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Sample records for garcinia brasiliensis mart

  1. Potent Schistosomicidal Constituents from Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Aline Pereira; de Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Pereira, Neusa Araújo; Anchieta, Naira Ferreira; Silva, Matheus Siqueira; Dias, Danielle Ferreira; Silva, Claudinei Alves; Barros, Giulliano Vilela; Souza, Raquel Lopes Martins; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Marques, Marcos José

    2015-06-01

    Praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However, several strains of Schistosoma mansoni are resistant to praziquantel, making it necessary to discover new drugs that might be used for its treatment. With this in mind, the properties of a schistosomicidal ethanolic extract of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, the fractions obtained by partitioning this extract, including the hexane fractions, ethyl acetate fraction, and the aqueous fraction, and the isolated compounds 7-epiclusianone, a major component from these fractions, and fukugetin were tested in vitro on adult worms of S. mansoni. Mortality, damage to membranes, and excretory system activity were observed at 100.0, 50.0, 75.0, and 14.0 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract of G. brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, its hexane fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction, and 7-epiclusianone, respectively. For 7-epiclusianone, these data were confirmed by fluorescent probe Hoechst 33 258 and resorufin. Additionally, the biocidal effect of 7-epiclusianone was even higher than the hexane fractions. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of 7-epiclusianone on the egg laying of female adult S. mansoni worms was observed in cercariae and schistossomula. Thus, 7-epiclusianone is a promising schistosomicidal compound; however, more studies are needed to elucidate its mechanism of toxicity and to evaluate the in vivo activity of this compound.

  2. In vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Sônia Aparecida; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; da Silva, Claudinei Alves; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira

    2014-02-05

    The damaging effects of sunlight to the skin has triggered studies that involve the synthesis and extraction of organic compounds from natural sources that can absorb UV radiation, and studies on polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can be used as photochemopreventive agents for reducing skin damage. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract (GbEE). We evaluated the cell viability of L929 fibroblasts after UVB exposure using a quartz plate containing the extract solution or the GbEE formulation. The in vivo photoprotective effect of the GbEE formulation was evaluated by measuring the UVB damage-induced decrease in endogenous reduced glutathione (GSH), the increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The in vitro methodology using fibroblasts showed that the photoprotective properties of the GbEE solutions and 10% GbEE formulation were similar to the commercial sunscreen (SPF-15). In vivo results demonstrated of the GbEE formulation in decreasing UVB induced-damage such as GSH depletion, an increased in MPO activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The results showed that the extract has great potential for use as a sunscreen in topical formulations in addition to UV filters.

  3. 7-Epiclusianone, a Benzophenone Extracted from Garcinia brasiliensis (Clusiaceae), Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in G1/S Transition in A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Ionta, Marisa; Ferreira-Silva, Guilherme A; Niero, Evandro L; Costa, Éderson D'Martin; Martens, Adam A; Rosa, Welton; Soares, Marisi G; Machado-Santelli, Gláucia M; Lago, João Henrique G; Santos, Marcelo H

    2015-07-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Disease stage is the most relevant factor influencing mortality. Unfortunately, most patients are still diagnosed at an advanced stage and their five-year survival rate is only 4%. Thus, it is relevant to identify novel drugs that can improve the treatment options for lung cancer. Natural products have been an important source for the discovery of new compounds with pharmacological potential including antineoplastic agents. We have previously isolated a prenylated benzophenone (7-epiclusianone) from Garcinia brasiliensis (Clusiaceae) that has several biological properties including antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines. In continuation with our studies, the present work aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved with antiproliferative activity of 7-epiclusianone in A549 cells. Our data showed that 7-epiclusianone reduced the viability of A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 16.13 ± 1.12 μM). Cells were arrested in G1/S transition and apoptosis was induced. In addition, we observed morphological changes with cytoskeleton disorganization in consequence of the treatment. Taken together, the results showed that cell cycle arrest in G1/S transition is the main mechanism involved with antiproliferative activity of 7-epiclusianone. Our results are promising and open up the prospect of using this compound in further anticancer in vivo studies.

  4. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  5. Xanthones from Garcinia propinqua Roots.

    PubMed

    Meesakul, Pornphimol; Pansanit, Acharavadee; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Machana, Theeraphan; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Garcinia propinqua roots led to the isolation and identification of a new xanthone, doitunggarcinone D (1), together with 15 known compounds (2-16). Their structures were elucidated by intensive analysis of spectroscopic data. Compounds 3, 6, 7, 14, 15 and 16 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis TISTR 088 with MIC values in the range of 1-4 µg/mL. Compounds 3, 7, 10 and 14 also showed good antibacterial activity against B. cereus TISTR 688 with MIC values ranging from 4-8 µg/mL.

  6. Benzophenones of Garcinia pseudoguttifera (Clusiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ali, S; Goundar, R; Sotheeswaran, S; Beaulieu, C; Spino, C

    2000-01-01

    Four biogenetically related benzophenones have been isolated from the Fijian Garcinia pseudoguttifera. They are: 6-hydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-3,5-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzophenone (myrtiaphenone-A); 2,2-dimethyl-8-benzoyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzopy ran (myrtiaphenone-B); 2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3,5-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzophenone (vismiaphenone-C) and a new benzophenone, 2,2-dimethyl-8-benzoyl-3,7-dihydroxy-5-methoxy- 6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-3,4-dihydrobenzopyran (pseudoguttiaphenone-A). Pseudoguttiaphenone-A could be biogenetically derived from vismiaphenone-C. The major component of G. pseudoguttifera was identified as eupha-8,24-dien-3 beta-ol.

  7. Molecular diversity of fungal endophytes isolated from Garcinia mangostana and Garcinia parvifolia.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jiun-Horng; Khoo, Chai-Hoon; Lee, Learn-Han; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen

    2010-04-01

    Garcinia is commonly found in Malaysia, but limited information is available regarding endophytic fungi associated with this plant. In this study, 24 endophytic fungi were successfully recovered from different parts of two Garcinia species. Characterization of endophytic fungi was performed based on the conserved internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequence analysis and the antimicrobial properties. Results revealed that fruits of the plant appeared to be the highest inhabitation site (38 %) as compared with others. Glomerella sp., Guignardia sp., and Phomopsis sp. appeared to be the predominant endophytic fungi group in Garcinia mangostana and Garcinia parvifolia. Phylogenetic relationships of the isolated endophytic fungi were estimated from the sequences of the ITS region. On the other hand, antibacterial screening showed 11 of the isolates possessed positive response towards pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. However, there was no direct association between certain antibacterial properties with the specific genus observed.

  8. P-Mart

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-07

    P-Mart was designed specifically to allow cancer researchers to perform robust statistical processing of publicly available cancer proteomic datasets. To date an online statistical processing suite for proteomics does not exist. The P-Mart software is designed to allow statistical programmers to utilize these algorithms through packages in the R programming language as well as offering a web-based interface using the Azure cloud technology. The Azure cloud technology also allows the release of the software via Docker containers.

  9. Four new cytotoxic xanthones from Garcinia nujiangensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhong-Yan; Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Qiao, Shi-Ping; Jiang, Chao; Shen, Guo-Rong; Cai, Mei-Xiang; Tang, Xiao-Yan

    2015-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the twigs of Garcinia nujiangensis resulted in the isolation of four new prenylated xanthones, nujiangexanthones C-F (1-4), and ten known related analogues. The structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against three cancer cell lines, the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells.

  10. New cholinesterase inhibitors from Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Khaw, Kooi-Yeong; Vikneswaran, Murugaiyah

    2014-09-01

    A triflavanone, Garcineflavanone A (1) and a biflavonol, Garcineflavonol A (2) have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae), collected in Peninsular Malaysia. Their structures were established using one and two-dimensional NMR, UV, IR and mass spectrometry and evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies of the isolated compounds were performed using docking procedure of AutoDock to disclose the binding interaction and orientation of these molecules into the active site gorge.

  11. A new prenylated biflavonoid from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Saelee, Arun; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2015-01-01

    A new prenylated biflavonoid, named dulcisbiflavonoid A, together with five biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were elucidated by analysing their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR.

  12. Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (−)-HCA

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (−)-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. PMID:23990846

  13. Antioxidative compounds from Garcinia buchananii stem bark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Salger, Mathias; Frank, Oliver; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-02-27

    An aqueous ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii showed strong antioxidative activity using H2O2 scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Activity-guided fractionation afforded three new compounds, isomanniflavanone (1), an ent-eriodictyol-(3α→6)-dihydroquercetin-linked biflavanone, 1,5-dimethoxyajacareubin (2), and the depsidone garcinisidone-G (3), and six known compounds, (2″R,3″R)-preussianon, euxanthone, 2-isoprenyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone, jacareubin, isogarcinol, and garcinol. All compounds were described for the first time in Garcinia buchananii. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR, ECD spectroscopy, and polarimetry. These natural products showed high in vitro antioxidative power, especially isomanniflavanone, with an EC50 value of 8.5 μM (H2O2 scavenging), 3.50/4.95 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-TEAC), and 7.54/14.56 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-ORAC).

  14. Attenuation of colitis injury in rats using Garcinia cambogia extract.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Samara Bonesso; de Oliveira, Caroline Candida; Acedo, Simone Coghetto; Miranda, Daniel Duarte da Conceição; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Pedrazzoli, José; Gambero, Alessandra

    2009-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic enteropathies that probably result from a dysregulated mucosal immune response. These pathologies are characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, leukocyte infiltration and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory substances. Current IBD treatment presents limitations in both efficacy and safety that stimulated the search for new active compounds. Garcinia cambogia extract has attracted interest due to its pharmacological properties, including gastroprotective effects. In this study, the antiinflammatory activity of a garcinia extract was assessed in TNBS-induced colitis rats. The results obtained revealed that garcinia administration to colitic rats significantly improved the macroscopic damage and caused substantial reductions in increases in MPO activity, COX-2 and iNOS expression. In addition, garcinia extract treatment was able to reduce PGE(2) and IL-1beta colonic levels. These antiinflammatory actions could be related to a reduction in DNA damage in isolated colonocytes, observed with the comet assay. Finally, garcinia extract caused neither mortality nor toxicity signals after oral administration. As such, the antiinflammatory effects provided by the Garcinia cambogia extract result in an improvement of several parameters analysed in experimental colitis and could provide a source for the search for new antiinflammatory compounds useful in IBD treatment.

  15. Garcinia xanthones as orally active antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojin; Li, Xiang; Sun, Haopeng; Wang, Xiaojian; Zhao, Li; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shenglie; Wang, Yanyan; Yang, Yingrui; Zeng, Su; Guo, Qinglong; You, Qidong

    2013-01-10

    Using a newly developed strategy whose key step is the regioselective propargylation of hydroxyxanthone substrates, 99 structurally diverse Garcinia natural-product-like xanthones based on gambogic acid were designed and synthesized and their in vitro antitumor activity was evaluated. A set of 40 related compounds was chosen for determination of their physicochemical properties including polar surface area, log D₇.₄, aqueous solubility, and permeability at pH 7.4. In the light of the in vitro antitumor activity and the physicochemical properties, two compounds were advanced into in vivo efficacy experiments. The antitumor activity of compound 112, administered po, showed more potent in vivo oral antitumor activity than gambogic acid.

  16. A comprehensive scientific overview of Garcinia cambogia.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    The fruit rind of Garcinia gummi-gutta, commonly known as Garcinia cambogia (syn.), is extensively used traditionally as a flavourant in fish curries due to its sharp sour taste. Additional ethnobotanical uses include its use as a digestive and a traditional remedy to treat bowel complaints, intestinal parasites and rheumatism. This small fruit, reminiscent of a pumpkin in appearance, is currently most popularly used and widely advertised as a weight-loss supplement. Studies have shown that the extracts as well as (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind, exhibited anti-obesity activity including reduced food intake and body fat gain by regulating the serotonin levels related to satiety, increased fat oxidation and decreased de novo lipogenesis. HCA is a potent inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, a catalyst for the conversion process of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which plays a key role in fatty acid, cholesterol and triglycerides syntheses. The crude extract or constituents from the plant also exerted hypolipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anthelmintic, anticholinesterase and hepatoprotective activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Phytochemical studies of various plant parts revealed the presence of mainly xanthones (e.g. carbogiol) and benzophenones (e.g. garcinol) together with organic acids (e.g. HCA) and amino acids (e.g. gamma aminobutyric acid). Currently, a large number of G. cambogia/HCA dietary supplements for weight management are being sold although the possible toxicity associated with the regular use of these supplements has raised concerns. In most cases, complaints have been related to multicomponent formulations and at this stage G. cambogia has not been confirmed as the potentially toxic culprit. This review presents a scientific overview of G. cambogia with reference to relevant botanical aspects, ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological activity as well as

  17. Antiplasmodial and other constituents from four Indonesian Garcinia spp.

    PubMed

    Elfita, Elfita; Muharni, Muharni; Latief, Madyawati; Darwati, Darwati; Widiyantoro, Ari; Supriyatna, Supriyatna; Bahti, Husein H; Dachriyanus, Dachriyanus; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Foubert, Kenne; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc

    2009-05-01

    Phytochemical investigations of four Garcinia spp. from Indonesia, i.e. Garcinia griffithii T. Anderson, Garcinia celebica L., Garcinia cornea L. and Garcinia cymosa K. Schum (Clusiaceae), have resulted in the isolation of a xanthone, 1,5-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-2,7-diprenylxanthone, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone, isoxanthochymol, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside from the stem bark of G. griffithii; friedelin and 3beta-hydroxy-23-oxo-9,16-lanostadien-26-oic acid or garcihombronane D from leaves of G. celebica; 23-hydroxy-3-oxo-cycloart-24-en-26-oic acid and epicatechin from stem bark of G. cornea; (+/-)-morelloflavone, morelloflavone-7-O-beta-D-glucoside or fukugiside, the triterpene 3beta-hydroxy-5-glutinen-28-oic acid and canophyllol from stem bark of G. cymosa. The xanthone and garcihombronane D displayed a selective activity against Plasmodium falciparum; isoxanthochymol and the triterpene beta-hydroxy-5-glutinen-28-oic acid a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal activity.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of European pine marten, Martes martes.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wu, Dan; Malyarchuk, Boris

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We undertook the first sequencing of the entire mitogenome of Martes martes. The genome is 16,486 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a control region. The total base composition of the mitogenome is 31.9% for A, 27. 6% for C, 25.8% for T and 14.7% for G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage do not differ significantly from other martens. This mitogenome sequence data might be useful for phylogenetic and systematic analyses within the genus Martes.

  19. Diuretic activity of leaves of garcinia cambogia in rats.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Githa E; Mathew, B; Shaneeb, M M; Nyanthara, B

    2011-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluated . The rats treated with ethanol extract of Garcinia cambogia and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed higher urine output when compared to the respective control. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts have showed a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group.

  20. Cytotoxic benzophenone and triterpene from Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Kamal, Nik Nur Syazni Nik Mohamed; Osman, Hasnah; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of G. hombroniana. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of G. hombroniana yielded two new (1, 9) and thirteen known compounds which were characterized by the spectral techniques of NMR, UV, IR and EI/ESI-MS, and identified as; 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone(1), 2,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (2), 2,3',4,6-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (3), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (4), 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (5),3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxyflavanone (6), 3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavone (7), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside (8), 18(13→17)-abeo-3β-acetoxy-9α,13β-lanost-24E-en-26-oic acid (9), garcihombronane B (10), garcihombronane D (11), friedelan-3-one (12), lupeol (13), stigmasterol (14) and stigmasterol glucoside (15). In the in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7, DBTRG, U2OS and PC-3 cell lines, compounds 1 and 9 displayed good cytotoxic effects against DBTRG cancer cell lines. Compounds 1-8 were also found to possess significant antioxidant activities. Owing to these properties, this study can be further extended to explore more significant bioactive components of this plant.

  1. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80 % (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2 µM for 3 and 6.3 µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3 µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives.

  2. Caged polyprenylated xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; He, Shiwen; Tang, Chu; Li, Jun; Yang, Guangzhong

    2016-03-01

    Five new caged polyprenylated xanthones (1a, 2a, 3, 10a and 10b), and 12 known related compounds were isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were investigated in vitro. Most of xanthones showed modest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase.

  3. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  4. Potential use ofGarcinia kola as hop substitute in lager beer brewing.

    PubMed

    Aniche, G N; Uwakwe, G U

    1990-09-01

    The chemical, brewing and anti-microbial properties of a tropical seed,Garcinia kola, were compared with traditional hops. Treatment ofGarcinia kola with methanolic lead acetate produced a yellow precipitate from which organic acids (alpha acids) were contirmed to be present by thin-layer chromatography. Hops, however, had a higher concentration of organic acids thanGarcinia kola. Laboratory brewing trials withGarcinia kola and hops gave beers with simillar chemical properties. Organoleptically,Garcinia kola beer was as acceptable to tasters as hopped beer except that it had an improved bitterness.Garcinia kola and hop extracts exerted similar anti-microbial effects on two beer spollage micro-organisms (Lactobacillus delbruckii andCandida vini).

  5. [Research progress of chemistry and anti-cancer activities of natural products from Chinese Garcinia plants].

    PubMed

    Fu, Wen-Wei; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-02-01

    Garcinia plants are one of the rich sources of natural xanthones and benzophenones which have attracted a great deal of attention from the scientists in the fields of chemistry and pharmacology. Recently, many structurally unique constituents with various bioactivities, especially anti-tumor activity, have been isolated from Garcinia plants. This concise review focused on the anti-cancer activity natural products isolated from Chinese Garcinia plants, and the research finding by authors and collaborators over the past several years were cited.

  6. Molecular detection and identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, G S; Aleff, R A; Kline, B C; da Silva Lacaz, C

    1997-01-01

    Nearly 800 nucleotides from the 5' terminus of the 28S ribosomal gene of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were sequenced, and a 14-base DNA probe specific for this species was identified. Hybridization results showed that the probe identified P. brasiliensis ribosomal DNA in a panel of ribosomal DNAs representing a total of 48 species of fungi. PMID:9196219

  7. Nocardia brasiliensis: mycetoma induction and growth cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Conde, C; Melendro, E I; Fresán, M; Ortiz-Ortiz, L

    1982-01-01

    The capacity of Nocardia brasiliensis to induce mycetoma in BALB/c mice in the absence of adjuvants was studied. Whether the virulence of N. brasiliensis varied in the different phases of its growth cycle was also determined. The results showed that N. brasiliensis suspended in 0.15 M NaCl and injected into the footpads of mice were able to induce mycetoma after only 14 days of infection, as evidenced by histological studies. Data are also presented indicating that the virulence of N. brasiliensis did not vary during the different phases of its growth curve. The differences in virulence reported between N. brasiliensis and other nocardiae are discussed and explained in terms of several variables in the experimental designs used: among these variables are mouse genotype, route of inoculation, and model for determining virulence. Images PMID:7152671

  8. A new bixanthone derivative from the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shixiu; Jiang, Yuyang; Li, Jiong; Qiu, Shengxiang; Chen, Tao

    2014-01-01

    A new bixanthone derivative, garciobioxanthone (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia, together with 11 known compounds. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR and other spectroscopic analysis. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the references.

  9. Opaciniols A-C, new terpenoids from Garcinia opaca.

    PubMed

    Mori, Reika; Nugroho, Alfarius Eko; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Wong, Chin Piow; Kaneda, Toshio; Shirota, Osamu; Hadi, A Hamid A; Morita, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Three new terpenoids, opaciniols A-C (1-3), were isolated from the barks of Garcinia opaca, together with malabarica-17,21-dien-3β,14-diol (4) and 13βH-malabarica-14,17,21-trien-3β-ol (5). Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data. 3 and 4 showed moderate cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells.

  10. Identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by gold nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Jaciara F. S.; Castilho, Maiara L.; Cardoso, Maria A. G.; Carreiro, Andrea P.; Martin, Airton A.; Raniero, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis) is a thermal dimorphic fungus and causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiological data shows that it is mainly concentrated in Central and South America countries, with most registered cases in Colombia, Brazil, and Venezuela. The histopathological similarity with others fungal infection makes the diagnosis of P. brasiliensis more complicated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find a positive and negative test for P. brasiliensis using gold nanoprobes as a new tool for P. brasiliensis detection. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of gold chloride with sodium citrate. The results of this procedure is a wine-red solution with a maximum absorption in the range of ~520-530nm. A specific P. brasiliensis sequence of oligonucleotide was bonded to the nanoparticles, which maintained the wine-red color. The color changes from red to blue for negative diagnostic and is unchanged for a positive test. The H-bond interaction of DNA with the complementary DNA keeps strands together and forms double helical structure, maintaining the colloid stability. However, for non-complimentary DNA sequence the nanoprobes merge into a cluster, changing the light absorption.

  11. Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species

    PubMed Central

    Sosef, Marc S.M.; Dauby, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. Garcinia chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia gnetoides and Garcinia granulata are both synonyms of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia zenkeri is a synonym of Garcinia densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. Garcinia brevipedicellata is a synonym of Garcinia afzelii, as is Garcinia antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of Garcinia smeathmannii. PMID:23233817

  12. Three new xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yating; Li, Dahong; Jia, Cuicui; Xue, Chunmei; Bai, Jiao; Li, Zhanlin; Hua, Huiming

    2016-04-01

    Three new prenylated xanthones, garcinexanthones G-I (1-3), together with fifteen known ones (4-18) were identified from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Most of the compounds exhibited inhibitory effects against HL-60 (human leukemia), A549 (human lung cancer), and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines. Among them, compounds 7, 17, and 13 exhibited the most pronounced growth inhibitory activity against HL-60, A549, and MCF-7 cell lines with GI50 values of 1.68, 4.88, and 6.28 μM, respectively.

