccio, Andrea; Pedone, Carlo; Di Blasio, Benedetto; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V

    2002-11-15

    The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN (SUP) gene has been shown to be important in maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels, and is presumed to act by regulating cell proliferation. In this work, we show that the SUP protein, which contains a single Cys2-His2 zinc finger domain including the QALGGH sequence, highly conserved in the plant zinc finger proteins, binds DNA. Using a series of deletion mutants, it was determined that the minimal domain required for specific DNA binding (residues 15-78) includes the single zinc finger and two basic regions located on either side of this motif. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions in the zinc finger or in the basic regions, including a mutation that knocks out the function of the SUP protein in vivo (glycine 63 to aspartate), have been found to abolish the activity of the SUP DNA-binding domain. These results strongly suggest that the SUP protein functions in vivo by acting as a DNA-binding protein, likely involved in transcriptional regulation. The association of both an N-terminal and a C-terminal basic region with a single Cys2-His2 zinc finger represents a novel DNA-binding motif suggesting that the mechanism of DNA recognition adopted by the SUP protein is different from that described so far in other zinc finger proteins. PMID:12433998

  12. The Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Is Critical for Human Endometrial Stromal Cell Decidualization.

    PubMed

    Kommagani, Ramakrishna; Szwarc, Maria M; Vasquez, Yasmin M; Peavey, Mary C; Mazur, Erik C; Gibbons, William E; Lanz, Rainer B; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P

    2016-04-01

    Progesterone, via the progesterone receptor (PGR), is essential for endometrial stromal cell decidualization, a cellular transformation event in which stromal fibroblasts differentiate into decidual cells. Uterine decidualization supports embryo implantation and placentation as well as subsequent events, which together ensure a successful pregnancy. Accordingly, impaired decidualization results not only in implantation failure or early fetal miscarriage, but also may lead to potential adverse outcomes in all three pregnancy trimesters. Transcriptional reprogramming on a genome-wide scale underlies progesterone dependent decidualization of the human endometrial stromal cell (hESC). However, identification of the functionally essential signals encoded by these global transcriptional changes remains incomplete. Importantly, this knowledge-gap undercuts future efforts to improve diagnosis and treatment of implantation failure based on a dysfunctional endometrium. By integrating genome-wide datasets derived from decidualization of hESCs in culture, we reveal that the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) transcription factor is rapidly induced by progesterone and that this induction is indispensable for progesterone-dependent decidualization. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) identified at least ten progesterone response elements within the PLZF gene, indicating that PLZF may act as a direct target of PGR signaling. The spatiotemporal expression profile for PLZF in both the human and mouse endometrium offers further support for stromal PLZF as a mediator of the progesterone decidual signal. To identify functional targets of PLZF, integration of PLZF ChIP-Seq and RNA Pol II RNA-Seq datasets revealed that the early growth response 1 (EGR1) transcription factor is a PLZF target for which its level of expression must be reduced to enable progesterone dependent hESC decidualization. Apart from furnishing essential insights

  13. The Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Is Critical for Human Endometrial Stromal Cell Decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Kommagani, Ramakrishna; Szwarc, Maria M.; Vasquez, Yasmin M.; Peavey, Mary C.; Mazur, Erik C.; Gibbons, William E.; Lanz, Rainer B.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone, via the progesterone receptor (PGR), is essential for endometrial stromal cell decidualization, a cellular transformation event in which stromal fibroblasts differentiate into decidual cells. Uterine decidualization supports embryo implantation and placentation as well as subsequent events, which together ensure a successful pregnancy. Accordingly, impaired decidualization results not only in implantation failure or early fetal miscarriage, but also may lead to potential adverse outcomes in all three pregnancy trimesters. Transcriptional reprogramming on a genome-wide scale underlies progesterone dependent decidualization of the human endometrial stromal cell (hESC). However, identification of the functionally essential signals encoded by these global transcriptional changes remains incomplete. Importantly, this knowledge-gap undercuts future efforts to improve diagnosis and treatment of implantation failure based on a dysfunctional endometrium. By integrating genome-wide datasets derived from decidualization of hESCs in culture, we reveal that the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) transcription factor is rapidly induced by progesterone and that this induction is indispensable for progesterone-dependent decidualization. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) identified at least ten progesterone response elements within the PLZF gene, indicating that PLZF may act as a direct target of PGR signaling. The spatiotemporal expression profile for PLZF in both the human and mouse endometrium offers further support for stromal PLZF as a mediator of the progesterone decidual signal. To identify functional targets of PLZF, integration of PLZF ChIP-Seq and RNA Pol II RNA-Seq datasets revealed that the early growth response 1 (EGR1) transcription factor is a PLZF target for which its level of expression must be reduced to enable progesterone dependent hESC decidualization. Apart from furnishing essential insights

  14. A phenyl-thiadiazolylidene-amine derivative ejects zinc from retroviral nucleocapsid zinc fingers and inactivates HIV virions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through mucosal transmission may be prevented by using topically applied agents that block HIV transmission from one individual to another. Therefore, virucidal agents that inactivate HIV virions may be used as a component in topical microbicides. Results Here, we have identified 2-methyl-3-phenyl-2H-[1,2,4]thiadiazol-5-ylideneamine (WDO-217) as a low-molecular-weight molecule that inactivates HIV particles. Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 virions pretreated with this compound were unable to infect permissive cells. Moreover, WDO-217 was able to inhibit infections of a wide spectrum of wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1, including clinical isolates, HIV-2 and SIV strains. Whereas the capture of virus by DC-SIGN was unaffected by the compound, it efficiently prevented the transmission of DC-SIGN-captured virus to CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Interestingly, exposure of virions to WDO-217 reduced the amount of virion-associated genomic RNA as measured by real-time RT-qPCR. Further mechanism-of-action studies demonstrated that WDO-217 efficiently ejects zinc from the zinc fingers of the retroviral nucleocapsid protein NCp7 and inhibits the cTAR destabilization properties of this protein. Importantly, WDO-217 was able to eject zinc from both zinc fingers, even when NCp7 was bound to oligonucleotides, while no covalent interaction between NCp7 and WDO-217 could be observed. Conclusion This compound is a new lead structure that can be used for the development of a new series of NCp7 zinc ejectors as candidate topical microbicide agents. PMID:23146561

  15. Synthetic zinc finger proteins: the advent of targeted gene regulation and genome modification technologies.

    PubMed

    Gersbach, Charles A; Gaj, Thomas; Barbas, Carlos F

    2014-08-19

    The understanding of gene regulation and the structure and function of the human genome increased dramatically at the end of the 20th century. Yet the technologies for manipulating the genome have been slower to develop. For instance, the field of gene therapy has been focused on correcting genetic diseases and augmenting tissue repair for more than 40 years. However, with the exception of a few very low efficiency approaches, conventional genetic engineering methods have only been able to add auxiliary genes to cells. This has been a substantial obstacle to the clinical success of gene therapies and has also led to severe unintended consequences in several cases. Therefore, technologies that facilitate the precise modification of cellular genomes have diverse and significant implications in many facets of research and are essential for translating the products of the Genomic Revolution into tangible benefits for medicine and biotechnology. To address this need, in the 1990s, we embarked on a mission to develop technologies for engineering protein-DNA interactions with the aim of creating custom tools capable of targeting any DNA sequence. Our goal has been to allow researchers to reach into genomes to specifically regulate, knock out, or replace any gene. To realize these goals, we initially focused on understanding and manipulating zinc finger proteins. In particular, we sought to create a simple and straightforward method that enables unspecialized laboratories to engineer custom DNA-modifying proteins using only defined modular components, a web-based utility, and standard recombinant DNA technology. Two significant challenges we faced were (i) the development of zinc finger domains that target sequences not recognized by naturally occurring zinc finger proteins and (ii) determining how individual zinc finger domains could be tethered together as polydactyl proteins to recognize unique locations within complex genomes. We and others have since used this modular

  16. Noncanonical Myo9b-RhoGAP Accelerates RhoA GTP Hydrolysis by a Dual-Arginine-Finger Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yi, Fengshuang; Kong, Ruirui; Ren, Jinqi; Zhu, Li; Lou, Jizhong; Wu, Jane Y; Feng, Wei

    2016-07-31

    The GTP hydrolysis activities of Rho GTPases are stimulated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which contain a RhoGAP domain equipped with a characteristic arginine finger and an auxiliary asparagine for catalysis. However, the auxiliary asparagine is missing in the RhoGAP domain of Myo9b (Myo9b-RhoGAP), a unique motorized RhoGAP that specifically targets RhoA for controlling cell motility. Here, we determined the structure of Myo9b-RhoGAP in complex with GDP-bound RhoA and magnesium fluoride. Unexpectedly, Myo9b-RhoGAP contains two arginine fingers at its catalytic site. The first arginine finger resembles the one within the canonical RhoGAP domains and inserts into the nucleotide-binding pocket of RhoA, whereas the second arginine finger anchors the Switch I loop of RhoA and interacts with the nucleotide, stabilizing the transition state of GTP hydrolysis and compensating for the lack of the asparagine. Mutating either of the two arginine fingers impaired the catalytic activity of Myo9b-RhoGAP and affected the Myo9b-mediated cell migration. Our data indicate that Myo9b-RhoGAP accelerates RhoA GTP hydrolysis by a previously unknown dual-arginine-finger mechanism, which may be shared by other noncanonical RhoGAP domains lacking the auxiliary asparagine. PMID:27363609

  17. Metal replacement in "zinc finger" and its effect on DNA binding.

    PubMed Central

    Predki, P F; Sarkar, B

    1994-01-01

    Metal replacement studies were used to investigate the metal requirement of a bacterially expressed polypeptide encoding the zinc finger DNA binding domain of the estrogen receptor. Apopolypeptide was generated by dialysis of native polypeptide against low-pH buffer under reducing conditions. Specific DNA binding can be restored by refolding the apopolypeptide in the presence of ionic zinc, cadmium, or cobalt. However, refolding in the presence of copper or nickel fails to regenerate DNA binding activity. While cobalt-reconstituted polypeptide has a reduced affinity for its AGGTCA-binding site compared to zinc- or cadmium-polypeptide, it has the surprising property of increased cooperative DNA binding. Our work indicates that metal substitution results in a range of effects upon DNA binding in vitro. The potential biological significance of metal substitution in vivo is discussed. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:7843097

  18. Evolutionary conservation pattern of zinc-finger domains of Drosophila segmentation genes.

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, R J; Retzlaff, M; Goerlich, K; Sander, K; Tautz, D

    1992-01-01

    A number of genes of the developmental gene hierarchy in Drosophila encode transcription factors containing Cys2His2 zinc finger domains as DNA-binding motifs. To learn more about the evolution of these genes, it is necessary to clone the homologs, or more correctly the orthologs, from different species. Using PCR, we were able to obtain apparently orthologous fragments of hunchback (hb), Krüppel (Kr), and snail (sna) from a variety of arthropods and partly also from other animal phyla. Sequence alignments of these fragments show that the amino acid differences can normally not be correlated with the evolutionary distances of the respective species. This is due to an apparent saturation of potential replacements within the finger domains, which is also evident from the frequent occurrence of convergent replacements. Another recurrent feature of these alignments is that those amino acids that are directly involved in determining the DNA-binding specificity of the fingers are most conserved. Using in vitro bandshift experiments we can indeed show that the binding specificity of a hunchback finger fragment from different species is not changed. This implies that there is a high selective pressure to maintain the regulatory target elements of these genes during evolution. Images PMID:1438276

  19. Structural basis for the indispensable role of a unique zinc finger motif in LNX2 ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Digant; Sivaraman, J.

    2015-01-01

    LNX (Ligand of Numb Protein-X) proteins, LNX1 and LNX2, are RING- and PDZ-based E3-ubiquitin ligases known to interact with Numb. Silencing of LNX2 has been reported to down-regulate WNT and NOTCH, two key signaling pathways in tumorigenesis. Here we report the identification of the domain boundary of LNX2 to confer its ubiquitination activity, its crystal structure along with functional studies. We show that the RING domain in LNX2 is flanked by two Zinc-binding motifs (Zn-RING-Zn), in which the N-terminal Zinc-binding motif adopts novel conformation. Although this motif follows the typical Cys2His2-type zinc finger configuration, it is devoid of any secondary structure and forms an open circle conformation, which has not been reported yet. This unique N-terminal Zn-finger motif is indispensable for the activity and stability of LNX2, as verified using mutational studies. The Zn-RING-Zn domain of LNX2 is a dimer and assumes a rigid elongated structure that undergoes autoubiquitination and undergoes N-terminal polyubiquitination. The ubiquitin chains consist of all seven possible isopeptide linkages. These results were validated using full-length LNX2. Moreover we have demonstrated the ubiquitination of cell fate determinant protein, Numb by LNX2. Our study provides a structural basis for the functional machinery of LNX2 and thus provides the opportunity to investigate suitable drug targets against LNX2. PMID:26451611

  20. Characterization of How DNA Modifications Affect DNA Binding by C2H2 Zinc Finger Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Zhang, X.; Cheng, X.

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about vertebrate DNA methylation and oxidation; however, much less is known about how modified cytosine residues within particular sequences are recognized. Among the known methylated DNA-binding domains, the Cys2-His2 zinc finger (ZnF) protein superfamily is the largest with hundreds of members, each containing tandem ZnFs ranging from 3 to >30 fingers. We have begun to biochemically and structurally characterize these ZnFs not only on their sequence specificity but also on their sensitivity to various DNA modifications. Rather than following published methods of refolding insoluble ZnF arrays, we have expressed and purified soluble forms of ZnFs, ranging in size from a tandem array of two to six ZnFs, from seven different proteins. We also describe a fluorescence polarization assay to measure ZnFs affinity with oligonucleotides containing various modifications and our approaches for cocrystallization of ZnFs with oligonucleotides. PMID:27372763

  1. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by the host zinc finger antiviral protein.

    PubMed

    Mao, Richeng; Nie, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Jiming; Liu, Hongyan; Yan, Ran; Cuconati, Andrea; Block, Timothy M; Guo, Ju-Tao; Guo, Haitao

    2013-01-01

    The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a mammalian host restriction factor that inhibits the replication of a variety of RNA viruses, including retroviruses, alphaviruses and filoviruses, through interaction with the ZAP-responsive elements (ZRE) in viral RNA, and recruiting the exosome to degrade RNA substrate. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pararetrovirus that replicates its genomic DNA via reverse transcription of a viral pregenomic (pg) RNA precursor. Here, we demonstrate that the two isoforms of human ZAP (hZAP-L and -S) inhibit HBV replication in human hepatocyte-derived cells through posttranscriptional down-regulation of viral pgRNA. Mechanistically, the zinc finger motif-containing N-terminus of hZAP is responsible for the reduction of HBV RNA, and the integrity of the four zinc finger motifs is essential for ZAP to bind to HBV RNA and fulfill its antiviral function. The ZRE sequences conferring the susceptibility of viral RNA to ZAP-mediated RNA decay were mapped to the terminal redundant region (nt 1820-1918) of HBV pgRNA. In agreement with its role as a host restriction factor and as an innate immune mediator for HBV infection, ZAP was upregulated in cultured primary human hepatocytes and hepatocyte-derived cells upon IFN-α treatment or IPS-1 activation, and in the livers of hepatitis B patients during immune active phase. Knock down of ZAP expression increased the level of HBV RNA and partially attenuated the antiviral effect elicited by IPS-1 in cell cultures. In summary, we demonstrated that ZAP is an intrinsic host antiviral factor with activity against HBV through down-regulation of viral RNA, and that ZAP plays a role in the innate control of HBV replication. Our findings thus shed light on virus-host interaction, viral pathogenesis, and antiviral approaches.

  2. Human endogenous retrovirus protein Rec interacts with the testicular zinc-finger protein and androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Sabine; Sauter, Marlies; Schmitt, Martina; Baumert, Bianca; Best, Barbara; Boese, Annette; Roemer, Klaus; Mueller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus

    2010-06-01

    More than 2000 human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) sequences are present in the human genome, yet only a few are intact and able to produce proteins. The normal functions of these, if any, are unknown, but some HERV proteins have been implicated in cancers, in particular germ-cell cancers. For instance, it has been documented that (i) patients with germ-cell tumours frequently produce antibodies against HERV proteins; (ii) transgenic mice expressing HERV-K (HML-2) rec are prone to testicular carcinoma in situ; and (iii) Rec can bind and suppress a guardian of germline stem-cell pluripotency, the promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger protein (PLZF). This study identified the PLZF-related testicular zinc-finger protein (TZFP) as a binding partner of HERV-K (HML-2) Rec. Interactions occurred via the N- and C-terminal domains of Rec and the C-terminal DNA-binding zinc-finger domain of TZFP (aa 375-450). Not much is known about the function of TZFP. The protein is expressed predominantly in the testis, where it functions as a transcriptional repressor that is active during specific stages of spermatogenesis. The most intensely studied function of TZFP is that of a co-repressor of the activated androgen receptor (AR). Here, it was shown that Rec can form a trimeric complex with TZFP and AR, and can relieve the TZFP-mediated repression of AR-induced transactivation. In addition, Rec was able to overcome the direct transcriptional repression by TZFP of the c-myc gene promoter in reporter assays. Thus, HERV-K (HML-2) Rec may function as an oncoprotein by de-repressing oncogenic transcription factors such as AR.

  3. A Zinc Finger Motif-Containing Protein Is Essential for Chloroplast RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Shi, Xiaowen; Friso, Giulia; Van Wijk, Klaas; Bentolila, Stephane; Hanson, Maureen R.

    2015-01-01

    C-to-U editing of transcripts in plant organelles is carried out by small (<400 kD) protein complexes called editosomes. Recognition of the proper C target for editing is mediated by pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing proteins that recognize cis-elements. Members of two additional gene families, the RIP/MORF and ORRM families, have each been found to be required for editing of particular sets of Cs in mitochondria and/or chloroplasts. By co-immunoprecipitation of the chloroplast editing factor ORRM1, followed by mass spectrometry, we have now identified a member of the RanBP2 type zinc fingers (pFAM00641) protein family that is required for editing of 14 sites in chloroplasts and affects editing efficiency of another 16 chloroplast C targets. In yeast two-hybrid assays, OZ1 (Organelle Zinc finger 1) interacts with PPR site recognition factors whose cognate sites are affected when OZ1 is mutated. No interaction of OZ1 with the chloroplast editing factors RIP2 and RIP9 was detected; however, OZ1 interacts with ORRM1, which binds to RIP proteins, allowing us to build a model for the chloroplast RNA editosome. The RNA editosomes that act upon most chloroplast C targets are likely to contain a PPR protein recognition factor, either RIP2 or RIP9, ORRM1, and OZ1. The organelle zinc finger editing factor family (OZ) contains 4 members in Arabidopsis, three that are predicted to be targeted to chloroplasts and one to mitochondria. With the identification of OZ1, there are now 4 nuclear-encoded protein families known to be essential for plant organelle RNA editing. PMID:25768119

  4. The Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein: Two Decades of Molecular Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Suliman, Bandar Ali; Xu, Dakang; Williams, Bryan Raymond George

    2012-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein, also known as Zbtb16 or Zfp145, was first identified in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia, where a reciprocal chromosomal translocation t(11;17)(q23;q21) resulted in a fusion with the RARA gene encoding retinoic acid receptor alpha. The wild-type Zbtb16 gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the POK (POZ and Krüppel) family of transcriptional repressors. In addition to nine Krüppel-type sequence-specific zinc fingers, which make it a member of the Krüppel-like zinc finger protein family, the PLZF protein contains an N-terminal BTB/POZ domain and RD2 domain. PLZF has been shown to be involved in major developmental and biological processes, such as spermatogenesis, hind limb formation, hematopoiesis, and immune regulation. PLZF is localized mainly in the nucleus where it exerts its transcriptional repression function, and many post-translational modifications affect this ability and also have an impact on its cytoplasmic/nuclear dissociation. PLZF achieves its transcriptional regulation by binding to many secondary molecules to form large multi-protein complexes that bind to the regulatory elements in the promoter region of the target genes. These complexes are also capable of physically interacting with its target proteins. Recently, PLZF has become implicated in carcinogenesis as a tumor suppressor gene, since it regulates the cell cycle and apoptosis in many cell types. This review will examine the major advances in our knowledge of PLZF biological activities that augment its value as a therapeutic target, particularly in cancer and immunological diseases. PMID:22822476

  5. The Electronic Behavior of Zinc-Finger Protein Binding Sites in the Context of the DNA Extended Ladder Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiwa, Nestor; Cordeiro, Claudette; Heermann, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    Instead of ATCG letter alignments, typically used in bioinformatics, we propose a new alignment method using the probability distribution function of the bottom of the occupied molecular orbital (BOMO), highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied orbital (LUMO). We apply the technique to transcription factors with Cys2His2 zinc fingers. These transcription factors search for binding sites, probing for the electronic patterns at the minor and major DNA groves. The eukaryotic Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins bind to DNA ubiquitously at highly conserved domains. They are responsible for gene regulation and the spatial organization of DNA. To study and understand these zinc finger DNA-protein interactions, we use the extended ladder in the DNA model proposed by Zhu, Rasmussen, Balatsky & Bishop (2007) te{Zhu-2007}. Considering one single spinless electron in each nucleotide π-orbital along a double DNA chain (dDNA), we find a typical pattern for the bottom of BOMO, HOMO and LUMO along the binding sites. We specifically looked at two members of zinc finger protein family: specificity protein 1 (SP1) and early grown response 1 transcription factors (EGR1). When the valence band is filled, we find electrons in the purines along the nucleotide sequence, compatible with the electric charges of the binding amino acids in SP1 and EGR1 zinc finger.

  6. Solution structures and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus Rev responsive element IIB RNA targeting zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Subrata H; Shelley, Christopher M; Barrow, Doyle J; Darby, Martyn K; Germann, Markus W

    2006-11-01

    The Rev responsive element (RRE), a part of unspliced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA, serves a crucial role in the production of infectious HIV virions. The viral protein Rev binds to RRE and facilitates transport of mRNA to the cytoplasm. Inhibition of the Rev-RRE interaction disrupts the viral life cycle. Using a phage display protocol, dual zinc finger proteins (ZNFs) were generated that bind specifically to RREIIB at the high affinity Rev binding site. These proteins were further shortened and simplified, and they still retained their RNA binding affinity. The solution structures of ZNF29 and a mutant, ZNF29G29R, have been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Both proteins form C(2)H(2)-type zinc fingers with essentially identical structures. RNA protein interactions were evaluated quantitatively by isothermal titration calorimetry, which revealed dissociation constants (K(d)'s) in the nanomolar range. The interaction with the RNA is dependent upon the zinc finger structure; in the presence of EDTA, RNA binding is abolished. For both proteins, RNA binding is mediated by the alpha-helical portion of the zinc fingers and target the bulge region of RREIIB-TR. However, ZNF29G29R exhibits significantly stronger binding to the RNA target than ZNF29; this illustrates that the binding of the zinc finger scaffold is amenable to further improvements.

  7. The putative zinc finger of a caulimovirus is essential for infectivity but does not influence gene expression.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, H B; Wu, F C; Kiernan, J M; Shepherd, R J

    1993-04-01

    Plant pararetroviruses, such as caulimoviruses, and animal retroviruses have in common the presence of a highly conserved arrangement of cysteines and a histidine in the precursor of the capsid protein. The composition of these amino acids resembles a zinc finger element, a structure that is common to a class of eukaryotic proteins that regulate gene expression. The role of the putative zinc finger in the life-cycle of caulimoviruses was investigated by introducing specific mutations in the coat protein coding region of a cloned and infectious form of figwort mosaic virus, a caulimovirus. This mutated viral genome, which no longer encoded the conserved cysteine and histidine residues, was not infectious in plants. Transient expression assays in protoplasts showed that expression of a reporter gene inserted at different places in the genome was not detectably influenced by the coat protein or its putative zinc finger. It appears that the zinc finger-like element of caulimoviruses is not involved in the regulation of gene expression. These observations support a model which predicts a function of the zinc finger in specific recognition and packaging of viral RNA into virions prior to reverse transcription.

  8. ZFNGenome: A comprehensive resource for locating zinc finger nuclease target sites in model organisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs) have tremendous potential as tools to facilitate genomic modifications, such as precise gene knockouts or gene replacements by homologous recombination. ZFNs can be used to advance both basic research and clinical applications, including gene therapy. Recently, the ability to engineer ZFNs that target any desired genomic DNA sequence with high fidelity has improved significantly with the introduction of rapid, robust, and publicly available techniques for ZFN design such as the Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN) method. The motivation for this study is to make resources for genome modifications using OPEN-generated ZFNs more accessible to researchers by creating a user-friendly interface that identifies and provides quality scores for all potential ZFN target sites in the complete genomes of several model organisms. Description ZFNGenome is a GBrowse-based tool for identifying and visualizing potential target sites for OPEN-generated ZFNs. ZFNGenome currently includes a total of more than 11.6 million potential ZFN target sites, mapped within the fully sequenced genomes of seven model organisms; S. cerevisiae, C. reinhardtii, A. thaliana, D. melanogaster, D. rerio, C. elegans, and H. sapiens and can be visualized within the flexible GBrowse environment. Additional model organisms will be included in future updates. ZFNGenome provides information about each potential ZFN target site, including its chromosomal location and position relative to transcription initiation site(s). Users can query ZFNGenome using several different criteria (e.g., gene ID, transcript ID, target site sequence). Tracks in ZFNGenome also provide "uniqueness" and ZiFOpT (Zinc Finger OPEN Targeter) "confidence" scores that estimate the likelihood that a chosen ZFN target site will function in vivo. ZFNGenome is dynamically linked to ZiFDB, allowing users access to all available information about zinc finger reagents, such as the effectiveness of a given

  9. Zinc Finger Structures in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nucleocapsid Protein Facilitate Efficient Minus- and Plus-Strand Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianhui; Wu, Tiyun; Anderson, Jada; Kane, Bradley F.; Johnson, Donald G.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Henderson, Louis E.; Levin, Judith G.

    2000-01-01

    The nucleocapsid protein (NC) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has two zinc fingers, each containing the invariant metal ion binding residues CCHC. Recent reports indicate that mutations in the CCHC motifs are deleterious for reverse transcription in vivo. To identify reverse transcriptase (RT) reactions affected by such changes, we have probed zinc finger functions in NC-dependent RT-catalyzed HIV-1 minus- and plus-strand transfer model systems. Our approach was to examine the activities of wild-type NC and a mutant in which all six cysteine residues were replaced by serine (SSHS NC); this mutation severely disrupts zinc coordination. We find that the zinc fingers contribute to the role of NC in complete tRNA primer removal from minus-strand DNA during plus-strand transfer. Annealing of the primer binding site sequences in plus-strand strong-stop DNA [(+) SSDNA] to its complement in minus-strand acceptor DNA is not dependent on NC zinc fingers. In contrast, the rate of annealing of the complementary R regions in (−) SSDNA and 3′ viral RNA during minus-strand transfer is approximately eightfold lower when SSHS NC is used in place of wild-type NC. Moreover, unlike wild-type NC, SSHS NC has only a small stimulatory effect on minus-strand transfer and is essentially unable to block TAR-induced self-priming from (−) SSDNA. Our results strongly suggest that NC zinc finger structures are needed to unfold highly structured RNA and DNA strand transfer intermediates. Thus, it appears that in these cases, zinc finger interactions are important components of NC nucleic acid chaperone activity. PMID:10982342

  10. The zinc finger transcription factor 191 is required for early embryonic development and cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jianzhong; Chen Xia; Yang Hua; Wang Shuiliang; Guo Baoyu; Yu Long; Wang Zhugang; Fu Jiliang . E-mail: fu825@mail.tongji.edu.cn

    2006-12-10

    Human zinc finger protein 191 (ZNF191/ZNF24) was cloned and characterized as a SCAN family member, which shows 94% identity to its mouse homologue zinc finger protein 191 (Zfp191). ZNF191 can specifically interact with an intronic polymorphic TCAT repeat (HUMTH01) in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. Allelic variations of HUMTH01 have been stated to have a quantitative silencing effect on TH gene expression and to correlate with quantitative and qualitative changes in the binding by ZNF191. Zfp191 is widely expressed during embryonic development and in multiple tissues and organs in adult. To investigate the functions of Zfp191 in vivo, we have used homologous recombination to generate mice that are deficient in Zfp191. Heterozygous Zfp191 {sup +/-} mice are normal and fertile. Homozygous Zfp191 {sup -/-} embryos are severely retarded in development and die at approximately 7.5 days post-fertilization. Unexpectedly, in Zfp191 {sup -/-} and Zfp191 {sup +/-} embryos, TH gene expression is not affected. Blastocyst outgrowth experiments and the RNA interference-mediated knockdown of ZNF191 in cultured cells revealed an essential role for Zfp191 in cell proliferation. In further agreement with this function, no viable Zfp191 {sup -/-} cell lines were obtained by derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from blastocysts of Zfp191 {sup +/-} intercrosses or by forced homogenotization of heterozygous ES cells at high concentrations of G418. These data show that Zfp191 is indispensable for early embryonic development and cell proliferation.

  11. Deficiency of the zinc finger protein ZFP106 causes motor and sensory neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Peter I.; Fratta, Pietro; Landman, Allison S.; Mcgoldrick, Philip; Wackerhage, Henning; Groves, Michael; Busam, Bharani Shiva; Galino, Jorge; Corrochano, Silvia; Beskina, Olga A.; Esapa, Christopher; Ryder, Edward; Carter, Sarah; Stewart, Michelle; Codner, Gemma; Hilton, Helen; Teboul, Lydia; Tucker, Jennifer; Lionikas, Arimantas; Estabel, Jeanne; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; White, Jacqueline K.; Brandner, Sebastian; Plagnol, Vincent; Bennet, David L. H.; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Greensmith, Linda; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Zinc finger motifs are distributed amongst many eukaryotic protein families, directing nucleic acid–protein and protein–protein interactions. Zinc finger protein 106 (ZFP106) has previously been associated with roles in immune response, muscle differentiation, testes development and DNA damage, although little is known about its specific function. To further investigate the function of ZFP106, we performed an in-depth characterization of Zfp106 deficient mice (Zfp106−/−), and we report a novel role for ZFP106 in motor and sensory neuronal maintenance and survival. Zfp106−/− mice develop severe motor abnormalities, major deficits in muscle strength and histopathological changes in muscle. Intriguingly, despite being highly expressed throughout the central nervous system, Zfp106−/− mice undergo selective motor and sensory neuronal and axonal degeneration specific to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. Neurodegeneration does not occur during development of Zfp106−/− mice, suggesting that ZFP106 is likely required for the maintenance of mature peripheral motor and sensory neurons. Analysis of embryonic Zfp106−/− motor neurons revealed deficits in mitochondrial function, with an inhibition of Complex I within the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Our results highlight a vital role for ZFP106 in sensory and motor neuron maintenance and reveal a novel player in mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. PMID:26604141

  12. The CCCH zinc finger protein gene AtZFP1 improves salt resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Han, Guoliang; Wang, Mingjie; Yuan, Fang; Sui, Na; Song, Jie; Wang, Baoshan

    2014-10-01

    The CCCH type zinc finger proteins are a super family involved in many aspects of plant growth and development. In this study, we investigated the response of one CCCH type zinc finger protein AtZFP1 (At2g25900) to salt stress in Arabidopsis. The expression of AtZFP1 was upregulated by salt stress. Compared to transgenic strains, the germination rate, emerging rate of cotyledons and root length of wild plants were significantly lower under NaCl treatments, while the inhibitory effect was significantly severe in T-DNA insertion mutant strains. At germination stage, it was mainly osmotic stress when treated with NaCl. Relative to wild plants, overexpression strains maintained a higher K(+), K(+)/Na(+), chlorophyll and proline content, and lower Na(+) and MDA content. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of stress related marker genes KIN1, RD29B and RD22 increased more significantly in transgenic strains by salt stress. Overexpression of AtZFP1 also enhanced oxidative and osmotic stress tolerance which was determined by measuring the expression of a set of antioxidant genes, osmotic stress genes and ion transport protein genes such as SOS1, AtP5CS1 and AtGSTU5. Overall, our results suggest that overexpression of AtZFP1 enhanced salt tolerance by maintaining ionic balance and limiting oxidative and osmotic stress.

  13. [Cloning and identification of a mouse zinc finger protein gene ZF-12-related pseudogene].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Zhong; Zhang, Ya Zhou; Wang, Shui Liang; Yang, Hua; Li, Jian; Yu, Long; Fu, Ji Liang

    2002-06-01

    The mouse zinc finger protein ZF-12 gene is homologous to human gene and encodes a protein of 368 amino acids, which contains four tandem C2H2-type zinc finger motifs in the N-terminal and one SCAN domain in the C-terminal. Some recent studies suggest that ZNF191 might be a hepatocarcinogenesis-associated gene. We screened a mouse lambda genomic library with a human ZNF191 cDNA probe and isolated a ZF-12-like gene, named ZF12p (GenBank AY040222). This intronless gene closely resembles ZF-12 but displays several mutations, suggesting that ZF12p represents a ZF-12-related pseudogene. RT-PCR analysis on total RNA from mouse tissue and bioinformatis analysis on promoter region of ZF12p gene, suggest the transcripts of ZF12p may be not synthesized. BLAST on the data of the human genome in the GenBank with ZNF191 cDNA and Southern blotting show there is no any psedogene related to ZNF191 gene in the human genome. The high similarity of ZF12p to ZF-12 might be of considerable importance for mutation and evolution analysis of ZF-12.

  14. ZXDC, a novel zinc finger protein that binds CIITA and activates MHC gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kandari, Wafa; Jambunathan, Srikarthika; Navalgund, Vandana; Koneni, Rupa; Freer, Margot; Parimi, Neeta; Mudhasani, Rajini; Fontes, Joseph D.

    2006-01-01

    The class II trans-activator (CIITA) is recognized as the master regulator of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene transcription and contributes to the transcription of MHC class I genes. To better understand the function of CIITA, we performed yeast two-hybrid with the C-terminal 807 amino acids of CIITA, and cloned a novel human cDNA named zinc finger, X-linked, duplicated family member C (ZXDC). The 858 amino acid ZXDC protein contains 10 zinc fingers and a transcriptional activation domain, and was found to interact with the region of CIITA containing leucine-rich repeats. Over-expression of ZXDC in human cell lines resulted in super-activation of MHC class I and class II promoters by CIITA. Conversely, silencing of ZXDC expression reduced the ability of CIITA to activate transcription of MHC class II genes. Given the specific interaction between the ZXDC and CIITA proteins, as well as the effect of ZXDC on MHC gene transcription, it appears that ZXDC is an important regulator of both MHC class I and class II transcription. PMID:16600381

  15. Recent developments and clinical studies utilizing engineered zinc finger nuclease technology.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young-Il; Kim, Hyongbum; Ramakrishna, Suresh

    2015-10-01

    Efficient methods for creating targeted genetic modifications have long been sought for the investigation of gene function and the development of therapeutic modalities for various diseases, including genetic disorders. Although such modifications are possible using homologous recombination, the efficiency is extremely low. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are custom-designed artificial nucleases that make double-strand breaks at specific sequences, enabling efficient targeted genetic modifications such as corrections, additions, gene knockouts and structural variations. ZFNs are composed of two domains: (i) a DNA-binding domain comprised of zinc finger modules and (ii) the FokI nuclease domain that cleaves the DNA strand. Over 17 years after ZFNs were initially developed, a number of improvements have been made. Here, we will review the developments and future perspectives of ZFN technology. For example, ZFN activity and specificity have been significantly enhanced by modifying the DNA-binding domain and FokI cleavage domain. Advances in culture methods, such as the application of a cold shock and the use of small molecules that affect ZFN stability, have also increased ZFN activity. Furthermore, ZFN-induced mutant cells can be enriched using episomal surrogate reporters. Additionally, we discuss several ongoing clinical studies that are based on ZFN-mediated genome editing in humans. These breakthroughs have substantially facilitated the use of ZFNs in research, medicine and biotechnology.

  16. Localized frustration and binding-induced conformational change in recognition of 5S RNA by TFIIIA zinc finger.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheng; Li, Wenfei; Wang, Wei

    2013-12-19

    Protein TFIIIA is composed of nine tandemly arranged Cys2His2 zinc fingers. It can bind either to the 5S RNA gene as a transcription factor or to the 5S RNA transcript as a chaperone. Although structural and biochemical data provided valuable information on the recognition between the TFIIIIA and the 5S DNA/RNA, the involved conformational motions and energetic factors contributing to the binding affinity and specificity remain unclear. In this work, we conducted MD simulations and MM/GBSA calculations to investigate the binding-induced conformational changes in the recognition of the 5S RNA by the central three zinc fingers of TFIIIA and the energetic factors that influence the binding affinity and specificity at an atomistic level. Our results revealed drastic interdomain conformational changes between these three zinc fingers, involving the exposure/burial of several crucial DNA/RNA binding residues, which can be related to the competition between DNA and RNA for the binding of TFIIIA. We also showed that the specific recognition between finger 4/finger 6 and the 5S RNA introduces frustrations to the nonspecific interactions between finger 5 and the 5S RNA, which may be important to achieve optimal binding affinity and specificity.

  17. The solution structure of ZNF593 from Homo sapiens reveals a zinc finger in a predominately unstructured protein

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Paulette L.; Lytle, Betsy L.; Volkman, Brian F.; Peterson, Francis C.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we report the solution structure of ZNF593, a protein identified in a functional study as a negative modulator of the DNA-binding activity of the Oct-2 transcription factor. ZNF593 contains a classic C2H2 zinc finger domain flanked by about 40 disordered residues on each terminus. Although the protein contains a high degree of intrinsic disorder, the structure of the zinc finger domain was resolved by NMR spectroscopy without a need for N- or C-terminal truncations. The tertiary structure of the zinc finger domain is composed of a β-hairpin that positions the cysteine side chains for zinc coordination, followed by an atypical kinked α-helix containing the two histidine side chain ligands. The structural topology of ZNF593 is similar to a fragment of the double-stranded RNA-binding protein Zfa and the C-terminal zinc finger of MBP-1, a human enhancer binding protein. The structure presented here will provide a guide for future functional studies of how ZNF593 negatively modulates the DNA-binding activity of Oct-2, a POU domain-containing transcription factor. Our work illustrates the unique capacity of NMR spectroscopy for structural analysis of folded domains in a predominantly disordered protein. PMID:18287285

  18. Classification of the treble clef zinc finger: noteworthy lessons for structure and function evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Treble clef (TC) zinc fingers constitute a large fold-group of structural zinc-binding protein domains that mediate numerous cellular functions. We have analysed the sequence, structure, and function relationships among all TCs in the Protein Data Bank. This led to the identification of novel TCs, such as lsr2, YggX and TFIIIC τ 60 kDa subunit, and prediction of a nuclease-like function for the DUF1364 family. The structural malleability of TCs is evident from the many examples with variations to the core structural elements of the fold. We observe domains wherein the structural core of the TC fold is circularly permuted, and also some examples where the overall fold resembles both the TC motif and another unrelated fold. All extant TC families do not share a monophyletic origin, as several TC proteins are known to have been present in the last universal common ancestor and the last eukaryotic common ancestor. We identify several TCs where the zinc-chelating site and residues are not merely responsible for structure stabilization but also perform other functions, such as being redox active in C1B domain of protein kinase C, a nucleophilic acceptor in Ada and catalytic in organomercurial lyase, MerB. PMID:27562564

  19. Classification of the treble clef zinc finger: noteworthy lessons for structure and function evolution.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Treble clef (TC) zinc fingers constitute a large fold-group of structural zinc-binding protein domains that mediate numerous cellular functions. We have analysed the sequence, structure, and function relationships among all TCs in the Protein Data Bank. This led to the identification of novel TCs, such as lsr2, YggX and TFIIIC τ 60 kDa subunit, and prediction of a nuclease-like function for the DUF1364 family. The structural malleability of TCs is evident from the many examples with variations to the core structural elements of the fold. We observe domains wherein the structural core of the TC fold is circularly permuted, and also some examples where the overall fold resembles both the TC motif and another unrelated fold. All extant TC families do not share a monophyletic origin, as several TC proteins are known to have been present in the last universal common ancestor and the last eukaryotic common ancestor. We identify several TCs where the zinc-chelating site and residues are not merely responsible for structure stabilization but also perform other functions, such as being redox active in C1B domain of protein kinase C, a nucleophilic acceptor in Ada and catalytic in organomercurial lyase, MerB. PMID:27562564

  20. Comprehensive analysis of CCCH zinc finger family in poplar (Populus trichocarpa)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background CCCH zinc finger proteins contain a typical motif of three cysteines and one histidine residues and serve regulatory functions at all stages of mRNA metabolism. In plants, CCCH type zinc finger proteins comprise a large gene family represented by 68 members in Arabidopsis and 67 in rice. These CCCH proteins have been shown to play diverse roles in plant developmental processes and environmental responses. However, this family has not been studied in the model tree species Populus to date. Results In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of the genes encoding CCCH zinc finger family in Populus was performed. Using a thorough annotation approach, a total of 91 full-length CCCH genes were identified in Populus, of which most contained more than one CCCH motif and a type of non-conventional C-X11-C-X6-C-X3-H motif was unique for Populus. All of the Populus CCCH genes were phylogeneticly clustered into 13 distinct subfamilies. In each subfamily, the gene structure and motif composition were relatively conserved. Chromosomal localization of these genes revealed that most of the CCCHs (81 of 90, 90 %) are physically distributed on the duplicated blocks. Thirty-four paralogous pairs were identified in Populus, of which 22 pairs (64.7 %) might be created by the whole genome segment duplication, whereas 4 pairs seem to be resulted from tandem duplications. In 91 CCCH proteins, we also identified 63 putative nucleon-cytoplasm shuttling proteins and 3 typical RNA-binding proteins. The expression profiles of all Populus CCCH genes have been digitally analyzed in six tissues across different developmental stages, and under various drought stress conditions. A variety of expression patterns of CCCH genes were observed during Populus development, of which 34 genes highly express in root and 22 genes show the highest level of transcript abundance in differentiating xylem. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) was further performed to confirm the tissue

  1. Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann Syndrome due to a novel plant homeodomain zinc finger mutation in the PHF6 gene.

    PubMed

    Mangelsdorf, Marie; Chevrier, Evelyne; Mustonen, Aki; Picketts, David J

    2009-05-01

    The Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation disorder caused by mutations in the PHF6 gene. The PHF6 gene contains 2 plant homeodomain zinc fingers, suggesting a role for the protein in chromatin remodeling. In this study, the authors report on a Finnish family with a classical Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome phenotype caused by a G to T nucleotide substitution at position 266 within exon 4 within the PHF6 gene (c.266G>T). The resulting glycine to valine (p.G89V) change corresponds to a highly conserved residue within the first plant homeodomain zinc finger domain. This is a novel change that adds to the number of plant homeodomain zinc finger mutations identified, such that 23% of all Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome mutations lie within this motif. Moreover, it highlights the functional importance of plant homeodomain zinc finger motifs to human disease and more specifically to PHF6 function.

  2. Herbivory responsive C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor protein StZFP2 from potato.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Susan D; Novak, Nicole G; Jones, Richard W; Farrar, Robert R; Blackburn, Michael B

    2014-07-01

    While C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors (TF) are often regulated by abiotic stress, their role during insect infestation has been overlooked. This study demonstrates that the transcripts of the zinc finger transcription factors StZFP1 and StZFP2 are induced in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) upon infestation by either the generalist tobacco hornworm (THW, Manduca sexta L.) or the specialist Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). StZFP1 has been previously characterized as conferring salt tolerance to transgenic tobacco and its transcript is induced by Phytophthora infestans and several abiotic stresses. StZFP2 has not been characterized previously, but contains the hallmarks of a C2H2 zinc finger TF, with two conserved zinc finger domains and DLN motif, which encodes a transcriptional repressor domain. Expression studies demonstrate that StZFP2 transcript is also induced by tobacco hornworm and Colorado potato beetle. These observations expand the role of the C2H2 transcription factor in potato to include the response to chewing insect pests. PMID:24811678

  3. Interaction of arsenite with a zinc finger CCHC peptide: evidence for formation of an As-Zn-peptide mixed complex.

    PubMed

    Demicheli, Cynthia; Frézard, Frédéric; Pereira, Fernanda A; Santos, Daniel M; Mangrum, John B; Farrell, Nicholas P

    2011-12-01

    The interaction of arsenite with a Cys(3)His (CCHC) zinc finger model (34-51) HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein p7 (NCp7) peptide in the absence and presence of Zn(II) was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, CD (circular dichroism) and ESI-MS (Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry). We found that arsenic forms different complexes with the free peptide and the zinc finger peptide. In the former case the peptide conformation differed greatly from that of the zinc finger, whereas in the second case a mixed As-Zn-peptide complex was formed with partial preservation of zinc finger conformation. An apparent stability constant was estimated for the mixed As-Zn-peptide complex (K=2083 M(-1) and 442 M(-1) at 25°C and pHs 6 and 7, respectively). Our study also shows that the interaction of arsenic with the CCHC motif is facilitated by glutathione (GSH), through formation of a GS-As-peptide conjugate.

  4. Activation of transcriptional activity of HSE by a novel mouse zinc finger protein ZNFD specifically expressed in testis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fengqin; Wang, Weiping; Lei, Chen; Liu, Qingmei; Qiu, Hao; Muraleedharan, Vinaydhar; Zhou, Bin; Cheng, Hongxia; Huang, Zhongkai; Xu, Weian; Li, Bichun; Wang, Minghua

    2012-04-01

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) that contain multiple cysteine and/or histidine residues perform important roles in various cellular functions, including transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The Cys-Cys-His-His (C(2)H(2)) type of ZFPs are the well-defined members of this super family and are the largest and most complex proteins in eukaryotic genomes. In this study, we identified a novel C(2)H(2) type of zinc finger gene ZNFD from mice which has a 1,002 bp open reading frame and encodes a protein with 333 amino acid residues. The predicted 37.4 kDa protein contains a C(2)H(2) zinc finger domain. ZNFD gene is located on chromosome 18qD1. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the ZNFD gene was specifically expressed in mouse testis but not in other tissues. Subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that ZNFD was localized in the nucleus. Reporter gene assays showed that overexpression of ZNFD in the COS7 cells activates the transcriptional activities of heat shock element (HSE). Overall, these results suggest that ZNFD is a member of the zinc finger transcription factor family and it participates in the transcriptional regulation of HSE. Many heat shock proteins regulated by HSE are involved in testicular development. Therefore, our results suggest that ZNFD may probably participate in the development of mouse testis and function as a transcription activator in HSE-mediated gene expression and signaling pathways.

  5. Mutation of the Theiler’s virus leader protein zinc-finger domain impairs apoptotic activity in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kyung-No; Liang, Zhiguo; Lipton, Howard L.

    2014-01-01

    The Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) leader (L) protein zinc-finger domain was mutated to study its role in cell death in infection of the murine macrophage cell line M1-D, revealing that an intact zinc-finger domain is required for full apoptotic activity. A functional L zinc-finger domain was also required for activation of p38 MAPK that results in phosphorylation and activation of p53, and in turn, alteration of the conformation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Puma and Mcl-1, leading to the release of pro-apoptotic Bax and apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. TMEV infection also inhibits host protein synthesis, a stress shown by others to induce apoptosis. Since inhibition of host protein synthesis follows rather than precedes activation of MKK3/6 and p38, it seems less likely that it triggers of apoptosis in infected cells. Finally, we showed that the levels of reactive oxygen species following infection were consistent with apoptotic rather than necrotic cell death. Thus, these experiments support an important role for the TMEV L protein zinc-finger domain in apoptosis in an infected murine macrophage line. PMID:24036175

  6. Mutation of the Theiler's virus leader protein zinc-finger domain impairs apoptotic activity in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Son, Kyung-No; Liang, Zhiguo; Lipton, Howard L

    2013-11-01

    The Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) leader (L) protein zinc-finger domain was mutated to study its role in cell death in infection of the murine macrophage cell line M1-D, revealing that an intact zinc-finger domain is required for full apoptotic activity. A functional L zinc-finger domain was also required for activation of p38 MAPK that results in phosphorylation and activation of p53, and in turn, alteration of the conformation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Puma and Mcl-1, leading to the release of pro-apoptotic Bax and apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. TMEV infection also inhibits host protein synthesis, a stress shown by others to induce apoptosis. Since inhibition of host protein synthesis follows rather than precedes activation of MKK3/6 and p38, it seems less likely that it triggers apoptosis in infected cells. Finally, we showed that the levels of reactive oxygen species following infection were consistent with apoptotic rather than necrotic cell death. Thus, these experiments support an important role for the TMEV L protein zinc-finger domain in apoptosis in an infected murine macrophage line.

  7. Herbivory responsive C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor protein StZFP2 from potato.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Susan D; Novak, Nicole G; Jones, Richard W; Farrar, Robert R; Blackburn, Michael B

    2014-07-01

    While C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors (TF) are often regulated by abiotic stress, their role during insect infestation has been overlooked. This study demonstrates that the transcripts of the zinc finger transcription factors StZFP1 and StZFP2 are induced in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) upon infestation by either the generalist tobacco hornworm (THW, Manduca sexta L.) or the specialist Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). StZFP1 has been previously characterized as conferring salt tolerance to transgenic tobacco and its transcript is induced by Phytophthora infestans and several abiotic stresses. StZFP2 has not been characterized previously, but contains the hallmarks of a C2H2 zinc finger TF, with two conserved zinc finger domains and DLN motif, which encodes a transcriptional repressor domain. Expression studies demonstrate that StZFP2 transcript is also induced by tobacco hornworm and Colorado potato beetle. These observations expand the role of the C2H2 transcription factor in potato to include the response to chewing insect pests.

  8. Domain analysis of the Nematostella vectensis SNAIL ortholog reveals unique nucleolar localization that depends on the zinc-finger domains.

    PubMed

    Dattoli, Ada A; Hink, Mark A; DuBuc, Timothy Q; Teunisse, Bram J; Goedhart, Joachim; Röttinger, Eric; Postma, Marten

    2015-01-01

    SNAIL transcriptional factors are key regulators during development and disease. They arose early during evolution, and in cnidarians such as Nematostella vectensis, NvSNAILA/B are detected in invaginating tissues during gastrulation. The function of SNAIL proteins is well established in bilaterians but their roles in cnidarians remain unknown. The structure of NvSNAILA and B is similar to the human SNAIL1 and 2, including SNAG and zinc-finger domains. Here, we performed a molecular analysis on localization and mobility of NvSNAILA/B using mammalian cells and Nematostella embryos. NvSNAILA/B display nuclear localization and mobility similar to HsSNAIL1/2. Strikingly, NvSNAILA is highly enriched in the nucleoli and shuttles between the nucleoli and the nucleoplasm. Truncation of the N-terminal SNAG domain, reported to contain Nuclear Localization Signals, markedly reduces nucleolar levels, without effecting nuclear localization or mobility. Truncation of the C-terminal zinc-fingers, involved in DNA binding in higher organisms, significantly affects subcellular localization and mobility. Specifically, the zinc-finger domains are required for nucleolar enrichment of NvSNAILA. Differently from SNAIL transcriptional factors described before, NvSNAILA is specifically enriched in the nucleoli co-localizing with nucleolar markers even after nucleolar disruption. Our findings implicate additional roles for SNAG and zinc-finger domains, suggesting a role for NvSNAILA in the nucleolus. PMID:26190255

  9. Domain analysis of the Nematostella vectensis SNAIL ortholog reveals unique nucleolar localization that depends on the zinc-finger domains.

    PubMed

    Dattoli, Ada A; Hink, Mark A; DuBuc, Timothy Q; Teunisse, Bram J; Goedhart, Joachim; Röttinger, Eric; Postma, Marten

    2015-07-20

    SNAIL transcriptional factors are key regulators during development and disease. They arose early during evolution, and in cnidarians such as Nematostella vectensis, NvSNAILA/B are detected in invaginating tissues during gastrulation. The function of SNAIL proteins is well established in bilaterians but their roles in cnidarians remain unknown. The structure of NvSNAILA and B is similar to the human SNAIL1 and 2, including SNAG and zinc-finger domains. Here, we performed a molecular analysis on localization and mobility of NvSNAILA/B using mammalian cells and Nematostella embryos. NvSNAILA/B display nuclear localization and mobility similar to HsSNAIL1/2. Strikingly, NvSNAILA is highly enriched in the nucleoli and shuttles between the nucleoli and the nucleoplasm. Truncation of the N-terminal SNAG domain, reported to contain Nuclear Localization Signals, markedly reduces nucleolar levels, without effecting nuclear localization or mobility. Truncation of the C-terminal zinc-fingers, involved in DNA binding in higher organisms, significantly affects subcellular localization and mobility. Specifically, the zinc-finger domains are required for nucleolar enrichment of NvSNAILA. Differently from SNAIL transcriptional factors described before, NvSNAILA is specifically enriched in the nucleoli co-localizing with nucleolar markers even after nucleolar disruption. Our findings implicate additional roles for SNAG and zinc-finger domains, suggesting a role for NvSNAILA in the nucleolus.

  10. Recognition of distinct RNA motifs by the clustered CCCH zinc fingers of neuronal protein Unkempt

    PubMed Central

    Zarnack, Kathi; Shi, Yang; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2015-01-01

    Unkempt is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein that regulates translation of its target genes and is required for the establishment of the early bipolar neuronal morphology. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of mouse Unkempt and show that its six CCCH zinc fingers (ZnFs) form two compact clusters, ZnF–3 and ZnF4–6, that recognize distinct trinucleotide RNA substrates. Both ZnF clusters adopt a similar overall topology and use distinct recognition principles to target specific RNA sequences. Structure-guided point mutations reduce the RNA binding affinity of Unkempt both in vitro and in vivo, ablate Unkempt’s translational control and impair the ability of Unkempt to induce a bipolar cellular morphology. Our study unravels a new mode of RNA sequence recognition by clusters of CCCH ZnFs that is critical for post-transcriptional control of neuronal morphology. PMID:26641712

  11. Construction of plants resistant to TYLCV by using artificial zinc-finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Koshino-Kimura, Yoshihiro; Takenaka, Kosuke; Domoto, Fumiya; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Miyazaki, Toshihide; Aoyama, Yasuhiro; Sera, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that plant DNA virus replication could be inhibited in Arabidopsis thaliana by using an artificial zinc-finger protein (AZP) and created AZP-based transgenic A. thaliana resistant to DNA virus infection. Here we apply the AZP technology to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) causing serious damage to an important agricultural crop, tomato. An AZP was designed to block binding of the TYLCV replication protein (Rep) to the replication origin. The designed AZP had much higher affinities towards the replication origin than did the Rep, and efficiently blocked Rep binding in vitro. The AZP gene was then introduced into a plant genome with the help of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to generate the transgenic plants. The current status of the construction of the AZP-expressing transgenic plants will be reported.

  12. The prokaryotic zinc-finger: structure, function and comparison with the eukaryotic counterpart.

    PubMed

    Malgieri, Gaetano; Palmieri, Maddalena; Russo, Luigi; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V; Isernia, Carla

    2015-12-01

    Classical zinc finger (ZF) domains were thought to be confined to the eukaryotic kingdom until the transcriptional regulator Ros protein was identified in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The Ros Cys2 His2 ZF binds DNA in a peculiar mode and folds in a domain significantly larger than its eukaryotic counterpart consisting of 58 amino acids (the 9-66 region) arranged in a βββαα topology, and stabilized by a conserved, extensive, 15-residue hydrophobic core. The prokaryotic ZF domain, then, shows some intriguing new features that make it interestingly different from its eukaryotic counterpart. This review will focus on the prokaryotic ZFs, summarizing and discussing differences and analogies with the eukaryotic domains and providing important insights into their structure/function relationships.

  13. The Drosophila Zinc Finger Protein Trade Embargo Is Required for Double Strand Break Formation in Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Cathleen M.; Nielsen, Rachel J.; Hawley, R. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Homologous recombination in meiosis is initiated by the programmed induction of double strand breaks (DSBs). Although the Drosophila Spo11 ortholog Mei-W68 is required for the induction of DSBs during meiotic prophase, only one other protein (Mei-P22) has been shown to be required for Mei-W68 to exert this function. We show here that the chromatin-associated protein Trade Embargo (Trem), a C2H2 zinc finger protein, is required to localize Mei-P22 to discrete foci on meiotic chromosomes, and thus to promote the formation of DSBs, making Trem the earliest known function in the process of DSB formation in Drosophila oocytes. We speculate that Trem may act by either directing the binding of Mei-P22 to preferred sites of DSB formation or by altering chromatin structure in a manner that allows Mei-P22 to form foci. PMID:21383963

  14. Enhancing zinc-finger-nuclease activity with improved obligate heterodimeric architectures.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Yannick; Vo, Thuy D; Mendel, Matthew C; Greenberg, Shon G; Wang, Jianbin; Xia, Danny F; Miller, Jeffrey C; Urnov, Fyodor D; Gregory, Philip D; Holmes, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) drive efficient genome editing by introducing a double-strand break into the targeted gene. Cleavage is induced when two custom-designed ZFNs heterodimerize upon binding DNA to form a catalytically active nuclease complex. The importance of this dimerization event for subsequent cleavage activity has stimulated efforts to engineer the nuclease interface to prevent undesired homodimerization. Here we report the development and application of a yeast-based selection system designed to functionally interrogate the ZFN dimer interface. We identified critical residues involved in dimerization through the isolation of cold-sensitive nuclease domains. We used these residues to engineer ZFNs that have superior cleavage activity while suppressing homodimerization. The improvements were portable to orthogonal domains, allowing the concomitant and independent cleavage of two loci using two different ZFN pairs. These ZFN architectures provide a general means for obtaining highly efficient and specific genome modification.

  15. ZNF307, a novel zinc finger gene suppresses p53 and p21 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Wang Yuequn; Fan Xiongwei; Mo Xiaoyang; Wang Zequn; Li Yongqing; Yin Zhaochu; Deng Yun; Luo Na; Zhu Chuanbing; Liu Mingyao; Ma Qian; Ocorr, Karen Yuan Wuzhou Wu Xiushan

    2007-11-30

    We have cloned a novel KRAB-related zinc finger gene, ZNF307, encoding a protein of 545 aa. ZNF307 is conserved across species in evolution and is differentially expressed in human adult and fetal tissues. The fusion protein of EGFP-ZNF307 localizes in the nucleus. Transcriptional activity assays show ZNF307 suppresses transcriptional activity of L8G5-luciferase. Overexpressing ZNF307 in different cell lines also inhibits the transcriptional activities of p53 and p21. Moreover, ZNF307 works by reducing the p53 protein level and p53 protein reduction is achieved by increasing transcription of MDM2 and EP300. ZNF307 might suppress p53-p21 pathway through activating MDM2 and EP300 expression and inducing p53 degradation.

  16. Knockout of Myostatin by Zinc-finger Nuclease in Sheep Fibroblasts and Embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Wang, Liqin; Wu, Yangsheng; Li, Wenrong; An, Jing; Zhang, Fuchun; Liu, Mingjun

    2016-10-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) can negatively regulate the growth and development of skeletal muscle, and natural mutations can cause "double-muscling" trait in animals. In order to block the inhibiting effect of MSTN on muscle growth, we transferred zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN) which targeted sheep MSTN gene into cultured fibroblasts. Gene targeted colonies were isolated from transfected fibroblasts by serial dilution culture and screened by sequencing. Two colonies were identified with mono-allele mutation and one colony with bi-allelic deletion. Further, we introduced the MSTN-ZFN mRNA into sheep embryos by microinjection. Thirteen of thirty-seven parthenogenetic embryos were targeted by ZFN, with the efficiency of 35%. Our work established the technical foundation for generation of MSTN gene editing sheep by somatic cloning and microinjection ZFN into embryos. PMID:27189642

  17. Site-specific genome editing in Plasmodium falciparum using engineered zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Straimer, Judith; Lee, Marcus C S; Lee, Andrew H; Zeitler, Bryan; Williams, April E; Pearl, Jocelynn R; Zhang, Lei; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Llinás, Manuel; Urnov, Fyodor D; Fidock, David A

    2012-10-01

    Malaria afflicts over 200 million people worldwide, and its most lethal etiologic agent, Plasmodium falciparum, is evolving to resist even the latest-generation therapeutics. Efficient tools for genome-directed investigations of P. falciparum-induced pathogenesis, including drug-resistance mechanisms, are clearly required. Here we report rapid and targeted genetic engineering of this parasite using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) that produce a double-strand break in a user-defined locus and trigger homology-directed repair. Targeting an integrated egfp locus, we obtained gene-deletion parasites with unprecedented speed (2 weeks), both with and without direct selection. ZFNs engineered against the parasite gene pfcrt, responsible for escape under chloroquine treatment, rapidly produced parasites that carried either an allelic replacement or a panel of specified point mutations. This method will enable a diverse array of genome-editing approaches to interrogate this human pathogen.

  18. Expression of the Krüppel-like zinc finger gene biklf during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, A; Dawid, I B

    2000-10-01

    The zebrafish biklf gene encodes a novel Krüppel-like transcription factor containing three contiguous zinc fingers at the C-terminus. Expression of biklf is detected from the shield stage onward in the developing prechordal plate, and as a 'baseball seam'-like lateral stripe beginning at the end of gastrulation. The latter expression domain is suppressed in the swirl mutant in which bmp2b is disrupted. At the 5-somite stage the lateral expression domain separates into two distinct stripes, one in the ectoderm, the other in blood islands in the lateral plate mesoderm. Blood island staining of biklf continues through somitogenesis as the most prominent area of biklf expression.

  19. The zinc finger region of simian virus 40 large T antigen is needed for hexamer assembly and origin melting.

    PubMed

    Loeber, G; Stenger, J E; Ray, S; Parsons, R E; Anderson, M E; Tegtmeyer, P

    1991-06-01

    Simian virus 40 large T antigen contains a single sequence element with an arrangement of cysteines and histidines that is characteristic of a zinc finger motif. The finger region maps from amino acids 302 through 320 and has the sequence C-302 L K C-305 I K K E Q P S H Y K Y H-317 E K H-320. Previous genetic analysis has shown that the cysteine and histidine sequences and the contiguous S H Y K Y region in the finger are important for DNA replication in vivo. We show here that representative mutations in either of these elements of the finger prevent the assembly of large T antigen into stable hexamers in vitro. These same mutations have a characteristic effect on the interaction of T antigen with the simian virus 40 core origin of replication. The mutant T antigens bind to the central pentanucleotide domain of the core origin but fail to melt the adjacent inverted repeat domain and to untwist the adenine-thymine domain. These defects would prevent the formation of a replication bubble and the initiation of DNA replication. Finger mutations have lesser effects on the helicase function of T antigen and no observable effect on binding of T antigen to the mouse p53 protein. We propose that the zinc finger region contributes to protein-protein interactions essential for the assembly of stable T-antigen hexamers at the origin of replication and that hexamers are needed for subsequent alterations in the structure of origin DNA. We cannot exclude the possibility that the zinc finger region also makes specific contacts with components of origin DNA.

  20. High-resolution three-dimensional structure of a single zinc finger from a human enhancer binding protein in solution.

    PubMed

    Omichinski, J G; Clore, G M; Appella, E; Sakaguchi, K; Gronenborn, A M

    1990-10-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a 30-residue synthetic peptide containing the carboxy-terminal "zinc finger" motif of a human enhancer binding protein has been determined by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy and hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing calculations. The structure determination is based on 487 approximate interproton distance and 63 torsion angle (phi, psi, and chi 1) restraints. A total of 40 simulated annealing structures were calculated, and the atomic rms distribution about the mean coordinate positions (excluding residues 29 and 30 which are ill-defined) is 0.4 A for the backbone atoms, 0.8 A for all atoms, and 0.41 A for all atoms excluding the lysine and arginine side chains, which are disordered. The solution structure of the zinc finger consists of two irregular antiparallel beta-strands connected by an atypical turn (residues 3-12) and a classical alpha-helix (residues 14-24). The zinc is tetrahedrally coordinated to the sulfur atoms of two cysteines (Cys-5 and Cys-8) and to the N epsilon 2 atoms of two histidines (His-21 and His-27). The two cysteine residues are located in the turn connecting the two beta-strands (residues 5-8); one of the histidine ligands (His-21) is in the alpha-helix, while the second histidine (His-27) is at the end of a looplike structure (formed by the end of the alpha-helix and a turn). The general architecture is qualitatively similar to two previously determined low-resolution Cys2-His2 zinc finger structures, although distinct differences can be observed in the beta-strands and turn and in the region around the two histidines coordinated to zinc. Comparison of the overall polypeptide fold of the enhancer binding protein zinc finger with known structures in the crystallographic data base reveals a striking similarity to one region (residues 23-44) of the X-ray structure of proteinase inhibitor domain III of Japanese quail ovomucoid [Papamokos, E., Weber, E., Bode

  1. The Functional Significance of Common Polymorphisms in Zinc Finger Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Sarah H.; Guan, Anna; Yu, Abigail S.; Zhang, Chi; Zykovich, Artem; Korf, Ian; Rannala, Bruce; Segal, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Variants that alter the DNA-binding specificity of transcription factors could affect the specificity for and expression of potentially many target genes, as has been observed in several tumor-derived mutations. Here we examined if such trans expression quantitative trait loci (trans-eQTLs) could similarly result from common genetic variants. We chose to focus on the Cys2-His2 class of zinc finger transcription factors because they are the most abundant superfamily of transcription factors in human and have well-characterized DNA binding interactions. We identified 430 SNPs that cause missense substitutions in the DNA-contacting residues. Fewer common missense SNPs were found at DNA-contacting residues compared with non-DNA-contacting residues (P = 0.00006), consistent with possible functional selection against SNPs at DNA-contacting positions. Functional predictions based on zinc finger transcription factor (ZNF) DNA binding preferences also suggested that many common substitutions could potentially alter binding specificity. However, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium analysis and examination of seven orthologs within the primate lineage failed to find evidence of trans-eQTLs associated with the DNA-contacting positions or evidence of a different selection pressure on a contemporary and evolutionary timescales. The overall conclusion was that common SNPs that alter the DNA-contacting residues of these factors are unlikely to produce strong trans-eQTLs, consistent with the observations by others that trans-eQTLs in humans tend to be few and weak. Some rare SNPs might alter specificity and remained rare due to purifying selection. The study also underscores the need for large-scale eQTLs mapping efforts that might provide experimental evidence for SNPs that alter the choice of transcription factor binding sites. PMID:24970883

  2. Chalcogen bonding interactions between reducible sulfur and selenium compounds and models of zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Patricia B; Bayse, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    Reducible sulfur and selenium (r-S/Se) compounds, defined as sulfur and selenium compounds not in the lowest -2 oxidation state (e.g., -1 to +6), release Zn(2+) from zinc-sulfur proteins such as zinc fingers (ZFs) and metallothionein. A series of density functional theory calculations was performed on donor-acceptor complexes between r-S/Se compounds and models of the Cys2His2, Cys3His and Cys4 ZF sites. These S⋯S/Se chalcogen bonding interactions consist of the donation of electron density from a S lone pair on the ZF model to a S/Se-X antibonding molecular orbital of the r-S/Se compound. The strength of the interaction was shown to be dependent upon the Lewis basicity of the ZF model (Cys4>Cys3His>Cys2His2) and the Lewis acidity of the r-S/Se compound as measured by the energy of the S/Se-X antibonding orbital. Interactions with the softer r-Se compounds were stronger than the r-S compounds, consistent with the greater reactivity of the former with ZF proteins.