  13. Acute liver failure associated with Garcinia cambogia use.

    PubMed

    Corey, Rebecca; Werner, K Tuesday; Singer, Andrew; Moss, Adyr; Smith, Maxwell; Noelting, Jessica; Rakela, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Millions of Americans regularly use herbal supplements, but many are unaware of the potential hidden dangers. Numerous supplements have been associated with hepatotoxicity and, indeed dietary/herbal supplements represent an increasingly common source of acute liver injury. We report a case of acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation associated with the use of Garcinia cambogia, a supplement widely promoted for weight loss. When patients present with acute hepatitis or liver failure from an unknown etiology, a careful history of supplement use should be performed.

  14. Cytotoxic acylphloroglucinol derivatives from the twigs of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Kan, Winnie L T; Zhou, Yan; Song, Jing-Zheng; Han, Quan-Bin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Cho, Chi-Hin; Rudd, John A; Lin, Ge; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-02-26

    An unusual polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol derivative unsubstituted at C-2 and C-6, garcicowin A (1), together with three other new (garcicowins B-D, 2-4) and nine known analogues, was isolated and characterized from the twigs of Garcinia cowa. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against two cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116) and against normal colon cells (CCD-18Co), and the results demonstrated their selective toxicity toward the cancer cells.

  15. Oxidative stress response in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Campos, Elida G; Jesuino, Rosália Santos Amorim; Dantas, Alessandra da Silva; Brígido, Marcelo de Macedo; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2005-06-30

    Survival of pathogenic fungi inside human hosts depends on evasion from the host immune system and adaptation to the host environment. Among different insults that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has to handle are reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by the human host cells, and by its own metabolism. Knowing how the parasite deals with reactive species is important to understand how it establishes infection and survives within humans. The initiative to describe the P. brasiliensis transcriptome fostered new approaches to study oxidative stress response in this organism. By examining genes related to oxidative stress response, one can evaluate the parasite's ability to face this condition and infer about possible ways to overcome this ability. We report the results of a search of the P. brasiliensis assembled expressed sequence tag database for homologous sequences involved in oxidative stress response. We described several genes coding proteins involved in antioxidant defense, for example, catalase and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes, peroxiredoxin, cytochrome c peroxidase, glutathione synthesis enzymes, thioredoxin, and the transcription factors Yap1 and Skn7. The transcriptome analysis of P. brasiliensis reveals a pathogen that has many resources to combat reactive species. Besides characterizing the antioxidant defense system in P. brasiliensis, we also compared the ways in which different fungi respond to oxidative damage, and we identified the basic features of this response.

  16. Curiosity --El nuevo robot explorador de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte llamado Curiosity tiene grandes preguntas que responder una vez que llegue a Marte. Infórmese sobre la misión con el analista de trayectoria de la NASA Fern...

  17. Dietary Garcinia cambogia does not modify skin properties of mice with or without excessive sucrose intake.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Daichi; Hirakawa, Hachidai; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Nakamura, Yoshinori; Shiba, Nobuya; Nakanishi, Tomonori; Iwamoto, Hisao; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2005-04-01

    The influence of 3.3% Garcinia cambogia extract on the properties of mouse skin with or without 10% sucrose water loading was investigated. Mice (7-week-old) were given free access to a control diet or a diet containing Garcinia cambogia extract. They were also given water alone or both water and sucrose water. Their skin was compared by both biochemical and histological methods. The collagen and triacylglycerol contents were not significantly different among the four groups. Similarly, electron microscopy revealed no differences in the thickness of the dermis layer or the subcutaneous tissue layer. Mice given the diet containing Garcinia cambogia tended to have a reduced total number of adipocytes, but not significantly. These results suggest that Garcinia cambogia supplementation for at least 4 weeks does not induce a negative effect on skin properties in mice irrespective of excessive sucrose intake.

  18. Hypolipemic effect of Garcinia cambogia in obese women.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Schneider, Ricardo; Klein-Júnior, Luiz C; Falavigna, Andressa; Piazza, Ivone; Rossetto, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia cambogia seems to promote weight reduction and improvement on lipid profile by its major compound, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), blocking ATP-citratelyase, potentially inhibiting lipogenesis. Furthermore, it is suggested that its extract is able to change the adipokine levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of G. cambogia on the lipid profile, endocrine, calorimetric and anthropometric parameters of obese women. The women (BMI > 25 kg/m(2) ; age 25-60 years), divided in treated (n = 30) and control (n = 13) groups, received 2.4 g (800 mg 3×/day) of garcinia extract (50% of HCA) or placebo during 60 days, respectively, as well as dietary control. Weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio and percentage of fat mass, resting metabolic rate, respiratory coefficient, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL, leptin and insulin serum levels were evaluated. TG was significantly reduced in the treated group (p = 0.0002) and the post-treatment variation was different compared to the placebo group (p = 0.04). No significant response was observed on other variables of the lipid profile, or on the anthropometric and calorimetric parameters. Leptin and insulin levels did not change significantly after the treatment. The short-term treatment with G. cambogia demonstrated a hypotriglyceridemic effect, which does not appear to be related to changes in leptinemia.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity of Garcinia or Hydroxycitric Acid: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Li Oon; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer. Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid (HCA) extracted from Garcinia has been widely used. The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Majority of reports demonstrated the efficacy of Garcinia/HCA without any toxicity found. However, a few clinical toxicity reports on weight-loss diet supplements of which some were combinations that included Garcinia/HCA as an active ingredient showed potential toxicity towards spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, it cannot be concluded that Garcinia/HCA is unsafe. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature. To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of the use of Garcinia/HCA and comprehensive scientific evidence had shown “no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)” at levels up to 2800 mg/day, suggesting its safety for use. PMID:22924054

  20. A data mart for operations analysis.

    PubMed

    Isken, M W; Littig, S J; West, M

    2001-01-01

    In this article we describe the evolution and architecture of a data mart developed to address the modeling and analysis needs of healthcare operations analysts. More specifically, the data mart is used in projects relating to demand analysis, forecasting, capacity planning, and service system design for a healthcare system consisting of a large tertiary care hospital and a smaller community hospital. The primary focus of the mart is on the detailed movement of inpatients through each hospital, although most component data tables include outpatient information such as emergency center visits, surgical cases, cardiac catheterization cases, and short-stay visits. We show that the data mart goes well beyond consolidating data from different sources by including a number of complex, precalculated fields, data structures, and function libraries that are specific to the needs of operations analysts. We discuss several outstanding and challenging design issues that should be of interest to the data warehouse vendor community.

  1. A new xanthone derivative from twigs of Garcinia nobilis.

    PubMed

    Fouotsa, Hugues; Tatsimo, Simplice J N; Neumann, Beate; Michalek, Carmela; Mbazoa, Celine Djama; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem; Sewald, Norbert; Lannang, Alain Meli

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the twigs of Garcinia nobilis led to the isolation of a new xanthone, named l-hydroxy-2,5-dimethoxyxanthone (1), together with 15 known compounds (2-16). The structures of the new and known compounds were established by means of spectroscopic methods and by comparison with previously reported data. The structure of compound 1 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 1-16 were tested for their cytotoxic activity against human cervix carcinoma cell line KB-3-1. Compounds 5 and 11 showed moderate activity while others showed weak biological activity in these cytotoxicity assays. Compounds 4 and 9 were found to be inactive.

  2. Recent research on bioactive xanthones from natural medicine: Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Jia, Buyun; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Xuerui; Zhu, Guangyu; Chen, Weidong

    2015-08-01

    Garcinia hanburyi, a tropical plant found in south Asia, has a special long history in the development of both medicine and art. This review mainly focuses on the pharmacy research of the bioactive compounds from the plant in recent years. Preparative and analysis separation methods were introduced. Moreover, the chemical structure of the isolated compounds was included. The studies of biological activities of the caged xanthones from the plant, including antitumor, anti-HIV-1, antibacterial, and neurotrophic activities, were reviewed in detail. Furthermore, the mechanisms of its antitumor activity were also reviewed. As mentioned above, some of the xanthones from G. hanburyi can be promising drug candidates, which is worth studying. However, we still need much evidence to prove their efficacy and safety. So, further research is critical for the future application of xanthones from G. hanburyi.

  3. New depsidones and xanthone from the roots of Garcinia schomburgkiana.

    PubMed

    Sukandar, Edwin Risky; Siripong, Pongpun; Khumkratok, Suttira; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2016-06-01

    Two new depsidones, schomburgdepsidones A and B (1 and 2), and one new xanthone, schomburgxanthone A (3), together with eight known compounds (4-11) were isolated from the roots of Garcinia schomburgkiana. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The in vitro cytotoxicity of all 11 compounds was evaluated against the KB, HeLa S-3, HT-29, MCF-7 and Hep G2 human cancer cell lines. Compound 7 performed a good cytotoxicity against the KB, Hela S-3 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 3.17-6.07μM. Compound 3 exhibited a good cytotoxicity against the KB cell line only, with an IC50 value of 8.14μM.

  4. Antibacterial tetraoxygenated xanthones from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Auranwiwat, Chiramet; Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Saiai, Aroonchai; Pyne, Stephen G; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee

    2014-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa led to the isolation of two novel tetraoxygenated xanthones, garcicowanones A (1) and B (2), together with eight known tetraoxygeanted xanthones. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688, Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Escherichia coli TISTR 780, Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781, Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 292 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. α-Mangostin showed potent activity (MIC 0.25-1 μg/mL) against three Gram-positive strains and garcicowanone A and β-mangostin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus with the same MIC values of 0.25 μg/mL.

  5. Chemistry and biology of the caged Garcinia xanthones.

    PubMed

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-09-03

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70 % of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development.

  6. Anti-Helicobacter pylori xanthones of Garcinia fusca.

    PubMed

    Nontakham, Jannarin; Charoenram, Napaporn; Upamai, Wanchalerm; Taweechotipatr, Malai; Suksamrarn, Sunit

    2014-08-01

    A new geranylated xanthone derivative, fuscaxanthone I (1), along with nine xanthones (2-9 and 11), a biphenyl (10) and three biflavonoids (12-14) were isolated from the roots of Garcinia fusca Pierre. Compounds 8, 10 and 11-14 were reported from this plant species for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori. Cowaxanthone (5) and fukugiside (14) exhibited stronger inhibitory activity against H. pylori DMST reference strain at MICs 4.6 and 10.8 μM, respectively, than that of the control metronidazole. Isojacareubin (8) displayed the most potent activity against H. pylori HP40 clinical isolate with MIC 23.9 μM, which was approximately two times greater than that of the standard drug amoxicillin.

  7. Four new triterpenoids isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Min; Liu, Qun-Fang; Zhao, Yi-Wu; Liu, Shuang-Zhu; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Ru-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Four new triterpenoids, 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (1), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (2), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3',4'-O-diacetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (3), and 3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (4), together with six known triterpenoids, 3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), 2-O-acetylmaslinic acid (7), 3-O-acetylmaslinic acid (8), betulinic acid (9), and 2α-hydroxy-3β-O-acetylbetulinic acid (10), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Garcinia hanburyi resin. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data and chemical methods.

  8. Antibacterial and antioxidant xanthones and benzophenone from garcinia smeathmannii.

    PubMed

    Fouotsa, Hugues; Lannang, Alain Meli; Dzoyem, Jean Paul; Tatsimo, Simplice J N; Neumann, Beate; Mbazoa, Celine Djama; Razakarivony, Andrianambinina Andriamarolahy; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem; Eloff, Jacobus N; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-05-01

    A new prenylated xanthone, 1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxy-2-(3-methybut-2-enyl)-4-(3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl) xanthone (1), and a new benzophenone (2), together with four known xanthone derivatives, cheffouxanthone (3), smeathxanthone A (4), smeathxanthone B (5), ananixanthone (6), and two pentacyclic triterpenes, epi-friedelinol (7) and friedelin (8), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia smeathmannii. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and compound 2 was further characterized and confirmed by single X-ray analysis. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibited the most prominent antibacterial activity against gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 8, 8, and 2 µg/mL, respectively, while compounds 1, 3, 4, and 6 showed the capacity to scavenge free radicals.

  9. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    PubMed Central

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2011-01-01

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70% of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development. PMID:20648491

  10. Overinfection by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Gouty Crystal Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla-Abadía, F.; Vélez, J. D.; Zárate-Correa, L. C.; Carrascal, E.; Guarín, N.; Castañeda-Ramírez, C. R.; Cañas, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic South American systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis). The main clinical form of disease is pulmonary, but all organs may be involved. We report a case of overinfection by P. brasiliensis in chronic gouty arthritis affecting the proximal phalanx of the right hallux. The patient required proximal amputation and long-term antifungal therapy. PMID:23251162

  11. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of benzophenones and xanthones from edible fruits of Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Lyles, James T; Negrin, Adam; Khan, Shabana I; He, Kan; Kennelly, Edward J

    2014-06-01

    Species of Garcinia have been used to combat malaria in traditional African and Asian medicines, including Ayurveda. In the current study, we have identified antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from edible Garcinia species by testing for in vitro inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Whole fruits of Garcinia xanthochymus, G. mangostana, G. spicata, and G. livingstonei were extracted and tested for antiplasmodial activity. Garcinia xanthochymus was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation to identify active partitions. Purified benzophenones (1-9) and xanthones (10-18) were then screened in the plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase assay and tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian (Vero) cells. The benzophenones guttiferone E (4), isoxanthochymol (5), and guttiferone H (6), isolated from G. xanthochymus, and the xanthones α-mangostin (15), β-mangostin (16), and 3-isomangostin (17), known from G. mangostana, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values in the range of 4.71-11.40 µM. Artemisinin and chloroquine were used as positive controls and exhibited IC50 values in the range of 0.01-0.24 µM. The identification of antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from G. xanthochymus and G. mangostana provides evidence for the antiplasmodial activity of Garcinia species and warrants further investigation of these fruits as dietary sources of chemopreventive compounds.

  12. Nuclear staining of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia.

    PubMed

    McEwen, J G; Restrepo, B I; Salazar, M E; Restrepo, A

    1987-10-01

    More than 80% of the conidia produced by two different isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, were found to be uninucleate; however, when they were incubated at 37 degrees C and began to transform into yeast cells, they became bi- or multi-nucleated, so that when most of the conidia had already transformed into yeast cells (72-96 h), there were at least four or five nuclei per cell in approximately 80% of the conidia examined.

  13. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Alison M.; Sluzevich, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions. PMID:28348912

  14. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection in Small Wild Mammals.

    PubMed

    Sbeghen, Mônica Raquel; Zanata, Thais Bastos; Macagnan, Rafaela; de Abreu, Kaue Cachuba; da Cunha, Willian Luiz; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis prevalent in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The etiological agents of PCM are the thermo-dimorphic fungi Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. Taking into account that the natural habitat of Paracoccidioides spp. is still undefined, domestic and wild animals could be useful as indicators of Paracoccidioides spp. presence in endemic areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the infection of small wild mammals by P. brasiliensis in an endemic area for human PCM. Samples from 38 wild mammals from different species such as Akodon sp., Thaptomys nigrita, Euryoryzomys russatus, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Monodelphis sp., Sooretamys angouya, Abrawayaomys angouya, Abrawayaomys ruschii and Akodontinae sp. were evaluated by ELISA, immunodiffusion, histopathology, nested PCR and culture. The overall positivity to gp43 observed in the ELISA was 23.7%. Samples from heart and liver of one O. nigripes were PCR positive, and the animal was also seropositive to gp43 in ELISA. This study showed that wild animals living in endemic areas for PCM are infected with P. brasiliensis and can be valuable epidemiological markers of the fungus presence in the environment. This is the first evidence of PCM infection in Akodon sp., E. russatus, T. nigrita and O. nigripes.

  15. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-12-07

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients.

  16. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients. PMID:28018115

  17. Thyroid peroxidase inhibition by Kalanchoe brasiliensis aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A C; Rosenthal, D; Carvalho, D P

    2000-05-01

    Flavonoids are known inhibitors of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and some are components of Kalanchoe brasiliensis, a plant used in popular medicine to treat tissue injuries, enlarged ganglia and peptic ulcer. As K. brasiliensis extract is currently used, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of K. brasiliensis aqueous extract on TPO activity. We show here that TPO iodide-oxidation activity was significantly inhibited by K. brasiliensis aqueous extract and that TPO inhibition seems to be competitive, since the enzyme V(max) was unchanged and K(m) for iodide was significantly increased in the presence of the plant extract. Furthermore, TPO inhibitory activity produced by K. brasiliensis extract was unchanged after boiling or by incubation with hepatic enzymes (activated S9 fraction), suggesting that at least the antithyroid component of this plant infusion could probably reach systemic circulation. We also report that K. brasiliensis aqueous extract is able to scavenge H(2)O(2), in vitro. As H(2)O(2) is an essential TPO cofactor, it is possible that the H(2)O(2) trapping effect of K. brasiliensis may be responsible, at least in part, for the inhibition of the iodide-oxidation reaction catalysed by this enzyme. Thus, K. brasiliensis aqueous extract has antithyroid effects in vitro, suggesting that its chronic consumption could contribute to the development of goitre and hypothyroidism, mainly in areas of low iodine intake.

  18. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Lim, Jeong-A; Han, Sang-Wook; Heu, Sunggi

    2014-01-01

    The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed. PMID:25288994

  19. Study on Antibacterial Activity of the Bark of Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Nilutpal Sharma; Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Gogoi, Barnali

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb. is an important and endemic medicinal plant of Assam which has been used by various ethnic communities of Northeast India to treat various disorders like dysentery, dyspepsia, and biliousness. The plant is considered to be containing much medicinal value and is also eaten raw or made into pickles by the local people. Our present study has been focused on the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of the bark of Garcinia lanceifolia which may lead us to a scientific evidence of the use of this plant in cases of dysentery and diarrhoea. PMID:27437444

  20. Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Raquel; Bossart, Gregory D.; St. Leger, Judy A.; Dalton, Leslie M.; Reif, John S.; Schaefer, Adam M.; McCarthy, Peter J.; Fair, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P. brasiliensis, 73% with those of L. loboi, and 93% with those of P. lutzii. Parsimony analysis placed DNA sequences from dolphins within a cluster with human P. brasiliensis strains. This cluster was the sister taxon to P. lutzii and L. loboi. Our molecular data support previous findings and suggest that a novel uncultivated strain of P. brasiliensis restricted to cutaneous lesions in dolphins is probably the cause of lacaziosis/lobomycosis, herein referred to as paracoccidioidomycosis ceti. PMID:27869614

  1. Antioxidant compounds from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Tong, Woei-Yenn; Ibrahim, Darah

    2016-08-01

    A new xanthone, namely garcinexanthone G (1), along with eight known compounds, stigmasta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (2), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (3), 3β-acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanan-28,13β-olide (4), 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (5), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone (6), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (7), kaempferol (8) and quercetin (9), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR, and mass spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties based on the DPPH radical scavenging activities. Results showed that 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone and quercetin showed significant antioxidant activities with EC50 values of 16.20 and 12.68 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the control, ascorbic acid (7.4 μg/ml).

  2. Identification of molecular markers to study the Garcinia spp. diversity.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Utpala; Nandakishore, O P; Rosana, O B; Babu, K Nirmal; Kumar, R Senthil; Parthasarathy, V A

    2016-06-01

    The genus Garcinia shows a considerable variation in its morphological characters such as leaf, flower and fruit with taxonomic ambiguity. It is a potential under-exploited multipurpose crop that gained considerable attention for the presence of (-) hydroxycitric acid, an anti-obesity compound, in its fruit rind and leaves. Here, we evaluated the genetic relationship through molecular markers among the selected 9 species commonly available in the Western Ghats and the Northeastern Himalayan foot hills of India. The nucleotide sequence data obtained from two prominent monomorphic bands generated in ISSR profiling of the species was utilized for the study. The selected bands were found to be of ITS region (700 bp) and partial region of KNOX-1 gene (600 bp). The evolutionary cluster was formed using MEGA5 software. The study indicated 2 major clusters, influenced by floral morphology of the species and availability of (-) hydroxycitric acid in their fruit rinds. In the subclusters, one species from the Western Ghats were paired with another from Northeastern Himalayas with relatively similar morphological traits.

  3. In vivo antitrypanosomal activity of Garcinia hombroniana aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S K; Rasedee, A; Mohd Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

    2015-06-01

    The anti-Trypanosoma evansi activity of Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) leaves aqueous extract was tested on experimentally infected Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment of infected rats with G. hombroniana extract resulted in a significantly extended post-infection longevity (p < 0.05), compared to the untreated control group. The possible mode of antitrypanosomal effect of the plant extract was also investigated on cultured T. evansi in HMI-9 medium with the addition of 25 µg/ml G. hombroniana aqueous extract. It was observed that the addition of G. hombroniana extract resulted in the inhibition of trypanosomal kinetoplast division, with no significant inhibitory effect on nuclear division. It is concluded from the current study that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has a potential antitrypanosomal activity through the inhibition of kinetoplast division, as one of the possible mechanisms of its antitrypanosomal effect. This plant could serve as a possible source of new antitrypanosomal compounds.

  4. An overview of anticancer activity of Garcinia and Hypericum.

    PubMed

    Brito, Lavínia de C; Rangel Berenger, Ana Luiza; Figueiredo, Maria Raquel

    2017-03-28

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide (approximately 8.2 million cases/year) and, over the next two decades, a 70% increase in new cancer cases is expected. Through analysis of the available drugs between the years of 1930 and 2014, it was found that 48% were either natural products or their derivatives. This proportion increased to 66% when semi-synthetic products were included. The family Clusiaceae Juss. (Malpighiales) includes approximately 1000 species distributed throughout all tropical and temperate regions. The phytochemical profile of this family includes many chemicals with interesting pharmacological activities, including anticancer activities. This study includes an overview of the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of secondary metabolites from Garcinia and Hypericum and the mechanisms involved in this activity. Hypericum no longer belong to Clusiaceae family, but was considered in the past by taxonomists, due to similarities with this family. Research in the area has shown that several compounds belonging to different chemical classes exhibit activity in several tumor cell lines in different experimental models. This review shows the significant antineoplasic activity of these compounds, in particular of these two genera and validates the importance of natural products in the search for anticancer drugs.

  5. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia Indica Fruit Rind Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the easily reproducible biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature with extract prepared using three year old dried Garcinia Indica (GI) fruit rind. Due to the presence of two major bioactive compounds garcinol and hydroxy citric acid, rinds of GI fruit exhibit anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. The quantity of fruit rind extract directed the morphology of the as synthesized particles. The nucleation and growth of AuNPs and catalytic activity are studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The crystalline nature of biosynthesized AuNPs is corroborated by X-ray Diffraction techniques. The morphology is studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of AuNPs. As the Fermi potential of noble metal NPs becomes more negative, they are used in various electron transfer processes. The AuNPs produced using GI extract showed excellent catalytic activity when used as a catalyst in the reduction of well-known toxic pollutant 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-Aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of excess sodium borohydride.

  6. Preussianone, a new flavanone-chromone biflavonoid from Garcinia preussii Engl.

    PubMed

    Messi, Bernadette Biloa; Ndjoko-Ioset, Karine; Hertlein-Amslinger, Barbara; Lannang, Alain Meli; Nkengfack, Augustin E; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Hostettmann, Kurt; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2012-05-21

    A new flavanone-chromone biflavonoid, preussianone (1), has been isolated from the leaves of Garcinia preussii, along with four known biflavonoids. The absolute stereostructures were elucidated by chemical, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The biological properties of the new biflavonoid against several bacterial strains were evaluated.

  7. Isoprenylated xanthone and benzophenone constituents of the pericarp of Garcinia planchonii.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Duong Hoang; Ha, Ly Dieu; Tran, Phuong Thu; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa Dieu

    2014-12-01

    A new xanthone, planchoxanthone (1), together with six known compounds, garcinianone A (2), cowanin (3), rubraxanthone (4), f-mangostin (5), dulcisxanthone B (6), and guttiferone Q (7), were isolated from an n-hexane extract of the pericap of Garcinia planchonii. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds was tested using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay.

  8. The potential health benefit of polyisoprenylated benzophenones from Garcinia and related genera: ethnobotanical and therapeutic importance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Sharma, Shelly; Chattopadhyay, Sunil Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The diversity present in biological activities and the medicinal significance of natural products provide a renewed interest in the use of natural compounds and, more importantly, their role as a basis for drug development. Advancements in the field of natural product chemistry provide valuable information on Garcinia fruits which revealed the presence of biologically important secondary metabolites named as polyisoprenylated benzophenones (PIBs). They are mainly present in the genus Garcinia (Guttiferae) which occupies a prominent position in the history of natural products. Compared to the long history of medicinal uses and widespread research on Garcinia, the study of polyisoprenylated benzophenones was relatively limited. During recent years, these PIBs have been recognized as interesting and valuable biologically active secondary metabolites as many of the isolated polyisoprenylated benzophenones exhibited significant cytotoxic activity in in vitro and in vivo assay. During past decades, some promising advances had been achieved in understanding the chemistry and pharmacology of polyisoprenylated benzophenones. However, there has been not any systematic review on the ethnobotanical importance, chemistry, isolation techniques, structure activity relationships and the biological activities of polyisoprenylated benzophenones. In this review, the biological activity of different structures of polyisoprenylated benzophenones isolated from genus Clusia, Garcinia, Vismia, Allanblackia, Moronobea, Symphonia, Hypericum, Tovomita, Tovomiptosis and Ochrocarpus have been described. Therefore, the goal of this review article would be a valuable reference for the natural product chemists and biologists working on these PIBs. Furthermore, the review article on polyisoprenylated benzophenones would also be useful from the drug discovery point of view as cytotoxic agents in near future. This review focuses our understanding about the specific biological effects of Garcinia

  9. Characterization of proapoptotic compounds from the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Gao, Xue-Mei; Xu, Hong-Xi; Luo, Kathy Qian

    2014-05-23

    Twenty compounds from Garcinia oblongifolia were screened for proapoptotic activity using FRET-based HeLa-C3 sensor cells. Among them, oblongifolins F and G (1 and 2), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-13,13-dimethyl-2H-pyran[7,6-b]xanthone (3), nigrolineaxanthone T (4), and garcicowin B (5) showed significant proapoptotic activity at a concentration of 10 μM. Bioassessments were then performed to evaluate the potential of these compounds for therapeutic application. All five compounds showed significant cytotoxicity and caspase-3-activating ability in cervical cancer HeLa cells, with compounds 1 and 2 having the highest potencies. All five compounds specifically induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, which could be prevented by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. In particular, 3 induced apoptosis through mitotic arrest. Compounds 1-5 displayed similar IC50 values (3.9-16.5 μM) against the three cancer cell lines HeLa, MDA-MB-435, and HepG2. In addition, compounds 1, 2, and 4 exhibited similar and potent IC50 values (2.4-5.1 μM) against several breast and colon cancer cell lines, including those overexpressing either HER2 or P-glycoprotein. HER2 and P-glycoprotein are known factors that confer resistance to anticancer drugs in cancer cells. This is the first study on the cytotoxicity, caspase-3-activing ability, and specificity of proapoptotic compounds isolated from G. oblongifolia in HeLa cells. The potential application of these compounds against HER2- or P-glycoprotein-overexpressing cancer cells was investigated.

  10. c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated anti-inflammatory effects of Garcinia subelliptica in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Chang; Cho, Sayeon

    2016-03-01

    Garcinia plants have been traditionally used to treat inflammatory diseases, such as skin infections and pain, in many regions including South‑East Asia. Garcinia subelliptica, a plant of the Garcinia species widely distributed from Japan to Thailand, has been reported to contain components similar to other Garcinia plants that exhibit anti‑inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to explore the anti‑inflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of Garcinia subelliptica (EGS) in macrophages, as there are no previous systemic studies that have investigated the effects of Garcinia subelliptica on inflammation. Non‑cytotoxic concentrations of EGS (≤200 µg/ml) were observed to reduce nitric oxide production by modulating iNOS expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The expression of cyclooxygenase‑2, the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandin E2, was notably reduced by EGS. EGS treatment inhibited the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including IL‑6 and IL‑1β, however, not TNF‑α. Reduced production of inflammatory mediators by EGS was followed by reduced phosphorylation of c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) however, not of other mitogen‑activated protein kinases and nuclear factor‑κB. These results indicate that EGS selectively inhibits the excessive production of inflammatory mediators in LPS‑stimulated murine macrophages by reducing the activation of JNK, suggesting that EGS is a candidate for modulating severe inflammation.

  11. Hydrolytic enzymes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis--ecological aspects.

    PubMed

    Benoliel, Bruno; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Reis, Viviane Castelo-Branco; Siqueira, Saulo J L de; Parachin, Nádia S; Torres, Fernando A G

    2005-06-30

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes paracoccidioidomycosis. The yeast form of this pathogen is found in the animal host whereas the mycelial form is recovered from living and non-living organic material. The sole carbon source available in these habitats is represented by polysaccharides from the plant cell wall. Hydrolytic enzymes are necessary to convert these polymers into simple sugars for fungal metabolism. We report on the presence of ortholog genes of hydrolytic enzymes identified in the P. brasiliensis transcriptome and on hydrolytic activities in supernatants of induced P. brasiliensis cultures of mycelium and yeast cells. Enzymatic assays have shown cellulase and xylanase activities, both being higher in mycelium than in the yeast form. Amylase and chitinase activities were detected only in mycelium. Data so far reinforce the idea that mycelial P. brasiliensis is a saprobe.

  12. Alternative to peat for Agaricus brasiliensis yield.

    PubMed

    Colauto, Nelson Barros; da Silveira, Adriano Reis; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Linde, Giani Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Casing layer is one of the most important components of Agaricus spp. production and it directly affects mushroom productivity, size and mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential raw materials as a casing layer and their effect on Agaricus brasiliensis productivity. Raw materials from Brazil with potential use were selected and characterized, and the most promising ones were tested as casing layers for mushroom yield. Evaluated raw materials included lime schist, vermiculite, eucalyptus sawdust, sand, São Paulo peat, Santa Catarina peat, subsoil and charcoal. Particle size, porosity and water absorption in relation to mushroom yield for casing layers were determined. Lime schist, an alternate casing layer to peat, is presented and the effects of the casing layer on the mushroom yield are discussed.

  13. [Microclimatic properties of the Triatoma brasiliensis habitat].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, M G; Guarneri, A A; Pires, H H; Diotaiuti, L; Lazzari, C R

    2000-01-01

    Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in Northeast Brazil is basically by Triatoma brasiliensis. It is thus crucial to determine this species' microclimatic preferences as limiting factors for its distribution and ability to infest domestic environments. We analyze the microclimatic properties of the shelters in which these insects are found in wild, domestic, and peridomiciliary environments in the State of Ceará, at Brazil. We measure temperature and relative humidity (RH) every 15 minutes for 3 days. Thermal variation was greatly dampened inside both domiciliary refuges and the more protected internal places in wild stony sites. For RH, we observed a similar dampening pattern, but mean RH was lower in both domiciliary refuges and wild ones inside stony sites as compared to reference levels in the surrounding environment. The results are discussed with regard to this species' microclimatic preferences in the laboratory and its potential as determinants of its geographical distribution.

  14. Antimicrobial Effects of Garcinia Mangostana on Cariogenic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Janardhanan, Sunitha; Girija, A. S. Smiline; Mahendra, Little; Priyadharsini, Vijayashree

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Garcinia mangostana commonly called as Mangosteen fruit has been used as an antibacterial agent since age old times. The mangosteen pericarp has proven to have antibacterial effect, but the effect of the same on cariogenic organisms has not been explored. The present study was an attempt to gain a better understanding of the antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp on the cariogenic bacteria, to unravel the therapeutic potential for the same. Aim The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of the crude chloroform extract of mangosteen pericarp against cariogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods The study was done under laboratory settings using an in vitro design. The microorganisms namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus acidophilus were procured from American Type Cell Culture (ATCC) and Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) were revived and lawn cultured. The antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp was tested using agar well diffusion method on Trypticase Soy Agar-Blood Agar (TSA-BA) and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar media. The standard antiplaque agent chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. This cross-sectional, experimental study was done in Central Research laboratory, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College for period of eight weeks. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values were determined by microbroth dilution method. Statistical analysis was done by calculating the mean of the zones of inhibition on tested microorganisms. Mann-Whitney test was done to compare the zones of inhibition of mangosteen and chlorhexidine. Results The antibacterial bioassay showed the highest activity for Lactobacillus acidophilus (13.6 mm) and Streptococcus sanguis (13.6 mm), whereas, it showed a medium and low activity for Streptococcus oralis (11.3 mm), Streptococcus mutans (10.6 mm) and Streptococcus

  15. [Progress in research of the structural optimization of natural product-like Garcinia caged xanthones].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Yang, Ying-Rui; Sun, Hao-Peng; You, Qi-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Designing of natural product-like compounds using natural products as template structures is an important strategy for the discovery of new drugs. Gambogic acid (GA), which is a Garcinia natural product with a unique caged xanthone scaffold, inhibits potent antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. This review summarized the researches on the identification of the antitumor pharmacophore of GA, and the design, structural optimization and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of natural product-like caged xanthones based on it.

  16. Identification and characterization of anticancer compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy from Chinese native Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Danqing; Lao, Yuanzhi; Xu, Naihan; Hu, Hui; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Gu, Yunzhi; Song, Zhijun; Cao, Peng; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. Active compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy are candidates for anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we collected Garcinia species from China and extracted them into water or ethanol fractions. Then, we performed a functional screen in search of novel apoptosis and autophagy regulators. We first characterized the anti-proliferation activity of the crude extracts on multiple cell lines. HeLa cells expressing GFP-LC3 were used to examine the effects of the crude extracts on autophagy. Their activities were confirmed by Western blots of A549 and HeLa cells. By using bioassay guided fractionation, we found that two caged prenylxanthones from Garcinia bracteata, neobractatin and isobractatin, can significantly induce apoptosis and inhibit autophagy. Our results suggest that different Garcinia species displayed various degrees of toxicity on different cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the use of a high content screening assay to screen natural products was an essential method to identify novel autophagy regulators.

  17. Human neutrophils produce extracellular traps against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Mejía, Susana P; Cano, Luz E; López, Juan A; Hernandez, Orville; González, Ángel

    2015-05-01

    Neutrophils play an important role as effector cells and contribute to the resistance of the host against microbial pathogens. Neutrophils are able to produce extracellular traps (NETs) in response to medically important fungi, including Aspergillus spp., Candida albicans and Cryptococcus gattii. However, NET production in response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has yet to be studied. We have demonstrated that human neutrophils produce NETs against both conidia and yeasts of P. brasiliensis. Although the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) did not alter NET production against conidia, it partially suppressed NET formation against P. brasiliensis yeasts. Cytochalasin D or IFN-γ did not affect the production of NETs against the fungus. Additionally, a mutant strain of P. brasiliensis with reduced expression of an alternative oxidase induced significantly higher levels of NETs in comparison with the WT strain. Finally, c.f.u. quantification of P. brasiliensis showed no significant differences when neutrophils were treated with DPI, DNase I or cytochalasin D as compared with untreated cells. These data establish that NET formation by human neutrophils appears to be either dependent or independent of reactive oxygen species production, correlating with the fungal morphotype used for stimulation. However, this mechanism was ineffective in killing the fungus.

  18. Cryptic Chromosomal Diversity in the Complex "Geophagus" brasiliensis (Perciformes, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Isabel Araújo; Argolo, Leandro Araújo; Bitencourt, Jamille de Araújo; Diniz, Débora; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2016-02-01

    Among American cichlids, Geophagus stands out as a species-rich genus widespread over neotropical region. Despite their diversity and confusing taxonomy, only few and basic chromosomal reports are available in populations/species along Atlantic coast, hindering our understanding about evolutionary trends in this genus. Therefore, detailed chromosomal studies were performed in "Geophagus" brasiliensis complex from coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil, totalizing seven populations of Geophagus brasiliensis and one of Geophagus itapicuruensis. All samples shared a diploid number (2n) of 48 divided into 2 submetacentric and 46 subtelocentric/acrocentric chromosomes with (peri)centromeric heterochromatin, hypothesized as a symplesiomorphy for Geophagini. Although G. itapicuruensis and two populations of G. brasiliensis presented single NORs on short arms, multiple GC-rich rDNA sites were observed in the remaining G. brasiliensis samples, ranging from three to six NOR-bearing chromosomes. Inversely, 5S rDNA sites were invariably located at interstitial region on a st/a pair, nonsyntenic to NORs. A compilation of the data set in Geophagus shows that their chromosomal evolution has been driven by pericentric inversions and microstructural changes. Besides, the divergence found in northeastern Brazil places this region as a biodiversity hotspot. A taxonomic revision in the complex "Geophagus" brasiliensis is recommended with the support of cytogenetic analyses.

  19. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as “açai” found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has rece...

  20. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as "acai" found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has received c...

  1. Ultrastructure of Dimorphic Transformation in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Luis M.

    1969-01-01

    The fine structure of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis undergoing temperature-dependent transformation from mycelium to yeast and vice versa (M ⇌ Y) was studied. The transitional form to mycelium from the yeast appears as an elongated bud that extends from the yeast and which has a mixture of characteristics from both the yeast and the mycelium. The transitional form to yeast from the mycelium starts with enlargement of the interseptal spaces and cracking of the outer electron-dense layer of the cell wall of the hypha. Later the interseptal spaces tend to become round and separate. In M → Y only few interseptal spaces seem to transform. The yeast is produced by self-transformation of the hypha. In Y → M a new structure is formed and the yeast dies. Intrahyphal hyphae are observed during the transformation from M → Y, and intrayeast hyphae during the Y → M. Due to the high mortality and breakage observed in both types of transformations, we believe that wound of the yeast or the mycelium could elicit this phenomenon. Images PMID:5359610

  2. [Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Tovar, L J; Mondragón-González, R; Manzano-Gayosso, P; López-Martínez, R; Hernández-Hernández, F; Bonifaz, A; Anides Fonseca, A; Araiza, J; Vega-López, F

    2004-01-01

    Considering that some authors have reported an increasing of some immunoglobulins in actinomycetoma patients, in this study we propose to determine differential production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgGM in 25 patients with actinomycetoma and 25 healthy individuals from a mycetoma endemic area. Immunoglobulins were determined by ELISA technique. To sensibilize the plates, six Nocardia brasiliensis antigens were used: a crude antigen denominated NB and five derivatives (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 and NB10) obtained by their isoelectric point. Results showed that all IgG subclasses were higher in the patients' sera than in control sera, with a maximal difference to IgG3 and IgG4. To the latter subclass, six antigens were highly reactives. IgM levels were similar in both groups. As it occurs in other infections, in the actinomycetoma pathogenesis probably participate the increase or deficiency of a determined immunoglobulin class, as well as the relationship between different subclasses.

  3. Characterization of the cellular antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form.

    PubMed Central

    Casotto, M

    1990-01-01

    Antigenic components of the yeast extract of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Linder 2511 cultured for 3, 8, 20, 30, and 60 days were examined by the Western blot (immunoblot) technique. The 3-day extract was chosen for characterization of the antigenic components because its stability did not vary with time and it contained all antigens identified by patient sera. Antibodies to cross-reacting antigens of P. brasiliensis extracts were detected in sera from patients with histoplasmosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis. The 58-, 57-, 21-, and 16-kilodalton (kDa) antigens were specific for P. brasiliensis, while the 48- and 45-kDa antigens were specific for paracoccidioidomycosis. The Western blot technique is a useful tool for the diagnosis of disease and revealed heterogeneity in the responses of patient sera. The combination of the 58-, 57-, and 45-kDa proteins confirmed a diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (87% of the cases). Images PMID:2380351

  4. Overview and perspectives the transcriptome of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rosângela V; Da Silva, Silvana P; Torres, Fernando A G; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio José; Silva-Pereira, Ildenete; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Campos, Elida G; Moraes, Lídia Maria P; Jesuíno, Rosália S A; Pereira, Maristela; Soares, Célia M A; Walter, Maria Emília M T; Carvalho, Maria Joseá A; Almeida, Nalvo F; Brigido, Marcelo M; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2005-12-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic and thermo-regulated fungus which is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, an endemic disease widespread in Latin America that affects 10 million individuals. Pathogenicity is assumed to be a consequence of the dimorphic transition from mycelium to yeast cells during human infection. This review shows the results of the P. brasiliensis transcriptome project which generated 6,022 assembled groups from mycelium and yeast phases. Computer analysis using the tools of bioinformatics revealed several aspects from the transcriptome of this pathogen such as: general and differential metabolism in mycelium and yeast cells; cell cycle, DNA replication, repair and recombination; RNA biogenesis apparatus; translation and protein fate machineries; cell wall; hydrolytic enzymes; proteases; GPI-anchored proteins; molecular chaperones; insights into drug resistance and transporters; oxidative stress response and virulence. The present analysis has provided a more comprehensive view of some specific features considered relevant for the understanding of basic and applied knowledge of P. brasiliensis.

  5. Melatonin production in the sea star Echinaster brasiliensis (Echinodermata).

    PubMed

    Peres, Rafael; Amaral, Fernanda Gaspardo; Marques, Antonio Carlos; Neto, José Cipolla

    2014-04-01

    The primary hormone of the vertebrate pineal gland, melatonin, has been identified broadly throughout the tree of life, in animals, plants, and fungi, supporting a deep evolutionary origin for this signaling molecule. However, some key groups have not been studied. Echinoderms, deuterostome animals, are one of these groups. Herein we study the presence of melatonin and enzymes of its pathway in the sea star Echinaster brasiliensis. We demonstrate that E. brasiliensis produces endogenous melatonin, in the gonads, under a circadian pattern with a nocturnal peak of production. We also show that the enzymes arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) are present and are probably regulating the melatonin production.

  6. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  7. Combined phylogenetic and morphometric information to delimit and unify the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex and the Brasiliensis subcomplex.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jader; Marcet, Paula L; Takiya, Daniela M; Mendonça, Vagner J; Belintani, Tiago; Bargues, Maria D; Mateo, Lucia; Chagas, Vivian; Folly-Ramos, Elaine; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Costa, Jane; da Rosa, João A; Almeida, Carlos E

    2017-02-20

    "Triatoma brasiliensis species complex" was defined as a monophyletic group of the species: T. brasiliensis, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica, and T. sherlocki. An alternative grouping scheme proposed the concept of "Brasiliensis subcomplex" which included the former species together with T. melanocephala, T. petrocchiae, T. lenti, T. tibiamaculata, and T. vitticeps. To evaluate the relationship among these taxa we combined the results obtained with four mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, COI and Cytb, adding to 1811bp) and geometric morphometric analysis of wings and heads. Panstrongylus megistus was included in the analysis as it was previously found related to T. tibiamaculata, T. melanocephala and T. vitticeps. The results of both molecular and morphometric approaches clearly grouped the species analyzed into two monophyletic units, supported by both genetic and wing variability. The first one (G1) comprises the four species originally included in the T. brasiliensis species complex plus T. lenti and T. petrocchiae. The second group (G2) was composed by T. melanocephala, T. tibiamaculata and T. vitticeps, and remarkably, P. megistus if considering wing variability and phylogenetic results. Nevertheless, geometric morphometrics of heads provided a quantitative measurement that discriminates Panstrongylus from the Triatoma species based on the position of the antennal insertion relative to eyes, as it is used as the generic distinctive character. The discrepancy among approaches questions the validity of this character to define Panstrongylus genus. Independently of the chosen group definition -"T. brasiliensis species complex" or "Brasiliensis subcomplex"-we propose to delimit it to species of G1 that are all associated with the Caatinga biome in the Brazilian Northeast. G2 are the ones associated with the Atlantic Forest biome.