  3. Locating Pb2+ and Zn2+ in Zinc Finger-Like Peptides Using Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banu, Laura; Blagojevic, Voislav; Bohme, Diethard K.

    2013-10-01

    The binding preferences of Pb2+and Zn2+ in doubly charged complexes with zinc finger-like 12-residue peptides (Pep), [Mn(Pep-2(n-1)H)]2+ have been explored using tandem mass spectrometry. The peptides were synthesized strategically by blocking the N-terminus with an acetyl group and with four cysteine and/or histidine residues in positions 2, 5, 8, and 11, arranged in different motifs: CCHH, CHCH, and CCCC. The MS2 spectra of the Pb2+ and Zn2+ complexes show multiple losses of water and a single methane loss and these provide a sensitive method for locating the metal dication and so elucidating its coordination. The elimination of a methane molecule indicated the position of the metal at the Cys2 residue. Whereas lead was observed to preferentially bind to cysteine residues, zinc was found to primarily bind to histidine residues and secondarily to cysteine residues. Preferential binding of lead to cysteine is preserved in the complexes with more than one Pb2+. Key to the mechanism of the loss of water and methane is the metal dication withdrawing electrons from the proximal amidic nitrogen. This acidic nitrogen loses its hydrogen to an amidic oxygen situated four atoms away leading to formation of a five-member ring and the elimination of water.

  4. Revisiting and re-engineering the classical zinc finger peptide: consensus peptide-1 (CP-1).

    PubMed

    Besold, Angelique N; Widger, Leland R; Namuswe, Frances; Michalek, Jamie L; Michel, Sarah L J; Goldberg, David P

    2016-04-01

    Zinc plays key structural and catalytic roles in biology. Structural zinc sites are often referred to as zinc finger (ZF) sites, and the classical ZF contains a Cys2His2 motif that is involved in coordinating Zn(II). An optimized Cys2His2 ZF, named consensus peptide 1 (CP-1), was identified more than 20 years ago using a limited set of sequenced proteins. We have reexamined the CP-1 sequence, using our current, much larger database of sequenced proteins that have been identified from high-throughput sequencing methods, and found the sequence to be largely unchanged. The CCHH ligand set of CP-1 was then altered to a CAHH motif to impart hydrolytic activity. This ligand set mimics the His2Cys ligand set of peptide deformylase (PDF), a hydrolytically active M(II)-centered (M = Zn or Fe) protein. The resultant peptide [CP-1(CAHH)] was evaluated for its ability to coordinate Zn(II) and Co(II) ions, adopt secondary structure, and promote hydrolysis. CP-1(CAHH) was found to coordinate Co(II) and Zn(II) and a pentacoordinate geometry for Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) was implicated from UV-vis data. This suggests a His2Cys(H2O)2 environment at the metal center. The Zn(II)-bound CP-1(CAHH) was shown to adopt partial secondary structure by 1-D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Both Zn(II)-CP-1(CAHH) and Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) show good hydrolytic activity toward the test substrate 4-nitrophenyl acetate, exhibiting faster rates than most active synthetic Zn(II) complexes.

  5. Interaction between the transcription factor SPBP and the positive cofactor RNF4. An interplay between protein binding zinc fingers.

    PubMed

    Lyngsø, C; Bouteiller, G; Damgaard, C K; Ryom, D; Sanchez-Muñoz, S; Nørby, P L; Bonven, B J; Jørgensen, P

    2000-08-25

    The activator of stromelysin 1 gene transcription, SPBP, interacts with the RING finger protein RNF4. Both proteins are ubiquitously expressed and localized in the nucleus. RNF4 facilitates accumulation of specific SPBP-DNA complexes in vitro and acts as a positive cofactor in SPBP-mediated transactivation. SPBP harbors an internal zinc finger of the PHD/LAP type. This domain can form intra-chain protein-protein contacts in SPBP resulting in negative modulation of SPBP-RNF4 interaction. PMID:10849425

  6. Functional and structural basis of the nuclear localization signal in the ZIC3 zinc finger domain

    PubMed Central

    Hatayama, Minoru; Tomizawa, Tadashi; Sakai-Kato, Kumiko; Bouvagnet, Patrice; Kose, Shingo; Imamoto, Naoko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Utsunomiya-Tate, Naoko; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Kigawa, Takanori; Aruga, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Disruptions in ZIC3 cause heterotaxy, a congenital anomaly of the left–right axis. ZIC3 encodes a nuclear protein with a zinc finger (ZF) domain that contains five tandem C2H2 ZF motifs. Missense mutations in the first ZF motif (ZF1) result in defective nuclear localization, which may underlie the pathogenesis of heterotaxy. Here we revealed the structural and functional basis of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of ZIC3 and investigated its relationship to the defect caused by ZF1 mutation. The ZIC3 NLS was located in the ZF2 and ZF3 regions, rather than ZF1. Several basic residues interspersed throughout these regions were responsible for the nuclear localization, but R320, K337 and R350 were particularly important. NMR structure analysis revealed that ZF1–4 had a similar structure to GLI ZF, and the basic side chains of the NLS clustered together in two regions on the protein surface, similar to classical bipartite NLSs. Among the residues for the ZF1 mutations, C253 and H286 were positioned for the metal chelation, whereas W255 was positioned in the hydrophobic core formed by ZF1 and ZF2. Tryptophan 255 was a highly conserved inter-finger connector and formed part of a structural motif (tandem CXW-C-H-H) that is shared with GLI, Glis and some fungal ZF proteins. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of Karyopherin α1/α6 impaired ZIC3 nuclear localization, and physical interactions between the NLS and the nuclear import adapter proteins were disturbed by mutations in the NLS but not by W255G. These results indicate that ZIC3 is imported into the cell nucleus by the Karyopherin (Importin) system and that the impaired nuclear localization by the ZF1 mutation is not due to a direct influence on the NLS. PMID:18716025

  7. Embryonic neural inducing factor churchill is not a DNA-binding zinc finger protein: solution structure reveals a solvent-exposed beta-sheet and zinc binuclear cluster.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian M; Buck-Koehntop, Bethany A; Martinez-Yamout, Maria A; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2007-08-31

    Churchill is a zinc-containing protein that is involved in neural induction during embryogenesis. At the time of its discovery, it was thought on the basis of sequence alignment to contain two zinc fingers of the C4 type. Further, binding of an N-terminal GST-Churchill fusion protein to a particular DNA sequence was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation selection assay, suggesting that Churchill may function as a transcriptional regulator by sequence-specific DNA binding. We show by NMR solution structure determination that, far from containing canonical C4 zinc fingers, the protein contains three bound zinc ions in novel coordination sites, including an unusual binuclear zinc cluster. The secondary structure of Churchill is also unusual, consisting of a highly solvent-exposed single-layer beta-sheet. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange and backbone relaxation measurements reveal that Churchill is unusually dynamic on a number of time scales, with the exception of regions surrounding the zinc coordinating sites, which serve to stabilize the otherwise unstructured N terminus and the single-layer beta-sheet. No binding of Churchill to the previously identified DNA sequence could be detected, and extensive searches using DNA sequence selection techniques could find no other DNA sequence that was bound by Churchill. Since the N-terminal amino acids of Churchill form part of the zinc-binding motif, the addition of a fusion protein at the N terminus causes loss of zinc and unfolding of Churchill. This observation most likely explains the published DNA-binding results, which would arise due to non-specific interaction of the unfolded protein in the immunoprecipitation selection assay. Since Churchill does not appear to bind DNA, we suggest that it may function in embryogenesis as a protein-interaction factor.

  8. Zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) and verbal deficits in individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, Ayyappan; Thanseem, Ismail; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Vasu, Mahesh M.; Yamada, Kazuo; Ueki, Takatoshi; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mori, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Background In a genome-wide association study of autism, zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be nominally associated in verbally deficient individuals with autism. Zinc finger protein 804A copy number variations (CNVs) have also been observed in individuals with autism. In addition, ZNF804A is known to be involved in theory of mind (ToM) tasks, and ToM deficits are deemed responsible for the communication and social challenges faced by individuals with autism. We hypothesized that ZNF804A could be a risk gene for autism. Methods We examined the genetic association and CNVs of ZNF804A in 841 families in which 1 or more members had autism. We compared the expression of ZNF804A in the postmortem brains of individuals with autism (n = 8) and controls (n = 13). We also assessed in vitro the effect of ZNF804A silencing on the expression of several genes known to be involved in verbal efficiency and social cognition. Results We found that rs7603001 was nominally associated with autism (p = 0.018). The association was stronger (p = 0.008) in the families of individuals with autism who were verbally deficient (n = 761 families). We observed ZNF804A CNVs in 7 verbally deficient boys with autism. In ZNF804A knockdown cells, the expression of synaptosomal-associated protein, 25kDa (SNAP25) was reduced compared with controls (p = 0.009). The expression of ZNF804A (p = 0.009) and SNAP25 (p = 0.009) were reduced in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) of individuals with autism. There was a strong positive correlation between the expression of ZNF804A and SNAP25 in the ACG (p < 0.001). Limitations Study limitations include our small sample size of postmortem brains. Conclusion Our results suggest that ZNF804A could be a potential candidate gene mediating the intermediate phenotypes associated with verbal traits in individuals with autism. PMID:24866414

  9. Deducing the Energetic Cost of Protein Folding in Zinc Finger Proteins Using Designed Metallopeptides

    SciTech Connect

    Reddi,A.; Guzman, T.; Breece, r.; Tierney, D.; Gibney, B.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc finger transcription factors represent the largest single class of metalloproteins in the human genome. Binding of Zn(II) to their canonical Cys4, Cys3His1, or Cys2His2 sites results in metal-induced protein folding events required to achieve their proper structure for biological activity. The thermodynamic contribution of Zn(II) in each of these coordination spheres toward protein folding is poorly understood because of the coupled nature of the metal-ligand and protein-protein interactions. Using an unstructured peptide scaffold, GGG, we have employed fluorimetry, potentiometry, and calorimetry to determine the thermodynamics of Zn(II) binding to the Cys4, Cys3His1, and Cys2His2 ligand sets with minimal interference from protein folding effects. The data show that Zn(II) complexation is entropy driven and modulated by proton release. The formation constants for Zn(II)-GGG with a Cys4, Cys3His1, or Cys2His2 site are 5.6 x 1016, 1.5 x 1015, or 2.5 x 1013 M-1, respectively. Thus, the Zn(II)-Cys4, Zn(II)-Cys3His1, and Zn(II)-Cys2His2 interactions can provide up to 22.8, 20.7, and 18.3 kcal/mol, respectively, in driving force for protein stabilization, folding, and/or assembly at pH values above the ligand pKa values. While the contributions from the three coordination motifs differ by 4.5 kcal/mol in Zn(II) affinity at pH 9.0, they are equivalent at physiological pH, ?G = -16.8 kcal/mol or a Ka = 2.0 x 1012 M-1. Calorimetric data show that this is due to proton-based enthalpy-entropy compensation between the favorable entropic term from proton release and the unfavorable enthalpic term due to thiol deprotonation. Since protein folding effects have been minimized in the GGG scaffold, these peptides possess nearly the tightest Zn(II) affinities possible for their coordination motifs. The Zn(II) affinities in each coordination motif are compared between the GGG scaffold and natural zinc finger proteins to determine the free energy required to fold the latter

  10. White collar-1, a central regulator of blue light responses in Neurospora, is a zinc finger protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ballario, P; Vittorioso, P; Magrelli, A; Talora, C; Cabibbo, A; Macino, G

    1996-01-01

    The Neurospora crassa blind mutant white collar-1 (wc-1) is pleiotropically defective in all blue light-induced phenomena, establishing a role for the wc-1 gene product in the signal transduction pathway. We report the cloning of the wc-1 gene isolated by chromosome walking and mutant complementation. The elucidation of the wc-1 gene product provides a key piece of the blue light signal transduction puzzle. The wc-1 gene encodes a 125 kDa protein whose encoded motifs include a single class four, zinc finger DNA binding domain and a glutamine-rich putative transcription activation domain. We demonstrate that the wc-1 zinc finger domain, expressed in Escherichia coli, is able to bind specifically to the promoter of a blue light-regulated gene of Neurospora using an in vitro gel retardation assay. Furthermore, we show that wc-1 gene expression is autoregulated and is transcriptionally induced by blue light irradiation. Images PMID:8612589

  11. Rmt1 catalyzes zinc-finger independent arginine methylation of ribosomal protein Rps2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, Rebecca S.; Webb, Kristofor J.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2010-01-22

    Rps2/rpS2 is a well conserved protein of the eukaryotic ribosomal small subunit. Rps2 has previously been shown to contain asymmetric dimethylarginine residues, the addition of which is catalyzed by zinc-finger-containing arginine methyltransferase 3 (Rmt3) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate that despite the lack of a zinc-finger-containing homolog of Rmt3/PRMT3 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rps2 is partially modified to generate asymmetric dimethylarginine and monomethylarginine residues. We find that this modification of Rps2 is dependent upon the major arginine methyltransferase 1 (Rmt1) in S. cerevisiae. These results are suggestive of a role for Rmt1 in modifying the function of Rps2 in a manner distinct from that occurring in S. pombe and mammalian cells.

  12. A poxvirus protein with a RING finger motif binds zinc and localizes in virus factories.

    PubMed

    Upton, C; Schiff, L; Rice, S A; Dowdeswell, T; Yang, X; McFadden, G

    1994-07-01

    Shope fibroma virus (SFV) is a Leporipoxvirus closely related to the highly virulent myxoma virus. The DNA sequence of the BamHI N fragment of the SFV DNA genome was determined, and the single complete open reading frame (N1R) was characterized. The protein encoded by the N1R gene was found to contain a C3HC4 RING finger motif at the C terminus. This C3HC4 motif is the hallmark of a growing family of proteins, many of which are involved in regulation of gene expression, DNA repair, or DNA recombination. Complete homologs of the SFV N1R gene were also detected in variola virus, myxoma virus, and vaccinia virus strain IHD-W. In contrast, the gene is completely absent from vaccinia virus strain Copenhagen, and in vaccinia virus strain WR, the open reading frame is truncated prior to the zinc binding domain because of an 11-bp deletion, thus producing a frameshift and premature stop codon. Recombinant N1R protein from SFV was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to bind zinc in a specific manner. Using fluorescence microscopy to visualize a peptide epitope tag (derived from ICP27 of herpes simplex virus) fused to the N terminus of the poxvirus proteins, we observed that the N1R protein of SFV and its homologs in myxoma virus and vaccinia virus IHD-W were localized primarily to the virus factories in the cytoplasm of infected cells and, to a lesser degree, the host cell nucleus. The truncated protein of vaccinia virus strain WR failed to localize in this manner but instead was observed throughout the cytoplasm.

  13. Dynamics of linker residues modulate the nucleic acid binding properties of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers.

    PubMed

    Zargarian, Loussiné; Tisné, Carine; Barraud, Pierre; Xu, Xiaoqian; Morellet, Nelly; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a small basic protein containing two zinc fingers (ZF) separated by a short linker. It is involved in several steps of the replication cycle and acts as a nucleic acid chaperone protein in facilitating nucleic acid strand transfers occurring during reverse transcription. Recent analysis of three-dimensional structures of NC-nucleic acids complexes established a new property: the unpaired guanines targeted by NC are more often inserted in the C-terminal zinc finger (ZF2) than in the N-terminal zinc finger (ZF1). Although previous NMR dynamic studies were performed with NC, the dynamic behavior of the linker residues connecting the two ZF domains remains unclear. This prompted us to investigate the dynamic behavior of the linker residues. Here, we collected 15N NMR relaxation data and used for the first time data at several fields to probe the protein dynamics. The analysis at two fields allows us to detect a slow motion occurring between the two domains around a hinge located in the linker at the G35 position. However, the amplitude of motion appears limited in our conditions. In addition, we showed that the neighboring linker residues R29, A30, P31, R32, K33 displayed restricted motion and numerous contacts with residues of ZF1. Our results are fully consistent with a model in which the ZF1-linker contacts prevent the ZF1 domain to interact with unpaired guanines, whereas the ZF2 domain is more accessible and competent to interact with unpaired guanines. In contrast, ZF1 with its large hydrophobic plateau is able to destabilize the double-stranded regions adjacent to the guanines bound by ZF2. The linker residues and the internal dynamics of NC regulate therefore the different functions of the two zinc fingers that are required for an optimal chaperone activity.

  14. Zinc-finger nickase-mediated insertion of the lysostaphin gene into the beta-casein locus in cloned cows.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Wang, Yongsheng; Guo, Wenjiang; Chang, Bohao; Liu, Jun; Guo, Zekun; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Zinc-finger nickases (ZFNickases) are a type of programmable nuclease that can be engineered from zinc-finger nucleases to induce site-specific single-strand breaks or nicks in genomic DNA, which result in homology-directed repair. Although zinc-finger nuclease-mediated gene disruption has been demonstrated in pigs and cattle, they have not been used to target gene addition into an endogenous gene locus in any large domestic species. Here we show in bovine fetal fibroblasts that targeting ZFNickases to the endogenous β-casein (CSN2) locus stimulates lysostaphin gene addition by homology-directed repair. We find that ZFNickase-treated cells can be successfully used in somatic cell nuclear transfer, resulting in live-born gene-targeted cows. Furthermore, the gene-targeted cows secrete lysostaphin in their milk and in vitro assays demonstrate the milk's ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus. Our success with this strategy will facilitate new transgenic technologies beneficial to both agriculture and biomedicine.

  15. Effect of His-Tag on Expression, Purification, and Structure of Zinc Finger Protein, ZNF191(243-368)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhongxian

    2016-01-01

    Zinc finger proteins are associated with hereditary diseases and cancers. To obtain an adequate amount of zinc finger proteins for studying their properties, structure, and functions, many protein expression systems are used. ZNF191(243-368) is a zinc finger protein and can be fused with His-tag to generate fusion proteins such as His6-ZNF191(243-368) and ZNF191(243-368)-His8. The purification of His-tag protein using Ni-NTA resin can overcome the difficulty of ZNF191(243-368) separation caused by inclusion body formation. The influences of His-tag on ZNF191(243-368) properties and structure were investigated using spectrographic techniques and hydrolase experiment. Our findings suggest that insertion of a His-tag at the N-terminal or C-terminal end of ZNF191(243-368) has different effects on the protein. Therefore, an expression system should be considered based on the properties and structure of the protein. Furthermore, the hydrolase activity of ZNF191(243-368)-His8 has provided new insights into the design of biological functional molecules. PMID:27524954

  16. ZBP-89, a Krüppel-like zinc finger protein, inhibits epidermal growth factor induction of the gastrin promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, J L; Iyer, G R; Taylor, B R; Kitchen, J R; Mortensen, E R; Wang, Z; Flintoft, R J; Michel, J B; Bassel-Duby, R

    1996-01-01

    We have shown previously that a GC-rich element (GGGGCGGGGTGGGGGG) conferring epidermal growth factor (EGF) responsiveness to the human gastrin promoter binds Sp1 and additional undefined complexes. A rat GH4 cell line expression library was screened by using a multimer of the gastrin EGF response element, and three overlapping cDNA clones were identified. The full-length rat cDNA encoded an 89-kDa zinc finger protein (ZBP-89) that was 89% identical to a 49-kDa human factor, ht(beta), that binds a GTGGG/CACCC element in T-cell receptor promoters. The conservation of amino acids between the zinc fingers indicates that ZBP-89 is a member of the C2H2 zinc finger family subclass typified by the Drosophila Krüppel protein. ZBP-89 is ubiquitously expressed in normal adult tissues. It binds specifically to the gastrin EGF response element and inhibits EGF induction of the gastrin promoter. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ZBP-89 functions as a repressor of basal and inducible expression of the gastrin gene. PMID:8943318

  17. Zinc finger protein STOP1 is critical for proton tolerance in Arabidopsis and coregulates a key gene in aluminum tolerance.

    PubMed

    Iuchi, Satoshi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Iuchi, Atsuko; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Kitabayashi, Sadako; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Ikka, Takashi; Hirayama, Takashi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2007-06-01

    Acid soil syndrome causes severe yield losses in various crop plants because of the rhizotoxicities of ions, such as aluminum (Al(3+)). Although protons (H(+)) could be also major rhizotoxicants in some soil types, molecular mechanisms of their tolerance have not been identified yet. One mutant that was hypersensitive to H(+) rhizotoxicity was isolated from ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenized seeds, and a single recessive mutation was found on chromosome 1. Positional cloning followed by genomic sequence analysis revealed that a missense mutation in the zinc finger domain in a predicted Cys(2)His(2)-type zinc finger protein, namely sensitive to proton rhizotoxicity (STOP)1, is the cause of hypersensitivity to H(+) rhizotoxicity. The STOP1 protein belongs to a functionally unidentified subfamily of zinc finger proteins, which consists of two members in Arabidopsis based on a Blast search. The stop1 mutation resulted in no effects on cadmium, copper, lanthanum, manganese and sodium chloride sensitivitities, whereas it caused hypersensitivity to Al(3+) rhizotoxicity. This stop1 mutant lacked the induction of the AtALMT1 gene encoding a malate transporter, which is concomitant with Al-induced malate exudation. There was no induction of AtALMT1 by Al(3+) treatment in the stop1 mutant. These results indicate that STOP1 plays a critical role in Arabidopsis tolerance to major stress factors in acid soils. PMID:17535918

  18. Activation of transcriptional activities of AP-1 and SRE by a new zinc-finger protein ZNF641

    SciTech Connect

    Qi Xingzhu; Li Yongqing; Xiao Jing; Yuan Wuzhou; Yan Yan; Wang Yuequn; Liang Shuyuan; Zhu Chuanbing; Chen Yingduan; Liu Mingyao . E-mail: mliu@ibt.tamhsc.edu; Wu Xiushan

    2006-01-27

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are evolutionarily conserved enzymes in cell signal transduction connecting cell-surface receptors to critical regulatory targets within cells and control cell survival, adaptation, and proliferation. Previous studies revealed that zinc-finger proteins are involved in the regulation of the MAPK signaling pathways. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel human zinc-finger protein, ZNF641. The cDNA of ZNF641 is 4.9 kb, encoding 438 amino acids in the nucleus. The protein is highly conserved in evolution across different vertebrate species from mouse to human. Northern blot analysis indicates that ZNF641 is expressed in most of the examined human tissues, with a high level in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of pCMV-Tag2B-ZNF641 in the COS-7 cells activates the transcriptional activities of AP-1 and SRE. Deletion analysis indicates that the linker between KRAB box and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-type zinc-fingers represents the basal activation domain. These results suggest that ZNF641 may be a positive regulator in MAPK-mediated signaling pathways that lead to the activation of AP-1 and SRE.

  19. Phosphate homeostasis and root development in Arabidopsis are synchronized by the zinc finger transcription factor ZAT6.

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Ballachanda N; Nagarajan, Vinay K; Raghothama, Kashchandra G

    2007-09-01

    Phosphorus availability is limited in many natural ecosystems. Plants adapt to phosphate (Pi) deficiency by complex molecular processes. There is growing evidence suggesting that transcription factors are key components in the regulation of these processes. In this study, we characterized the function of ZAT6 (zinc finger of Arabidopsis 6), a cysteine-2/histidine-2 zinc finger transcription factor that is responsive to Pi stress. ZAT6 is induced during Pi starvation and localizes to the nucleus. While the RNAi suppression of ZAT6 appeared to be lethal, its overexpression affects root development and retards seedling growth as a result of decreased Pi acquisition. The ZAT6 overexpression also resulted in altered root architecture of older plants, with consequent changes in Pi acquisition. These results indicate that ZAT6 regulates root development independent of the Pi status of the plant, thereby influencing Pi acquisition and homeostasis. In addition, the expression of several Pi starvation-responsive genes was decreased in ZAT6 overexpressing plants, thereby confirming the role of ZAT6 in regulating Pi homeostasis. This study thus indicates that ZAT6 is a repressor of primary root growth and regulates Pi homeostasis through the control of root architecture. To our knowledge, ZAT6 is the first cysteine-2/histidine-2 zinc finger transcription factor reported to regulate root development and nutrient stress responses. PMID:17631527

  20. Zinc-finger nickase-mediated insertion of the lysostaphin gene into the beta-casein locus in cloned cows

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Wang, Yongsheng; Guo, Wenjiang; Chang, Bohao; Liu, Jun; Guo, Zekun; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Zinc-finger nickases (ZFNickases) are a type of programmable nuclease that can be engineered from zinc-finger nucleases to induce site-specific single-strand breaks or nicks in genomic DNA, which result in homology-directed repair. Although zinc-finger nuclease-mediated gene disruption has been demonstrated in pigs and cattle, they have not been used to target gene addition into an endogenous gene locus in any large domestic species. Here we show in bovine fetal fibroblasts that targeting ZFNickases to the endogenous β-casein (CSN2) locus stimulates lysostaphin gene addition by homology-directed repair. We find that ZFNickase-treated cells can be successfully used in somatic cell nuclear transfer, resulting in live-born gene-targeted cows. Furthermore, the gene-targeted cows secrete lysostaphin in their milk and in vitro assays demonstrate the milk’s ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus. Our success with this strategy will facilitate new transgenic technologies beneficial to both agriculture and biomedicine. PMID:24121612

  1. The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN protein is able to specifically bind DNA through its single Cys2–His2 zinc finger motif

    PubMed Central

    Dathan, Nina; Zaccaro, Laura; Esposito, Sabrina; Isernia, Carla; Omichinski, James G.; Riccio, Andrea; Pedone, Carlo; Di Blasio, Benedetto; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V.

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN (SUP) gene has been shown to be important in maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels, and is presumed to act by regulating cell proliferation. In this work, we show that the SUP protein, which contains a single Cys2–His2 zinc finger domain including the QALGGH sequence, highly conserved in the plant zinc finger proteins, binds DNA. Using a series of deletion mutants, it was determined that the minimal domain required for specific DNA binding (residues 15–78) includes the single zinc finger and two basic regions located on either side of this motif. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions in the zinc finger or in the basic regions, including a mutation that knocks out the function of the SUP protein in vivo (glycine 63 to aspartate), have been found to abolish the activity of the SUP DNA-binding domain. These results strongly suggest that the SUP protein functions in vivo by acting as a DNA-binding protein, likely involved in transcriptional regulation. The association of both an N-terminal and a C-terminal basic region with a single Cys2–His2 zinc finger represents a novel DNA-binding motif suggesting that the mechanism of DNA recognition adopted by the SUP protein is different from that described so far in other zinc finger proteins. PMID:12433998

  2. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factors Osr1 and Osr2 Control Synovial Joint Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Lan, Yu; Liu, Han; Jiang, Rulang

    2011-01-01

    Synovial joints enable smooth articulations between different skeletal elements and are essential for the motility of vertebrates. Despite decades of extensive studies of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of limb and skeletal development, the molecular mechanisms governing synovial joint formation are still poorly understood. In particular, whereas several signaling pathways have been shown to play critical roles in joint maintenance, the mechanism controlling joint initiation is unknown. Here we report that Osr1 and Osr2, the mammalian homologs of the odd-skipped family of zinc finger transcription factors that are required for leg joint formation in Drosophila, are both strongly expressed in the developing synovial joint cells in mice. Whereas Osr1−/− mutant mice died at midgestation and Osr2−/− mutant mice had only subtle defects in synovial joint development, tissue-specific inactivation of Osr1 in the developing limb mesenchyme in Osr2−/− mutant mice caused fusion of multiple joints. We found that Osr1 and Osr2 function is required for maintenance of expression of signaling molecules critical for joint formation, including Gdf5, Wnt4 and Wnt9b. In addition, joint cells in the double mutants failed to upregulate expression of the articular cartilage marker gene Prg4. These data indicate that Osr1 and Osr2 function redundantly to control synovial joint formation. PMID:21262216

  3. Editing T cell specificity towards leukemia by zinc-finger nucleases and lentiviral gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Angelo; Magnani, Zulma; Liu, Pei-Qi; Reik, Andreas; Chu, Victoria; Paschon, David E.; Zhang, Lei; Kuball, Jurgen; Camisa, Barbara; Bondanza, Attilio; Casorati, Giulia; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ciceri, Fabio; Bordignon, Claudio; Greenberg, Philip D.; Holmes, Michael C.; Gregory, Philip D.; Naldini, Luigi; Bonini, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of high-avidity T-cell receptor (TCR) genes isolated from rare tumor-specific lymphocytes into polyclonal T cells is an attractive cancer immunotherapy strategy. However, TCR gene transfer results in competition for surface expression and inappropriate pairing between the exogenous and endogenous TCR chains, resulting in suboptimal activity and potentially harmful unpredicted specificities. We designed zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) promoting the disruption of endogenous TCR β and α chain genes. ZFN-treated lymphocytes lacked CD3/TCR surface expression and expanded with IL-7 and IL-15. Upon lentiviral transfer of a TCR for the WT1 tumor antigen, these TCR-edited cells expressed the new TCR at high levels, were easily expanded to near-purity, and proved superior in specific antigen recognition to matched TCR-transferred cells. In contrast to TCR-transferred cells, TCR edited lymphocytes did not mediate off-target reactivity while maintaining anti-tumor activity in vivo, thus demonstrating that complete editing of T-cell specificity generate tumor-specific lymphocytes with improved biosafety profile. PMID:22466705

  4. Identification of zinc finger protein Bcl6 as a novel regulator of early adipose commitment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuanfei; Yang, Yang; Peng, Jie; Song, Tongxing; Xu, Tao; Wei, Hongkui; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a key determinant of whole-body metabolism and energy homeostasis. Unravelling the transcriptional regulatory process during adipogenesis is therefore highly relevant from a biomedical perspective. In these studies, zinc finger protein B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) was demonstrated to have a role in early adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Bcl6 is enriched in preadipose versus non-preadipose fibroblasts and shows upregulated expression in the early stage of adipogenesis. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that Bcl6 acts as a key regulator of adipose commitment and differentiation both in vitro and ex vivo RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bcl6 in C3H10T1/2 cells greatly inhibited adipogenic potential, whereas Bcl6 overexpression enhanced adipogenic differentiation. This transcription factor also directly or indirectly targets and controls the expression of some early and late adipogenic regulators (i.e. Zfp423, Zfp467, KLF15, C/EBPδ, C/EBPα and PPARγ). We further identified that Bcl6 transactivated the signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), which was determined as a required factor for adipogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of STAT1 rescued the impairment of adipogenic commitment and differentiation induced by Bcl6 knockdown in C3H10T1/2 cells, thereby confirming that STAT1 is a downstream direct target of Bcl6. This study identifies Bcl6 as a positive transcriptional regulator of early adipose commitment. PMID:27251748

  5. Advances in genetic modification of farm animals using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN).

    PubMed

    Petersen, Bjoern; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-02-01

    Genome editing tools (GET), including zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like endonucleases (TALENS), and meganucleases possess long recognition sites and are thus capable of cutting DNA in a very specific manner. These genome editing tools mediate targeted genetic alterations by enhancing DNA mutation frequency via induction of double-strand breaks at a predetermined genomic site. Compared to conventional homologous recombination based gene targeting, GETs can increase gene targeting and gene disruption via mutagenic DNA repair more than 10,000-fold. Recently, a novel class of genome editing tools was described that uses RNAs to target a specific genomic site. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of targeting even multiple genomic sites in one shot and thus could be superior to ZFNs or TALEN. Current results indicate that these tools can be successfully employed in a broad range of organisms which renders them useful for improving the understanding of complex physiological systems, producing transgenic animals, including creating large animal models for human diseases, creating specific cell lines, and plants, and even for treating human genetic diseases. This review provides an update on the use of ZFNs to modify the genome of farm animals, summarizes current knowledge on the underlying mechanism, and discusses new opportunities for generating genetically modified farm animals.

  6. Targeted deletion and inversion of tandemly arrayed genes in Arabidopsis thaliana using zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yiping; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yong; Starker, Colby G; Baltes, Nicholas J; Zhang, Feng; Sander, Jeffry D; Reyon, Deepak; Joung, J Keith; Voytas, Daniel F

    2013-10-01

    Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs) or gene clusters are prevalent in higher eukaryotic genomes. For example, approximately 17% of genes are organized in tandem in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The genetic redundancy created by TAGs presents a challenge for reverse genetics. As molecular scissors, engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) make DNA double-strand breaks in a sequence-specific manner. ZFNs thus provide a means to delete TAGs by creating two double-strand breaks in the gene cluster. Using engineered ZFNs, we successfully targeted seven genes from three TAGs on two Arabidopsis chromosomes, including the well-known RPP4 gene cluster, which contains eight resistance (R) genes. The resulting gene cluster deletions ranged from a few kb to 55 kb with frequencies approximating 1% in somatic cells. We also obtained large chromosomal deletions of ~9 Mb at approximately one tenth the frequency, and gene cluster inversions and duplications also were achieved. This study demonstrates the ability to use sequence-specific nucleases in plants to make targeted chromosome rearrangements and create novel chimeric genes for reverse genetics and biotechnology.

  7. Heritable targeted gene disruption in zebrafish using designed zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Yannick; McCammon, Jasmine M; Miller, Jeffrey C; Faraji, Farhoud; Ngo, Catherine; Katibah, George E; Amora, Rainier; Hocking, Toby D; Zhang, Lei; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Amacher, Sharon L

    2008-06-01

    We describe the use of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) for somatic and germline disruption of genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio), in which targeted mutagenesis was previously intractable. ZFNs induce a targeted double-strand break in the genome that is repaired to generate small insertions and deletions. We designed ZFNs targeting the zebrafish golden and no tail/Brachyury (ntl) genes and developed a budding yeast-based assay to identify the most active ZFNs for use in vivo. Injection of ZFN-encoding mRNA into one-cell embryos yielded a high percentage of animals carrying distinct mutations at the ZFN-specified position and exhibiting expected loss-of-function phenotypes. Over half the ZFN mRNA-injected founder animals transmitted disrupted ntl alleles at frequencies averaging 20%. The frequency and precision of gene-disruption events observed suggest that this approach should be applicable to any loci in zebrafish or in other organisms that allow mRNA delivery into the fertilized egg.

  8. The Zinc-Finger Antiviral Protein ZAP Inhibits LINE and Alu Retrotransposition.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, John B; Moran, John V

    2015-05-01

    Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only active autonomous retrotransposon in the human genome. To investigate the interplay between the L1 retrotransposition machinery and the host cell, we used co-immunoprecipitation in conjunction with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to identify cellular proteins that interact with the L1 first open reading frame-encoded protein, ORF1p. We identified 39 ORF1p-interacting candidate proteins including the zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP or ZC3HAV1). Here we show that the interaction between ZAP and ORF1p requires RNA and that ZAP overexpression in HeLa cells inhibits the retrotransposition of engineered human L1 and Alu elements, an engineered mouse L1, and an engineered zebrafish LINE-2 element. Consistently, siRNA-mediated depletion of endogenous ZAP in HeLa cells led to a ~2-fold increase in human L1 retrotransposition. Fluorescence microscopy in cultured human cells demonstrated that ZAP co-localizes with L1 RNA, ORF1p, and stress granule associated proteins in cytoplasmic foci. Finally, molecular genetic and biochemical analyses indicate that ZAP reduces the accumulation of full-length L1 RNA and the L1-encoded proteins, yielding mechanistic insight about how ZAP may inhibit L1 retrotransposition. Together, these data suggest that ZAP inhibits the retrotransposition of LINE and Alu elements.

  9. Identification of zinc finger protein Bcl6 as a novel regulator of early adipose commitment

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuanfei; Yang, Yang; Peng, Jie; Song, Tongxing; Xu, Tao; Wei, Hongkui; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a key determinant of whole-body metabolism and energy homeostasis. Unravelling the transcriptional regulatory process during adipogenesis is therefore highly relevant from a biomedical perspective. In these studies, zinc finger protein B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) was demonstrated to have a role in early adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Bcl6 is enriched in preadipose versus non-preadipose fibroblasts and shows upregulated expression in the early stage of adipogenesis. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that Bcl6 acts as a key regulator of adipose commitment and differentiation both in vitro and ex vivo. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bcl6 in C3H10T1/2 cells greatly inhibited adipogenic potential, whereas Bcl6 overexpression enhanced adipogenic differentiation. This transcription factor also directly or indirectly targets and controls the expression of some early and late adipogenic regulators (i.e. Zfp423, Zfp467, KLF15, C/EBPδ, C/EBPα and PPARγ). We further identified that Bcl6 transactivated the signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), which was determined as a required factor for adipogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of STAT1 rescued the impairment of adipogenic commitment and differentiation induced by Bcl6 knockdown in C3H10T1/2 cells, thereby confirming that STAT1 is a downstream direct target of Bcl6. This study identifies Bcl6 as a positive transcriptional regulator of early adipose commitment. PMID:27251748

  10. Transcription Factor Zinc finger and BTB Domain 1 (Zbtb1) Is Essential for Lymphocyte Development*

    PubMed Central

    Punwani, Divya; Simon, Karen; Choi, Youngnim; Dutra, Amalia; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Diana; Pak, Evgenia; Naradikian, Martin; Song, Chang-Hwa; Zhang, Jenny; Bodine, David M.; Puck, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Absent T lymphocytes were unexpectedly found in homozygotes of a transgenic mouse from an unrelated project. T cell development did not progress beyond double negative stage 1 thymocytes, resulting in a hypocellular, vestigial thymus. B cells were present, but NK cell number and B cell isotype switching were reduced. Transplantation of wild type hematopoietic cells corrected the defect, which was traced to a deletion involving 5 contiguous genes at the transgene insertion site on chromosome 12C3. Complementation using BAC transgenesis implicated zinc finger BTB-POZ domain protein 1 (Zbtb1) in the immunodeficiency, confirming its role in T cell development and suggesting involvement in B and NK cell differentiation. Targeted disruption of Zbtb1 recapitulated the T− B+ NK− severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) phenotype of the original transgenic animal. Knockouts for Zbtb1 had expanded populations of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells and also multipotent and early lymphoid lineages, suggesting a differentiation bottleneck for common lymphoid progenitors. Expression of mRNA encoding Zbtb1, a predicted transcription repressor, was greatest in hematopoietic stem cells, thymocytes and pre-B cells, highlighting its essential role in lymphoid development. PMID:22753936

  11. The Zinc-Finger Antiviral Protein ZAP Inhibits LINE and Alu Retrotransposition.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, John B; Moran, John V

    2015-05-01

    Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only active autonomous retrotransposon in the human genome. To investigate the interplay between the L1 retrotransposition machinery and the host cell, we used co-immunoprecipitation in conjunction with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to identify cellular proteins that interact with the L1 first open reading frame-encoded protein, ORF1p. We identified 39 ORF1p-interacting candidate proteins including the zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP or ZC3HAV1). Here we show that the interaction between ZAP and ORF1p requires RNA and that ZAP overexpression in HeLa cells inhibits the retrotransposition of engineered human L1 and Alu elements, an engineered mouse L1, and an engineered zebrafish LINE-2 element. Consistently, siRNA-mediated depletion of endogenous ZAP in HeLa cells led to a ~2-fold increase in human L1 retrotransposition. Fluorescence microscopy in cultured human cells demonstrated that ZAP co-localizes with L1 RNA, ORF1p, and stress granule associated proteins in cytoplasmic foci. Finally, molecular genetic and biochemical analyses indicate that ZAP reduces the accumulation of full-length L1 RNA and the L1-encoded proteins, yielding mechanistic insight about how ZAP may inhibit L1 retrotransposition. Together, these data suggest that ZAP inhibits the retrotransposition of LINE and Alu elements. PMID:25951186

  12. Physical and functional sensitivity of zinc finger transcription factors to redox change.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, X; Bishopric, N H; Discher, D J; Murphy, B J; Webster, K A

    1996-01-01

    Redox regulation of DNA-binding proteins through the reversible oxidation of key cysteine sulfhydryl groups has been demonstrated to occur in vitro for a range of transcription factors. The direct redox regulation of DNA binding has not been described in vivo, possibly because most protein thiol groups are strongly buffered against oxidation by the highly reduced intracellular environment mediated by glutathione, thioredoxin, and associated pathways. For this reason, only accessible protein thiol groups with high thiol-disulfide oxidation potentials are likely to be responsive to intracellular redox changes. In this article, we demonstrate that zinc finger DNA-binding proteins, in particular members of the Sp-1 family, appear to contain such redox-sensitive -SH groups. These proteins displayed a higher sensitivity to redox regulation than other redox-responsive factors both in vitro and in vivo. This effect was reflected in the hyperoxidative repression of transcription from promoters with essential Sp-1 binding sites, including the simian virus 40 early region, glycolytic enzyme, and dihydrofolate reductase genes. Promoter analyses implicated the Sp-1 sites in this repression. Non-Sp-1-dependent redox-regulated genes including metallothionein and heme oxygenase were induced by the same hyperoxic stress. The studies demonstrate that cellular redox changes can directly regulate gene expression in vivo by determining the level of occupancy of strategically positioned GC-binding sites. PMID:8622648

  13. Different Binding Properties and Function of CXXC Zinc Finger Domains in Dnmt1 and Tet1

    PubMed Central

    Meilinger, Daniela; Bultmann, Sebastian; Fellinger, Karin; Hasenöder, Stefan; Wang, Mengxi; Qin, Weihua; Söding, Johannes; Spada, Fabio; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Several mammalian proteins involved in chromatin and DNA modification contain CXXC zinc finger domains. We compared the structure and function of the CXXC domains in the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1 and the methylcytosine dioxygenase Tet1. Sequence alignment showed that both CXXC domains have a very similar framework but differ in the central tip region. Based on the known structure of a similar MLL1 domain we developed homology models and designed expression constructs for the isolated CXXC domains of Dnmt1 and Tet1 accordingly. We show that the CXXC domain of Tet1 has no DNA binding activity and is dispensable for catalytic activity in vivo. In contrast, the CXXC domain of Dnmt1 selectively binds DNA substrates containing unmethylated CpG sites. Surprisingly, a Dnmt1 mutant construct lacking the CXXC domain formed covalent complexes with cytosine bases both in vitro and in vivo and rescued DNA methylation patterns in dnmt1−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs) just as efficiently as wild type Dnmt1. Interestingly, neither wild type nor ΔCXXC Dnmt1 re-methylated imprinted CpG sites of the H19a promoter in dnmt1−/− ESCs, arguing against a role of the CXXC domain in restraining Dnmt1 methyltransferase activity on unmethylated CpG sites. PMID:21311766

  14. Requirement for the Murine Zinc Finger Protein ZFR in Perigastrulation Growth and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Madeleine J.; Braun, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The transition from preimplantation to postimplantation development leads to the initiation of complex cellular differentiation and morphogenetic movements, a dramatic decrease in cell cycle length, and a commensurate increase in the size of the embryo. Accompanying these changes is the need for the transfer of nutrients from the mother to the embryo and the elaboration of sophisticated genetic networks that monitor genomic integrity and the homeostatic control of cellular growth, differentiation, and programmed cell death. To determine the function of the murine zinc finger protein ZFR in these events, we generated mice carrying a null mutation in the gene encoding it. Homozygous mutant embryos form normal-appearing blastocysts that implant and initiate the process of gastrulation. Mutant embryos form mesoderm but they are delayed in their development and fail to form normal anterior embryonic structures. Loss of ZFR function leads to both an increase in programmed cell death and a decrease in mitotic index, especially in the region of the distal tip of the embryonic ectoderm. Mutant embryos also have an apparent reduction in apical vacuoles in the columnar visceral endoderm cells in the extraembryonic region. Together, these cellular phenotypes lead to a dramatic development delay and embryonic death by 8 to 9 days of gestation, which are independent of p53 function. PMID:11283266

  15. Epigenetic regulation of puberty via Zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression

    PubMed Central

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Matagne, Valerie; Toro, Carlos A.; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    In primates, puberty is unleashed by increased GnRH release from the hypothalamus following an interval of juvenile quiescence. GWAS implicates Zinc finger (ZNF) genes in timing human puberty. Here we show that hypothalamic expression of several ZNFs decreased in agonadal male monkeys in association with the pubertal reactivation of gonadotropin secretion. Expression of two of these ZNFs, GATAD1 and ZNF573, also decreases in peripubertal female monkeys. However, only GATAD1 abundance increases when gonadotropin secretion is suppressed during late infancy. Targeted delivery of GATAD1 or ZNF573 to the rat hypothalamus delays puberty by impairing the transition of a transcriptional network from an immature repressive epigenetic configuration to one of activation. GATAD1 represses transcription of two key puberty-related genes, KISS1 and TAC3, directly, and reduces the activating histone mark H3K4me2 at each promoter via recruitment of histone demethylase KDM1A. We conclude that GATAD1 epitomizes a subset of ZNFs involved in epigenetic repression of primate puberty. PMID:26671628

  16. The Drosophila Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Ouija Board Controls Ecdysteroid Biosynthesis through Specific Regulation of spookier

    PubMed Central

    Komura-Kawa, Tatsuya; Hirota, Keiko; Shimada-Niwa, Yuko; Yamauchi, Rieko; Shimell, MaryJane; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; O’Connor, Michael B.; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones are crucial for many biological events in multicellular organisms. In insects, the principal steroid hormones are ecdysteroids, which play essential roles in regulating molting and metamorphosis. During larval and pupal development, ecdysteroids are synthesized in the prothoracic gland (PG) from dietary cholesterol via a series of hydroxylation and oxidation steps. The expression of all but one of the known ecdysteroid biosynthetic enzymes is restricted to the PG, but the transcriptional regulatory networks responsible for generating such exquisite tissue-specific regulation is only beginning to be elucidated. Here, we report identification and characterization of the C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor Ouija board (Ouib) necessary for ecdysteroid production in the PG in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of ouib is predominantly limited to the PG, and genetic null mutants of ouib result in larval developmental arrest that can be rescued by administrating an active ecdysteroid. Interestingly, ouib mutant animals exhibit a strong reduction in the expression of one ecdysteroid biosynthetic enzyme, spookier. Using a cell culture-based luciferase reporter assay, Ouib protein stimulates transcription of spok by binding to a specific ~15 bp response element in the spok PG enhancer element. Most remarkable, the developmental arrest phenotype of ouib mutants is rescued by over-expression of a functionally-equivalent paralog of spookier. These observations imply that the main biological function of Ouib is to specifically regulate spookier transcription during Drosophila development. PMID:26658797

  17. Retargeting Sleeping Beauty Transposon Insertions by Engineered Zinc Finger DNA-binding Domains

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Katrin; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Miskey, Csaba; Chen, Wei; Cathomen, Toni; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is a nonviral, integrating vector system with proven efficacy in preclinical animal models, and thus holds promise for future clinical applications. However, SB has a close-to-random insertion profile that could lead to genotoxic effects, thereby presenting a potential safety issue. We evaluated zinc finger (ZF) DNA-binding domains (DBDs) for their abilities to introduce a bias into SB's insertion profile. E2C, that binds a unique site in the erbB-2 gene, mediated locus-specific transposon insertions at low frequencies. A novel ZF targeting LINE1 repeats, ZF-B, showed specific binding to an 18-bp site represented by ~12,000 copies in the human genome. We mapped SB insertions using linear-amplification (LAM)-PCR and Illumina sequencing. Targeted insertions with ZF-B peaked at approximately fourfold enrichment of transposition around ZF-B binding sites yielding ~45% overall frequency of insertion into LINE1. A decrease in the ZF-B dataset with respect to transposon insertions in genes was found, suggesting that LINE1 repeats act as a sponge that “soak up” a fraction of SB insertions and thereby redirect them away from genes. Improvements in ZF technology and a careful choice of targeted genomic regions may improve the safety profile of SB for future clinical applications. PMID:22776959

  18. Targeted mutagenesis in the silkworm Bombyx mori using zinc finger nuclease mRNA injection.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Yoko; Kobayashi, Isao; Beumer, Kelly; Uchino, Keiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Sajwan, Suresh; Carroll, Dana; Tamura, Toshiki; Zurovec, Michal

    2010-10-01

    Targeted mutagenesis is one of the key methods for functional gene analysis. A simplified variant of gene targeting uses direct microinjection of custom-designed Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) mRNAs into Drosophila embryos. To evaluate the applicability of this method to gene targeting in another insect, we mutagenized the Bombyx mori epidermal color marker gene BmBLOS2, which controls the formation of uric acid granules in the larval epidermis. Our results revealed that ZFN mRNA injection is effective to induce somatic, as well as germline, mutations in a targeted gene by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The ZFN-induced NHEJ mutations lack end-filling and blunt ligation products, and include mainly 7 bp or longer deletions, as well as single nucleotide insertions. These observations suggest that the B. mori double-strand break repair system relies on microhomologies rather than on a canonical ligase IV-dependent mechanism. The frequency of germline mutants in G(1) was sufficient to be used for gene targeting relying on a screen based solely on molecular methods.

  19. Zinc-finger protein-targeted gene regulation: Genomewide single-gene specificity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Siyuan; Guschin, Dmitry; Davalos, Albert; Lee, Ya-Li; Snowden, Andrew W.; Jouvenot, Yann; Zhang, H. Steven; Howes, Katherine; McNamara, Andrew R.; Lai, Albert; Ullman, Chris; Reynolds, Lindsey; Moore, Michael; Isalan, Mark; Berg, Lutz-Peter; Campos, Bradley; Qi, Hong; Spratt, S. Kaye; Case, Casey C.; Pabo, Carl O.; Campisi, Judith; Gregory, Philip D.

    2003-01-01

    Zinc-finger protein transcription factors (ZFP TFs) can be designed to control the expression of any desired target gene, and thus provide potential therapeutic tools for the study and treatment of disease. Here we report that a ZFP TF can repress target gene expression with single-gene specificity within the human genome. A ZFP TF repressor that binds an 18-bp recognition sequence within the promoter of the endogenous CHK2 gene gives a >10-fold reduction in CHK2 mRNA and protein. This level of repression was sufficient to generate a functional phenotype, as demonstrated by the loss of DNA damage-induced CHK2-dependent p53 phosphorylation. We determined the specificity of repression by using DNA microarrays and found that the ZFP TF repressed a single gene (CHK2) within the monitored genome in two different cell types. These data demonstrate the utility of ZFP TFs as precise tools for target validation, and highlight their potential as clinical therapeutics. PMID:14514889

  20. Zinc finger transcription factor Slug is a novel target gene of aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ikuta, Togo; Kawajiri, Kaname . E-mail: kawajiri@cancer-c.pref.saitama.jp

    2006-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor. We previously showed that AhR localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm under high cell densities of a keratinocytes cell line, HaCaT, but accumulates in the nucleus at low cell densities. In the current report, we show that the Slug, which is a member of the snail/slug family of zinc finger transcriptional repressors critical for induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT), is activated transcriptionally in accordance with nuclear accumulation of AhR. By reporter assay of the promoter of the Slug gene, gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed AhR directly binds to xenobiotic responsive element 5 at - 0.7 kb of the gene. AhR-targeted gene silencing by small interfering RNA duplexes led to the abolishment of not only CYP1A1 but also Slug induction by 3-methycholanthrene. The Slug was co-localized to the AhR at the wound margins of HaCaT cells, where apparent nuclear distribution of AhR and Slug was observed. The induced Slug was associated with reduction of an epithelial marker of cytokeratin-18 and with an increase in the mesenchymal marker, fibronectin. Taken together, these findings suggest that AhR participated in Slug induction, which, in turn, regulates cellular physiology including cell adhesion and migration.

  1. SysZNF: the C2H2 zinc finger gene database.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guohui; Lorenz, Peter; Kreutzer, Michael; Li, Yixue; Thiesen, Hans-Juergen

    2009-01-01

    C2H2 zinc finger (C2H2-ZNF) genes are one of the largest and most complex gene super-families in metazoan genomes, with hundreds of members in the human and mouse genome. The ongoing investigation of this huge gene family requires computational support to catalog genotype phenotype comparisons of C2H2-ZNF genes between related species and finally to extend the worldwide knowledge on the evolution of C2H2-ZNF genes in general. Here, we systematically collected all the C2H2-ZNF genes in the human and mouse genome and constructed a database named SysZNF to deposit available datasets related to these genes. In the database, each C2H2-ZNF gene entry consists of physical location, gene model (including different transcript forms), Affymetrix gene expression probes, protein domain structures, homologs (and synteny between human and mouse), PubMed references as well as links to relevant public databases. The clustered organization of the C2H2-ZNF genes is highlighted. The database can be searched using text strings or sequence information. The data are also available for batch download from the web site. Moreover, the graphical gene model/protein view system, sequence retrieval system and some other tools embedded in SysZNF facilitate the research on the C2H2 type ZNF genes under an integrative view. The database can be accessed from the URL http://epgd.biosino.org/SysZNF.

  2. NMR chemical shift perturbation mapping of DNA binding by a zinc-finger domain from the yeast transcription factor ADR1.

    PubMed Central

    Schmiedeskamp, M.; Rajagopal, P.; Klevit, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    Mutagenesis studies have revealed that the minimal DNA-binding domain of the yeast transcription factor ADR1 consists of two Cys2-His2 zinc fingers plus an additional 20 residues proximal and N-terminal to the fingers. We have assigned NMR 1H, 15N, and 13C chemical shifts for the entire minimal DNA-binding domain of ADR1 both free and bound to specific DNA. 1H chemical shift values suggest little structural difference between the zinc fingers in this construct and in single-finger constructs, and 13C alpha chemical shift index analysis indicates little change in finger structure upon DNA binding. 1H chemical shift perturbations upon DNA binding are observed, however, and these are mapped to define the protein-DNA interface. The two zinc fingers appear to bind DNA with different orientations, as the entire helix of finger 1 is perturbed, while only the extreme N-terminus of the finger 2 helix is affected. Furthermore, residues N-terminal to the first finger undergo large chemical shift changes upon DNA binding suggesting a role at the protein-DNA interface. A striking correspondence is observed between the protein-DNA interface mapped by chemical shift changes and that previously mapped by mutagenesis. PMID:9300483

  3. The prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc-finger adopts a novel fold as revealed by the NMR structure of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ros DNA-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Malgieri, Gaetano; Russo, Luigi; Esposito, Sabrina; Baglivo, Ilaria; Zaccaro, Laura; Pedone, Emilia M.; Di Blasio, Benedetto; Isernia, Carla; Pedone, Paolo V.; Fattorusso, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The first putative prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc-finger domain has been identified in the transcriptional regulator Ros from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, indicating that the Cys2His2 zinc-finger domain, originally thought to be confined to the eukaryotic kingdom, could be widespread throughout the living kingdom from eukaryotic, both animal and plant, to prokaryotic. In this article we report the NMR solution structure of Ros DNA-binding domain (Ros87), providing 79 structural characterization of a prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc-finger domain. The NMR structure of Ros87 shows that the putative prokaryotic Cys2His2 zinc-finger sequence is indeed part of a significantly larger zinc-binding globular domain that possesses a novel protein fold very different from the classical fold reported for the eukaryotic classical zinc-finger. The Ros87 globular domain consists of 58 aa (residues 9–66), is arranged in a βββαα topology, and is stabilized by an extensive 15-residue hydrophobic core. A backbone dynamics study of Ros87, based on 15N R1, 15N R2, and heteronuclear 15N-{1H}-NOE measurements, has further confirmed that the globular domain is uniformly rigid and flanked by two flexible tails. Mapping of the amino acids necessary for the DNA binding onto Ros87 structure reveals the protein surface involved in the DNA recognition mechanism of this new zinc-binding protein domain. PMID:17956987

  4. High-resolution solution structure of the double Cys2His2 zinc finger from the human enhancer binding protein MBP-1.

    PubMed

    Omichinski, J G; Clore, G M; Robien, M; Sakaguchi, K; Appella, E; Gronenborn, A M

    1992-04-28

    The high-resolution three-dimensional structure of a synthetic 57-residue peptide comprising the double zinc finger of the human enhancer binding protein MBP-1 has been determined in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on the basis of 1280 experimental restraints. A total of 30 simulated annealing structures were calculated. The backbone atomic root-mean-square distributions about the mean coordinate positions are 0.32 and 0.33 A for the N- and C-terminal fingers, respectively, and the corresponding values for all atoms, excluding disordered surface side chains, are 0.36 and 0.40 A. Each finger comprises an irregular antiparallel sheet and a helix, with the zinc tetrahedrally coordinated to two cysteines and two histidines. The overall structure is nonglobular in nature, and the angle between the long axes of the helices is 47 +/- 5 degrees. The long axis of the antiparallel sheet in the N-terminal finger is approximately parallel to that of the helix in the C-terminal finger. Comparison of this structure with the X-ray structure of the Zif-268 triple finger complexed with DNA indicates that the relative orientation of the individual zinc fingers is clearly distinct in the two cases. This difference can be attributed to the presence of a long Lys side chain in the C-terminal finger of MBP-1 at position 40, instead of a short Ala or Ser side chain at the equivalent position in Zif-268. This finding suggests that different contacts may be involved in the binding of the zinc fingers of MBP-1 and Zif-268 to DNA, consistent with the findings from methylation interference experiments that the two fingers of MBP-1 contact 10 base pairs, while the three fingers of Zif-268 contact only 9 base pairs. PMID:1567844

  5. Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3 by the First PHD Finger of Bromodomain-PHD Finger Protein 2 Provides Insights into the Regulation of Histone Acetyltransferases Monocytic Leukemic Zinc-finger Protein (MOZ) and MOZ-related factor (MORF)*

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Su; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Jiahai; Liu, Lei; Ji, Peng; Wu, Mian; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu

    2011-01-01

    MOZ (monocytic leukemic zinc-finger protein) and MORF (MOZ-related factor) are histone acetyltransferases important for HOX gene expression as well as embryo and postnatal development. They form complexes with other regulatory subunits through the scaffold proteins BRPF1/2/3 (bromodomain-PHD (plant homeodomain) finger proteins 1, 2, or 3). BRPF proteins have multiple domains, including two PHD fingers, for potential interactions with histones. Here we show that the first PHD finger of BRPF2 specifically recognizes the N-terminal tail of unmodified histone H3 (unH3) and report the solution structures of this PHD finger both free and in complex with the unH3 peptide. Structural analysis revealed that the unH3 peptide forms a third antiparallel β-strand that pairs with the PHD1 two-stranded antiparallel β-sheet. The binding specificity was determined primarily through the recognition of arginine 2 and lysine 4 of the unH3 by conserved aspartic acids of PHD1 and of threonine 6 of the unH3 by a conserved asparagine. Isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR assays showed that post-translational modifications such as H3R2me2as, H3T3ph, H3K4me, H3K4ac, and H3T6ph antagonized the interaction between histone H3 and PHD1. Furthermore, histone binding by PHD1 was important for BRPF2 to localize to the HOXA9 locus in vivo. PHD1 is highly conserved in yeast NuA3 and other histone acetyltransferase complexes, so the results reported here also shed light on the function and regulation of these complexes. PMID:21880731

  6. Efficient Immunoglobulin Gene Disruption and Targeted Replacement in Rabbit Using Zinc Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Offner, Sonja; Ros, Francesca; Lifke, Valeria; Zeitler, Bryan; Rottmann, Oswald; Vincent, Anna; Zhang, Lei; Jenkins, Shirin; Niersbach, Helmut; Kind, Alexander J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Schnieke, Angelika E.; Platzer, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Rabbits are widely used in biomedical research, yet techniques for their precise genetic modification are lacking. We demonstrate that zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) introduced into fertilized oocytes can inactivate a chosen gene by mutagenesis and also mediate precise homologous recombination with a DNA gene-targeting vector to achieve the first gene knockout and targeted sequence replacement in rabbits. Two ZFN pairs were designed that target the rabbit immunoglobulin M (IgM) locus within exons 1 and 2. ZFN mRNAs were microinjected into pronuclear stage fertilized oocytes. Founder animals carrying distinct mutated IgM alleles were identified and bred to produce offspring. Functional knockout of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus was confirmed by serum IgM and IgG deficiency and lack of IgM+ and IgG+ B lymphocytes. We then tested whether ZFN expression would enable efficient targeted sequence replacement in rabbit oocytes. ZFN mRNA was co-injected with a linear DNA vector designed to replace exon 1 of the IgM locus with ∼1.9 kb of novel sequence. Double strand break induced targeted replacement occurred in up to 17% of embryos and in 18% of fetuses analyzed. Two major goals have been achieved. First, inactivation of the endogenous IgM locus, which is an essential step for the production of therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies in the rabbit. Second, establishing efficient targeted gene manipulation and homologous recombination in a refractory animal species. ZFN mediated genetic engineering in the rabbit and other mammals opens new avenues of experimentation in immunology and many other research fields. PMID:21695153

  7. Zinc finger protein 131 inhibits estrogen signaling by suppressing estrogen receptor {alpha} homo-dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Yohan; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 directly interacts with ER{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding affinity of ZNF131 to ER{alpha} increases upon E2 stimulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 inhibits ER{alpha}-mediated trans-activation by suppressing its homo-dimerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 inhibits ER{alpha}-dimerization and E2-induced breast cancer cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZNF131 inhibits estrogen signaling by acting as an ER{alpha}-co-repressor. -- Abstract: Steroid hormone estrogen elicits various physiological functions, many of which are mediated through two structurally and functionally distinct estrogen receptors, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}. The functional role of zinc finger protein 131 (ZNF131) is poorly understood, but it is assumed to possess transcriptional regulation activity due to the presence of a DNA binding motif. A few recent reports, including ours, revealed that ZNF131 acts as a negative regulator of ER{alpha} and that SUMO modification potentiates the negative effect of ZNF131 on estrogen signaling. However, its molecular mechanism for ER{alpha} inhibition has not been elucidated in detail. Here, we demonstrate that ZNF131 directly interacts with ER{alpha}, which consequently inhibits ER{alpha}-mediated trans-activation by suppressing its homo-dimerization. Moreover, we show that the C-terminal region of ZNF131 containing the SUMOylation site is necessary for its inhibition of estrogen signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that ZNF131 inhibits estrogen signaling by acting as an ER{alpha}-co-repressor.

  8. Genetic Analysis of Zinc-Finger Nuclease-Induced Gene Targeting in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bozas, Ana; Beumer, Kelly J.; Trautman, Jonathan K.; Carroll, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) to cleave the chromosomal target, we have achieved high frequencies of gene targeting in the Drosophila germline. Both local mutagenesis through nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and gene replacement via homologous recombination (HR) are stimulated by target cleavage. In this study we investigated the mechanisms that underlie these processes, using materials for the rosy (ry) locus. The frequency of HR dropped significantly in flies homozygous for mutations in spnA (Rad51) or okr (Rad54), two components of the invasion-mediated synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) pathway. When single-strand annealing (SSA) was also blocked by the use of a circular donor DNA, HR was completely abolished. This indicates that the majority of HR proceeds via SDSA, with a minority mediated by SSA. In flies deficient in lig4 (DNA ligase IV), a component of the major NHEJ pathway, the proportion of HR products rose significantly. This indicates that most NHEJ products are produced in a lig4-dependent process. When both spnA and lig4 were mutated and a circular donor was provided, the frequency of ry mutations was still high and no HR products were recovered. The local mutations produced in these circumstances must have arisen through an alternative, lig4-independent end-joining mechanism. These results show what repair pathways operate on double-strand breaks in this gene targeting system. They also demonstrate that the outcome can be biased toward gene replacement by disabling the major NHEJ pathway and toward simple mutagenesis by interfering with the major HR process. PMID:19380480

  9. Frequent expression of zinc-finger protein ZNF165 in human urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Srivastava, Anupam Kumar; Dalela, Divakar; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Goel, Madhu Mati; Bhatt, Madan Lal Brahma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate mRNA/protein expression of zinc finger protein 165 (ZNF165) in transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) of urinary bladder and correlate its expression with the clinicopathological characteristics of patients. In this study, the methods of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were utilized to evaluate mRNA/protein expression of ZNF165 in TCC. Independent Student's t test, ANOVA and Chi-square (χ(2)) were used to analyze the data statistically. We observed overexpression of ZNF165 mRNA in testis and majority (59.2%) of TCC patients. ZNF165 mRNA expression was also detected in adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANCTs) and some other normal tissues. Relative mean fold expression of ZNF165 mRNA was found to be significantly (p<0.01) higher in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) as compared to non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients. (12.11±9.57 vs. 5.72±2.61, p=0.009). ZNF165 protein expression was demonstrated on archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) bladder tissues using IHC and nuclear staining pattern was detected. No significant difference was observed in protein expression of ZNF165 between the two groups (NMIBC and MIBC patients) (61.1% vs. 55.2%, p=0.629). No significant protein expression of ZNF165 was observed among ANCTs and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) used as control. Our study results suggest that ZNF165 mRNA/protein expression was observed in TCC of human urinary bladder and might be used as a novel diagnostic biomarker and as well a vaccine target in development of urinary bladder cancer specific immunotherapy.

  10. Essential role of the zinc finger transcription factor Casz1 for mammalian cardiac morphogenesis and development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihui; Li, Wenling; Ma, Xuefei; Ding, Nancy; Spallotta, Francesco; Southon, Eileen; Tessarollo, Lino; Gaetano, Carlo; Mukouyama, Yoh-Suke; Thiele, Carol J

    2014-10-24

    Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome is one of the most common terminal deletions observed in humans and is related to congenital heart disease (CHD). However, the 1p36 genes that contribute to heart disease have not been clearly delineated. Human CASZ1 gene localizes to 1p36 and encodes a zinc finger transcription factor. Casz1 is required for Xenopus heart ventral midline progenitor cell differentiation. Whether Casz1 plays a role during mammalian heart development is unknown. Our aim is to determine 1p36 gene CASZ1 function at regulating heart development in mammals. We generated a Casz1 knock-out mouse using Casz1-trapped embryonic stem cells. Casz1 deletion in mice resulted in abnormal heart development including hypoplasia of myocardium, ventricular septal defect, and disorganized morphology. Hypoplasia of myocardium was caused by decreased cardiomyocyte proliferation. Comparative genome-wide RNA transcriptome analysis of Casz1 depleted embryonic hearts identifies abnormal expression of genes that are critical for muscular system development and function, such as muscle contraction genes TNNI2, TNNT1, and CKM; contractile fiber gene ACTA1; and cardiac arrhythmia associated ion channel coding genes ABCC9 and CACNA1D. The transcriptional regulation of some of these genes by Casz1 was also found in cellular models. Our results showed that loss of Casz1 during mouse development led to heart defect including cardiac noncompaction and ventricular septal defect, which phenocopies 1p36 deletion syndrome related CHD. This suggests that CASZ1 is a novel 1p36 CHD gene and that the abnormal expression of cardiac morphogenesis and contraction genes induced by loss of Casz1 contributes to the heart defect.