  8. Acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis in a patient taking Garcinia cambogia extract successfully treated with high-dose corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Allen, Scott F; Godley, Robert W; Evron, Joshua M; Heider, Amer; Nicklas, John M; Thomas, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    A previously healthy 48-year-old woman was evaluated for lightheadedness and chest heaviness 2 weeks after starting the herbal supplement Garcinia cambogia. She was found to be hypotensive and had an elevated serum troponin level. The patient had a progressive clinical decline, ultimately experiencing fulminant heart failure and sustained ventricular arrhythmias, which required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Endomyocardial biopsy results were consistent with acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis (ANEM). High-dose corticosteroids were initiated promptly and her condition rapidly improved, with almost complete cardiac recovery 1 week later. In conclusion, we have described a case of ANEM associated with the use of Garcinia cambogia extract.

  9. [Genetic analysis of sympatric sable (Martes zibellina) and Marten (M. martes) populations in the northern urals].

    PubMed

    Rozhnov, V V; Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Pishchulina, S L; Simakin, L V

    2010-04-01

    Analysis of nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (495 bp) of sables (Martes zibellina) and martens (M. martes) from allopatric parts of the species ranges has shown a considerable interspecific genetic distance (3%). In sympatric populations of these species in the northern Urals, differences between two species-specific mtDNA lineages are still large; however, classification of each individual nucleotide sequence with one of the two lineages is not correlated with whether the given animal is phenotypically a sable, a marten, or a potential hybrid (the so-called kidas). This indicates a high degree of mutual introgression of the sable and marten mtDNAs in the northern Urals and suggests that their interspecific hybridization is common in the sympatric zone.

  10. [Analyzing spatial-temporal dynamics of the ecological niche: a marten (Martes martes) population case study].

    PubMed

    Puzachenko, Iu G; Zheltukhin, A S; Sandlerskiĭ, R B

    2010-01-01

    A potential of discriminant analysis is demonstrated in a case study of the common marten (Martes martes L., 1758) ecological niche within the Central Forest Reserve and its buffer zone. The analysis is aimed at identifying how the probability to encounter a marten's footprint along a walking route depends on the relief and other parameters of the environment discerned by remote sensing. The analyses that were done individually for each of the eleven months from a three-year observation period have revealed the pattern of the species spatial distribution and a measure of its association with the environment to be dependent, to a large extent, on the weather conditions. In general, associations with the environment do increase under unfavorable conditions. The methods are suggested that integrate outcomes of the monthly analyses into a general map of habitat types. The technique presented has wide application opportunities in studying the ecology of populations and solving problems of practical ecology.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in a terrestrial predator, the pine marten (Martes martes L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.; Helldin, J.O.

    1997-09-01

    A terrestrial predator population, the pine marten (Martes martes, L.), inhabiting an area in mid-Sweden was investigated for polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p{prime}-DDE, lindane, and hexachlorobenzene. The condition of the animals, as shown by intestine fat amounts or fat content of muscle tissue, showed negative relationships with concentration of persistent pollutants. The relationship resulted in a higher concentration of pollutants as intestinal fat amounts of muscle fat content decreased and lower levels of pollutants as these indexes of condition improved. The results indicate that terrestrial predators show changes in pollutant concentration due to condition, caused by food availability and starvation. No differences in pollutant concentration were recorded between males and females and no relationship was found for levels of pollutants and age or reproduction (females). The latter results are in contrast to those found for aquatic predatory mammals.

  12. Nocardia brasiliensis: from microbe to human and experimental infections.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, M C

    2000-09-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that lives as a saprophyte in soil. In this article the physical properties, chemical composition and taxonomic position of this species is reviewed. Human infections and an experimental model of actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice as well as the host-immune response is described.

  13. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uieda, W

    1998-10-01

    This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  14. Temporal Dynamics of Reproduction in Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Hemiramphidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Mônica Rocha

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis were analyzed with a view to verify the temporal dynamics of reproduction. This paper presents data on sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, macroscopic and histological aspects of gonad development, gonadosomatic index (GSI), reproductive period, and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. The fishes were captured from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species was 1153 (±258.22) mature oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, presenting a prolonged reproductive period during the whole year, with a peak in the month of April, and is considered as an opportunistic strategist. PMID:25512946

  15. Prenatal development in fishers (Martes pennanti)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, H.C.; Krohn, W.B.; Bezembluk, E.A.; Lott, R.; Wallace, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and quantified prenatal growth of fishers (Martes pennanti) using ultrasonography. Seven females gave birth to 21 kits. The first identifiable embryonic structures were seen 42 d prepartum; these appeared to be unimplanted blastocysts or gestational sacs, which subsequently implanted in the uterine horns. Maternal and fetal heart rates were monitored from first detection to birth. Maternal heart rates did not differ among sampling periods, while fetal hearts rates increased from first detection to birth. Head and body differentiation, visible limbs and skeletal ossification were visible by 30, 23 and 21 d prepartum, respectively. Mean diameter of gestational sacs and crown-rump lengths were linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001). Biparietal and body diameters were also linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001) and correctly predicted parturition dates within 1-2 d. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [A new flavone from stems of Garcinia bracteata and its anti-TMV activity].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-mei; Zhou, Jun; Lou, Jie; Wang, Yue-de; Zhou, Kun; Dong, Wei; Gao, Xue-mei; Hu, Qiu-fen; Jiang, Zhi-yong

    2015-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation on the stems of Garcinia bracteata collected from Xishuangbanna resulted in the isolation of a new flavone. By analysis of the HRESIMS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, the structure of the new compound was determined as 7-methoxy-4',6-dihydroxy-8-isobutyryl-flavone(1). Compound 1 was also tested for its anti-tobacco mosaic virus(TMV) activity. Results suggested the 1 possessed remarkable anti-TMV activity, with an inhibition rate of 28.2%.

  17. Xanthones from Garcinia paucinervis with in vitro anti-proliferative activity against HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Hong; Li, Chen-Xi; Jia, Cui-Cui; Sun, Ya-Ting; Xue, Chun-Mei; Bai, Jiao; Hua, Hui-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Qiu; Li, Zhan-Lin

    2016-02-01

    Three new xanthones, paucinervins H-J (1-3), as well as eleven known compounds (4-14), were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia paucinervis. The structures of the new compounds (1-3) were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectra and HR ESIMS. In vitro antiproliferative activity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells was tested, among which, compounds 2, 5, 6 and 7 exhibited strong growth inhibitory effects with GI50 values ranging from 1.30 to 9.08 μM, respectively. Preliminary SARs were also discussed.

  18. A tocotrienol series with an oxidative terminal prenyl unit from Garcinia amplexicaulis.

    PubMed

    Lavaud, Alexis; Richomme, Pascal; Gatto, Julia; Aumond, Marie-Christine; Poullain, Cyril; Litaudon, Marc; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Guilet, David

    2015-01-01

    Ten tocotrienol derivatives, i.e., amplexichromanols (1-10), were isolated from stem bark of Garcinia amplexicaulis Vieill. ex Pierre collected in Caledonia. The structures of the compounds 1-5 were determined to be chromanol derivatives substituted by a polyprenyl chain oxidized in terminal position. The remaining compounds 6-10 are the corresponding dimeric derivatives. Eleven known compounds, including xanthones, tocotrienol derivatives, triterpenes and phenolic compounds, were also isolated. Their structures were mainly determined using one and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectroscopy analysis. The compounds and some amplexichromanol molecules formerly isolated from G. amplexicaulis exhibited significant antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation and in the ORAC assay.

  19. Kaennacowanols A-C, three new xanthones and their cytotoxicity from the roots of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Kaennakam, Sutin; Siripong, Pongpun; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2015-04-01

    Three new xanthones, named kaennacowanols A-C (1-3), along with nineteen known xanthones were isolated from the roots of Garcinia cowa Roxb. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against KB and HeLa cell lines. Compounds 17 and 22 showed good cytotoxicity against KB cell with IC50 values of 7.97 and 9.10μM, respectively. On the other hand, compound 15 showed good cytotoxicity against HeLa cell with IC50 value of 9.34μM.

  20. New flavonoid C-O-C dimers and other chemical constituents from Garcinia brevipedicellata stem heartwood.

    PubMed

    Abderamane, Bintou; Tih, Anastasie E; Ghogomu, Raphael T; Blond, Alain; Bodo, Bernard

    The methanol extract of the stem heartwood of Garcinia brevipedicellata has furnished three new flavonoid C-O-C dimers, brevipedicilones A (6), B (8) and C (10), along with five previously reported flavonoid dimers, viz. amentoflavone (1), 4″'-O-methylamentoflavone (2), robustaflavone (3), 4'-O-methyl robustaflavone (4) and tetrahinokiflavone (5). The new structures, which are composed of flavanone-flavanonol or flavanonol-flavanonol sub-units, were established based on spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR (1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) spectroscopy, and by comparing their spectral data with those reported for related compounds.

  1. Two Unusual Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinols, Including a Pair of Enantiomers from Garcinia multiflora.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi-Min; Yi, Ping; Li, Yang; Yan, Chen; Huang, Tao; Gu, Wei; Ma, Yuan; Huang, Lie-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Yang, Chong-Lin; Li, Yan; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Two polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols, garcimulins A and B ((±)-1 and 2), including a pair of enantiomers with the unique caged tetracyclo[5.4.1.1(1,5).0(9,13)]tridecane skeleton were isolated from Garcinia multiflora. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines in vitro (IC50 3.42-13.23 μM). The acidification of lysosomes in HeLa cell was obviously affected by compound 2.

  2. Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorates visceral adiposity in C57BL/6J mice fed on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun-Young; Lee, Hye Nam; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Taesun

    2008-07-01

    The aim of present study is to evaluate the effects of Garcinia cambogia on the mRNA levels of the various genes involved in adipogenesis, as well as on body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and other biochemical markers of obesity in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. Consumption of the Garcinia cambogia extract effectively lowered the body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, blood and hepatic lipid concentrations, and plasma insulin and leptin levels in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model. The Garcinia cambogia extract reversed the HFD-induced changes in the expression pattern of such epididymal adipose tissue genes as adipocyte protein aP2 (aP2), sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1c (SREBP1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2), and CCAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha). These findings suggest that the Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorated HFD-induced obesity, probably by modulating multiple genes associated with adipogenesis, such as aP2, SREBP1c, PPARgamma2, and C/EBPalpha in the visceral fat tissue of mice.

  3. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  4. Garcinia benzophenones inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells and synergize with sulindac sulfide and turmeric.

    PubMed

    Einbond, Linda Saxe; Mighty, Jason; Kashiwazaki, Ryota; Figueroa, Mario; Jalees, Filza; Acuna, Ulyana Munoz; Le Gendre, Onica; Foster, David A; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that extracts and purified components from Garcinia species inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells. Garcinia benzophenones activate the expression of genes in the endoplasmic reticulum and cellular energy stress (mTOR) pathways. This study examines the growth inhibitory and synergistic effects of Garcinia benzophenones, alone or combined with chemopreventive agents, on human colon cancer cells. To find optimal combination treatments, HT29 colon cancer cells were treated with benzophenones alone, or combined with chemopreventive agents, and cell growth measured using the MTT assay. To reveal effects on signaling pathways, we assessed effects of the MEK inhibitor U0126 and the ER IP3 receptor antagonist heparin, as well as effects on the phosphorylation of 4E-BP-1 (mTOR pathway), using Western blot analysis. New and known benzophenones from Garcinia intermedia inhibited the growth of human colon cancer cells; an alcohol extract of Garcinia xanthochymus, as well as purified guttiferones (guttiferone E and xanthochymol), preferentially inhibited the growth of colon cancer versus nonmalignant intestinal epithelial cells. Guttiferone E exhibited synergy with the NSAID sulindac sulfide and xanthochymol, with the spice turmeric. Guttiferone A did not alter phosphorylation of 4E-BP-1, indicating that the mTORC1 pathway is not involved in its action. The effects of xanthochymol were enhanced by U0126, at low doses, and were blocked by heparin, indicating that the MEK pathway is involved, while the ER IP3 receptor is critical for its action. These studies indicate the potential of benzophenones, alone or combined with sulindac sulfide or turmeric, to prevent and treat colon cancer.

  5. Molecular docking studies and in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of chemical constituents of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Yeong, Khaw Kooi; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Atlas, Amir; Khan, Imran; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khairuddean, Melati; Osman, Hasnah

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia species are reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV and anti-Alzheimer's activities. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of garcihombronane C (1), garcihombronane F (2), garcihombronane I (3), garcihombronane N (4), friedelin (5), clerosterol (6), spinasterol glucoside (7) and 3β-hydroxy lup-12,20(29)-diene (8) isolated from Garcinia hombroniana, and to perform molecular docking simulation to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. The cholinesterase inhibitory activities were evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. In this study, compound 4 displayed the highest concentration-dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE. Docking studies exhibited that compound 4 binds through hydrogen bonds to amino acid residues of AChE and BChE. The calculated docking and binding energies also supported the in vitro inhibitory profiles of IC50. In conclusion, garcihombronanes C, F, I and N (1-4) exhibited dual and moderate inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE.

  6. Phytochemicals content, antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties of indigenous Garcinia parvifolia fruit.

    PubMed

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as "asam kandis" or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents.

  7. General metabolism of the dimorphic and pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Arraes, Fabrício B M; Benoliel, Bruno; Burtet, Rafael T; Costa, Patrícia L N; Galdino, Alexandro S; Lima, Luanne H A; Marinho-Silva, Camila; Oliveira-Pereira, Luciana; Pfrimer, Pollyanna; Procópio-Silva, Luciano; Reis, Viviane Castelo-Branco; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2005-06-30

    Annotation of the transcriptome of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has set the grounds for a global understanding of its metabolism in both mycelium and yeast forms. This fungus is able to use the main carbohydrate sources, including starch, and it can store reduced carbons in the form of glycogen and trehalose; these provide energy reserves that are relevant for metabolic adaptation, protection against stress and infectivity mechanisms. The glyoxylate cycle, which is also involved in pathogenicity, is present in this fungus. Classical pathways of lipid biosynthesis and degradation, including those of ketone body and sterol production, are well represented in the database of P. brasiliensis. It is able to synthesize de novo all nucleotides and amino acids, with the sole exception of asparagine, which was confirmed by the fungus growth in minimal medium. Sulfur metabolism, as well as the accessory synthetic pathways of vitamins and co-factors, are likely to exist in this fungus.

  8. Functional genome of the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Felipe, Maria Sueli S; Torres, Fernando A G; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio J; Campos, Elida G; Moraes, Lídia M P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Carvalho, Maria José A; Andrade, Rosângela V; Nicola, André M; Teixeira, Marcus M; Jesuíno, Rosália S A; Pereira, Maristela; Soares, Célia M A; Brígido, Marcelo M

    2005-09-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic and thermo-regulated fungus which is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, an endemic disease widespread in Latin America. Pathogenicity is assumed to be a consequence of the cellular differentiation process that this fungus undergoes from mycelium to yeast cells during human infection. In an effort to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process a network of Brazilian laboratories carried out a transcriptome project for both cell types. This review focuses on the data analysis yielding a comprehensive view of the fungal metabolism and the molecular adaptations during dimorphism in P. brasiliensis from analysis of 6022 groups, related to expressed genes, which were generated from both mycelium and yeast phases.

  9. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber. PMID:23375136

  10. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis AND Paracoccidioides lutzii, A SECRET LOVE AFFAIR

    PubMed Central

    ARANTES, Thales Domingos; BAGAGLI, Eduardo; NIÑO-VEGA, Gustavo; SAN-BLAS, Gioconda; THEODORO, Raquel Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY To commemorate Prof. Carlos da Silva Lacaz's centennial anniversary, the authors have written a brief account of a few, out of hundreds, biological, ecological, molecular and phylogenetic studies that led to the arrival of Paracoccidioides lutzii, hidden for more than a century within Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Lacaz's permanent interest in this fungus, and particularly his conviction on the benefits that research on paracoccidioidomycosis would bring to patients, were pivotal in the development of the field. PMID:26465366

  11. Studies of the latex of Brazilian IAC series clones from Hevea brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural rubber is an important commodity industrial crop that mainly derives from Hevea brasiliensis. Most natural rubber production is in Southeast Asia, but significant cultivar development takes place in Brazil, the original origin of current commercial H. brasiliensis cultivars. Thus it is criti...

  12. Interaction between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia and the coagulation system: involvement of fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Diana; Hernández, Orville; Muñoz-Cadavid, Cesar; Cano, Luz Elena; González, Angel

    2013-06-01

    The infectious process starts with an initial contact between pathogen and host. We have previously demonstrated that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia interact with plasma proteins including fibrinogen, which is considered the major component of the coagulation system. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro capacity of P. brasiliensis conidia to aggregate with plasma proteins and compounds involved in the coagulation system. We assessed the aggregation of P. brasiliensis conidia after incubation with human serum or plasma in the presence or absence of anticoagulants, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, metabolic and protein inhibitors, monosaccharides and other compounds. Additionally, prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times were determined after the interaction of P. brasiliensis conidia with human plasma. ECM proteins, monosaccharides and human plasma significantly induced P. brasiliensis conidial aggregation; however, anticoagulants and metabolic and protein inhibitors diminished the aggregation process. The extrinsic coagulation pathway was not affected by the interaction between P. brasiliensis conidia and plasma proteins, while the intrinsic pathway was markedly altered. These results indicate that P. brasiliensis conidia interact with proteins involved in the coagulation system. This interaction may play an important role in the initial inflammatory response, as well as fungal disease progression caused by P. brasiliensis dissemination.

  13. Intracellular multiplication of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in macrophages: killing and restriction of multiplication by activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Brummer, E; Hanson, L H; Restrepo, A; Stevens, D A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of coculturing yeast-form Paracoccidioides brasiliensis with murine cells was studied. Coculture of resident peritoneal or pulmonary macrophages with P. brasiliensis for 72 h dramatically enhanced fungal multiplication 19.3 +/- 2.4- and 4.7 +/- 0.8-fold, respectively, compared with cocultures with lymph node cells or complete tissue culture medium alone. Support of P. brasiliensis multiplication by resident peritoneal macrophages was macrophage dose dependent. Lysates of macrophages, supernatants from macrophage cultures, or McVeigh-Morton broth, like complete tissue culture medium, did not support multiplication of P. brasiliensis in 72-h cultures. Time course microscopic studies of cocultures in slide wells showed that macrophages ingested P. brasiliensis cells and that the ingested cells multiplied intracellularly. In sharp contrast to resident macrophages, lymphokine-activated peritoneal and pulmonary macrophages not only prevented multiplication but reduced inoculum CFU by 96 and 100%, respectively, in 72 h. Microscopic studies confirmed killing and digestion of P. brasiliensis ingested by activated macrophages in 48 h. These findings indicate that resident macrophages are permissive for intracellular multiplication of P. brasiliensis and that this could be a factor in pathogenicity. By contrast, activated macrophages are fungicidal for P. brasiliensis. Images PMID:2744848

  14. Interaction between Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Sganzerla, Vânia Maria Ambrosi; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is a soil scale that is considered the main pest of vineyards in Brazil. The ant Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is frequently found associated with this species of scale in infested areas. The effect of the presence of L. micans on the infestation and dispersal capacity of E. brasiliensis on vine roots was measured in a greenhouse, using Paulsen 1103 rootstock seedlings planted in simple and double "Gallotti Cages." Treatments measured were: infestation of roots with E. brasiliensis or L. micans, and infestation with both species together. In the experiment using simple Gallotti Cages, with E. brasiliensis associated with L. micans, higher mean numbers of cysts and ants per plant were recorded, a result significantly different from that found for infestation with scale only. When double Gallotti Cages were used, first-instar nymphs were transported between the cages. The results showed that L. micans transports and aids in the attachment of E. brasiliensis to vine plants.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae) from Mus musculus in India

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Anshu; Goswami, Urvashi; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2016-01-01

    Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) has generally been infected with a rodent hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. In this report, we present morphological and molecular identification of N. brasiliensis by light and scanning electron microscopy and PCR amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and the protein sequences encoded by cox1 gene, respectively. Despite the use of N. brasiliensis in many biochemistry studies from India, their taxonomic identification was not fully understood, especially at the species level, and no molecular data is available in GenBank from India. Sequence analysis of cox1 gene in this study revealed that the present specimen showed close identity with the same species available in GenBank, confirming that the species is N. brasiliensis. This study represents the first record of molecular identification of N. brasiliensis from India and the protein structure to better understand the comparative phylogenetic characteristics. PMID:28095659

  16. Bioactive prenylated xanthones from the young fruits and flowers of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Sriyatep, Teerayut; Siridechakorn, Ittipon; Maneerat, Wisanu; Pansanit, Acharavadee; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Andersen, Raymond J; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2015-02-27

    Five new xanthones, garciniacowones A-E (1-5), together with 14 known xanthones, 6-19, were isolated from the young fruits and fresh flowers of Garcinia cowa. The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra and mass spectrometric data. The compounds 1-19 were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity and for their ability to inhibit α-glucosidase. Compounds 16 and 17 showed the most potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 7.8 ± 0.5 and 8.7 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. Compounds 8, 9, and 19 showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis TISTR 088 with identical MIC values of 2 μg/mL, while 8, 10, and 19 exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688 with identical MIC values of 4 μg/mL.

  17. Effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum sex hormones in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Tomi, Hironori; Kaneko, Izuru; Shen, Manzhen; Soni, Madhu G; Yoshino, Gen

    2008-06-01

    (-) Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an active ingredient extracted from the Garcinia cambogia fruit rind, has been commonly used as a dietary supplement for weight management. Given the controversy over HCA related testicular toxicity in animal studies, we investigated changes in serum sex hormones levels as an extension of our previous double-blind placebo-controlled trial in human subjects, in which 44 participants received either G. cambogia extract (1667.3 mg/day equivalent to 1000 mg HCA/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Compared to the placebo group, administration of the extract did not significantly alter the serum testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Similarly, hematology, serum triacylglycerol and serum clinical pathology parameters did not reveal any significant adverse effects. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that ingestion of G. cambogia extract at dose levels commonly recommended for human use does not affect serum sex hormone levels and blood parameters.

  18. A comparative study of karyomorphology among three populations of Garcinia indica (Clusiaceae) (Thomas-Dupetite) Choisy.

    PubMed

    Anerao, Jayesh; Desai, Neetin; Deodhar, Manjushri

    2013-06-01

    Garcinia indica is a tree species of the family Clusiaceae. This species is endemically distributed only in Ratnagiri and Sindhudurga district of Maharashtra. Plants collected in particularly Dive Agar and Sawantwadi show morphological variations. Mitotic chromosomes from three different population from the Konkan region were studied using propionic orcein stain. Chromosome numbers 2n = 54 is reported for all the populations. Three populations differed from each other in some aspects. Karyotype analysis showed that Deorukh population from Ratnagiri region showed one pair of satellite and one pair of secondary constrictions while Otawane population from Sawantwadi showed one satellite chromosome but differ in pattern of secondary constriction. Third, Diveagar population from Raigad district showed three pairs of satellite chromosomes and one pair of secondary constriction. So, it can be concluded that, plants from Bapat Garden of Dive Agar and Otawane region can be considered as cytotypes.

  19. Polyisoprenylated benzophenones and an unusual polyisoprenylated tetracyclic xanthone from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia.

    PubMed

    Masullo, Milena; Bassarello, Carla; Suzuki, Hisanori; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2008-07-09

    In light of the wide range of biological activities of garcinol and with the aim of exploring some of them, we carried out its isolation from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia L. (Guttiferae). Surprisingly, the fruits were also found to contain guttiferones I, J, and K, compounds never reported in G. cambogia, along with three new compounds, namely, guttiferone M (1), guttiferone N (2), and the oxidized derivative of guttiferone K (6). Oxy-guttiferone K (6) is the first example of tetracyclic xanthone derived from the oxidation of a polyisoprenylated benzophenone from natural source. The natural formation of oxy-guttiferone K is in agreement with the previously described cyclization of garcinol by DPPH.

  20. Bioassay-guided isolation of prenylated xanthones and polycyclic acylphloroglucinols from the leaves of Garcinia nujiangensis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Liang, Shuang; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Shi-Lin; Wang, Xin-Hong; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2012-08-24

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia nujiangensis resulted in the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, nujiangexanthones A (1) and B (2), three new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols, nujiangefolins A-C (3-5), and 10 known related analogues. The structures of compounds 1-5 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 3 and 4 are unusual polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols in which the enol hydroxy group forms a six-membered ring with a benzene ring carbon. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against 11 cancer cell lines and immortalized MIHA normal liver cells, and the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells. Isojacareubin (6) was found to be the most potent cytotoxic compound of those tested.

  1. Polyprenylated benzophenones from Garcinia assigu and their potential cancer chemopreventive activities.

    PubMed

    Ito, Chihiro; Itoigawa, Masataka; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Onoda, Saori; Rao, K Sundar; Mukainaka, Teruo; Tokuda, Harukuni; Nishino, Hoyoku; Furukawa, Hiroshi

    2003-02-01

    In a further study on the chemical constituents of Garcinia assigu, two new benzophenones corresponding to the 13-O-methyl ethers (1 and 2) of the known isogarcinol and garcinol, respectively, were isolated and characterized, along with known benzophenones (3-6). Inhibitory effects of the benzophenones isolated from this plant on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells and their radical-scavenging ability against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were demonstrated. The cyclized polyprenylbenzophenones (1-5) showed comparable or stronger potential cancer chemopreventive activity when compared to glycyrrhetic acid, a known anti-tumor promoter.

  2. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-07-25

    Five new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, garciesculentones A-E (1-5), a new xanthone, garciesculenxanthone A (6), and 15 known compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether extract and the EtOAc-soluble fraction of a 80% (v/v) EtOH extract of Garcinia esculenta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD and a convenient modified Mosher's method were used to determine the absolute configurations. The cytotoxicity of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) and against normal hepatic cells (HL-7702). In addition, these isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on interferon-γ plus lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells.

  3. Prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia with antienteroviral activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Tao, Ling; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yang, Yi-Fu; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Da-Jian; Lu, Ai-Ping; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-04-25

    An acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia showed antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 (EV71) using a cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded 12 new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols, oblongifolins J-U (1-12), and five known compounds. The structures of 1-12 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR and mass spectrometry methods. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of a Mosher ester procedure carried out in NMR tubes and ECD calculations. Compared to ribavirin (IC50 253.1 μM), compounds 1, 4, and 13 exhibited significant anti-EV71 activity in vitro, with IC50 values of 31.1, 16.1, and 12.2 μM, respectively. In addition, the selectivity indices of these compounds were 1.5, 2.4, and 3.0 in African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, respectively.

  4. Determination of organic acids in leaves and rinds of Garcinia indica (Desr.) by LC.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Sakariah, K K

    2002-04-15

    Organic acids in leaves and rinds of Garcinia indica (Kokam) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major organic acid in leaves and rinds has been found to be (-)-hydroxycitric acid present to the extent of 4.1-4.6 and 10.3-12.7%, respectively, by isocratic elution with 8 mM sulfuric acid as mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min using UV detection at 210 nm. Hydroxycitric acid lactone and citric acid are present in leaves and rinds in minor quantities. This method has been shown to be very reproducible with the coefficient of variation ranging from 2.8 to 4.2%. This is the first report on the composition of organic acids in the leaves and rinds of G. indica by HPLC.

  5. Identification and quantification of adulteration in Garcinia cambogia commercial products by chromatographic and spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Choi, Ji Yeon; Hong, Joon Ho; Nho, Eun Yeong; Khan, Naeem; Jo, Cheon Ho; Chun, Hyang Sook; Kim, Kyong Su

    2016-12-01

    Species of genus Garcinia are rich sources of bioactive constituents with antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV activities. Commercial products of Garcinia cambogia are used as anti-obesity drugs with increasing market demand. Because of the high price of its products, it can be adulterated with similar lower-priced species. This study was designed to develop and validate an accurate and efficient method for the detection of any adulteration (G. indica) in G. cambogia products. For this purpose, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyse the ethanolic fruit rind extracts of G. cambogia and G. indica, their formulations of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 95% G. indica with G. cambogia, and 11 G. cambogia commercial products. The analytical methods were validated by quality assurance parameters of linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Two marker peaks were detected in G. indica fruit extract, whereas G. cambogia did not show these peaks. The detected peaks were identified as anthocyanins; cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. In the study to determine the effect of pH and temperature on the stability of its anthocyanin content, HPLC analysis of G. indica extract showed the highest content at pH 1 and 50°C. Using two different mobile phases, the limits of detection (LOD) for cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were 0.036 and 0.059, and 0.022 and 0.033 mg kg(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the inter-day precision (< 3.2%) confirmed that the applied analytical method fulfils the required criteria of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). From this study, it was found that the HPLC method used for the detection of adulteration in G. cambogia products is rapid and accurate.

  6. Evaluation of the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of Garcinia cambogia plus Amorphophallus konjac for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Rossetto, Simone; Halmenschlager, Graziele; Linden, Rafael; Heckler, Eliane; Fernandez, Maria S Poblador; Alonso, José L Lancho

    2008-09-01

    Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), the main compound of Garcinia cambogia extract, is a competitive blocker of ATP-citrate-lyase, presenting a potential inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis. Glucomannan fibers, abundant in Amorphophallus konjac, seem to reduce the absorption kinetics of dietary fat. Therefore, the aim of this double-blind randomized study was to evaluate the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of standardized extracts of G. cambogia (52.4% HCA) plus A. konjac (94.9% glucomannan) in the treatment of obesity. Fifty-eight obese subjects (BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) were assigned to the placebo group (n = 26) or the treatment group (n = 32); no dietary restrictions were applied. Over a 12-week period, subjects were given daily doses of either Garcinia (2.4 g) plus Konjac (1.5 g) or placebo prior to their main meals (3 times/day). Before the start of treatment, and every 4 weeks thereafter, the following were recorded: height, weight, circumferences and body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), lipid profile and glucose levels. The treatment had no significant effect on anthropometric parameters, REE, triglycerides or glucose levels. However, a significant reduction was observed in total cholesterol (-32.0 +/- 35.1 mg/dL) and LDL-c levels (-28.7 +/- 32.7 mg/dL) in the treated group, the final levels being significantly lower than those of the placebo group (p = 0.008 and p = 0.020, respectively). The results obtained suggest that the treatment had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect, without influencing the anthropometric or calorimetric parameters tested.

  7. Garcinia vilersiana bark extract activates the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Ichiro; Duong, Ho Huynh Thuy; Quynh, Nguyen Thi; Kanaho, Yasunori; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia vilersiana is a traditional medicinal plant in Vietnam. The petroleum ether extract of stem bark of Garcinia vilersiana (GVE) was prepared to evaluate its potential to activate Nrf2, a transcription factor of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Exposure of mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells to GVE (0.625-2.5 µg/ml) resulted in a significant activation of Nrf2, as evaluated by nuclear accumulation of this transcription factor, and increased antioxidant response element (ARE) binding activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. As a result, GVE caused ARE-dependent up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cells. These results suggest that GVE contains components that have the ability to activate the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway, leading to cellular protection.

  8. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jane; Correia, Nathália Cordeiro; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Felix, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24037202

  9. Effect of dietary Garcinia kola seed on selected serum electrolytes and trace metals in male Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Agada, P O; Braide, V B

    2009-06-01

    The effects of various doses of dietary intake of Garcinia kola seed powder [incorporated in animal feed at levels of 5% w/w, 10% w/w and 20% w/w and fed daily for six weeks] on serum levels of selected electrolytes [K+, Na+, CI-, HCO3-, Mg2+ and Ca2+] and trace metals [Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+] were studied in male Albino rats [100-150 g body wt]. The pair-fed controls received basal feed diet daily for six weeks. Results showed a significant [P<0.05] dose dependent elevation of serum CI-, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+. These findings point to a possible relationship with already documented histopathology of various organs [such as the gonads] induced by Garcinia kola seed. It is also conjectured that the documented antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, antidiabetic and antifertility effects of Garcinia kola seed may have underlying involvement of alterations in body levels of trace metals and electrolytes.

  10. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  11. A Paracoccidioides brasiliensis glycan shares serologic and functional properties with cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Priscila C; Cordero, Radames J B; Fonseca, Fernanda L; Peres da Silva, Roberta; Ramos, Caroline L; Miranda, Kildare R; Casadevall, Arturo; Puccia, Rosana; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Guimaraes, Allan J; Rodrigues, Marcio L

    2012-11-01

    The cell wall of the yeast form of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is enriched with α1,3-glucans. In Cryptococcus neoformans, α1,3-glucans interact with glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), a heteropolysaccharide that is essential for fungal virulence. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of P. brasiliensis glycans sharing properties with cryptococcal GXM. Protein database searches in P. brasiliensis revealed the presence of sequences homologous to those coding for enzymes involved in the synthesis of GXM and capsular architecture in C. neoformans. In addition, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised to cryptococcal GXM bound to P. brasiliensis cells. Using protocols that were previously established for extraction and analysis of C. neoformans GXM, we recovered a P. brasiliensis glycan fraction composed of mannose and galactose, in addition to small amounts of glucose, xylose and rhamnose. In comparison with the C. neoformans GXM, the P. brasiliensis glycan fraction components had smaller molecular dimensions. The P. brasiliensis components, nevertheless, reacted with different GXM-binding mAbs. Extracellular vesicle fractions of P. brasiliensis also reacted with a GXM-binding mAb, suggesting that the polysaccharide-like molecule is exported to the extracellular space in secretory vesicles. An acapsular mutant of C. neoformans incorporated molecules from the P. brasiliensis extract onto the cell wall, resulting in the formation of surface networks that resembled the cryptococcal capsule. Coating the C. neoformans acapsular mutant with the P. brasiliensis glycan fraction resulted in protection against phagocytosis by murine macrophages. These results suggest that P. brasiliensis and C. neoformans share metabolic pathways required for the synthesis of similar polysaccharides and that P. brasiliensis yeast cell walls have molecules that mimic certain aspects of C. neoformans GXM. These findings are important because they provide additional evidence for

  12. Immunomodulatory effect of diethylcarbamazine in mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, M; Castro-Corona, M A; Segoviano-Ramírez, J C; Brattig, N W; Medina-De la Garza, C E

    2014-11-01

    We tested whether diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin (IVM), both antiparasitic drugs with reported immunomodulatory properties, were able to affect the immune system to potentiate host defense mechanisms and protect against actinomycetoma in a mouse model. Male BALB/c mice of 10-12 weeks of age were injected with either Nocardia brasiliensis or saline solution. Recorded were the effects of a treatment by DEC (6 mg/kg per os daily for one week) or IVM (200 μg/kg subcutaneously on days 1 and 3) on (i) the development of mycetoma lesion, (ii) the expression of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by phagocytes, (iii) the proliferation index of lymphocytes and (iv) antibody production of IgG and IgM. After an initial lesion in all mice, DEC inhibited a full development and progression of actinomycetoma resulting in a reduced lesion size (p < 0.001). IVM had no inhibitory effect on the development of mycetoma. Furthermore, DEC treatment was associated with a significant enhancement of ROI expression (p < 0.05) by polymorphonuclear neutrophils at day 3 after infection. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to N. brasiliensis antigens and concanavalin A in DEC-treated group was higher than in non-treated group at day 21 and 28 postinfection (p < 0.01). Significant changes in antibody response were not observed. By all parameters tested, DEC was superior to IVM regarding immunostimulatory potency. In conclusion, DEC expressed an in vivo influence on the immune status during the infection by N. brasiliensis leading to retrogression of the mycetoma and increasing cellular immune responses. Our findings may indicate a potential use of DEC as a putative adjuvant in infectious disease or vaccination.

  13. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for identification and quantification of two biologically active polyisoprenylated benzophenones, isoxanthochymol and camboginol, in Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sunil K; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2007-11-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometrical (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous identification and quantification of two polyisoprenylated benzophenones, isoxanthochymol and camboginol, in the extracts of the fruit rinds, stem bark, seed and leaves of Garcinia indica and in the fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia. The separation of isoxanthochymol and camboginol was achieved on an RP-8 column using the solvent system consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile-water (80:20) and methanol-acetic acid (99.0:1.0) as a mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. A multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method was developed for quantification of isoxanthochymol and camboginol in the above extracts of Garcinia species. Based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, the limits of detection in MRM mode for isoxanthochymol and camboginol were 2.0 and 5.0 ng/mL respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision for 6 days. The method developed was found to be useful for identification and quantification of isoxanthochymol and camboginol in the extracts of the fruit rinds, stem bark, seed and leaves of Garcinia indica and in the fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia.

  14. In vitro susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to sulfonamides.

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, A; Arango, M D

    1980-01-01

    A total of 60 clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were tested for susceptibility to sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxyne by the agar dilution technique. A modification of the Mueller-Hinton medium was devised which gave good growth of the yeast form. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for only 51.6% of the isolates were in the range of the recommended blood serum concentration (50 micrograms/ml). For 6 to 8% of the isolates, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were above 200 micrograms of both sulfadiazine and sulfadimethoxyne per ml. A significant decreases in susceptibility was demonstrated for one isolate obtained from a patient relapsing during sulfonamide therapy. Images PMID:7416744

  15. Extracellular vesicles from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induced M1 polarization in vitro

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Casadevall, Arturo; Almeida, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by eukaryotes, archaea, and bacteria contain proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and other molecules. The cargo analysis of EVs shows that they contain virulence factors suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of infection. The proteome, lipidome, RNA content, and carbohydrate composition of EVs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii were characterized. However, the effects of P. brasiliensis EVs on the host immune system have not yet been investigated. Herein, we verified that EVs from P. brasiliensis induce the production of proinflammatory mediators by murine macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of EV to macrophages also promoted transcription of the M1-polarization marker iNOs and diminish that of the M2 markers Arginase-1, Ym-1, and FIZZ-1. Furthermore, the augmented expression of M2-polarization markers, stimulated by IL-4 plus IL-10, was reverted toward an M1 phenotype in response to secondary stimulation with EVs from P. brasiliensis. The ability of EVs from P. brasiliensis to promote M1 polarization macrophages favoring an enhanced fungicidal activity, demonstrated by the decreased CFU recovery of internalized yeasts, with comparable phagocytic efficacy. Our results suggest that EVs from P. brasiliensis can modulate the innate immune response and affect the relationship between P. brasiliensis and host immune cells. PMID:27775058

  16. Taxonomic and Functional Microbial Signatures of the Endemic Marine Sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Rua, Cintia; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) is a known source of secondary metabolites such as arenosclerins A-C. In the present study, we established the composition of the A. brasiliensis microbiome and the metabolic pathways associated with this community. We used 454 shotgun pyrosequencing to generate approximately 640,000 high-quality sponge-derived sequences (∼150 Mb). Clustering analysis including sponge, seawater and twenty-three other metagenomes derived from marine animal microbiomes shows that A. brasiliensis contains a specific microbiome. Fourteen bacterial phyla (including Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi) were consistently found in the A. brasiliensis metagenomes. The A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia) and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Alteromonas) compared with the surrounding planktonic microbial communities. Functional analysis based on Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) indicated that the A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for sequences associated with membrane transport and one-carbon metabolism. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of sequences associated with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as well as the synthesis and degradation of secondary metabolites. This study represents the first analysis of sponge-associated microbial communities via shotgun pyrosequencing, a strategy commonly applied in similar analyses in other marine invertebrate hosts, such as corals and algae. We demonstrate that A. brasiliensis has a unique microbiome that is distinct from that of the surrounding planktonic microbes and from other marine organisms, indicating a species-specific microbiome. PMID:22768320

  17. Protective effect of Garcinia against renal oxidative stress and biomarkers induced by high fat and sucrose diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity became major health problem in the world, the objective of this work was to examine the effect of high sucrose and high fat diet to induce obesity on antioxidant defense system, biochemical changes in blood and tissue of control, non treated and treated groups by administration of Garcinia cambogia, and explore the mechanisms that link obesity with altered renal function Methods Rats were fed a standard control diet for 12 week (wk) or a diet containing 65% high sucrose (HSD) or 35% fat (HFD) for 8 wk and then HFD group divided into two groups for the following 4 wks. One group was given Garcinia+HFD, the second only high fat, Also the HSD divided into two groups, 1st HSD+Garcinia and 2nd HSD. Blood and renal, mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues were collected for biochemical assays. Results HFD and HSD groups of rats showed a significant increase in feed intake, Body weight (BW) and body mass index (BMI). Also there were significant increases in weights of mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues in HFD and HSD groups. HFD and HSD affect the kidney by increasing serum urea and creatinine levels and decreased level of nitric oxide (NO) and increased blood glucose, low density lipoproteins (LDL), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities were significantly decreased in HFD while there were significant increases in HSD and HSD+G groups p ≤ 0.05 compared with control. Moreover, renal catalase activities and MDA levels were significantly increased while NO level was lowered. These changes improved by Garcinia that decreased the oxidative stress biomarkers and increased NO level. There were significant positive correlations among BMI, kidney functions (Creatinine and urea), TG and Oxidative markers (renal MDA and catalase). Conclusions Rats fed a diet with HFD or HSD showed, hypertriglyceridemia, increased LDL production, increased

  18. Caño Martín Peña (Martín Peña Channel, Puerto Rico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Martín Peña Channel Urban Waters Federal Partnership seeks to make significant contributions to the health and welfare of the eight communities that surround the Martín Peña Channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

  19. Expression of alpha tubulin during the dimorphic transition of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Silva, W P; Soares, R B; Jesuino, R S; Izacc, S M; Felipe, M S; Soares, C M

    2001-10-01

    In this study we analyzed the expression of (alpha-tubulin during the dimorphic transition of the human-pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The alpha-tubulin from P. brasiliensis was recognized by a commercially available anti-tubulin antibody and was developmentally regulated during the dimorphic form transition. We detected at least two alpha-tubulin isoforms in the mycelial state and only one isoform in the yeast forms. This finding suggests specific roles for the alpha-tubulin isoforms in P. brasiliensis's yeast and mycelial forms.