  11. Dorsal root ganglion myeloid zinc finger protein 1 contributes to neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve trauma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhisong; Gu, Xiyao; Sun, Linlin; Wu, Shaogen; Liang, Lingli; Cao, Jing; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Bekker, Alex; Zhang, Wei; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Peripheral nerve injury-induced changes in gene transcription and translation in primary sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) are considered to contribute to neuropathic pain genesis. Transcription factors control gene expression. Peripheral nerve injury increases the expression of myeloid zinc finger protein 1 (MZF1), a transcription factor, and promotes its binding to the voltage-gated potassium 1.2 (Kv1.2) antisense (AS) RNA gene in the injured DRG. However, whether DRG MZF1 participates in neuropathic pain is still unknown. Here, we report that blocking the nerve injury-induced increase of DRG MZF1 through microinjection of MZF1 siRNA into the injured DRG attenuated the initiation and maintenance of mechanical, cold, and thermal pain hypersensitivities in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, without affecting locomotor functions and basal responses to acute mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli. Mimicking the nerve injury-induced increase of DRG MZF1 through microinjection of recombinant adeno-associated virus 5 expressing full-length MZF1 into the DRG produced significant mechanical, cold, and thermal pain hypersensitivities in naive rats. Mechanistically, MZF1 participated in CCI-induced reductions in Kv1.2 mRNA and protein and total Kv current and the CCI-induced increase in neuronal excitability through MZF1-triggered Kv1.2 AS RNA expression in the injured DRG neurons. MZF1 is likely an endogenous trigger of neuropathic pain and might serve as a potential target for preventing and treating this disorder. PMID:25630025

  12. Targeting Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer with Designer Zinc Finger Transcription Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Haydee; Wang, Yuhua; Beltran, Adriana S.; Juárez-Moreno, Karla; Yuan, Xinni; Kato, Sumie; Leisewitz, Andrea V.; Cuello Fredes, Mauricio; Licea, Alexei F.; Connolly, Denise C.; Huang, Leaf; Blancafort, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynecological malignancies. It is detected at late stages when the disease is spread through the abdominal cavity in a condition known as peritoneal carcinomatosis. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic interventions to target advanced stages of ovarian cancer. Mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin) represents an important metastasis suppressor initially identified in breast cancer. Herein we have generated a sequence-specific zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ATF) to up-regulate the Maspin promoter in aggressive ovarian cancer cell lines and to interrogate the therapeutic potential of Maspin in ovarian cancer. We found that although Maspin was expressed in some primary ovarian tumors, the promoter was epigenetically silenced in cell lines derived from ascites. Transduction of the ATF in MOVCAR 5009 cells derived from ascitic cultures of a TgMISIIR-TAg mouse model of ovarian cancer resulted in tumor cell growth inhibition, impaired cell invasion, and severe disruption of actin cytoskeleton. Systemic delivery of lipid-protamine-RNA nanoparticles encapsulating a chemically modified ATF mRNA resulted in inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth in nude mice accompanied with Maspin re-expression in the treated tumors. Gene expression microarrays of ATF-transduced cells revealed an exceptional specificity for the Maspin promoter. These analyses identified novel targets co-regulated with Maspin in human short-term cultures derived from ascites, such as TSPAN12, that could mediate the anti-metastatic phenotype of the ATF. Our work outlined the first targeted, non-viral delivery of ATFs into tumors with potential clinical applications for metastatic ovarian cancers. PMID:22782891

  13. Abnormal behaviors and developmental disorder of hippocampus in zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Nobutaka; Matsubara, Etsuko; Yamanouchi, Jun; Akazawa, Rie; Aoto, Mamoru; Suzuki, Yoji; Sakai, Ikuya; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Seiji; Yasukawa, Masaki; Mitsuda, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) regulates a number of cellular processes in a wide range of tissues, such as osteoblast formation and adipose commitment and differentiation. In the field of neurobiology, it is reported to be an essential factor for transition of epiblast stem cells into neural progenitors in vitro. However, the role of ZFP521 in the brain in vivo still remains elusive. To elucidate the role of ZFP521 in the mouse brain, we generated mice lacking exon 4 of the ZFP521 gene. The birth ratio of our ZFP521Δ/Δ mice was consistent with Mendel's laws. Although ZFP521Δ/Δ pups had no apparent defect in the body and were indistinguishable from ZFP521+/+ and ZFP521+/Δ littermates at the time of birth, ZFP521Δ/Δ mice displayed significant weight reduction as they grew, and most of them died before 10 weeks of age. They displayed abnormal behavior, such as hyper-locomotion, lower anxiety and impaired learning, which correspond to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The border of the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus of the mice was indistinct and granular neurons were reduced in number. Furthermore, Sox1-positive neural progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and cerebellum were significantly reduced in number. Taken together, these findings indicate that ZFP521 directly or indirectly affects the formation of the neuronal cell layers of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, and thus ZFP521Δ/Δ mice displayed schizophrenia-relevant symptoms. ZFP521Δ/Δ mice may be a useful research tool as an animal model of schizophrenia.

  14. Zinc Finger Transcription Factors Displaced SREBP Proteins as the Major Sterol Regulators during Saccharomycotina Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sarah L.; Wang, Can; Holland, Linda M.; Brunel, François; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Zavrel, Martin; White, Theodore C.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, including the majority of fungi, expression of sterol biosynthesis genes is regulated by Sterol-Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs), which are basic helix-loop-helix transcription activators. However, in yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans sterol synthesis is instead regulated by Upc2, an unrelated transcription factor with a Gal4-type zinc finger. The SREBPs in S. cerevisiae (Hms1) and C. albicans (Cph2) have lost a domain, are not major regulators of sterol synthesis, and instead regulate filamentous growth. We report here that rewiring of the sterol regulon, with Upc2 taking over from SREBP, likely occurred in the common ancestor of all Saccharomycotina. Yarrowia lipolytica, a deep-branching species, is the only genome known to contain intact and full-length orthologs of both SREBP (Sre1) and Upc2. Deleting YlUPC2, but not YlSRE1, confers susceptibility to azole drugs. Sterol levels are significantly reduced in the YlUPC2 deletion. RNA-seq analysis shows that hypoxic regulation of sterol synthesis genes in Y. lipolytica is predominantly mediated by Upc2. However, YlSre1 still retains a role in hypoxic regulation; growth of Y. lipolytica in hypoxic conditions is reduced in a Ylupc2 deletion and is abolished in a Ylsre1/Ylupc2 double deletion, and YlSre1 regulates sterol gene expression during hypoxia adaptation. We show that YlSRE1, and to a lesser extent YlUPC2, are required for switching from yeast to filamentous growth in hypoxia. Sre1 appears to have an ancestral role in the regulation of filamentation, which became decoupled from its role in sterol gene regulation by the arrival of Upc2 in the Saccharomycotina. PMID:24453983

  15. Hydrogen sulfide represses androgen receptor transactivation by targeting at the second zinc finger module.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kexin; Li, Shuangshuang; Wu, Lingyun; Lai, Christopher; Yang, Guangdong

    2014-07-25

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is indispensable for the development of prostate cancer from the initial androgen-dependent state to a later aggressive androgen-resistant state. This study examined the role of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a novel gasotransmitter, in the regulation of AR signaling as well as its mediation in androgen-independent cell growth in prostate cancer cells. Here we found that H(2)S inhibits cell proliferation of both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and antiandrogen-resistant prostate cancer cells (LNCaP-B), with more significance on the latter, which was established by long term treatment of parental LNCaP cells with bicalutamide. The expression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), a major H(2)S producing enzyme in prostate tissue, was reduced in both human prostate cancer tissues and LNCaP-B cells. LNCaP-B cells were resistant to bicalutamide-induced cell growth inhibition, and CSE overexpression could rebuild the sensitivity of LNCaP-B cells to bicalutamide. H(2)S significantly repressed the expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and TMPRSS2, two AR-targeted genes. In addition, H(2)S inhibited AR binding with PSA promoter and androgen-responsive element (ARE) luciferase activity. We further found that AR is post-translationally modified by H(2)S through S-sulfhydration. Mutation of cysteine 611 and cysteine 614 in the second zinc finger module of AR-DNA binding domain diminished the effects of H(2)S on AR S-sulfhydration and AR dimerization. These data suggest that reduced CSE/H2S signaling contributes to antiandrogen-resistant status, and sufficient level of H(2)S is able to inhibit AR transactivation and treat castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  16. Targeted gene addition into a specified location in the human genome using designed zinc finger nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Moehle, Erica A.; Rock, Jeremy M.; Lee, Ya-Li; Jouvenot, Yann; DeKelver, Russell C.; Gregory, Philip D.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Holmes, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient incorporation of novel DNA sequences into a specific site in the genome of living human cells remains a challenge despite its potential utility to genetic medicine, biotechnology, and basic research. We find that a precisely placed double-strand break induced by engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) can stimulate integration of long DNA stretches into a predetermined genomic location, resulting in high-efficiency site-specific gene addition. Using an extrachromosomal DNA donor carrying a 12-bp tag, a 900-bp ORF, or a 1.5-kb promoter-transcription unit flanked by locus-specific homology arms, we find targeted integration frequencies of 15%, 6%, and 5%, respectively, within 72 h of treatment, and with no selection for the desired event. Importantly, we find that the integration event occurs in a homology-directed manner and leads to the accurate reconstruction of the donor-specified genotype at the endogenous chromosomal locus, and hence presumably results from synthesis-dependent strand annealing repair of the break using the donor DNA as a template. This site-specific gene addition occurs with no measurable increase in the rate of random integration. Remarkably, we also find that ZFNs can drive the addition of an 8-kb sequence carrying three distinct promoter-transcription units into an endogenous locus at a frequency of 6%, also in the absence of any selection. These data reveal the surprising versatility of the specialized polymerase machinery involved in double-strand break repair, illuminate a powerful approach to mammalian cell engineering, and open the possibility of ZFN-driven gene addition therapy for human genetic disease. PMID:17360608

  17. Nuclear gene targeting in Chlamydomonas using engineered zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Sizova, Irina; Greiner, Andre; Awasthi, Mayanka; Kateriya, Suneel; Hegemann, Peter

    2013-03-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a versatile model for fundamental and biotechnological research. A wide range of tools for genetic manipulation have been developed for this alga, but specific modification of nuclear genes is still not routinely possible. Here, we present a nuclear gene targeting strategy for Chlamydomonas that is based on the application of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). Our approach includes (i) design of gene-specific ZFNs using available online tools, (ii) evaluation of the designed ZFNs in a Chlamydomonas in situ model system, (iii) optimization of ZFN activity by modification of the nuclease domain, and (iv) application of the most suitable enzymes for mutagenesis of an endogenous gene. Initially, we designed a set of ZFNs to target the COP3 gene that encodes the light-activated ion channel channelrhodopsin-1. To evaluate the designed ZFNs, we constructed a model strain by inserting a non-functional aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase VIII (aphVIII) selection marker interspaced with a short COP3 target sequence into the nuclear genome. Upon co-transformation of this recipient strain with the engineered ZFNs and an aphVIII DNA template, we were able to restore marker activity and select paromomycin-resistant (Pm-R) clones with expressing nucleases. Of these Pm-R clones, 1% also contained a modified COP3 locus. In cases where cells were co-transformed with a modified COP3 template, the COP3 locus was specifically modified by homologous recombination between COP3 and the supplied template DNA. We anticipate that this ZFN technology will be useful for studying the functions of individual genes in Chlamydomonas.

  18. Production of Apolipoprotein C-III Knockout Rabbits using Zinc Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongshan; Zhang, Jifeng; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Tianqing; Fan, Yanbo; Fan, Jianglin; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (Apo) C-III (ApoCIII) resides on the surface of plasma chylomicron (CM), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). It has been recognized that high levels of plasma ApoCIII constitutea risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Elevated plasma ApoCIII level often correlates with insulin resistance, obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia. Invaluable knowledge on the roles of ApoCIIIin lipid metabolisms and CVD has been obtained from transgenic mouse models including ApoCIII knockout (KO) mice; however, it is noted that the metabolism of lipoprotein in mice is different from that of humans in many aspects. It is not known until now whether elevated plasma ApoCIII is directly atherogenic. We worked to develop ApoCIII KO rabbits in the present study based on the hypothesis that rabbits can serve as a reasonablemodelfor studying human lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. Zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) sets targeting rabbit ApoCIIIgene were subjected to in vitro validation prior to embryo microinjection. The mRNA was injected to the cytoplasm of 35 rabbit pronuclear stage embryos, and evaluated the mutation rates at the blastocyst state. Of sixteen blastocysts that were assayed, a satisfactory 50% mutation rate (8/16) at the targeting site was achieved, supporting the use of Set 1 for in vivo experiments. Next, we microinjected 145 embryos with Set 1 mRNA, and transferred these embryos to 7 recipient rabbits. After 30 days gestation, 21 kits were born, out of which five were confirmed as ApoCIII KO rabbits after PCR sequencing assays. The KO animal rate (#KO kits/total born) was 23.8%. The overall production efficiency is 3.4% (5 kits/145 embryos transferred). The present work demonstrated that ZFN is a highly efficient method to produce KO rabbits. These ApoCIII KO rabbits are novel resources to study the roles of ApoCIII in lipid metabolisms. PMID:24301055

  19. Knockout of exogenous EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells using zinc-finger nucleases

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Masahito; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Matsunari, Hitomi; Takayanagi, Shuko; Haruyama, Erika; Nakano, Kazuaki; Fujiwara, Tsukasa; Ikezawa, Yuka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; and others

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} EGFP gene integrated in porcine somatic cells could be knocked out using the ZFN-KO system. {yields} ZFNs induced targeted mutations in porcine primary cultured cells. {yields} Complete absence of EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in ZFN-treated cells. -- Abstract: Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are expected as a powerful tool for generating gene knockouts in laboratory and domestic animals. Currently, it is unclear whether this technology can be utilized for knocking-out genes in pigs. Here, we investigated whether knockout (KO) events in which ZFNs recognize and cleave a target sequence occur in porcine primary cultured somatic cells that harbor the exogenous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. ZFN-encoding mRNA designed to target the EGFP gene was introduced by electroporation into the cell. Using the Surveyor nuclease assay and flow cytometric analysis, we confirmed ZFN-induced cleavage of the target sequence and the disappearance of EGFP fluorescence expression in ZFN-treated cells. In addition, sequence analysis revealed that ZFN-induced mutations such as base substitution, deletion, or insertion were generated in the ZFN cleavage site of EGFP-expression negative cells that were cloned from ZFN-treated cells, thereby showing it was possible to disrupt (i.e., knock out) the function of the EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that the ZFN-KO system can be applied to pigs. These findings may open a new avenue to the creation of gene KO pigs using ZFN-treated cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  20. Selection-Independent Generation of Gene Knockout Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Using Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Osiak, Anna; Radecke, Frank; Guhl, Eva; Radecke, Sarah; Dannemann, Nadine; Lütge, Fabienne; Glage, Silke; Rudolph, Cornelia; Cantz, Tobias; Schwarz, Klaus; Heilbronn, Regine; Cathomen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Gene knockout in murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has been an invaluable tool to study gene function in vitro or to generate animal models with altered phenotypes. Gene targeting using standard techniques, however, is rather inefficient and typically does not exceed frequencies of 10−6. In consequence, the usage of complex positive/negative selection strategies to isolate targeted clones has been necessary. Here, we present a rapid single-step approach to generate a gene knockout in mouse ESCs using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). Upon transient expression of ZFNs, the target gene is cleaved by the designer nucleases and then repaired by non-homologous end-joining, an error-prone DNA repair process that introduces insertions/deletions at the break site and therefore leads to functional null mutations. To explore and quantify the potential of ZFNs to generate a gene knockout in pluripotent stem cells, we generated a mouse ESC line containing an X-chromosomally integrated EGFP marker gene. Applying optimized conditions, the EGFP locus was disrupted in up to 8% of ESCs after transfection of the ZFN expression vectors, thus obviating the need of selection markers to identify targeted cells, which may impede or complicate downstream applications. Both activity and ZFN-associated cytotoxicity was dependent on vector dose and the architecture of the nuclease domain. Importantly, teratoma formation assays of selected ESC clones confirmed that ZFN-treated ESCs maintained pluripotency. In conclusion, the described ZFN-based approach represents a fast strategy for generating gene knockouts in ESCs in a selection-independent fashion that should be easily transferrable to other pluripotent stem cells. PMID:22194948

  1. Zebrafish foxP2 zinc finger nuclease mutant has normal axon pathfinding.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lingyan; Hoshijima, Kazuyuki; Grunwald, David J; Fujimoto, Esther; Quist, Tyler S; Sneddon, Jacob; Chien, Chi-Bin; Stevenson, Tamara J; Bonkowsky, Joshua L

    2012-01-01

    foxP2, a forkhead-domain transcription factor, is critical for speech and language development in humans, but its role in the establishment of CNS connectivity is unclear. While in vitro studies have identified axon guidance molecules as targets of foxP2 regulation, and cell culture assays suggest a role for foxP2 in neurite outgrowth, in vivo studies have been lacking regarding a role for foxP2 in axon pathfinding. We used a modified zinc finger nuclease methodology to generate mutations in the zebrafish foxP2 gene. Using PCR-based high resolution melt curve analysis (HRMA) of G0 founder animals, we screened and identified three mutants carrying nonsense mutations in the 2(nd) coding exon: a 17 base-pair (bp) deletion, an 8bp deletion, and a 4bp insertion. Sequence analysis of cDNA confirmed that these were frameshift mutations with predicted early protein truncations. Homozygous mutant fish were viable and fertile, with unchanged body morphology, and no apparent differences in CNS apoptosis, proliferation, or patterning at embryonic stages. There was a reduction in expression of the known foxP2 target gene cntnap2 that was rescued by injection of wild-type foxP2 transcript. When we examined axon pathfinding using a pan-axonal marker or transgenic lines, including a foxP2-neuron-specific enhancer, we did not observe any axon guidance errors. Our findings suggest that foxP2 is not necessary for axon pathfinding during development.

  2. A pair of mouse KRAB zinc finger proteins modulates multiple indicators of female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Christopher J; Robins, Diane M

    2010-04-01

    Krüppel-associated box-zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) are the largest class of transcriptional regulators in mammals, yet few have been assigned biological roles. Cloning the genes underlying the regulator of sex-limitation (rsl) phenotype, in which the normally male-specific sex-limited protein (SLP) is expressed in female mice, identified two KRAB-ZFPs, Rsl1 and Rsl2, as influencing sexually dimorphic liver gene expression. Combined absence of both repressors in rsl mice leads to increased expression in female liver of major urinary proteins (MUPs) and certain enzymes of steroid metabolism, as well as SLP. We hypothesized that this altered gene expression might affect reproductive physiology in rsl females. Urinary MUP (uMUP) concentration varied with the estrous cycle in both wt and rsl females but was consistently higher in rsl urine. A behavioral odor test revealed that wild-type (wt) males preferred rsl to wt females, possibly due to elevated uMUPs providing greater pheromone presentation. To ascribe activity to Rsl1, Rsl2, or both, the genes were individually expressed as liver-specific transgenes. RSL2 overexpression accentuated uMUP fluctuations across the estrous cycle, whereas RSL1 overexpression did not. In addition, puberty onset, as indicated by vaginal opening (VO), occurred 2 days earlier in rsl females, and excess RSL2, but not RSL1, restored VO timing to wt. Hence, transcriptional repression by RSL in liver modifies female mouse reproduction via targets that likely impact both hormonal and pheromonal cues. The large and rapidly diversifying KRAB-ZFP family may modulate biological processes, including reproduction, to confer individual differences that may isolate populations and ultimately lead to speciation.

  3. Association between variants of zinc finger genes and psychiatric disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Hu, Die; Liang, Jie; Bao, Yan-Ping; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Psychiatric disorders have a negative impact on society and human lives. Genetic factors are involved in the occurrence and development of psychiatric diseases. ZNF804A has been identified as one of the most compelling risk genes associated with broad phenotypes related to psychosis. We conducted a systematic meta-analysis and reviewed ZNF804A variants in psychosis-related disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. We also summarized the association between other zinc finger protein genes (ZNFs) and psychiatric diseases. The meta-analysis included a total of six variants of ZNF804A and three variants of other ZNFs (ZDHHC8 and ZKSCAN4), and the effects of ZNF variants on neurocognition and neuroimaging phenotypes were reviewed. The biological functions of these variants are also presented. We verified that ZNF804A was significantly related to psychiatric diseases, and the association between ZNF804A rs1344706 and psychosis (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) did not vary with disease or ethnicity. The main brain area regulated by ZNF804A rs1344706 was the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The effect of ZNF804A variants on cognition did not display consistency with different diseases or methodologies. These findings suggest that ZNF804A might play an important role in common pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases, and its variants are likely involved in regulating the expression of psychosis-related genes, especially the dopamine pathway genes. Further research should focus on the molecular mechanisms by which ZNF804A variants act in psychiatric diseases and related phenotypes.

  4. Post-transcriptional regulation of the trypanosome heat shock response by a zinc finger protein.

    PubMed

    Droll, Dorothea; Minia, Igor; Fadda, Abeer; Singh, Aditi; Stewart, Mhairi; Queiroz, Rafael; Clayton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In most organisms, the heat-shock response involves increased heat-shock gene transcription. In Kinetoplastid protists, however, virtually all control of gene expression is post-transcriptional. Correspondingly, Trypanosoma brucei heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) synthesis after heat shock depends on regulation of HSP70 mRNA turnover. We here show that the T. brucei CCCH zinc finger protein ZC3H11 is a post-transcriptional regulator of trypanosome chaperone mRNAs. ZC3H11 is essential in bloodstream-form trypanosomes and for recovery of insect-form trypanosomes from heat shock. ZC3H11 binds to mRNAs encoding heat-shock protein homologues, with clear specificity for the subset of trypanosome chaperones that is required for protein refolding. In procyclic forms, ZC3H11 was required for stabilisation of target chaperone-encoding mRNAs after heat shock, and the HSP70 mRNA was also decreased upon ZC3H11 depletion in bloodstream forms. Many mRNAs bound to ZC3H11 have a consensus AUU repeat motif in the 3'-untranslated region. ZC3H11 bound preferentially to AUU repeats in vitro, and ZC3H11 regulation of HSP70 mRNA in bloodstream forms depended on its AUU repeat region. Tethering of ZC3H11 to a reporter mRNA increased reporter expression, showing that it is capable of actively stabilizing an mRNA. These results show that expression of trypanosome heat-shock genes is controlled by a specific RNA-protein interaction. They also show that heat-shock-induced chaperone expression in procyclic trypanosome enhances parasite survival at elevated temperatures.

  5. Solution Structure of the Cuz1 AN1 Zinc Finger Domain: An Exposed LDFLP Motif Defines a Subfamily of AN1 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhen-Yu J.; Bhanu, Meera K.; Allan, Martin G.; Arthanari, Haribabu; Wagner, Gerhard; Hanna, John

    2016-01-01

    Zinc binding domains are common and versatile protein structural motifs that mediate diverse cellular functions. Among the many structurally distinct families of zinc finger (ZnF) proteins, the AN1 domain remains poorly characterized. Cuz1 is one of two AN1 ZnF proteins in the yeast S. cerevisiae, and is a stress-inducible protein that functions in protein degradation through direct interaction with the proteasome and Cdc48. Here we report the solution structure of the Cuz1 AN1 ZnF which reveals a compact C6H2 zinc-coordinating domain that resembles a two-finger hand holding a tri-helical clamp. A central phenylalanine residue sits between the two zinc-coordinating centers. The position of this phenylalanine, just before the penultimate zinc-chelating cysteine, is strongly conserved from yeast to man. This phenylalanine shows an exceptionally slow ring-flipping rate which likely contributes to the high rigidity and stability of the AN1 domain. In addition to the zinc-chelating residues, sequence analysis of Cuz1 indicates a second highly evolutionarily conserved motif. This LDFLP motif is shared with three human proteins—Zfand1, AIRAP, and AIRAP-L—the latter two of which share similar cellular functions with Cuz1. The LDFLP motif, while embedded within the zinc finger domain, is surface exposed, largely uninvolved in zinc chelation, and not required for the overall fold of the domain. The LDFLP motif was dispensable for Cuz1's major known functions, proteasome- and Cdc48-binding. These results provide the first structural characterization of the AN1 zinc finger domain, and suggest that the LDFLP motif may define a sub-family of evolutionarily conserved AN1 zinc finger proteins. PMID:27662200

  6. The N-terminal zinc finger domain of Tgf2 transposase contributes to DNA binding and to transposition activity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xia-Yun; Hou, Fei; Shen, Xiao-Dan; Du, Xue-Di; Xu, Hai-Li; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Active Hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposable elements are rarely found in vertebrates. Previously, goldfish Tgf2 was found to be an autonomously active vertebrate transposon that is efficient at gene-transfer in teleost fish. However, little is known about Tgf2 functional domains required for transposition. To explore this, we first predicted in silico a zinc finger domain in the N-terminus of full length Tgf2 transposase (L-Tgf2TPase). Two truncated recombinant Tgf2 transposases with deletions in the N-terminal zinc finger domain, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPase, were expressed in bacteria from goldfish cDNAs. Both truncated Tgf2TPases lost their DNA-binding ability in vitro, specifically at the ends of Tgf2 transposon than native L-Tgf2TPase. Consequently, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPases mediated gene transfer in the zebrafish genome in vivo at a significantly (p < 0.01) lower efficiency (21%–25%), in comparison with L-Tgf2TPase (56% efficiency). Compared to L-Tgf2TPase, truncated Tgf2TPases catalyzed imprecise excisions with partial deletion of TE ends and/or plasmid backbone insertion/deletion. The gene integration into the zebrafish genome mediated by truncated Tgf2TPases was imperfect, creating incomplete 8-bp target site duplications at the insertion sites. These results indicate that the zinc finger domain in Tgf2 transposase is involved in binding to Tgf2 terminal sequences, and loss of those domains has effects on TE transposition. PMID:27251101

  7. Balancing between affinity and speed in target DNA search by zinc-finger proteins via modulation of dynamic conformational ensemble.

    PubMed

    Zandarashvili, Levani; Esadze, Alexandre; Vuzman, Dana; Kemme, Catherine A; Levy, Yaakov; Iwahara, Junji

    2015-09-15

    Although engineering of transcription factors and DNA-modifying enzymes has drawn substantial attention for artificial gene regulation and genome editing, most efforts focus on affinity and specificity of the DNA-binding proteins, typically overlooking the kinetic properties of these proteins. However, a simplistic pursuit of high affinity can lead to kinetically deficient proteins that spend too much time at nonspecific sites before reaching their targets on DNA. We demonstrate that structural dynamic knowledge of the DNA-scanning process allows for kinetically and thermodynamically balanced engineering of DNA-binding proteins. Our current study of the zinc-finger protein Egr-1 (also known as Zif268) and its nuclease derivatives reveals kinetic and thermodynamic roles of the dynamic conformational equilibrium between two modes during the DNA-scanning process: one mode suitable for search and the other for recognition. By mutagenesis, we were able to shift this equilibrium, as confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. Using fluorescence and biochemical assays as well as computational simulations, we analyzed how the shifts of the conformational equilibrium influence binding affinity, target search kinetics, and efficiency in displacing other proteins from the target sites. A shift toward the recognition mode caused an increase in affinity for DNA and a decrease in search efficiency. In contrast, a shift toward the search mode caused a decrease in affinity and an increase in search efficiency. This accelerated site-specific DNA cleavage by the zinc-finger nuclease, without enhancing off-target cleavage. Our study shows that appropriate modulation of the dynamic conformational ensemble can greatly improve zinc-finger technology, which has used Egr-1 (Zif268) as a major scaffold for engineering.

  8. The N-terminal zinc finger domain of Tgf2 transposase contributes to DNA binding and to transposition activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia-Yun; Hou, Fei; Shen, Xiao-Dan; Du, Xue-Di; Xu, Hai-Li; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Active Hobo/Activator/Tam3 (hAT) transposable elements are rarely found in vertebrates. Previously, goldfish Tgf2 was found to be an autonomously active vertebrate transposon that is efficient at gene-transfer in teleost fish. However, little is known about Tgf2 functional domains required for transposition. To explore this, we first predicted in silico a zinc finger domain in the N-terminus of full length Tgf2 transposase (L-Tgf2TPase). Two truncated recombinant Tgf2 transposases with deletions in the N-terminal zinc finger domain, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPase, were expressed in bacteria from goldfish cDNAs. Both truncated Tgf2TPases lost their DNA-binding ability in vitro, specifically at the ends of Tgf2 transposon than native L-Tgf2TPase. Consequently, S1- and S2-Tgf2TPases mediated gene transfer in the zebrafish genome in vivo at a significantly (p < 0.01) lower efficiency (21%-25%), in comparison with L-Tgf2TPase (56% efficiency). Compared to L-Tgf2TPase, truncated Tgf2TPases catalyzed imprecise excisions with partial deletion of TE ends and/or plasmid backbone insertion/deletion. The gene integration into the zebrafish genome mediated by truncated Tgf2TPases was imperfect, creating incomplete 8-bp target site duplications at the insertion sites. These results indicate that the zinc finger domain in Tgf2 transposase is involved in binding to Tgf2 terminal sequences, and loss of those domains has effects on TE transposition. PMID:27251101

  9. Direct binding of specific AUF1 isoforms to tandem zinc finger domains of tristetraprolin (TTP) family proteins.

    PubMed

    Kedar, Vishram P; Zucconi, Beth E; Wilson, Gerald M; Blackshear, Perry J

    2012-02-17

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is the prototype of a family of CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins that can bind to AU-rich elements in mRNAs and promote their decay. TTP binds to mRNA through its central tandem zinc finger domain; it then promotes mRNA deadenylation, considered to be the rate-limiting step in eukaryotic mRNA decay. We found that TTP and its related family members could bind to certain isoforms of another AU-rich element-binding protein, HNRNPD/AUF1, as well as a related protein, laAUF1. The interaction domain within AUF1p45 appeared to be a C-terminal "GY" region, and the interaction domain within TTP was the tandem zinc finger domain. Surprisingly, binding of AUF1p45 to TTP occurred even with TTP mutants that lacked RNA binding activity. In cell extracts, binding of AUF1p45 to TTP potentiated TTP binding to ARE-containing RNA probes, as determined by RNA gel shift assays; AUF1p45 did not bind to the RNA probes under these conditions. Using purified, recombinant proteins and a synthetic RNA target in FRET assays, we demonstrated that AUF1p45, but not AUF1p37, increased TTP binding affinity for RNA ∼5-fold. These data suggest that certain isoforms of AUF1 can serve as "co-activators" of TTP family protein binding to RNA. The results raise interesting questions about the ability of AUF1 isoforms to regulate the mRNA binding and decay-promoting activities of TTP and its family members as well as the ability of AUF1 proteins to serve as possible physical links between TTP and other mRNA decay proteins and structures.

  10. Arsenite Targets the Zinc Finger Domains of Tet Proteins and Inhibits Tet-Mediated Oxidation of 5-Methylcytosine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Jiang, Ji; Li, Lin; Amato, Nicholas J; Wang, Zi; Wang, Yinsheng

    2015-10-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a serious public health problem worldwide that brings more than 100 million people into the risk of arsenic exposure from groundwater and food contamination. Although there is accumulating evidence linking arsenic exposure with aberrant cytosine methylation in the global genome or at specific genomic loci, very few have investigated the impact of arsenic on the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) mediated by the Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of proteins. Owing to the high binding affinity of As(III) toward cysteine residues, we reasoned that the highly conserved C3H-type zinc fingers situated in Tet proteins may constitute potential targets for arsenic binding. Herein, we found that arsenite could bind directly to the zinc fingers of Tet proteins in vitro and in cells, and this interaction substantially impaired the catalytic efficiency of Tet proteins in oxidizing 5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5-foC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC). Treatments with arsenite also led to a dose-dependent decrease in the level of 5-hmC, but not 5-mC, in DNA isolated from HEK293T cells overexpressing the catalytic domain of any of the three Tet proteins and from mouse embryonic stem cells. Together, our study unveiled, for the first time, that arsenite could alter epigenetic signaling by targeting the zinc fingers of Tet proteins and perturbing the Tet-mediated oxidation of 5-mC in vitro and in cells. Our results offer important mechanistic understanding of arsenic epigenotoxicity and carcinogenesis in mammalian systems and may lead to novel approaches for the chemoprevention of arsenic toxicity.

  11. A Soybean C2H2-Type Zinc Finger Gene GmZF1 Enhanced Cold Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Liu, Meng-Meng; Shan, Shu-Guang; Cheng, Xian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger proteins were involved in response to different environmental stresses in plant species. A typical Cys2/His2-type (C2H2-type) zinc finger gene GmZF1 from soybean was isolated and was composed of 172 amino acids containing two conserved C2H2-type zinc finger domains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GmZF1 was clustered on the same branch with six C2H2-type ZFPs from dicotyledonous plants excepting for GsZFP1, and distinguished those from monocotyledon species. The GmZF1 protein was localized at the nucleus, and has specific binding activity with EP1S core sequence, and nucleotide mutation in the core sequence of EPSPS promoter changed the binding ability between GmZF1 protein and core DNA element, implying that two amino acid residues, G and C boxed in core sequence TGACAGTGTCA possibly play positive regulation role in recognizing DNA-binding sites in GmZF1 proteins. High accumulation of GmZF1 mRNA induced by exogenous ABA suggested that GmZF1 was involved in an ABA-dependent signal transduction pathway. Over-expression of GmZF1 significantly improved the contents of proline and soluble sugar and decreased the MDA contents in the transgenic lines exposed to cold stress, indicating that transgenic Arabidopsis carrying GmZF1 gene have adaptive mechanisms to cold stress. Over-expression of GmZF1 also increased the expression of cold-regulated cor6.6 gene by probably recognizing protein-DNA binding sites, suggesting that GmZF1 from soybean could enhance the tolerance of Arabidopsis to cold stress by regulating expression of cold-regulation gene in the transgenic Arabidopsis. PMID:25286048

  12. A survey of well conserved families of C2H2 zinc-finger genes in Daphnia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A recent comparative genomic analysis tentatively identified roughly 40 orthologous groups of C2H2 Zinc-finger proteins that are well conserved in "bilaterians" (i.e. worms, flies, and humans). Here we extend that analysis to include a second arthropod genome from the crustacean, Daphnia pulex. Results Most of the 40 orthologous groups of C2H2 zinc-finger proteins are represented by just one or two proteins within each of the previously surveyed species. Likewise, Daphnia were found to possess a similar number of orthologs for all of these small orthology groups. In contrast, the number of Sp/KLF homologs tends to be greater and to vary between species. Like the corresponding mammalian Sp/KLF proteins, most of the Drosophila and Daphnia homologs can be placed into one of three sub-groups: Class I-III. Daphnia were found to have three Class I proteins that roughly correspond to their Drosophila counterparts, dSP1, btd, CG5669, and three Class II proteins that roughly correspond to Luna, CG12029, CG9895. However, Daphnia have four additional KLF-Class II proteins that are most similar to the vertebrate KLF1/2/4 proteins, a subset not found in Drosophila. Two of these four proteins are encoded by genes linked in tandem. Daphnia also have three KLF-Class III members, one more than Drosophila. One of these is a likely Bteb2 homolog, while the other two correspond to Cabot and KLF13, a vertebrate homolog of Cabot. Conclusion Consistent with their likely roles as fundamental determinants of bilaterian form and function, most of the 40 groups of C2H2 zinc-finger proteins are conserved in kind and number in Daphnia. However, the KLF family includes several additional genes that are most similar to genes present in vertebrates but missing in Drosophila. PMID:20433734

  13. A soybean C2H2-type zinc finger gene GmZF1 enhanced cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo-Hong; Jiang, Lin-Lin; Ma, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Liu, Meng-Meng; Shan, Shu-Guang; Cheng, Xian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Zinc finger proteins were involved in response to different environmental stresses in plant species. A typical Cys2/His2-type (C2H2-type) zinc finger gene GmZF1 from soybean was isolated and was composed of 172 amino acids containing two conserved C2H2-type zinc finger domains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GmZF1 was clustered on the same branch with six C2H2-type ZFPs from dicotyledonous plants excepting for GsZFP1, and distinguished those from monocotyledon species. The GmZF1 protein was localized at the nucleus, and has specific binding activity with EP1S core sequence, and nucleotide mutation in the core sequence of EPSPS promoter changed the binding ability between GmZF1 protein and core DNA element, implying that two amino acid residues, G and C boxed in core sequence TGACAGTGTCA possibly play positive regulation role in recognizing DNA-binding sites in GmZF1 proteins. High accumulation of GmZF1 mRNA induced by exogenous ABA suggested that GmZF1 was involved in an ABA-dependent signal transduction pathway. Over-expression of GmZF1 significantly improved the contents of proline and soluble sugar and decreased the MDA contents in the transgenic lines exposed to cold stress, indicating that transgenic Arabidopsis carrying GmZF1 gene have adaptive mechanisms to cold stress. Over-expression of GmZF1 also increased the expression of cold-regulated cor6.6 gene by probably recognizing protein-DNA binding sites, suggesting that GmZF1 from soybean could enhance the tolerance of Arabidopsis to cold stress by regulating expression of cold-regulation gene in the transgenic Arabidopsis.

  14. Fluorescent and photochemical properties of a single zinc finger conjugated to a fluorescent DNA-binding probe.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M; Woodbury, N W

    2000-04-18

    A single zinc finger derived from the DNA-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been tethered to the intercalating fluorophore thiazole orange, and the DNA recognition characteristics of the conjugate have been examined. DNA sequence specificity for the peptide-dye conjugate, determined by steady-state fluorescence measurements and photoactivated DNA cleavage experiments, reproduce the binding features of response element recognition found in the native GR. The thiazole orange is able to intercalate and fluoresce when the conjugate binds, at concentrations where little fluorescence is observed from either the conjugate alone or the conjugate mixed with DNA lacking the zinc finger target sequence. The conjugate preferentially targets a 5'-TGTTCT-3' sequence (the native glucocorticoid receptor element) with a dissociation constant of about 25 nM. Lower binding affinities (up to 10-fold) are observed for single site variants of this sequence, and much lower affinity (40-50-fold) is observed for binding to the estrogen response element (which differs from the glucocorticoid receptor element at two positions) as well as to nonspecific DNA. Footprinting reactions show a 4-6 base pair region that is protected by the zinc finger moiety. Photocleavage assays reveal a several base pair region flanking the recognition sequence where the tethered thiazole orange moiety is able to intercalate and subsequently cleave DNA upon visible light exposure. Thiazole orange is also shown to oxidize the 5'-G of remote GG sequences, depending on the details of the intervening DNA sequence. Small synthetic protein-dye conjugates such as this one are potentially useful for a variety of purposes including sequence-specific probes that work under physiological conditions (without melting and hybridization of DNA), sequence-specific photocleavage agents, and self-assembling components in electron and energy transfer systems that utilize DNA as a scaffold and/or photochemical

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel RING zinc-finger protein gene up-regulated under in vitro salt stress in cassava.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Tavares, Liliane de Souza Conceição; Costa, Carinne de Nazaré Monteiro; Brígida, Aílton Borges Santa; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

    2012-06-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the world's most important food crops. It is cultivated mainly in developing countries of tropics, since its root is a major source of calories for low-income people due to its high productivity and resistance to many abiotic and biotic factors. A previous study has identified a partial cDNA sequence coding for a putative RING zinc finger in cassava storage root. The RING zinc finger protein is a specialized type of zinc finger protein found in many organisms. Here, we isolated the full-length cDNA sequence coding for M. esculenta RZF (MeRZF) protein by a combination of 5' and 3' RACE assays. BLAST analysis showed that its deduced amino acid sequence has a high level of similarity to plant proteins of RZF family. MeRZF protein contains a signature sequence motif for a RING zinc finger at its C-terminal region. In addition, this protein showed a histidine residue at the fifth coordination site, likely belonging to the RING-H2 subgroup, as confirmed by our phylogenetic analysis. There is also a transmembrane domain in its N-terminal region. Finally, semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that MeRZF expression is increased in detached leaves treated with sodium chloride. Here, we report the first evidence of a RING zinc finger gene of cassava showing potential role in response to salt stress.

  16. The single Cys2-His2 zinc finger domain of the GAGA protein flanked by basic residues is sufficient for high-affinity specific DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Pedone, P V; Ghirlando, R; Clore, G M; Gronenborn, A M; Felsenfeld, G; Omichinski, J G

    1996-04-01

    Specific DNA binding to the core consensus site GAGAGAG has been shown with an 82-residue peptide (residues 310-391) taken from the Drosophila transcription factor GAGA. Using a series of deletion mutants, it was demonstrated that the minimal domain required for specific binding (residues 310-372) includes a single zinc finger of the Cys2-His2 family and a stretch of basic amino acids located on the N-terminal end of the zinc finger. In gel retardation assays, the specific binding seen with either the peptide or the whole protein is zinc dependent and corresponds to a dissociation constant of approximately 5 x 10(-9) M for the purified peptide. It has previously been thought that a single zinc finger of the Cys2-His2 family is incapable of specific, high-affinity binding to DNA. The combination of an N-terminal basic region with a single Cys2-His2 zinc finger in the GAGA protein can thus be viewed as a novel DNA binding domain. This raises the possibility that other proteins carrying only one Cys2-His2 finger are also capable of high-affinity specific binding to DNA. PMID:8610125

  17. Physical mapping of the retinoblastoma interacting zinc finger gene RIZ to D1S228 on chromosome 1p36

    SciTech Connect

    Buyse, I.M.; Huang, Shi; Takahashi, Ei-ichi

    1996-05-15

    The retinoblastoma interacting zinc finger gene RIZ is a member of the recently discovered PR domain family that includes the MDS1-EVI1 breakpoint gene involved in human leukemia. To help understand the role of RIZ in human diseases, we have determined the cytogenetic and physical localizations of the RIZ gene. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we determined that RIZ maps to 1p36. On the physical map, RIZ is adjacent to the polymorphic marker D1S228. We suggest that the RIZ gene may be a candidate target of 1p36 alterations that commonly occur in neuroendocrine, breast, liver, colon, and lymphoid tumors. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Chemical shift assignments of zinc finger domain of methionine aminopeptidase 1 (MetAP1) from Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Rachineni, Kavitha; Arya, Tarun; Singarapu, Kiran Kumar; Addlagatta, Anthony; Bharatam, Jagadeesh

    2015-10-01

    Methionine aminopeptidase Type I (MetAP1) cleaves the initiator methionine from about 70 % of all newly synthesized proteins in almost every living cell. Human MetAP1 is a two domain protein with a zinc finger on the N-terminus and a catalytic domain on the C-terminus. Here, we report the chemical shift assignments of the amino terminal zinc binding domain (ZBD) (1-83 residues) of the human MetAP1 derived by using advanced NMR spectroscopic methods. We were able to assign the chemical shifts of ZBD of MetAP1 nearly complete, which reveal two helical fragments involving residues P44-L49 (α1) and Q59-K82 (α2). The protein structure unfolds upon complex formation with the addition of 2 M excess EDTA, indicated by the appearance of amide resonances in the random coil chemical shift region of (15)NHSQC spectrum.

  19. The Cys4 zinc finger of bacteriophage T7 primase in sequence-specific single-stranded DNA recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kusakabe, Takahiro; Hine, Anna V.; Hyberts, Sven G.; Richardson, Charles C.

    1999-01-01

    Bacteriophage T7 DNA primase recognizes 5′-GTC-3′ in single-stranded DNA. The primase contains a single Cys4 zinc-binding motif that is essential for recognition. Biochemical and mutagenic analyses suggest that the Cys4 motif contacts cytosine of 5′-GTC-3′ and may also contribute to thymine recognition. Residues His33 and Asp31 are critical for these interactions. Biochemical analysis also reveals that T7 primase selectively binds CTP in the absence of DNA. We propose that bound CTP selects the remaining base G, of 5′-GTC-3′, by base pairing. Our deduced mechanism for recognition of ssDNA by Cys4 motifs bears little resemblance to the recognition of trinucleotides of double-stranded DNA by Cys2His2 zinc fingers. PMID:10200256

  20. BTB-Zinc Finger Oncogenes Are Required for Ras and Notch-Driven Tumorigenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Doggett, Karen; Turkel, Nezaket; Willoughby, Lee F; Ellul, Jason; Murray, Michael J; Richardson, Helena E; Brumby, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    During tumorigenesis, pathways that promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can both facilitate metastasis and endow tumor cells with cancer stem cell properties. To gain a greater understanding of how these properties are interlinked in cancers we used Drosophila epithelial tumor models, which are driven by orthologues of human oncogenes (activated alleles of Ras and Notch) in cooperation with the loss of the cell polarity regulator, scribbled (scrib). Within these tumors, both invasive, mesenchymal-like cell morphology and continual tumor overgrowth, are dependent upon Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. To identify JNK-dependent changes within the tumors we used a comparative microarray analysis to define a JNK gene signature common to both Ras and Notch-driven tumors. Amongst the JNK-dependent changes was a significant enrichment for BTB-Zinc Finger (ZF) domain genes, including chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (chinmo). chinmo was upregulated by JNK within the tumors, and overexpression of chinmo with either RasV12 or Nintra was sufficient to promote JNK-independent epithelial tumor formation in the eye/antennal disc, and, in cooperation with RasV12, promote tumor formation in the adult midgut epithelium. Chinmo primes cells for oncogene-mediated transformation through blocking differentiation in the eye disc, and promoting an escargot-expressing stem or enteroblast cell state in the adult midgut. BTB-ZF genes are also required for Ras and Notch-driven overgrowth of scrib mutant tissue, since, although loss of chinmo alone did not significantly impede tumor development, when loss of chinmo was combined with loss of a functionally related BTB-ZF gene, abrupt, tumor overgrowth was significantly reduced. abrupt is not a JNK-induced gene, however, Abrupt is present in JNK-positive tumor cells, consistent with a JNK-associated oncogenic role. As some mammalian BTB-ZF proteins are also highly oncogenic, our work suggests that EMT

  1. BTB-Zinc Finger Oncogenes Are Required for Ras and Notch-Driven Tumorigenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Karen; Turkel, Nezaket; Willoughby, Lee F.; Ellul, Jason; Murray, Michael J.; Richardson, Helena E.; Brumby, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    During tumorigenesis, pathways that promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can both facilitate metastasis and endow tumor cells with cancer stem cell properties. To gain a greater understanding of how these properties are interlinked in cancers we used Drosophila epithelial tumor models, which are driven by orthologues of human oncogenes (activated alleles of Ras and Notch) in cooperation with the loss of the cell polarity regulator, scribbled (scrib). Within these tumors, both invasive, mesenchymal-like cell morphology and continual tumor overgrowth, are dependent upon Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. To identify JNK-dependent changes within the tumors we used a comparative microarray analysis to define a JNK gene signature common to both Ras and Notch-driven tumors. Amongst the JNK-dependent changes was a significant enrichment for BTB-Zinc Finger (ZF) domain genes, including chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (chinmo). chinmo was upregulated by JNK within the tumors, and overexpression of chinmo with either RasV12 or Nintra was sufficient to promote JNK-independent epithelial tumor formation in the eye/antennal disc, and, in cooperation with RasV12, promote tumor formation in the adult midgut epithelium. Chinmo primes cells for oncogene-mediated transformation through blocking differentiation in the eye disc, and promoting an escargot-expressing stem or enteroblast cell state in the adult midgut. BTB-ZF genes are also required for Ras and Notch-driven overgrowth of scrib mutant tissue, since, although loss of chinmo alone did not significantly impede tumor development, when loss of chinmo was combined with loss of a functionally related BTB-ZF gene, abrupt, tumor overgrowth was significantly reduced. abrupt is not a JNK-induced gene, however, Abrupt is present in JNK-positive tumor cells, consistent with a JNK-associated oncogenic role. As some mammalian BTB-ZF proteins are also highly oncogenic, our work suggests that EMT

  2. Zinc Finger Nuclease: A New Approach to Overcome Beta-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Sabzehei, Faezeh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Mansour; Mohammadi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh; Hejazi, Zahra; Rabiei, Parisa; Manian, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) has been accelerated recently by the indiscriminate application of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance has challenged the success of medical interventions and therefore is considered a hazardous threat to human health. Objectives: The present study aimed to describe the use of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology to target and disrupt a plasmid-encoded β-lactamase, which prevents horizontal gene transfer-mediated evolution of ARBs. Materials and Methods: An engineered ZFN was designed to target a specific sequence in the ampicillin resistance gene (ampR) of the pTZ57R plasmid. The Escherichia coli bacteria already contained the pZFN kanamycin-resistant (kanaR) plasmid as the case or the pP15A, kanaR empty vector as the control, were transformed with the pTZ57R; the ability of the designed ZFN to disrupt the β-lactamase gene was evaluated with the subsequent disturbed ability of the bacteria to grow on ampicillin (amp) and ampicillin-kanamycin (amp-kana)-containing media. The effect of mild hypothermia on the ZFN gene targeting efficiency was also evaluated. Results: The growth of bacteria in the case group on the amp and amp-kana-containing media was significantly lower compared with the control group at 37°C (P < 0.001). Despite being more efficient in hypothermic conditions at 30°C (P < 0.001), there were no significant associations between the incubation temperature and the ZFN gene targeting efficiency. Conclusions: Our findings revealed that the ZFN technology could be employed to overcome ampicillin resistance by the targeted disruption of the ampicillin resistance gene, which leads to inactivation of β-lactam synthesis. Therefore, ZFN technology could be engaged to decrease the antibiotic resistance issue with the construction of a ZFN archive against different ARGs. To tackle the resistance issue at the environmental level, recombinant phages

  3. Zinc finger protein binding to DNA: an energy perspective using molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculations on mutants of both zinc finger domains and their specific DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Mazen Y; Arya, Gaurav

    2016-05-01

    Energy calculations based on MM-GBSA were employed to study various zinc finger protein (ZF) motifs binding to DNA. Mutants of both the DNA bound to their specific amino acids were studied. Calculated energies gave evidence for a relationship between binding energy and affinity of ZF motifs to their sites on DNA. ΔG values were -15.82(12), -3.66(12), and -12.14(11.6) kcal/mol for finger one, finger two, and finger three, respectively. The mutations in the DNA bases reduced the value of the negative energies of binding (maximum value for ΔΔG = 42Kcal/mol for F1 when GCG mutated to GGG, and ΔΔG = 22 kcal/mol for F2, the loss in total energy of binding originated in the loss in electrostatic energies upon mutation (r = .98). The mutations in key amino acids in the ZF motif in positions-1, 2, 3, and 6 showed reduced binding energies to DNA with correlation coefficients between total free energy and electrostatic was .99 and with Van der Waal was .93. Results agree with experimentally found selectivity which showed that Arginine in position-1 is specific to G, while Aspartic acid (D) in position 2 plays a complicated role in binding. There is a correlation between the MD calculated free energies of binding and those obtained experimentally for prepared ZF motifs bound to triplet bases in other reports (), our results may help in the design of ZF motifs based on the established recognition codes based on energies and contributing energies to the total energy. PMID:26196228

  4. Zinc finger protein binding to DNA: an energy perspective using molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculations on mutants of both zinc finger domains and their specific DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Mazen Y; Arya, Gaurav

    2016-05-01

    Energy calculations based on MM-GBSA were employed to study various zinc finger protein (ZF) motifs binding to DNA. Mutants of both the DNA bound to their specific amino acids were studied. Calculated energies gave evidence for a relationship between binding energy and affinity of ZF motifs to their sites on DNA. ΔG values were -15.82(12), -3.66(12), and -12.14(11.6) kcal/mol for finger one, finger two, and finger three, respectively. The mutations in the DNA bases reduced the value of the negative energies of binding (maximum value for ΔΔG = 42Kcal/mol for F1 when GCG mutated to GGG, and ΔΔG = 22 kcal/mol for F2, the loss in total energy of binding originated in the loss in electrostatic energies upon mutation (r = .98). The mutations in key amino acids in the ZF motif in positions-1, 2, 3, and 6 showed reduced binding energies to DNA with correlation coefficients between total free energy and electrostatic was .99 and with Van der Waal was .93. Results agree with experimentally found selectivity which showed that Arginine in position-1 is specific to G, while Aspartic acid (D) in position 2 plays a complicated role in binding. There is a correlation between the MD calculated free energies of binding and those obtained experimentally for prepared ZF motifs bound to triplet bases in other reports (), our results may help in the design of ZF motifs based on the established recognition codes based on energies and contributing energies to the total energy.

  5. HCC-associated protein HCAP1, a variant of GEMIN4, interacts with zinc-finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Di, Yujun; Li, Jinjun; Zhang, Yu; He, Xianghuo; Lu, Hong; Xu, Dongbin; Ling, Jiqiang; Huo, Keke; Wan, Dafang; Li, Yu-Yang; Gu, Jianren

    2003-06-01

    The gene HCAP1 (HCC-associated Protein 1), one variant of GEMIN4, has been mapped in a minimum LOH region on chromosome 17p13.3 and encodes a 1047-amino acid protein. Function predictions based on the amino acid sequence of protein HCAP1 revealed it to contain one helix-loop-helix motif and one leucine zipper domain. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, five zinc-finger proteins were identified as HCAP1-interacting proteins. Among them, NDP52 (nuclear dot protein 52) appeared most frequently in positive clones and was the most strongly interacting protein. Then, the interaction between HCAP1 and NDP52 was confirmed by GST pull-down assay and a coimmunoprecipitation experiment. Moreover, an immunofluorescent staining assay indicated that NDP52 colocalizes with HCAP1 in the cytoplasm. By deletion analysis, the leucine zipper domain of HCAP1 and the zinc finger domain of NDP52 were identified as important regions responsible for the interaction. PMID:12869526

  6. Physical and functional interactions of human endogenous retrovirus proteins Np9 and rec with the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein.

    PubMed

    Denne, Miriam; Sauter, Marlies; Armbruester, Vivienne; Licht, Jonathan D; Roemer, Klaus; Mueller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus

    2007-06-01

    Only few of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) sequences in the human genome can produce proteins. We have previously reported that (i) patients with germ cell tumors often make antibodies against proteins encoded by HERV-K elements, (ii) expression of the HERV-K rec gene in transgenic mice can interfere with germ cell development and induce carcinoma in situ, and (iii) HERV-K np9 transcript is overproduced in many tumors including breast cancers. Here we document that both Np9 and Rec physically and functionally interact with the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) tumor suppressor, a transcriptional repressor and chromatin remodeler implicated in cancer and the self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells. Interaction is mediated via two different central and C-terminal domains of Np9 and Rec and the C-terminal zinc fingers of PLZF. One major target of PLZF is the c-myc proto-oncogene. Coexpression of Np9 and Rec with PLZF abrogates the transcriptional repression of the c-myc gene promoter by PLZF and results in c-Myc overproduction, altered expression of c-Myc-regulated genes, and corresponding effects on cell proliferation and survival. Thus, the human endogenous retrovirus proteins Np9 and Rec may act oncogenically by derepressing c-myc through the inhibition of PLZF.

  7. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi; Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki; Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268-luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF-luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF-luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0×10 to 1.0×10(6) copies.

  8. Repeatable construction method for engineered zinc finger nuclease based on overlap extension PCR and TA-cloning.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Wataru; Kano, Kiyoshi; Sugiura, Koji; Naito, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) is a useful tool for endogenous site-directed genome modification. The development of an easier, less expensive and repeatedly usable construction method for various sequences of ZFNs should contribute to the further widespread use of this technology. Here, we establish a novel construction method for ZFNs. Zinc finger (ZF) fragments were synthesized by PCR using short primers coding DNA recognition helices of the ZF domain. DNA-binding domains composed of 4 to 6 ZFs were synthesized by overlap extension PCR of these PCR products, and the DNA-binding domains were joined with a nuclease vector by TA cloning. The short primers coding unique DNA recognition helices can be used repeatedly for other ZFN constructions. By using this novel OLTA (OverLap extension PCR and TA-cloning) method, arbitrary ZFN vectors were synthesized within 3 days, from the designing to the sequencing of the vector. Four different ZFN sets synthesized by OLTA showed nuclease activities at endogenous target loci. Genetically modified mice were successfully generated using ZFN vectors constructed by OLTA. This method, which enables the construction of intended ZFNs repeatedly and inexpensively in a short period of time, should contribute to the advancement of ZFN technology.

  9. Engineering HIV-Resistant Human CD4+ T Cells with CXCR4-Specific Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Wilen, Craig B.; Wang, Jianbin; Tilton, John C.; Miller, Jeffrey C.; Kim, Kenneth A.; Rebar, Edward J.; Sherrill-Mix, Scott A.; Patro, Sean C.; Secreto, Anthony J.; Jordan, Andrea P. O.; Lee, Gary; Kahn, Joshua; Aye, Pyone P.; Bunnell, Bruce A.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Hoxie, James A.; Danet-Desnoyers, Gwenn A.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Riley, James L.; Gregory, Philip D.; June, Carl H.; Holmes, Michael C.; Doms, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 entry requires the cell surface expression of CD4 and either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors on host cells. Individuals homozygous for the ccr5Δ32 polymorphism do not express CCR5 and are protected from infection by CCR5-tropic (R5) virus strains. As an approach to inactivating CCR5, we introduced CCR5-specific zinc-finger nucleases into human CD4+ T cells prior to adoptive transfer, but the need to protect cells from virus strains that use CXCR4 (X4) in place of or in addition to CCR5 (R5X4) remains. Here we describe engineering a pair of zinc finger nucleases that, when introduced into human T cells, efficiently disrupt cxcr4 by cleavage and error-prone non-homologous DNA end-joining. The resulting cells proliferated normally and were resistant to infection by X4-tropic HIV-1 strains. CXCR4 could also be inactivated in ccr5Δ32 CD4+ T cells, and we show that such cells were resistant to all strains of HIV-1 tested. Loss of CXCR4 also provided protection from X4 HIV-1 in a humanized mouse model, though this protection was lost over time due to the emergence of R5-tropic viral mutants. These data suggest that CXCR4-specific ZFNs may prove useful in establishing resistance to CXCR4-tropic HIV for autologous transplant in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:21533216

  10. ExpandplusCrystal Structures of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) Zinc Fingers Bound to DNA

    SciTech Connect

    M Langelier; J Planck; S Roy; J Pascal

    2011-12-31

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) has two homologous zinc finger domains, Zn1 and Zn2, that bind to a variety of DNA structures to stimulate poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis activity and to mediate PARP-1 interaction with chromatin. The structural basis for interaction with DNA is unknown, which limits our understanding of PARP-1 regulation and involvement in DNA repair and transcription. Here, we have determined crystal structures for the individual Zn1 and Zn2 domains in complex with a DNA double strand break, providing the first views of PARP-1 zinc fingers bound to DNA. The Zn1-DNA and Zn2-DNA structures establish a novel, bipartite mode of sequence-independent DNA interaction that engages a continuous region of the phosphodiester backbone and the hydrophobic faces of exposed nucleotide bases. Biochemical and cell biological analysis indicate that the Zn1 and Zn2 domains perform distinct functions. The Zn2 domain exhibits high binding affinity to DNA compared with the Zn1 domain. However, the Zn1 domain is essential for DNA-dependent PARP-1 activity in vitro and in vivo, whereas the Zn2 domain is not strictly required. Structural differences between the Zn1-DNA and Zn2-DNA complexes, combined with mutational and structural analysis, indicate that a specialized region of the Zn1 domain is re-configured through the hydrophobic interaction with exposed nucleotide bases to initiate PARP-1 activation.

  11. Identification of Basonuclin2, a DNA-binding zinc-finger protein expressed in germ tissues and skin keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Romano, Rose-Anne; Li, Hongxiu; Tummala, Ramakumar; Maul, Robert; Sinha, Satrajit

    2004-05-01

    We used a bioinformatics approach to identify Basonuclin2, the second member of the Basonuclin zinc-finger family of transcription factors. The mouse Basonuclin2 protein consists of 1049 amino acids and contains three pairs of zinc fingers in the C-terminus that show a high level of amino acid sequence similarity with Basonuclin1. In addition, other characteristic domains of Basonuclin1, such as the serine strip and a nuclear localization signal, are also present in Basonuclin2. We used genomic and in silico database analysis to identify the human and rat homologs of basonuclin2. A search of the mouse genome showed that the basonuclin2 gene maps to chromosome 4 and consists of six exons spanning approximately 300 kb. Northern blot analysis revealed multiple transcripts of basonuclin2 in tissues of the reproductive system (ovary and testis) and also in kidney and skin. We demonstrate that, as expected from sequence conservation, recombinant Basonuclin2 can bind to a sequence in the promoter of a rRNA gene previously characterized as a Basonuclin-binding site. Full-length Basonuclin2 exclusively localizes to the nucleus, indicating that it likely plays an important role in nuclear function, probably in gene regulation. Our study establishes Basonuclin2 as a novel member of the Basonuclin family. Moreover, the structural and functional similarities with Basonuclin1 suggest that Basonuclin2 may play an analogous function in germ cells and skin keratinocytes. PMID:15081112

  12. The conserved Bud20 zinc finger protein is a new component of the ribosomal 60S subunit export machinery.

    PubMed

    Bassler, Jochen; Klein, Isabella; Schmidt, Claudia; Kallas, Martina; Thomson, Emma; Wagner, Maria Anna; Bradatsch, Bettina; Rechberger, Gerald; Strohmaier, Heimo; Hurt, Ed; Bergler, Helmut

    2012-12-01

    The nuclear export of the preribosomal 60S (pre-60S) subunit is coordinated with late steps in ribosome assembly. Here, we show that Bud20, a conserved C(2)H(2)-type zinc finger protein, is an unrecognized shuttling factor required for the efficient export of pre-60S subunits. Bud20 associates with late pre-60S particles in the nucleoplasm and accompanies them into the cytoplasm, where it is released through the action of the Drg1 AAA-ATPase. Cytoplasmic Bud20 is then reimported via a Kap123-dependent pathway. The deletion of Bud20 induces a strong pre-60S export defect and causes synthetic lethality when combined with mutant alleles of known pre-60S subunit export factors. The function of Bud20 in ribosome export depends on a short conserved N-terminal sequence, as we observed that mutations or the deletion of this motif impaired 60S subunit export and generated the genetic link to other pre-60S export factors. We suggest that the shuttling Bud20 is recruited to the nascent 60S subunit via its central zinc finger rRNA binding domain to facilitate the subsequent nuclear export of the preribosome employing its N-terminal extension.

  13. Structural polymorphism in the major groove of a 5S RNA gene complements the zinc finger domains of transcription factor IIIA.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, P W; Morii, T; Mei, H Y; Barton, J K

    1991-01-01

    Metal complexes that bind to DNA on the basis of shape-selection have been used to map the conformational features of the DNA binding site for transcription factor IIIA. Conformationally distinct segments are detected on the 5S rRNA gene that correspond closely to the binding sites identified for the individual zinc finger domains of the protein. The local conformations are characterized by a major groove opened because of a change in base pair inclination and/or displacement at a central 5'-pyrimidine-purine-3' step, flanked by a widened minor groove, as would arise at the junctions between alternating B- and A-like DNA segments. Docking experiments with a consensus structure of a zinc finger reveal that the mixed A-B binding site accommodates the peptide domain better than either canonical B- or A-DNA helices. The close structural matching of the conformational variations in the 5S rDNA both to the proposed sites of zinc finger binding and to the shape of an individual zinc finger domain points to DNA structural polymorphism as providing an important determinant in recognition. In particular, shape selection in the 5' half of the internal control region may orient the multiple finger domains. Images PMID:1961749

  14. STP1, a gene involved in pre-tRNA processing, encodes a nuclear protein containing zinc finger motifs.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S S; Stanford, D R; Silvers, C D; Hopper, A K

    1992-01-01

    STP1 is an unessential yeast gene involved in the removal of intervening sequences from some, but not all, families of intervening sequence-containing pre-tRNAs. Previously, we proposed that STP1 might encode a product that generates pre-tRNA conformations efficiently recognized by tRNA-splicing endonuclease. To test the predictions of this model, we have undertaken a molecular analysis of the STP1 gene and its products. The STP1 locus is located on chromosome IV close to at least two other genes involved in RNA splicing: PRP3 and SPP41. The STP1 open reading frame (ORF) could encode a peptide of 64,827 Da; however, inspection of putative transcriptional and translational regulatory signals and mapping of the 5' ends of mRNA provide evidence that translation of the STP1 ORF usually initiates at a second AUG to generate a protein of 58,081 Da. The STP1 ORF contains three putative zinc fingers. The first of these closely resembles both the DNA transcription factor consensus and the Xenopus laevis p43 RNA-binding protein consensus. The third motif more closely resembles the fingers found in spliceosomal proteins. Employing antisera to the endogenous STP1 protein and to STP1-LacZ fusion proteins, we show that the STP1 protein is localized to nuclei. The presence of zinc finger motifs and the nuclear location of the STP1 protein support the model that this gene product is involved directly in pre-tRNA splicing. Images PMID:1588961

  15. Zinc Finger Takes on a Whole New Meaning: Reducing and Monitoring Zinc Blanks in the Isotope Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, E. B.; Wasylenki, L. E.; Anbar, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    In terms of avoiding contamination, zinc is one of the most difficult elements to study isotopically. The reason for this is that zinc stearate is a very common mold release agent in the production of plastics, including those most often used in isotope geochemistry clean labs. While polyethylene bottles, polypropylene centrifuge tubes, pipette tips, and Kimwipes are all potential sources of contaminant zinc, by far the largest amount of zinc is introduced to the laboratory by gloves. Most items can be effectively rid of zinc by soaking in dilute hydrochloric acid, but gloves cannot be cleaned easily, and use of gloves can quickly lead to contamination on many surfaces throughout the lab. We recently conducted several experiments in which dissolved zinc was partly adsorbed onto synthetic Mn oxyhydroxide particles. The dissolved and adsorbed pools were separated by filtration, purified with ion exchange chemistry, and analyzed for isotope composition by MC-ICP-MS. We used a commercially purchased ICP standard solution both as our standard (delta66/64Zn = 0) and as the source of the zinc in the experiments. Whenever gloves were worn during purification, process blanks contained as much as 150 ng Zn, and both the dissolved and adsorbed pools of zinc came out enriched in heavy isotopes relative to the starting pool, contrary to our expectation of mass balance. When gloves were not worn, blanks were <10 ng, and, as expected, one pool of Zn was lighter and one heavier than the standard. Zinc leached from two different brands of vinyl gloves, including one brand recommended to us for being “low” in zinc, measured +10‰ relative to our standard. We therefore concluded that glove zinc contaminated most of our experimental samples. We were only able to see such clear evidence of contamination because (1) we were doing an experiment in which we expected one light and one heavy pool of zinc compared to our standard, and (2) we happened to use an ICP standard solution for

  16. The arginine finger of RasGAP helps Gln-61 align the nucleophilic water in GAP-stimulated hydrolysis of GTP.

    PubMed

    Resat, H; Straatsma, T P; Dixon, D A; Miller, J H

    2001-05-22

    The Ras family of GTPases is a collection of molecular switches that link receptors on the plasma membrane to signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. The accessory GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) negatively regulate the cell signaling by increasing the slow intrinsic GTP to GDP hydrolysis rate of Ras. Mutants of Ras are found in 25-30% of human tumors. The most dramatic property of these mutants is their insensitivity to the negative regulatory action of GAPs. All known oncogenic mutants of Ras map to a small subset of amino acids. Gln-61 is particularly important because virtually all mutations of this residue eliminate sensitivity to GAPs. Despite its obvious importance for carcinogenesis, the role of Gln-61 in the GAP-stimulated GTPase activity of Ras has remained a mystery. Our molecular dynamics simulations of the p21ras-p120GAP-GTP complex suggest that the local structure around the catalytic region can be different from that revealed by the x-ray crystal structure. We find that the carbonyl oxygen on the backbone of the arginine finger supplied in trans by p120GAP (Arg-789) interacts with a water molecule in the active site that is forming a bridge between the NH(2) group of the Gln-61 and the gamma-phosphate of GTP. Thus, Arg-789 may play a dual role in generating the nucleophile as well as stabilizing the transition state for PO bond cleavage. PMID:11371635

  17. Oxidation of Zn(Cys)4 zinc finger peptides by O2 and H2O2: products, mechanism and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Bourlès, Emilie; Isaac, Manon; Lebrun, Colette; Latour, Jean-Marc; Sénèque, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The reactivity of a series of Zn(Cys)(4) zinc finger model peptides towards H(2)O(2) and O(2) has been investigated. The oxidation products were identified by HPLC and ESI-MS analysis. At pH<7.5, the zinc complexes and the free peptides are oxidised to bis-disulfide-containing peptides. Above pH 7.5, the oxidation of the zinc complexes by H(2)O(2) also yields sulfinate- and sulfonate-containing overoxidised peptides. At pH 7.0, monitoring of the reactions between the zinc complexes and H(2)O(2) by HPLC revealed the sequential formation of two disulfides. Several techniques for the determination of the rate constant for the first oxidation step corresponding to the attack of H(2)O(2) by the Zn(Cys)(4) site have been compared. This rate constant can be reliably determined by monitoring the oxidation by HPLC, fluorescence, circular dichroism or absorption spectroscopy in the presence of excess ethyleneglycol bis(2-aminoethyl ether)tetraacetic acid. In contrast, monitoring of the release of zinc with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol or of the thiol content with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) did not yield reliable values of this rate constant for the case in which the formation of the second disulfide is slower than the formation of the first. The kinetic measurements clearly evidence a protective effect of zinc on the oxidation of the cysteines by both H(2)O(2) and O(2), which points to the fact that zinc binding diminishes the nucleophilicity of the thiolates. In addition, the reaction between the zinc finger and H(2)O(2) is too slow to consider zinc fingers as potential sensors for H(2)O(2) in cells.