  20. Susceptibility and resistance of inbred mice to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Calich, V. L.; Singer-Vermes, L. M.; Siqueira, A. M.; Burger, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nine different inbred strains of mice inoculated intraperitoneally with yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis showed significantly varying patterns of susceptibility. The A/SN strain was found to be the most resistant, while BIOD2/nSn, BIO.A and BIOD2/oSn the most susceptible strains. These susceptibility differences were not dependent on the size of challenge inocula and sex of animals. All strains studied showed a mean survival time proportional to the size of inocula used. Although almost all infected male mice presented a shorter survival time when compared with females, significant mortality differences between sexes were found only in two of the strains studied, namely BALB/c and BIOD2/nSn. The H-2 region did not influence the susceptibility pattern since the A/SN and BIO.A strains share the same H-2 haplotype and were respectively highly resistant and susceptible to P. brasiliensis. Furthermore, the presence of C5 and unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide had no influence on the mortality data observed. Specific antibodies were detected only in a small number of animals and titres were consistently low, appearing later in the resistant (A/SN) than in a susceptible strain (BIO.A). Omentum, spleen and liver were the most affected organs in both strains, but the susceptible mice had more granulomatous lesions and earlier dissemination of the fungus. PMID:4063162

  1. Cloning and characterisation of JAZ gene family in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Hong, H; Xiao, H; Yuan, H; Zhai, J; Huang, X

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical wounding or treatment with exogenous jasmonates (JA) induces differentiation of the laticifer in Hevea brasiliensis. JA is a key signal for latex biosynthesis and wounding response in the rubber tree. Identification of JAZ (jasmonate ZIM-domain) family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression and related physiological processes in plants. In this work, the full-length cDNAs of six JAZ genes were cloned from H. brasiliensis (termed HbJAZ). These HbJAZ have different lengths and sequence diversity, but all of them contain Jas and ZIM domains, and two of them contain an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the N-terminal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that HbJAZ have different expression patterns and tissue specificity. Four HbJAZ were up-regulated, one was down-regulated, while two were less effected by rubber tapping treatment, suggesting that they might play distinct roles in the wounding response. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that HbJAZ proteins interact with each other to form homologous or heterogeneous dimer complexes, indicating that the HbJAZ proteins may expand their function through diverse JAZ-JAZ interactions. This work lays a foundation for identification of the JA signalling pathway and molecular mechanisms of latex biosynthesis in rubber trees.

  2. THE EFFECT OF GARCINIA CAMBOGIA AS COADJUVANT IN THE WEIGHT LOSS PROCESS.

    PubMed

    Fassina, Patricia; Scherer Adami, Fernanda; Terezinha Zani, Valdeni; Kasper Machado, Isabel Cristina; Garavaglia, Juliano; Quevedo Grave, Magali Terezinha; Ramos, Renata; Morelo Dal Bosco, Simone

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: debido al aumento significativo de la tasa de obesidad en los últimos años, la salud pública se ha enfrentado en muchos países del mundo a los principales problemas causados por esta enfermedad. Debido a ello, surgen productos naturales, a base de hierbas, para ayudar en el tratamiento de la obesidad debido a sus efectos más seguros. Entre estos productos destaca el extracto obtenido a partir de frutas secas de Garcinia Cambogia (GC), que se ha estudiado y utilizado como un suplemento natural para la pérdida de peso. Objetivo: investigar la administración de GC como un factor coadyuvante en el tratamiento de la obesidad en cuanto a su eficacia, la forma de acción, la cantidad diaria recomendada, los efectos secundarios y las contraindicaciones, para su uso como un suplemento alimentario natural en la pérdida de peso. Metodología: revisión de la literatura. Se consultaron las bases de datos LILACS-BIREME, SciELO y MEDLINE, y se seleccionaron los artículos científicos publicados en inglés, portugués y español, entre el período de 2007 y 2014, llevando a cabo estudios sobre la administración de la GC como una forma de tratamiento de la obesidad. Los descriptores utilizados para los artículos de investigación fueron: en portugúes Cambogia Garcinia, y en inglés “Garcinia Cambogia”, “pérdida de peso y obesidad”, y “ácido hidroxicítrico (HCA)”; este último no es un descriptor indexado en Decs, pero dada la importancia de este término para la búsqueda, se adoptó como una palabra clave. Se identificaron treinta y cuatro artículos, pero solo 21 estaban relacionados con los objetivos de este estudio. El primer análisis de los artículos fue realizada por el título y luego por el resumen. Además, se incluyeron 17 referencias por su relevancia para el estudio. Resultados: en algunos trabajos analizados se observó que GC mostró efectos positivos en el proceso de pérdida de peso, reducción de apetito, porcentaje de

  3. Garcinia kola seeds: is the aqueous extract a true aphrodisiac in male Wistar rats?

    PubMed

    Yakubu, M T; Quadri, A L

    2012-01-01

    The age long acclaimed aphrodisiac potentials of Garcinia kola seeds in some parts of Western Nigeria has not been substantiated with scientific evidence. In this study, we have decided to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of G. kola at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight on sexual behaviour of male rats. Male rats weighing 215.00 ± 18.58 g were randomized completely into four groups (A-D) of six animals each. Animals in group A received, orally, 0.5 ml of distilled water only while those in groups B, C and D received same volume containing 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the seed extract respectively. Frequencies of mount (MF), intromission (IF), genital toilet (GTF) and ejaculation (EF) as well as latencies of mount (ML), intromission (IL) and ejaculation (EL) were evaluated following the pairing of male rats (1:1) with non-oestrous female rats. The parameters were monitored for the first (15-30 min), second (75-90 min) and third (180195 min) observatory periods. The levels of testosterone, luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) were also determined. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of saponins (2.78%), cardiac glycosides (0.26%), cardenolides and dienolides (0.24%), flavonoids (1.28%) and steroids (1.14%). The 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight increased (P<0.05) the MF whereas the ML was decreased by all the doses of the extract. MF and ML were not altered during the second observatory period whereas the 50 mg/kg body weight increased these parameters during the third observatory period. Other sexual behaviour parameters as well as serum testosterone, FSH and LH were not significantly altered throughout the observatory periods. Overall, the results revealed that G. kola seeds did not have sex enhancing potential as claimed. Therefore, the acclaimed pro sexual effect of Garcinia kola seeds is scientifically untrue. This study has refuted the claim that one of the rationales for consuming the seeds

  4. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  5. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-05-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger is a well known enzyme producer, this is the first report of xylanase and thermostable beta-xylosidase production from the newly identified, non-ochratoxin-producing species A. brasiliensis.

  6. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  7. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, were isolated and characterized. The microsatellites include 10 perfect repeats (8 tetranucleotide and 2 dinucleotide) and 3 imperfect repeats (2 tetranucleotide and 1 dinucleo...

  8. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n =3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil.

  9. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals a High Prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in Feline Sporotrichosis Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n = 3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil. PMID:23818999

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Garcinia cambogia Extract on CYP2B6 Enzyme Activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun Sang; Choi, Min Sun; Park, Jong Suk; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Nakamura, Katsunori; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2017-03-13

    This study assessed the inhibitory effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on the cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro. G. cambogia extract was incubated with cytochrome P450 isozyme-specific substrates in human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP2B6 isozyme, and the formation of the marker metabolites was measured to investigate the inhibitory potential on cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. The results showed that G. cambogia extract has significant inhibitory effects on CYP2B6 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the inhibition was potentiated following preincubation with NADPH, indicating that G. cambogia extract is a time-dependent inhibitor of CYP2B6. Meanwhile, hydroxycitric acid, the major bioactive ingredient of G. cambogia extract, did not exhibit significant inhibition effects on cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. G. cambogia extract could modulate the pharmacokinetics of CYP2B6 substrate drugs and lead to interactions with those drugs. Therefore, caution may be required with respect to concomitant intake of dietary supplements containing G. cambogia extract with CYP2B6 substrates.

  11. Garcinia xanthochymus Benzophenones Promote Hyphal Apoptosis and Potentiate Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Desmond N; Yang, Lin; Wu, ShiBiao; Kennelly, Edward J; Lipke, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    Xanthochymol and garcinol, isoprenylated benzophenones purified from Garcinia xanthochymus fruits, showed multiple activities against Candida albicans biofilms. Both compounds effectively prevented emergence of fungal germ tubes and were also cytostatic, with MICs of 1 to 3 μM. The compounds therefore inhibited development of hyphae and subsequent biofilm maturation. Xanthochymol treatment of developing and mature biofilms induced cell death. In early biofilm development, killing had the characteristics of apoptosis, including externalization of phosphatidyl serine and DNA fragmentation, as evidenced by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence. These activities resulted in failure of biofilm maturation and hyphal death in mature biofilms. In mature biofilms, xanthochymol and garcinol caused the death of biofilm hyphae, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 30 to 50 μM. Additionally, xanthochymol-mediated killing was complementary with fluconazole against mature biofilms, reducing the fluconazole EC50 from >1,024 μg/ml to 13 μg/ml. Therefore, xanthochymol has potential as an adjuvant for antifungal treatments as well as in studies of fungal apoptosis.

  12. UPLC-ESI-TOF MS-Based Metabolite Profiling of the Antioxidative Food Supplement Garcinia buchananii.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Balemba, Onesmo B; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-08-19

    Comparative antioxidative analyses of aqueous ethanolic extracts from leaf, root, and stem of Garcinia buchananii revealed high activity of all three organs. To investigate the metabolite composition of the different parts of G. buchananii, an untargeted metabolomics approach using UPLC-ESI-TOF MS with simultaneous acquisition of low- and high-collision energy mass spectra (MS(e)) was performed. Unsupervised statistics (PCA) highlighted clear differences in the metabolomes of the three organs. OPLS-DA revealed (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-GB-1, (2R,3S)-morelloflavone, and (2R,3S)-volkensiflavone as the most decisive marker compounds discriminating leaf from root and stem extract. Leaves represent the best source to isolate GB-1, morelloflavone, and volkensiflavone. Root extract is the best organ to isolate xanthones and stem bark extract the best source to isolate (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone; the identified polyisoprenylated benzophenones are characteristic compounds for the leaf organ. Morelloflavone, volkensiflavone, and garcicowin C were isolated for the first time from G. buchananii, identified via MS, NMR, and CD spectroscopy, and showed in H2O2 scavenging, H/L-TEAC, and H/L-ORAC assays moderate to strong in vitro antioxidative activities.

  13. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant potential of the leaves of Garcinia travancorica Bedd.

    PubMed

    Aravind, A P Anu; Asha, K R T; Rameshkumar, K B

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the leaves of Garcinia travancorica, a hitherto uninvestigated endemic species to the Western Ghats of south India, resulted in isolation and characterisation of the polyisoprenylated benzophenones 7-epi-nemorosone (1) and garcinol (2) along with biflavonoids GB-1a (3), GB-1 (4), GB-2 (5), morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7″-O-β-D-glycoside or fukugiside (7). The compounds were identified using various spectroscopic techniques, mainly through NMR and MS. The methanol extract and the biflavonoids 3, 4, 5 and 7 showed potential in vitro antioxidant activities. The IC50 value of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of compound 7 was 8.34 ± 2.12 μg/mL, comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid (3.2 ± 0.50 μg/mL). In the superoxide radical scavenging assay, compound 7 gave IC50 value of 6.95 ± 1.33 μg/mL close to standard ascorbic acid with IC50 value of 5.8 ± 0.25 μg/mL. Validated HPTLC estimation revealed G. travancorica as a rich source of morelloflavone-7″-O-β-D-glycoside (7.12% dry wt. leaves).

  14. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of hydroxycitric acid or Garcinia cambogia extracts in humans.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Fabiola; Babio, Nancy; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that Garcinia cambogia plays an important role in the regulation of endogenous lipid biosynthesis. This effect is specially attributed to (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) inhibiting the enzyme ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Although several studies have found that the administration of G. cambogia extracts is associated with body weight and fat loss in both experimental animals and humans, we should be cautious when interpreting the results as other randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have not reported the same outcomes. Furthermore, most studies in humans have been conducted on small samples and mainly in the short term. None of them have shown whether these effects persist beyond 12 weeks of intervention. Therefore, there is still little evidence to support the potential effectiveness and long-term benefits of G. cambogia extracts. With regard to toxicity and safety, it is important to note that except in rare cases, studies conducted in experimental animals have not reported increased mortality or significant toxicity. Furthermore, at the doses usually administered, no differences have been reported in terms of side effects or adverse events (those studied) in humans between individuals treated with G. cambogia and controls.

  15. Comparative UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolomics and bioactivities analyses of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; AnandhiSenthilkumar, Harini; Wu, Shi-biao; Liu, Bo; Guo, Zhi-yong; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-lin

    2016-02-01

    Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth. (Clusiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant from southern China, with edible fruits. However, the phytochemistry and bioactivity of the different plant parts of G. oblongifolia have not been studied extensively. Comparative metabolic profiling and bioactivities of the leaf, branch, and fruit of G. oblongifolia were investigated. A total of 40 compounds such as biflavonoids, xanthones, and benzophenones were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS and MS(E), including 15 compounds reported for the first time from this species. Heatmap analyses found that benzophenones, xanthones, and biflavonoids were predominately found in branches, with benzophenones present in relatively high concentrations in all three plant parts. Xanthones were found to have limited distribution in fruit while biflavonoids were present at only low levels in leaves. In addition, the cytotoxic (MCF-7 breast cancer cell line) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH chemical tests) activities of the crude extracts of G. oblongifolia indicate that the branch extract exhibits greater bioactivity than either the leaf or the fruit extracts. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis was used to find 12 marker compounds, mainly xanthones, from the branches, including well-known antioxidants and cytotoxic agents. These G. oblongifolia results revealed that the variation in metabolite profiles can be correlated to the differences in bioactivity of the three plant parts investigated. This UPLC-QTOF-MS strategy can be useful to identify bioactive constituents expressed differentially in the various plant parts of a single species.

  16. Garcinia subelliptica Merr. (Fukugi): A multipurpose coastal tree with promising medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomomi; Kainuma, Mami; Baba, Karin; Oshiro, Nozomi; Kimura, Norimi; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang

    2017-01-01

    In this short review, the current knowledge on the botany, ecology, uses, and medicinal properties of the multipurpose Garcinia subelliptica (Fukugi) is updated. As yet, there are no reviews on this indigenous and heritage coastal tree species of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan, which has ethnocultural, ecological, and pharmacological significance. Planted by the Okinawan people some 300 years ago, Fukugi trees serve as windbreaks and accord protection against the destructive typhoons. The species has become a popular ornamental tree, and its bark has been used for dyeing fabrics. It forms part of the food chain for mammals and insects and serves as nesting sites for birds. Endowed with bioactive compounds of benzophenones, xanthones, biflavonoids, and triterpenoids, G. subelliptica possesses anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, trypanocidal, antibacterial, DNA topoisomerase inhibitory, DNA strand scission, choline acetyltransferase enhancing, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 inhibitory, and antiandrogenic activities. Fukugetin and fukugiside are two novel biflavonoids named after the species. The chemical constituents of Fukugi fruits when compared with those of mangosteen yielded interesting contrasts.

  17. Garcinia subelliptica Merr. (Fukugi): A multipurpose coastal tree with promising medicinal properties

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomomi; Kainuma, Mami; Baba, Karin; Oshiro, Nozomi; Kimura, Norimi; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang

    2017-01-01

    In this short review, the current knowledge on the botany, ecology, uses, and medicinal properties of the multipurpose Garcinia subelliptica (Fukugi) is updated. As yet, there are no reviews on this indigenous and heritage coastal tree species of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan, which has ethnocultural, ecological, and pharmacological significance. Planted by the Okinawan people some 300 years ago, Fukugi trees serve as windbreaks and accord protection against the destructive typhoons. The species has become a popular ornamental tree, and its bark has been used for dyeing fabrics. It forms part of the food chain for mammals and insects and serves as nesting sites for birds. Endowed with bioactive compounds of benzophenones, xanthones, biflavonoids, and triterpenoids, G. subelliptica possesses anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, trypanocidal, antibacterial, DNA topoisomerase inhibitory, DNA strand scission, choline acetyltransferase enhancing, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 inhibitory, and antiandrogenic activities. Fukugetin and fukugiside are two novel biflavonoids named after the species. The chemical constituents of Fukugi fruits when compared with those of mangosteen yielded interesting contrasts. PMID:28163970

  18. Mangostanaxanthones III and IV: advanced glycation end-product inhibitors from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Hossam M; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Mohamed, Gamal A; El-Halawany, Ali M; Alshali, Khalid Z; Banjar, Zainy M

    2017-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are associated with a non-enzymatic reaction between the amino group of a protein and the carbonyl group of a sugar during hyperglycemia. The precipitation of AGEs in different tissues leads to many complications, such as endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular complications, atherosclerosis, retinopathy, neuropathy, and Alzheimer's disease. Garcinia mangostana L. (Clusiaceae) (GM) was selected owing to the ability of its polar and non-polar fractions to inhibit AGE formation. For the first time, the bioguided fractionation of its pericarp MeOH extract (GMT) gave rise to two new xanthones, namely, mangostanaxanthones III (1) and IV (3), in addition to six known compounds, β-mangostin (2), garcinone E (4), rubraxanthone (5), α-mangostin (6), garcinone C (7), and 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (8), from the non-polar faction. Their structures were verified by various spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR studies and high-resolution MS data. All of the isolated xanthones significantly inhibited both sugar (ribose) and dicarbonyl compound (methylglyoxal)-induced protein glycation in a dose-dependent manner. This is explained by the ability of the isolated xanthones to inhibit protein oxidation, as indicated by the decreases in dityrosine and N'-formylkynurenine formation.

  19. Natural Xanthones from Garcinia mangostana with Multifunctional Activities for the Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Nan; Li, Qian; Jing, Ming-Hua; Alba, Espargaró; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Sabaté, Raimon; Han, Yi-Fan; Pi, Rong-Biao; Lan, Wen-Jian; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Jing-Kao

    2016-07-01

    Natural xanthones have diversity pharmacological activities. Here, a series of xanthones isolated from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana Linn, named α-Mangostin, 8-Deoxygartanin, Gartanin, Garciniafuran, Garcinone C, Garcinone D, and γ-Mangostin were investigated. Biological screening performed in vitro and in Escherichia coli cells indicated that most of the xanthones exhibited significant inhibition of self-induced β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and also β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1, acted as potential antioxidants and biometal chelators. Among these compounds, α-Mangostin, Gartanin, Garcinone C and γ-Mangostin showed better antioxidant properties to scavenge Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical than Trolox, and potent neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death partly by up-regulating HO-1 protein level and then scavenging reactive oxygen species. Moreover, Gartanin, Garcinone C and γ-Mangostin could be able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. These findings suggest that the natural xanthones have multifunctional activities against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and could be promising compounds for the therapy of AD.

  20. Anticancer Activity of Garcinia morella on T-Cell Murine Lymphoma Via Apoptotic Induction

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Bhaswati; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Monisha, Javadi; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B.; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Traditional knowledge (TK) based medicines have gained worldwide attention and presently the scientific community is focussing on proper pharmacological validation and identification of lead compounds for the treatment of various diseases. The North East region of India is the home of valuable traditional herbal remedies. Garcinia morella Desr. (Guttiferae) is one such medicinal plant used by traditional healers for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer activity of methanol extracts of the leaf, bark and fruit of G. morella (GM) in different in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. The results of this study showed that GM methanol extracts possessed in vitro antioxidant and anticancer properties, where the fruit extract (GF) showed maximum activity. The anticancer activity was further confirmed by the results of in vivo administration of GF (200 mg/kg) for ten days to Dalton’s lymphoma (DLA) induced mice. GF extract significantly increased the mean survival time (MST) of the animals, decreased the tumor volume and restored the hematological and biochemical parameters. The present study for the first time reported the anticancer property of GF on DLA. Further from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of GF on DLA, it can be concluded that GF exerts its anticancer effect through induction of caspases and DNA fragmentation that ultimately leads to apoptosis. However, further experimentation is required to elucidate the active principle and validate these findings in various in vivo settings. PMID:26858645

  1. Antiproliferative activities of Garcinia bracteata extract and its active ingredient, isobractatin, against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Li, Wei; Wang, Yan-Yan; Zhong, Qing-Qing; Wang, Shu-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Ren, Dong-Mei; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2014-03-01

    In our cell based screening of antitumor ingredients from plants, the EtOH extract of Garcinia bracteata displayed antiproliferative effect against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and human prostate cancer PC3 cells. Phytochemical investigation of this active extract produced nine ingredients, and their structures were established by analysis of MS and NMR spectra. Antiproliferative evaluation of isolated ingredients on A549, MCF-7 and PC3 cells indicated that a xanthone named isobractatin (1) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against the above three human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 2.90 to 4.15 μM. Treatment of PC3 cells with 1 led to an enhancement of the cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. The G0/G1 phase cycle-related proteins analysis showed that the expressions of cyclins D1 and E were reduced by 1, whereas the protein level of cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor P21 was induced. Additionally, 1 enhanced PC3 cell apoptosis by activations of Bax, caspases 3 and 9, and by inhibition of Bcl-2. Our combined data illustrated that isobractatin (1) was the antiproliferative ingredient of G. bracteata against three human cancer cell lines, which exerted its antiproliferatrive effect via cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis.

  2. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic Myrothecium spp. isolated from Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella.

    PubMed

    Ruma, Karmakar; Sunil, Kumar; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Prakash, Harischandra Sripathy

    2015-11-01

    Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella, medicinal plants are endemic to Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Sixteen Myrothecium isolates were obtained from the tissues of bark and twigs of these plants. The purpose of this study was to explore the antimicrobial activity and genetic variability of the endophytic Myrothecium isolates. The antimicrobial activity as well as the genetic diversity of endophytic Myrothecium species was investigated through RAPD, ISSR and ITS sequence analysis. Myrothecium isolates were genotypically compared by RAPD and ISSR techniques, 510 and 189 reproducible polymorphic bands were obtained using 20 RAPD and ten ISSR primers respectively. The isolates grouped into four main clades and subgroups using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis. rDNA ITS sequence analysis presented better resolution for characterising the isolates of Myrothecium spp. The clustering patterns of the isolates were almost similar when compared with RAPD and ISSR dendograms. The results signify that RAPD, ISSR and ITS analysis can be employed to distinguish the genetic diversity of the Myrothecium species. The endophytic and pathogenic strains were compared by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour joining methods. One isolate (JX862206) amongst the 16 Myrothecium isolates exhibited potent antibacterial and as well as anti-Candida activity.