  18. The zinc finger domain of Tzfp binds to the tbs motif located at the upstream flanking region of the Aie1 (aurora-C) kinase gene.

    PubMed

    Tang, C J; Chuang, C K; Hu, H M; Tang, T K

    2001-06-01

    Our previous studies showed that Aie1 (aurora-C), is a novel testis kinase belonging to the aurora kinase family (). In this report, we describe a testis zinc finger protein (Tzfp) that binds to the upstream flanking sequence of the Aie1 gene. The mouse Tzfp gene, mapped to chromosome 7 B2-B3, encodes a 465-amino acid transcription factor containing a conserved N-terminal BTB/POZ domain and three C-terminal PLZF-like C(2)H(2) zinc fingers. The zinc finger domain of Tzfp binds to the TGTACAGTGT motif (Tzfp binding site, termed tbs) located at the upstream flanking sequence of the Aie1 gene by gel mobility shift, DNase I footprinting, and competition analyses. When the C-terminal zinc fingers of Tzfp were fused to the transactivation domain of VP16, the chimera activated transcription of a reporter construct containing multiple copies of the tbs. In contrast, the same chimera did not activate the reporter gene when an essential nucleotide fifth C was mutated to A at the tbs. Furthermore, we showed that the N-terminal BTB/POZ domain of TZFP has a repressor activity. Taken together, our results indicate that Tzfp recognizes a sequence-specific motif (tbs) and may play a role in the regulation of the genes carrying the tbs.

  19. Sensitive and direct electrochemical detection of double-stranded DNA utilizing alkaline phosphatase-labelled zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Noh, Soodong; Ha, Dat Thinh; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Moon-Soo

    2015-06-21

    Direct detection of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) is of great importance in biomedical applications such as identifying pathogens and circulating DNAs. However, its sensitivity is still not sufficiently high because limited signalling labels can be conjugated or fused. Herein, we report sensitive and direct detection of dsDNA using (i) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as a fast catalytic label conjugated to ZFPs along with (ii) electrochemical measurement of an ALP product (l-ascorbic acid) at the indium-tin oxide electrode with a high signal-to-background ratio. ALP is simply conjugated to a ZFP through lysine residues in a ZFP purification tag, a maltose binding protein (MBP). Sandwich-type electrochemical detection of dsDNA allows a detection limit of ca. 100 fM without using DNA amplification. PMID:25969923

  20. Production of Mutated Porcine Embryos Using Zinc Finger Nucleases and a Reporter-based Cell Enrichment System

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ok Jae; Park, Sol Ji; Lee, Choongil; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Sujin; Moon, Joon Ho; Choi, Ji Yei; Kim, Hyojin; Jang, Goo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Seokjoong; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate the construction of genetically-modified pigs, we produced cloned embryos derived from porcine fibroblasts transfected with a pair of engineered zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) plasmids to create targeted mutations and enriched using a reporter plasmid system. The reporter expresses RFP and eGFP simultaneously when ZFN-mediated site-specific mutations occur. Thus, double positive cells (RFP+/eGFP+) were selected and used for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Two types of reporter based enrichment systems were used in this study; the cloned embryos derived from cells enriched using a magnetic sorting-based system showed better developmental competence than did those derived from cells enriched by flow cytometry. Mutated sequences, such as insertions, deletions, or substitutions, together with the wild-type sequence, were found in the cloned porcine blastocysts. Therefore, genetic mutations can be achieved in cloned porcine embryos reconstructed with ZFN-treated cells that were enriched by a reporter-based system. PMID:25049958

  1. Arabidopsis VARIEGATED 3 encodes a chloroplast-targeted, zinc-finger protein required for chloroplast and palisade cell development.

    PubMed

    Naested, Henrik; Holm, Agnethe; Jenkins, Tom; Nielsen, H Bjørn; Harris, Cassandra A; Beale, Michael H; Andersen, Mathias; Mant, Alexandra; Scheller, Henrik; Camara, Bilal; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2004-09-15

    The stable, recessive Arabidopsis variegated 3 (var3) mutant exhibits a variegated phenotype due to somatic areas lacking or containing developmentally retarded chloroplasts and greatly reduced numbers of palisade cells. The VAR3 gene, isolated by transposon tagging, encodes the 85.9 kDa VAR3 protein containing novel repeats and zinc fingers described as protein interaction domains. VAR3 interacts specifically in yeast and in vitro with NCED4, a putative polyene chain or carotenoid dioxygenase, and both VAR3 and NCED4 accumulate in the chloroplast stroma. Metabolic profiling demonstrates that pigment profiles are qualitatively similar in wild type and var3, although var3 accumulates lower levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids. These results indicate that VAR3 is a part of a protein complex required for normal chloroplast and palisade cell development.

  2. Substitution of DNA-Contacting Amino Acids with Functional Variants in the Gata-1 Zinc Finger: A Structurally and Phylogenetically Guided Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vonderfecht, Tyson R.; Schroyer, Daniel L.; Schenck, Brandy L.; McDonough, Virginia M.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    DNA binding functionality among transcription factor proteins is afforded by a number of structural motifs, such as the helix-turn-helix, helix-loop-helix, and zinc finger domains. The common thread among these diverse structures is their sequence-specific binding to essential promoter or other genetic regulatory sequences with high selectivity and affinity. One such motif, present in a wide range of organisms from bacteria to vertebrates, is the Gata-type zinc finger. This family of DNA-binding proteins is characterized by the presence of one or two (Cys)4 metal binding sites which recognize the protein’s eponymous binding site, GATA. Unlike other conserved DNA binding domains, Gata proteins appear to be restricted to binding consensus GATA sequences, or near variations, in DNA. Since the architecture of the Gata finger seems built around recognizing this particular sequence, we set out to define the allowable range of amino acid substitutions along the DNA-binding surface of a Gata finger that could continue to support sequence specific DNA binding activity. Accordingly, we set up a one-hybrid screen in yeast based on the chicken Gata-1 C-terminal zinc finger. Mutant libraries were generated at five amino acids identified in the Gata-DNA structure as likely to mediate sequence-specific contacts between the Gata finger and DNA. These libraries were designed to give as exhaustive amino acid coverage as possible such that almost all alternative amino acids were screened at each of the five probed positions. Screening and characterization of these libraries revealed several functional amino acid substitutions at two leucines which contact the DNA at the 3’ and 5’ flanks of the GATA binding site, but no functional substituents for amino acids near the core of the binding site. This pattern is consistent with amino acid sequences of known DNA-binding Gata fingers. PMID:18328814

  3. Male-specific Fruitless isoforms have different regulatory roles conferred by distinct zinc finger DNA binding domains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drosophila melanogaster adult males perform an elaborate courtship ritual to entice females to mate. fruitless (fru), a gene that is one of the key regulators of male courtship behavior, encodes multiple male-specific isoforms (FruM). These isoforms vary in their carboxy-terminal zinc finger domains, which are predicted to facilitate DNA binding. Results By over-expressing individual FruM isoforms in fru-expressing neurons in either males or females and assaying the global transcriptional response by RNA-sequencing, we show that three FruM isoforms have different regulatory activities that depend on the sex of the fly. We identified several sets of genes regulated downstream of FruM isoforms, including many annotated with neuronal functions. By determining the binding sites of individual FruM isoforms using SELEX we demonstrate that the distinct zinc finger domain of each FruM isoforms confers different DNA binding specificities. A genome-wide search for these binding site sequences finds that the gene sets identified as induced by over-expression of FruM isoforms in males are enriched for genes that contain the binding sites. An analysis of the chromosomal distribution of genes downstream of FruM shows that those that are induced and repressed in males are highly enriched and depleted on the X chromosome, respectively. Conclusions This study elucidates the different regulatory and DNA binding activities of three FruM isoforms on a genome-wide scale and identifies genes regulated by these isoforms. These results add to our understanding of sex chromosome biology and further support the hypothesis that in some cell-types genes with male-biased expression are enriched on the X chromosome. PMID:24074028

  4. The zinc fingers of HIV nucleocapsid protein NCp7 direct interactions with the viral regulatory protein Vpr.

    PubMed

    de Rocquigny, H; Petitjean, P; Tanchou, V; Decimo, D; Drouot, L; Delaunay, T; Darlix, J L; Roques, B P

    1997-12-01

    The 96-amino acid protein Vpr functions as a regulator of cellular processes involved in human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) life cycle, in particular by interrupting cells division in the G2 phase. Incorporation of Vpr in the virion was reported to be mediated by the C-terminal domain of the Pr55(Gag) polyprotein precursor, which includes NCp7, a protein involved in the genomic RNA encapsidation and p6, a protein required for particle budding. To precisely define the Gag and Vpr sequences involved in this protein-protein interaction, NCp7, p6, and Vpr as well as a series of derived peptides were synthesized using Fmoc (N-(9-fluorenyl)methoxycarbonyl) chemistry. Binding assays were carried out by Far Western experiments and by competition studies using (52-96)Vpr immobilized onto agarose beads. The results show that interaction between NCp7 and Vpr occurs in vitro by a recognition mechanism requiring the zinc fingers of NCp7 and the last 16 amino acids of Vpr. Moreover, NCp10, the equivalent of NCp7 in Moloney murine leukemia virus but not polysine inhibits Vpr-NCp7 complexation. Interestingly enough, Vpr was found to interact with Gag, NCp15, and NCp7 but not with mature p6 in vitro. In vivo mutations in NCp7 zinc fingers in an HIV-1 molecular clone led to viruses with important defects in Vpr encapsidation. Together, these results suggest that NCp7 cooperates with p6 to induce Vpr encapsidation in HIV-1 mature particles. The NCp7-Vpr complex could also be important for interaction of Vpr with cellular proteins involved in cell division.

  5. An Over Expression APP Model for Anti-Alzheimer Disease Drug Screening Created by Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yiqing; Li, Zhixin; Wang, Rong; Guo, Tingting; Jin, Ling; Song, Rongjing; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Na; Zhang, Yizhuang; Hu, Ruobi; Wang, Xi; Huang, Huakang; Lei, Zhen; Niu, Gang; Irwin, David M.; Tan, Huanran

    2013-01-01

    Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), famous for their ability to precisely and efficiently modify specific genomic loci, have been employed in numerous transgenic model organism and cell constructions. Here we employ the ZFNs technology, with homologous recombination (HR), to construct sequence-specific Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) knock-in cells. With the use of ZFNs, we established APP knock in cell lines with gene-modification efficiencies of about 7%. We electroporated DNA fragment containing the promoter and the protein coding regions of the zinc finger nucleases into cells, instead of the plasmids, to avoid problems associated with off target homologous recombination, and adopted a pair of mutated FokI cleavage domains to reduce the toxic effects of the ZFNs on cell growth. Since over-expression of APP, or a subdomain of it, might lead to an immediately lethal effect, we used the Cre-LoxP System to regulate APP expression. Our genetically transformed cell lines, w5c1 and s12c8, showed detectable APP and Amyloid β (Aβ) production. The Swedish double mutation in the APP coding sequence enhanced APP and Aβ abundance. What is more, the activity of the three key secretases in Aβ formation could be modulated, indicating that these transgenic cells have potential for drug screening to modify amyloid metabolism in cells. Our transformed cells could readily be propagated in culture and should provide an excellent experimental medium for elucidating aspects of the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, especially those concerning the amyloidogenic pathways involving mutations in the APP coding sequence. The cellular models may also serve as a tool for deriving potentially useful therapeutic agents. PMID:24223114

  6. An over expression APP model for anti-Alzheimer disease drug screening created by zinc finger nuclease technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Li, Hui; Mao, Yiqing; Li, Zhixin; Wang, Rong; Guo, Tingting; Jin, Ling; Song, Rongjing; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Na; Zhang, Yizhuang; Hu, Ruobi; Wang, Xi; Huang, Huakang; Lei, Zhen; Niu, Gang; Irwin, David M; Tan, Huanran

    2013-01-01

    Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), famous for their ability to precisely and efficiently modify specific genomic loci, have been employed in numerous transgenic model organism and cell constructions. Here we employ the ZFNs technology, with homologous recombination (HR), to construct sequence-specific Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) knock-in cells. With the use of ZFNs, we established APP knock in cell lines with gene-modification efficiencies of about 7%. We electroporated DNA fragment containing the promoter and the protein coding regions of the zinc finger nucleases into cells, instead of the plasmids, to avoid problems associated with off target homologous recombination, and adopted a pair of mutated FokI cleavage domains to reduce the toxic effects of the ZFNs on cell growth. Since over-expression of APP, or a subdomain of it, might lead to an immediately lethal effect, we used the Cre-LoxP System to regulate APP expression. Our genetically transformed cell lines, w5c1 and s12c8, showed detectable APP and Amyloid β (Aβ) production. The Swedish double mutation in the APP coding sequence enhanced APP and Aβ abundance. What is more, the activity of the three key secretases in Aβ formation could be modulated, indicating that these transgenic cells have potential for drug screening to modify amyloid metabolism in cells. Our transformed cells could readily be propagated in culture and should provide an excellent experimental medium for elucidating aspects of the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, especially those concerning the amyloidogenic pathways involving mutations in the APP coding sequence. The cellular models may also serve as a tool for deriving potentially useful therapeutic agents.

  7. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor ZXDC Activates CCL2 Gene Expression by Opposing BCL6-mediated Repression

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Jon E.; Fontes, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The zinc finger X-linked duplicated (ZXD) family of transcription factors has been implicated in regulating transcription of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in antigen presenting cells; roles beyond this function are not yet known. The expression of one gene in this family, ZXD family zinc finger C (ZXDC), is enriched in myeloid lineages and therefore we hypothesized that ZXDC may regulate myeloid-specific gene expression. Here we demonstrate that ZXDC regulates genes involved in myeloid cell differentiation and inflammation. Overexpression of the larger isoform of ZXDC, ZXDC1, activates expression of monocyte-specific markers of differentiation and synergizes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (which causes differentiation) in the human leukemic monoblast cell line U937. To identify additional gene targets of ZXDC1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed multiple inflammatory gene clusters regulated by ZXDC1. Using a combination of approaches we show that ZXDC1 activates transcription of a gene within one of the regulated clusters, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2; monocyte chemoattractant protein 1; MCP1) via a previously defined distal regulatory element. Further, ZXDC1-dependent up-regulation of the gene involves eviction of the transcriptional repressor B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), a factor known to be important in resolving inflammatory responses, from this region of the promoter. Collectively, our data show that ZXDC1 is a regulator in the process of myeloid function and that ZXDC1 is responsible for Ccl2 gene de-repression by BCL6. PMID:23954399

  8. Evolutionary expansion and divergence in a large family of primate-specific zinc finger transcription factor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, A T; Huntley, S; Tran-Gyamfi, M; Baggott, D; Gordon, L; Stubbs, L

    2005-09-28

    Although most genes are conserved as one-to-one orthologs in different mammalian orders, certain gene families have evolved to comprise different numbers and types of protein-coding genes through independent series of gene duplications, divergence and gene loss in each evolutionary lineage. One such family encodes KRAB-zinc finger (KRAB-ZNF) genes, which are likely to function as transcriptional repressors. One KRAB-ZNF subfamily, the ZNF91 clade, has expanded specifically in primates to comprise more than 110 loci in the human genome, yielding large gene clusters in human chromosomes 19 and 7 and smaller clusters or isolated copies at other chromosomal locations. Although phylogenetic analysis indicates that many of these genes arose before the split between old world monkeys and new world monkeys, the ZNF91 subfamily has continued to expand and diversify throughout the evolution of apes and humans. The paralogous loci are distinguished by sequence divergence within their zinc finger arrays indicating a selection for proteins with different DNA binding specificities. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization data show that some of these ZNF genes can have tissue-specific expression patterns, however many KRAB-ZNFs that are near-ubiquitous could also be playing very specific roles in halting target pathways in all tissues except for a few, where the target is released by the absence of its repressor. The number of variant KRAB-ZNF proteins is increased not only because of the large number of loci, but also because many loci can produce multiple splice variants, which because of the modular structure of these genes may have separate and perhaps even conflicting regulatory roles. The lineage-specific duplication and rapid divergence of this family of transcription factor genes suggests a role in determining species-specific biological differences and the evolution of novel primate traits.

  9. Identification of Glis1, a novel Gli-related, Kruppel-like zinc finger protein containing transactivation and repressor functions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Sik; Lewandoski, Mark; Perantoni, Alan O; Kurebayashi, Shogo; Nakanishi, Gen; Jetten, Anton M

    2002-08-23

    In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of a novel Krüppel-like protein named Gli-similar 1 (Glis1). The Glis1 gene encodes an 84.3-kDa proline-rich protein. Its five tandem zinc finger motifs exhibit highest homology with those of members of the Gli and Zic subfamilies of Krüppel-like proteins. Glis1 was mapped to mouse chromosome 4C6. Northern blot analysis showed that expression of the 3.3-kb Glis1 mRNA is most abundant in placenta and adult kidney and expressed at lower levels in testis. Whole mount in situ hybridization on mouse embryos demonstrated that Glis1 is expressed in a temporal and spatial manner during development; expression was most prominent in several defined structures of mesodermal lineage, including craniofacial regions, branchial arches, somites, vibrissal and hair follicles, limb buds, and myotomes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that Glis1 is localized to the nucleus. The zinc finger region plays an important role in the nuclear localization of Glis1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that Glis1 is able to bind oligonucleotides containing the Gli-binding site consensus sequence GACCACCCAC. Although monohybrid analysis showed that in several cell types Glis1 was unable to induce transcription of a reporter, deletion mutant analysis revealed the presence of a strong activation function at the carboxyl terminus of Glis1. The activation through this activation function was totally suppressed by a repressor domain at its amino terminus. Constitutively active Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin kinase IV enhanced Glis1-mediated transcriptional activation about 4-fold and may be mediated by phosphorylation/activation of a co-activator. Our results suggest that Glis1 may play a critical role in the control of gene expression during specific stages of embryonic development.

  10. Spatial proximity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers investigated by time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Mély, Y; Jullian, N; Morellet, N; De Rocquigny, H; Dong, C Z; Piémont, E; Roques, B P; Gérard, D

    1994-10-11

    The three-dimensional structure of peptides encompassing the two zinc-saturated finger motifs of the nucleocapsid protein NCp7 of HIV-1 has been reported by several groups. Whereas the folded structures of the finger motifs were in good agreement, discrepancies existed concerning their spatial relationship since the fingers were found either close to each other [Morellet, N., Jullian, N., De Rocquigny, H., Maigret, B., Darlix, J. L., & Roques, B. P. (1992) Embo J. 11, 3059-3065] or independently folded [Omichinski, J. G., Clore, G. M., Sakaguchi, K., Appella, E., & Gronenborn, A. M. (1991) FEBS Lett. 292, 25-30, Summers, M. F., Henderson, L. E., Chance, M. R., Bess, J. W., Jr., South, T. L., Blake, P. R., Sagi, I., Perez-Alvarado, G., Sowder, R.C., III, Hare, D.R., & Arthur, L. O. (1992) Protein Sci. 1, 563-574]. As in the interacting finger model, Phe16 in the NH2-terminal finger and Trp37 in the COOH-terminal finger were found to be spatially close, the fluorescence properties of the aromatic residues at positions 16 and 37 in the wild-type and two conservatively substituted (12-53) NCp7 peptides were investigated and compared with those of three negative control derivatives where the finger motifs were not in close contact. Direct distance measurements by Tyr-Trp fluorescence resonance energy transfer of the former derivatives yielded a 7-12 A interchromophore distance range which is clearly inconsistent with the 12.5-18 A range measured for the negative controls and thus a random orientation of the zinc finger motifs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Spatial proximity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers investigated by time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Mély, Y; Jullian, N; Morellet, N; De Rocquigny, H; Dong, C Z; Piémont, E; Roques, B P; Gérard, D

    1994-10-11

    The three-dimensional structure of peptides encompassing the two zinc-saturated finger motifs of the nucleocapsid protein NCp7 of HIV-1 has been reported by several groups. Whereas the folded structures of the finger motifs were in good agreement, discrepancies existed concerning their spatial relationship since the fingers were found either close to each other [Morellet, N., Jullian, N., De Rocquigny, H., Maigret, B., Darlix, J. L., & Roques, B. P. (1992) Embo J. 11, 3059-3065] or independently folded [Omichinski, J. G., Clore, G. M., Sakaguchi, K., Appella, E., & Gronenborn, A. M. (1991) FEBS Lett. 292, 25-30, Summers, M. F., Henderson, L. E., Chance, M. R., Bess, J. W., Jr., South, T. L., Blake, P. R., Sagi, I., Perez-Alvarado, G., Sowder, R.C., III, Hare, D.R., & Arthur, L. O. (1992) Protein Sci. 1, 563-574]. As in the interacting finger model, Phe16 in the NH2-terminal finger and Trp37 in the COOH-terminal finger were found to be spatially close, the fluorescence properties of the aromatic residues at positions 16 and 37 in the wild-type and two conservatively substituted (12-53) NCp7 peptides were investigated and compared with those of three negative control derivatives where the finger motifs were not in close contact. Direct distance measurements by Tyr-Trp fluorescence resonance energy transfer of the former derivatives yielded a 7-12 A interchromophore distance range which is clearly inconsistent with the 12.5-18 A range measured for the negative controls and thus a random orientation of the zinc finger motifs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7918429

  12. Solution Structure of Ribosomal Protein L40E, a Unique C4 Zinc Finger Protein Encoded by Archaeon Sulfolobus Solfataricus

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Bin; Lukin, Jonathan A.; Yee, Adelinda; Lemak, Alexander; Semesi, Anthony; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.

    2008-01-31

    The ribosomal protein L40E from archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is a component of the 50S ribosomal subunit. L40E is a 56-residue, highly basic protein that contains a C4 zinc finger motif, CRKC_X10_CRRC. Homologs are found in both archaea and eukaryotes but are not present in bacteria. Eukaryotic genomes encode L40E as a ubiquitin-fusion protein. L40E was absent from the crystal structure of euryarchaeota 50S ribosomal subunit. Here we report the three-dimensional solution structure of L40E by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of L40E is a three-stranded b-sheet with a simple b2b1b3 topology. There are two unique characteristics revealed by the structure. First, a large and ordered b2–b3 loop twists to pack across the one side of the protein. L40E contains a buried polar cluster comprising Lys19, Lys20, Cys22, Asn29, and Cys36. Second, the surface of L40E is almost entirely positively charged. Ten conserved basic residues are positioned on the two sides of the surface. It is likely that binding of zinc is essential in stabilizing the tertiary structure of L40E to act as a scaffold to create a broad positively charged surface for RNA and/or protein recognition. A portion of this work was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Facility, a DOE national scientific user facility.

  13. OsLIC, a Novel CCCH-Type Zinc Finger Protein with Transcription Activation, Mediates Rice Architecture via Brassinosteroids Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Yunyuan; Zhang, Cui; Ma, Qibin; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Ki; Xu, Zhihong; Chong, Kang

    2008-01-01

    Rice architecture is an important agronomic trait and a major limiting factor for its high productivity. Here we describe a novel CCCH-type zinc finger gene, OsLIC (Oraza sativa leaf and tiller angle increased controller), which is involved in the regulation of rice plant architecture. OsLIC encoded an ancestral and unique CCCH type zinc finge protein. It has many orthologous in other organisms, ranging from yeast to humane. Suppression of endogenous OsLIC expression resulted in drastically increased leaf and tiller angles, shortened shoot height, and consequently reduced grain production in rice. OsLIC is predominantly expressed in rice collar and tiller bud. Genetic analysis suggested that OsLIC is epistatic to d2-1, whereas d61-1 is epistatic to OsLIC. Interestingly, sterols were significantly higher in level in transgenic shoots than in the wild type. Genome-wide expression analysis indicated that brassinosteroids (BRs) signal transduction was activated in transgenic lines. Moreover, transcription of OsLIC was induced by 24-epibrassinolide. OsLIC, with a single CCCH motif, displayed binding activity to double-stranded DNA and single-stranded polyrA, polyrU and polyrG but not polyrC. It contains a novel conserved EELR domain among eukaryotes and displays transcriptional activation activity in yeast. OsLIC may be a transcription activator to control rice plant architecture. PMID:18953406

  14. Molecular Characterization of the Schistosoma mansoni Zinc Finger Protein SmZF1 as a Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    D'Astolfo, Diego S.; Cardoso, Fernanda C.; Rajão, Matheus A.; Mourão, Marina M.; Gava, Elisandra; Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Macedo, Andréa M.; Machado, Carlos R.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Kitten, Gregory T.; Franco, Glória R.

    2009-01-01

    Background During its development, the parasite Schistosoma mansoni is exposed to different environments and undergoes many morphological and physiological transformations as a result of profound changes in gene expression. Characterization of proteins involved in the regulation of these processes is of importance for the understanding of schistosome biology. Proteins containing zinc finger motifs usually participate in regulatory processes and are considered the major class of transcription factors in eukaryotes. It has already been shown, by EMSA (Eletrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay), that SmZF1, a S. mansoni zinc finger (ZF) protein, specifically binds both DNA and RNA oligonucleotides. This suggests that this protein might act as a transcription factor in the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we extended the characterization of SmZF1 by determining its subcellular localization and by verifying its ability to regulate gene transcription. We performed immunohistochemistry assays using adult male and female worms, cercariae and schistosomula to analyze the distribution pattern of SmZF1 and verified that the protein is mainly detected in the cells nuclei of all tested life cycle stages except for adult female worms. Also, SmZF1 was heterologously expressed in mammalian COS-7 cells to produce the recombinant protein YFP-SmZF1, which was mainly detected in the nucleus of the cells by confocal microscopy and Western blot assays. To evaluate the ability of this protein to regulate gene transcription, cells expressing YFP-SmZF1 were tested in a luciferase reporter system. In this system, the luciferase gene is downstream of a minimal promoter, upstream of which a DNA region containing four copies of the SmZF1 putative best binding site (D1-3DNA) was inserted. SmZF1 increased the reporter gene transcription by two fold (p≤0.003) only when its specific binding site was present. Conclusion Taken together, these results strongly support the hypothesis

  15. A single amino acid substitution beyond the C2H2-zinc finger in Ros derepresses virulence and T-DNA genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Archdeacon, J; Bouhouche, N; O'Connell, F; Kado, C I

    2000-06-15

    Ros is a chromosomally-encoded repressor containing a novel C2H2 zinc finger in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Ros regulates the expression of six virulence genes and an oncogene on the Ti plasmid. Constitutive expression of these genes occurs in the spontaneous mutant 4011R derived from the octopine strain Ach-5, resulting in T-DNA processing in the absence of induction, and in the biosynthesis of cytokinin. Interestingly, the mutation in 4011R is an Arg to Cys conversion at amino acid residue 125 near the C-terminus well outside the zinc finger of Ros. Yet, Ros bearing this mutation is unable to bind to the Ros-box and is unable to complement other ros mutants. PMID:10856653

  16. Differential splicing creates a diversity of transcripts from a neurospecific developmentally regulated gene encoding a protein with new zinc-finger motifs.

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, V L; Ninkina, N N; Bogdanov, Y D; Bortvin, A L; Akopian, H N; Kiselev, S L; Krylova OYu; Anokhin, K V; Georgiev, G P

    1992-01-01

    We have cloned a novel neurospecific gene, named neuro-d4, by differential screening a rat cerebral cortex cDNA library. Northern blot hybridization showed that neuro-d4 expression is restricted to neuronal tissues both in newborn and adult animals. The level of neuro-d4 mRNA in the rat central nervous system is high during the later stages of embryonic development and gradually decreases during the postnatal period. In situ hybridization suggests that the gene transcripts are localized in neuronal cell bodies. Nucleotide sequences of overlapped cDNA clones and all 12 exons in genomic clone were determined. The deduced protein has consensus sequences for a nuclear localization signal, a Krüppel-type zinc-finger and a new type of cysteine/histidine-rich motif resembling zinc-fingers. Several differential splicing variants were found, each of which influences the structure of the encoded protein. Images PMID:1454523

  17. Characterization of the DNA-binding properties of the myeloid zinc finger protein MZF1: two independent DNA-binding domains recognize two DNA consensus sequences with a common G-rich core.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J F; Hromas, R; Rauscher, F J

    1994-01-01

    The myeloid zinc finger gene 1, MZF1, encodes a transcription factor which is expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells that are committed to myeloid lineage differentiation. MZF1 contains 13 C2H2 zinc fingers arranged in two domains which are separated by a short glycine- and proline-rich sequence. The first domain consists of zinc fingers 1 to 4, and the second domain is formed by zinc fingers 5 to 13. We have determined that both sets of zinc finger domains bind DNA. Purified, recombinant MZF1 proteins containing either the first set of zinc fingers or the second set were prepared and used to affinity select DNA sequences from a library of degenerate oligonucleotides by using successive rounds of gel shift followed by PCR amplification. Surprisingly, both DNA-binding domains of MZF1 selected similar DNA-binding consensus sequences containing a core of four or five guanine residues, reminiscent of an NF-kappa B half-site: 1-4, 5'-AGTGGGGA-3'; 5-13, 5'-CGGGnGAGGGGGAA-3'. The full-length MZF1 protein containing both sets of zinc finger DNA-binding domains recognizes synthetic oligonucleotides containing either the 1-4 or 5-13 consensus binding sites in gel shift assays. Thus, we have identified the core DNA consensus binding sites for each of the two DNA-binding domains of a myeloid-specific zinc finger transcription factor. Identification of these DNA-binding sites will allow us to identify target genes regulated by MZF1 and to assess the role of MZF1 as a transcriptional regulator of hematopoiesis. Images PMID:8114711

  18. The zinc finger domain of NEMO is selectively required for NF-kappa B activation by UV radiation and topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tony T; Feinberg, Shelby L; Suryanarayanan, Sainath; Miyamoto, Shigeki

    2002-08-01

    Exposure of mammalian cells to UV radiation was proposed to stimulate the transcription factor NF-kappa B by a unique mechanism. Typically, rapid and strong inducers of NF-kappa B, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lead to rapid phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation of its inhibitory protein, I kappa B alpha. In contrast, UV, a relatively slower and weaker inducer of NF-kappa B, was suggested not to require phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha for its targeted degradation by the proteasome. We now provide evidence to account for this peculiar degradation process of I kappa B alpha. The phospho-I kappa B alpha generated by UV is only detectable by expressing a Delta F-box mutant of the ubiquitin ligase beta-TrCP, which serves as a specific substrate trap for serine 32 and 36 phosphorylated I kappa B alpha. In agreement with this finding, we also find that the I kappa B kinase (IKK) phospho-acceptor sites on I kappa B alpha, core components of the IKK signalsome, and IKK catalytic activity are all required for UV signaling. Furthermore, deletion and point mutation analyses reveal that both the amino-terminal IKK-binding and the carboxy-terminal putative zinc finger domains of NEMO (IKK gamma) are critical for UV-induced NF-kappa B activation. Interestingly, the zinc finger domain is also required for NF-kappa B activation by two other slow and weak inducers, camptothecin and etoposide. In contrast, the zinc finger module is largely dispensable for NF-kappa B activation by the rapid and strong inducers LPS and TNF-alpha. Thus, we suggest that the zinc finger domain of NEMO likely represents a point of convergence for signaling pathways initiated by slow and weak NF-kappa B-activating conditions.

  19. The Arabidopsis ZINC FINGER PROTEIN3 Interferes with Abscisic Acid and Light Signaling in Seed Germination and Plant Development1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Mary Prathiba; Papdi, Csaba; Kozma-Bognár, László; Nagy, István; López-Carbonell, Marta; Rigó, Gábor; Koncz, Csaba; Szabados, László

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination is controlled by environmental signals, including light and endogenous phytohormones. Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits, whereas gibberellin promotes, germination and early seedling development, respectively. Here, we report that ZFP3, a nuclear C2H2 zinc finger protein, acts as a negative regulator of ABA suppression of seed germination in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Accordingly, regulated overexpression of ZFP3 and the closely related ZFP1, ZFP4, ZFP6, and ZFP7 zinc finger factors confers ABA insensitivity to seed germination, while the zfp3 zfp4 double mutant displays enhanced ABA susceptibility. Reduced expression of several ABA-induced genes, such as RESPONSIVE TO ABSCISIC ACID18 and transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4), in ZFP3 overexpression seedlings suggests that ZFP3 negatively regulates ABA signaling. Analysis of ZFP3 overexpression plants revealed multiple phenotypic alterations, such as semidwarf growth habit, defects in fertility, and enhanced sensitivity of hypocotyl elongation to red but not to far-red or blue light. Analysis of genetic interactions with phytochrome and abi mutants indicates that ZFP3 enhances red light signaling by photoreceptors other than phytochrome A and additively increases ABA insensitivity conferred by the abi2, abi4, and abi5 mutations. These data support the conclusion that ZFP3 and the related ZFP subfamily of zinc finger factors regulate light and ABA responses during germination and early seedling development. PMID:24808098

  20. BrRZFP1 a Brassica rapa C3HC4-type RING zinc finger protein involved in cold, salt and dehydration stress.

    PubMed

    Jung, Y J; Lee, I H; Nou, I S; Lee, K D; Rashotte, A M; Kang, K K

    2013-03-01

    C3HC4-type RING zinc finger proteins are known to be essential in the regulation of plant processes, including responses to abiotic stress. Here, we identify, clone and examine the first C3HC4-type RING zinc finger protein (BrRZFP1) from Brassica rapa under stress conditions. Phylogenetic analysis of BrRZFP1 revealed strong sequence similarity to C3HC4-type zinc finger proteins from Arabidopsis that are induced by abiotic stresses. Diverse environmental stresses, including salt and cold, were found to induce BrRZFP1 transcripts greater than eightfold in B. rapa. Additional strong induction was shown of the stress hormone abscisic acid, together suggesting that BrRZFP1 could play a role as a general stress modulator. Similar profiles of induction for each of these stresses was found in both root and shoot tissues, although at much higher levels in roots. Constitutive expression of BrRZFP1 in Nicotiana tabacum was conducted to further analyse how changes in gene expression levels would affect plant stress responses. BrRZFP1 overexpression conferred increased tolerance to cold, salt and dehydration stresses. This was observed in several assays examining growth status throughout development, including increased germination, fresh weight and length of shoots and roots, as well as enhanced chlorophyll retention. These results suggest that the transcription factor BrRZFP1 is an important determinant of stress response in plants and that changes in its expression level in plants could increase stress tolerance.

  1. Zinc Finger Domain of the PRDM9 Gene on Chromosome 1 Exhibits High Diversity in Ruminants but Its Paralog PRDM7 Contains Multiple Disruptive Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Ahlawat, Sonika; Sharma, Priyanka; Sharma, Rekha; Arora, Reena; De, Sachinandan

    2016-01-01

    PRDM9 is the sole hybrid sterility gene identified so far in vertebrates. PRDM9 gene encodes a protein with an immensely variable zinc-finger (ZF) domain that determines the site of meiotic recombination hotspots genome-wide. In this study, the terminal ZF domain of PRDM9 on bovine chromosome 1 and its paralog on chromosome 22 were characterized in 225 samples from five ruminant species (cattle, yak, mithun, sheep and goat). We found extraordinary variation in the number of PRDM9 zinc fingers (6 to 12). We sequenced PRDM9 ZF encoding region from 15 individuals (carrying the same ZF number in both copies) and found 43 different ZF domain sequences. Ruminant zinc fingers of PRDM9 were found to be diversifying under positive selection and concerted evolution, specifically at positions involved in defining their DNA-binding specificity, consistent with the reports from other vertebrates such as mice, humans, equids and chimpanzees. ZF-encoding regions of the PRDM7, a paralog of PRDM9 on bovine chromosome 22 and on unknown chromosomes in other studied species were found to contain 84 base repeat units as in PRDM9, but there were multiple disruptive mutations after the first repeat unit. The diversity of the ZFs suggests that PRDM9 may activate recombination hotspots that are largely unique to each ruminant species. PMID:27203728

  2. spalt encodes an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger protein of novel structure which provides homeotic gene function in the head and tail region of the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Kühnlein, R P; Frommer, G; Friedrich, M; Gonzalez-Gaitan, M; Weber, A; Wagner-Bernholz, J F; Gehring, W J; Jäckle, H; Schuh, R

    1994-01-01

    The region specific homeotic gene spalt (sal) of Drosophila melanogaster promotes the specification of terminal pattern elements as opposed to segments in the trunk. Our results show that the previously reported sal transcription unit was misidentified. Based on P-element mediated germ line transformation and DNA sequence analysis of sal mutant alleles, we identified the transcription unit that carries sal function. sal is located close to the misidentified transcription unit, and it is expressed in similar temporal and spatial patterns during embryogenesis. The sal gene encodes a zinc finger protein of novel structure composed of three widely spaced 'double zinc finger' motifs of internally conserved sequences and a single zinc finger motif of different sequence. Antibodies produced against the sal protein show that sal is first expressed at the blastoderm stage and later in restricted areas of the embryonic nervous system as well as in the developing trachea. The antibodies detect sal homologous proteins in corresponding spatial and temporal patterns in the embryos of related insect species. Sequence analysis of the sal gene of Drosophila virilis, a species which is phylogenetically separated by approximately 60 million years, suggests that the sal function is conserved during evolution, consistent with its proposed role in head formation during arthropod evolution. Images PMID:7905822

  3. A novel member of the RING finger family, KRIP-1, associates with the KRAB-A transcriptional repressor domain of zinc finger proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Su; Chen, Yung-Ming; O’Leary, Eileen; Witzgall, Ralph; Vidal, Marc; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    1996-01-01

    The Krüppel-associated box A (KRAB-A) domain is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional repressor domain present in approximately one-third of zinc finger proteins of the Cys2-His2 type. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we report the isolation of a cDNA encoding a novel murine protein, KRAB-A interacting protein 1 (KRIP-1) that physically interacts with the KRAB-A region. KRIP-1 is a member of the RBCC subfamily of the RING finger, or Cys3HisCys4, family of zinc binding proteins whose other members are known to play important roles in differentiation, oncogenesis, and signal transduction. The KRIP-1 protein has high homology to TIF1, a putative modulator of ligand-dependent activation function of nuclear receptors. A 3.5-kb mRNA for KRIP-1 is ubiquitously expressed among all adult mouse tissues studied. When a GAL4–KRIP-1 fusion protein is expressed in COS cells with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct with five GAL4 binding sites, there is dose-dependent repression of transcription. Thus, KRIP-1 interacts with the KRAB-A region of C2H2 zinc finger proteins and may mediate or modulate KRAB-A transcriptional repressor activity. PMID:8986806

  4. Sequences homologous to the human x- and y-borne zinc finger protein genes (ZFX/Y) are autosomal in monotreme mannals

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.M.; Frost, C.; Graves, M.J.A. ); Spencer, J.A. )

    1993-02-01

    The human zinc finger protein genes (ZFX/Y) were identified as a result of a systematic search for the testis-determining factor gene on the human Y chromosome. Although they play no direct role in sex determination, they are of particular interest because they are highly conserved among mammals, birds, and amphibians and because, in eutherian mammals at least, they have active alleles on both the X and the Y chromosomes outside the pseudoautosomal region. We used in situ hybridization to localize the homologues of the zinc finger protein gene to chromosome 1 of the Australian echidna and to an equivalent position on chromosomes 1 and 2 of the playtpus. The localization to platypus chromosome 1 was confirmed by Southern analysis of a Chinese hamster [times] platypus cell hybrid retaining most of platypus chromosome 1. This localization is consistent with the cytological homology of chromosome 1 between the two species. The zinc finger protein gene homologues were localized to regions of platypus chromosomes 1 and 2 that included a number of other genes situated near ZFX on the short arm of the human X chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that many of the genes located on the short arm of the human X were originally autosomal and have been translocated to the X chromosome since the eutherian-metatherian divergence. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 Cysteine-2/Histidine-2 Repressor-Like Transcription Factor Regulates Development and Tolerance to Salinity in Tomato and Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Hichri, Imène; Muhovski, Yordan; Žižková, Eva; Dobrev, Petre I.; Franco-Zorrilla, Jose Manuel; Solano, Roberto; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Motyka, Vaclav; Lutts, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The zinc finger superfamily includes transcription factors that regulate multiple aspects of plant development and were recently shown to regulate abiotic stress tolerance. Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 [SIZF2]) is a cysteine-2/histidine-2-type zinc finger transcription factor bearing an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression domain and binding to the ACGTCAGTG sequence containing two AGT core motifs. SlZF2 is ubiquitously expressed during plant development, and is rapidly induced by sodium chloride, drought, and potassium chloride treatments. Its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato impaired development and influenced leaf and flower shape, while causing a general stress visible by anthocyanin and malonyldialdehyde accumulation. SlZF2 enhanced salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas SlZF2 delayed senescence and improved tomato salt tolerance, particularly by maintaining photosynthesis and increasing polyamine biosynthesis, in salt-treated hydroponic cultures (125 mm sodium chloride, 20 d). SlZF2 may be involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis/signaling, because SlZF2 is rapidly induced by ABA treatment and 35S::SlZF2 tomatoes accumulate more ABA than wild-type plants. Transcriptome analysis of 35S::SlZF2 revealed that SlZF2 both increased and reduced expression of a comparable number of genes involved in various physiological processes such as photosynthesis, polyamine biosynthesis, and hormone (notably ABA) biosynthesis/signaling. Involvement of these different metabolic pathways in salt stress tolerance is discussed. PMID:24567191

  6. Zinc Finger Domain of the PRDM9 Gene on Chromosome 1 Exhibits High Diversity in Ruminants but Its Paralog PRDM7 Contains Multiple Disruptive Mutations.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Sonika; Sharma, Priyanka; Sharma, Rekha; Arora, Reena; De, Sachinandan

    2016-01-01

    PRDM9 is the sole hybrid sterility gene identified so far in vertebrates. PRDM9 gene encodes a protein with an immensely variable zinc-finger (ZF) domain that determines the site of meiotic recombination hotspots genome-wide. In this study, the terminal ZF domain of PRDM9 on bovine chromosome 1 and its paralog on chromosome 22 were characterized in 225 samples from five ruminant species (cattle, yak, mithun, sheep and goat). We found extraordinary variation in the number of PRDM9 zinc fingers (6 to 12). We sequenced PRDM9 ZF encoding region from 15 individuals (carrying the same ZF number in both copies) and found 43 different ZF domain sequences. Ruminant zinc fingers of PRDM9 were found to be diversifying under positive selection and concerted evolution, specifically at positions involved in defining their DNA-binding specificity, consistent with the reports from other vertebrates such as mice, humans, equids and chimpanzees. ZF-encoding regions of the PRDM7, a paralog of PRDM9 on bovine chromosome 22 and on unknown chromosomes in other studied species were found to contain 84 base repeat units as in PRDM9, but there were multiple disruptive mutations after the first repeat unit. The diversity of the ZFs suggests that PRDM9 may activate recombination hotspots that are largely unique to each ruminant species. PMID:27203728

  7. Conversion of Human Fibroblasts to Stably Self-Renewing Neural Stem Cells with a Single Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Moradi, Sharif; Nemati, Shiva; Satarian, Leila; Basiri, Mohsen; Gourabi, Hamid; Zare Mehrjardi, Narges; Günther, Patrick; Lampert, Angelika; Händler, Kristian; Hatay, Firuze Fulya; Schmidt, Diana; Molcanyi, Marek; Hescheler, Jürgen; Schultze, Joachim L.; Saric, Tomo; Baharvand, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Summary Direct conversion of somatic cells into neural stem cells (NSCs) by defined factors holds great promise for mechanistic studies, drug screening, and potential cell therapies for different neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we report that a single zinc-finger transcription factor, Zfp521, is sufficient for direct conversion of human fibroblasts into long-term self-renewable and multipotent NSCs. In vitro, Zfp521-induced NSCs maintained their characteristics in the absence of exogenous factor expression and exhibited morphological, molecular, developmental, and functional properties that were similar to control NSCs. In addition, the single-seeded induced NSCs were able to form NSC colonies with efficiency comparable with control NSCs and expressed NSC markers. The converted cells were capable of surviving, migrating, and attaining neural phenotypes after transplantation into neonatal mouse and adult rat brains, without forming tumors. Moreover, the Zfp521-induced NSCs predominantly expressed rostral genes. Our results suggest a facilitated approach for establishing human NSCs through Zfp521-driven conversion of fibroblasts. PMID:27052315

  8. Evaluation of OPEN Zinc Finger Nucleases for Direct Gene Targeting of the ROSA26 Locus in Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Mario; Maeder, Morgan L.; Rector, Kyle; Ruiz, Joseph; Becher, Burkhard; Bürki, Kurt; Khayter, Cyd; Aguzzi, Adriano; Joung, J. Keith

    2012-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) enable precise genome modification in a variety of organisms and cell types. Commercial ZFNs were reported to enhance gene targeting directly in mouse zygotes, whereas similar approaches using publicly available resources have not yet been described. Here we report precise targeted mutagenesis of the mouse genome using Oligomerized Pool Engineering (OPEN) ZFNs. OPEN ZFN can be constructed using publicly available resources and therefore provide an attractive alternative for academic researchers. Two ZFN pairs specific to the mouse genomic locus gt(ROSA26)Sor were generated by OPEN selections and used for gene disruption and homology-mediated gene replacement in single cell mouse embryos. One specific ZFN pair facilitated non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)-mediated gene disruption when expressed in mouse zygotes. We also observed a single homologous recombination (HR)-driven gene replacement event when this ZFN pair was co-injected with a targeting vector. Our experiments demonstrate the feasibility of achieving both gene ablation through NHEJ and gene replacement by HR by using the OPEN ZFN technology directly in mouse zygotes. PMID:22970113

  9. Structural basis for lack of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13/zinc finger antiviral protein.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Tobias; Klepsch, Mirjam; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Andersson, C David; Linusson, Anna; Schüler, Herwig

    2015-03-20

    The mammalian poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family includes ADP-ribosyltransferases with diphtheria toxin homology (ARTD). Most members have mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PARP13/ARTD13, also called zinc finger antiviral protein, has roles in viral immunity and microRNA-mediated stress responses. PARP13 features a divergent PARP homology domain missing a PARP consensus sequence motif; the domain has enigmatic functions and apparently lacks catalytic activity. We used x-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and biochemical analyses to investigate the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in human PARP13 and two of its functional partners in stress granules: PARP12/ARTD12, and PARP15/BAL3/ARTD7. The crystal structure of the PARP homology domain of PARP13 shows obstruction of the canonical active site, precluding NAD(+) binding. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this closed cleft conformation is maintained in solution. Introducing consensus side chains in PARP13 did not result in 3-aminobenzamide binding, but in further closure of the site. Three-dimensional alignment of the PARP homology domains of PARP13, PARP12, and PARP15 illustrates placement of PARP13 residues that deviate from the PARP family consensus. Introducing either one of two of these side chains into the corresponding positions in PARP15 abolished PARP15 ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Taken together, our results show that PARP13 lacks the structural requirements for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.

  10. Comparative analysis of a conserved zinc finger gene cluster on human chromosome 19q and mouse chromosome 7

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, M.; Mucenski, M.L.; Stubbs, L.

    1996-04-01

    Several lines of evidence now suggest that many of the zinc-finger-containing (ZNF) genes in the human genome are arranged in clusters. However, little is known about the structure or function of the clusters or about their conservation throughout evolution. Here, we report the analysis of a conserved ZNF gene cluster located in human chromosome 19q13.2 and mouse chromosome 7. Our results indicate that the human cluster consists of at least 10 related Kruppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing ZNF genes organized in tandem over a distance of 350-450 kb. Two cDNA clones representing genes in the murine cluster have been studied in detail. The KRAB A domains of these genes are nearly identical and are highly similar to human 19q13.2-derived KRAB sequences, but DNA-binding ZNF domains and other portions of the genes differ considerably. The two murine genes display distinct expression patterns, but are coexpressed in some adult tissues. These studies pave the way for a systematic analysis of the evolution of structure and function of genes within the numerous clustered ZNF families located on human chromosome 19 and elsewhere in the human and mouse genomes. 32 refs., 7 figs.

  11. A baculovirus gene with a novel transcription pattern encodes a polypeptide with a zinc finger and a leucine zipper.

    PubMed Central

    Thiem, S M; Miller, L K

    1989-01-01

    An Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus gene encoding a 30-kilodalton polypeptide with two different sequence motifs characteristic of DNA-binding proteins was identified immediately downstream of the major capsid protein gene (vp39). The gene, CG30, was characterized by sequencing, transcriptional mapping, in vitro translation of hybrid-selected RNA, and comparison of the derived polypeptide sequence with published data bases. The initial ATG of the 792-base-pair CG30 open reading frame is two nucleotides downstream of the vp39 terminal TAA codon. Early transcripts of CG30 initiate within the vp39 coding sequence. At late times, bicistronic transcripts initiate from the vp39 promoter, continue through CG30, and terminate at the same site as the early transcripts. In vitro translation of hybrid-selected early CG30 RNA yields a polypeptide of 30 kilodaltons. The predicted CG30 polypeptide sequence has characteristics of a eucaryotic transcriptional activator and is novel in having two potential DNA-binding domains. A stretch of acidic residues bridges a zinc finger at the amino terminus and a leucine zipper with a flanking basic region at the carboxyl terminus. Images PMID:2507791

  12. Expression of a gene encoding a rice RING zinc-finger protein, OsRZFP34, enhances stomata opening.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Liu, Chia-Chin; Wu, Shaw-Jye; Kuo, Ying-Yu; Lu, Chung-An; Wu, Ching-Rong; Lian, Pei-Jyun; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Ke, Yi-Ting; Huang, Juin-Hua; Yeh, Ching-Hui

    2014-09-01

    By oligo microarray expression profiling, we identified a rice RING zinc-finger protein (RZFP), OsRZFP34, whose gene expression increased with high temperature or abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. As compared with the wild type, rice and Arabidopsis with OsRZFP34 overexpression showed increased relative stomata opening even with ABA treatment. Furthermore, loss-of-function mutation of OsRZFP34 and AtRZFP34 (At5g22920), an OsRZFP34 homolog in Arabidopsis, decreased relative stomata aperture under nonstress control conditions. Expressing OsRZFP34 in atrzfp34 reverted the mutant phenotype to normal, which indicates a conserved molecular function between OsRZFP34 and AtRZFP34. Analysis of water loss and leaf temperature under stress conditions revealed a higher evaporation rate and cooling effect in OsRZFP34-overexpressing Arabidopsis and rice than the wild type, atrzfp34 and osrzfp34. Thus, stomata opening, enhanced leaf cooling, and ABA insensitivity was conserved with OsRZFP34 expression. Transcription profiling of transgenic rice overexpressing OsRZFP34 revealed many genes involved in OsRZFP34-mediated stomatal movement. Several genes upregulated or downregulated in OsRZFP34-overexpressing plants were previously implicated in Ca(2+) sensing, K(+) regulator, and ABA response. We suggest that OsRZFP34 may modulate these genes to control stomata opening.

  13. C2H2 zinc finger-SET histone methyltransferase is a plant-specific chromatin modifier

    PubMed Central

    Krichevsky, Alexander; Gutgarts, Helen; Kozlovsky, Stanislav V.; Tzfira, Tzvi; Sutton, Ann; Sternglanz, Rolf; Mandel, Gail; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2007-01-01

    Histone modification represents a universal mechanism for regulation of eukaryotic gene expression underlying diverse biological processes from neuronal gene expression in mammals to control of flowering in plants. In animal cells, these chromatin modifications are effected by well-defined multiprotein complexes containing specific histone-modifying activities. In plants, information about the composition of such co-repressor complexes is just beginning to emerge. Here, we report that two Arabidopsis thaliana factors, a SWIRM domain polyamine oxidase protein, AtSWP1, and a plant-specific C2H2 zinc finger-SET domain protein, AtCZS, interact with each other in plant cells and repress expression of a negative regulator of flowering, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) via an autonomous, vernalization-independent pathway. Loss-of-function of either AtSWP1 or AtCZS results in reduced dimethylation of lysine 9 and lysine 27 of histone H3 and hyperacetylation of histone H4 within the FLC locus, in elevated FLC mRNA levels, and in moderately delayed flowering. Thus, AtSWP1 and AtCZS represent two main components of a co-repressor complex that fine tunes flowering and is unique to plants. PMID:17224141

  14. Targeted mutations in myostatin by zinc-finger nucleases result in double-muscled phenotype in Meishan pigs.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lili; Tang, Maoxue; Yang, Jinzeng; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Li, Hegang; Jiang, Ke; Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Dezun; Chen, Yaoxing; An, Xiaorong; Li, Kui; Cui, Wentao

    2015-09-24

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a dominant inhibitor of skeletal muscle development and growth. Mutations in MSTN gene can lead to muscle hypertrophy or double-muscled (DM) phenotype in cattle, sheep, dog and human. However, there has not been reported significant muscle phenotypes in pigs in association with MSTN mutations. Pigs are an important source of meat production, as well as serve as a preferred animal model for the studies of human disease. To study the impacts of MSTN mutations on skeletal muscle growth in pigs, we generated MSTN-mutant Meishan pigs with no marker gene via zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) technology. The MSTN-mutant pigs developed and grew normally, had increased muscle mass with decreased fat accumulation compared with wild type pigs, and homozygote MSTN mutant (MSTN(-/-)) pigs had apparent DM phenotype, and individual muscle mass increased by 100% over their wild-type controls (MSTN(+/+)) at eight months of age as a result of myofiber hyperplasia. Interestingly, 20% MSTN-mutant pigs had one extra thoracic vertebra. The MSTN-mutant pigs will not only offer a way of fast genetic improvement of lean meat for local fat-type indigenous pig breeds, but also serve as an important large animal model for biomedical studies of musculoskeletal formation, development and diseases.

  15. Gene Editing of Human Embryonic Stem Cells via an Engineered Baculoviral Vector Carrying Zinc-finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yuning; Lee, Chi-Lin; Joo, Kye-Il; Zarzar, Jonathan; Liu, Yarong; Dai, Bingbing; Fox, Victoria; Wang, Pin

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are renewable cell sources that have potential applications in regenerative medicine. The development of technologies to produce permanent and site-specific genome modifications is in demand to achieve future medical implementation of hES cells. We report herein that a baculoviral vector (BV) system carrying zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) can successfully modify the hES cell genome. BV-mediated transient expression of ZFNs specifically disrupted the CCR5 locus in transduced cells and the modified cells exhibited resistance to HIV-1 transduction. To convert the BV to a gene targeting vector, a DNA donor template and ZFNs were incorporated into the vector. These hybrid vectors yielded permanent site-specific gene addition in both immortalized human cell lines (10%) and hES cells (5%). Modified hES cells were both karyotypically normal and pluripotent. These results suggest that this baculoviral delivery system can be engineered for site-specific genetic manipulation in hES cells. PMID:21326219

  16. The phytochrome-interacting vascular plant one-zinc finger1 and VOZ2 redundantly regulate flowering in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Yukiko; Mukougawa, Keiko; Uemoto, Mitsuhiro; Yokofuji, Akira; Suzuri, Ryota; Nishitani, Aiko; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2012-08-01

    The timing of the transition to flowering in plants is regulated by various environmental factors, including daylength and light quality. Although the red/far-red photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) represses flowering by indirectly regulating the expression of a key flowering regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), the mechanism of phyB signaling for flowering is largely unknown. Here, we identified two Arabidopsis thaliana genes, VASCULAR PLANT ONE-ZINC FINGER1 (VOZ1) and VOZ2, which are highly conserved throughout land plant evolution, as phyB-interacting factors. voz1 voz2 double mutants, but neither single mutant, showed a late-flowering phenotype under long-day conditions, which indicated that VOZ1 and VOZ2 redundantly promote flowering. voz1 voz2 mutations suppressed the early-flowering phenotype of the phyB mutant, and FT expression was repressed in the voz1 voz2 mutant. Green fluorescent protein-VOZ2 signal was observed in the cytoplasm, and interaction of VOZ proteins with phyB was indicated to occur in the cytoplasm under far-red light. However, VOZ2 protein modified to localize constitutively in the nucleus promoted flowering. In addition, the stability of VOZ2 proteins in the nucleus was modulated by light quality in a phytochrome-dependent manner. We propose that partial translocation of VOZ proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus mediates the initial step of the phyB signal transduction pathway that regulates flowering.

  17. A novel human AP endonuclease with conserved zinc-finger-like motifs involved in DNA strand break responses

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Shin-ichiro; Kuzuoka, Hiroyuki; Sasao, Shigeru; Hong, Zehui; Lan, Li; Nakajima, Satoshi; Yasui, Akira

    2007-01-01

    DNA damage causes genome instability and cell death, but many of the cellular responses to DNA damage still remain elusive. We here report a human protein, PALF (PNK and APTX-like FHA protein), with an FHA (forkhead-associated) domain and novel zinc-finger-like CYR (cysteine–tyrosine–arginine) motifs that are involved in responses to DNA damage. We found that the CYR motif is widely distributed among DNA repair proteins of higher eukaryotes, and that PALF, as well as a Drosophila protein with tandem CYR motifs, has endo- and exonuclease activities against abasic site and other types of base damage. PALF accumulates rapidly at single-strand breaks in a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-dependent manner in human cells. Indeed, PALF interacts directly with PARP1 and is required for its activation and for cellular resistance to methyl-methane sulfonate. PALF also interacts directly with KU86, LIGASEIV and phosphorylated XRCC4 proteins and possesses endo/exonuclease activity at protruding DNA ends. Various treatments that produce double-strand breaks induce formation of PALF foci, which fully coincide with γH2AX foci. Thus, PALF and the CYR motif may play important roles in DNA repair of higher eukaryotes. PMID:17396150

  18. The Zinc-Finger Protein SOP1 Is Required for a Subset of the Nuclear Exosome Functions in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hématy, Kian; Bellec, Yannick; Podicheti, Ram; Bouteiller, Nathalie; Anne, Pauline; Morineau, Céline; Haslam, Richard P.; Beaudoin, Frederic; Napier, Johnathan A.; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Gagliardi, Dominique; Vaucheret, Hervé; Lange, Heike; Faure, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Correct gene expression requires tight RNA quality control both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Using a splicing-defective allele of PASTICCINO2 (PAS2), a gene essential for plant development, we isolated suppressor mutations modifying pas2-1 mRNA profiles and restoring wild-type growth. Three suppressor of pas2 (sop) mutations modified the degradation of mis-spliced pas2-1 mRNA species, allowing the synthesis of a functional protein. Cloning of the suppressor mutations identified the core subunit of the exosome SOP2/RRP4, the exosome nucleoplasmic cofactor SOP3/HEN2 and a novel zinc-finger protein SOP1 that colocalizes with HEN2 in nucleoplasmic foci. The three SOP proteins counteract post-transcriptional (trans)gene silencing (PTGS), which suggests that they all act in RNA quality control. In addition, sop1 mutants accumulate some, but not all of the misprocessed mRNAs and other types of RNAs that are observed in exosome mutants. Taken together, our data show that SOP1 is a new component of nuclear RNA surveillance that is required for the degradation of a specific subset of nuclear exosome targets. PMID:26828932

  19. SUMOylation of the KRAB zinc-finger transcription factor PARIS/ZNF746 regulates its transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Tamotsu; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2016-05-13

    Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), a member of the family of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc-finger transcription factors, is a substrate of the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. PARIS represses the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that PARIS can be SUMOylated, and its SUMOylation plays a role in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) was identified as an interacting protein of PARIS and shown to enhance its SUMOylation. PIASy repressed PGC-1a promoter activity, and this effect was attenuated by PARIS in a manner dependent on its SUMOylation status. Co-expression of SUMO-1 with PIASy completely repressed PGC-1a promoter activity independently of PARIS expression. PARIS-mediated PGC-1a promoter repression depended on the activity of histone deacetylases (HDAC), whereas PIASy repressed the PGC-1a promoter in an HDAC-independent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS and PIASy modulate PGC-1a gene transcription through distinct molecular mechanisms.

  20. Tri6 encodes an unusual zinc finger protein involved in regulation of trichothecene biosynthesis in Fusarium sporotrichioides.

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, R H; Hohn, T M; McCormick, S P; Desjardins, A E

    1995-01-01

    In Fusarium sporotrichioides, several genes required for biosynthesis of the trichothecene mycotoxin T-2 toxin are closely linked. Further characterization of this gene cluster has revealed a gene, Tri6, that specifies a 217-amino-acid protein with regions similar to Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins. Temporal expression of Tri6 is similar to that of trichothecene biosynthetic pathway genes. Analysis of Tri6 transcripts indicated that transcription is initiated in two regions and that within each region there may be at least four initiation sites. Disruption of Tri6 resulted in a mutant that did not produce trichothecenes but that did accumulate low levels of the trichothecene precursor trichodiene. The Tri6 mutant was unable to convert six trichothecene biosynthetic intermediates to T-2 toxin, and transcription of two biosynthetic genes, Tri4 and Tri5, was greatly reduced in the mutant relative to the wild type. In addition, the product of Tri6 functioned as a transcriptional activator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae when fused to the DNA binding region of GAL4. These results indicate that Tri6 encodes a protein involved in the transcriptional regulation of trichothecene biosynthetic genes in F. sporotrichioides. PMID:7646028

  1. Efficient Clinical Scale Gene Modification via Zinc Finger Nuclease–Targeted Disruption of the HIV Co-receptor CCR5

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Dawn A.; Brennan, Andrea L.; Jiang, Shuguang; Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn K.; Lee, Gary; Plesa, Gabriela; Zheng, Zhaohui; Cotte, Julio; Carpenito, Carmine; Wood, Travis; Spratt, S. Kaye; Ando, Dale; Gregory, Philip; Holmes, Michael C.; Perez, Elena. E.; Riley, James L.; Carroll, Richard G.; June, Carl H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Since HIV requires CD4 and a co-receptor, most commonly C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), for cellular entry, targeting CCR5 expression is an attractive approach for therapy of HIV infection. Treatment of CD4+ T cells with zinc-finger protein nucleases (ZFNs) specifically disrupting chemokine receptor CCR5 coding sequences induces resistance to HIV infection in vitro and in vivo. A chimeric Ad5/F35 adenoviral vector encoding CCR5-ZFNs permitted efficient delivery and transient expression following anti-CD3/anti-CD28 costimulation of T lymphocytes. We present data showing CD3/CD28 costimulation substantially improved transduction efficiency over reported methods for Ad5/F35 transduction of T lymphocytes. Modifications to the laboratory scale process, incorporating clinically compatible reagents and methods, resulted in a robust ex vivo manufacturing process capable of generating >1010 CCR5 gene-edited CD4+ T cells from healthy and HIV+ donors. CD4+ T-cell phenotype, cytokine production, and repertoire were comparable between ZFN-modified and control cells. Following consultation with regulatory authorities, we conducted in vivo toxicity studies that showed no detectable ZFN-specific toxicity or T-cell transformation. Based on these findings, we initiated a clinical trial testing the safety and feasibility of CCR5 gene-edited CD4+ T-cell transfer in study subjects with HIV-1 infection. PMID:23360514

  2. Inhibitory effect of RNA-mediated knockdown of zinc finger protein 91 pseudogene on pancreatic cancer cell growth and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weiyi; Li, Ning; Hu, Jiong; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, human pancreatic cancer is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to have a crucial role in cancer occurrence and progression; however, the role of pseudogene-expressed lncRNAs, a major type of lncRNA, have not been thoroughly analyzed in cancer. Therefore, the present study focused on zinc finger protein 91 pseudogene (ZFP91-P). ZFP91-P expression was initially detected in two pancreatic cancer cell lines by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and the highest expression of ZFP91-P was found in the BXPC-3-H cell line. Subsequently, BXPC-3-H cells were transfected with ZFP91-P short hairpin RNA (shRNA) using a plasmid vector and termed shZFP91-P. Cells transfected with negative control plasmid vector were termed shCon. MTT and Transwell assays were performed to analyze the proliferation and migration of BXPC-3-H cells, respectively, and western blotting was used to detect epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers, including vimentin and β-catenin. The present study showed that depletion of ZFP91-P markedly decreased pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and inhibited cell migration capacity. In addition, the expression of β-catenin increased while vimentin expression decreased. The current findings suggest that high expression of ZFP91-P promotes the migration of BXPC-3-H cells and may be a novel marker for early diagnosis for pancreatic cancer. PMID:27446435

  3. Promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger induction signs mesenchymal stem cell commitment: identification of a key marker for stemness maintenance?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for cartilage and bone tissue engineering given their ability to differentiate into chondrocytes and osteoblasts. However, the common origin of these two specialized cell types raised the question about the identification of regulatory pathways determining the differentiation fate of MSCs into chondrocyte or osteoblast. Methods Chondrogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and adipogenesis of human and mouse MSC were induced by using specific inductive culture conditions. Expression of promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger (PLZF) or differentiation markers in MSCs was determined by RT-qPCR. PLZF-expressing MSC were implanted in a mouse osteochondral defect model and the neotissue was analyzed by routine histology and microcomputed tomography. Results We found out that PLZF is not expressed in MSCs and its expression at early stages of MSC differentiation is the mark of their commitment toward the three main lineages. PLZF acts as an upstream regulator of both Sox9 and Runx2, and its overexpression in MSC enhances chondrogenesis and osteogenesis while it inhibits adipogenesis. In vivo, implantation of PLZF-expressing MSC in mice with full-thickness osteochondral defects resulted in the formation of a reparative tissue resembling cartilage and bone. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that absence of PLZF is required for stemness maintenance and its expression is an early event at the onset of MSC commitment during the differentiation processes of the three main lineages. PMID:24564963

  4. 5' flanking sequence and genomic structure of Egr-1, a murine mitogen inducible zinc finger encoding gene.

    PubMed

    Tsai-Morris, C H; Cao, X M; Sukhatme, V P

    1988-09-26

    Egr-1 is a murine zinc finger encoding cDNA whose expression is modulated by a variety of ligand-receptor interactions and is often coregulated with c-fos (1). This study reports the isolation of a mouse Egr-1 genomic clone, its intron-exon structure, and 935 bp of 5' flanking sequence. The gene spans about 3.8 kb and consists of 2 exons and one 700 bp intron. S1 nuclease protection and primer extension analysis were used to define the transcription initiation site. "TATA" and "CCAAT" sequences were located at nucleotides -26 and -337 respectively. In addition, there exist five elements whose sequence is nearly identical to the inner core 10 nucleotide region (CCATATTAGG) of the c-fos serum response element, four Sp1 consensus sequences, two AP1 target sequence analogs, and two potential cAMP response elements. These results will ultimately lead to a detailed definition of the intracellular events regulating Egr-1 expression.

  5. Establishment of HIV-1 resistance in CD4+ T cells by genome editing using zinc-finger nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Elena E; Wang, Jianbin; Miller, Jeffrey C; Jouvenot, Yann; Kim, Kenneth A; Liu, Olga; Wang, Nathaniel; Lee, Gary; Bartsevich, Victor V; Lee, Ya-Li; Guschin, Dmitry Y; Rupniewski, Igor; Waite, Adam J; Carpenito, Carmine; Carroll, Richard G; Orange, Jordan S; Urnov, Fyodor D; Rebar, Edward J; Ando, Dale; Gregory, Philip D; Riley, James L; Holmes, Michael C; June, Carl H

    2012-01-01

    Homozygosity for the naturally occurring Δ32 deletion in the HIV co-receptor CCR5 confers resistance to HIV-1 infection. We generated an HIV-resistant genotype de novo using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) to disrupt endogenous CCR5. Transient expression of CCR5 ZFNs permanently and specifically disrupted ~50% of CCR5 alleles in a pool of primary human CD4+ T cells. Genetic disruption of CCR5 provided robust, stable and heritable protection against HIV-1 infection in vitro and in vivo in a NOG model of HIV infection. HIV-1-infected mice engrafted with ZFN-modified CD4+ T cells had lower viral loads and higher CD4+ T-cell counts than mice engrafted with wild-type CD4+ T cells, consistent with the potential to reconstitute immune function in individuals with HIV/AIDS by maintenance of an HIV-resistant CD4+ T-cell population. Thus adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded CCR5 ZFN–modified autologous CD4+ T cells in HIV patients is an attractive approach for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:18587387

  6. A Corticosteroid-Responsive Transcription Factor, Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein, Mediates Protection of the Cochlea from Acoustic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Peppi, Marcello; Kujawa, Sharon G.; Sewell, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can be induced to resist cochlear damage associated with acoustic trauma by exposure to a variety of “conditioning” stimuli, including restraint stress, moderate level sound, heat stress, hypoxia, and corticosteroids. Here we identify in mice a corticosteroid-responsive transcription factor, PLZF (promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein), which mediates conditioned protection of the cochlea from acoustic trauma. PLZF mRNA levels in the cochlea are increased following conditioning stimuli, including restraint stress, dexamethasone administration, and moderate-to-high level acoustic stimulation. Heterozygous mutant (luxoid.Zbtb16LU/J) mice deficient in PLZF have hearing and responses to acoustic trauma similar to their wild type littermates but are unable to generate conditioning-induced protection from acoustic trauma. PLZF immunoreactivity is present in the spiral ganglion, lateral wall of the cochlea, and organ of Corti, all targets for acoustic trauma. PLZF is also present in the brain and PLZF mRNA in brain is elevated following conditioning stimuli. The identification of a transcription factor that mediates conditioned protection from trauma provides a tool for understanding the protective action of corticosteroids, which are widely used in treating acute hearing loss, and has relevance to understanding the role of corticosteroids in trauma protection. PMID:21228182

  7. DNA damage–inducible SUMOylation of HERC2 promotes RNF8 binding via a novel SUMO-binding Zinc finger

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, Jannie Rendtlew; Povlsen, Lou Klitgaard; Villumsen, Bine Hare; Streicher, Werner; Nilsson, Jakob; Wikström, Mats; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Nonproteolytic ubiquitylation of chromatin surrounding deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the RNF8/RNF168/HERC2 ubiquitin ligases facilitates restoration of genome integrity by licensing chromatin to concentrate genome caretaker proteins near the lesions. In parallel, SUMOylation of so-far elusive upstream DSB regulators is also required for execution of this ubiquitin-dependent chromatin response. We show that HERC2 and RNF168 are novel DNA damage–dependent SUMOylation targets in human cells. In response to DSBs, both HERC2 and RNF168 were specifically modified with SUMO1 at DSB sites in a manner dependent on the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS4. SUMOylation of HERC2 was required for its DSB-induced association with RNF8 and for stabilizing the RNF8–Ubc13 complex. We also demonstrate that the ZZ Zinc finger in HERC2 defined a novel SUMO-specific binding module, which together with its concomitant SUMOylation and T4827 phosphorylation promoted binding to RNF8. Our findings provide novel insight into the regulatory complexity of how ubiquitylation and SUMOylation cooperate to orchestrate protein interactions with DSB repair foci. PMID:22508508

  8. An experimentally tested scenario for the structural evolution of eukaryotic Cys2His2 zinc fingers from eubacterial ros homologs.

    PubMed

    Netti, Fortuna; Malgieri, Gaetano; Esposito, Sabrina; Palmieri, Maddalena; Baglivo, Ilaria; Isernia, Carla; Omichinski, James G; Pedone, Paolo V; Lartillot, Nicolas; Fattorusso, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    The exact evolutionary origin of the zinc finger (ZF) domain is unknown, as it is still not clear from which organisms it was first derived. However, the unique features of the ZF domains have made it very easy for evolution to tinker with them in a number of different manners, including their combination, variation of their number by unequal crossing-over or tandem duplication and tuning of their affinity for specific DNA sequence motifs through point substitutions. Classical Cys2His2 ZF domains as structurally autonomous motifs arranged in multiple copies are known only in eukaryotes. Nonetheless, a single prokaryotic Cys2His2 ZF domain has been identified in the transcriptional regulator Ros from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and recently characterized. The present work focuses on the evolution of the classical ZF domains with the goal of trying to determine whether eukaryotic ZFs have evolved from the prokaryotic Ros-like proteins. Our results, based on computational and experimental data, indicate that a single insertion of three amino acids in the short loop that separates the β-sheet from the α-helix of the Ros protein is sufficient to induce a structural transition from a Ros like to an eukaryotic-ZF like structure. This observation provides evidence for a structurally plausible and parsimonious scenario of fold evolution, giving a structural basis to the hypothesis of a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria to eukaryotes. PMID:23576569

  9. The Transcriptional Repressive Activity of KRAB Zinc Finger Proteins Does Not Correlate with Their Ability to Recruit TRIM28

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kristin E.; Shylo, Natalia A.; Alexander, Katherine A.; Churchill, Angela J.; Copperman, Cecilia; García-García, María J.

    2016-01-01

    KRAB domain Zinc finger proteins are one of the most abundant families of transcriptional regulators in higher vertebrates. The prevailing view is that KRAB domain proteins function as potent transcriptional repressors by recruiting TRIM28 and promoting heterochromatin spreading. However, the extent to which all KRAB domain proteins are TRIM28-dependent transcriptional repressors is currently unclear. Our studies on mouse ZFP568 revealed that TRIM28 recruitment by KRAB domain proteins is not sufficient to warrant transcriptional repressive activity. By using luciferase reporter assays and yeast two-hybrid experiments, we tested the ability of ZFP568 and other mouse KRAB domain proteins to repress transcription and bind TRIM28. We found that some mouse KRAB domain proteins are poor transcriptional repressors despite their ability to recruit TRIM28, while others showed strong KRAB-dependent transcriptional repression, but no TRIM28 binding. Together, our results show that the transcriptional repressive activity of KRAB-ZNF proteins does not correlate with their ability to recruit TRIM28, and provide evidence that KRAB domains can regulate transcription in a TRIM28-independent fashion. Our findings challenge the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by KRAB domain proteins to control gene expression and highlight that a high percentage of KRAB domain proteins in the mouse genome differ from the consensus KRAB sequence at amino acid residues that are critical for TRIM28 binding and/or repressive activity. PMID:27658112

  10. Generation of GGTA1 biallelic knockout pigs via zinc-finger nucleases and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Chen, HaiDe; Jong, UiMyong; Rim, CholHo; Li, WenLing; Lin, XiJuan; Zhang, Dan; Luo, Qiong; Cui, Chun; Huang, HeFeng; Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lei; Fu, ZhiXin

    2014-02-01

    Genetically modified pigs are valuable models of human disease and donors of xenotransplanted organs. Conventional gene targeting in pig somatic cells is extremely inefficient. Zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology has been shown to be a powerful tool for efficiently inducing mutations in the genome. However, ZFN-mediated targeting in pigs has rarely been achieved. Here, we used ZFNs to knock out the porcine α-1, 3-galactosyl-transferase (GGTA1) gene, which generates Gal epitopes that trigger hyperacute immune rejection in pig-to-human transplantation. Primary pig fibroblasts were transfected with ZFNs targeting the coding region of GGTA1. Eighteen mono-allelic and four biallelic knockout cell clones were obtained after drug selection with efficiencies of 23.4% and 5.2%, respectively. The biallelic cells were used to produce cloned pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Three GGTA1 null piglets were born, and one knockout primary fibroblast cell line was established from a cloned fetus. Gal epitopes on GGTA1 null pig cells were completely eliminated from the cell membrane. Functionally, GGTA1 knockout cells were protected from complement-mediated immune attacks when incubated with human serum. This study demonstrated that ZFN is an efficient tool in creating gene-modified pigs. GGTA1 null pigs and GGTA1 null fetal fibroblasts would benefit research and pig-to-human transplantation. PMID:24430555

  11. Targeted mutations in myostatin by zinc-finger nucleases result in double-muscled phenotype in Meishan pigs

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Lili; Tang, Maoxue; Yang, Jinzeng; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Li, Hegang; Jiang, Ke; Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Dezun; Chen, Yaoxing; An, Xiaorong; Li, Kui; Cui, Wentao

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a dominant inhibitor of skeletal muscle development and growth. Mutations in MSTN gene can lead to muscle hypertrophy or double-muscled (DM) phenotype in cattle, sheep, dog and human. However, there has not been reported significant muscle phenotypes in pigs in association with MSTN mutations. Pigs are an important source of meat production, as well as serve as a preferred animal model for the studies of human disease. To study the impacts of MSTN mutations on skeletal muscle growth in pigs, we generated MSTN-mutant Meishan pigs with no marker gene via zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) technology. The MSTN-mutant pigs developed and grew normally, had increased muscle mass with decreased fat accumulation compared with wild type pigs, and homozygote MSTN mutant (MSTN−/−) pigs had apparent DM phenotype, and individual muscle mass increased by 100% over their wild-type controls (MSTN+/+) at eight months of age as a result of myofiber hyperplasia. Interestingly, 20% MSTN-mutant pigs had one extra thoracic vertebra. The MSTN-mutant pigs will not only offer a way of fast genetic improvement of lean meat for local fat-type indigenous pig breeds, but also serve as an important large animal model for biomedical studies of musculoskeletal formation, development and diseases. PMID:26400270

  12. Efficient clinical scale gene modification via zinc finger nuclease-targeted disruption of the HIV co-receptor CCR5.

    PubMed

    Maier, Dawn A; Brennan, Andrea L; Jiang, Shuguang; Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn K; Lee, Gary; Plesa, Gabriela; Zheng, Zhaohui; Cotte, Julio; Carpenito, Carmine; Wood, Travis; Spratt, S Kaye; Ando, Dale; Gregory, Philip; Holmes, Michael C; Perez, Elena E; Riley, James L; Carroll, Richard G; June, Carl H; Levine, Bruce L

    2013-03-01

    Since HIV requires CD4 and a co-receptor, most commonly C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), for cellular entry, targeting CCR5 expression is an attractive approach for therapy of HIV infection. Treatment of CD4(+) T cells with zinc-finger protein nucleases (ZFNs) specifically disrupting chemokine receptor CCR5 coding sequences induces resistance to HIV infection in vitro and in vivo. A chimeric Ad5/F35 adenoviral vector encoding CCR5-ZFNs permitted efficient delivery and transient expression following anti-CD3/anti-CD28 costimulation of T lymphocytes. We present data showing CD3/CD28 costimulation substantially improved transduction efficiency over reported methods for Ad5/F35 transduction of T lymphocytes. Modifications to the laboratory scale process, incorporating clinically compatible reagents and methods, resulted in a robust ex vivo manufacturing process capable of generating >10(10) CCR5 gene-edited CD4+ T cells from healthy and HIV+ donors. CD4+ T-cell phenotype, cytokine production, and repertoire were comparable between ZFN-modified and control cells. Following consultation with regulatory authorities, we conducted in vivo toxicity studies that showed no detectable ZFN-specific toxicity or T-cell transformation. Based on these findings, we initiated a clinical trial testing the safety and feasibility of CCR5 gene-edited CD4+ T-cell transfer in study subjects with HIV-1 infection.

  13. Genome-wide identification, evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) zinc finger-homeodomain gene family.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yin, Xiangjing; Li, Xiaoqin; Wang, Li; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-03

    Plant zinc finger-homeodomain (ZHD) genes encode a family of transcription factors that have been demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. In this study, we identified a total of 13 ZHD genes (VvZHD) in the grape genome that were further classified into at least seven groups. Genome synteny analysis revealed that a number of VvZHD genes were present in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, indicating that they arose before the divergence of these two species. Gene expression analysis showed that the identified VvZHD genes displayed distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns, and were differentially regulated under various stress conditions and hormone treatments, suggesting that the grape VvZHDs might be also involved in plant response to a variety of biotic and abiotic insults. Our work provides insightful information and knowledge about the ZHD genes in grape, which provides a framework for further characterization of their roles in regulation of stress tolerance as well as other aspects of grape productivity.

  14. PEI1, an embryo-specific zinc finger protein gene required for heart-stage embryo formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z; Thomas, T L

    1998-01-01

    We used virtual subtraction, a new gene isolation strategy, to isolate several genes of interest that are expressed in Arabidopsis embryos. These genes have demonstrated biological properties or have the potential to be involved in important biological processes. One gene isolated by virtual subtraction is PEI. It encodes a protein containing a Cys3His zinc finger domain associated with a number of animal and fungal transcription factors. In situ hybridization results showed that PEI1 is expressed throughout the embryo from globular to late cotyledon stage. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a PEI1 antisense gene produced white seeds in which embryo development did not progress through heart stage. Aberrant embryos failed to form cotyledons, but the embryonic root appeared to be normal. Aberrant embryos did not turn green, and the expression of genes involved in photomorphogenesis was drastically attenuated. In culture, aberrant embryos did not form true leaves, but root formation was apparently normal. These results suggest that PEI1 is an embryo-specific transcription factor that plays an important role during Arabidopsis embryogenesis, functioning primarily in the apical domain of the embryo. PMID:9501112

  15. Sequence, expression and tissue localization of a gene encoding a makorin RING zinc-finger protein in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica) seeds.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Thangavelu U; Davies, Eric; Morita, Eugene Hayato; Abe, Shunnosuke

    2007-01-01

    The makorin (MKRN) RING finger protein gene family encodes proteins (makorins) with a characteristic array of zinc-finger motifs and which are present in a wide array of eukaryotes. In the present study, we analyzed the structure and expression of a putative makorin RING finger protein gene in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare). From the analysis of the genomic (AP003543), mRNA (AK120250) and deduced protein (BAD61603) sequences of the putative MKRN gene of rice, obtained from GenBank, we found that it was indeed a bona fide member of the MKRN gene family. The rice MKRN cDNA encoded a protein with four C3H zinc-finger-motifs, one putative Cys-His zinc-finger motif, and one RING zinc-finger motif. The presence of this distinct motif organization and overall amino acid identity clearly indicate that this gene is indeed a true MKRN ortholog. We isolated RNA from embryonic axes of rice seeds at various stages of imbibition and germination and studied the temporal expression profile of MKRN by RT-PCR. This analysis revealed that MKRN transcripts were present at all the time points studied. It was at very low levels in dry seeds, increased slowly during imbibition and germination, and slightly declined in the seedling growth stage. After 6days of germination, an organ-dependent expression pattern of MKRN was observed: highest in roots and moderate in leaves. Similarly to MKRN transcripts, transcripts of cytoskeletal actin and tubulin were also detected in dry embryos, steadily increased during imbibition and germination and leveled off after 24h of germination. We studied the spatial expression profile of MKRN in rice tissues, by using a relatively fast, simple and effective non-radioactive mRNA in situ hybridization (NRISH) technique, which provided the first spatial experimental data that hints at the function of a plant makorin. This analysis revealed that MKRN transcripts were expressed in young plumules, lateral root primordia, leaf primordia

  16. trans-dominant mutants of E1A provide genetic evidence that the zinc finger of the trans-activating domain binds a transcription factor.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, L C; Ricciardi, R P

    1991-01-01

    The 289R E1A protein of adenovirus stimulates transcription of early viral and certain cellular genes. trans-Activation requires residues 140 to 188, which encompass a zinc finger. Several studies have indicated that trans-activation by E1A is mediated through cellular transcription factors. In particular, the ability of the trans-dominant E1A point mutant hr5 (Ser-185 to Asn) to inhibit wild-type E1A trans-activation was proposed to result from the sequestration of a cellular factor. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we individually replaced every residue within and flanking the trans-activating domain with a conservative amino acid, revealing 16 critical residues. Six of the individual substitutions lying in a contiguous stretch C terminal to the zinc finger (carboxyl region183-188) imparted a trans-dominant phenotype. trans-Dominance was even produced by deletion of the entire carboxyl region183-188. Conversely, an intact finger region147-177 was absolutely required for trans-dominance, since second-site substitution of every critical residue in this region abrogated the trans-dominant phenotype of the hr5 protein. These data indicate that the finger region147-177 bind a limiting cellular transcription factor and that the carboxyl region183-188 provides a separate and essential function. In addition, we show that four negatively charged residues within the trans-activating domain do not comprise a distinct acidic activating region. We present a model in which the trans-activating domain of E1A binds to two different cellular protein targets through the finger and carboxyl regions. Images PMID:1831535

  17. The zinc finger RNA binding protein, ZFR, contributes to axon guidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kjærgaard, Tine; Desdorf, Rasmus; Heuck, Anders; Olsen, Anders; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2015-02-15

    ZFR is an ancient and highly conserved chromosome-associated protein from nematodes to mammals, embryologically expressed in most species, with the exception of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The ZFR encodes zinc and RNA binding protein, and in rat, the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling ZFR has been found with transport and translation-associated RNA granule-like structures in the somatodendritic compartments of hippocampal neurons. The majority of axons cross the midline before projecting to their contralateral synaptic target and this crossing decision is under tight control. Molecular factors contributing to these processes have been identified, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we tested the role of ceZFR in axon guidance using ceZfr RNAi-treated animals to analyse axon midline crossing, axon fasciculation and cord commissures. In adult stages, RNAi-induced depletion of the ceZfr transcript leads to several phenotypes related to axon guidance. A midline crossing defect was observed in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) in axon type D, DD/VD motoneuron axons and axon type 1, interneuron axons. We further detected a dorsal nerve cord (DNC) axon fasciculation. Some ceZfr RNAi-treated animals revealed that cord commissures fail to reach their synaptic target. We provide evidence that ceZFR has a role in axon guidance. When Zfr was depleted by RNAi, the phenotypes are characterized by defects in axon midline crossing, axon defasciculation and cord commissures. Our results thus support the hypothesis that ZFR has essential roles during neurogenesis, and could support early steps of RNA transport and localization through RNA granule formation in the nucleus and/or to their nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling.

  18. Thiolate bridging and metal exchange in adducts of a zinc finger model and Pt(II) complexes: biomimetic studies of protein/Pt/DNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Almaraz, Elky; de Paula, Queite A; Liu, Qin; Reibenspies, Joseph H; Darensbourg, Marcetta Y; Farrell, Nicholas P

    2008-05-14

    To provide precedents for the possible interactions of platinum DNA adducts with zinc finger proteins, the complexes [Pt(dien)Cl]Cl (dien = diethylenetriamine) and [Pt(terpy)Cl]Cl (terpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) were exposed to the N,N'-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,4-diazacycloheptanezinc(II) dimer, [Zn(bme-dach)]2, and the products defined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), X-ray crystallography and (195)Pt NMR spectroscopy. The presence of a leaving chloride in both platinum(II) complexes facilitates electrophilic substitution involving sulfur-containing zinc finger synthetic models or, as in previous studies, zinc finger peptidic sequences. Monitored via ESI-MS, both reactants yielded evidence for Zn-(mu-SR)-Pt bridges followed by zinc ejection from the N2S2 coordination sphere and subsequent formation of a trimetallic Zn-(mu-SR)2-Pt-(mu-SR)2-Zn-bridged species. The isolation of Zn-(mu-SR)-Pt-bridged species [(Zn(bme-dach)Cl)(Pt(dien))]Cl is, to our knowledge, the first Zn-Pt bimetallic thiolate-bridged model demonstrating the interaction between Zn-bound thiolates and Pt(2+). In the case of the [Pt(terpy)Cl]Cl reaction with the [Zn(bme-dach)]2, ESI-MS analysis further suggests metal exchange by formation of [Zn(terpy)Cl](+), whereas the [Pt(dien)Cl]Cl reaction does not yield the corresponding [Zn(dien)Cl](+) ion. Direct synthesis of the Zn-Pt thiolate-bridged species and the Pt(N2S2) chelate, where Pt has displaced the Zn from the chelate core, permitted the isolation of X-ray-quality crystals to confirm the bridging and metal-exchanged structures. The ESI-MS, (195)Pt NMR spectroscopy, and molecular structures of the di- and trinuclear complexes will be discussed, as they provide insight into the metal-exchange mechanism.

  19. Detection of zinc finger protein (EGR1) based on electrogenerated chemiluminescence from singlet oxygen produced in a nanoclay-supported porphyrin environment.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shengyuan; Zhang, Tingting; Ji, Xubo; Wan, Ying; Xin, Peng; Shan, Dan; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-09-15

    Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1), as a characteristic example of zinc finger proteins, acts as a transcription factor in eukaryotic cells, mediating protein-protein interactions. Here, a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based protocol for EGR1 assay was developed with a new eco-friendly emitter: singlet oxygen produced in the vicinity of nanoclay-supported zinc proto-porphyrin IX (ZnPPIX). Its electrochemical reduction stimulates an intense monochromic CL irradiation at 644 nm from the dissolved oxygen as endogenous coreactant in the aqueous solution. This ECL derivation was rationalized via hyphenated spectroscopy and theoretical calculation. To promote hydrophilicity and solid-state immobilization of porphyrins, the lamellar artificial laponite was employed as a nanocarrier owning to its large specific area without the blackbody effect. The facile exfoliation of laponite produced quality monolayered nanosheets and facilitated the adsorption and flattening of PPIX upon the surface, resulting in a highly efficient ECL emission. Based on the release of Zn(2+) in zinc finger domains of EGR1 upon contact with the ECL-inactive PPIX, which was monitored by circular dichroism and UV-absorption, a sensitive Zn(2+)-selective electrode for the "signal-on" detection of EGR1 was prepared with a detection limit down to 0.48 pg mL(-1) and a linearity over 6 orders of magnitude. The proposed porphyrin-based ECL system thus infused fresh blood into the traditional ECL family, showing great promise in bioassays of structural Zn(II) proteins and zinc finger-binding nucleotides. PMID:26301820

  20. Comprehensive analysis of CCCH-type zinc finger gene family in citrus (Clementine mandarin) by genome-wide characterization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengrui; Khan, Muhammad Rehman Gul; Li, Yongping; Zhang, Jinzhi; Hu, Chungen

    2014-10-01

    The CCCH-type zinc finger proteins comprise a large gene family of regulatory proteins and are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. The CCCH proteins have been implicated in multiple biological processes and environmental responses in plants. Little information is available, however, about CCCH genes in plants, especially in woody plants such as citrus. The release of the whole-genome sequence of citrus allowed us to perform a genome-wide analysis of CCCH genes and to compare the identified proteins with their orthologs in model plants. In this study, 62 CCCH genes and a total of 132 CCCH motifs were identified, and a comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, functional annotations, gene structures and conserved motifs was performed. Distribution mapping revealed that 54 of the 62 CCCH genes are unevenly dispersed on the nine citrus chromosomes. Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene structural features, we constructed 5 subfamilies of 62 CCCH members and integrative subfamilies from citrus, Arabidopsis, and rice, respectively. Importantly, large numbers of SNPs and InDels in 26 CCCH genes were identified from Poncirus trifoliata and Fortunella japonica using whole-genome deep re-sequencing. Furthermore, citrus CCCH genes showed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in different developmental processes and in response to various stress conditions. Our comprehensive analysis of CleC3Hs is a valuable resource that further elucidates the roles of CCCH family members in plant growth and development. In addition, variants and comparative genomics analyses deepen our understanding of the evolution of the CCCH gene family and will contribute to further genetics and genomics studies of citrus and other plant species.

  1. The ZNF75 zinc finger gene subfamily: Isolation and mapping of the four members in humans and great apes

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, A.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A.

    1996-07-15

    We have previously reported the characterization of the human ZNF75 gene located on Xq26, which has only limited homology (less than 65%) to other ZF genes in the databases. Here, we describe three human zinc finger genes with 86 to 95% homology to ZNF75 at the nucleotide level, which represent all the members of the human ZNF75 subfamily. One of these, ZNF75B, is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 12q13. The other two, ZNF75A and ZNF75C, maintain on ORF in the sequenced region, and at least the latter is expressed in the U937 cell line. They were mapped to chromosomes 16 and 11, respectively. All these genes are conserved in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. The ZNF75B homologue is a pseudogene in all three great apes, and in chimpanzee it is located on chromosome 10 (phylogenetic XII), at p13 (corresponding to the human 12q13). The chimpanzee homologue of ZNF75 is also located on the Xq26 chromosome, in the same region, as detected by in situ hybridization. As expected, nucleotide changes were clearly more abundant between human and organutan than between human and chimpanzee or gorilla homologues. Members of the same class were more similar to each other than to the other homologues within the same species. This suggests that the duplication and/or retrotranscription events occurred in a common ancestor long before great ape speciation. This, together with the existance of at least two genes in cows and horses, suggests a relatively high conservation of this gene family. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. An evolutionary arms race between KRAB zinc finger genes 91/93 and SVA/L1 retrotransposons

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Frank MJ; Greenberg, David; Nguyen, Ngan; Haeussler, Maximilian; Ewing, Adam D; Katzman, Sol; Paten, Benedict; Salama, Sofie R; Haussler, David

    2014-01-01

    Summary Throughout evolution, primate genomes have been modified by waves of retrotransposon insertions1,2,3. For each wave, the host eventually finds a way to repress retrotransposon transcription and prevent further insertions. In mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), transcriptional silencing of retrotransposons requires TRIM28 (KAP1) and it’s repressive complex, which can be recruited to target sites by KRAB zinc finger proteins such as murine-specific ZFP809 which binds to integrated murine leukemia virus DNA elements and recruits KAP1 to repress them4,5. KZNF genes are one of the fastest growing gene families in primates and this expansion is hypothesized to enable primates to respond to newly emerged retrotransposons6,7. However, the identity of KZNF genes battling retrotransposons currently active in the human genome, such as SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA)8 and Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (L1)9, is unknown. We find that two primate-specific KZNF genes rapidly evolved to repress these two distinct retrotransposon families shortly after they began to spread in our ancestral genome. ZNF91 underwent a series of structural changes 8-12 MYA that enabled it to repress SVA elements. ZNF93 evolved earlier to repress the primate L1 lineage until ~12.5 MYA when the L1PA3-subfamily escaped ZNF93’s restriction through purge of the ZNF93 binding site. Our data support a model where KZNF gene expansion limits the activity of newly emerged retrotransposon classes, and this is followed by mutations in these retrotransposons to evade repression, a cycle of events that could explain the rapid expansion of lineage-specific KZNF genes. PMID:25274305

  3. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor SlZFP2 Negatively Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Fruit Ripening in Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening. PMID:25637453

  4. Myeloid zinc-finger 1 (MZF-1) suppresses prostate tumor growth through enforcing ferroportin-conducted iron egress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Zhang, Z; Yang, K; Du, J; Xu, Y; Liu, S

    2015-07-01

    Although previous studies suggest that myeloid zinc-finger 1 (MZF-1) is a multifaceted transcription factor that may function as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor, the molecular bases determining its different traits remain elusive. Increasing evidence suggests that disorders in iron metabolism affect tumorigenesis and tumor behaviors, and that excess tumor iron stimulates tumor progression through various mechanisms such as enhancing DNA replication and energy metabolism. Ferroportin (FPN) is the only known iron exporter in mammalian cells, and it determines global iron egress out of cells. FPN reduction leads to decreased iron efflux and increased intracellular iron that consequentially aggravates the oncogenic effects of iron. MZF-1 was recently identified as a transcription factor that regulates FPN expression. Thus far, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the MZF-1-FPN signaling in cancers are largely unknown. Here, we found a significant reduction of FPN levels in prostate tumors relative to adjacent tissues, and demonstrated a crucial role of FPN in tumor growth through controlling tumor iron concentration. Inhibition of MZF-1 expression led to reduced FPN concentration, coupled with resultant intracellular iron retention, increased iron-related cellular activities and enhanced tumor cell growth. In contrast, increase of MZF-1 expression restrained tumor cell growth by promoting FPN-driven iron egress. Importantly, we demonstrated that AP4 and c-Myb jointly modulated MZF-1 transcription, and that miR-492 was also directly involved in regulating MZF-1 concentration through binding to the 3' untranslated regions of its mRNA. These results correlate with reduced AP4 and c-Myb expression and elevated miR-492 expression found in prostate tumors as compared with adjacent tissues that resulted in diminished MZF-1 and FPN. Moreover, we demonstrated that alterations of AP4, c-Myb and miR-492 levels significantly affected tumor cell growth. Targeting

  5. Probing isoform-specific functions of polypeptide GalNAc-transferases using zinc finger nuclease glycoengineered SimpleCells.

    PubMed

    Schjoldager, Katrine T-B G; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Kong, Yun; Steentoft, Catharina; Nudelman, Aaron S; Pedersen, Nis B; Wandall, Hans H; Mandel, Ulla; Bennett, Eric P; Levery, Steven B; Clausen, Henrik

    2012-06-19

    Our knowledge of the O-glycoproteome [N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) type] is highly limited. The O-glycoproteome is differentially regulated in cells by dynamic expression of a subset of 20 polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts), and methods to identify important functions of individual GalNAc-Ts are largely unavailable. We recently introduced SimpleCells, i.e., human cell lines made deficient in O-glycan extension by zinc finger nuclease targeting of a key gene in O-glycan elongation (Cosmc), which allows for proteome-wide discovery of O-glycoproteins. Here we have extended the SimpleCell concept to include proteome-wide discovery of unique functions of individual GalNAc-Ts. We used the GalNAc-T2 isoform implicated in dyslipidemia and the human HepG2 liver cell line to demonstrate unique functions of this isoform. We confirm that GalNAc-T2-directed site-specific O-glycosylation inhibits proprotein activation of the lipase inhibitor ANGPTL3 in HepG2 cells and further identify eight O-glycoproteins exclusively glycosylated by T2 of which one, ApoC-III, is implicated in dyslipidemia. Our study supports an essential role for GalNAc-T2 in lipid metabolism, provides serum biomarkers for GalNAc-T2 enzyme function, and validates the use of GALNT gene targeting with SimpleCells for broad discovery of disease-causing deficiencies in O-glycosylation. The presented glycoengineering strategy opens the way for proteome-wide discovery of functions of GalNAc-T isoforms and their role in congenital diseases and disorders.

  6. The Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Is a Potent Inducer of Zinc Finger AN1-type Domain 2a Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Antonio; Riccio, Anna; Coccia, Marta; Trotta, Edoardo; La Frazia, Simone; Santoro, M. Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The zinc finger AN1-type domain 2a gene, also known as arsenite-inducible RNA-associated protein (AIRAP), was recently identified as a novel human canonical heat shock gene strictly controlled by heat shock factor (HSF) 1. Little is known about AIRAP gene regulation in human cells. Here we report that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor with anticancer and antiangiogenic properties used in the clinic for treatment of multiple myeloma, is a potent inducer of AIRAP expression in human cells. Using endothelial cells as a model, we unraveled the molecular mechanism regulating AIRAP expression during proteasome inhibition. Bortezomib induces AIRAP expression at the transcriptional level early after treatment, concomitantly with polyubiquitinated protein accumulation and HSF activation. AIRAP protein is detected at high levels for at least 48 h after bortezomib exposure, together with the accumulation of HSF2, a factor implicated in differentiation and development regulation. Different from heat-mediated induction, in bortezomib-treated cells, HSF1 and HSF2 interact directly, forming HSF1-HSF2 heterotrimeric complexes recruited to a specific heat shock element in the AIRAP promoter. Interestingly, whereas HSF1 has been confirmed to be critical for AIRAP gene transcription, HSF2 was found to negatively regulate AIRAP expression after bortezomib treatment, further emphasizing an important modulatory role of this transcription factor under stress conditions. AIRAP function is still not defined. However, the fact that AIRAP is expressed abundantly in primary human cells at bortezomib concentrations comparable with plasma levels in treated patients suggests that AIRAP may participate in the regulatory network controlling proteotoxic stress during bortezomib treatment. PMID:24619424

  7. A C2H2 Zinc Finger Protein FEMU2 Is Required for fox1 Expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaodong; Yang, Jinghao; Wu, Xiaoxia; Li, YaJun; Fei, Xiaowen

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii fox1 gene encodes a ferroxidase that is involved in cellular Fe uptake and highly induced during Fe deficient conditions. In an effort to identify fox1 promoter regulatory elements, an insertional library was generated in a transgenic Chlamydomonas strain (2A38) harboring an arylsulfatase (ARS) reporter gene driven by the fox1 promoter. Mutants with a defective response to low iron conditions were selected for further study. Among these, a strain containing a disrupted femu2 gene was identified. Activation of the fox1 promoter by the femu2 gene product was confirmed by silencing the femu2 gene using RNA interference. In three femu2 RNAi transgenic lines (IR3, IR6, and IR7), ARS reporter gene activities declined by 84.3%, 86.4%, and 88.8%, respectively under Fe deficient conditions. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis of both the femu2 mutant and the RNAi transgenic lines showed significantly decreased transcript abundance of the endogenous fox1 gene under Fe deficient conditions. Amino acid sequence analysis of the femu2 gene product identified three potential C2H2 zinc finger (ZF) motifs and a nuclear localization study suggests that FEMU2 is localized to the nucleus. In addition, a potential FEMU2 binding site ((G/T)TTGG(G/T)(G/T)T) was identified using PCR-mediated random binding site selection. Taken together, this evidence suggests that FEMU2 is involved in up-regulation of the fox1 gene in Fe deficient cells. PMID:25485540

  8. Zinc Finger and X-Linked Factor (ZFX) Binds to Human SET Transcript 2 Promoter and Transactivates SET Expression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Siliang; Duan, Ping; Li, Jinping; Senkowski, Tristan; Guo, Fengbiao; Chen, Haibin; Romero, Alberto; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    SET (SE Translocation) protein carries out multiple functions including those for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition, histone modification, DNA repair, and gene regulation. SET overexpression has been detected in brain neurons of patients suffering Alzheimer’s disease, follicle theca cells of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients, and ovarian cancer cells, indicating that SET may play a pathological role for these disorders. SET transcript 2, produced by a specific promoter, represents a major transcript variant in different cell types. In this study, we characterized the transcriptional activation of human SET transcript 2 promoter in HeLa cells. Promoter deletion experiments and co-transfection assays indicated that ZFX, the Zinc finger and X-linked transcription factor, was able to transactivate the SET promoter. A proximal promoter region containing four ZFX-binding sites was found to be critical for the ZFX-mediated transactivation. Mutagenesis study indicated that the ZFX-binding site located the closest to the transcription start site accounted for most of the ZFX-mediated transactivity. Manipulation of ZFX levels by overexpression or siRNA knockdown confirmed the significance and specificity of the ZFX-mediated SET promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results verified the binding of ZFX to its cognate sites in the SET promoter. These findings have led to identification of ZFX as an upstream factor regulating SET gene expression. More studies are required to define the in vivo significance of this mechanism, and specifically, its implication for several benign and malignant diseases related to SET dysregulation. PMID:27775603

  9. Salt tolerance function of the novel C2H2-type zinc finger protein TaZNF in wheat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoli; Liang, Wenji; Gu, Peihan; Huang, Zhanjing

    2016-09-01

    The expression profile chip of the wheat salt-tolerant mutant RH8706-49 was investigated under salt stress in our laboratory. Results revealed a novel gene induced by salt stress with unknown functions. The gene was named as TaZNF (Triticum aestivum predicted Dof zinc finger protein) because it contains the zf-Dof superfamily and was deposited in GenBank (accession no. KF307327). Further analysis showed that TaZNF significantly improved the salt-tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. Various physiological indices of the transgenic plant were improved compared with those of the control after salt stress. Non-invasive micro-test (NMT) detection showed that the root tip of transgenic Arabidopsis significantly expressed Na(+) excretion. TaZNF is mainly localized in the nucleus and exhibited transcriptional activity. Hence, this protein was considered a transcription factor. The TaZNF upstream promoter was then cloned and was found to contain three salts, one jasmonic acid methyl ester (MeJA), and several ABA-responsive elements. The GUS staining and quantitative results of different tissues in the full-length promoter in the transgenic plants showed that the promoter was not tissue specific. The promoter activity in the root, leaf, and flower was enhanced after induction by salt stress. Moreover, GUS staining and quantitative measurement of GUS activity showed that the promoter sequence contained the positive regulatory element of salt and MeJA after their respective elements were mutated in the full-length promoter. RNA-Seq result showed that 2727 genes were differentially expressed; most of these genes were involved in the metabolic pathway and biosynthesis of secondary metabolite pathway. PMID:27156137

  10. The role of Zic family zinc finger transcription factors in the proliferation and differentiation of retinal progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Watabe, Yui; Baba, Yukihiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Mizota, Atsushi; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zic transcription factors expressed early retinal progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zics sustain proliferation activity of retinal progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of Zic in retinal progenitors perturbed rod differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fate determination to rod photoreceptor was not affected. -- Abstract: Members of the Zic family of zinc finger transcription factors play critical roles in a variety of developmental processes. Using DNA microarray analysis, we found that Zics are strongly expressed in SSEA-1-positive early retinal progenitors in the peripheral region of the mouse retina. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction using mRNA from the retina at various developmental stages showed that Zic1 and Zic2 are expressed in the embryonic retina and then gradually disappear during retinal development. Zic3 is also expressed in the embryonic retina; its expression level slightly decreases but it is expressed until adulthood. We overexpressed Zic1, Zic2, or Zic3 in retinal progenitors at embryonic day 17.5 and cultured the retina as explants for 2 weeks. The number of rod photoreceptors was fewer than in the control, but no other cell types showed significant differences between control and Zic overexpressing cells. The proliferation activity of normal retinal progenitors decreased after 5 days in culture, as observed in normal in vivo developmental processes. However, Zic expressing retinal cells continued to proliferate at days 5 and 7, suggesting that Zics sustain the proliferation activities of retinal progenitor cells. Since the effects of Zic1, 2, and 3 are indistinguishable in terms of differentiation and proliferation of retinal progenitors, the redundant function of Zics in retinal development is suggested.

  11. The zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 negatively regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and fruit ripening in tomato.

    PubMed

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong; Xiao, Han

    2015-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening.

  12. Induction of Stable Drug Resistance in Human Breast Cancer Cells Using a Combinatorial Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Library

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeongeun; Hirsh, Andrew S.; Wittner, Ben S.; Maeder, Morgan L.; Singavarapu, Rajasekhar; Lang, Magdalena; Janarthanan, Sailajah; McDermott, Ultan; Yajnik, Vijay; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Joung, J. Keith; Sgroi, Dennis C.

    2011-01-01

    Combinatorial libraries of artificial zinc-finger transcription factors (ZF-TFs) provide a robust tool for inducing and understanding various functional components of the cancer phenotype. Herein, we utilized combinatorial ZF-TF library technology to better understand how breast cancer cells acquire resistance to fulvestrant, a clinically important anti-endocrine therapeutic agent. From a diverse collection of nearly 400,000 different ZF-TFs, we isolated six ZF-TF library members capable of inducing stable, long-term anti-endocrine drug-resistance in two independent estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines. Comparative gene expression profile analysis of the six different ZF-TF-transduced breast cancer cell lines revealed five distinct clusters of differentially expressed genes. One cluster was shared among all 6 ZF-TF-transduced cell lines and therefore constituted a common fulvestrant-resistant gene expression signature. Pathway enrichment-analysis of this common fulvestrant resistant signature also revealed significant overlap with gene sets associated with an estrogen receptor-negative-like state and with gene sets associated with drug resistance to different classes of breast cancer anti-endocrine therapeutic agents. Enrichment-analysis of the four remaining unique gene clusters revealed overlap with myb-regulated genes. Finally, we also demonstrated that the common fulvestrant-resistant signature is associated with poor prognosis by interrogating five independent, publicly available human breast cancer gene expression datasets. Our results demonstrate that artificial ZF-TF libraries can be used successfully to induce stable drug-resistance in human cancer cell lines and to identify a gene expression signature that is associated with a clinically relevant drug-resistance phenotype. PMID:21818254

  13. Involvement of PG2212 Zinc Finger Protein in the Regulation of Oxidative Stress Resistance in Porphyromonas gingivalis W83

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yuetan; Aruni, Wilson; Luo, Tianlong; Roy, Francis; Wang, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The adaptation of Porphyromonas gingivalis to H2O2-induced stress while inducible is modulated by an unknown OxyR-independent mechanism. Previously, we reported that the PG_2212 gene was highly upregulated in P. gingivalis under conditions of prolonged oxidative stress. Because this gene may have regulatory properties, its function in response to H2O2 was further characterized. PG2212, annotated as a hypothetical protein of unknown function, is a 10.3-kDa protein with a cysteine 2-histidine 2 (Cys2His2) zinc finger domain. The isogenic mutant P. gingivalis FLL366 (ΔPG_2212) showed increased sensitivity to H2O2 and decreased gingipain activity compared to the parent strain. Transcriptome analysis of P. gingivalis FLL366 revealed that approximately 11% of the genome displayed altered expression (130 downregulated genes and 120 upregulated genes) in response to prolonged H2O2-induced stress. The majority of the modulated genes were hypothetical or of unknown function, although some are known to participate in oxidative stress resistance. The promoter region of several of the most highly modulated genes contained conserved motifs. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, the purified rPG2212 protein did not bind its own promoter region but bound a similar region in several of the genes modulated in the PG_2212-deficient mutant. A metabolome analysis revealed that PG2212 can regulate a number of genes coding for proteins involved in metabolic pathways critical for its survival under the conditions of oxidative stress. Collectively, our data suggest that PG2212 is a transcriptional regulator that plays an important role in oxidative stress resistance and virulence regulation in P. gingivalis. PMID:25225267

  14. Role of Bmznf-2, a Bombyx mori CCCH zinc finger gene, in masculinisation and differential splicing of Bmtra-2.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Gajula; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Mita, Kazuei; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2016-08-01

    Deciphering the regulatory factors involved in Bombyx mori sex determination has been a puzzle, challenging researchers for nearly a century now. The pre-mRNA of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx), a master regulator gene of sexual differentiation, is differentially spliced, producing Bmdsxm and Bmdsxf transcripts in males and females respectively. The putative proteins encoded by these differential transcripts orchestrate antagonistic functions, which lead to sexual differentiation. A recent study in B. mori illustrated the role of a W-derived fem piRNA in conferring femaleness. In females, the fem piRNA was shown to suppress the activity of a Z-linked CCCH type zinc finger (znf) gene, Masculiniser (masc), which indirectly promotes the Bmdsxm type of splicing. In this study, we report a novel autosomal (Chr 25) CCCH type znf motif encoding gene Bmznf-2 as one of the potential factors in the Bmdsx sex specific differential splicing, and we also provide insights into its role in the alternative splicing of Bmtra2 by using ovary derived BmN cells. Over-expression of Bmznf-2 induced Bmdsxm type of splicing (masculinisation) with a correspondingly reduced expression of Bmdsxf type isoform in BmN cells. Further, the site-directed mutational studies targeting the tandem CCCH znf motifs revealed their indispensability in the observed phenotype of masculinisation. Additionally, the dual luciferase assays in BmN cells using 5' UTR region of the Bmznf-2 strongly implied the existence of a translational repression over this gene. From these findings, we propose Bmznf-2 to be one of the potential factors of masculinisation similar to Masc. From the growing number of Bmdsx splicing regulators, we assume that the sex determination cascade of B. mori is quite intricate in nature; hence, it has to be further investigated for its comprehensive understanding. PMID:27260399

  15. Expression of Arabidopsis FCS-Like Zinc finger genes is differentially regulated by sugars, cellular energy level, and abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Jamsheer K, Muhammed; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Cellular energy status is an important regulator of plant growth, development, and stress mitigation. Environmental stresses ultimately lead to energy deficit in the cell which activates the SNF1-RELATED KINASE 1 (SnRK1) signaling cascade which eventually triggering a massive reprogramming of transcription to enable the plant to survive under low-energy conditions. The role of Arabidopsis thaliana FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) gene family in energy and stress signaling is recently come to highlight after their interaction with kinase subunits of SnRK1 were identified. In a detailed expression analysis in different sugars, energy starvation, and replenishment series, we identified that the expression of most of the FLZ genes is differentially modulated by cellular energy level. It was found that FLZ gene family contains genes which are both positively and negatively regulated by energy deficit as well as energy-rich conditions. Genetic and pharmacological studies identified the role of HEXOKINASE 1- dependent and energy signaling pathways in the sugar-induced expression of FLZ genes. Further, these genes were also found to be highly responsive to different stresses as well as abscisic acid. In over-expression of kinase subunit of SnRK1, FLZ genes were found to be differentially regulated in accordance with their response toward energy fluctuation suggesting that these genes may work downstream to the established SnRK1 signaling under low-energy stress. Taken together, the present study provides a conceptual framework for further studies related to SnRK1-FLZ interaction in relation to sugar and energy signaling and stress response. PMID:26442059

  16. Ratiometric pulsed alkylation/mass spectrometry of the cysteine pairs in individual zinc fingers of MRE-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) as a probe of zinc chelate stability.

    PubMed

    Apuy, J L; Chen, X; Russell, D H; Baldwin, T O; Giedroc, D P

    2001-12-18

    Metal-response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) is a zinc-regulated transcriptional activator of metallothionein (MT) genes in mammalian cells. The MRE-binding domain of MTF-1 (MTF-zf) has six canonical Cys(2)-His(2) zinc finger domains that are distinguished on the basis of their apparent affinities for zinc and their specific roles in MRE-binding. In this paper, pulsed alkylation of the zinc-liganding cysteine thiolate pairs with the sulfhydryl-specific alkylating reagent d(5)-N-ethylmaleimide (d(5)-NEM) is used as a residue-specific probe of the relative stabilities of the individual zinc finger coordination complexes in Zn(6) MTF-zf. A chase with excess H(5)-N-ethylmaleimide (H(5)-NEM) to fully derivatize MTF-zf concomitant with complete proteolysis, followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry allows quantitation of the mole fraction of d(5),d(5)-, d(5),H(5)-, and H(5),H(5)-NEM derivatized peptides corresponding to each individual zinc finger domain as a function of d(5)-NEM pulse time. This experiment establishes the hierarchy of cysteine thiolate reactivity in MTF-zf as F5 > F6 > F1 > F2 approximately F3 approximately F4. The apparent second-order rate of reaction of F1 thiolates is comparable to that determined for the DNA binding domain of Sp1, Zn(3) Sp1-zf, under identical solution conditions. The reactivities of all Cys residues in MTF-zf are significantly reduced when bound to an MREd-containing oligonucleotide. An identical experiment carried out with Zn(5) MTF-zf26, an MTF-zf domain lacking the N-terminal F1 zinc finger, reveals that MTF-zf26 binds to the MREd very weakly, and is characterized by strongly increased reactivity of nonadjacent F4 thiolates. These findings are discussed in the context of existing models for metalloregulation by MTF-1. PMID:11735399

  17. GW study of the half metallic band gap of zinc blende CrAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damewood, Liam; Fong, Ching Yao

    2009-11-01

    We determined the semiconducting gap of zinc blende (ZB) CrAs within the GW approximation (GWA). This is the first GW calculation of a half-metal. Previous calculations using density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) determined a gap of 1.8 eV, but the GGA is known to give too small of a value for this quantity in semiconductors. Additionally, since ZB CrAs is a half metal, one of its spin channels behaves like a metal and changes the quasiparticle screening compared to the insulating case. Due to the local field effect, we only included the γ-point term in the metallic channel calculation of the polarizability while keeping the full set of terms in the insulating channel GW calculation. Preliminary results suggest these terms from the polarizability produce little change in the value of the semiconducting gap when compared to the ``full'' GWA calculation.

  18. A palindromic regulatory site within vertebrate GATA-1 promoters requires both zinc fingers of the GATA-1 DNA-binding domain for high-affinity interaction.

    PubMed

    Trainor, C D; Omichinski, J G; Vandergon, T L; Gronenborn, A M; Clore, G M; Felsenfeld, G

    1996-05-01

    GATA-1, a transcription factor essential for the development of the erythroid lineage, contains two adjacent highly conserved zinc finger motifs. The carboxy-terminal finger is necessary and sufficient for specific binding to the consensus GATA recognition sequence: mutant proteins containing only the amino-terminal finger do not bind. Here we identify a DNA sequence (GATApal) for which the GATA-1 amino-terminal finger makes a critical contribution to the strength of binding. The site occurs in the GATA-1 gene promoters of chickens, mice, and humans but occurs very infrequently in other vertebrate genes known to be regulated by GATA proteins. GATApal is a palindromic site composed of one complete [(A/T)GATA(A/G)] and one partial (GAT) canonical motif. Deletion of the partial motif changes the site to a normal GATA site and also reduces by as much as eightfold the activity of the GATA-1 promoter in an erythroid precursor cell. We propose that GATApal is important for positive regulation of GATA-1 expression in erythroid cells. PMID:8628290

  19. A small single-"finger" peptide from the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 binds specifically to DNA as a zinc or iron complex.

    PubMed

    Omichinski, J G; Trainor, C; Evans, T; Gronenborn, A M; Clore, G M; Felsenfeld, G

    1993-03-01

    Sequence-specific DNA binding has been demonstrated for a synthetic peptide comprising only one of the two "finger"-like domains of the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 (also termed Eryf-1, NF-E1, or GF-1). Quantitative analysis of gel-retardation assays yields a specific association constant of 1.2 x 10(8) M, compared with values of about 10(9) M for the full-length natural GATA-1 protein. By the use of peptides of various lengths, it was possible to delineate the smallest region necessary for specific binding. A single C-terminal finger of the double-finger motif is necessary but not sufficient for sequence-specific interaction. Basic amino acids located C-terminal to the finger (some more than 20 amino acids away) are also essential for tight binding. In addition to demonstrating that zinc is important for the formation of an active binding complex, we show that other ions, notably Fe2+, can fulfill this role. Our results make it clear that the GATA-1 metal binding motif is quite distinct from that found in the steroid hormone family and that GATA-1 is a member of a separate class of DNA binding proteins. PMID:8446581

  20. Specific DNA binding to a major histocompatibility complex enhancer sequence by a synthetic 57-residue double zinc finger peptide from a human enhancer binding protein.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, K; Appella, E; Omichinski, J G; Clore, G M; Gronenborn, A M

    1991-04-15

    Two 57-residue peptides containing one pair of "zinc fingers" from a human enhancer binding protein were prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis. One peptide (MBP-DF) contained the native sequence, while the second peptide ([Abu11]MBP-DF) has an alpha-aminobutyric acid residue substituted for a nonconserved cysteine residue at position 11. The peptides were characterized by several chemical and physical methods, and their DNA binding properties were evaluated using gel retardation experiments. Spectroscopic studies demonstrated that addition of metal ions such as zinc and cobalt resulted in specific conformational changes in both peptides, indicating that cysteine-11 does not appear to be involved in metal chelation. One-dimensional 1H NMR studies indicate that a stable folded structure is formed upon addition of zinc, and the chemical shift pattern is consistent with that previously observed for one constituent single finger (Omichinski, J., Clore, G. M., Appella, E., Sakaguchi, K., and Gronenborn, A. M. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 9324-9334). Gel retardation experiments demonstrate that the peptides are capable of interacting with a 15-mer oligonucleotide comprising a portion of the major histocompatibility complex enhancer sequence and that the interaction is zinc-dependent. The dissociation constant for the [Abu11]MBP-DF peptide is 1.4 x 10(-7) M with maximal binding occurring at a zinc-to-peptide ratio of 2 to 1. The binding specificity observed with respect to related enhancer sequences exhibits the same relative order as noted previously for the whole protein. Studies with point mutants of the major histocompatibility complex enhancer binding sequence indicate that the last GC base pair in a four-guanine stretch plays a pivotal role in the interaction between the peptide and DNA. PMID:2016331

  1. Gene targeting technologies in rats: zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Tomoji

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory rat has been widely used as an animal model in biomedical science for more than 150 years. Applying zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases to rat embryos via microinjection is an efficient genome editing tool for generating targeted knockout rats. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonucleases have been used as an effective tool for precise and multiplex genome editing in mice and rats. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of these site-specific nuclease technologies for genetic analysis and manipulation in rats are discussed.

  2. Zinc finger domain of Su(Hw) protein is required for the formation of functional Su(Hw)-dependent insulator complex.

    PubMed

    Golovnin, A K; Molodina, V V; Georgiev, P G; Melnikova, L S

    2016-07-01

    This study is devoted to clarifying the role of Mod(mdg4)-67.2 and Su(Hw) proteins in the interaction between Su(Hw)-dependent insulator complexes and identifying the specific domains of the Su(Hw) protein required for insulation or mutual neutralization of insulators. Using genetic techniques and experiments in yeast two-hybrid system, we have demonstrated that the zinc finger domain of the Su(Hw) protein is involved in forming a functional insulator complex and cannot be replaced with the DNA-binding domain of the GAL4 protein. PMID:27599504

  3. Characterization of the Zn(II) binding properties of the human Wilms' tumor suppressor protein C-terminal zinc finger peptide.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ka Lam; Bakman, Inna; Marts, Amy R; Batir, Yuksel; Dowd, Terry L; Tierney, David L; Gibney, Brian R

    2014-06-16

    Zinc finger proteins that bind Zn(II) using a Cys2His2 coordination motif within a ββα protein fold are the most abundant DNA binding transcription factor domains in eukaryotic systems. These classic zinc fingers are typically unfolded in the apo state and spontaneously fold into their functional ββα folds upon incorporation of Zn(II). These metal-induced protein folding events obscure the free energy cost of protein folding by coupling the protein folding and metal-ion binding thermodynamics. Herein, we determine the formation constant of a Cys2His2/ββα zinc finger domain, the C-terminal finger of the Wilms' tumor suppressor protein (WT1-4), for the purposes of determining its free energy cost of protein folding. Measurements of individual conditional dissociation constants, Kd values, at pH values from 5 to 9 were determined using fluorescence spectroscopy by direct or competition titration. Potentiometric titrations of apo-WT1-4 followed by NMR spectroscopy provided the intrinsic pKa values of the Cys2His2 residues, and corresponding potentiometric titrations of Zn(II)-WT1-4 followed by fluorescence spectroscopy yielded the effective pKa(eff) values of the Cys2His2 ligands bound to Zn(II). The Kd, pKa, and pKa(eff) values were combined in a minimal, complete equilibrium model to yield the pH-independent formation constant value for Zn(II)-WT1-4, Kf(ML) value of 7.5 × 10(12) M(-1), with a limiting Kd value of 133 fM. This shows that Zn(II) binding to the Cys2His2 site in WT1-4 provides at least -17.6 kcal/mol in driving force to fold the protein scaffold. A comparison of the conditional dissociation constants of Zn(II)-WT1-4 to those from the model peptide Zn(II)-GGG-Cys2His2 over the pH range 5.0 to 9.0 and a comparison of their pH-independent Kf(ML) values demonstrates that the free energy cost of protein folding in WT1-4 is less than +2.1 kcal/mol. These results validate our GGG model system for determining the cost of protein folding in natural zinc

  4. Characterization of the Zn(II) binding properties of the human Wilms' tumor suppressor protein C-terminal zinc finger peptide.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ka Lam; Bakman, Inna; Marts, Amy R; Batir, Yuksel; Dowd, Terry L; Tierney, David L; Gibney, Brian R

    2014-06-16

    Zinc finger proteins that bind Zn(II) using a Cys2His2 coordination motif within a ββα protein fold are the most abundant DNA binding transcription factor domains in eukaryotic systems. These classic zinc fingers are typically unfolded in the apo state and spontaneously fold into their functional ββα folds upon incorporation of Zn(II). These metal-induced protein folding events obscure the free energy cost of protein folding by coupling the protein folding and metal-ion binding thermodynamics. Herein, we determine the formation constant of a Cys2His2/ββα zinc finger domain, the C-terminal finger of the Wilms' tumor suppressor protein (WT1-4), for the purposes of determining its free energy cost of protein folding. Measurements of individual conditional dissociation constants, Kd values, at pH values from 5 to 9 were determined using fluorescence spectroscopy by direct or competition titration. Potentiometric titrations of apo-WT1-4 followed by NMR spectroscopy provided the intrinsic pKa values of the Cys2His2 residues, and corresponding potentiometric titrations of Zn(II)-WT1-4 followed by fluorescence spectroscopy yielded the effective pKa(eff) values of the Cys2His2 ligands bound to Zn(II). The Kd, pKa, and pKa(eff) values were combined in a minimal, complete equilibrium model to yield the pH-independent formation constant value for Zn(II)-WT1-4, Kf(ML) value of 7.5 × 10(12) M(-1), with a limiting Kd value of 133 fM. This shows that Zn(II) binding to the Cys2His2 site in WT1-4 provides at least -17.6 kcal/mol in driving force to fold the protein scaffold. A comparison of the conditional dissociation constants of Zn(II)-WT1-4 to those from the model peptide Zn(II)-GGG-Cys2His2 over the pH range 5.0 to 9.0 and a comparison of their pH-independent Kf(ML) values demonstrates that the free energy cost of protein folding in WT1-4 is less than +2.1 kcal/mol. These results validate our GGG model system for determining the cost of protein folding in natural zinc

  5. A20 inhibits LUBAC-mediated NF-κB activation by binding linear polyubiquitin chains via its zinc finger 7

    PubMed Central

    Verhelst, Kelly; Carpentier, Isabelle; Kreike, Marja; Meloni, Laura; Verstrepen, Lynn; Kensche, Tobias; Dikic, Ivan; Beyaert, Rudi

    2012-01-01

    Linear polyubiquitination of proteins has recently been implicated in NF-κB signalling and is mediated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), consisting of HOIL-1, HOIP and Sharpin. However, the mechanisms that regulate linear ubiquitination are still unknown. Here, we show that A20 is rapidly recruited to NEMO and LUBAC upon TNF stimulation and that A20 inhibits LUBAC-induced NF-κB activation via its C-terminal zinc-finger 7 (ZF7) domain. Expression of a polypeptide corresponding to only ZF7 was sufficient to inhibit TNF-induced NF-κB activation. Both A20 and ZF7 can form a complex with NEMO and LUBAC, and are able to prevent the TNF-induced binding of NEMO to LUBAC. Finally, we show that ZF7 preferentially binds linear polyubiquitin chains in vitro, indicating A20–ZF7 as a novel linear ubiquitin-binding domain (LUBID). We thus propose a model in which A20 inhibits TNF- and LUBAC-induced NF-κB signalling by binding to linear polyubiquitin chains via its seventh zinc finger, which prevents the TNF-induced interaction between LUBAC and NEMO. PMID:23032186

  6. POZ domain transcription factor, FBI-1, represses transcription of ADH5/FDH by interacting with the zinc finger and interfering with DNA binding activity of Sp1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kee; Suh, Dongchul; Edenberg, Howard J; Hur, Man-Wook

    2002-07-26

    The POZ domain is a protein-protein interaction motif that is found in many transcription factors, which are important for development, oncogenesis, apoptosis, and transcription repression. We cloned the POZ domain transcription factor, FBI-1, that recognizes the cis-element (bp -38 to -22) located just upstream of the core Sp1 binding sites (bp -22 to +22) of the ADH5/FDH minimal promoter (bp -38 to +61) in vitro and in vivo, as revealed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The ADH5/FDH minimal promoter is potently repressed by the FBI-1. Glutathione S-transferase fusion protein pull-down showed that the POZ domains of FBI-1, Plzf, and Bcl-6 directly interact with the zinc finger DNA binding domain of Sp1. DNase I footprinting assays showed that the interaction prevents binding of Sp1 to the GC boxes of the ADH5/FDH promoter. Gal4-POZ domain fusions targeted proximal to the GC boxes repress transcription of the Gal4 upstream activator sequence-Sp1-adenovirus major late promoter. Our data suggest that POZ domain represses transcription by interacting with Sp1 zinc fingers and by interfering with the DNA binding activity of Sp1.

  7. hZAC encodes a zinc finger protein with antiproliferative properties and maps to a chromosomal region frequently lost in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Varrault, A.; Ciani, E.; Apiou, F.; Bilanges, B.; Hoffmann, A.; Pantaloni, C.; Bockaert, J.; Spengler, D.; Journot, L.

    1998-01-01

    We previously reported the identification of mZac, a novel mouse zinc finger protein that shared with p53 the ability to regulate concomitantly apoptosis and cell cycle progression. We describe here the isolation, chromosomal localization, and functional in vitro characterization of its human homolog. hZAC is a widely expressed zinc finger protein that reveals transactivation and DNA-binding activity. hZAC inhibits tumor cell growth through induction of apoptotic cell death and G1 arrest. Thus hZAC, like its mouse counterpart, displays antiproliferative properties through pathways known to be central to the activity of p53. We mapped hZAC on chromosome 6q24-q25, a region frequently deleted in many solid tumors. Indeed, allelic loss at 6q24-q25 has been shown in breast and ovary cancers, melanomas, astrocytomas, and renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, Abdollahi et al. [Abdollahi, A., Godwin, A. K., Miller, P. D., Getts, L. A., Schultz, D. C., Tagushi, T., Testa, J. R. & Hamilton, T. C. (1997) Cancer Res. 57, 2029–2034] recently isolated ZAC through its loss of expression in a surface epithelial ovary tumor model and accordingly named it Lot for “lost on transformation.” In view of these observations, the functional properties we report here provide further arguments to consider hZAC as a tumor suppressor gene candidate. PMID:9671765

  8. Overexpression of myeloid zinc finger 1 suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and reduces invasiveness of SiHa human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Ju; Hwang, Jin-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Ying, Tsung-Ho; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2012-08-24

    Myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) gene belongs to the Kruppel family of zinc finger transcription factors. MZF1 has been suggested to play an important role in the tumorigenesis, invasion, and apoptosis of various tumor cells. However, the role of MZF1 in human cervical cancer remains unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of MZF1 and its functional role in human cervical cancer cell migration and invasion, we experimented on stable SiHa cells overexpressing MZF1. We found that MZF1 overexpression inhibits the migratory and invasive abilities of SiHa cervical cancer cells. In addition, the overexpression of MZF1 significantly reduces MMP-2 protein and mRNA levels. Luciferase and ChIP assays suggested that MZF1 directly binds to MMP-2 gene regulatory sequences in vivo and suppresses MMP-2 promoter activity in vitro. This study shows that MZF-1 represses MMP-2 transcription and suggests that this repression may be linked to inhibition of human cervical cancer cell migration and metastasis.

  9. Oxidase-deficient neutrophils from X-linked chronic granulomatous disease iPS cells: functional correction by zinc finger nuclease–mediated safe harbor targeting

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jizhong; Sweeney, Colin L.; Chou, Bin-Kuan; Choi, Uimook; Pan, Jason; Wang, Hongmei; Dowey, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a patient with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD), a defect of neutrophil microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulting from gp91phox deficiency. We demonstrated that mature neutrophils differentiated from X-CGD iPSCs lack ROS production, reproducing the pathognomonic CGD cellular phenotype. Targeted gene transfer into iPSCs, with subsequent selection and full characterization to ensure no off-target changes, holds promise for correction of monogenic diseases without the insertional mutagenesis caused by multisite integration of viral or plasmid vectors. Zinc finger nuclease–mediated gene targeting of a single-copy gp91phox therapeutic minigene into one allele of the “safe harbor” AAVS1 locus in X-CGD iPSCs without off-target inserts resulted in sustained expression of gp91phox and substantially restored neutrophil ROS production. Our findings demonstrate how precise gene targeting may be applied to correction of X-CGD using zinc finger nuclease and patient iPSCs. PMID:21411759

  10. Human T-lymphotrophic virus type I nucleocapsid protein NCp15: structural study and stability of the N-terminal zinc-finger.

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, F; Manigand, C; Picard, P; Belghazi, M; Precigoux, G

    2000-01-01

    An 18-residue peptide, corresponding to the minimum sequence of the N-terminal zinc-finger domain in the nucleocapsid of human T-lymphotrophic virus type I, was synthesized by a solid-phase method and fully characterized. Its ability to complex metal ions (Co(2+) and Zn(2+)) was clearly established by UV-visible spectroscopy and MS. The stability of these complexes was investigated by an original method with HPLC chromatography. Our results show that, even in the presence of air, the Zn(2+) complex is highly stable. In contrast, the Co(2+) complex undergoes a relatively fast degradation due to an intramolecular oxidation leading to the formation of a disulphide bridge between two cysteine residues. The (1)H-NMR analysis indicates that Zn(2+) binds to the Ndelta atom of the histidine residue rather than to the Nepsilon atom. Two-dimensional NMR techniques were used to determine the solution structure of the zinc-finger, illustrated by the existence of turns in the overall conformation. PMID:11085921

  11. An A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein modulates gibberellins and abscisic acid contents and increases sensitivity to abiotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Lan, Hongxia; Shao, Qiaolin; Wang, Ruqin; Chen, Hui; Tang, Haijuan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Here we report a novel A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein ZFP185 involved in GA and ABA signaling in the regulation of growth and stress response. ZFP185 was constitutively expressed in various rice tissues. Overexpression of ZFP185 in rice results in a semi-dwarfism phenotype, reduced cell size, and the decrease of endogenous GA3 content. By contrast, higher GA3 content was observed in RNAi plants. The application of exogenous GA3 can fully rescue the semi-dwarfism phenotype of ZFP185 overexpressing plants, suggesting the negative role of ZFP185 in GA biosynthesis. Besides GA, overexpression of ZFP185 decreased ABA content and expression of several ABA biosynthesis-related genes. Moreover, it was found that ZFP185, unlike previously known A20/AN1-type zinc finger genes, increases sensitivity to drought, cold, and salt stresses, implying the negative role of ZFP185 in stress tolerance. ZFP185 was localized in the cytoplasm and lacked transcriptional activation potential. Our study suggests that ZFP185 regulates plant growth and stress responses by affecting GA and ABA biosynthesis in rice.

  12. Hepatitis B virus can be inhibited by DNA methyltransferase 3a via specific zinc-finger-induced methylation of the X promoter.