  3. Antibacterial and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activities of polyhydroxylated xanthones from Garcinia succifolia.

    PubMed

    Duangsrisai, Susawat; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Bessa, Lucinda J; Costa, Paulo M; Amat, Nurmuhammat; Kijjoa, Anake

    2014-11-28

    Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4), 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6). All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1), as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6) exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1) and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively.

  4. Spermatogenic structure and fertility of Mus musculus after exposure of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, Alfiah; Agustin, Melia Eka; Rokhimaningrum, Farida Ayu; Adro'i, Hasan; Darmanto, Win

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract on spermatogenics number, seminiferous tubules sized, profile protein of epididymal and testicular sperm, and fertility of mice (Mus musculus). Fourty two male mice strain BALB/C was divided equally into 7 groups. The control group was given 0.05 ml of 0.05% CMC solution. Three group were given mangosteen pericarp extract at various doses (75, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 7 days, while the other three groups were given the same extract dose for 35 days. Parameters evaluated on histological of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, seminiferous tubule diameter, and thickness of germinal epithelium, analysis of testicular and epidydimal protein profile with SDS-Page, and than fertility test on female mice. The results showed that mangosteen pericarp extract at 75 and 100 mg/kg dose for 7 days had no effect on spermatogenics number and seminiferous tubule sizes, but the treatment dose of 150 mg/kg for 7 days and all treatment (doses of 75, 100, and 150 mg/kg) for 35 days led to significant decrease on the number of spermatogenics and seminiferous tubule sizes; effect on protein profiles testicular and epididymal sperm; and lower fertilization.

  5. Emerging role of Garcinol, the antioxidant chalcone from Garcinia indica Choisy and its synthetic analogs

    PubMed Central

    Padhye, Subhash; Ahmad, Aamir; Oswal, Nikhil; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-01-01

    Garcinol, harvested from Garcinia indica, has traditionally been used in tropical regions and appreciated for centuries; however its biological properties are only beginning to be elucidated. There is ample data to suggest potent antioxidant properties of this compound which have been used to explain most of its observed biological activities. However, emerging evidence suggests that garcinol could be useful as an anti-cancer agent, and it is increasingly being realized that garcinol is a pleiotropic agent capable of modulating key regulatory cell signaling pathways. Here we have summarized the progress of our current research knowledge on garcinol and its observed biological activities. We have also provided an explanation of observed properties based on its chemical structure and provided an insight into the structure and properties of chalcones, the precursors of garcinol. The available data is promising but more detailed investigations into the various properties of this compound, particularly its anti-cancer activity are urgently needed, and it is our hope that this review will stimulate further research for elucidating and appreciating the value of this nature's wonder agent. PMID:19725977

  6. Development of microsatellite markers in Garcinia paucinervis (Clusiaceae), an endangered species of karst habitats1

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gang; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Yuan, Chang-An

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Garcinia paucinervis (Clusiaceae), an endangered and endemic tree species of karst habitats, to analyze its genetic diversity and genetic structure. Methods and Results: Using shotgun sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq platform, a total of 22 microsatellite primer sets were characterized, of which 17 were identified as polymorphic. For these polymorphic loci, the total number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 12 across 54 individuals from three populations. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 1.000 and from 0.000 to 0.850, respectively. No pair of loci showed significant linkage disequilibrium. Three loci in one population deviated significantly from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05). Seven loci (JSL3, JSL5, JSL22, JSL29, JSL32, JSL39, and JSL43) were successfully amplified in G. bracteata. Conclusions: These markers will be useful in studies on genetic diversity and population structure of G. paucinervis. PMID:28090413

  7. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N.; Henriques, João A. P.; Brendel, Martin; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as “mangosteen fruit,” originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  8. Molecular identification of Trichinella britovi in martens (Martes martes) and badgers (Meles meles); new host records in Poland.

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Bogdaszewski, Marek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2012-12-01

    Trichinella larvae were detected in a marten (Martes martes) and a badger (Meles meles) in Poland. The animals were found dead following car accidents. All examined animals derived from the Mazurian Lake district, north-east Poland, near the village Kosewo Górne where Trichinella infection were earlier confirmed in wildlife; red foxes and wild boars. The muscle samples were examined by artificial pepsin-HCl digestion method. The parasites were identified as Trichinella britovi by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. Larvae were found in two out of three martens and one out of seven examined badgers. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella britovi larvae from martens and badgers in Poland.

  9. Cytotoxic Properties and Complete Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Assignment of Isolated Xanthones from the Root of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Wahyuni, Fatma Sri; Shaari, Khozirah; Stanslas, Johnson; Lajis, Nordin HJ; Hamidi, Dachriyanus

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate compounds from the roots of Garcinia cowa and to evaluated their cytotoxic activity against breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU-145), and lung (H-460) cell lines. Materials and Methods: The ground air-dried root was sequentially macerated with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and methanol. The DCM soluble extract was fractionated by vacuum liquid chromatography, column chromatography, and radial chromatography over silica gel with hexane, EtOAc and methanol as eluent in progressively increasing polarity manner; to yield three compounds. Their structures were elucidated based on their spectroscopic data and their comparison with those of the literature. The cytotoxicity of isolated compounds was carried out against human cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The extract was added at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/ml). The level of cytotoxicity was determined by calculating the level of IC50 that was based on the percentage of the cell death following the 24 h incubation with the extract. Results: Phytochemical study on the roots of G. cowa yielded rubraxanthone (3), cowanine (4) and 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (5). Compound 4 with an IC50 value of 4.1 ± 1.0 μM, 5.4 ± 2.3 μM and 11.3 ± 10.0 μM against MCF-7, H-460, and DU-145, respectively while compound 3 was found to be in active. Conclusion: The results indicate that G. cowa roots could be important sources of natural cytotoxic compounds. SUMMARY Isolation of cytotoxic compounds from Garcinia cowaCowanine is the active constituent from the roots of Garcinia cowaComplete nuclear magnetic resonance assignment of isolated compoundsMS fragmentation of rubraxanthone. PMID:27041859

  10. Actinomycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis in a girl with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Martha; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Valencia, Adriana; Araiza, Javier; Mejia, Silvia Anett; Mena-Cedillos, Carlos

    2008-08-15

    We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl with Down syndrome and a large cutaneous plaque localized to the right neck and shoulder that had enlarged over five years after a minor traumatic injury. The plaque was characterized by numerous inflammatory nodules and fistulae that secreted purulent discharge. Nocardia grains were identified and Nocardia brasiliensis was identified by culture. Histopathology examination showed a chronic inflammatory infiltrate with granuloma development. The treatment scheme was with Diaminodiphenylsulfone 50/mg/d and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg BID. Therapy was continued over 1(1/2) years, with a tapering dose. After 2(1/2) years of continuous treatment, clinical and microbiological healing was achieved.

  11. [Isolation of an Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exoantigen from solid culture media].

    PubMed

    Gago, J; Godio, C; Ochoa, L; Negroni, R; Nejamkis, M R

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop in solid medium a fast method to obtain Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) with a high yield. Four culture media were assayed: Sabouraud honey-agar, Sabouraud dextrose-agar, tomato -agar-medium (TOM) and a medium based on grape pulp. The most exhuberant growth was observed in medium based on grape pulp. Antigen was prepared in microscale at 6, 10 and 15 days incubation of solid cultures and the crude product concentrated by means of Centriplus tubes (Helena, France). Isolated antigens were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by immunolabelling and detection of the characteristic gp45 antigen employing human and Pb-infected rat sera. Best results were observed after 10 days culture in grape medium. None of the other three media afforded comparable results.

  12. Transporters in the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis transcriptome: insights on drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Costa, Christiane da Silva; Albuquerque, Flávia Caixeta; Andrade, Rosângela Vieira; Oliveira, Gina Camilo de; Almeida, Mauro Fernandes de; Brigido, Marcelo de Macedo; Maranhão, Andrea Queiroz

    2005-06-30

    In the struggle for life, the capacity of microorganisms to synthesize and secrete toxic compounds (inhibiting competitors) plays an important role in successful survival of these species. This ability must come together with the capability of being unaffected by these same compounds. Several mechanisms are thought to avoid the toxic effects. One of them is toxin extrusion from the intracellular environment to the outside vicinity, using special transmembrane proteins, referred to as transporters. These proteins are also important for other reasons, since most of them are involved in nutrient uptake and cellular excretion. In cancer cells and in pathogens, and particularly in fungi, some of these proteins have been pointed out as responsible for an important phenotype known as multidrug resistance (MDR). In the present study, we tried to identify in the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis transcriptome, transporter-ortholog genes from the two major classes: ATP binding cassette and major facilitator superfamily transporter. We found 22 groups with good similarity with other fungal ATP binding cassette transporters, and four Paracoccidioides brasilienses assembled expressed sequence tags that probably code for major facilitator superfamily proteins. We also focused on fungicide resistance orthologs already characterized in other pathogenic fungi. We were able to find homologs to C. albicans CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae PDR5 and Aspergillus AtrF genes, all of them related to azole resistance. As current treatment for paracoccidioidomycosis mainly uses azole derivatives, the presence of these genes can be postulated to play a similar role in P. brasiliensis, warning us for the possibility of resistant isolate emergence.

  13. Experimental model of arthritis induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Biazin, Samia Khalil; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia; de Franco, Marcello Fabiano; Puccia, Rosana; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira

    2012-09-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a disease caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is highly prevalent in Brazil, where it is the principal cause of death by systemic mycoses. The disease primarily affects men aged 30-50 year old and usually starts as a pulmonary focus and then may spread to other organs and systems, including the joints. The present study aimed to develop an experimental model of paracoccidioidomycotic arthritis. Two-month-old male Wistar rats (n = 48) were used, divided in 6 groups: test groups EG/15 and EG/45 (received one dose of 100 μl of saline containing 10(5) Pb viable yeasts in the knee); heat killed Pb-group HK/15 and HK/45 (received a suspension of 10(5) Pb nonviable yeasts in the knee) and control groups CG/15 and CG/45 (received only sterile saline in the knee). The rats were killed 15 and 45 days postinoculation. In contrast with the control rats, the histopathology of the joints of rats of the test groups (EG/15 and EG/45) revealed a picture of well-established PCM arthritis characterized by extensive sclerosing granulomatous inflammation with numerous multiple budding fungal cells. The X-ray examination revealed joint alterations in these groups. Only metabolic active fungi evoked inflammation. The experimental model was able to induce fungal arthritis in the knees of the rats infected with metabolic active P. brasiliensis. The disease tended to be regressive and restrained by the immune system. No evidence of fungal dissemination to the lungs was observed.

  14. Garcimultiflorone G, a novel benzoylphloroglucinol derivative from Garcinia multiflora with inhibitory activity on neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Yen, Ming-Hong; Chen, Jih-Jung

    2014-05-01

    A novel benzoylphloroglucinol derivative, garcimultiflorone G (1), was isolated from the fruits of Garcinia multiflora. The structure of 1 was determined through extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS analyses. Garcimultiflorone G (1) showed inhibitory effects against superoxide anion (O·2(-) generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB), with IC50 values of 6.97 ± 1.56 and 11.70 ± 1.58 μM, respectively.

  15. Cylindroxanthones A-C, three new xanthones and their cytotoxicity from the stem bark of Garcinia cylindrocarpa.

    PubMed

    Sukandar, Edwin Risky; Ersam, Taslim; Fatmawati, Sri; Siripong, Pongpun; Aree, Thammarat; Tip-pyang, Santi

    2016-01-01

    Three new xanthones, cylindroxanthones A-C (1-3), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia cylindrocarpa. The structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The molecular structure of 1 was unequivocally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These three xanthones were evaluated regarding their cytotoxicity against KB, HeLa S-3, HT-29, MCF-7, and Hep G2 cancer cell lines. Compound 1 exhibited good cytotoxicity against KB cell with IC50 value of 2.36 μM.

  16. Antimicrobial effect of farnesol, a Candida albicans quorum sensing molecule, on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Derengowski, Lorena S; De-Souza-Silva, Calliandra; Braz, Shélida V; Mello-De-Sousa, Thiago M; Báo, Sônia N; Kyaw, Cynthia M; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete

    2009-01-01

    Background Farnesol is a sesquiterpene alcohol produced by many organisms, and also found in several essential oils. Its role as a quorum sensing molecule and as a virulence factor of Candida albicans has been well described. Studies revealed that farnesol affect the growth of a number of bacteria and fungi, pointing to a potential role as an antimicrobial agent. Methods Growth assays of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells incubated in the presence of different concentrations of farnesol were performed by measuring the optical density of the cultures. The viability of fungal cells was determined by MTT assay and by counting the colony forming units, after each farnesol treatment. The effects of farnesol on P. brasiliensis dimorphism were also evaluated by optical microscopy. The ultrastructural morphology of farnesol-treated P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results In this study, the effects of farnesol on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and dimorphism were described. Concentrations of this isoprenoid ranging from 25 to 300 μM strongly inhibited P. brasiliensis growth. We have estimated that the MIC of farnesol for P. brasiliensis is 25 μM, while the MLC is around 30 μM. When employing levels which don't compromise cell viability (5 to 15 μM), it was shown that farnesol also affected the morphogenesis of this fungus. We observed about 60% of inhibition in hyphal development following P. brasiliensis yeast cells treatment with 15 μM of farnesol for 48 h. At these farnesol concentrations we also observed a significant hyphal shortening. Electron microscopy experiments showed that, despite of a remaining intact cell wall, P. brasiliensis cells treated with farnesol concentrations above 25 μM exhibited a fully cytoplasmic degeneration. Conclusion Our data indicate that farnesol acts as a potent antimicrobial agent against P. brasiliensis. The fungicide activity of farnesol against this pathogen is

  17. GrameneMart: the biomart data portal for the gramene project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Gramene project was an early adopter of the BioMart software, which remains an integral and well-used component of the Gramene web site. BioMart accessible data sets include plant gene annotations, plant variation catalogues, genetic markers, physical mapping entities, public DNA/mRNA sequences ...

  18. Concepto de ingeniería del Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El robot más grande y "más malo", y más nuevo para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte. Tiene el tamaño de un vehículo utilitario deportivo y está provisto de 10 instrumentos, nunca antes h...

  19. Sustaining Higher Education Using Wal-Mart's Best Supply Chain Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comm, Clare L.; Mathaisel, Dennis F. X.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in…

  20. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    el robot más nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte o Curiosity. ¡Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y más avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  1. Carmen Martín Gaite and the Writing of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberger, David K.

    2015-01-01

    In this brief article, David Herzberger begins by describing how, with the help of Juan Benet as her interlocutor in 1966, renowned Spanish author Carmen Martín Gaite found her historiographic voice. Herzberger goes on to examine how this relates to Martín Gaite's legacy in historiography and her understanding of the Franco regime and the Spanish…

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to P24 and P61 immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Castro-Corona, M A; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, J; Perez, L I

    1997-01-01

    We prepared a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and purified two immunodominant antigens with molecular weights of 61,000 and 24,000. The isolated proteins were shown to be reasonably pure when analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (8 to 18% polyacrylamide gradient) and stained with Coomassie blue and silver nitrate. By using an immunoelectrotransfer blot method (Western blotting), we demonstrated that these two purified proteins reacted strongly with serum from N. brasiliensis-infected mycetoma patients. To obtain anti-P61 and anti-P24 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we used an N. brasiliensis cell extract as the antigen for the first immunization; 2 weeks later female mice were reimmunized with a semipurified antigen containing the P24 or P61 fraction. A booster injection was given 3 days before the fusion was carried out. Two hybrids that reacted strongly with P24 were cloned by limiting dilution, the generated MAbs were analyzed for isotyping, and their specificity was tested in a Western blot assay with cell extracts from Nocardia asteroides and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures. Anti-P24 MAbs were shown to be specific for N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and did not cross-react with either the N. asteroides or M. tuberculosis strains used. However, additional studies with several N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis strains are needed to investigate whether there are cross-reactions between strains or species when these MAbs are used. The anti-P61 and anti-24 MAbs were used to locate the antigen in N. brasiliensis cells by immunofluorescence. The lack of reaction with intact cells suggests that the P24 and P61 antigens are not exposed in the complete bacterial cell surface or that the recognized epitopes are different. Only one anti-P61 MAb that reacted specifically with the N. brasiliensis cell extract was obtained. PMID:9067645

  3. Monoclonal antibodies to P24 and P61 immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Castro-Corona, M A; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, J; Perez, L I

    1997-03-01

    We prepared a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and purified two immunodominant antigens with molecular weights of 61,000 and 24,000. The isolated proteins were shown to be reasonably pure when analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (8 to 18% polyacrylamide gradient) and stained with Coomassie blue and silver nitrate. By using an immunoelectrotransfer blot method (Western blotting), we demonstrated that these two purified proteins reacted strongly with serum from N. brasiliensis-infected mycetoma patients. To obtain anti-P61 and anti-P24 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we used an N. brasiliensis cell extract as the antigen for the first immunization; 2 weeks later female mice were reimmunized with a semipurified antigen containing the P24 or P61 fraction. A booster injection was given 3 days before the fusion was carried out. Two hybrids that reacted strongly with P24 were cloned by limiting dilution, the generated MAbs were analyzed for isotyping, and their specificity was tested in a Western blot assay with cell extracts from Nocardia asteroides and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures. Anti-P24 MAbs were shown to be specific for N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and did not cross-react with either the N. asteroides or M. tuberculosis strains used. However, additional studies with several N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis strains are needed to investigate whether there are cross-reactions between strains or species when these MAbs are used. The anti-P61 and anti-24 MAbs were used to locate the antigen in N. brasiliensis cells by immunofluorescence. The lack of reaction with intact cells suggests that the P24 and P61 antigens are not exposed in the complete bacterial cell surface or that the recognized epitopes are different. Only one anti-P61 MAb that reacted specifically with the N. brasiliensis cell extract was obtained.

  4. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-12-19

    Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. Strain GHG001, a High Producer of Endo-1,4-Xylanase Isolated from an Insect Pest of Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Borges, Thuanny A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. strain GHG001. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is the closest relative of Pseudozyma vetiver. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is capable of growing on xylose or xylan as a sole carbon source and has great biotechnological potential. PMID:24356824

  7. Importance of Solvation in Understanding the Chiroptical Spectra of Natural Products in Solution Phase: Garcinia Acid Dimethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Jeirath, Neha; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Habel, Deenamma; Nair, Divya Sadasivan; Haleema, Simimole

    2013-01-01

    The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of (+)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed by comparison with the corresponding spectra predicted by quantum chemical methods for (2S,3S)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester. For solution-phase calculations the recently developed continuous surface charge polarizable continuum model (PCM) has been used. It is found that gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level yield nearly mirror-image ECD spectra in the 190–250 nm region for the same absolute configuration and that gas-phase ECD predictions lead to incorrect absolute configuration. At the CAM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, however, gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions of ECD in the 190–250 nm region are not so different, but PCM predictions provide better agreement with the experimental observations. For carbonyl stretching vibrations, the vibrational band positions predicted at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level in gas-phase calculations differ significantly from the corresponding experimentally observed band positions, and this discrepancy has also been corrected by the use of PCM. In addition, the solution-phase VCD predictions provided better agreement (with experimental VCD observations) than gas-phase VCD predictions. These observations underscore the importance of including solvent effects in quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopic properties. PMID:21114277

  8. Effectiveness of primate seed dispersers for an "oversized" fruit, Garcinia benthamii.

    PubMed

    McConkey, Kim R; Brockelman, Warren Y; Saralamba, Chanpen; Nathalang, Anuttara

    2015-10-01

    The largest fruits found in tropical forests may depend on complementary seed dispersal strategies. These fruits are dispersed most effectively by megafauna, but populations can persist where megafauna are absent or erratic visitors. Smaller animals often consume these large fruits, but their capacity to disperse these seeds effectively has rarely been assessed. We evaluated the contributions of gibbons (Hylobates lar) and other frugivores in the seed dispersal of the megafaunal fruit Garcinia benthamii, using the SDE (seed dispersal effectiveness) landscape. Gibbons preferentially consumed G. benthamii fruits and were the main seed disperser that we observed. However, gibbons became satiated when availability was high, with 57% of fruits falling to the ground unhandled. Recruitment of seedlings from gibbon-dispersed seeds was also very low. Elephants consumed G. benthamii fruit, but occurred at low density and were rare visitors to the trees. We suggest that gibbons might complement the seed dispersal role of elephants for G. benthamii, allowing limited recruitment in areas (such as the study site) where elephants occur at low density. Fruit availability varied between years; when availability was low, gibbons reliably consumed most of the crop and dispersed some seeds that established seedlings, albeit at low numbers (2.5 seedlings per crop). When fruit availability was high, the fruit supply overwhelmed the gibbons and other arboreal frugivores, ensuring a large abundance of fruit available to terrestrial seed dispersers. Although gibbons effectively dispersed more seeds at these times (20.7 seedlings per crop), there was the potential for elephants to move many more seeds. Complementary seed dispersal strategies may be important for megafaunal fruit, because they ensure that very large fruits are able to benefit from megafaunal dispersal but also persist where this dispersal becomes erratic. However, our data suggest that smaller seed dispersers might not be

  9. Antitumor effect of forbesione isolated from Garcinia hanburyi on cholangiocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Boueroy, Parichart; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Boonmars, Thidarut; Saensa-Ard, Sunitta; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Vaeteewoottacharn, Kulthida; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignancy with no effective therapy and poor prognosis. Forbesione, a caged xanthone isolated from Garcinia hanburyi, has been reported to inhibit proliferation and to induce apoptosis in human CCA cell lines. The present study aimed to further explore the potential anticancer properties of forbesione by testing its effects against the hamster CCA cell line Ham-1 in vitro and in vivo. It was observed that forbesione inhibited the growth of Ham-1 cells in vitro and suppressed Ham-1 growth as allograft in hamsters by inducing cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This was mediated by decreasing the protein expression of cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. In addition, increased expression of p21 and p27 was detected, which could possibly explain the reduced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and of the bile duct cell marker cytokeratin 19 observed in forbesione-treated Ham-1 cells in vitro and in tumor tissues of forbesione-treated hamsters. Furthermore, forbesione induced apoptosis through multiple pathways. The death receptor pathway was activated by increased expression of Fas, Fas-associated death domain and activated caspase-3, along with decreased expression of procaspase-8 and procaspase-3. The mitochondrial pathway was driven by increased expression of B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-like protein 4, activated caspase-9 and inhibitor of κB-α, along with decreased expression of Bcl-2, survivin, procaspase-9 and nuclear factor-κB/p65. The endoplasmic reticulum pathway was stimulated by increased expression of activated caspase-12 and decreased expression of procaspase-12. No side effects or toxicity were observed in forbesione-treated hamsters. Thus, forbesione is a potential drug candidate for cancer therapy that deserves further investigation. PMID:28101220

  10. Garcinia Cambogia attenuates diet-induced adiposity but exacerbates hepatic collagen accumulation and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Je; Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Yong Bok; Kim, Sang Ryong; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Un Ju

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate long-term effects of Garcinia Cambogia (GC), weight-loss supplement, on adiposity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese mice. METHODS: Obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without GC (1%, w/w) for 16 wk. The HFD contained 45 kcal% fat, 20 kcal% protein and 35 kcal% carbohydrate. They were given free access to food and distilled water, and food consumption and body weight were measured daily and weekly, respectively. Data were expressed as the mean ± SE. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical package for the social science software program. Student’s t test was used to assess the differences between the groups. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in body weight and food intake between the groups. However, the supplementation of GC significantly lowered visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte size via inhibition of fatty acid synthase activity and its mRNA expression in visceral adipose tissue, along with enhanced enzymatic activity and gene expression involved in adipose fatty acid β-oxidation. Moreover, GC supplementation resulted in significant reductions in glucose intolerance and the plasma resistin level in the HFD-fed mice. However, we first demonstrated that it increased hepatic collagen accumulation, lipid peroxidation and mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and inflammatory responses (tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) as well as plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, although HFD-induced hepatic steatosis was not altered. CONCLUSION: GC protects against HFD-induced obesity by modulating adipose fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation but induces hepatic fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:23922466

  11. Facultative Apomixis in Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae) and Effects of Different Pollination Regimes on Reproductive Success.