    PubMed

    Xirong, L; Rui, L; Xiaoli, Y; Qiuyan, H; Bikui, T; Sibo, Z; Naishuo, Z

    2014-02-01

    In this work we explored whether DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) targeted to the HBV X promoter (XP) causes epigenetic suppression of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The C-terminus of Dnmt3a (Dnmt3aC) was fused to a six-zinc-finger peptide specific to XP to form a fused DNA methyltransferase (XPDnmt3aC). The binding and methyl-modifying specificity of XPDnmt3aC were verified with an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. XP activity and HBV expression were clearly downregulated in HepG2 cells transfected with plasmid pXPDnmt3aC. The injection of XPDnmt3aC into HBV transgenic (TgHBV) mice also showed significant inhibition, leading to low serum HBV surface protein (HBsAg) levels and a reduced viral load. Thus, XPDnmt3aC specifically silenced HBV via site-selective DNA methylation delivered by zinc-finger peptides. This study establishes the foundation of an epigenetic way of controlling HBV-related diseases. PMID:24794726

  13. Ciz1, a p21 cip1/Waf1-interacting zinc finger protein and DNA replication factor, is a novel molecular partner for human enhancer of rudimentary homolog.

    PubMed

    Lukasik, Anna; Uniewicz, Katarzyna A; Kulis, Marta; Kozlowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Enhancer of rudimentary homolog (Drosophila) (ERH) is a small, highly conserved, nuclear protein with a unique three-dimensional structure, whose gene has been identified in animals, plants and protists, but not in fungi. Involvement of ERH in fundamental processes such as regulation of pyrimidine metabolism, cell cycle progression, transcription and cell growth control has been suggested. Here, employing a yeast two-hybrid system, a glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay and tandem MS, we demonstrate that Ciz1 is a bona fide interactor of human ERH. Ciz1 is a nuclear zinc finger protein interacting with p21(Cip1/Waf1), a universal inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, and is a DNA replication factor. The region of Ciz1 necessary for the interaction with ERH spans residues 531-644, encompassing its first zinc finger motif. This region overlaps the p21(Cip1/Waf1)-binding site, suggesting that the interaction with ERH could block the binding of p21(Cip1/Waf1) by Ciz1 in the cell. When ERH and Ciz1 are coexpressed in HeLa cells, Ciz1 recruits ERH to DNA replication foci.

  14. Species-specific expansion of C2H2 zinc-finger genes and their expression profiles in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jun; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun; Zha, Xingfu; Zhao, Ping; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2008-12-01

    Most C2H2 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) function as sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors, and play important roles in a variety of biology processes, such as development, differentiation, and tumor suppression. By searching the silkworm genome with a HMM model of C2H2 zinc-fingers, we have identified a total of 338 C2H2 ZFPs. Most of the ZFP genes were clustered on chromosomes and showed uneven distribution in the genome. Over one third of genes were concentrated on chromosome 11, 15 and 24. Phylogenetic analysis classified all silkworm C2H2 ZFPs into 75 families; 63 of which belong to evolutionarily conserved families. In addition, 188 C2H2 ZFP genes (55.6%) are species-specific to the silkworm. A species-specific expansion of a family with 39 members in a tandem array on chromosome 24 may explain the higher number of species-specific ZFPs in silkworm compared to other organisms. The expression patterns of C2H2 ZFP genes were also examined by microarray analysis. Most of these genes were actively expressed among different tissues on day 3 of the fifth instar. The results provide insight into the biological functions of the silkworm C2H2 ZFP genes in metamorphism and development. PMID:18835444

  15. The Zinc Finger Protein Zfr1p Is Localized Specifically to Conjugation Junction and Required for Sexual Development in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Tian, Huaru; Wang, Wei; Liang, Aihua

    2012-01-01

    Conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila involves a developmental program consisting of three prezygotic nuclear divisions, pronuclear exchange and fusion, and postzygotic and exconjugant stages. The conjugation junction structure appears during the initiation of conjugation development, and disappears during the exconjugant stage. Many structural and functional proteins are involved in the establishment and maintenance of the junction structure in T. thermophila. In the present study, a zinc finger protein-encoding gene ZFR1 was found to be expressed specifically during conjugation and to localize specifically to the conjugation junction region. Truncated Zfr1p localized at the plasma membrane in ordered arrays and decorated Golgi apparatus located adjacent to basal body. The N-terminal zinc finger and C-terminal hydrophobic domains of Zfr1p were found to be required for its specific conjugation junction localization. Conjugation development of ZFR1 somatic knockout cells was aborted at the pronuclear exchange and fusion conjugation stages. Furthermore, Zfr1p was found to be important for conjugation junction stability during the prezygotic nuclear division stage. Taken together, our data reveal that Zfr1p is required for the stability and integrity of the conjugation junction structure and essential for the sexual life cycle of the Tetrahymena cell. PMID:23251712

  16. Structure, chromosome location, and expression of the mouse zinc finger gene Krox-20: multiple gene products and coregulation with the proto-oncogene c-fos.

    PubMed Central

    Chavrier, P; Janssen-Timmen, U; Mattéi, M G; Zerial, M; Bravo, R; Charnay, P

    1989-01-01

    We have analyzed the structure and the regulation of Krox-20, a mouse zinc finger-encoding gene which is transiently activated following serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblast cells in culture. The gene is localized on chromosome 10, band B5, in the mouse, and the homologous human gene also maps to chromosome 10 (region q21.1 to q22.1). Alternative splicing of the 5'-most intron of the Krox-20 gene gives rise to mRNAs encoding putative zinc finger proteins with different N termini. The first exon contains a sequence element with strong similarity to the c-fos proto-oncogene serum response element (SRE). This element can functionally substitute for the c-fos SRE, and it binds the same nuclear protein. It is probably responsible for the serum induction of Krox-20, possibly in combination with a weaker SRE located in the 5'-flanking region of the gene. Our findings suggest that c-fos, Krox-20, and a number of immediate-early serum response genes are coregulated and that the SRE and its cognate protein are essential components of this regulatory pathway. Images PMID:2496302

  17. The 4-Cysteine Zinc-Finger Motif of the RNA Polymerase Regulator DksA serves as a Thiol Switch for Sensing Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Henard, Calvin A.; Tapscott, Timothy; Crawford, Matthew A.; Husain, Maroof; Doulias, Paschalis-Thomas; Porwollik, Steffen; Liu, Lin; McClelland, Michael; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    We show that thiols in the 4-cysteine zinc-finger motif of DksA, an RNA polymerase accessory protein known to regulate the stringent response, sense oxidative and nitrosative stress. Hydrogen peroxide- or nitric oxide (NO)-mediated modifications of thiols in the DksA 4-cysteine zinc-finger motif release the metal cofactor and drive reversible changes in the α-helicity of the protein. Wild-type and relA spoT mutant Salmonella, but not isogenic dksA-deficient bacteria, experience the downregulation of r-protein and amino acid transport expression after NO treatment, suggesting that DksA can regulate gene expression in response to NO congeners independently of the ppGpp alarmone. Oxidative stress enhances the DksA-dependent repression of rpsM, while preventing the activation of livJ and hisG gene transcription that is supported by reduced, zinc-bound DksA. The inhibitory effects of oxidized DksA on transcription are reversible with dithiothreitol. Our investigations indicate that sensing of reactive species by DksA redox active thiols fine-tunes the expression of translational machinery and amino acid assimilation and biosynthesis in accord with the metabolic stress imposed by oxidative and nitrosative stress. Given the conservation of Cys114, and neighboring hydrophobic and charged amino acids in DksA orthologues, phylogenetically diverse microorganisms may use the DksA thiol switch to regulate transcriptional responses to oxidative and nitrosative stress. PMID:24354846

  18. The Ku-Mar zinc finger: A segment-swapped zinc ribbon in MarR-like transcription regulators related to the Ku bridge.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2015-09-01

    Two putative oxidative-stress sensor proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PA1607 and PA1374, belong to the MarR family of transcription regulators and possess a unique mode of dimerization. In these proteins, in addition to the α-helices involved in dimerization, inter-subunit contacts are strengthened by additional C-terminal β-strands. Using sequence and structure analysis we show that these β-strands constitute a novel segment-swapped zinc ribbon domain. We detect the presence of the zinc ribbon domain in MarR proteins from many bacterial homologs. While the metal-chelating residues of the zinc ribbons are absent in most members of this family, we could however identify several species of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes that possess intact zinc-chelating sites. Conservation pattern of metal-chelating residues together with the extensive structural resemblance to zinc ribbons, in particular to the bridge-region of the dsDNA break repair protein Ku, suggests that the C-terminal β-rich region of these proteins is a zinc ribbon. Sequence analysis also supports a distant evolutionary connection between the zinc ribbons of the MarR and Ku families. However, unlike Ku where the segment-swapped zinc ribbons play a role in DNA-binding and obligate dimerization, their primary role in MarR appears to be in dimerization and strengthening of inter-subunit contacts.

  19. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcers and promoting weight gain in people with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa. Some people use zinc ... is abnormal): 25-100 mg zinc. For the eating disorder anorexia nervosa: 100 mg of zinc gluconate daily. ...

  20. Human KZNF Gene Catalog - A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors

    DOE Data Explorer

    Huntley, S; Baggott, D. M.; Hamilton, A. T.; Tran-Gyamfi, M.; Yang, S.; Kim, J.; Gordon, L.; Branscomb, E.; Stubbs, L.

    Kruppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) motifs are prevalent components of transcription factor proteins in all eukaryotes. KRAB-ZNF proteins, in which a potent repressor domain is attached to a tandem array of DNA-binding zinc-finger motifs, are specific to tetrapod vertebrates and represent the largest class of ZNF proteins in mammals. To define the full repertoire of human KRAB-ZNF proteins, we searched the genome sequence for key motifs and then constructed and manually curated gene models incorporating those sequences. The resulting gene catalog contains 423 KRAB-ZNF protein-coding loci, yielding alternative transcripts that altogether predict at least 742 structurally distinct proteins. Active rounds of segmental duplication, involving single genes or larger regions and including both tandem and distributed duplication events, have driven the expansion of this mammalian gene family. Comparisons between the human genes and ZNF loci mined from the draft mouse, dog, and chimpanzee genomes not only identified 103 KRAB-ZNF genes that are conserved in mammals but also highlighted a substantial level of lineage-specific change; at least 136 KRAB-ZNF coding genes are primate specific, including many recent duplicates. KRAB-ZNF genes are widely expressed and clustered genes are typically not coregulated, indicating that paralogs have evolved to fill roles in many different biological processes. To facilitate further study, we have developed a Web-based public resource with access to gene models, sequences, and other data, including visualization tools to provide genomic context and interaction with other public data sets. [This abstract was copied from: S Huntley, DM Baggott, AT Hamilton, M Tran-Gyamfi, S Yang, J Kim, L Gordon, E Branscomb, and L Stubbs. 2006. A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors, Genome Research 16(5):669 - 677] The website provides the

  1. Band gap narrowing in zinc oxide-based semiconductor thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Jitendra E-mail: akrsri@gmail.com; Kumar Srivastava, Amit E-mail: akrsri@gmail.com

    2014-04-07

    A simple expression is proposed for the band gap narrowing (or shrinkage) in semiconductors using optical absorption measurements of spin coated 1 at. % Ga-doped ZnO (with additional 0–1.5 at. % zinc species) thin films as ΔE{sub BGN} = Bn{sup 1/3} [1 − (n{sub c}/n){sup 1/3}], where B is the fitting parameter, n is carrier concentration, and n{sub c} is the critical density required for shrinkage onset. Its uniqueness lies in not only describing variation of ΔE{sub BGN} correctly but also allowing deduction of n{sub c} automatically for several M-doped ZnO (M: Ga, Al, In, B, Mo) systems. The physical significance of the term [1 − (n{sub c}/n){sup 1/3}] is discussed in terms of carrier separation.

  2. The stability and optical gap of zinc oxide clusters (ZnO)n (n = 2-18).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huxian; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Dong, Ruibin; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The stability and the optical band gap of the Zinc Oxide clusters (ZnO)n (n = 2-18) are investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), respectively. The differences between the HOMO-LUMO gap (delta(h-l)) and the optical gap (delta(opt)) are dramatic for small clusters (2 < or = n < or = 5). As the increasing of the cluster size, the differences become small. The results indicate that the stability and the optical gap are related to the sizes and symmetries of the clusters. Further, it is shown that the structures have much greater impact on the optical gap, there is the dipole-forbidden transition in the optical gap for high symmetric structures. PMID:22523957

  3. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae zinc finger proteins Msn2p and Msn4p are required for transcriptional induction through the stress response element (STRE).

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pastor, M T; Marchler, G; Schüller, C; Marchler-Bauer, A; Ruis, H; Estruch, F

    1996-01-01

    The MSN2 and MSN4 genes encode homologous and functionally redundant Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins. A disruption of both MSN2 and MSN4 genes results in a higher sensitivity to different stresses, including carbon source starvation, heat shock and severe osmotic and oxidative stresses. We show that MSN2 and MSN4 are required for activation of several yeast genes such as CTT1, DDR2 and HSP12, whose induction is mediated through stress-response elements (STREs). Msn2p and Msn4p are important factors for the stress-induced activation of STRE dependent promoters and bind specifically to STRE-containing oligonucleotides. Our results suggest that MSN2 and MSN4 encode a DNA-binding component of the stress responsive system and it is likely that they act as positive transcription factors. Images PMID:8641288

  4. ABA-induced CCCH tandem zinc finger protein OsC3H47 decreases ABA sensitivity and promotes drought tolerance in Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyi; Liu, Bohan; Xu, Mengyun; Jamil, Muhammad; Wang, Guoping

    2015-08-14

    Water deficit causes multiple negative impacts on plants, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, abscisic acid (ABA) induction, stomatal closure, and decreased photosynthesis. Here, we characterized OsC3H47, which belongs to CCCH zinc-finger families, as a drought-stress response gene. It can be strongly induced by NaCl, PEG, ABA, and drought conditions. Overexpression of OsC3H47 significantly enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stresses in rice seedlings, which indicates that OsC3H47 plays important roles in post-stress recovery. However, overexpression of OsC3H47 reduced the ABA sensitivity of rice seedlings. This suggests that OsC3H47 is a newly discovered gene that can control rice drought-stress response, and it may play an important role in ABA feedback and post-transcription processes. PMID:26047696

  5. Activating human genes with zinc finger proteins, transcription activator-like effectors and CRISPR/Cas9 for gene therapy and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Gersbach, Charles A; Perez-Pinera, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    New technologies have recently been developed to control the expression of human genes in their native genomic context by engineering synthetic transcription factors that can be targeted to any DNA sequence. The ability to precisely regulate any gene as it occurs naturally in the genome provides a means to address a variety of diseases and disorders. This approach also circumvents some of the traditional challenges of gene therapy. In this editorial, we review the technologies that have enabled targeted human gene activation, including the engineering of transcription factors based on zinc finger proteins, transcription activator-like effectors and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Additionally, we highlight examples in which these methods have been developed for therapeutic applications and discuss challenges and opportunities.

  6. A Family of Zinc Finger Proteins Is Required forChromosome-specific Pairing and Synapsis during Meiosis in C.elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Carolyn M.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2006-06-07

    Homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis are prerequisitefor accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis. Here, we show that afamily of four related C2H2 zinc-finger proteins plays a central role inthese events in C. elegans. These proteins are encoded within a tandemgene cluster. In addition to the X-specific HIM-8 protein, threeadditional paralogs collectively mediate the behavior of the fiveautosomes. Each chromosome relies on a specific member of the family topair and synapse with its homolog. These "ZIM" proteins concentrate atspecial regions called meiotic pairing centers on the correspondingchromosomes. These sites are dispersed along the nuclear envelope duringearly meiotic prophase, suggesting a role analogous to thetelomere-mediated meiotic bouquet in other organisms. To gain insightinto the evolution of these components, wecharacterized homologs in C.briggsae and C. remanei, which revealed changes in copy number of thisgene family within the nematode lineage.

  7. The human zinc-finger protein-7 gene is located 90 kb 3' of MYC and is not expressed in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Gallego, M I; Lazo, P A

    1994-09-15

    The zinc-finger gene-7 (ZNF7) was located 90 kb 3' of MYC on human chromosome 8 band q24 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This position lies between the MLV14 and BVR1 loci, 2 variant translocation breakpoints in Burkitt lymphomas. The structure of the ZNF7 gene was not altered by translocations in Burkitt-lymphoma cell lines as shown by its germline-restriction map configuration. The chromosomal region surrounding the ZNF7 gene was extensively methylated. The ZNF7 gene was not expressed in 19 BL cell lines. Expression was detected only in the BL41 and BL47 cell lines and in the SW756 cervical-carcinoma cell line. The RNA in each was of a different size. We postulate that the lack of ZNF7 expression in Burkitt lymphomas might contribute to the tumor phenotype.

  8. Band gap and FTIR studies for copper-zinc sol-gel glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, G.; Kaur, Navneet; Rawat, Mohit; Singh, K.; Kumar, Vishal

    2016-05-01

    Sol-gel technique was used for synthesis of Calcium phosphorous Borosilicate (CaO-SiO2-B2O3-P2O5-CuO-ZnO) glasses by varying composition of Copper oxide and Zinc oxide. Sol-gel route uses organic precursors which provide better homogeneity and uniform particle size compared to melt quenched glass. Four different glass stoichiometries were characterised using UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transforms infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). Infra-red spectrum of transmittance of powdered glass samples is obtained by FTIR which measure the transmittance of wavelength in them and it also determines the presence of different functional group. Band gap has been obtained using UV-visible spectroscopy for all the glasses so as to study the effect of increasing ZnO content in glass composition. The change in band gap with ZnO content is indication of the change in number of non-bridging oxygen's (NBO).

  9. Identification of genes encoding zinc finger proteins, non-histone chromosomal HMG protein homologue, and a putative GTP phosphohydrolase in the genome of Chilo iridescent virus.

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, P; Hug, M; Handermann, M; Janssen, W; Koonin, E V; Delius, H; Darai, C

    1994-01-01

    Five RNA transcripts of about 1.2 to 1.7 kilobases were mapped to a part of the genome of insect iridescent virus type 6 (Chilo iridescent virus; CIV) between genome coordinates 0.832 and 0.856 within the EcoRI DNA fragment F. The nucleotide sequence of this particular region (5702 base pairs) of the CIV genome was determined. The DNA sequence contains a number of perfect direct, inverted, and palindromic repeats including three clusters of tandemly organized repetitive DNA elements located between the nucleotide positions 1534 to 1566, 3720 to 3780, and 4350 to 4450. Eight long open reading frames (ORFs; EF1 to 8) were detected in the sequenced region of the CIV genome. ORF EF1 encodes a putative protein of 221 amino acid residues (aa) that is closely related to eukaryotic nonhistone chromosomal proteins of the high mobility group (HMG) superfamily. Virus encoded homologues of HMG proteins have not been reported so far. The EF2 gene product (145 aa) contains a specific zinc finger motif and belongs to a distinct group of identified and putative zinc finger proteins including a second putative protein (239 aa) of CIV encoded in the EcoRI DNA fragment Y (1984 bp; 0.381 to 0.391 viral map units). The product of EF6 (127 aa) is related to D250 ORF product of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and belongs to the recently described protein family sharing a highly conserved sequence motif with bacterial antimutator GTP phosphohydrolase MutT. Thus the sequenced region of the CIV genome encodes three putative proteins which may be directly involved in the replication and/or transcription of the viral DNA. Images PMID:8121799

  10. Comprehensive Evolutionary and Expression Analysis of FCS-Like Zinc finger Gene Family Yields Insights into Their Origin, Expansion and Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Jamsheer K, Muhammed; Mannully, Chanchal Thomas; Gopan, Nandu; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plant evolution is characterized by frequent genome duplication events. Expansion of habitat resulted in the origin of many novel genes and genome duplication events which in turn resulted in the expansion of many regulatory gene families. The plant-specific FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) gene family is characterized by the presence of a FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) domain which mediates the protein-protein interaction. In this study, we identified that the expansion of FLZ gene family size in different species is correlated with ancestral and lineage-specific whole genome duplication events. The subsequent gene loss found to have a greater role in determining the size of this gene family in many species. However, genomic block duplications played the significant role in the expansion of FLZ gene family in some species. Comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa FLZ gene family revealed monocot and dicot specific evolutionary trends. The FLZ genes were found to be under high purifying selection. The spatiotemporal expression analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana FLZ gene family revealed that majority of the members are highly expressed in reproductive organs. FLZ genes were also found to be highly expressed during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition which is correlated with the proposed role of this gene family in sugar signaling. The comparison of sequence, structural and expression features of duplicated genes identified lineage-specific redundancy and divergence. This extensive evolutionary analysis and expression analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana FLZ genes will pave the way for further functional analysis of FLZ genes. PMID:26252898

  11. Identification of the Zinc Finger Protein ZRANB2 as a Novel Maternal Lipopolysaccharide-binding Protein That Protects Embryos of Zebrafish against Gram-negative Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Du, Xiaoyuan; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Shicui

    2016-02-19

    Zinc finger ZRANB2 proteins are widespread in animals, but their functions and mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we clearly demonstrate that ZRANB2 is a newly identified LPS-binding protein present abundantly in the eggs/embryos of zebrafish. We also show that recombinant ZRANB2 (rZRANB2) acts as a pattern recognition receptor capable of identifying the bacterial signature molecule LPS as well as binding the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguilarum, and Aeromonas hydrophila and functions as an antibacterial effector molecule capable of directly killing the bacteria. Furthermore, we reveal that N-terminal residues 11-37 consisting of the first ZnF_RBZ domain are indispensable for ZRANB2 antimicrobial activity. Importantly, microinjection of rZRANB2 into early embryos significantly enhanced the resistance of the embryos against pathogenic A. hydrophila challenge, and this enhanced bacterial resistance was markedly reduced by co-injection of anti-ZRANB2 antibody. Moreover, precipitation of ZRANB2 in the embryo extracts by preincubation with anti-ZRANB2 antibody caused a marked decrease in the antibacterial activity of the extracts against the bacteria tested. In addition, the N-terminal peptide Z1/37 or Z11/37 with in vitro antibacterial activity also promoted the resistance of embryos against A. hydrophila, but the peptide Z38/198 without in vitro antibacterial activity did not. Collectively, these results indicate that ZRANB2 is a maternal LPS-binding protein that can protect the early embryos of zebrafish against pathogenic attacks, a novel role ever assigned to ZRANB2 proteins. This work also provides new insights into the immunological function of the zinc finger proteins that are widely distributed in various animals. PMID:26740623

  12. GsZFP1, a new Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein, is a positive regulator of plant tolerance to cold and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Dan; Li, Yong; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Wu, Jing; Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-06-01

    Plant acclimation to environmental stress is controlled by a complex network of regulatory genes that compose distinct stress-response regulons. The C2H2-type zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) have been implicated in different cellular processes involved in plant development and stress responses. Through microarray analysis, an alkaline (NaHCO(3))-responsive ZFP gene GsZFP1 was identified and subsequently cloned from Glyycine soja. GsZFP1 encodes a 35.14 kDa protein with one C2H2-type zinc-finger motif. The QALGGH domain, conserved in most plant C2H2-type ZFPs, is absent in the GsZFP1 protein sequence. A subcellular localization study using a GFP fusion protein indicated that GsZFP1 is localized to the nucleus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that GsZFP1 was induced in the leaf by ABA (100 μM), salt (200 mM NaCl), and cold (4°C), and in the root by ABA (100 μM), cold (4°C), and drought (30% PEG 6000). Over-expression of GsZFP1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in a greater tolerance to cold and drought stress, a decreased water loss rate, and an increase in proline irrespective of environmental conditions. The over-expression of GsZFP1 also increased the expression of a number of stress-response marker genes, including CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, NCED3, COR47, and RD29A in response to cold stress and RAB18, NCED3, P5CS, RD22, and RD29A in response to drought stress, especially early during stress treatments. Our studies suggest that GsZFP1 plays a crucial role in the plant response to cold and drought stress.

  13. ATRX binds to atypical chromatin domains at the 3′ exons of zinc finger genes to preserve H3K9me3 enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Asif H.; Hasson, Dan; Dyer, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ATRX is a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler proposed to govern genomic stability through the regulation of repetitive sequences, such as rDNA, retrotransposons, and pericentromeric and telomeric repeats. However, few direct ATRX target genes have been identified and high-throughput genomic approaches are currently lacking for ATRX. Here we present a comprehensive ChIP-sequencing study of ATRX in multiple human cell lines, in which we identify the 3′ exons of zinc finger genes (ZNFs) as a new class of ATRX targets. These 3′ exonic regions encode the zinc finger motifs, which can range from 1–40 copies per ZNF gene and share large stretches of sequence similarity. These regions often contain an atypical chromatin signature: they are transcriptionally active, contain high levels of H3K36me3, and are paradoxically enriched in H3K9me3. We find that these ZNF 3′ exons are co-occupied by SETDB1, TRIM28, and ZNF274, which form a complex with ATRX. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function studies demonstrate (i) a reduction of H3K9me3 at the ZNF 3′ exons in the absence of ATRX and ZNF274 and, (ii) H3K9me3 levels at atypical chromatin regions are particularly sensitive to ATRX loss compared to other H3K9me3-occupied regions. As a consequence of ATRX or ZNF274 depletion, cells with reduced levels of H3K9me3 show increased levels of DNA damage, suggesting that ATRX binds to the 3′ exons of ZNFs to maintain their genomic stability through preservation of H3K9me3. PMID:27029610

  14. Separating the role of protein restraints and local metal-site interaction chemistry in the thermodynamics of a zinc finger protein.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Purushottam D; Asthagiri, D

    2011-09-21

    We express the effective Hamiltonian of an ion-binding site in a protein as a combination of the Hamiltonian of the ion-bound site in vacuum and the restraints of the protein on the site. The protein restraints are described by the quadratic elastic network model. The Hamiltonian of the ion-bound site in vacuum is approximated as a generalized Hessian around the minimum energy configuration. The resultant of the two quadratic Hamiltonians is cast into a pure quadratic form. In the canonical ensemble, the quadratic nature of the resultant Hamiltonian allows us to express analytically the excess free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of ion binding to the protein. The analytical expressions allow us to separate the roles of the dynamic restraints imposed by the protein on the binding site and the temperature-independent chemical effects in metal-ligand coordination. For the consensus zinc-finger peptide, relative to the aqueous phase, the calculated free energy of exchanging Zn(2+) with Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Cd(2+) are in agreement with experiments. The predicted excess enthalpy of ion exchange between Zn(2+) and Co(2+) also agrees with the available experimental estimate. The free energy of applying the protein restraints reveals that relative to Zn(2+), the Co(2+), and Cd(2+)-site clusters are more destabilized by the protein restraints. This leads to an experimentally testable hypothesis that a tetrahedral metal binding site with minimal protein restraints will be less selective for Zn(2+) over Co(2+) and Cd(2+) compared to a zinc finger peptide. No appreciable change is expected for Fe(2+) and Ni(2+). The framework presented here may prove useful in protein engineering to tune metal selectivity.

  15. A Comprehensive Catalog of Human KRAB-associated Zinc Finger Genes: Insights into the Evolutionary History of a Large Family of Transcriptional Repressors

    SciTech Connect

    Huntley, S; Baggott, D M; Hamilton, A T; Tran-Gyamfi, M; Yang, S; Kim, J; Gordon, L; Branscomb, E; Stubbs, L

    2005-09-30

    Krueppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) motifs are prevalent components of transcription factor proteins in all eukaryotic species. In mammals, most ZNF proteins comprise a single class of transcriptional repressors in which a chromatin interaction domain, called the Krueppel-associated box (KRAB) is attached to a tandem array of DNA-binding zinc-finger motifs. KRAB-ZNF loci are specific to tetrapod vertebrates, but have expanded dramatically in numbers through repeated rounds of segmental duplication to create a gene family with hundreds of members in mammals. To define the full repertoire of human KRAB-ZNF proteins, we searched the human genome for key motifs and used them to construct and manually curate gene models. The resulting KRAB-ZNF gene catalog includes 326 known genes, 243 of which were structurally corrected by manual annotation, and 97 novel KRAB-ZNF genes; this single family therefore comprises 20% of all predicted human transcription factor genes. Many of the genes are alternatively spliced, yielding a total of 743 distinct predicted proteins. Although many human KRAB-ZNF genes are conserved in mammals, at least 136 and potentially more than 200 genes of this type are primate-specific including many recent segmental duplicates. KRAB-ZNF genes are active in a wide variety of human tissues suggesting roles in many key biological processes, but most member genes remain completely uncharacterized. Because of their sheer numbers, wide-ranging tissue-specific expression patterns, and remarkable evolutionary divergence we predict that KRAB-ZNF transcription factors have played critical roles in crafting many aspects of human biology, including both deeply conserved and primate-specific traits.

  16. A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Stuart; Baggott, Daniel M; Hamilton, Aaron T; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Yang, Shan; Kim, Joomyeong; Gordon, Laurie; Branscomb, Elbert; Stubbs, Lisa

    2006-05-01

    Krüppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) motifs are prevalent components of transcription factor proteins in all eukaryotes. KRAB-ZNF proteins, in which a potent repressor domain is attached to a tandem array of DNA-binding zinc-finger motifs, are specific to tetrapod vertebrates and represent the largest class of ZNF proteins in mammals. To define the full repertoire of human KRAB-ZNF proteins, we searched the genome sequence for key motifs and then constructed and manually curated gene models incorporating those sequences. The resulting gene catalog contains 423 KRAB-ZNF protein-coding loci, yielding alternative transcripts that altogether predict at least 742 structurally distinct proteins. Active rounds of segmental duplication, involving single genes or larger regions and including both tandem and distributed duplication events, have driven the expansion of this mammalian gene family. Comparisons between the human genes and ZNF loci mined from the draft mouse, dog, and chimpanzee genomes not only identified 103 KRAB-ZNF genes that are conserved in mammals but also highlighted a substantial level of lineage-specific change; at least 136 KRAB-ZNF coding genes are primate specific, including many recent duplicates. KRAB-ZNF genes are widely expressed and clustered genes are typically not coregulated, indicating that paralogs have evolved to fill roles in many different biological processes. To facilitate further study, we have developed a Web-based public resource with access to gene models, sequences, and other data, including visualization tools to provide genomic context and interaction with other public data sets.

  17. Isolation and fine mapping of 16 novel human zinc finger-encoding cDNAs identify putative candidate genes for developmental and malignant disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Tommerup, N.; Vissing, H.

    1995-05-20

    The authors have isolated and chromosomally fine-mapped 16 novel genes belonging to the human zinc finger Krueppel family (ZNF131-140, 142, 143, 148, 151, 154, and 155), including 1 of the GLI type (ZNF143) and 3 containing a KRAB (Krueppel-associated box) segment (ZNF133, 136, and 140). Based on their map position, several of these ZNF genes are putative candidate genes for both developmental and malignant disorders: ZNF138, ZNF139, and ZNF143 were localized to 7q11.2, 7q21.3-q22.1, and 11p15.3-p15.4, regions involved in deletions and/or translocations associated with Williams syndrome, split hand and foot disease (SHFD1), and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, respectively. ZNF133 was localized to 20p11.2, close to, but probably distinct from, the region deleted in Alagille syndrome. Zinc finger genes mapping to regions commonly deleted in solid tumors included ZNF132, 134, 135, 137, 154, and 155, all located on 19q13 (thyroid adenoma), and ZNF151, at 1p36.1-p36.2 (neuroblastoma, colon cancer, and other tumors). In addition, several of the ZNFs mapped to regions implicated in recurrent chromosomal rearrangements in hematological malignancies (ZNF139, 7q21.3-q22.1; ZNF148, 3q21-q22; ZNF151, 1p36.1-p36.2). The study indicates that the number of ZNF genes in human is large and that systematic isolation and mapping of ZNF genes is a straightforward approach for the identification of novel candidate disease genes. 47 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Phylogenetic study of plant Q-type C2H2 zinc finger proteins and expression analysis of poplar genes in response to osmotic, cold and mechanical stresses.

    PubMed

    Gourcilleau, Delphine; Lenne, Catherine; Armenise, Claudia; Moulia, Bruno; Julien, Jean-Louis; Bronner, Gisèle; Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie

    2011-04-01

    Plant Q-type C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors play an important role in plant tolerance to various environmental stresses such as drought, cold, osmotic stress, wounding and mechanical loading. To carry out an improved analysis of the specific role of each member of this subfamily in response to mechanical loading in poplar, we identified 16 two-fingered Q-type C2H2-predicted proteins from the poplar Phytozome database and compared their phylogenetic relationships with 152 two-fingered Q-type C2H2 protein sequences belonging to more than 50 species isolated from the NR protein database of NCBI. Phylogenetic analyses of these Q-type C2H2 proteins sequences classified them into two groups G1 and G2, and conserved motif distributions of interest were established. These two groups differed essentially in their signatures at the C-terminus of their two QALGGH DNA-binding domains. Two additional conserved motifs, MALEAL and LVDCHY, were found only in sequences from Group G1 or from Group G2, respectively. Functional significance of these phylogenetic divergences was assessed by studying transcript accumulation of six poplar C2H2 Q-type genes in responses to abiotic stresses; but no group specificity was found in any organ. Further expression analyses focused on PtaZFP1 and PtaZFP2, the two genes strongly induced by mechanical loading in poplars. The results revealed that these two genes were regulated by several signalling molecules including hydrogen peroxide and the phytohormone jasmonate. PMID:21367962

  19. Reduced Dosage of pos-1 Suppresses Mex Mutants and Reveals Complex Interactions Among CCCH Zinc-Finger Proteins During Caenorhabditis elegans Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tenlen, Jennifer R.; Schisa, Jennifer A.; Diede, Scott J.; Page, Barbara D.

    2006-01-01

    Cell fate specification in the early C. elegans embryo requires the activity of a family of proteins with CCCH zinc-finger motifs. Two members of the family, MEX-5 and MEX-6, are enriched in the anterior of the early embryo where they inhibit the accumulation of posterior proteins. Embryos from mex-5 single-mutant mothers are inviable due to the misexpression of SKN-1, a transcription factor that can specify mesoderm and endoderm. The aberrant expression of SKN-1 causes a loss of hypodermal and neuronal tissue and an excess of pharyngeal muscle, a Mex phenotype (muscle excess). POS-1, a third protein with CCCH motifs, is concentrated in the posterior of the embryo where it restricts the expression of at least one protein to the anterior. We discovered that reducing the dosage of pos-1(+) can suppress the Mex phenotype of mex-5(−) embryos and that POS-1 binds the 3′-UTR of mex-6. We propose that the suppression of the Mex phenotype by reducing pos-1(+) is due to decreased repression of mex-6 translation. Our detailed analyses of these protein functions reveal complex interactions among the CCCH finger proteins and suggest that their complementary expression patterns might be refined by antagonistic interactions among them. PMID:17028349

  20. Mind the gap between both hands: evidence for internal finger-based number representations in children's mental calculation.

    PubMed

    Domahs, Frank; Krinzinger, Helga; Willmes, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    At a certain stage of development, virtually all children use some kind of external finger-based number representation. However, only little is known about how internal traces of this early external representation may still influence calculation even when finger calculation ceases to be an efficient tool in mental calculation. In the present study, we provide evidence for a disproportionate number of split-five errors (i.e., errors with a difference of +/-5 from the correct result) in mental addition and subtraction (e.g., 18 - 7 = 6). We will argue that such errors may have different origins. For complex problems and initially also for simple problems they are due to failure to keep track of 'full hands' in counting or calculation procedures. However, for simple addition problems split-five errors may later also be caused by mistakes in directly retrieving the result from declarative memory. In general, the present results are interpreted in terms of a transient use of mental finger patterns - in particular the whole hand pattern - in children's mental calculation. PMID:18387566

  1. The natural history of the WRKY–GCM1 zinc fingers and the relationship between transcription factors and transposons

    PubMed Central

    Babu, M. Madan; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Balaji, S.; Aravind, L.

    2006-01-01

    WRKY and GCM1 are metal chelating DNA-binding domains (DBD) which share a four stranded fold. Using sensitive sequence searches, we show that this WRKY–GCM1 fold is also shared by the FLYWCH Zn-finger domain and the DBDs of two classes of Mutator-like element (MULE) transposases. We present evidence that they share a stabilizing core, which suggests a possible origin from a BED finger-like intermediate that was in turn ultimately derived from a C2H2 Zn-finger domain. Through a systematic study of the phyletic pattern, we show that this WRKY–GCM1 superfamily is a widespread eukaryote-specific group of transcription factors (TFs). We identified several new members across diverse eukaryotic lineages, including potential TFs in animals, fungi and Entamoeba. By integrating sequence, structure, gene expression and transcriptional network data, we present evidence that at least two major global regulators belonging to this superfamily in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Rcs1p and Aft2p) have evolved from transposons, and attained the status of transcription regulatory hubs in recent course of ascomycete yeast evolution. In plants, we show that the lineage-specific expansion of WRKY–GCM1 domain proteins acquired functional diversity mainly through expression divergence rather than by protein sequence divergence. We also use the WRKY–GCM1 superfamily as an example to illustrate the importance of transposons in the emergence of new TFs in different lineages. PMID:17130173

  2. An Arabidopsis Zinc Finger Protein Increases Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Regulating Sodium and Potassium Homeostasis, Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Osmotic Potential.

    PubMed

    Zang, Dandan; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Hongyun; Zhang, Wenhui; Zhang, Yiming; Shi, Xinxin; Wang, Yucheng

    2016-01-01

    Plant zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) comprise a large protein family and they are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Although Arabidopsis RING/FYVE/PHD ZFP At5g62460 (AtRZFP) is found to bind to zinc, whether it is involved in abiotic stress tolerance is still unknown. In the present study, we characterized the roles of AtRZFP in response to abiotic stresses. The expression of AtRZFP was induced significantly by salt and osmotic stress. AtRZFP positively mediates tolerance to salt and osmotic stress. Additionally, compared with wild-type Arabidopsis plants, plants overexpressing AtRZFP showed reduced reactive oxygen species (ROSs) accumulation, enhanced superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, increased soluble sugars and proline contents, reduced K(+) loss, decreased Na(+) accumulation, stomatal aperture and the water loss rate. Conversely, AtRZFP knockout plants displayed the opposite physiological changes when exposed to salt or osmotic stress conditions. These data suggested that AtRZFP enhances salt and osmotic tolerance through a series of physiological processes, including enhanced ROSs scavenging, maintaining Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis, controlling the stomatal aperture to reduce the water loss rate, and accumulating soluble sugars and proline to adjust the osmotic potential. PMID:27605931

  3. An Arabidopsis Zinc Finger Protein Increases Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Regulating Sodium and Potassium Homeostasis, Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Osmotic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Dandan; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Hongyun; Zhang, Wenhui; Zhang, Yiming; Shi, Xinxin; Wang, Yucheng

    2016-01-01

    Plant zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) comprise a large protein family and they are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Although Arabidopsis RING/FYVE/PHD ZFP At5g62460 (AtRZFP) is found to bind to zinc, whether it is involved in abiotic stress tolerance is still unknown. In the present study, we characterized the roles of AtRZFP in response to abiotic stresses. The expression of AtRZFP was induced significantly by salt and osmotic stress. AtRZFP positively mediates tolerance to salt and osmotic stress. Additionally, compared with wild-type Arabidopsis plants, plants overexpressing AtRZFP showed reduced reactive oxygen species (ROSs) accumulation, enhanced superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, increased soluble sugars and proline contents, reduced K+ loss, decreased Na+ accumulation, stomatal aperture and the water loss rate. Conversely, AtRZFP knockout plants displayed the opposite physiological changes when exposed to salt or osmotic stress conditions. These data suggested that AtRZFP enhances salt and osmotic tolerance through a series of physiological processes, including enhanced ROSs scavenging, maintaining Na+ and K+ homeostasis, controlling the stomatal aperture to reduce the water loss rate, and accumulating soluble sugars and proline to adjust the osmotic potential. PMID:27605931

  4. An Arabidopsis Zinc Finger Protein Increases Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Regulating Sodium and Potassium Homeostasis, Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Osmotic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Dandan; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Hongyun; Zhang, Wenhui; Zhang, Yiming; Shi, Xinxin; Wang, Yucheng

    2016-01-01

    Plant zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) comprise a large protein family and they are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Although Arabidopsis RING/FYVE/PHD ZFP At5g62460 (AtRZFP) is found to bind to zinc, whether it is involved in abiotic stress tolerance is still unknown. In the present study, we characterized the roles of AtRZFP in response to abiotic stresses. The expression of AtRZFP was induced significantly by salt and osmotic stress. AtRZFP positively mediates tolerance to salt and osmotic stress. Additionally, compared with wild-type Arabidopsis plants, plants overexpressing AtRZFP showed reduced reactive oxygen species (ROSs) accumulation, enhanced superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, increased soluble sugars and proline contents, reduced K+ loss, decreased Na+ accumulation, stomatal aperture and the water loss rate. Conversely, AtRZFP knockout plants displayed the opposite physiological changes when exposed to salt or osmotic stress conditions. These data suggested that AtRZFP enhances salt and osmotic tolerance through a series of physiological processes, including enhanced ROSs scavenging, maintaining Na+ and K+ homeostasis, controlling the stomatal aperture to reduce the water loss rate, and accumulating soluble sugars and proline to adjust the osmotic potential.

  5. Towards improved understanding and conductivity in band-gap-tunable zinc magnesium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yi

    Alloying MgO into ZnO substantially increases the band-gap energy but reduces the conductivity and makes it harder to be doped with donors. While the former makes it attractive as energy-level-tunable transparent conducting contacts, the latter limits its applications. By combining high quality material synthesis, characterization and theory, we attribute the major limitation on the electrical conductivity of epitaxial Ga-doped Zn0.7Mg0.3O to intrinsic acceptors, such as zinc vacancies, which both trap carriers and increase the ionized impurity scattering (IIS). In addition, it shows that zinc vacancies can form defect complexes with Ga substituted on a Zn site (GaZn) during annealing, and this can increase the mobility by reducing the number of IIS centers. This work establishes that enhancing defect pairing is an effective strategy to increase mobility in semiconductors where IIS limits the transport. Epitaxial Zn0.7Mg0.3O:Ga (1%) thin films were deposited on c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements results indicate that the samples are degenerately n-doped and the mobility is limited by IIS. However, the doping efficiency of Ga is only around 40%. TEM imaging and composition analysis indicate that neither extended defects nor impurities are present at sufficient levels to account for the low ionization efficiency. Thus, we consider intrinsic defects. The detailed analysis of electrical properties suggests that ionized electron killers are present. First-principles calculations of formation enthalpies find that zinc vacancies (VZn) have the lowest formation enthalpy among intrinsic acceptors. Considering a simple model with just four kinds of defects (isolated GaZn, isolated VZn, GaZn-VZn pairs and 2GaZn-VZn clusters), we can derive their concentrations from four independent equations with measured n, micro and Ga concentration as inputs. Analysis performed on samples with different annealing times shows

  6. Zinc.

    PubMed

    Barceloux, D G

    1999-01-01

    The use of zinc in metal alloys and medicinal lotions dates back before the time of Christ. Currently, most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. Some studies support the use of zinc gluconate lozenges to treat the common cold, but there are insufficient data at this time to recommend the routine use of these lozenges. Zinc is an essential co-factor in a variety of cellular processes including DNA synthesis, behavioral responses, reproduction, bone formation, growth, and wound healing. Zinc is a relatively common metal with an average concentration of 50 mg/kg soil and a range of 10-300 mg/kg soil. Meat, seafood, dairy products, nuts, legumes, and whole grains contain relatively high concentrations of zinc. The mobility of zinc in anaerobic environments is poor and therefore severe zinc contamination occurs primarily near points sources of zinc release. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc. The ingestion of 1-2 g zinc sulfate produces emesis. Zinc compounds can produce irritation and corrosion of the gastrointestinal tract, along with acute renal tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis. Inhalation of high concentrations of zinc chloride from smoke bombs detonated in closed spaces may cause chemical pneumonitis and adult respiratory distress syndrome. In the occupational setting inhalation of fumes from zinc oxide is the most common cause of metal fume fever (fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste, salivation). Zinc compounds are not suspected carcinogens. Treatment of zinc toxicity is supportive. Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaNa2EDTA) is the chelator of choice based on case reports that demonstrate normalization of zinc concentrations, but there are few clinical data to confirm the efficacy of this agent. PMID:10382562

  7. Band gap tuning and room temperature ferromagnetism in Co doped Zinc stannate nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumithra, S.; Victor Jaya, N.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of Co doping on structural, optical and magnetic behavior of pure and Co doped Zinc stannate (ZTO) nanostructures was investigated. Pure and Co (1%, 3% & 5%) doped Zn2SnO4 compounds were prepared through simple precipitation route. Formation of cubic inverse spinel structure and metal oxide vibrations of the samples were investigated using XRD and FTIR. Co doping influences the crystallite size producing micro strain in ZTO lattice. Poly dispersed rod like shape of the particles was examined by FESEM. Elemental composition of prepared samples was identified by EDAX analysis. Optical Absorption spectra shows significant red shift on increasing the dopant concentration which indicates the reduction in optical band gap. Visible luminescence observed from photoluminescence studies confirms the presence of oxygen vacancies and trap sites in the lattice. Magnetization analysis reveals the enhanced ferromagnetic behavior in all Co doped ZTO samples. The amplified ferromagnetic ordering in Co doped ZTO compounds has been explained in terms of defects serving as free spin polarized prophetic carriers.

  8. Electronic characterization of defects in narrow gap semiconductors: Comparison of electronic energy levels and formation energies in mercury cadmium telluride, mercury zinc telluride, and mercury zinc selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, James D.; Li, Wei-Gang

    1995-03-01

    The project has evolved to that of using Green's functions to predict properties of deep defects in narrow gap materials. Deep defects are now defined as originating from short range potentials and are often located near the middle of the energy gap. They are important because they affect the lifetime of charge carriers and hence the switching time of transistors. We are now moving into the arena of predicting formation energies of deep defects. This will also allow us to make predictions about the relative concentrations of the defects that could be expected at a given temperature. The narrow gap materials mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT), and mercury zinc selenide (MZS) are of interest to NASA because they have commercial value for infrared detecting materials, and because there is a good possibility that they can be grown better in a microgravity environment. The uniform growth of these crystals on earth is difficult because of convection (caused by solute depletion just ahead of the growing interface, and also due to thermal gradients). In general it is very difficult to grow crystals with both radial and axial homogeneity.

  9. Electronic characterization of defects in narrow gap semiconductors: Comparison of electronic energy levels and formation energies in mercury cadmium telluride, mercury zinc telluride, and mercury zinc selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.; Li, Wei-Gang

    1995-01-01

    The project has evolved to that of using Green's functions to predict properties of deep defects in narrow gap materials. Deep defects are now defined as originating from short range potentials and are often located near the middle of the energy gap. They are important because they affect the lifetime of charge carriers and hence the switching time of transistors. We are now moving into the arena of predicting formation energies of deep defects. This will also allow us to make predictions about the relative concentrations of the defects that could be expected at a given temperature. The narrow gap materials mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT), and mercury zinc selenide (MZS) are of interest to NASA because they have commercial value for infrared detecting materials, and because there is a good possibility that they can be grown better in a microgravity environment. The uniform growth of these crystals on earth is difficult because of convection (caused by solute depletion just ahead of the growing interface, and also due to thermal gradients). In general it is very difficult to grow crystals with both radial and axial homogeneity.

  10. Transcriptional activation is a conserved feature of the early embryonic factor Zelda that requires a cluster of four zinc fingers for DNA binding and a low-complexity activation domain.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Danielle C; Bondra, Eliana R; Harrison, Melissa M

    2015-02-01

    Delayed transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome is a nearly universal phenomenon in metazoans. Immediately following fertilization, development is controlled by maternally deposited products, and it is not until later stages that widespread activation of the zygotic genome occurs. Although the mechanisms driving this genome activation are currently unknown, the transcriptional activator Zelda (ZLD) has been shown to be instrumental in driving this process in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we define functional domains of ZLD required for both DNA binding and transcriptional activation. We show that the C-terminal cluster of four zinc fingers mediates binding to TAGteam DNA elements in the promoters of early expressed genes. All four zinc fingers are required for this activity, and splice isoforms lacking three of the four zinc fingers fail to activate transcription. These truncated splice isoforms dominantly suppress activation by the full-length, embryonically expressed isoform. We map the transcriptional activation domain of ZLD to a central region characterized by low complexity. Despite relatively little sequence conservation within this domain, ZLD orthologs from Drosophila virilis, Anopheles gambiae, and Nasonia vitripennis activate transcription in D. melanogaster cells. Transcriptional activation by these ZLD orthologs suggests that ZLD functions through conserved interactions with a protein cofactor(s). We have identified distinct DNA-binding and activation domains within the critical transcription factor ZLD that controls the initial activation of the zygotic genome.

  11. In Vivo Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Targeted Integration of a Glucose-6-phosphatase Transgene Promotes Survival in Mice With Glycogen Storage Disease Type IA.

    PubMed

    Landau, Dustin J; Brooks, Elizabeth Drake; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Amarasekara, Hiruni; Mefferd, Adam; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Gersbach, Charles A; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2016-04-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) is caused by glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency in association with severe, life-threatening hypoglycemia that necessitates lifelong dietary therapy. Here we show that use of a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) targeted to the ROSA26 safe harbor locus and a ROSA26-targeting vector containing a G6PC donor transgene, both delivered with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, markedly improved survival of G6Pase knockout (G6Pase-KO) mice compared with mice receiving the donor vector alone (P < 0.04). Furthermore, transgene integration has been confirmed by sequencing in the majority of the mice treated with both vectors. Targeted alleles were 4.6-fold more common in livers of mice with GSD Ia, as compared with normal littermates, at 8 months following vector administration (P < 0.02). This suggests a selective advantage for vector-transduced hepatocytes following ZFN-mediated integration of the G6Pase vector. A short-term experiment also showed that 3-month-old mice receiving the ZFN had significantly-improved biochemical correction, in comparison with mice that received the donor vector alone. These data suggest that the use of ZFNs to drive integration of G6Pase at a safe harbor locus might improve vector persistence and efficacy, and lower mortality in GSD Ia.

  12. u-shaped encodes a zinc finger protein that regulates the proneural genes achaete and scute during the formation of bristles in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cubadda, Yolande; Heitzler, Pascal; Ray, Robert P.; Bourouis, Marc; Ramain, Philippe; Gelbart, William; Simpson, Pat; Haenlin, Marc

    1997-01-01

    The pattern of the large sensory bristles on the notum of Drosophila arises as a consequence of the expression of the achaete and scute genes. The gene u-shaped encodes a novel zinc finger that acts as a transregulator of achaete and scute in the dorsal region of the notum. Viable hypomorphic u-shaped mutants display additional dorsocentral and scutellar bristles that result from overexpression of achaete and scute. In contrast, overexpression of u-shaped causes a loss of achaete–scute expression and consequently a loss of dorsal bristles. The effects on the dorsocentral bristles appear to be mediated through the enhancer sequences that regulate achaete and scute at this site. The effects of u-shaped mutants are similar to those of a class of dominant alleles of the gene pannier with which they display allele-specific interactions, suggesting that the products of both genes cooperate in the regulation of achaete and scute. A study of the sites at which the dorsocentral bristles arise in mosaic u-shaped nota, suggests that the levels of the u-shaped protein are crucial for the precise positioning of the precursors of these bristles. PMID:9367989

  13. A Zinc-Finger-Family Transcription Factor, AbVf19, Is Required for the Induction of a Gene Subset Important for Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A.; Oxiles, Lindsay; Brooks, Fred; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Cho, Yangrae

    2011-10-26

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen with a broad host range within the family Brassicaceae. It produces secondary metabolites that marginally affect virulence. Cell wall degrading enzymes (CDWE) have been considered important for pathogenesis but none of them individually have been identified as significant virulence factors in A. brassicicola. In this study, knockout mutants of a gene, AbVf19, were created and produced considerably smaller lesions than the wild type on inoculated host plants. The presence of tandem zinc-finger domains in the predicted amino acid sequence and nuclear localization of AbVf19- reporter protein suggested that it was a transcription factor. Gene expression comparisons using RNA-seq identified 74 genes being downregulated in the mutant during a late stage of infection. Among the 74 downregulated genes, 28 were putative CWDE genes. These were hydrolytic enzyme genes that composed a small fraction of genes within each family of cellulases, pectinases, cutinases, and proteinases. The mutants grew slower than the wild type on an axenic medium with pectin as a major carbon source. This study demonstrated the existence and the importance of a transcription factor that regulates a suite of genes that are important for decomposing and utilizing plant material during the late stage of plant infection.

  14. Poor survival is associated with the methylated degree of zinc-finger protein 545 (ZNF545) DNA promoter in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jingyu; Liang, Han; Ying, Guoguang; Dong, Qiuping; Zhang, Rupeng; Yu, Jun; Fan, Daiming; Hao, Xishan

    2015-02-28

    Zinc-finger protein 545 (ZNF545) was identified as a gastric tumour suppressor and potentially independent prognostic factor. At the present study, we found that lower expression of ZNF545 was specific in gastric cancer (GC) tissues, and the inconsistently methylated levels of ZNF545 promoter were identified in the gastric cancer tissues. In the methylation-specific PCR (MSP) analysis cohort, we found that GC patients with hypermethylated ZNF545 promoter exhibited significantly shorter median OS than those with unmethylated ZNF545 promoter and those with hypomethylated ZNF545 promoter. In the other cohort, we also demonstrated that GC patients with three or more methylated CpG sites in the ZNF545 promoter were significantly associated with poor survival by using the bisulphite gene sequencing (BGS). The methylated degrees of five CpG sites (-232, -214, -176, -144 and -116) could also provide distinct survival discrimination of patients with GC. These findings indicated that the methylated CpG sites of the ZNF545 promoter could be used for the clinical prediction of the prognosis of GC. PMID:25714013

  15. Correction of dystrophin expression in cells from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients through genomic excision of exon 51 by zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Ousterout, David G; Kabadi, Ami M; Thakore, Pratiksha I; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Brown, Matthew T; Majoros, William H; Reddy, Timothy E; Gersbach, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by genetic mutations that result in the absence of dystrophin protein expression. Oligonucleotide-induced exon skipping can restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein production. However, this requires continuous drug administration and may not generate complete skipping of the targeted exon. In this study, we apply genome editing with zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) to permanently remove essential splicing sequences in exon 51 of the dystrophin gene and thereby exclude exon 51 from the resulting dystrophin transcript. This approach can restore the dystrophin reading frame in ~13% of DMD patient mutations. Transfection of two ZFNs targeted to sites flanking the exon 51 splice acceptor into DMD patient myoblasts led to deletion of this genomic sequence. A clonal population was isolated with this deletion and following differentiation we confirmed loss of exon 51 from the dystrophin mRNA transcript and restoration of dystrophin protein expression. Furthermore, transplantation of corrected cells into immunodeficient mice resulted in human dystrophin expression localized to the sarcolemmal membrane. Finally, we quantified ZFN toxicity in human cells and mutagenesis at predicted off-target sites. This study demonstrates a powerful method to restore the dystrophin reading frame and protein expression by permanently deleting exons.

  16. Generation of mastitis resistance in cows by targeting human lysozyme gene to β-casein locus using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Wang, Yongsheng; Tian, Yuchen; Yu, Yuan; Gao, Mingqing; Hu, Guangdong; Su, Feng; Pan, Shaohui; Luo, Yan; Guo, Zekun; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2014-04-01

    Mastitis costs the dairy industry billions of dollars annually and is the most consequential disease of dairy cattle. Transgenic cows secreting an antimicrobial peptide demonstrated resistance to mastitis. The combination of somatic cell gene targeting and nuclear transfer provides a powerful method to produce transgenic animals. Recent studies found that a precisely placed double-strand break induced by engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) stimulated the integration of exogenous DNA stretches into a pre-determined genomic location, resulting in high-efficiency site-specific gene addition. Here, we used ZFNs to target human lysozyme (hLYZ) gene to bovine β-casein locus, resulting in hLYZ knock-in of approximately 1% of ZFN-treated bovine fetal fibroblasts (BFFs). Gene-targeted fibroblast cell clones were screened by junction PCR amplification and Southern blot analysis. Gene-targeted BFFs were used in somatic cell nuclear transfer. In vitro assays demonstrated that the milk secreted by transgenic cows had the ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus. We report the production of cloned cows carrying human lysozyme gene knock-in β-casein locus using ZFNs. Our findings open a unique avenue for the creation of transgenic cows from genetic engineering by providing a viable tool for enhancing resistance to disease and improving the health and welfare of livestock.

  17. Regulation of the potential marker for intestinal cells, Bmi1, by β-catenin and the zinc finger protein KLF4: implications for colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianxin; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wen; Colon, Deannon; Shi, Jiandang; Napier, Dana; Rychahou, Piotr; Lu, Wange; Lee, Eun Y; Weiss, Heidi L; Evers, B Mark; Liu, Chunming

    2012-02-01

    B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 (Bmi1) is a Polycomb Group (PcG) protein important in gene silencing. It is a component of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1), which is required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of many genes. Bmi1 was initially identified as an oncogene that regulates cell proliferation and transformation, and is important in hematopoiesis and the development of nervous systems. Recently, it was reported that Bmi1 is a potential marker for intestinal stem cells. Because Wnt signaling plays a key role in intestinal stem cells, we analyzed the effects of Wnt signaling on Bmi1 expression. We found that Wnt signaling indeed regulates the expression of Bmi1 in colon cancer cells. In addition, the expression of Bmi1 in human colon cancers is significantly associated with nuclear β-catenin, a hallmark for the activated Wnt signaling. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc finger protein highly expressed in the gut and skin. We recently found that KLF4 cross-talks with Wnt/β-catenin in regulating intestinal homeostasis. We demonstrated that KLF4 directly inhibits the expression of Bmi1 in colon cancer cells. We also found that Bmi1 regulates histone ubiquitination and is required for colon cancer proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Our findings further suggest that Bmi1 is an attractive target for cancer therapeutics.

  18. Palmate-like pentafoliata1 encodes a novel Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factor essential for compound leaf morphogenesis in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As the primary site for photosynthetic carbon fixation and the interface between plants and the environment, plant leaves play a key role in plant growth, biomass production and survival, and global carbon and oxygen cycles. Leaves can be simple with a single blade or compound with multiple units of blades known as leaflets. In a palmate-type compound leaf, leaflets are clustered at the tip of the leaf. In a pinnate-type compound leaf, on the other hand, leaflets are placed on a rachis in distance from each other. Higher orders of complexities such as bipinnate compound leaves of the “sensitive” plant, Mimosa pudica, also occur in nature. However, how different leaf morphologies are determined is still poorly understood. Medicago truncatula is a model legume closely related to alfalfa and soybean with trifoliate compound leaves. Recently, we have shown that Palmate-like Pentafoliata1 (PALM1) encodes a putative Cys(2) His(2) zinc finger transcription factor essential for compound leaf morphogenesis in M. truncatula. Here, we present our phylogenetic relationship analysis of PALM1 homologs from different species and demonstrate that PALM1 has transcriptional activity in the transactivation assay in yeast. PMID:20724826

  19. A novel zinc finger protein encoded by a couch potato homologue from Solanum tuberosum enables a sucrose transport-deficient yeast strain to grow on sucrose.

    PubMed

    Kühn, C; Frommer, W B

    1995-06-25

    A yeast strain deficient in secreted invertase but expressing a cytoplasmic sucrose synthase has been used to select for potato genes that enable growth on sucrose as the sole carbon source by suppressing the sucrose uptake deficiency. Besides the already known sucrose transporter gene (StSUT1), ten different suppressor clones were identified and characterized. One of these cDNAs (PCP1) enabled efficient growth of the mutant yeast strain and mediated uptake of radiolabeled sucrose. The cDNA encodes a protein of 509 amino acids which is highly hydrophilic and thus does not seem to represent a transporter. Sequence comparisons show that the protein contains zinc finger motifs and shares weak homologies with the Drosophila couch potato gene, which serves as a transcriptional regulator, indicating that PCP1 activates a silent endogenous sucrose uptake system. The other suppressor clones encode either putative transcriptional regulators, protein kinases or enzymes involved in thiamine biosynthesis, ferredoxin reduction or glutamyl tRNA reduction and suppress the phenotype by unknown mechanisms.

  20. The zinc fingers of the SR-like protein ZRANB2 are single-stranded RNA-binding domains that recognize 5′ splice site-like sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Loughlin, Fionna E.; Mansfield, Robyn E.; Vaz, Paula M.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Setiyaputra, Surya; Gamsjaeger, Roland; Chen, Eva S.; Morris, Brian J.; Guss, J. Mitchell; Mackay, Joel P.

    2009-09-02

    The alternative splicing of mRNA is a critical process in higher eukaryotes that generates substantial proteomic diversity. Many of the proteins that are essential to this process contain arginine/serine-rich (RS) domains. ZRANB2 is a widely-expressed and highly-conserved RS-domain protein that can regulate alternative splicing but lacks canonical RNA-binding domains. Instead, it contains 2 RanBP2-type zinc finger (ZnF) domains. We demonstrate that these ZnFs recognize ssRNA with high affinity and specificity. Each ZnF binds to a single AGGUAA motif and the 2 domains combine to recognize AGGUAA(N{sub x})AGGUAA double sites, suggesting that ZRANB2 regulates alternative splicing via a direct interaction with pre-mRNA at sites that resemble the consensus 5{prime} splice site. We show using X-ray crystallography that recognition of an AGGUAA motif by a single ZnF is dominated by side-chain hydrogen bonds to the bases and formation of a guanine-tryptophan-guanine 'ladder.' A number of other human proteins that function in RNA processing also contain RanBP2 ZnFs in which the RNA-binding residues of ZRANB2 are conserved. The ZnFs of ZRANB2 therefore define another class of RNA-binding domain, advancing our understanding of RNA recognition and emphasizing the versatility of ZnF domains in molecular recognition.

  1. Loss of c-Kit and bone marrow failure upon conditional removal of the GATA-2 C-terminal zinc finger domain in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan S; Jin, Jin; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Matatall, Katie A; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Huiyuan; Ullrich, Stephen E; King, Katherine Y; Sun, Shao-Cong; Watowich, Stephanie S

    2016-09-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the transcriptional regulator GATA-2 associate with multilineage immunodeficiency, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The majority of these mutations localize in the zinc finger (ZnF) domains, which mediate GATA-2 DNA binding. Deregulated hematopoiesis with GATA-2 mutation frequently develops in adulthood, yet GATA-2 function in the bone marrow remains unresolved. To investigate this, we conditionally deleted the GATA-2 C-terminal ZnF (C-ZnF) coding sequences in adult mice. Upon Gata2 C-ZnF deletion, we observed rapid peripheral cytopenia, bone marrow failure, and decreased c-Kit expression on hematopoietic progenitors. Transplant studies indicated GATA-2 has a cell-autonomous role in bone marrow hematopoiesis. Moreover, myeloid lineage populations were particularly sensitive to Gata2 hemizygosity, while molecular assays indicated GATA-2 regulates c-Kit expression in multilineage progenitor cells. Enforced c-Kit expression in Gata2 C-ZnF-deficient hematopoietic progenitors enhanced myeloid colony activity, suggesting GATA-2 sustains myelopoiesis via a cell intrinsic role involving maintenance of c-Kit expression. Our results provide insight into mechanisms regulating hematopoiesis in bone marrow and may contribute to a better understanding of immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure associated with GATA-2 mutation.

  2. Generation of Interleukin-2 Receptor Gamma Gene Knockout Pigs from Somatic Cells Genetically Modified by Zinc Finger Nuclease-Encoding mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masahito; Nakano, Kazuaki; Matsunari, Hitomi; Matsuda, Taisuke; Maehara, Miki; Kanai, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Mirina; Matsumura, Yukina; Sakai, Rieko; Kuramoto, Momoko; Hayashida, Gota; Asano, Yoshinori; Takayanagi, Shuko; Arai, Yoshikazu; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Nagaya, Masaki; Hanazono, Yutaka; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) is a powerful tool for genome editing. ZFN-encoding plasmid DNA expression systems have been recently employed for the generation of gene knockout (KO) pigs, although one major limitation of this technology is the use of potentially harmful genome-integrating plasmid DNAs. Here we describe a simple, non-integrating strategy for generating KO pigs using ZFN-encoding mRNA. The interleukin-2 receptor gamma (IL2RG) gene was knocked out in porcine fetal fibroblasts using ZFN-encoding mRNAs, and IL2RG KO pigs were subsequently generated using these KO cells through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The resulting IL2RG KO pigs completely lacked a thymus and were deficient in T and NK cells, similar to human X-linked SCID patients. Our findings demonstrate that the combination of ZFN-encoding mRNAs and SCNT provides a simple robust method for producing KO pigs without genomic integration. PMID:24130776

  3. Zinc finger transcription factor CASZ1 interacts with histones, DNA repair proteins and recruits NuRD complex to regulate gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihui; Lam, Norris; Thiele, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The zinc finger transcription factor CASZ1 has been found to control neural fate-determination in flies, regulate murine and frog cardiac development, control murine retinal cell progenitor expansion and function as a tumor suppressor gene in humans. However, the molecular mechanism by which CASZ1 regulates gene transcription to exert these diverse biological functions has not been described. Here we identify co-factors that are recruited by CASZ1b to regulate gene transcription using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and mass spectrometry assays. We find that CASZ1b binds to the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex, histones and DNA repair proteins. Mutagenesis of the CASZ1b protein assay demonstrates that the N-terminus of CASZ1b is required for NuRD binding, and a poly(ADP-ribose) binding motif in the CASZ1b protein is required for histone H3 and DNA repair proteins binding. The N-terminus of CASZ1b fused to an artificial DNA-binding domain (GAL4DBD) causes a significant repression of transcription (5xUAS-luciferase assay), which could be blocked by treatment with an HDAC inhibitor. Realtime PCR results show that the transcriptional activity of CASZ1b mutants that abrogate NuRD or histone H3/DNA binding is significantly decreased. This indicates a model in which CASZ1b binds to chromatin and recruits NuRD complexes to orchestrate epigenetic-mediated transcriptional programs. PMID:26296975

  4. Soybean C2H2-Type Zinc Finger Protein GmZFP3 with Conserved QALGGH Motif Negatively Regulates Drought Responses in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dayong; Tong, Jinfeng; Xu, Zhaolong; Wei, Peipei; Xu, Ling; Wan, Qun; Huang, Yihong; He, Xiaolan; Yang, Jiayin; Shao, Hongbo; Ma, Hongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Plant response to environmental stresses is regulated by a complicated network of regulatory and functional genes. In this study, we isolated the putative stress-associated gene GmZFP3 (a C2H2-type Zinc finger protein gene) based on the previous finding that it was one of two genes located in the QTL region between the Satt590 and Satt567 markers related to soybean tolerance to drought. Temporal and spatial expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR indicated that GmZFP3 was primarily expressed in roots, stems and leaf organs and was expressed at low levels in flowers and soybean pods. Moreover, GmZFP3 expression increased in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. In addition, subcellular localization analysis indicated that GmZFP3 was ubiquitously distributed in plant cells. Transgenic experiments indicated that GmZFP3 played a negative role in plant tolerance to drought. Analysis of ABA-related marker gene expression in Arabidopsis suggested that GmZFP3 might be involved in the ABA-dependent pathway during the drought stress response. Taken together, these results suggest that soybean GmZFP3 negatively regulates the drought response. PMID:27047508

  5. Plant Tandem CCCH Zinc Finger Proteins Interact with ABA, Drought, and Stress Response Regulators in Processing-Bodies and Stress Granules

    PubMed Central

    Bogamuwa, Srimathi; Jang, Jyan-Chyun

    2016-01-01

    Although multiple lines of evidence have indicated that Arabidopsis thaliana Tandem CCCH Zinc Finger proteins, AtTZF4, 5 and 6 are involved in ABA, GA and phytochrome mediated seed germination responses, the interacting proteins involved in these processes are unknown. Using yeast two-hybrid screens, we have identified 35 putative AtTZF5 interacting protein partners. Among them, Mediator of ABA-Regulated Dormancy 1 (MARD1) is highly expressed in seeds and involved in ABA signal transduction, while Responsive to Dehydration 21A (RD21A) is a well-documented stress responsive protein. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays were used to confirm that AtTZF5 can interact with MARD1 and RD21A in plant cells, and the interaction is mediated through TZF motif. In addition, AtTZF4 and 6 could also interact with MARD1 and RD21A in Y-2-H and BiFC assay, respectively. The protein-protein interactions apparently take place in processing bodies (PBs) and stress granules (SGs), because AtTZF5, MARD1 and RD21A could interact and co-localize with each other and they all can co-localize with the same PB and SG markers in plant cells. PMID:26978070

  6. A Missense Mutation in the Zinc Finger Domain of OsCESA7 Deleteriously Affects Cellulose Biosynthesis and Plant Growth in Rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daofeng; Qin, Yanling; Fang, Jingjing; Yuan, Shoujiang; Peng, Lixiang; Zhao, Jinfeng; Li, Xueyong

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a model plant species for the study of cellulose biosynthesis. We isolated a mutant, S1-24, from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-treated plants of the japonica rice cultivar, Nipponbare. The mutant exhibited brittle culms and other pleiotropic phenotypes such as dwarfism and partial sterility. The brittle culms resulted from reduced mechanical strength due to a defect in thickening of the sclerenchyma cell wall and reduced cellulose content in the culms of the S1-24 mutant. Map-based gene cloning and a complementation assay showed that phenotypes of the S1-24 mutant were caused by a recessive point mutation in the OsCESA7 gene, which encodes cellulose synthase A subunit 7. The missense mutation changed the highly conserved C40 to Y in the zinc finger domain. The OsCESA7 gene is expressed predominantly in the culm at the mature stage, particularly in mechanical tissues such as vascular bundles and sclerenchyma cells, consistent with the brittle phenotype in the culm. These results indicate that OsCESA7 plays an important role in cellulose biosynthesis and plant growth. PMID:27092937

  7. crooked legs encodes a family of zinc finger proteins required for leg morphogenesis and ecdysone-regulated gene expression during Drosophila metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    D'Avino, P P; Thummel, C S

    1998-05-01

    Drosophila imaginal discs undergo extensive pattern formation during larval development, resulting in each cell acquiring a specific adult fate. The final manifestation of this pattern into adult structures is dependent on pulses of the steroid hormone ecdysone during metamorphosis, which trigger disc eversion, elongation and differentiation. We have defined genetic criteria that allow us to screen for ecdysone-inducible regulatory genes that are required for this transformation from patterned disc to adult structure. We describe here the first genetic locus isolated using these criteria: crooked legs (crol). crol mutants die during pupal development with defects in adult head eversion and leg morphogenesis. The crol gene is induced by ecdysone during the onset of metamorphosis and encodes at least three protein isoforms that contain 12-18 C2H2 zinc fingers. Consistent with this sequence motif, crol mutations have stage-specific effects on ecdysone-regulated gene expression. The EcR ecdysone receptor, and the BR-C, E74 and E75 early regulatory genes, are submaximally induced in crol mutants in response to the prepupal ecdysone pulse. These changes in gene activity are consistent with the crol lethal phenotypes and provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of crol action. The genetic criteria described here provide a new direction for identifying regulators of adult tissue development during insect metamorphosis. PMID:9521911

  8. Simultaneous zinc-finger nuclease editing of the HIV coreceptors ccr5 and cxcr4 protects CD4+ T cells from HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Didigu, Chuka A.; Wilen, Craig B.; Wang, Jianbin; Duong, Jennifer; Secreto, Anthony J.; Danet-Desnoyers, Gwenn A.; Riley, James L.; Gregory, Phillip D.; June, Carl H.; Holmes, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells requires binding of the virus to CD4 followed by engagement of either the C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) coreceptor. Pharmacologic blockade or genetic inactivation of either coreceptor protects cells from infection by viruses that exclusively use the targeted coreceptor. We have used zinc-finger nucleases to drive the simultaneous genetic modification of both ccr5 and cxcr4 in primary human CD4+ T cells. These gene-modified cells proliferated normally and were resistant to both CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 in vitro. When introduced into a humanized mouse model of HIV-1 infection, these coreceptor negative cells engraft and traffic normally, and are protected from infection with CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 strains. These data suggest that simultaneous disruption of the HIV coreceptors may provide a useful approach for the long-term, drug-free treatment of established HIV-1 infections. PMID:24162716

  9. The Arabidopsis Zinc Finger-Homeodomain Genes Encode Proteins with Unique Biochemical Properties That Are Coordinately Expressed during Floral Development1

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Queenie K.-G.; Irish, Vivian F.

    2006-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains approximately 100 homeobox genes, many of which have been shown to play critical roles in various developmental processes. Here we characterize the zinc finger-homeodomain (ZF-HD) subfamily of homeobox genes, consisting of 14 members in Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that the HDs of the ZF-HD proteins share some similarities with other known HDs in Arabidopsis, but they contain distinct features that cluster them as a unique class of plant HD-containing proteins. We have carried out mutational analyses to show that the noncanonical residues present in the HDs of this family of proteins are important for function. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid matrix analyses of the ZF-HD proteins reveal that these proteins both homo- and heterodimerize, which may contribute to greater selectivity in DNA binding. These assays also show that most of these proteins do not contain an intrinsic activation domain, suggesting that interactions with other factors are required for transcriptional activation. We also show that the family members are all expressed predominantly or exclusively in floral tissue, indicating a likely regulatory role during floral development. Furthermore, we have identified loss-of-function mutations for six of these genes that individually show no obvious phenotype, supporting the idea that the encoded proteins have common roles in floral development. Based on these results, we propose the ZF-HD gene family encodes a group of transcriptional regulators with unique biochemical activities that play overlapping regulatory roles in Arabidopsis floral development. PMID:16428600

  10. Sda1, a Cys2-His2 zinc finger transcription factor, is involved in polyol metabolism and fumonisin B1 production in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Malapi-Wight, Martha; Smith, Jonathon; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Bluhm, Burton H; Shim, Won-Bo

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot and stalk rot of maize, both of which reduce grain quality and yield. Additionally, F. verticillioides produces the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) during infection of maize kernels, and thus potentially compromises human and animal health. The current knowledge is fragmentary regarding the regulation of FB1 biosynthesis, particularly when considering interplay with environmental factors such as nutrient availability. In this study, SDA1 of F. verticillioides, predicted to encode a Cys-2 His-2 zinc finger transcription factor, was shown to play a key role in catabolizing select carbon sources. Growth of the SDA1 knock-out mutant (Δsda1) was completely inhibited when sorbitol was the sole carbon source and was severely impaired when exclusively provided mannitol or glycerol. Deletion of SDA1 unexpectedly increased FB1 biosynthesis, but reduced arabitol and mannitol biosynthesis, as compared to the wild-type progenitor. Trichoderma reesei ACE1, a regulator of cellulase and xylanase expression, complemented the F. verticillioides Δsda1 mutant, which indicates that Ace1 and Sda1 are functional orthologs. Taken together, the data indicate that Sda1 is a transcriptional regulator of carbon metabolism and toxin production in F. verticillioides.

  11. Speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein gene deletion in ovarian cancer: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of a tissue microarray

    PubMed Central

    HU, XIAOYU; YANG, ZHU; ZENG, MANMAN; LIU, YI; YANG, XIAOTAO; LI, YANAN; LI, XU; YU, QIUBO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the status of speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein (SPOP) gene located on chromosome 17q21 in ovarian cancer (OC). The present study evaluated a tissue microarray, which contained 90 samples of ovarian cancer and 10 samples of normal ovarian tissue, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH is a method where a SPOP-specific DNA red fluorescence probe was used for the experimental group and a centromere-specific DNA green fluorescence probe for chromosome 17 was used for the control group. The present study demonstrated that a deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in 52.27% (46/88) of the ovarian cancer tissues, but was not identified in normal ovarian tissues. Simultaneously, monosomy 17 was frequently identified in the ovarian cancer tissues, but not in the normal ovarian tissues. Furthermore, the present data revealed that the ovarian cancer histological subtype and grade were significantly associated with a deletion of the SPOP gene, which was assessed by the appearance of monosomy 17 in the ovarian cancer samples; the deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in a large proportion of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (41/61; 67.21%), particularly in grade 3 (31/37; 83.78%). In conclusion, deletion of the SPOP gene on chromosome 17 in ovarian cancer samples, which results from monosomy 17, indicates that the SPOP gene may serve as a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer. PMID:27347196

  12. Activation of the Ustilagic Acid Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in Ustilago maydis by the C2H2 Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Rua1▿

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Beate; Liu, Lidan; Schink, Kay Oliver; Bölker, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The phytopathogenic basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis secretes, under conditions of nitrogen starvation, large amounts of the biosurfactant ustilagic acid (UA). This secreted cellobiose glycolipid is toxic for many microorganisms and confers biocontrol activity to U. maydis. Recently, a large gene cluster that is responsible for UA biosynthesis was identified. Here, we show that expression of all cluster genes depends on Rua1, a nuclear protein of the C2H2 zinc finger family, whose gene is located within the gene cluster. While deletion of rua1 results in complete loss of UA production, overexpression of rua1 promotes increased UA synthesis even in the presence of a good nitrogen source. Bioinformatic analysis allowed us to identify a conserved sequence element that is present in the promoters of all structural genes involved in UA biosynthesis. Deletion analysis of several promoters within the cluster revealed that this DNA element serves as an upstream activating sequence (UAS) and mediates Rua1-dependent expression. We used the yeast one-hybrid system to demonstrate specific recognition of this DNA element by Rua1. Introduction of nucleotide exchanges into the consensus sequence interfered with Rua1-dependent activation, suggesting that this sequence element acts as a direct binding site for Rua1. PMID:20173069

  13. Zinc finger protein genes from Cucurbita pepo are promising tools for conferring non-Cucurbitaceae plants with ability to accumulate persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hideyuki; Hirota, Matashi; Goto, Junya; Yoshihara, Ryouhei; Kodama, Noriko; Matsui, Tomomi; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Eun, Heesoo

    2015-03-01

    Some cultivars of cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, and zucchini, which are members of the Cucurbitaceae family, are uniquely subject to contamination by hydrophobic pollutants such as the organohalogen insecticides DDT. However, the molecular mechanisms for the accumulation of these pollutants in cucurbits have not been determined. Here, cDNA subtraction analysis of Cucurbita pepo cultivars that are low and high accumulators of hydrophobic contaminants revealed that a gene for zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are preferentially expressed in high accumulators. The cloned CpZFP genes were classified into 2 types: (1) the PBG type, which were expressed in C. pepo cultivars Patty Green, Black Beauty, and Gold Rush, and (2) the BG type, which were expressed in Black Beauty and Gold Rush. Expression of these CpZFP genes in transgenic tobacco plants carrying an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-based inducible gene expression system significantly induced β-glucuronidase activity when the plants were treated with a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compound, indicating that highly hydrophobic PCBs accumulated in the plants. In transgenic tobacco plants carrying CpZFPs, accumulation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds increased in their aerial parts when they were cultivated in the dioxin-contaminated soil. In summary, we propose that addition of CpZFP genes is a promising tool for conferring noncucurbits with the ability to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants. PMID:25532761

  14. Lyar, a cell growth-regulating zinc finger protein, was identified to be associated with cytoplasmic ribosomes in male germ and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Kahori; Sugihara, Yoshihiko; Oshima, Kenzi; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Nadano, Daita

    2014-10-01

    Translational control is a basic mechanism for gene regulation in cells and important for tissue growth and development in mammals. Deregulation of the mechanism thus causes diseases such as cancer. Considering the importance of the ribosome as a factory of polypeptide synthesis, some new factors have been expected to be associated with the ribosome and involved in translational control. Our proteomic survey for these factors identified a zinc finger protein, Lyar, in cytoplasmic ribosomes of the rodent testis. Subcellular fractionation of the testis provided data supporting association of Lyar with ribosomes. Lyar was then suggested to be included in the 60S large subunit, but not in polysomes, by ultracentrifugation of testicular ribosomes. While analysis of tissue distribution of Lyar has indicated its testis-predominant expression, Lyar mRNA was expressed in the cancer cells originated from tissues other than testis, and Lyar promoted proliferation of NIH-3T3 cells. Furthermore, translation was increased by Lyar in vitro, pointing out the first experimental link between this protein and translation. Taken together, Lyar seems to be a new player in translational control and a potential target for cancer therapy.

  15. Activation of the ustilagic acid biosynthesis gene cluster in Ustilago maydis by the C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor Rua1.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Beate; Liu, Lidan; Schink, Kay Oliver; Bölker, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The phytopathogenic basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis secretes, under conditions of nitrogen starvation, large amounts of the biosurfactant ustilagic acid (UA). This secreted cellobiose glycolipid is toxic for many microorganisms and confers biocontrol activity to U. maydis. Recently, a large gene cluster that is responsible for UA biosynthesis was identified. Here, we show that expression of all cluster genes depends on Rua1, a nuclear protein of the C(2)H(2) zinc finger family, whose gene is located within the gene cluster. While deletion of rua1 results in complete loss of UA production, overexpression of rua1 promotes increased UA synthesis even in the presence of a good nitrogen source. Bioinformatic analysis allowed us to identify a conserved sequence element that is present in the promoters of all structural genes involved in UA biosynthesis. Deletion analysis of several promoters within the cluster revealed that this DNA element serves as an upstream activating sequence (UAS) and mediates Rua1-dependent expression. We used the yeast one-hybrid system to demonstrate specific recognition of this DNA element by Rua1. Introduction of nucleotide exchanges into the consensus sequence interfered with Rua1-dependent activation, suggesting that this sequence element acts as a direct binding site for Rua1. PMID:20173069

  16. Phylogenic analysis revealed an expanded C₂H₂-homeobox subfamily and expression profiles of C₂H₂ zinc finger gene family in Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Dianguang; Wang, Yonglin; Deng, Chenglin; Hu, Ruowen; Tian, Chengming

    2015-05-15

    C2H2 zinc finger (CZF) proteins are a major class of transcription factors that play crucial roles in fungal growth, development, various stress responses, and virulence. Little genome-wide data is available regarding the roles of CZF proteins in Verticillium dahliae, a destructive pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in more than 200 plant species. We identified a total of 79 typical CZF genes in V. dahliae. Comparative analysis revealed that four plant pathogenic fungi, V. dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Magnaporthe oryzae, and Botrytis cinerea, have comparable numbers of predicted CZF genes with similar characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis identified a C2H2-homeobox subfamily in V. dahliae containing seven genes with similar gene structures. V. dahliae and F. oxysporum (Hypocreomycetidae) have more genes of this subfamily than M. oryzae (Sordariomycetidae) and B. cinerea (Leotiomycetes). Furthermore, gene-expression analysis of the smoke tree wilt fungus V. dahliae strain XS11 using digital gene-expression profiling and RT-qPCR revealed that a number of CZF genes were differentially expressed during microsclerotia formation, nutritional starvation, and simulated in planta conditions. Furthermore, the expression profiles revealed that some CZF genes were overrepresented during multiple stages, indicating that they might play diverse roles. Our results provide useful information concerning the functions of CZF genes in microsclerotia formation, nutritional stress responses, and pathogenicity in V. dahliae, and form a basis for future functional studies of these genes.

  17. Role of Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger (PLZF) in Cell Proliferation and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21WAF/CDKN1A) Gene Repression*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Il; Kim, Min-Young; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Yun, Chae-Ok; Li, Yan; Lee, Choong-Eun; Oh, Jiyoung; Kim, Kunhong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) is a transcription repressor that was initially isolated as a fusion protein with retinoic acid receptor α. PLZF is aberrantly overexpressed in various human solid tumors, such as clear cell renal carcinoma, glioblastoma, and seminoma. PLZF causes cellular transformation of NIH3T3 cells and increases cell proliferation in several cell types. PLZF also increases tumor growth in the mouse xenograft tumor model. PLZF may stimulate cell proliferation by controlling expression of the genes of the p53 pathway (ARF, TP53, and CDKN1A). We found that PLZF can directly repress transcription of CDKN1A encoding p21, a negative regulator of cell cycle progression. PLZF binds to the proximal Sp1-binding GC-box 5/6 and the distal p53-responsive elements of the CDKN1A promoter to repress transcription. Interestingly, PLZF interacts with Sp1 or p53 and competes with Sp1 or p53. PLZF interacts with corepressors, such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylates Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 histones at the CDKN1A promoter, which indicated the involvement of the corepressor·HDACs complex in transcription repression by PLZF. Also, PLZF represses transcription of TP53 and also decreases p53 protein stability by ubiquitination. PLZF may act as a potential proto-oncoprotein in various cell types. PMID:24821727

  18. The KRAB Zinc Finger Protein Roma/Zfp157 Is a Critical Regulator of Cell-Cycle Progression and Genomic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Teresa L.F.; Guilbaud, Guillaume; Blow, J. Julian; Sale, Julian E.; Watson, Christine J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Regulation of DNA replication and cell division is essential for tissue growth and maintenance of genomic integrity and is particularly important in tissues that undergo continuous regeneration such as mammary glands. We have previously shown that disruption of the KRAB-domain zinc finger protein Roma/Zfp157 results in hyperproliferation of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) during pregnancy. Here, we delineate the mechanism by which Roma engenders this phenotype. Ablation of Roma in MECs leads to unscheduled proliferation, replication stress, DNA damage, and genomic instability. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) depleted for Roma exhibit downregulation of p21Cip1 and geminin and have accelerated replication fork velocities, which is accompanied by a high rate of mitotic errors and polyploidy. In contrast, overexpression of Roma in MECs halts cell-cycle progression, whereas siRNA-mediated p21Cip1 knockdown ameliorates, in part, this phenotype. Thus, Roma is an essential regulator of the cell cycle and is required to maintain genomic stability. PMID:27149840

  19. Generation of mastitis resistance in cows by targeting human lysozyme gene to β-casein locus using zinc-finger nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Wang, Yongsheng; Tian, Yuchen; Yu, Yuan; Gao, Mingqing; Hu, Guangdong; Su, Feng; Pan, Shaohui; Luo, Yan; Guo, Zekun; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis costs the dairy industry billions of dollars annually and is the most consequential disease of dairy cattle. Transgenic cows secreting an antimicrobial peptide demonstrated resistance to mastitis. The combination of somatic cell gene targeting and nuclear transfer provides a powerful method to produce transgenic animals. Recent studies found that a precisely placed double-strand break induced by engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) stimulated the integration of exogenous DNA stretches into a pre-determined genomic location, resulting in high-efficiency site-specific gene addition. Here, we used ZFNs to target human lysozyme (hLYZ) gene to bovine β-casein locus, resulting in hLYZ knock-in of approximately 1% of ZFN-treated bovine fetal fibroblasts (BFFs). Gene-targeted fibroblast cell clones were screened by junction PCR amplification and Southern blot analysis. Gene-targeted BFFs were used in somatic cell nuclear transfer. In vitro assays demonstrated that the milk secreted by transgenic cows had the ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus. We report the production of cloned cows carrying human lysozyme gene knock-in β-casein locus using ZFNs. Our findings open a unique avenue for the creation of transgenic cows from genetic engineering by providing a viable tool for enhancing resistance to disease and improving the health and welfare of livestock. PMID:24552841

  20. Bassoon, a novel zinc-finger CAG/glutamine-repeat protein selectively localized at the active zone of presynaptic nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    tom Dieck, S; Sanmartí-Vila, L; Langnaese, K; Richter, K; Kindler, S; Soyke, A; Wex, H; Smalla, K H; Kämpf, U; Fränzer, J T; Stumm, M; Garner, C C; Gundelfinger, E D

    1998-07-27

    The molecular architecture of the cytomatrix of presynaptic nerve terminals is poorly understood. Here we show that Bassoon, a novel protein of >400,000 Mr, is a new component of the presynaptic cytoskeleton. The murine bassoon gene maps to chromosome 9F. A comparison with the corresponding rat cDNA identified 10 exons within its protein-coding region. The Bassoon protein is predicted to contain two double-zinc fingers, several coiled-coil domains, and a stretch of polyglutamines (24 and 11 residues in rat and mouse, respectively). In some human proteins, e.g., Huntingtin, abnormal amplification of such poly-glutamine regions causes late-onset neurodegeneration. Bassoon is highly enriched in synaptic protein preparations. In cultured hippocampal neurons, Bassoon colocalizes with the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin and Piccolo, a presynaptic cytomatrix component. At the ultrastructural level, Bassoon is detected in axon terminals of hippocampal neurons where it is highly concentrated in the vicinity of the active zone. Immunogold labeling of synaptosomes revealed that Bassoon is associated with material interspersed between clear synaptic vesicles, and biochemical studies suggest a tight association with cytoskeletal structures. These data indicate that Bassoon is a strong candidate to be involved in cytomatrix organization at the site of neurotransmitter release.

  1. An RNA virus-encoded zinc-finger protein acts as a plant transcription factor and induces a regulator of cell size and proliferation in two tobacco species.

    PubMed

    Lukhovitskaya, Nina I; Solovieva, Anna D; Boddeti, Santosh K; Thaduri, Srinivas; Solovyev, Andrey G; Savenkov, Eugene I

    2013-03-01

    Plant viruses cause a variety of diseases in susceptible hosts. The disease symptoms often include leaf malformations and other developmental abnormalities, suggesting that viruses can affect plant development. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying virus interference with plant morphogenesis. Here, we show that a C-4 type zinc-finger (ZF) protein, p12, encoded by a carlavirus (chrysanthemum virus B) can induce cell proliferation, which results in hyperplasia and severe leaf malformation. We demonstrate that the p12 protein activates expression of a regulator of cell size and proliferation, designated upp-L (upregulated by p12), which encodes a transcription factor of the basic/helix-loop-helix family sufficient to cause hyperplasia. The induction of upp-L requires translocation of the p12 protein into the nucleus and ZF-dependent specific interaction with the conserved regulatory region in the upp-L promoter. Our results establish the role of the p12 protein in modulation of host cell morphogenesis. It is likely that other members of the conserved C-4 type ZF family of viral proteins instigate reprogramming of plant development by mimicking eukaryotic transcriptional activators.

  2. The novel zinc finger protein dASCIZ regulates mitosis in Drosophila via an essential role in dynein light-chain expression.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Olga; Tenis, Nora; Mitchell, Naomi; Kanno, Shin-ichiro; Yasui, Akira; Heierhorst, Jörg; Quinn, Leonie M

    2014-02-01

    The essential zinc finger protein ASCIZ (also known as ATMIN, ZNF822) plays critical roles during lung organogenesis and B cell development in mice, where it regulates the expression of dynein light chain (DYNLL1/LC8), but its functions in other species including invertebrates are largely unknown. Here we report the identification of the Drosophila ortholog of ASCIZ (dASCIZ) and show that loss of dASCIZ function leads to pronounced mitotic delays with centrosome and spindle positioning defects during development, reminiscent of impaired dynein motor functions. Interestingly, similar mitotic and developmental defects were observed upon knockdown of the DYNLL/LC8-type dynein light chain Cutup (Ctp), and dASCIZ loss-of-function phenotypes could be suppressed by ectopic Ctp expression. Consistent with a genetic function of dASCIZ upstream of Ctp, we show that loss of dASCIZ led to reduced endogenous Ctp mRNA and protein levels and dramatically reduced Ctp-LacZ reporter gene activity in vivo, indicating that dASCIZ regulates development and mitosis as a Ctp transcription factor. We speculate that the more severe mitotic defects in the absence of ASCIZ in flies compared to mice may be due to redundancy with a second, ASCIZ-independent, Dynll2 gene in mammals in contrast to a single Ctp gene in Drosophila. Altogether, our data demonstrate that ASCIZ is an evolutionary highly conserved transcriptional regulator of dynein light-chain levels and a novel regulator of mitosis in flies.

  3. Genomic footprinting of the yeast zinc finger protein Rme1p and its roles in repression of the meiotic activator IME1.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, M; Li, W; Covitz, P A; Hara, M; Shindo, H; Mitchell, A P

    1998-01-01

    The zinc finger protein Rme1p is a negative regulator of the meiotic activator IME1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Prior studies have shown that Rme1p binds in vitro to a site near nt -2030 in the IME1 upstream region, but a genomic mutation in that site has little effect on repression of IME1 . To identify Rme1p binding sites in vivo , we have examined the binding of Rme1p to genomic sites through in vivo footprinting. We show that Rme1p binds to two sites in the IME1 upstream region, near nt -1950 and -2030. Mutations in both binding sites abolish repression of chromosomal IME1 by Rme1p, whereas a mutation in either single site causes partial derepression. Therefore, both Rme1p binding sites are essential for repression of IME1 . Prior studies have shown that repression by Rme1p depends upon RGR1 and SIN4 , which specify RNA polymerase II mediator subunits that are required for normal nucleosome density. We find that RGR1 and SIN4 are not simply required for Rme1p to bind to DNA in vivo . These results suggest that Rme1p functions directly as a repressor of IME1 and that Rgr1p and Sin4p are required for DNA-bound Rme1p to exert repression. PMID:9580682

  4. Making sense of nuclear localization: A zinc-finger protein encoded by a cytoplasmically replicating plant RNA virus acts a transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Lukhovitskaya, Nina I.; Gushchin, Vladimir A.; Solovyev, Andrey G.; Savenkov, Eugene I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have uncovered numerous nucleus-localized proteins encoded by plant RNA viruses. Whereas for some of these viruses nuclear (or, more specifically, nucleolar) passage of the proteins is needed for the virus movement within the plant or suppression of host defense, the nuclear function of these proteins remains largely unknown. Recently, the situation has been clarified for one group of plant RNA viruses, the Carlaviruses. Being positive-stranded RNA viruses, carlaviruses multiply exclusively in the cytoplasm. Chrysanthemum virus B (CVB, a carlavirus) encodes a zinc-finger protein p12 targeted to the nucleus in a nuclear localization signal-dependent manner. In a recent work, we demonstrated that p12 directly interacts with chromatin and plant promoters, thus, acts as a eukaryotic transcription factor (TF) and activates expression of a host TF involved in regulation of cell size and proliferation to favor virus infection. Therefore our studies identified a novel nuclear stage of in CVB infection involving modulation of host gene expression and plant development. Whereas it is well established that any RNA virus actively replicating in the cell causes changes in the transcriptome, our study expanded this view by showing that some positive-stranded RNA viruses can directly manipulate host transcription by encoding eukaryotic TFs. PMID:23759549

  5. Identification of “safe harbor” loci in indica rice genome by harnessing the property of zinc-finger nucleases to induce DNA damage and repair

    PubMed Central

    Cantos, Christian; Francisco, Perigio; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan R.; Slamet-Loedin, Inez; Chadha-Mohanty, Prabhjit K.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) have proved to be successful tools for targeted genome manipulation in several organisms. Their main property is the induction of double-strand breaks (DSBs) at specific sites, which are further repaired through homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). However, for the appropriate integration of genes at specific chromosomal locations, proper sites for gene integration need to be identified. These regions, hereby named safe harbor loci, must be localized in non-coding regions and possess high gene expression. In the present study, three different ZFN constructs (pZFN1, pZFN2, pZFN3), harboring β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter gene, were used to identify safe harbor loci on rice chromosomes. The constructs were delivered into IR64 rice by using an improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol, based on the use of immature embryos. Gene expression was measured by histochemical GUS activity and the flanking regions were determined through thermal-asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction (TAIL PCR). Following sequencing, 28 regions were identified as putative sites for safe integration, but only one was localized in a non-coding region and also possessed high GUS expression. These findings have significant applicability to create crops with new and valuable traits, since the site can be subsequently used to stably introduce one or more genes in a targeted manner. PMID:25018764

  6. The Zinc-Finger Protein Slug Causes Desmosome Dissociation, an Initial and Necessary Step for Growth Factor–induced Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Savagner, Pierre; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Thiery, Jean Paul

    1997-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential morphogenetic process during embryonic development. It can be induced in vitro by hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), or by FGF-1 in our NBT-II cell model for EMT. We tested for a central role in EMT of a zinc-finger protein called Slug. Slug mRNA and protein levels were increased transiently in FGF-1–treated NBT-II cells. Transient or stable transfection of Slug cDNA in NBT-II cells resulted in a striking disappearance of the desmosomal markers desmoplakin and desmoglein from cell–cell contact areas, mimicking the initial steps of FGF-1 or HGF/SF- induced EMT. Stable transfectant cells expressed Slug protein and were less epithelial, with increased cell spreading and cell–cell separation in subconfluent cultures. Interestingly, NBT-II cells transfected with antisense Slug cDNA were able to resist EMT induction by FGF-1 or even HGF/SF. This antisense effect was suppressed by retransfection with Slug sense cDNA. Our results indicate that Slug induces the first phase of growth factor–induced EMT, including desmosome dissociation, cell spreading, and initiation of cell separation. Moreover, the antisense inhibition experiments suggest that Slug is also necessary for EMT. PMID:9182671

  7. Engineered zinc-finger proteins can compensate genetic haploinsufficiency by transcriptional activation of the wild-type allele: application to Willams-Beuren syndrome and supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Huang, Angela; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel; Starcher, Barry C; Huang, Yan; Sessa, William C; Niklason, Laura E; Giordano, Frank J

    2012-11-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) and supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) are genetic syndromes marked by the propensity to develop severe vascular stenoses. Vascular lesions in both syndromes are caused by haploinsufficiency of the elastin gene. We used these distinct genetic syndromes as models to evaluate the feasibility of using engineered zinc-finger protein transcription factors (ZFPs) to achieve compensatory expression of haploinsufficient genes by inducing augmented expression from the remaining wild-type allele. For complex genes with multiple splice variants, this approach could have distinct advantages over cDNA-based gene replacement strategies. Targeting the elastin gene, we show that transcriptional activation by engineered ZFPs can induce compensatory expression from the wild-type allele in the setting of classic WBS and SVAS genetic mutations, increase elastin expression in wild-type cells, induce expression of the major elastin splice variants, and recapitulate their natural stoichiometry. Further, we establish that transcriptional activation of the mutant allele in SVAS does not overcome nonsense-mediated decay, and thus ZFP-mediated transcriptional activation is not likely to induce production of a mutant protein, a crucial consideration. Finally, we show in bioengineered blood vessels that ZFP-mediated induction of elastin expression is capable of stimulating functional elastogenesis. Haploinsufficiency is a common mechanism of genetic disease. These findings have significant implications for WBS and SVAS, and establish that haploinsufficiency can be overcome by targeted transcriptional activation without inducing protein expression from the mutant allele.

  8. Zinc finger protein genes from Cucurbita pepo are promising tools for conferring non-Cucurbitaceae plants with ability to accumulate persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hideyuki; Hirota, Matashi; Goto, Junya; Yoshihara, Ryouhei; Kodama, Noriko; Matsui, Tomomi; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Eun, Heesoo

    2015-03-01

    Some cultivars of cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, and zucchini, which are members of the Cucurbitaceae family, are uniquely subject to contamination by hydrophobic pollutants such as the organohalogen insecticides DDT. However, the molecular mechanisms for the accumulation of these pollutants in cucurbits have not been determined. Here, cDNA subtraction analysis of Cucurbita pepo cultivars that are low and high accumulators of hydrophobic contaminants revealed that a gene for zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are preferentially expressed in high accumulators. The cloned CpZFP genes were classified into 2 types: (1) the PBG type, which were expressed in C. pepo cultivars Patty Green, Black Beauty, and Gold Rush, and (2) the BG type, which were expressed in Black Beauty and Gold Rush. Expression of these CpZFP genes in transgenic tobacco plants carrying an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-based inducible gene expression system significantly induced β-glucuronidase activity when the plants were treated with a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compound, indicating that highly hydrophobic PCBs accumulated in the plants. In transgenic tobacco plants carrying CpZFPs, accumulation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds increased in their aerial parts when they were cultivated in the dioxin-contaminated soil. In summary, we propose that addition of CpZFP genes is a promising tool for conferring noncucurbits with the ability to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants.

  9. Characterization of 47 Cys2 -His2 zinc finger proteins required for the development and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huijuan; Huang, Pengyun; Zhang, Lilin; Shi, Yongkai; Sun, Dandan; Yan, Yuxin; Liu, Xiaohong; Dong, Bo; Chen, Guoqing; Snyder, John Hugh; Lin, Fucheng; Lu, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    The Cys2 -His2 (C2H2) zinc finger protein family is the second-largest family of transcription factors (TFs) in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal fungus responsible for the destructive rice blast disease. However, little is known about the roles of most C2H2 TFs in the development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. The roles of 47 C2H2 genes in development and pathogenicity were investigated by gene deletion in M. oryzae. The TF-dependent genes in mycelia or appressoria were analyzed with RNA sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Forty-four C2H2 genes are involved in growth (20 genes), conidiation (28 genes), appressorium formation (four genes) and pathogenicity (22 genes) in M. oryzae. Of these, MGG_14931, named as VRF1, is required for pathogenicity, specifically controlling appressorium maturation by affecting the expression of genes related to appressorial structure and function, including melanin biosynthesis, chitin catabolism, lipid metabolism, proteolysis, transmembrane transport, and response to oxidative stress; MGG_01776, named as VRF2, is required for plant penetration and invasive growth; conidiation-related gene CON7 is required for conidial differentiation; and MoCREA, encoding a carbon catabolite repression protein, is a novel repressor of lipid catabolism when glucose obtainable in M. oryzae. This study provides many insights into the regulation of growth, asexual development, appressorium formation, and pathogenicity by C2H2 TFs in M. oryzae. PMID:27041000

  10. Arabidopsis BIRD Zinc Finger Proteins Jointly Stabilize Tissue Boundaries by Confining the Cell Fate Regulator SHORT-ROOT and Contributing to Fate Specification

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yuchen; Smet, Wouter; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Castelijns, Bas; de Jonge, Wim; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Bouchet, Benjamin P.; Perez, Gabino Sanchez; Akhmanova, Anna; Scheres, Ben; Blilou, Ikram

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells cannot rearrange their positions; therefore, sharp tissue boundaries must be accurately programmed. Movement of the cell fate regulator SHORT-ROOT from the stele to the ground tissue has been associated with transferring positional information across tissue boundaries. The zinc finger BIRD protein JACKDAW has been shown to constrain SHORT-ROOT movement to a single layer, and other BIRD family proteins were postulated to counteract JACKDAW’s role in restricting SHORT-ROOT action range. Here, we report that regulation of SHORT-ROOT movement requires additional BIRD proteins whose action is critical for the establishment and maintenance of the boundary between stele and ground tissue. We show that BIRD proteins act in concert and not in opposition. The exploitation of asymmetric redundancies allows the separation of two BIRD functions: constraining SHORT-ROOT spread through nuclear retention and transcriptional regulation of key downstream SHORT-ROOT targets, including SCARECROW and CYCLIND6. Our data indicate that BIRD proteins promote formative divisions and tissue specification in the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem ground tissue by tethering and regulating transcriptional competence of SHORT-ROOT complexes. As a result, a tissue boundary is not “locked in” after initial patterning like in many animal systems, but possesses considerable developmental plasticity due to continuous reliance on mobile transcription factors. PMID:25829440

  11. Promoter swapping between the genes for a novel zinc finger protein and beta-catenin in pleiomorphic adenomas with t(3;8)(p21;q12) translocations.

    PubMed

    Kas, K; Voz, M L; Röijer, E; Aström, A K; Meyen, E; Stenman, G; Van de Ven, W J

    1997-02-01

    Pleiomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands is a benign epithelial tumour occurring primarily in the major and minor salivary glands. It is by far the most common type of salivary gland tumour. Microscopically, pleiomorphic adenomas show a marked histological diversity with epithelial, myoepithelial and mesenchymal components in a variety of patterns. In addition to a cytogenetic subgroup with normal karyotypes, pleiomorphic adenomas are characterized by recurrent chromosome rearrangements, particularly reciprocal translocations, with breakpoints at 8q12, 3p21, and 12q13-15, in that order of frequency. The most common abnormality is a reciprocal t(3;8)(p21;q12). We here demonstrate that the t(3;8)(p21;q12) results in promoter swapping between PLAG1, a novel, developmentally regulated zinc finger gene at 8q12, and the constitutively expressed gene for beta-catenin (CTNNB1), a protein interface functioning in the WG/WNT signalling pathway and specification of cell fate during embryogenesis. Fusions occur in the 5'-non-coding regions of both genes, exchanging regulatory control elements while preserving the coding sequences. Due to the t(3;8)(p21;q12), PLAG1 is activated and expression levels of CTNNB1 are reduced. Activation of PLAG1 was also observed in an adenoma with a variant translocation t(8;15)(q12;q14). Our results indicate that PLAG1 activation due to promoter swapping is a crucial event in salivary gland tumourigenesis.

  12. Suppression of Bmp4 signaling by the zinc-finger repressors Osr1 and Osr2 is required for Wnt/β-catenin-mediated lung specification in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Scott A.; Gallas, Alyssa L.; Neto, Ana; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Zorn, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic development of the respiratory system is regulated by a series of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions that are only partially understood. Mesenchymal FGF and Wnt2/Wnt2b signaling are implicated in specification of mammalian pulmonary progenitors from the ventral foregut endoderm, but their epistatic relationship and downstream targets are largely unknown. In addition, how wnt2 and wnt2b are regulated in the developing foregut mesenchyme is unknown. We show that the Odd-skipped-related (Osr) zinc-finger transcriptional repressors Osr1 and Osr2 are redundantly required for Xenopus lung specification in a molecular pathway linking foregut pattering by FGFs to Wnt-mediated lung specification and RA-regulated lung bud growth. FGF and RA signals are required for robust osr1 and osr2 expression in the foregut endoderm and surrounding lateral plate mesoderm (lpm) prior to respiratory specification. Depletion of both Osr1 and Osr2 (Osr1/Osr2) results in agenesis of the lungs, trachea and esophagus. The foregut lpm of Osr1/Osr2-depleted embryos fails to express wnt2, wnt2b and raldh2, and consequently Nkx2.1+ progenitors are not specified. Our data suggest that Osr1/Osr2 normally repress bmp4 expression in the lpm, and that BMP signaling negatively regulates the wnt2b domain. These results significantly advance our understanding of early lung development and may impact strategies to differentiate respiratory tissue from stem cells. PMID:22791896

  13. The Arabidopsis a zinc finger domain protein ARS1 is essential for seed germination and ROS homeostasis in response to ABA and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Dongwon; Cha, Joon-Yung; Kang, Songhwa; Park, Bokyung; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Hong, Hyewon; Chun, Hyun Jin; Kim, Doh Hoon; Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Sang Yeol; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can disrupt seed dormancy and plant development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant called ars1 (aba and ros sensitive 1) that showed hypersensitivity to ABA during seed germination and to methyl viologen (MV) at the seedling stage. ARS1 encodes a nuclear protein with one zinc finger domain, two nuclear localization signal (NLS) domains, and one nuclear export signal (NES). The ars1 mutants showed reduced expression of a gene for superoxide dismutase (CSD3) and enhanced accumulation of ROS after ABA treatment. Transient expression of ARS1 in Arabidopsis protoplasts strongly suppressed ABA-mediated ROS production. Interestingly, nuclear-localized ARS1 translocated to the cytoplasm in response to treatment with ABA, H2O2, or MV. Taken together, these results suggest that ARS1 modulates seed germination and ROS homeostasis in response to ABA and oxidative stress in plants. PMID:26583028

  14. Structures of three members of Pfam PF02663 (FmdE) implicated in microbial methanogenesis reveal a conserved α+β core domain and an auxiliary C-terminal treble-clef zinc finger

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Herbert L.; Das, Debanu; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W.; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Examination of the genomic context for members of the FmdE Pfam family (PF02663), such as the protein encoded by the fmdE gene from the methanogenic archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, indicates that 13 of them are co-transcribed with genes encoding subunits of molybdenum formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.99.5), an enzyme that is involved in microbial methane production. Here, the first crystal structures from PF02663 are described, representing two bacterial and one archaeal species: B8FYU2_DESHY from the anaerobic dehalogenating bacterium Desulfito­bacterium hafniense DCB-2, Q2LQ23_SYNAS from the syntrophic bacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus SB and Q9HJ63_THEAC from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum. Two of these proteins, Q9HJ63_THEAC and Q2LQ23_SYNAS, contain two domains: an N-terminal thioredoxin-like α+β core domain (NTD) consisting of a five-stranded, mixed β-sheet flanked by several α-helices and a C-terminal zinc-finger domain (CTD). B8FYU2_DESHY, on the other hand, is composed solely of the NTD. The CTD of Q9HJ63_THEAC and Q2LQ23_SYNAS is best characterized as a treble-clef zinc finger. Two significant structural differences between Q9HJ63_THEAC and Q2LQ23_SYNAS involve their metal binding. First, zinc is bound to the putative active site on the NTD of Q9HJ63_THEAC, but is absent from the NTD of Q2LQ23_SYNAS. Second, whereas the structure of the CTD of Q2LQ23_SYNAS shows four Cys side chains within coordination distance of the Zn atom, the structure of Q9HJ63_THEAC is atypical for a treble-cleft zinc finger in that three Cys side chains and an Asp side chain are within coordination distance of the zinc. PMID:20944230

  15. Zinc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc was recognized as an essential trace metal for humans during the studies of Iranian adolescent dwarfs in the early 1960s. Zinc metal existing as Zn2+ is a strong electron acceptor in biological systems without risks of oxidant damage to cells. Zn2+ functions in the structure of proteins and is ...

  16. Finger pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - finger ... Nearly everyone has had finger pain at some time. You may have: Tenderness Burning Stiffness Numbness Tingling Coldness Swelling Change in skin color Redness Many conditions, such ...

  17. Zinc- and sequence-dependent binding to nucleic acids by the N-terminal zinc finger of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein: NMR structure of the complex with the Psi-site analog, dACGCC.

    PubMed

    South, T L; Summers, M F

    1993-01-01

    The nucleic acid interactive properties of a synthetic peptide with sequence of the N-terminal CCHC zinc finger (CCHC = Cys-X2-Cys-X4-His-X4-Cys; X = variable amino acid) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nucleocapsid protein, Zn(HIV1-F1), have been studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Titration of Zn(HIV1-F1) with oligodeoxyribonucleic acids containing different nucleotide sequences reveals, for the first time, sequence-dependent binding that requires the presence of at least one guanosine residue for tight complex formation. The dynamics of complex formation are sensitive to the nature of the residues adjacent to guanosine, with residues on the 3' side of guanosine having the largest influence. An oligodeoxyribonucleotide with sequence corresponding to a portion of the HIV-1 psi-packaging signal, d(ACGCC), forms a relatively tight complex with Zn(HIV1-F1) (Kd = 5 x 10(-6) M). Two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) data indicate that the bound nucleic acid exists predominantly in a single-stranded, A-helical conformation, and the presence of more than a dozen intermolecular NOE cross peaks enabled three-dimensional modeling of the complex. The nucleic acid binds within a hydrophobic cleft on the peptide surface. This hydrophobic cleft is defined by the side chains of residues Val1, Phe4, Ile12, and Ala13. Backbone amide protons of Phe4 and Ala13 and the backbone carbonyl oxygen of Lys2 that lie within this cleft appear to form hydrogen bonds with the guanosine O6 and N1H atoms, respectively. In addition, the positively charged side chain of Arg14 is ideally positioned for electrostatic interactions with the phosphodiester backbone of the nucleic acid. The structural findings provide a rationalization for the general conservation of these hydrophobic and basic residues in CCHC zinc fingers, and are consistent with site-directed mutagenesis results that implicate these residues as direct participants in viral genome recognition.

  18. Electronic Characterization of Defects in Narrow Gap Semiconductors-Comparison of Electronic Energy Levels and Formation Energies in Mercury Cadmium Telluride, Mercury Zinc Telluride, and Mercury Zinc Selenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.

    1996-01-01

    We have used a Green's function technique to calculate the energy levels and formation energy of deep defects in the narrow gap semiconductors mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT) and mercury zinc selenide (MZS). The formation energy is calculated from the difference between the total energy with an impurity cluster and the total energy for the perfect crystal. Substitutional (including antisite), interstitial (self and foreign), and vacancy deep defects are considered. Relaxation effects are calculated (with molecular dynamics). By use of a pseudopotential, we generalize the ideal vacancy model so as to be able to consider relaxation for vacancies. Different charge states are considered and the charged state energy shift (as computed by a modified Haldane-Anderson model) can be twice that due to relaxation. Different charged states for vacancies were not calculated to have much effect on the formation energy. For all cases we find deep defects in the energy gap only for cation site s-like orbitals or anion site p-like orbitals, and for the substitutional case only the latter are appreciably effected by relaxation. For most cases for MCT, MZT, MZS, we consider x (the concentration of Cd or Zn) in the range appropriate for a band gap of 0.1 eV. For defect energy levels, the absolute accuracy of our results is limited, but the precision is good, and hence chemical trends are accurately predicted. For the same reason, defect formation energies are more accurately predicted than energy level position. We attempt, in Appendix B, to calculate vacancy formation energies using relatively simple chemical bonding ideas due to Harrison. However, these results are only marginally accurate for estimating vacancy binding energies. Appendix C lists all written reports and publications produced for the grant. We include abstracts and a complete paper that summarizes our work which is not yet available.

  19. ZIP4 Regulates Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth by Activating IL-6/STAT3 Pathway via Zinc Finger Transcription Factor CREB

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqing; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Logsdon, Craig D.; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Li, Min

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies indicate a strong correlation of zinc transporter ZIP4 and pancreatic cancer progression; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We have recently found that ZIP4 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway through which ZIP4 regulates pancreatic cancer growth. Experimental Design The expression of cyclin D1, IL-6, and STAT3 in pancreatic cancer xenografts and cells were examined by real time PCR, Bio-Plex cytokine assay, and Western blot, respectively. The activity of CREB is examined by a promoter activity assay. Results Cyclin D1 was significantly increased in the ZIP4 overexpressing MIA PaCa-2 cells (MIA-ZIP4)-injected orthotopic xenografts and was downregulated in the ZIP4 silenced ASPC-1 (ASPC-shZIP4) group. The phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an upstream activator of cyclin D1, was increased in MIA-ZIP4 cells, and decreased in ASPC-shZIP4 cells. IL-6, a known upstream activator for STAT3, was also found to be significantly increased in the MIA-ZIP4 cells and xenografts, and decreased in the ASPC-shZIP4 group. Overexpression of ZIP4 led to a 75% increase of IL-6 promoter activity, and caused increased phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Conclusions Our study suggest that ZIP4 overexpression causes increased IL-6 transcription via CREB, which in turn activates STAT3, and leads to increased cyclin D1 expression, resulting in increased cell proliferation and tumor progression in pancreatic cancer. These results elucidated a novel pathway in ZIP4-mediated pancreatic cancer growth, and suggest new therapeutic targets including ZIP4, IL-6, and STAT3 in pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:20160059

  20. Zinc

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency also causes hair loss, diarrhea, eye and skin sores and loss of appetite. Weight loss, problems ... pneumonia and other infections. Zinc also helps the skin stay healthy. Some people who have skin ulcers ...

  1. Editing of the Luteinizing Hormone Gene to Sterilize Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Using a Modified Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology with Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhenkui; Li, Yun; Su, Baofeng; Cheng, Qi; Ye, Zhi; Perera, Dayan A; Fobes, Michael; Shang, Mei; Dunham, Rex A

    2016-04-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the most important freshwater aquaculture species in the USA. Genetically enhanced fish that are sterile could both profit the catfish industry and reduce potential environmental and ecological risks. As the first step to generate sterile channel catfish, three sets of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) plasmids targeting the luteinizing hormone (LH) gene were designed and electroporated into one-cell embryos, different concentrations were introduced, and the Cel-I assay was conducted to detect mutations. Channel catfish carrying the mutated LH gene were sterile, as confirmed by DNA sequencing and mating experiments. The overall mutation rate was 19.7 % for 66 channel catfish, and the best treatment was ZFN set 1 at the concentration 25 μg/ml. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of gene editing of fish via plasmid introduction instead of mRNA microinjection. The introduction of the ZFN plasmids may have reduced mosaicism, as mutated individuals were gene edited in every tissue evaluated. Apparently, the plasmids were eventually degraded without integration, as they were not detectable in mutated individuals using PCR. Carp pituitary extract failed to induce spawning and restoration of fertility, indicating the need for developing other hormone therapies to achieve reversal of sterility upon demand. This is the first sterilization achieved using ZFN technology in an aquaculture species and the first successful gene editing of channel catfish. Our results will help understand the roles of the LH gene, purposeful sterilization of teleost fishes, and is a step towards control of domestic, hybrid, exotic, invasive, and transgenic fishes. PMID:26846523

  2. Wheat zinc finger protein TaLSD1, a negative regulator of programmed cell death, is involved in wheat resistance against stripe rust fungus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Bai, Pengfei; Yang, Qian; Liu, Furong; Wang, Xiaodong; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2013-10-01

    Genetic characterization of the Arabidopsis lesion simulating disease 1 (lsd1) mutant, a lesion mimic mutant (LMM), has revealed the essential role of AtLSD1 in the negative regulation of cell death and disease resistance. The three zinc-finger motifs found in AtLSD1 revealed a novel plant-specific gene family, whose members are significantly related to programmed cell death (PCD). In this study, we characterized a functional homologue to AtLSD1, TaLSD1, in the wheat-stripe rust fungus pathosystem. The expression of TaLSD1 was differentially induced during incompatible and compatible interactions between wheat and Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) and was up-regulated by oxidative stress generated by methyl viologen (MV). TaLSD1 was found to be predominately localized in the nucleus of onion epidermal cell. Transient overexpression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrated that TaLSD1 partially inhibited programmed cell death triggered by a mouse Bax protein, whereas expression of TaLSD1 alone had no influence on the phenotype of tobacco. Knocking down the expression of TaLSD1 through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) increased wheat resistance against Pst accompanied by an enhanced hypersensitive response (HR), an increase in PR1 gene expression and a reduction in Pst hyphal growth. Our results suggest that TaLSD1 functions negatively in regulating the plant hypersensitive cell death and is involved in disease resistance of wheat against the stripe rust pathogen.

  3. The Arabidopsis C2H2 Zinc Finger INDETERMINATE DOMAIN1/ENHYDROUS Promotes the Transition to Germination by Regulating Light and Hormonal Signaling during Seed Maturation[W

    PubMed Central

    Feurtado, J. Allan; Huang, Daiqing; Wicki-Stordeur, Leigh; Hemstock, Laura E.; Potentier, Mireille S.; Tsang, Edward W.T.; Cutler, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    Seed development ends with a maturation phase that imparts desiccation tolerance, nutrient reserves, and dormancy degree. Here, we report the functional analysis of an Arabidopsis thaliana C2H2 zinc finger protein INDETERMINATE DOMAIN1 (IDD1)/ENHYDROUS (ENY). Ectopic expression of IDD1/ENY (2x35S:ENY) disrupted seed development, delaying endosperm depletion and testa senescence, resulting in an abbreviated maturation program. Consequently, mature 2x35S:ENY seeds had increased endosperm-specific fatty acids, starch retention, and defective mucilage extrusion. Using RAB18 promoter ENY lines (RAB18:ENY) to confine expression to maturation, when native ENY expression increased and peaked, resulted in mature seed with lower abscisic acid (ABA) content and decreased germination sensitivity to applied ABA. Furthermore, results of far-red and red light treatments of 2x35S:ENY and RAB18:ENY germinating seeds, and of artificial microRNA knockdown lines, suggest that ENY acts to promote germination. After using RAB18:ENY seedlings to induce ENY during ABA application, key genes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism and signaling were differentially regulated in a manner suggesting negative feedback regulation. Furthermore, GA treatment resulted in a skotomorphogenic-like phenotype in light-grown 2x35S:ENY and RAB18:ENY seedlings. The physical interaction of ENY with DELLAs and an ENY-triggered accumulation of DELLA transcripts during maturation support the conclusion that ENY mediates GA effects to balance ABA-promoted maturation during late seed development. PMID:21571950

  4. ZINC FINGER OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA12 (ZAT12) Interacts with FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT) Linking Iron Deficiency and Oxidative Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Le, Cham Thi Tuyet; Brumbarova, Tzvetina; Ivanov, Rumen; Stoof, Claudia; Weber, Eva; Mohrbacher, Julia; Fink-Straube, Claudia; Bauer, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Plants grown under iron (Fe)-deficient conditions induce a set of genes that enhance the efficiency of Fe uptake by the roots. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the central regulator of this response is the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT). FIT activity is regulated by protein-protein interactions, which also serve to integrate external signals that stimulate and possibly inhibit Fe uptake. In the search of signaling components regulating FIT function, we identified ZINC FINGER OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA12 (ZAT12), an abiotic stress-induced transcription factor. ZAT12 interacted with FIT, dependent on the presence of the ethylene-responsive element-binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression motif. ZAT12 protein was found expressed in the root early differentiation zone, where its abundance was modulated in a root layer-specific manner. In the absence of ZAT12, FIT expression was upregulated, suggesting a negative effect of ZAT12 on Fe uptake. Consistently, zat12 loss-of-function mutants had higher Fe content than the wild type at sufficient Fe. We found that under Fe deficiency, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were enhanced in a FIT-dependent manner. FIT protein, in turn, was stabilized by H2O2 but only in the presence of ZAT12, showing that H2O2 serves as a signal for Fe deficiency responses. We propose that oxidative stress-induced ZAT12 functions as a negative regulator of Fe acquisition. A model where H2O2 mediates the negative regulation of plant responses to prolonged stress might be applicable to a variety of stress conditions. PMID:26556796

  5. The BTB-zinc Finger Transcription Factor Abrupt Acts as an Epithelial Oncogene in Drosophila melanogaster through Maintaining a Progenitor-like Cell State

    PubMed Central

    Turkel, Nezaket; Sahota, Virender K.; Bolden, Jessica E.; Goulding, Karen R.; Doggett, Karen; Willoughby, Lee F.; Blanco, Enrique; Martin-Blanco, Enrique; Corominas, Montserrat; Ellul, Jason; Aigaki, Toshiro; Richardson, Helena E.; Brumby, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of tumour cells to maintain continual overgrowth potential has been linked to the commandeering of normal self-renewal pathways. Using an epithelial cancer model in Drosophila melanogaster, we carried out an overexpression screen for oncogenes capable of cooperating with the loss of the epithelial apico-basal cell polarity regulator, scribbled (scrib), and identified the cell fate regulator, Abrupt, a BTB-zinc finger protein. Abrupt overexpression alone is insufficient to transform cells, but in cooperation with scrib loss of function, Abrupt promotes the formation of massive tumours in the eye/antennal disc. The steroid hormone receptor coactivator, Taiman (a homologue of SRC3/AIB1), is known to associate with Abrupt, and Taiman overexpression also drives tumour formation in cooperation with the loss of Scrib. Expression arrays and ChIP-Seq indicates that Abrupt overexpression represses a large number of genes, including steroid hormone-response genes and multiple cell fate regulators, thereby maintaining cells within an epithelial progenitor-like state. The progenitor-like state is characterised by the failure to express the conserved Eyes absent/Dachshund regulatory complex in the eye disc, and in the antennal disc by the failure to express cell fate regulators that define the temporal elaboration of the appendage along the proximo-distal axis downstream of Distalless. Loss of scrib promotes cooperation with Abrupt through impaired Hippo signalling, which is required and sufficient for cooperative overgrowth with Abrupt, and JNK (Jun kinase) signalling, which is required for tumour cell migration/invasion but not overgrowth. These results thus identify a novel cooperating oncogene, identify mammalian family members of which are also known oncogenes, and demonstrate that epithelial tumours in Drosophila can be characterised by the maintenance of a progenitor-like state. PMID:23874226

  6. In situ genetic correction of the sickle cell anemia mutation in human induced pluripotent stem cells using engineered zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Sebastiano, Vittorio; Maeder, Morgan L; Angstman, James F; Haddad, Bahareh; Khayter, Cyd; Yeo, Dana T; Goodwin, Mathew J; Hawkins, John S; Ramirez, Cherie L; Batista, Luis F Z; Artandi, Steven E; Wernig, Marius; Joung, J Keith

    2011-11-01

    The combination of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology and targeted gene modification by homologous recombination (HR) represents a promising new approach to generate genetically corrected, patient-derived cells that could be used for autologous transplantation therapies. This strategy has several potential advantages over conventional gene therapy including eliminating the need for immunosuppression, avoiding the risk of insertional mutagenesis by therapeutic vectors, and maintaining expression of the corrected gene by endogenous control elements rather than a constitutive promoter. However, gene targeting in human pluripotent cells has remained challenging and inefficient. Recently, engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) have been shown to substantially increase HR frequencies in human iPSCs, raising the prospect of using this technology to correct disease causing mutations. Here, we describe the generation of iPSC lines from sickle cell anemia patients and in situ correction of the disease causing mutation using three ZFN pairs made by the publicly available oligomerized pool engineering method (OPEN). Gene-corrected cells retained full pluripotency and a normal karyotype following removal of reprogramming factor and drug-resistance genes. By testing various conditions, we also demonstrated that HR events in human iPSCs can occur as far as 82 bps from a ZFN-induced break. Our approach delineates a roadmap for using ZFNs made by an open-source method to achieve efficient, transgene-free correction of monogenic disease mutations in patient-derived iPSCs. Our results provide an important proof of principle that ZFNs can be used to produce gene-corrected human iPSCs that could be used for therapeutic applications.

  7. Hormone-induced progesterone receptor phosphorylation consists of sequential DNA-independent and DNA-dependent stages: analysis with zinc finger mutants and the progesterone antagonist ZK98299.

    PubMed Central

    Takimoto, G S; Tasset, D M; Eppert, A C; Horwitz, K B

    1992-01-01

    Human progesterone receptors (hPRs) are phosphorylated at multiple serine residues, first in a basal step and then in a hormone-induced step. To determine whether hormone-induced phosphorylation precedes or follows the interaction of hPRs with DNA two strategies were used. (i) DNA binding was prevented or altered with site-specific mutants of the A form of hPR; (ii) DNA binding of wild-type hPR forms A and B was prevented with the progesterone antagonist ZK98299. Two hPRA mutants were constructed: DBDCys, which lacks a critical cysteine residue in the first zinc finger, and DBDsp, which is mutated at three discriminatory amino acids to change its DNA binding specificity from a progesterone response element to an estrogen response element. Receptors were transiently expressed in PR-negative cells and were intranuclear. DBDCys did not bind DNA in vitro and DBDsp bound only the estrogen response element. Transiently expressed hPRA and DBDsp showed the upward shift in electrophoretic mobility characteristic of hormone-induced phosphorylation; it was absent with DBDCys. Hormone-induced [32P] orthophosphate incorporation into transiently expressed DBDCys was reduced 60% compared to hPRA and DBDsp but was not eliminated. ZK98299 binds hPRs but prevents their interaction with DNA. Compared to R5020, the antagonist reduced phosphorylation of hPRB and hPRA in T47D breast cancer cells by 60% and totally prevented the mobility shift. We conclude that the hormone-induced phosphorylation of hPR includes DNA-independent and DNA-dependent stages and that only DNA-dependent sites contribute to the mobility shift. Images PMID:1557412

  8. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (ΔQDR3 and ΔIKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ΔQDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae.

  9. Diversity of Prdm9 Zinc Finger Array in Wild Mice Unravels New Facets of the Evolutionary Turnover of this Coding Minisatellite

    PubMed Central

    Buard, Jérôme; Rivals, Eric; Dunoyer de Segonzac, Denis; Garres, Charlotte; Caminade, Pierre; de Massy, Bernard; Boursot, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In humans and mice, meiotic recombination events cluster into narrow hotspots whose genomic positions are defined by the PRDM9 protein via its DNA binding domain constituted of an array of zinc fingers (ZnFs). High polymorphism and rapid divergence of the Prdm9 gene ZnF domain appear to involve positive selection at DNA-recognition amino-acid positions, but the nature of the underlying evolutionary pressures remains a puzzle. Here we explore the variability of the Prdm9 ZnF array in wild mice, and uncovered a high allelic diversity of both ZnF copy number and identity with the caracterization of 113 alleles. We analyze features of the diversity of ZnF identity which is mostly due to non-synonymous changes at codons −1, 3 and 6 of each ZnF, corresponding to amino-acids involved in DNA binding. Using methods adapted to the minisatellite structure of the ZnF array, we infer a phylogenetic tree of these alleles. We find the sister species Mus spicilegus and M. macedonicus as well as the three house mouse (Mus musculus) subspecies to be polyphyletic. However some sublineages have expanded independently in Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, the latter further showing phylogeographic substructure. Compared to random genomic regions and non-coding minisatellites, none of these patterns appears exceptional. In silico prediction of DNA binding sites for each allele, overlap of their alignments to the genome and relative coverage of the different families of interspersed repeated elements suggest a large diversity between PRDM9 variants with a potential for highly divergent distributions of recombination events in the genome with little correlation to evolutionary distance. By compiling PRDM9 ZnF protein sequences in Primates, Muridae and Equids, we find different diversity patterns among the three amino-acids most critical for the DNA-recognition function, suggesting different diversification timescales. PMID:24454780

  10. Diversity of Prdm9 zinc finger array in wild mice unravels new facets of the evolutionary turnover of this coding minisatellite.

    PubMed

    Buard, Jérôme; Rivals, Eric; Dunoyer de Segonzac, Denis; Garres, Charlotte; Caminade, Pierre; de Massy, Bernard; Boursot, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In humans and mice, meiotic recombination events cluster into narrow hotspots whose genomic positions are defined by the PRDM9 protein via its DNA binding domain constituted of an array of zinc fingers (ZnFs). High polymorphism and rapid divergence of the Prdm9 gene ZnF domain appear to involve positive selection at DNA-recognition amino-acid positions, but the nature of the underlying evolutionary pressures remains a puzzle. Here we explore the variability of the Prdm9 ZnF array in wild mice, and uncovered a high allelic diversity of both ZnF copy number and identity with the caracterization of 113 alleles. We analyze features of the diversity of ZnF identity which is mostly due to non-synonymous changes at codons -1, 3 and 6 of each ZnF, corresponding to amino-acids involved in DNA binding. Using methods adapted to the minisatellite structure of the ZnF array, we infer a phylogenetic tree of these alleles. We find the sister species Mus spicilegus and M. macedonicus as well as the three house mouse (Mus musculus) subspecies to be polyphyletic. However some sublineages have expanded independently in Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, the latter further showing phylogeographic substructure. Compared to random genomic regions and non-coding minisatellites, none of these patterns appears exceptional. In silico prediction of DNA binding sites for each allele, overlap of their alignments to the genome and relative coverage of the different families of interspersed repeated elements suggest a large diversity between PRDM9 variants with a potential for highly divergent distributions of recombination events in the genome with little correlation to evolutionary distance. By compiling PRDM9 ZnF protein sequences in Primates, Muridae and Equids, we find different diversity patterns among the three amino-acids most critical for the DNA-recognition function, suggesting different diversification timescales.

  11. Cytotoxic Effects during Knock Out of Multiple Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus (PERV) Sequences in the Pig Genome by Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFN).

    PubMed

    Semaan, Marwan; Ivanusic, Daniel; Denner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Xenotransplantation has been proposed as a solution to the shortage of suitable human donors for transplantation and pigs are currently favoured as donor animals. However, xenotransplantation may be associated with the transmission of zoonotic microorganisms. Whereas most porcine microorganisms representing a risk for the human recipient may be eliminated by designated pathogen free breeding, multiple copies of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) are integrated in the genome of all pigs and cannot be eliminated this way. PERVs are released as infectious particles and infect human cells. The zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology allows knocking out specifically cellular genes, however it was not yet used to eliminate multiple integrated proviral sequences with a strong conservation in the target sequence. To reduce the risk of horizontal PERV transmission and to knock out as many as possible proviruses, for the first time the powerful tool of the ZFN technology was used. ZFN were designed to bind specifically to sequences conserved in all known replication-competent proviruses. Expression and transport of the ZFN into the nucleus was shown by Western blot analysis, co-localisation analysis, PLA and FRET. Survival of transfected cells was analysed using fluorescent ZFN and cell counting. After transfection a strong expression of the ZFN proteins and a co-localisation of the expressed ZFN proteins were shown. However, expression of the ZFN was found to be extremely toxic for the transfected cells. The induced cytotoxicity was likely due to the specific cutting of the high copy number of the PERV proviruses, which is also commonly observed when ZFN with low specificity cleave numerous off-target sites in a genome. This is the first attempt to knock out multiple, nearly identical, genes in a cellular genome using ZFN. The attempt failed, and other strategies should be used to prevent PERV transmission.

  12. The Brain-Specific Neural Zinc Finger Transcription Factor 2b (NZF-2b/7ZFMyt1) Suppresses Cocaine Self-Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Vijay; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    Brain-specific neural-zinc-finger transcription factor-2b (NZF2b/7ZFMyt1) is induced in the mesolimbic dopaminergic region after chronic cocaine exposure and lentiviral-mediated expression of NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 in the nucleus accumbens results in decreased locomotor activity (Chandrasekar and Dreyer, 2010). In this study the role of NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 in active cocaine seeking and of its interaction with histone deacetylase on the altered behavior has been observed. Localized expression of NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 in the nucleus accumbens resulted in attenuated cocaine self-administration, whereas silencing this transcription factor with lentiviruses expressing siRNAs increased the animal′s motivation to self-infuse cocaine. Low doses of sodium butyrate, a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylase, were sufficient to reverse the NZF2b/7ZFMyt1-mediated decrease in cocaine self-administration. NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 expression resulted in strong induction of transcription factors REST1 and NAC1 and of the dopamine D2 receptor, with concomitant inhibition of BDNF and its receptor TrkB. We show that NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 colocalizes with histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2), probably overcoming the suppression of transcriptional activity caused by Lingo1. These findings show that molecular adaptations mediated by NZF2b/7ZFMyt1 expression possibly lead to decreased responsiveness to the reinforcing properties of cocaine and play a prominent role in affecting the behavioral changes induced by the drug. PMID:20407577

  13. Tuberculate fruit gene Tu encodes a C2 H2 zinc finger protein that is required for the warty fruit phenotype in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuqin; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Huanle; Nie, Jingtao; Bie, Beibei; Zhao, Junlong; Ren, Guoliang; Li, Yue; Zhang, Dabing; Pan, Junsong; Cai, Run

    2014-06-01

    Cucumber fruits that have tubercules and spines (trichomes) are known to possess a warty (Wty) phenotype. In this study, the tuberculate fruit gene Tu was identified by map-based cloning, and was found to encode a transcription factor (TF) with a single C2 H2 zinc finger domain. Tu was identified in all 38 Wty lines examined, and was completely absent from all 56 non-warty (nWty) lines. Cucumber plants transgenic for Tu (TCP) revealed that Tu was required for the Wty fruit phenotype. Subcellular localization showed that the fusion protein GFP-Tu was localized mainly to the nucleus. Based on analyses of semi-quantitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and mRNA in situ hybridization, we found that Tu was expressed specifically in fruit spine cells during development of fruit tubercules. Moreover, cytokinin (CTK) content measurements and cytological observations in Wty and nWty fruits revealed that the Wty fruit phenotype correlated with high endogenous CTK concentrations. As a result of further analyses on the transcriptomic profile of the nWty fruit epidermis and TCP fruit warts, expression of CTK-associated genes, and hormone content in nWty fruit epidermis, Wty fruit warts and epidermis, and TCP fruit warts and epidermis, we found that Tu probably promoted CTK biosynthesis in fruit warts. Here we show that Tu could not be expressed in the glabrous and tubercule-free mutant line gl that contained Tu, this result that futher confirmed the epistatic effect of the trichome (spine) gene Gl over Tu. Taken together, these data led us to propose a genetic pathway for the Wty fruit trait that could guide future mechanistic studies.

  14. Zinc-Finger Protein 545 Inhibits Cell Proliferation as a Tumor Suppressor through Inducing Apoptosis and is Disrupted by Promoter Methylation in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xinrong; Li, Chunhong; Li, Qianqian; Peng, Weiyan; Li, Lili; Li, Shuman; Wang, Zhenyu; Tang, Liping; Ren, Guosheng; Tao, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Krüppel-associated box-containing zinc finger proteins (KRAP-ZFPs) are well recognized as key regulators of transcription, which play a crucial role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. We previously identified a KRAP-ZFP protein ZNF545 acting as a tumor suppressor involved in tumor pathogenesis. However, its expression and biological function in breast cancer remain elusive. In this study, we found that ZNF545 was frequently downregulated in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2−) breast tumor tissues compared with paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. We further examined its expression and methylation in breast cancer cell lines by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and methylation-specific PCR. We found that ZNF545 was silenced by promoter methylation in MCF7 cell line, and its expression could be restored by demethylation, concomitant with increased unmethylated alleles. ZNF545 methylation was detected in 29% of breast tumor tissues, but not in normal breast tissues, suggesting tumor-specific methylation of ZNF545 in breast cancer. Ectopic expression of ZNF545 in MCF7 cells inhibited cell proliferation through inducing cell cycle G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis, thus as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, ZNF545 upregulated mRNA and protein levels of c-Jun/AP1, BAX, p53 and Caspase 3. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ZNF545 inhibits breast tumor cell proliferation through inducing apoptosis and is disrupted by promoter methylation in breast cancer. PMID:25360542

  15. TaCHP: a wheat zinc finger protein gene down-regulated by abscisic acid and salinity stress plays a positive role in stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiling; Lv, Jian; Zhao, Xin; Ai, Xinghui; Zhu, Xinlei; Wang, Mengcheng; Zhao, Shuangyi; Xia, Guangmin

    2010-09-01

    The plant response to abiotic stresses involves both abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways. Here we describe TaCHP, a CHP-rich (for cysteine, histidine, and proline rich) zinc finger protein family gene extracted from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), is differentially expressed during abiotic stress between the salinity-sensitive cultivar Jinan 177 and its tolerant somatic hybrid introgression cultivar Shanrong No.3. TaCHP expressed in the roots of seedlings at the three-leaf stage, and the transcript localized within the cells of the root tip cortex and meristem. TaCHP transcript abundance was higher in Shanrong No.3 than in Jinan 177, but was reduced by the imposition of salinity or drought stress, as well as by the exogenous supply of ABA. When JN17, a salinity hypersensitive wheat cultivar, was engineered to overexpress TaCHP, its performance in the face of salinity stress was improved, and the ectopic expression of TaCHP in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) also improved the ability of salt tolerance. The expression level of a number of stress reporter genes (AtCBF3, AtDREB2A, AtABI2, and AtABI1) was raised in the transgenic lines in the presence of salinity stress, while that of AtMYB15, AtABA2, and AtAAO3 was reduced in its absence. The presence in the upstream region of the TaCHP open reading frame of the cis-elements ABRE, MYBRS, and MYCRS suggests that it is a component of the ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways involved in the plant response to abiotic stress. We suggest that TaCHP enhances stress tolerance via the promotion of CBF3 and DREB2A expression.

  16. ZINC FINGER OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA12 (ZAT12) Interacts with FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT) Linking Iron Deficiency and Oxidative Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Le, Cham Thi Tuyet; Brumbarova, Tzvetina; Ivanov, Rumen; Stoof, Claudia; Weber, Eva; Mohrbacher, Julia; Fink-Straube, Claudia; Bauer, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Plants grown under iron (Fe)-deficient conditions induce a set of genes that enhance the efficiency of Fe uptake by the roots. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the central regulator of this response is the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT). FIT activity is regulated by protein-protein interactions, which also serve to integrate external signals that stimulate and possibly inhibit Fe uptake. In the search of signaling components regulating FIT function, we identified ZINC FINGER OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA12 (ZAT12), an abiotic stress-induced transcription factor. ZAT12 interacted with FIT, dependent on the presence of the ethylene-responsive element-binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression motif. ZAT12 protein was found expressed in the root early differentiation zone, where its abundance was modulated in a root layer-specific manner. In the absence of ZAT12, FIT expression was upregulated, suggesting a negative effect of ZAT12 on Fe uptake. Consistently, zat12 loss-of-function mutants had higher Fe content than the wild type at sufficient Fe. We found that under Fe deficiency, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were enhanced in a FIT-dependent manner. FIT protein, in turn, was stabilized by H2O2 but only in the presence of ZAT12, showing that H2O2 serves as a signal for Fe deficiency responses. We propose that oxidative stress-induced ZAT12 functions as a negative regulator of Fe acquisition. A model where H2O2 mediates the negative regulation of plant responses to prolonged stress might be applicable to a variety of stress conditions.

  17. Phylogenetic Distribution and Evolution of the Linked RNA-Binding and NOT1-Binding Domains in the Tristetraprolin Family of Tandem CCCH Zinc Finger Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Lalith

    2014-01-01

    In humans, the tristetraprolin or TTP family of CCCH tandem zinc finger (TZF) proteins comprises 3 members, encoded by the genes ZFP36, ZFP36L1, and ZFP36L2. These proteins have direct orthologues in essentially all vertebrates studied, with the exception of birds, which appear to lack a version of ZFP36. Additional family members are found in rodents, amphibians, and fish. In general, the encoded proteins contain 2 critical macromolecular interaction domains: the CCCH TZF domain, which is necessary for high-affinity binding to AU-rich elements in mRNA; and an extreme C-terminal domain that, in the case of TTP, interacts with NOT1, the scaffold of a large multi-protein complex that contains deadenylases. TTP and its related proteins act by first binding to AU-rich elements in mRNA, and then recruiting deadenylases to the mRNA, where they can processively remove the adenosine residues from the poly(A) tail. Highly conserved TZF domains have been found in unicellular eukaryotes such as yeasts, and these domains can bind AU-rich elements that resemble those bound by the mammalian proteins. However, certain fungi appear to lack proteins with intact TZF domains, and the TTP family proteins that are expressed in other fungi often lack the characteristic C-terminal NOT1 binding domain found in the mammalian proteins. For these reasons, we investigated the phylogenetic distribution of the relevant sequences in available databases. Both domains are present in family member proteins from most lineages of eukaryotes, suggesting their mutual presence in a common ancestor. However, the vertebrate type of NOT1-binding domain is missing in most fungi, and the TZF domain itself has disappeared or degenerated in recently evolved fungi. Nonetheless, both domains are present together in the proteins from several unicellular eukaryotes, including at least 1 fungus, and they seem to have remained together during the evolution of metazoans. PMID:24697206

  18. The zinc finger and C-terminal domains of MTA proteins are required for FOG-2-mediated transcriptional repression via the NuRD complex.

    PubMed

    Roche, Andrea E; Bassett, Brett J; Samant, Sadhana A; Hong, Wei; Blobel, Gerd A; Svensson, Eric C

    2008-02-01

    FOG-2 is a transcriptional co-regulator that is required for cardiac morphogenesis as mice deficient in this factor die during mid-gestation of cardiac malformations. FOG-2 interacts with GATA4 to attenuate GATA4-dependent gene expression. The first 12 amino acids of FOG-2 (the FOG Repression Motif) are necessary to mediate this repression. To determine the mechanism by which the FOG Repression Motif functions, we identified 7 polypeptides from rat cardiac nuclear extracts that co-purified with a GST-FOG-2 fusion protein. All proteins identified are members of the NuRD nucleosome remodeling complex. Using in vitro binding and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate that Metastasis-Associated proteins (MTA)-1, 2 and 3 and Retinoblastoma binding proteins RbAp46 and RbAp48 interact with FOG-2, but not with a mutant form of FOG-2 that is unable to repress transcription. Furthermore, we define a novel domain located in the C-terminal portion of MTA-1 that mediates the FOG-2/MTA-1 interaction. We also demonstrate that knockdown of MTA protein expression dramatically impairs the ability of FOG-2 to repress GATA4 activity. Finally, we show that the zinc finger domain of MTA-1 is required for FOG-2-mediated transcriptional repression and that this domain interacts with RbAp46 and RbAp48 subunits of the NuRD complex. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of FOG-2/MTA/RbAp interactions for FOG-2-mediated transcriptional repression and further define the molecular interactions between the FOG Repression Motif and the NuRD complex.

  19. Effect of Over-Expression of Zinc-Finger Protein (ZFX) on Self-Renewal and Drug-Resistance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuhong; Shu, Ronghua; Yue, Meng; Zhang, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND X-chromosome-coupled zinc finger protein (ZFX) in the Zfy protein family is abundantly expressed in both embryonic and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). ZFX exist in various tumor cells and is correlated with proliferation and survival of tumor cells. As a malignant tumor with high invasiveness, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may present resistance against chemotherapy and features of stem cells. This study aimed to explore the expression of ZFX in HCC cells, in an attempt to illustrate the role of ZFX in tumorigenesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of ZFX in tumor tissues was quantified by RT-PCR. The ZFX expression was then silenced to evaluate the stem cell-like features of HCC cells, including self-renewal, colony formation, and cell cycle, along with the sensitivity to cisplatin. Xenograft of ZFX-overexpressed HCC on nude mice was performed to evaluate the in vivo effect of ZFX on tumor growth. RESULTS Quantitative RT-PCR showed over-expression of ZFX in 51.8% of HCC tumors. The silencing of ZFX gene inhibited the self-renewal, colony formation, and proliferation ability of HCC cells (p<0.05 in all cases) via the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, in addition to the elevated sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin (p<0.001). Further studies showed that binding between ZFX and promoter regions of Nanog or SOX-2 regulatory factor initiate their expression in HCC cells. The xenograft experiment indicated the potentiation of tumor growth by ZFX over-expression. CONCLUSIONS ZFX is over-expressed in HCC cells, and correlates with stem cell-like features and pleiotropic characteristics. PMID:27566731

  20. Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor ZAT6 Positively Regulates Cadmium Tolerance through the Glutathione-Dependent Pathway in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Yan, Xingxing; Liu, Yunlei; Wang, Ren; Fan, Tingting; Ren, Yongbing; Tang, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Fangming

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant with high toxicity to animals and plants. It has been established that the glutathione (GSH)-dependent phytochelatin (PC) synthesis pathway is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to Cd accumulation and tolerance in plants. However, the transcription factors involved in regulating GSH-dependent PC synthesis pathway remain largely unknown. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Cd-resistant mutant xcd2-D (XVE system-induced cadmium-tolerance2) using a forward genetics approach. The mutant gene underlying xcd2-D mutation was revealed to encode a known zinc-finger transcription factor, ZAT6. Transgenic plants overexpressing ZAT6 showed significant increase of Cd tolerance, whereas loss of function of ZAT6 led to decreased Cd tolerance. Increased Cd accumulation and tolerance in ZAT6-overexpressing lines was GSH dependent and associated with Cd-activated synthesis of PC, which was correlated with coordinated activation of PC-synthesis related gene expression. By contrast, loss of function of ZAT6 reduced Cd accumulation and tolerance, which was accompanied by abolished PC synthesis and gene expression. Further analysis revealed that ZAT6 positively regulates the transcription of GSH1, GSH2, PCS1, and PCS2, but ZAT6 is capable of specifically binding to GSH1 promoter in vivo. Consistently, overexpression of GSH1 has been shown to restore Cd sensitivity in the zat6-1 mutant, suggesting that GSH1 is a key target of ZAT6. Taken together, our data provide evidence that ZAT6 coordinately activates PC synthesis-related gene expression and directly targets GSH1 to positively regulate Cd accumulation and tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:26983992

  1. Genome wide identification of C1-2i zinc finger proteins and their response to abiotic stress in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Arnaud; Houde, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The C1-2i wheat Q-type C2H2 zinc finger protein (ZFP) transcription factor subclass has been reported to play important roles in plant stress responses. This subclass of ZFPs has not been studied in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) and we aimed to identify all members of this subclass and evaluate their responses to different abiotic stresses causing oxidative stress. Exploiting the recently published wheat draft genome sequence, we identified 53 members (including homoeologs from A, B and D genomes) of the C1-2i wheat Q-type C2H2 ZFPs (TaZFPs) representing 21 genes. Evolution analysis revealed that 9 TaZFPs members are directly inherited from the parents Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii, while 15 diverged through neoploidization events. This TaZFP subclass is responsive to the oxidative stress generator H2O2 and to high light, drought stress and flooding. Most TaZFPs are responsive to H2O2 (37/53), high light (44/53), flooding (31/53) or drought (37/53); 32 TaZFPs were up-regulated by at least 3 stresses and 16 were responsive to all stresses tested. A large number of these TaZFPs were physically mapped on different wheat draft genome sequences with known markers useful for QTL mapping. Our results show that the C1-2i subclass of TaZFPs is associated with responses to different abiotic stresses and that most TaZFPs (30/53 or 57 %) are located on group 5 chromosomes known to be involved in environment adaptation. Detailed characterization of these novel wheat TaZFPs and their association to QTL or eQTL may help to design wheat cultivars with improved tolerance to abiotic stress.

  2. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (ΔQDR3 and ΔIKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ΔQDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae. PMID:25698512

  3. Calcineurin-responsive zinc finger transcription factor CRZ1 of Botrytis cinerea is required for growth, development, and full virulence on bean plants.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Julia; de Larrinoa, Inigo F; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2008-04-01

    Recently, we showed that the alpha subunit BCG1 of a heterotrimeric G protein is an upstream activator of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin in the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. To identify the transcription factor acting downstream of BCG1 and calcineurin, we cloned the gene encoding the B. cinerea homologue of CRZ1 ("CRaZy," calcineurin-responsive zinc finger transcription factor), the mediator of calcineurin function in yeast. BcCRZ1 is able to partially complement the corresponding Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant, and the subcellular localization of the green fluorescent protein-BcCRZ1 fusion product in yeast cells depends on the calcium level and calcineurin activity. Bccrz1 deletion mutants are not able to grow on minimal media and grow slowly on media containing plant extracts. Hyphal morphology, conidiation, and sclerotium formation are impaired. The cell wall and membrane integrity, stress response (extreme pH, H(2)O(2), Ca(2+), Li(+)), and ability of the hyphae to penetrate the intact plant surface are affected in the mutants. However, BcCRZ1 is almost dispensable for the conidium-derived infection of bean plants. The addition of Mg(2+) restores the growth rate, conidiation, and penetration and improves the cell wall integrity but has no impact on sclerotium formation or hypersensitivity to Ca(2+) and H(2)O(2). The expression of a set of recently identified BCG1- and calcineurin-dependent genes is also affected in DeltaBccrz1 mutants, confirming that this transcription factor acts downstream of calcineurin in B. cinerea. Since the Bccrz1 mutants still respond to calcineurin inhibitors, we conclude that BcCRZ1 is not the only target of calcineurin. PMID:18263765

  4. Diversity of Prdm9 zinc finger array in wild mice unravels new facets of the evolutionary turnover of this coding minisatellite.

    PubMed

    Buard, Jérôme; Rivals, Eric; Dunoyer de Segonzac, Denis; Garres, Charlotte; Caminade, Pierre; de Massy, Bernard; Boursot, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In humans and mice, meiotic recombination events cluster into narrow hotspots whose genomic positions are defined by the PRDM9 protein via its DNA binding domain constituted of an array of zinc fingers (ZnFs). High polymorphism and rapid divergence of the Prdm9 gene ZnF domain appear to involve positive selection at DNA-recognition amino-acid positions, but the nature of the underlying evolutionary pressures remains a puzzle. Here we explore the variability of the Prdm9 ZnF array in wild mice, and uncovered a high allelic diversity of both ZnF copy number and identity with the caracterization of 113 alleles. We analyze features of the diversity of ZnF identity which is mostly due to non-synonymous changes at codons -1, 3 and 6 of each ZnF, corresponding to amino-acids involved in DNA binding. Using methods adapted to the minisatellite structure of the ZnF array, we infer a phylogenetic tree of these alleles. We find the sister species Mus spicilegus and M. macedonicus as well as the three house mouse (Mus musculus) subspecies to be polyphyletic. However some sublineages have expanded independently in Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, the latter further showing phylogeographic substructure. Compared to random genomic regions and non-coding minisatellites, none of these patterns appears exceptional. In silico prediction of DNA binding sites for each allele, overlap of their alignments to the genome and relative coverage of the different families of interspersed repeated elements suggest a large diversity between PRDM9 variants with a potential for highly divergent distributions of recombination events in the genome with little correlation to evolutionary distance. By compiling PRDM9 ZnF protein sequences in Primates, Muridae and Equids, we find different diversity patterns among the three amino-acids most critical for the DNA-recognition function, suggesting different diversification timescales. PMID:24454780

  5. Effect of Over-Expression of Zinc-Finger Protein (ZFX) on Self-Renewal and Drug-Resistance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuhong; Shu, Ronghua; Yue, Meng; Zhang, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    Background X-chromosome-coupled zinc finger protein (ZFX) in the Zfy protein family is abundantly expressed in both embryonic and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). ZFX exist in various tumor cells and is correlated with proliferation and survival of tumor cells. As a malignant tumor with high invasiveness, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may present resistance against chemotherapy and features of stem cells. This study aimed to explore the expression of ZFX in HCC cells, in an attempt to illustrate the role of ZFX in tumorigenesis. Material/Methods The expression of ZFX in tumor tissues was quantified by RT-PCR. The ZFX expression was then silenced to evaluate the stem cell-like features of HCC cells, including self-renewal, colony formation, and cell cycle, along with the sensitivity to cisplatin. Xenograft of ZFX-overexpressed HCC on nude mice was performed to evaluate the in vivo effect of ZFX on tumor growth. Results Quantitative RT-PCR showed over-expression of ZFX in 51.8% of HCC tumors. The silencing of ZFX gene inhibited the self-renewal, colony formation, and proliferation ability of HCC cells (p<0.05 in all cases) via the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, in addition to the elevated sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin (p<0.001). Further studies showed that binding between ZFX and promoter regions of Nanog or SOX-2 regulatory factor initiate their expression in HCC cells. The xenograft experiment indicated the potentiation of tumor growth by ZFX over-expression. Conclusions ZFX is over-expressed in HCC cells, and correlates with stem cell-like features and pleiotropic characteristics. PMID:27566731

  6. Mallet finger - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Baseball finger - aftercare; Drop finger - aftercare; Avulsion fracture - mallet finger - aftercare ... away from the rest of the bone (avulsion fracture) Mallet finger most often occurs when something hits ...

  7. Zinc-Finger Nuclease Knockout of Dual-Specificity Protein Phosphatase-5 Enhances the Myogenic Response and Autoregulation of Cerebral Blood Flow in FHH.1BN Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fan; Geurts, Aron M.; Pabbidi, Mallikarjuna R.; Smith, Stanley V.; Harder, David R.; Jacob, Howard; Roman, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that the myogenic responses of the renal afferent arteriole (Af-Art) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) and autoregulation of renal and cerebral blood flow (RBF and CBF) were impaired in Fawn Hooded hypertensive (FHH) rats and were restored in a FHH.1BN congenic strain in which a small segment of chromosome 1 from the Brown Norway (BN) containing 15 genes including dual-specificity protein phosphatase-5 (Dusp5) were transferred into the FHH genetic background. We identified 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Dusp5 gene in FHH as compared with BN rats, two of which altered CpG sites and another that caused a G155R mutation. To determine whether Dusp5 contributes to the impaired myogenic response in FHH rats, we created a Dusp5 knockout (KO) rat in the FHH.1BN genetic background using a zinc-finger nuclease that introduced an 11 bp frame-shift deletion and a premature stop codon at AA121. The expression of Dusp5 was decreased and the levels of its substrates, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), were enhanced in the KO rats. The diameter of the MCA decreased to a greater extent in Dusp5 KO rats than in FHH.1BN and FHH rats when the perfusion pressure was increased from 40 to 140 mmHg. CBF increased markedly in FHH rats when MAP was increased from 100 to 160 mmHg, and CBF was better autoregulated in the Dusp5 KO and FHH.1BN rats. The expression of Dusp5 was higher at the mRNA level but not at the protein level and the levels of p-ERK1/2 and p-PKC were lower in cerebral microvessels and brain tissue isolated from FHH than in FHH.1BN rats. These results indicate that Dusp5 modulates myogenic reactivity in the cerebral circulation and support the view that a mutation in Dusp5 may enhance Dusp5 activity and contribute to the impaired myogenic response in FHH rats. PMID:25397684

  8. C2H2 zinc finger proteins of the SP/KLF, Wilms tumor, EGR, Huckebein, and Klumpfuss families in metazoans and beyond.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-11-15

    Specificity proteins (SPs) and Krüppel-Like Factors (KLFs) are C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factors that play essential roles in differentiation, development, proliferation and cell death. SP/KLF proteins, similarly to Wilms tumor protein 1 (WT1), Early Growth Response (EGR), Huckebein, and Klumpfuss, prefer to bind GC-rich sequences such as GC-box and CACCC-box (GT-box). We searched various genomes and transcriptomes of metazoans and single-cell holozoans for members of these families. Seven groups of KLFs (KLFA-G) and three groups of SPs (SPA-C) were identified in the three lineages of Bilateria (Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa). The last ancestor of jawed vertebrates was inferred to have at least 18 KLFs (group A: KLF1/2/4/17, group B: KLF3/8/12; group C: KLF5/5l; group D: KLF6/7; group E: KLF9/13/16; group F: KLF10/KLF11; group G: KLF15/15l) and 10 SPs (group A: SP1/2/3/4; group B: SP5/5l; group C: SP6/7/8/9), since they were found in both cartilaginous and boned fishes. Placental mammals have added KLF14 (group E) and KLF18 (group A), and lost KLF5l (KLF5-like) and KLF15l (KLF15-like). Multiple KLF members were found in basal metazoans (Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, and Cnidaria). Ctenophora has the least number of KLFs and no SPs, which could be attributed to its proposed sister group relationship to other metazoans or gene loss. While SP, EGR and Klumpfuss were only detected in metazoans, KLF, WT1, and Huckebein are present in nonmetazoan holozoans. Of the seven metazoan KLF groups, only KLFG, represented by KLF15 in human, was found in nonmetazoans. In addition, two nonmetazoan groups of KLFs are present in Choanoflagellatea and Filasterea. WT1 could be evolutionarily the earliest among these GC/GT-box-binding families due to its sole presence in Ichthyosporea. PMID:26187067

  9. ZFP580, a Novel Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor, Is Involved in Cardioprotection of Intermittent High-Altitude Hypoxia against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-cheng; Wang, Tian-hui; Mai, Xia; Liu, Hong-tao; Xu, Rui-cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background ZFP580 is a novel C2H2 type zinc-finger transcription factor recently identified by our laboratory. We previously showed that ZFP580 may be involved in cell survival and growth. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether ZFP580 is involved in the cardioprotective effects of intermittent high-altitude (IHA) hypoxia against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and Results After rats were subjected to myocardial ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion, ZFP580 expression in the left ventricle was measured. ZFP580 protein expression was found to be up-regulated within 1 h and decreased at 2 h after reperfusion. Comparing normoxic and IHA hypoxia-adapted rats (5000 m, 6 h day−1, 6 weeks) following I/R injury (30 min ischemia and 2 h reperfusion), we found that adaptation to IHA hypoxia attenuated infarct size and plasma leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB. In addition, ZFP580 expression in the myocardium was up-regulated by IHA hypoxia. Consistent with this result, ZFP580 expression was found to be significantly increased in cultured H9c2 myocardial cells in the hypoxic preconditioning group compared with those in the control group following simulated I/R injury (3 h simulated ischemic hypoxia and 2 h reoxygenation). To determine the role of ZFP580 in apoptosis, lentivirus-mediated gene transfection was performed in H9c2 cells 72 h prior to simulated I/R exposure. The results showed that ZFP580 overexpression significantly inhibited I/R-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. H9c2 cells were pretreated with or without PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and Western blot results showed that PD98059 (10 µM) markedly suppressed I/R-induced up-regulation of ZFP580 expression. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the cardioprotective effect of IHA hypoxia against I/R injury is mediated via ZFP580, a downstream target of ERK1/2 signaling with anti-apoptotic roles in myocardial cells. PMID:24722354

  10. The BTB/POZ zinc finger protein Broad-Z3 promotes dendritic outgrowth during metamorphic remodeling of the peripheral stretch receptor dbd

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Various members of the family of BTB/POZ zinc-finger transcription factors influence patterns of dendritic branching. One such member, Broad, is notable because its BrZ3 isoform is widely expressed in Drosophila in immature neurons around the time of arbor outgrowth. We used the metamorphic remodeling of an identified sensory neuron, the dorsal bipolar dendrite sensory neuron (dbd), to examine the effects of BrZ3 expression on the extent and pattern of dendrite growth during metamorphosis. Results Using live imaging of dbd in Drosophila pupae, we followed its normal development during metamorphosis and the effect of ectopic expression of BrZ3 on this development. After migration of its cell body, dbd extends a growth-cone that grows between two muscle bands followed by branching and turning back on itself to form a compact dendritic bundle. The ectopic expression of the BrZ3 isoform, using the GAL4/UAS system, caused dbd's dendritic tree to transform from its normal, compact, fasciculated form into a comb-like arbor that spread over on the body wall. Time-lapse analysis revealed that the expression of BrZ3 caused the premature extension of the primary dendrite onto immature myoblasts, ectopic growth past the muscle target region, and subsequent elaboration onto the epidermis. To control the timing of expression of BrZ3, we used a temperature-sensitive GAL80 mutant. When BrZ3 expression was delayed until after the extension of the primary dendrite, then a normal arbor was formed. By contrast, when BrZ3 expression was confined to only the early outgrowth phase, then ectopic arbors were subsequently formed and maintained on the epidermis despite the subsequent absence of BrZ3. Conclusions The adult arbor of dbd is a highly branched arbor whose branches self-fasciculate to form a compact dendritic bundle. The ectopic expression of BrZ3 in this cell causes a premature extension of its growth-cone, resulting in dendrites that extend beyond their normal muscle

  11. Extinction, applied after retrieval of auditory fear memory, selectively increases zinc-finger protein 268 and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 expression in prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Vincenzo; Roquet, Rheall F; DeMis, John; Chiamulera, Cristiano; Monfils, Marie-H

    2014-11-01

    Retrieval of consolidated memories induces a labile phase during which memory can be disrupted or updated through a reconsolidation process. A central component of behavioral updating during reconsolidation using a retrieval-extinction manipulation (Ret+Ext) is the synaptic removal of a calcium-permeable-α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor (CP-AMPARs) in the lateral amygdala-a metabotropic GluR1 receptor (mGluR1) dependent mechanism. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Ret+Ext on the expression of molecular markers that could play a role in the reconsolidation process. Specifically, we tested the effects of Ret+Ext on the global expression of zinc-finger 268 protein (Zif268), a marker previously found to be implicated in memory reconsolidation, to confirm its occurrence after retrieval (Ret) and Ret+Ext. We also evaluated the global expression of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6P), here proposed as a marker of the mGluR1-mediated memory process induced by Ret+Ext. The expression of both markers (zif268, rpS6P) was assessed by immunolocalization in prelimbic cortex (PRL), infralimbic cortex (IL), ventral subdivision of the lateral amygdala (LA) and hippocampus CA1 (CA1) in fear-conditioned rats. Our results showed that retrieval and Ret+Ext, but not extinction alone, increased Zif268 expression in prefrontal cortex and lateral amygdala. Ret+Ext, but not retrieval, retrieval followed by context exposure or extinction alone, increased the expression of rpS6P in prefrontal cortex and LA. In summary, (i) Zif268 increased after retrieval confirming that reconsolidation is engaged in our conditions, (ii) Zif268 increased after Ret+Ext confirming that it does not simply reflect an extinction or reconsolidation disruption (Zif268 level of expression should be lower in both cases) and (iii) rpS6P increased after Ret+Ext, but not after extinction, suggesting, as expected, a potential mGluR1 mediated molecular mechanism specific

  12. Evolutionary conservation of zinc finger transcription factor binding sites in promoters of genes co-expressed with WT1 in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eisermann, Kurtis; Tandon, Sunpreet; Bazarov, Anton; Brett, Adina; Fraizer, Gail; Piontkivska, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Background Gene expression analyses have led to a better understanding of growth control of prostate cancer cells. We and others have identified the presence of several zinc finger transcription factors in the neoplastic prostate, suggesting a potential role for these genes in the regulation of the prostate cancer transcriptome. One of the transcription factors (TFs) identified in the prostate cancer epithelial cells was the Wilms tumor gene (WT1). To rapidly identify coordinately expressed prostate cancer growth control genes that may be regulated by WT1, we used an in silico approach. Results Evolutionary conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) recognized by WT1, EGR1, SP1, SP2, AP2 and GATA1 were identified in the promoters of 24 differentially expressed prostate cancer genes from eight mammalian species. To test the relationship between sequence conservation and function, chromatin of LNCaP prostate cancer and kidney 293 cells were tested for TF binding using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Multiple putative TFBS in gene promoters of placental mammals were found to be shared with those in human gene promoters and some were conserved between genomes that diverged about 170 million years ago (i.e., primates and marsupials), therefore implicating these sites as candidate binding sites. Among those genes coordinately expressed with WT1 was the kallikrein-related peptidase 3 (KLK3) gene commonly known as the prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene. This analysis located several potential WT1 TFBS in the PSA gene promoter and led to the rapid identification of a novel putative binding site confirmed in vivo by ChIP. Conversely for two prostate growth control genes, androgen receptor (AR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), known to be transcriptionally regulated by WT1, regulatory sequence conservation was observed and TF binding in vivo was confirmed by ChIP. Conclusion Overall, this targeted approach rapidly identified important candidate

  13. Zinc Finger Nuclease Mediated Knockout of ADP-Dependent Glucokinase in Cancer Cell Lines: Effects on Cell Survival and Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Susan; Morrison, Shona; Connor, Tim; Su, Jiechuang; Print, Cristin G.; Ronimus, Ron S.; McGee, Sean L.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) are powerful tools for editing genes in cells. Here we use ZFNs to interrogate the biological function of ADPGK, which encodes an ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADPGK), in human tumour cell lines. The hypothesis we tested is that ADPGK utilises ADP to phosphorylate glucose under conditions where ATP becomes limiting, such as hypoxia. We characterised two ZFN knockout clones in each of two lines (H460 and HCT116). All four clones had frameshift mutations in all alleles at the target site in exon 1 of ADPGK, and were ADPGK-null by immunoblotting. ADPGK knockout had little or no effect on cell proliferation, but compromised the ability of H460 cells to survive siRNA silencing of hexokinase-2 under oxic conditions, with clonogenic survival falling from 21±3% for the parental line to 6.4±0.8% (p = 0.002) and 4.3±0.8% (p = 0.001) for the two knockouts. A similar increased sensitivity to clonogenic cell killing was observed under anoxia. No such changes were found when ADPGK was knocked out in HCT116 cells, for which the parental line was less sensitive than H460 to anoxia and to hexokinase-2 silencing. While knockout of ADPGK in HCT116 cells caused few changes in global gene expression, knockout of ADPGK in H460 cells caused notable up-regulation of mRNAs encoding cell adhesion proteins. Surprisingly, we could discern no consistent effect on glycolysis as measured by glucose consumption or lactate formation under anoxia, or extracellular acidification rate (Seahorse XF analyser) under oxic conditions in a variety of media. However, oxygen consumption rates were generally lower in the ADPGK knockouts, in some cases markedly so. Collectively, the results demonstrate that ADPGK can contribute to tumour cell survival under conditions of high glycolytic dependence, but the phenotype resulting from knockout of ADPGK is cell line dependent and appears to be unrelated to priming of glycolysis in these lines. PMID:23799003

  14. New Insights on the Burstein-Moss Shift and Band Gap Narrowing in Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Saw, K G; Aznan, N M; Yam, F K; Ng, S S; Pung, S Y

    2015-01-01

    The Burstein-Moss shift and band gap narrowing of sputtered indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films are investigated as a function of carrier concentrations. The optical band gap shifts below the carrier concentration of 5.61 × 1019 cm-3 are well-described by the Burstein-Moss model. For carrier concentrations higher than 8.71 × 1019 cm-3 the shift decreases, indicating that band gap narrowing mechanisms are increasingly significant and are competing with the Burstein-Moss effect. The incorporation of In causes the resistivity to decrease three orders of magnitude. As the mean-free path of carriers is less than the crystallite size, the resistivity is probably affected by ionized impurities as well as defect scattering mechanisms, but not grain boundary scattering. The c lattice constant as well as film stress is observed to increase in stages with increasing carrier concentration. The asymmetric XPS Zn 2p3/2 peak in the film with the highest carrier concentration of 7.02 × 1020 cm-3 suggests the presence of stacking defects in the ZnO lattice. The Raman peak at 274 cm-1 is attributed to lattice defects introduced by In dopants. PMID:26517364

  15. The effect of induced strains on the optical band gaps in lanthanum-doped zinc ferrite nanocrystalline powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Fathalla; Ramachandran, Tholkappiyan; Kurapati, Vishista

    2016-07-01

    ZnFe1.96La0.04O4 nanocrystalline powders were synthesized by auto-combustion with the aid of glycine as fuel. The synthesized powders were subjected to heat treatment in air at constant temperatures (600-970∘C) for a period of 2 h. The annealed powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The as-synthesized and annealed powders formed spongy porous network structure with voids and pores. All the powders were found to be single phase nanomaterial with cubic spinel crystal structure and the desired composition; however, they contained strains, dislocations and lattice distortions. Some of these strains and dislocations are relaxed as a function of annealing temperature. The powders displayed direct and indirect optical band gaps. The energies of these band gaps were found to vary as a function of the induced strains and dislocations. It is suggested that the energy of the optical band gap in lanthanum-doped zinc ferrite nanocrystalline powders can be varied as a function of induced strains if the initial preparation conditions and the following heat treatments are controlled.

  16. The effect of induced strains on the optical band gaps in lanthanum-doped zinc ferrite nanocrystalline powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Fathalla; Ramachandran, Tholkappiyan; Kurapati, Vishista

    2016-07-01

    ZnFe1.96La0.04O4 nanocrystalline powders were synthesized by auto-combustion with the aid of glycine as fuel. The synthesized powders were subjected to heat treatment in air at constant temperatures (600-970∘C) for a period of 2 h. The annealed powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The as-synthesized and annealed powders formed spongy porous network structure with voids and pores. All the powders were found to be single phase nanomaterial with cubic spinel crystal structure and the desired composition; however, they contained strains, dislocations and lattice distortions. Some of these strains and dislocations are relaxed as a function of annealing temperature. The powders displayed direct and indirect optical band gaps. The energies of these band gaps were found to vary as a function of the induced strains and dislocations. It is suggested that the energy of the optical band gap in lanthanum-doped zinc ferrite nanocrystalline powders can be varied as a function of induced strains if the initial preparation conditions and the following heat treatments are controlled.

  17. New Insights on the Burstein-Moss Shift and Band Gap Narrowing in Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Saw, K G; Aznan, N M; Yam, F K; Ng, S S; Pung, S Y

    2015-01-01

    The Burstein-Moss shift and band gap narrowing of sputtered indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films are investigated as a function of carrier concentrations. The optical band gap shifts below the carrier concentration of 5.61 × 1019 cm-3 are well-described by the Burstein-Moss model. For carrier concentrations higher than 8.71 × 1019 cm-3 the shift decreases, indicating that band gap narrowing mechanisms are increasingly significant and are competing with the Burstein-Moss effect. The incorporation of In causes the resistivity to decrease three orders of magnitude. As the mean-free path of carriers is less than the crystallite size, the resistivity is probably affected by ionized impurities as well as defect scattering mechanisms, but not grain boundary scattering. The c lattice constant as well as film stress is observed to increase in stages with increasing carrier concentration. The asymmetric XPS Zn 2p3/2 peak in the film with the highest carrier concentration of 7.02 × 1020 cm-3 suggests the presence of stacking defects in the ZnO lattice. The Raman peak at 274 cm-1 is attributed to lattice defects introduced by In dopants.

  18. New Insights on the Burstein-Moss Shift and Band Gap Narrowing in Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Saw, K. G.; Aznan, N. M.; Yam, F. K.; Ng, S. S.; Pung, S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The Burstein-Moss shift and band gap narrowing of sputtered indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films are investigated as a function of carrier concentrations. The optical band gap shifts below the carrier concentration of 5.61 × 1019 cm-3 are well-described by the Burstein-Moss model. For carrier concentrations higher than 8.71 × 1019 cm-3 the shift decreases, indicating that band gap narrowing mechanisms are increasingly significant and are competing with the Burstein-Moss effect. The incorporation of In causes the resistivity to decrease three orders of magnitude. As the mean-free path of carriers is less than the crystallite size, the resistivity is probably affected by ionized impurities as well as defect scattering mechanisms, but not grain boundary scattering. The c lattice constant as well as film stress is observed to increase in stages with increasing carrier concentration. The asymmetric XPS Zn 2p3/2 peak in the film with the highest carrier concentration of 7.02 × 1020 cm-3 suggests the presence of stacking defects in the ZnO lattice. The Raman peak at 274 cm-1 is attributed to lattice defects introduced by In dopants. PMID:26517364

  19. Anomalous behavior of the optical band gap of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Srikant, V.; Clarke, D.R.

    1997-06-01

    The optical band gap of ZnO films on fused silica in the carrier concentration regime of 10{sup 18}{endash}10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} is reported. Contrary to theoretical predictions there is an anomalous increase in the band gap of ZnO films at a carrier concentration of 5{times}10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3}, followed by an abrupt decrease at a critical concentration of 3{endash}4{times}10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} before the optical band gap rises again. Similar observations have been made before, but an explanation of these observations was lacking. We propose a model based on the existence of potential barriers at the grain boundaries, causing quantum confinement of the electrons in the small grains realized in these films. Quantum confinement leads to the initial rise in the optical band gap. On increasing the carrier concentration to the critical value the potentials at the grain boundaries collapse leading, to the abrupt decrease in the optical band gap. Above this carrier concentration the films behave according to existing many-body theories. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  20. DPL-1 DP, LIN-35 Rb and EFL-1 E2F act with the MCD-1 zinc-finger protein to promote programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Reddien, Peter W; Andersen, Erik C; Huang, Michael C; Horvitz, H Robert

    2007-04-01

    The genes egl-1, ced-9, ced-4, and ced-3 play major roles in programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify genes that have more subtle activities, we sought mutations that confer strong cell-death defects in a genetically sensitized mutant background. Specifically, we screened for mutations that enhance the cell-death defects caused by a partial loss-of-function allele of the ced-3 caspase gene. We identified mutations in two genes not previously known to affect cell death, dpl-1 and mcd-1 (modifier of cell death). dpl-1 encodes the C. elegans homolog of DP, the human E2F-heterodimerization partner. By testing genes known to interact with dpl-1, we identified roles in cell death for four additional genes: efl-1 E2F, lin-35 Rb, lin-37 Mip40, and lin-52 dLin52. mcd-1 encodes a novel protein that contains one zinc finger and that is synthetically required with lin-35 Rb for animal viability. dpl-1 and mcd-1 act with efl-1 E2F and lin-35 Rb to promote programmed cell death and do so by regulating the killing process rather than by affecting the decision between survival and death. We propose that the DPL-1 DP, MCD-1 zinc finger, EFL-1 E2F, LIN-35 Rb, LIN-37 Mip40, and LIN-52 dLin52 proteins act together in transcriptional regulation to promote programmed cell death.

  1. The CRYPTOCHROME1-Dependent Response to Excess Light Is Mediated through the Transcriptional Activators ZINC FINGER PROTEIN EXPRESSED IN INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM LIKE1 and ZML2 in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Shaikhali, Jehad; de Dios Barajas-Lopéz, Juan; Ötvös, Krisztina; Kremnev, Dmitry; Garcia, Ana Sánchez; Srivastava, Vaibhav; Wingsle, Gunnar; Bako, Laszlo; Strand, Åsa

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of plants to light intensities that exceed the electron utilization capacity of the chloroplast has a dramatic impact on nuclear gene expression. The photoreceptor Cryptochrome 1 (cry1) is essential to the induction of genes encoding photoprotective components in Arabidopsis thaliana. Bioinformatic analysis of the cry1 regulon revealed the putative cis-element CryR1 (GnTCKAG), and here we demonstrate an interaction between CryR1 and the zinc finger GATA-type transcription factors ZINC FINGER PROTEIN EXPRESSED IN INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM LIKE1 (ZML1) and ZML2. The ZML proteins specifically bind to the CryR1 cis-element as demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, and TCTAG was shown to constitute the core sequence required for ZML2 binding. In addition, ZML2 activated transcription of the yellow fluorescent protein reporter gene driven by the CryR1 cis-element in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts. T-DNA insertion lines for ZML2 and its homolog ZML1 demonstrated misregulation of several cry1-dependent genes in response to excess light. Furthermore, the zml1 and zml2 T-DNA insertion lines displayed a high irradiance-sensitive phenotype with significant photoinactivation of photosystem II (PSII), indicated by reduced maximum quantum efficiency of PSII, and severe photobleaching. Thus, we identified the ZML2 and ZML1 GATA transcription factors as two essential components of the cry1-mediated photoprotective response. PMID:22786870

  2. Nitrogen-source regulation of yeast gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase synthesis involves the regulatory network including the GATA zinc-finger factors Gln3, Nil1/Gat1 and Gzf3.

    PubMed Central

    Springael, Jean-Yves; Penninckx, Michel J

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the CIS2 gene encodes gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT; EC 2.3.2.2), the main GSH-degrading enzyme. The promoter region of CIS2 contains one stress-response element (CCCCT) and eight GAT(T/A)A core sequences, probably involved in nitrogen-regulated transcription. We show in the present study that expression of CIS2 is indeed regulated according to the nature of the nitrogen source. Expression is highest in cells growing on a poor nitrogen source such as urea. Under these conditions, the GATA zinc-finger transcription factors Nil1 and Gln3 are both required for CIS2 expression, Nil1 appearing as the more important factor. We further show that Gzf3, another GATA zinc-finger protein, acts as a negative regulator in nitrogen-source control of CIS2 expression. During growth on a preferred nitrogen source like NH(4)(+), CIS2 expression is repressed through a mechanism involving (at least) the Gln3-binding protein Ure2/GdhCR. Induction of CIS2 expression during nitrogen starvation is dependent on Gln3 and Nil1. Furthermore, rapamycin causes similar CIS2 activation, indicating that the target of rapamycin signalling pathway controls CIS2 expression via Gln3 and Nil1 in nitrogen-starved cells. Finally, our results show that CIS2 expression is induced mainly by nitrogen starvation but apparently not by other types of stress. PMID:12529169

  3. Trigger finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... Redness in your cut or hand Swelling or warmth in your cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  4. Finger Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Oosterhoff, Thijs C H; Nota, Sjoerd P F T; Ring, David

    2015-06-01

    Background Finger stiffness varies substantially in patients with hand and upper extremity illness and can be notably more than expected for a given pathophysiology. In prior studies, pain intensity and magnitude of disability consistently correlate with coping strategies such as catastrophic thinking and kinesiophobia, which can be characterized as overprotectiveness. In this retrospective study we address the primary research question whether patients with finger stiffness are more often overprotective when the primary pathology is outside the hand (e.g. distal radius fracture) than when it is located within the hand. Methods In an orthopaedic hand surgery department 160 patients diagnosed with more finger stiffness than expected for a given pathophysiology or time point of recovery between December 2006 and September 2012 were analyzed to compare the proportion of patients characterized as overprotective for differences by site of pathology: (1) inside the hand, (2) outside the hand, and (3) psychiatric etiology (e.g. clenched fist). Results Among 160 subjects with more finger stiffness than expected, 132 (82 %) were characterized as overprotective including 88 of 108 (81 %) with pathology in the hand, 39 of 44 (89 %) with pathology outside the hand, and 5 of 8 (63 %) with psychiatric etiology. These differences were not significant. Conclusions Overprotectiveness is common in patients with more finger stiffness than expected regardless the site and type of primary pathology. It seems worthwhile to recognize and treat maladaptive coping strategies early during recovery to limit impairment, symptoms, and disability. PMID:26078497

  5. Chemically synthesized nano composite (Zinc/Magnesium) Oxide for tunable band gap devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharmila, P. P.; Tharayil, Nisha J.

    2015-02-01

    Formation of hetro structures in nano structured materials is essential for their potential applications in nano electronics and photonic devices. As a promising candidate for blue and ultraviolet optoelectronic devices, ZnO has attracted much attention due to its wide band gap (3.37eV), large exciton binding energy (60meV), low epitaxial growth temperature and high oxidation resistance. In addition since the ionic radii of Mg+2+(0.57A0) and Zn2+(0.60A0) are quite close, they may alloy by replacing each other in the matrix. The doping of Mg in ZnO is done through a simple and novel technique from metal acetates using ammonium carbonate as precipitant. An organic capping agent (EDTA) is used prevent agglomeration and the addition is done under constant stirring. The carbonate precursor obtained is heated on the basis of TGA to obtain the metal nano composite. The effects of different parameters on particle size and morphology of (Zn-Mg)O nano composite is optimized by "one at a time" method. Under optimum conditions, spongy shaped, uniform and homogeneous structured (Zn-Mg)O nano composite powders with particle size few nano meters are obtained. The optical and structural properties of nano composite prepared by solution techniques are investigated by X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy, and PL, FTIR and electron microscopy techniques. The effect of annealing on the optical properties of this nano composite is also studied

  6. Nucleus Accumbens 1, a Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-brac Tramtrack Broad protein binds to TAR DNA-binding protein 43 and has a potential role in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Scofield, M D; Korutla, L; Jackson, T G; Kalivas, P W; Mackler, S A

    2012-12-27

    Protein degradation is a critical component of cellular maintenance. The intracellular translocation and targeting of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) differentially coordinates a protein's half-life and thereby its function. Nucleus Accumbens 1 (NAC1), a member of the Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-brac Tramtrack Broad complex (POZ/BTB) family of proteins, participates in the coordinated proteolysis of synaptic proteins by mediating recruitment of the UPS to dendritic spines. Here we report a novel interaction between NAC1 and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a protein identified as the primary component of ubiquitinated protein aggregates found in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In vitro translated full-length TDP-43 associated with both the POZ/BTB domain and the non-POZ/BTB domain of NAC1 in GST pulldown assays. Other POZ/BTB proteins (including zinc finger POZ/BTB proteins and atypical POZ/BTB proteins) showed weak interactions with TDP-43. In addition, NAC1 and TDP-43 were present in the same immunocomplexes in different regions of mouse brain and spinal cord. In primary spinal cord cultures, TDP-43 expression was mainly nuclear, whereas NAC1 was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. In order to mimic ALS-like toxicity in the spinal cord culture system, we elevated extracellular glutamate levels resulting in the selective loss of motor neurons. Using this model, it was found that glutamate toxicity elicited a dose-dependent translocation of TDP-43 out of the nucleus of cholinergic neurons and increased the co-localization of NAC1 and TDP-43. These findings suggest that NAC1 may function to link TDP-43 to the proteasome; thereby, facilitating the post-translational modifications of TDP-43 that lead to the development of ALS.

  7. A C2HC zinc finger is essential for the RING-E2 interaction of the ubiquitin ligase RNF125

    PubMed Central

    Bijlmakers, Marie-José; Teixeira, João M. C.; Boer, Roeland; Mayzel, Maxim; Puig-Sàrries, Pilar; Karlsson, Göran; Coll, Miquel; Pons, Miquel; Crosas, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    The activity of RING ubiquitin ligases (E3s) depends on an interaction between the RING domain and ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2), but posttranslational events or additional structural elements, yet largely undefined, are frequently required to enhance or regulate activity. Here, we show for the ubiquitin ligase RNF125 that, in addition to the RING domain, a C2HC Zn finger (ZnF) is crucial for activity, and a short linker sequence (Li2120-128) enhances activity. The contribution of these regions was first shown with truncated proteins, and the essential role of the ZnF was confirmed with mutations at the Zn chelating Cys residues. Using NMR, we established that the C2HC ZnF/Li2120-128 region is crucial for binding of the RING domain to the E2 UbcH5a. The partial X-ray structure of RNF125 revealed the presence of extensive intramolecular interactions between the RING and C2HC ZnF. A mutation at one of the contact residues in the C2HC ZnF, a highly conserved M112, resulted in the loss of ubiquitin ligase activity. Thus, we identified the structural basis for an essential role of the C2HC ZnF and conclude that this domain stabilizes the RING domain, and is therefore required for binding of RNF125 to an E2. PMID:27411375

  8. The C3H-type zinc finger protein GDS1/C3H42 is a nuclear-speckle-localized protein that is essential for normal growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Won; Jeon, Su Jeong; Hwang, Sung Min; Hong, Jong Chan; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic C3H-type zinc finger proteins (Znfs) comprise a large family of regulatory proteins involved in many aspects of plant stress response, growth and development. However, compared to mammalian, only a few plant Znfs have been functionally characterized. Here, T-DNA inserted gds1 (growth, development and splicing 1) mutant, displayed abnormal growth throughout the lifecycle owing to the reduction of cell size and number. Inverse PCR analysis revealed that the abnormal growth was caused by the disruption of At3g47120, which encodes a C3H42 protein belonging to the C-X7-C-X5-C-X3-H class of the Znf family. GDS1 was ubiquitously transcribed, but shows high levels of expression in young seedling and unexpanded new leaves. In gds1, the transcripts of many growth- and development-related genes were down-regulated, and the auxin response was dramatically reduced. A fluorescence-based assay revealed that the GDS1 protein was localized to the nucleus, prominently in the speckle compartments. Its arginine/serine dipeptide-rich-like (RS-like) domain was essential for nuclear localization. In addition, the SR1, SRm102 and U1-70K components of the U1 spliceosome interacted with GDS1 in the nuclear speckle compartments. Taken together, these suggest that GDS1, a nuclear-speckle-associated Znf, might play a significant role in splicing during plant growth and development.

  9. Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-retinoic acid receptor α (PLZF-RARα), an oncogenic transcriptional repressor of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21WAF/CDKN1A) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) genes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Young; Koh, Dong-In; Licht, Jonathan D; Kim, Kunhong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2014-07-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-retinoic acid receptor α (PLZF-RARα) is an oncogene transcriptional repressor that is generated by a chromosomal translocation between the PLZF and RARα genes in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL-type) patients. The molecular interaction between PLZF-RARα and the histone deacetylase corepressor was proposed to be important in leukemogenesis. We found that PLZF-RARα can repress transcription of the p21WAF/CDKN1A gene, which encodes the negative cell cycle regulator p21 by binding to its proximal promoter Sp1-binding GC-boxes 3, 4, 5/6, a retinoic acid response element (RARE), and distal p53-responsive elements (p53REs). PLZF-RARα also acts as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53, RARα, and Sp1. PLZF-RARα interacts with co-repressors such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating histones Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 at the CDKN1A promoter. PLZF-RARα also interacts with the MBD3-NuRD complex, leading to epigenetic silencing of CDKN1A through DNA methylation. Furthermore, PLZF-RARα represses TP53 and increases p53 protein degradation by ubiquitination, further repressing p21 expression. Resultantly, PLZF-RARα promotes cell proliferation and significantly increases the number of cells in S-phase.

  10. The yeast MOT2 gene encodes a putative zinc finger protein that serves as a global negative regulator affecting expression of several categories of genes, including mating-pheromone-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Irie, K; Yamaguchi, K; Kawase, K; Matsumoto, K

    1994-05-01

    The STE4 gene encodes the beta subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein that is an essential component of the pheromone signal transduction pathway. To identify downstream component(s) of Ste4, we sought pseudo-revertants that restored mating competence to ste4 mutants. The suppressor mot2 was isolated as a recessive mutation that restored conjugational competence to a temperature-sensitive ste4 mutant and simultaneously conferred a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. The MOT2 gene encodes a putative zinc finger protein, the deletion of which resulted in temperature-sensitive growth, increased expression of FUS1 in the absence of pheromones, and suppression of a deletion of the alpha-factor receptor. On the other hand, sterility resulting from deletion of STE4 was not suppressed by the mot2 deletion. These phenotypes are similar to those associated with temperature-sensitive mutations in CDC36 and CDC39, which are proposed to encode general negative regulators of transcription rather than factors involved in the pheromone response pathway. Deletion of MOT2 also caused increased transcription of unrelated genes such as GAL7 and PHO84. Overexpression of MOT2 suppresses the growth defect of temperature-sensitive mutations in CDC36 and CDC39. These observations suggest that Mot2 functions as a general negative regulator of transcription in the same processes as Cdc36 and Cdc39.

  11. Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger-Retinoic Acid Receptor α (PLZF-RARα), an Oncogenic Transcriptional Repressor of Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21WAF/CDKN1A) and Tumor Protein p53 (TP53) Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Il; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Young; Koh, Dong-In; Licht, Jonathan D.; Kim, Kunhong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-retinoic acid receptor α (PLZF-RARα) is an oncogene transcriptional repressor that is generated by a chromosomal translocation between the PLZF and RARα genes in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL-type) patients. The molecular interaction between PLZF-RARα and the histone deacetylase corepressor was proposed to be important in leukemogenesis. We found that PLZF-RARα can repress transcription of the p21WAF/CDKN1A gene, which encodes the negative cell cycle regulator p21 by binding to its proximal promoter Sp1-binding GC-boxes 3, 4, 5/6, a retinoic acid response element (RARE), and distal p53-responsive elements (p53REs). PLZF-RARα also acts as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53, RARα, and Sp1. PLZF-RARα interacts with co-repressors such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating histones Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 at the CDKN1A promoter. PLZF-RARα also interacts with the MBD3-NuRD complex, leading to epigenetic silencing of CDKN1A through DNA methylation. Furthermore, PLZF-RARα represses TP53 and increases p53 protein degradation by ubiquitination, further repressing p21 expression. Resultantly, PLZF-RARα promotes cell proliferation and significantly increases the number of cells in S-phase. PMID:24821728

  12. Isolation of a Novel Family of C2H2 Zinc Finger Proteins Implicated in Transcriptional Repression Mediated by Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factor (COUP-TF) Orphan Nuclear Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Avram, Dorina; Fields, Andrew; Top, Karen Pretty On; Nevrivy, Daniel J.; Ishmael, Jane E.; Leid, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Two novel and related C2H2 zinc finger proteins that are highly expressed in the brain, CTIP1 and CTIP2 (COUP TF-interacting proteins 1 and 2, respectively), were isolated and shown to interact with all members of the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF) subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors. The interaction of CTIP1 with ARP1 was studied in detail, and CTIP1 was found to harbor two independent ARP1 interaction domains, ID1 and ID2, whereas the putative AF-2 of ARP1 was required for interaction with CTIP1. CTIP1, which exhibited a punctate staining pattern within the nucleus of transfected cells, recruited cotransfected ARP1 to these foci and potentiated ARP1-mediated transcriptional repression of a reporter construct. However, transcriptional repression mediated by ARP1 acting through CTIP1 did not appear to involve recruitment of a trichostatin A-sensitive histone deacetylase(s) to the template, suggesting that this repression pathway may be distinct from that utilized by several other nuclear receptors. PMID:10744719

  13. The C3H-type zinc finger protein GDS1/C3H42 is a nuclear-speckle-localized protein that is essential for normal growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Won; Jeon, Su Jeong; Hwang, Sung Min; Hong, Jong Chan; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic C3H-type zinc finger proteins (Znfs) comprise a large family of regulatory proteins involved in many aspects of plant stress response, growth and development. However, compared to mammalian, only a few plant Znfs have been functionally characterized. Here, T-DNA inserted gds1 (growth, development and splicing 1) mutant, displayed abnormal growth throughout the lifecycle owing to the reduction of cell size and number. Inverse PCR analysis revealed that the abnormal growth was caused by the disruption of At3g47120, which encodes a C3H42 protein belonging to the C-X7-C-X5-C-X3-H class of the Znf family. GDS1 was ubiquitously transcribed, but shows high levels of expression in young seedling and unexpanded new leaves. In gds1, the transcripts of many growth- and development-related genes were down-regulated, and the auxin response was dramatically reduced. A fluorescence-based assay revealed that the GDS1 protein was localized to the nucleus, prominently in the speckle compartments. Its arginine/serine dipeptide-rich-like (RS-like) domain was essential for nuclear localization. In addition, the SR1, SRm102 and U1-70K components of the U1 spliceosome interacted with GDS1 in the nuclear speckle compartments. Taken together, these suggest that GDS1, a nuclear-speckle-associated Znf, might play a significant role in splicing during plant growth and development. PMID:27457991

  14. Role of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-type zinc finger domain containing protein 1 (TRAFD1) from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis in immunity against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Rie; Galay, Remil Linggatong; Matsuo, Tomohide; Maeda, Hiroki; Kusakisako, Kodai; Talactac, Melbourne Rio; Mochizuki, Masami; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tanaka, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    A tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-type zinc finger domain containing protein 1 (TRAFD1) is a negative feedback regulator that controls excessive immune responses in vertebrates. The sequence of tick hemolymph TRAFD1 from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlTRAFD1) was analyzed after identification and cloning from the expressed sequence tag database. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that HlTRAFD1 transcript and protein levels after blood feeding were present in all developmental stages, and the transcript level was consistently high in all organs examined from adult female ticks upon engorgement. Knockdown of HlTRAFD1 gene by RNA interference did not affect blood feeding or oviposition. However, HlTRAFD1 silencing affected the expression of the longicin gene, a defensin-like molecule, but not the lysozyme gene. Moreover, the survival rate of HlTRAFD1-silenced ticks was lower, and the number of E. coli was higher in the hemolymph and plasmatocytes after E. coli injection compared to the control group. These results suggested that HlTRAFD1 strongly affected both the humoral and cellular immunity of ticks. PMID:26283173

  15. Using Zinc Finger Nuclease Technology to Generate CRX‐Reporter Human Embryonic Stem Cells as a Tool to Identify and Study the Emergence of Photoreceptors Precursors During Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Joseph; Mellough, Carla B; Dorgau, Birthe; Przyborski, Stefan; Moreno‐Gimeno, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to generate human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines harboring the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter at the endogenous loci of the Cone‐Rod Homeobox (CRX) gene, a key transcription factor in retinal development. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) designed to cleave in the 3′ UTR of CRX were transfected into hESCs along with a donor construct containing homology to the target region, eGFP reporter, and a puromycin selection cassette. Following selection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis of antibiotic resistant clones indicated targeted integration of the reporter cassette at the 3′ of the CRX gene, generating a CRX‐GFP fusion. Further analysis of a clone exhibiting homozygote integration of the GFP reporter was conducted suggesting genomic stability was preserved and no other copies of the targeting cassette were inserted elsewhere within the genome. This clone was selected for differentiation towards the retinal lineage. Immunocytochemistry of sections obtained from embryoid bodies and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR of GFP positive and negative subpopulations purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting during the differentiation indicated a significant correlation between GFP and endogenous CRX expression. Furthermore, GFP expression was found in photoreceptor precursors emerging during hESC differentiation, but not in the retinal pigmented epithelium, retinal ganglion cells, or neurons of the developing inner nuclear layer. Together our data demonstrate the successful application of ZFN technology to generate CRX‐GFP labeled hESC lines, which can be used to study and isolate photoreceptor precursors during hESC differentiation. Stem Cells 2016;34:311–321 PMID:26608863

  16. Stamen Abscission Zone Transcriptome Profiling Reveals New Candidates for Abscission Control: Enhanced Retention of Floral Organs in Transgenic Plants Overexpressing Arabidopsis ZINC FINGER PROTEIN21[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Suqin; Lashbrook, Coralie C.

    2008-01-01

    Organ detachment requires cell separation within abscission zones (AZs). Physiological studies have established that ethylene and auxin contribute to cell separation control. Genetic analyses of abscission mutants have defined ethylene-independent detachment regulators. Functional genomic strategies leading to global understandings of abscission have awaited methods for isolating AZ cells of low abundance and very small size. Here, we couple laser capture microdissection of Arabidopsis thaliana stamen AZs and GeneChip profiling to reveal the AZ transcriptome responding to a developmental shedding cue. Analyses focus on 551 AZ genes (AZ551) regulated at the highest statistical significance (P ≤ 0.0001) over five floral stages linking prepollination to stamen shed. AZ551 includes mediators of ethylene and auxin signaling as well as receptor-like kinases and extracellular ligands thought to act independent of ethylene. We hypothesized that novel abscission regulators might reside in disproportionately represented Gene Ontology Consortium functional categories for cell wall modifying proteins, extracellular regulators, and nuclear-residing transcription factors. Promoter-β-glucuronidase expression of one transcription factor candidate, ZINC FINGER PROTEIN2 (AtZFP2), was elevated in stamen, petal, and sepal AZs. Flower parts of transgenic lines overexpressing AtZFP2 exhibited asynchronous and delayed abscission. Abscission defects were accompanied by altered floral morphology limiting pollination and fertility. Hand-pollination restored transgenic fruit development but not the rapid abscission seen in wild-type plants, demonstrating that pollination does not assure normal rates of detachment. In wild-type stamen AZs, AtZFP2 is significantly up-regulated postanthesis. Phenotype data from transgene overexpression studies suggest that AtZFP2 participates in processes that directly or indirectly influence organ shed. PMID:18192438

  17. A novel rice C2H2-type zinc finger protein, ZFP36, is a key player involved in abscisic acid-induced antioxidant defence and oxidative stress tolerance in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Liu, Yanpei; Wen, Feng; Yao, Dongmei; Wang, Lu; Guo, Jin; Ni, Lan; Zhang, Aying; Tan, Mingpu; Jiang, Mingyi

    2014-01-01

    C2H2-type zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) have been shown to play important roles in the responses of plants to oxidative and abiotic stresses, and different members of this family might have different roles during stresses. Here a novel abscisic acid (ABA)- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-responsive C2H2-type ZFP gene, ZFP36, is identified in rice. The analyses of ZFP36-overexpressing and silenced transgenic rice plants showed that ZFP36 is involved in ABA-induced up-regulation of the expression and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Overexpression of ZFP36 in rice plants was found to elevate the activities of antioxidant enzymes and to enhance the tolerance of rice plants to water stress and oxidative stress. In contrast, an RNA interference (RNAi) mutant of ZFP36 had lower activities of antioxidant enzymes and was more sensitive to water stress and oxidative stress. ABA-induced H2O2 production and ABA-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were shown to regulate the expression of ZFP36 in ABA signalling. On the other hand, ZFP36 also regulated the expression of NADPH oxidase genes, the production of H2O2, and the expression of OsMPK genes in ABA signalling. These results indicate that ZFP36 is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence, for the tolerance of rice plants to water stress and oxidative stress, and for the regulation of the cross-talk between NADPH oxidase, H2O2, and MAPK in ABA signalling. PMID:25071223

  18. Late Onset Neuropathy with Spontaneous Clinical Remission in Mice Lacking the POZ Domain of the Transcription Factor Myc-interacting Zinc Finger Protein 1 (Miz1) in Schwann Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Moreno, Adrián; Fuhrmann, David; Zankel, Armin; Reingruber, Herbert; Kern, Lara; Meijer, Dies; Niemann, Axel; Elsässer, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Miz1 (Myc-interacting zinc finger 1) is a known regulator of the cell cycle but also has cell cycle-independent functions. Here we analyzed the role of Miz1 in the peripheral nervous system, using an early embryonic conditional knock-out model in which the Miz1 POZ domain is ablated in Schwann cells. Although the development of myelinated nerve fibers was not impaired, Miz1ΔPOZ mice acquired behavioral signs of a peripheral neuropathy at the age of 3 months. At this time, ultrastructural analysis of the sciatic nerve showed de- and dysmyelination of fibers, with massive outfoldings and a focal infiltration of macrophages. Although the expression of genes encoding structural myelin proteins, such as periaxin, myelin basic protein, and myelin protein zero, was decreased, genes associated with a negative regulation of myelination, including c-Jun, Sox2, and Id2, were up-regulated in Miz1ΔPOZ mice compared with controls. In animals older than 4 months, the motor disabilities vanished, and the ultrastructure of the sciatic nerve exhibited numerous tomacula and remyelinated fibers, as indicated by thinner myelin. No second acute attack was observed up to the age of 1 year. Thus, the deletion of the Miz1 POZ domain in Schwann cells induces an acute neuropathy with a subsequent regeneration in which there is ongoing balancing between de- and remyelination. Miz1ΔPOZ mice are impaired in the maintenance of myelinated fibers and are a promising model for studying remyelination in adult peripheral nerves. PMID:25416780

  19. Transcriptional activity of Sp1 is regulated by molecular interactions between the zinc finger DNA binding domain and the inhibitory domain with corepressors, and this interaction is modulated by MEK.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Ahn; Suh, Dong-Chul; Kang, Jae-Eun; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Park, Hyejin; Lee, Min-Nyung; Kim, Jung-Min; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Roh, Hee-Eun; Yu, Mi-Young; Choi, Kang-Yell; Kim, Kyu Yeun; Hur, Man-Wook

    2005-07-29

    Sp1 activates the transcription of many cellular and viral genes with the GC-box in either the proximal promoter or the enhancer. Sp1 is composed of several functional domains, such as the inhibitory domain (ID), two serine/threonine-rich domains, two glutamine-rich domains, three C2H2-type zinc finger DNA binding domains (ZFDBD), and a C-terminal D domain. The ZDDBD is the most highly conserved domain among the Sp-family transcription factors and plays a critical role in GC-box recognition. In this study, we investigated the protein-protein interactions occurring at the Sp1ZFDBD and the Sp1ID, and the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction. Our results found that Sp1ZFDBD and Sp1ID repressed transcription once they were targeted to the proximal promoter of the pGal4 UAS reporter fusion gene system, suggesting molecular interaction with the repressor molecules. Indeed, mammalian two-hybrid assays, GST fusion protein pull-down assays, and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that Sp1ZFDBD and Sp1ID are able to interact with corepressor proteins such as SMRT, NcoR, and BCoR. The molecular interactions appear to be regulated by MAP kinase/Erk kinase kinase (MEK). The molecular interactions between Sp1ID and the corepressor might explain the role of Sp1 as a repressor under certain circumstances. The siRNA-induced degradation of the corepressors resulted in an up-regulation of Sp1-dependent transcription. The cellular context of the corepressors and the regulation of molecular interaction between corepressors and Sp1ZFDBD or Sp1ID might be important in controlling Sp1 activity. PMID:15878880

  20. ZINC FINGER OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA12 (ZAT12) Interacts with FER-LIKE IRON DEFICIENCY-INDUCED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (FIT) Linking Iron Deficiency and Oxidative Stress Responses1[OPEN