    PubMed

    Pangsuban, Sasithorn; Bamroongrugsa, Noparat; Kanchanapoom, Kamnoon; Nualsri, Charassri

    2009-12-01

    Various aspects of the reproductive success of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. were studied. Controlled pollination experiments were carried out in an orchard located in Songkhla province, southern Thailand, from February to July 2003. Floral longevity, stigma receptivity, and pollen viability were examined before carrying out the experiments. Three pollination treatments were compared: open pollination, manual pollination with bags, and bags without pollination (apogamy). Although there was no significant difference in the initial fruit set, bagged and manual pollination produced a significantly greater fruit drop rate than apogamy or natural pollination at one week after the flowers had been pollinated. On the other hand, the apogamy treatment had a greater fruit drop rate than natural and manual pollination treatments before fruit maturation. In addition, unpollinated bagged flowers bore fewer and smaller fruit than naturally and manually cross-pollinated flowers. Although the fruits from unpollinated flowers were capable of asexual seed formation, they produced fewer seeds and had poorer seed quality (defined as average fresh weight and germination rate) than those from the other treatments. The occurrence of asexual and sexual reproduction was also studied using Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by comparing the patterns of bands produced from DNA extracted from the offspring of the naturally cross-pollinated fruits. On average, 58% of the offspring had a genetic constitution identical to that of the maternal parent (ranging from 36% to 87%), indicating that some offspring were produced without prior fertilisation. However, the remainder showed polymorphism, demonstrating the occurrence of sexual reproduction. These findings indicate that facultative apomixis occurred in the study population. However, a residual sexuality was important for fruit production, fruit size, normal seed set and seed quality.

  12. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia Induced by High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Elancheran, Ramakrishnan; Deori, Meetali; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae) is a plant found available in Northeast (NE) region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF) and seed extract (GS) were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 4.01 μg/ml), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 0.82 μg/ml), NBT (IC50 = 0.07 μg/ml) and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.26 μg/ml). Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%), serum total cholesterol (33%), triglycerides (32%), low-density lipoprotein (38%) and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat. PMID:27642282

  13. Cowabenzophenones A and B, two new tetracyclo[7.3.3.3(3,11).0(3,7)]tetradecane-2,12,14-trione derivatives, from ripe fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Sriyatep, Teerayut; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Machan, Theeraphan; Phakhodee, Wong; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2014-01-01

    Two new tetracyclo[7.3.3.3(3,11).0(3,7)]tetradecane-2,12,14-trione derivatives, cowabenzophenones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from ripe fruits of Garcinia cowa Roxb. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The tetracyclo[7.3.3.3(3,11).0(3,7)]tetradecane-2,12,14-trione skeleton from the Garcinia genus is reported for the first time.

  14. Phenotypic variability confirmed by nuclear ribosomal DNA suggests a possible natural hybrid zone of Triatoma brasiliensis species complex.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jane; Bargues, Maria Dolores; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Lawrence, Gena G; Gumiel, Marcia; Oliveira, Genova; Cabello, Pedro; Lima, Marli Maria; Dotson, Ellen; Provance, David William; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Mateo, Lucia; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Dujardin, Jean Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma occurs in Pernambuco state, Brazil, which is situated between the distribution areas of Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis (north) and Triatoma juazeirensis (south). T. b. macromelasoma displays greater variations in its chromatic phenotype than either T. b. brasiliensis or T. juazeirensis, and patterns reminiscent of one or the other. Experimental crosses from each of these members of the T. brasiliensis species complex generated fertile offspring suggesting that viable hybrids could be present in nature, despite their significant genetic distances. Considering the geographical position of occurrence of the T. b. macromelasoma (in Pernambuco) it was proposed to be an area capable of supporting natural hybridization between T. b. brasiliensis and T. juazeirensis. Since phenotypic variability is expected, this study investigated the existence of intermediate chromatic phenotypes for T. b. macromelasoma in various locations in areas between the T. b. brasiliensis and T. juazeirensis occurrences. Thirteen different color patterns were for the first time characterized and nine of those displayed intermediate phenotypes. Molecular analysis performed using ribosomal DNA intergenic region, grouped all within the T. brasiliensis complex. The intermediate chromatic phenotypes, molecular analysis and experimental crosses all support the distinction of a zone of hybridization that gave rise to the T. b. macromelasoma through homoploidal evolution.

  15. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a specific DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Goldani, L Z; Maia, A L; Sugar, A M

    1995-06-01

    We cloned and sequenced a species-specific 110-bp DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The DNA fragment was generated by PCR with primers complementary to the rat beta-actin gene under a low annealing temperature. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence, after excluding the primers, with those in the GenBank database identified approximately 60% homology with an exon of a major surface glycoprotein gene from Pneumocystis carinii and a fragment of unknown function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII. By Southern hybridization analysis, the 32P-labelled fragment detected 1.0- and 1.9-kb restriction fragments within whole-cell genomic DNA of P. brasiliensis digested with HindIII and PstI, respectively, but failed to hybridize to genomic DNAs from Candida albicans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pneumocystis carinii, rat tissue, or humans under low-stringency hybridization conditions. Additionally, the specific DNA fragment from three different P. brasiliensis isolates (Pb18, RP18, RP17) was amplified by PCR with primers mostly complementary to nonactin sequences of the 110-bp DNA fragment. In contrast, there were no amplified products from other fungus genomic DNAs previously tested, including Histoplasma capsulatum. To date, this is the first species-specific DNA fragment cloned from P. brasiliensis which might be useful as a diagnostic marker for the identification and classification of different P. brasiliensis isolates.

  16. In vitro susceptibility of antifungal drugs against Sporothrix brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-03-01

    Sporotrichosis is an important subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals. Classically, the disease is acquired upon traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules from contaminated soil and plant debris. In addition, the direct horizontal transmission of Sporothrix among animals and the resulting zoonotic infection in humans highlight an alternative and efficient rout of transmission through biting and scratching. Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex and is responsible for the long-lasting outbreak of feline sporotrichosis in Brazil. However, antifungal susceptibility data of animal-borne isolates is scarce. Therefore, this study evaluated the in vitro activity of amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole against animal-borne isolates of S. brasiliensis. The susceptibility tests were performed through broth microdilution (M38-A2). The results show the relevant activity of itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole against S. brasiliensis, with the following MIC ranges: 0.125-2, 0.125-4 and 0.0312-2 μg/ml, respectively. Caspofungin was moderately effective, displaying higher variation in MIC values (0.25-64 μg/ml). Voriconazole (2-64 μg/ml) and fluconazole (62.5-500 μg/ml) showed low activity against S. brasiliensis strains. This study contributed to the characterization of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of strains of S. brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis, which have recently been considered the main source of human infections.

  17. Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis Is Associated with Atypical Clinical Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been several recent changes in the taxonomy of Sporothrix schenckii as well as new observations regarding the clinical aspects of sporotrichosis. In this study, we determined the identification of the Sporothrix species associated with both classic and unusual clinical aspects of sporotrichosis observed in the endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings To verify whether S. brasiliensis is associated with clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis, a cross-sectional study was performed in which Sporothrix isolates from 50 patients with different clinical manifestations were analyzed and their isolates were studied by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Data from these patients revealed a distinct clinical picture and therapeutic response in infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis (n = 45) compared to patients with S. schenckii sensu stricto (n = 5). S. brasiliensis was associated with disseminated cutaneous infection without underlying disease, hypersensitivity reactions, and mucosal infection, whereas patients with S. schenckii presented with less severe and more often localized disease, similar to the majority of previously described sporotrichosis cases. Interestingly, S. brasiliensis-infected patients overall required shorter durations of itraconazole (median 16 weeks) compared to the individuals with S. schenckii (median 24 weeks). Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that Sporothrix species are linked to different clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis and that S. brasiliensis is effectively treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:25233227

  18. Study of nucleolar behavior during spermatogenesis in Martarega brasiliensis (Heteroptera, Notonectidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, L L V; Alevi, K C C; Moreira, F F F; Barbosa, J F; Silistino-Souza, E R; Silva Júnior, F C; Souza-Firmino, T S; Banho, C A; Itoyama, M M

    2015-08-07

    Few cytogenetic studies have been undertaken using aquatic heteropterans and the nucleolar behavior of these insects has been described in only four species, Limnogonus aduncus, Brachymetra albinerva, Halobatopsis platensis, and Cylindrostethus palmaris. The nucleolus is a cellular structure related to biosynthetic activity and it exhibits a peculiar behavior in the heteropterans of the Triatominae subfamily; it persists during all stages of meiosis. Thus, this study aims to analyze spermatogenesis in Martarega brasiliensis, with an emphasis on nucleolar behavior. Twenty M. brasiliensis adult males were used and collected from the Municipal reservoir in the city of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The species were fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1), then dissected, and the testicles were extracted, torn apart, and impregnated with silver ions. During prophase, the nuclei of M. brasiliensis were composed of the nucleolus and nucleolar corpuscles, which varied in number from one to four, emphasizing that this insect has great synthetic activity during meiosis. The analysis of cells in metaphase I showed that M. brasiliensis presents a nucleolar organizing region in at least one autosome. Furthermore, the phenomenon of nucleolar persistence was not observed. All spermatids presented nucleolar markings that varied in number and position according to the stage of elongation. Moreover, it was also possible to highlight the presence of a vesicle in spermatids. Thus, this paper describes the nucleolar behavior of M. brasiliensis and highlights important characteristics during spermatogenesis, thus, increasing the knowledge about the biology of these aquatic heteropterans.

  19. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a specific DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldani, L Z; Maia, A L; Sugar, A M

    1995-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced a species-specific 110-bp DNA fragment from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The DNA fragment was generated by PCR with primers complementary to the rat beta-actin gene under a low annealing temperature. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence, after excluding the primers, with those in the GenBank database identified approximately 60% homology with an exon of a major surface glycoprotein gene from Pneumocystis carinii and a fragment of unknown function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII. By Southern hybridization analysis, the 32P-labelled fragment detected 1.0- and 1.9-kb restriction fragments within whole-cell genomic DNA of P. brasiliensis digested with HindIII and PstI, respectively, but failed to hybridize to genomic DNAs from Candida albicans, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pneumocystis carinii, rat tissue, or humans under low-stringency hybridization conditions. Additionally, the specific DNA fragment from three different P. brasiliensis isolates (Pb18, RP18, RP17) was amplified by PCR with primers mostly complementary to nonactin sequences of the 110-bp DNA fragment. In contrast, there were no amplified products from other fungus genomic DNAs previously tested, including Histoplasma capsulatum. To date, this is the first species-specific DNA fragment cloned from P. brasiliensis which might be useful as a diagnostic marker for the identification and classification of different P. brasiliensis isolates. PMID:7650207

  20. Seroepidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in horses from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Ana Paula Neuschrank; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Wayne; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of the major systemic mycosis in Brazil, called paracoccidioidomycosis. Although the Rio Grande do Sul is considered an endemic area of the disease, there are few studies on the ecology of P. brasiliensis in the state. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the infection of P. brasiliensis in horses from the mesoregion of Southwest Riograndense, using these animals as sentinels. Serological techniques, such as double immunodiffusion in agar gel (AGID) and indirect ELISA, were performed to detect the anti-gp43 P. brasiliensis antibody in horses from five different farms in the region of Bagé, RS, Brazil. Serology was performed in 200 Pure Blood English horses up to two years of age that were born and raised exclusively at the farms. Of these horses, 12% had anti-gp43 antibodies according to the ELISA results, with rates ranging from 0 to 30% according to the farm of origin (p < 0.001). Based on the immunodiffusion results, all equine serum samples were negative. These results indicate the presence of the fungus P. brasiliensis in the middle region of the southwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:26273267

  1. The mitochondrial genome from the thermal dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Maria Angélica G; Tambor, José Humberto M; Nobrega, Francisco G

    2007-07-01

    We present here the sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the pathogenic thermodimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, agent of an endemic disease in most South American countries. The sequenced genome has 71 334 bp and is organized as a circular molecule with two gaps of unknown size flanking the middle exon of the nad5 gene. We located genes coding for the three subunits of the ATP synthase (atp6, atp8 and atp9), the apocytochrome b (cob), three subunits of the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme complex (cox1, cox2 and cox3), seven subunits of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ubiquinone oxidoreductase (nad1, nad2, nad3, nad4, nad5, nad6 and nad4L) and the large (rnl) and small (rns) subunits of ribosomal RNA. Two maturases and a ribosomal protein (rms5) are located inside introns. Twenty-five tRNAs were identified with acceptors for all 20 amino acids. Seven polypurine/polypyrimidine tracts (140-240 bp) have been found in this genome. All genes are in the same orientation over the genome, while their order is closest to the mitochondrial genomes from Penicillium marneffei and Aspergillus nidulans.

  2. Sporothrix brasiliensis outbreaks and the rapid emergence of feline sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Sanchotene, Karine Ortiz; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Bergamashi, Mariana; Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2015-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Brazil, and is caused by Sporothrix schenckii and allied species. Sporothrix propagules present on soil and plant debris may be traumatically inoculated into the cutaneous/ subcutaneous tissues of the warm-blooded host. An alternative route involves direct animal-animal and animal-human transmissions through deep scratches and bites of diseased cats. Sporotrichosis is much more common than previously appreciated with several cases emerging over the years especially in South and Southeast Brazil. We conducted an epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas of feline sporotrichosis in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Over the last 5-year period the number of feline sporotrichosis in Rio Grande increased from 0.75 new cases per month in 2010 to 3.33 cases per month in 2014. The wide geographic distribution of diagnosed cases highlights the dynamics of Sporothrix transmission across urban areas with high population density. Molecular identification down to species level by PCR-RFLP of cat-transmitted Sporothrix revealed the emergence of the clonal offshoot S. brasiliensis during feline outbreaks; this scenario is similar to the epidemics taking place in the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Controlling and preventing sporotrichosis outbreaks are essential steps to managing the disease among humans and animals.

  3. Isolation and purification of two immunodominant antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, L; Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Rodriguez, M A

    1992-01-01

    Two immunogenic proteins from a crude extract of Nocardia brasiliensis were purified to homogeneity. A 61-kDa protein (P61) was isolated from a 50% ammonium sulfate precipitate in two steps. Initially, P61 was obtained by electroelution in a 10% nondenatured preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In a second step, the eluate from the nondenatured gel was run in a 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) preparative polyacrylamide gel. After elution, a single band was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot (immunoblot). Also, a 24-kDa immunogenic protein (P24) was isolated by gel filtration in a Sephadex G-100 column and then by electroelution in a 12% nondenatured polyacrylamide gel. In a previous paper, we showed by Western blot assays that these proteins are recognized by the sera of mycetoma patients and not by sera from mycobacterial-infected or healthy individuals. We consider these proteins to be good candidates for the study of the host-parasite relationship in nocardial infections. The possible clinical application of these purified antigens in a serological diagnosis is discussed. Images PMID:1583118

  4. Highlights on Hevea brasiliensis (pro)hevein proteins.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Peruch, Frédéric; Lecomte, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    Hevein, from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree), was identified in 1960. It is the most abundant soluble protein (22%) found in latex. Hevein is formed from a larger protein called prohevein. The 187 amino-acid prohevein is cleaved into two fragments: the N-terminal 43 amino-acid hevein, a lectin bearing a chitin-binding motif with antifungal properties, and a C-terminal domain (C-ter), which possesses amyloid properties. Hevein-like proteins are also widely represented in the plant kingdom and belong to a larger family related to stress and pathogenic responses. During the last 55 years, these proteins have attracted the interest of numerous specialists from the fields of plant physiology, genetics, molecular and structural biology, and physico-chemistry to allergology. This review highlights various aspects of hevein, prohevein, and C-ter from the point of view of these various fields, and examines their potential roles in latex as well as their beneficial and negative biological effects (e.g. wound sealing and resistance to pathogens which is mediated by agglutination, antimicrobial activity, and/or allergenicity). It covers results and observations from 1960 up to the most recent research.

  5. Cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: impact on paracoccidioidomycosis immunodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Gabriel Capella; Moris, Daniela Vanessa; Arantes, Thales Domingos; Silva, Luciane Regina Franciscone; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Mendes, Rinaldo Pôncio; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether the occurrence of cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, S1, PS2, PS3 and Paracoccidioides lutzii, has implications in the immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Small quantities of the antigen gp43 were found in culture filtrates of P. lutzii strains and this molecule appeared to be more variable within P. lutzii because the synonymous-nonsynonymous mutation rate was lower, indicating an evolutionary process different from that of the remaining genotypes. The production of gp43 also varied between isolates belonging to the same species, indicating that speciation events are important, but not sufficient to fully explain the diversity in the production of this antigen. The culture filtrate antigen AgEpm83, which was obtained from a PS3 isolate, showed large quantities of gp43 and reactivity by immunodiffusion assays, similar to the standard antigen (AgB-339) from an S1 isolate. Furthermore, AgEpm83 was capable of serologically differentiating five serum samples from patients from the Botucatu and Jundiaí regions. These patients had confirmed PCM but, were non-reactive to the standard antigen, thus demonstrating an alternative for serological diagnosis in regions in which S1 and PS2 occur. We also emphasise that it is not advisable to use a single antigen preparation to diagnose PCM, a disease that is caused by highly diverse pathogens. PMID:23903981

  6. Temporal auditory summation in the echolocating bat, Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; Thaller, J

    1994-06-15

    Auditory thresholds improve with increasing signal duration within the maximum integration time of the auditory system, a phenomenon called temporal summation. The temporal summation function is a basic characteristic of particular relevance for bat sonar, as it determines the ability to detect targets with short echolocation calls. Temporal summation was studied in 6 Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in a forced two-choice behavioural test. Masked auditory thresholds for 40-kHz test tone pulses with durations between 2 ms and 400 ms were determined in broadband noise of two different spectrum levels (-18 dB, +17 dB). At both masker levels, thresholds decreased by considerably more than 10 dB per decade of duration. The time constants of the summation functions, which are a measure of the maximum integration time, shortened significantly with increasing masker level from 62 ms to 14 ms. The steep summation functions are only partly accounted for by spectral splatter. This suggests that the bats are capable of a neural overintegration of sound intensity. Finally, it is shown that such short time constants are typical for echolocating animals, and the implications of the found summation functions for echolocation are considered.

  7. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution.

    PubMed

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta; Frisvad, Jens C; Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, Antonia; Meijer, Martin; Samson, Robert A

    2007-08-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IMI 381727(T)=IBT 21946(T)).

  8. Increase in virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis over five years in a patient with chronic disseminated sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Dayvison F S; Santos, Suelen S; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel M E; do Valle, Antonio C F; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro is hyperendemic for cat-associated sporotrichosis. This study aimed to assess the virulence of serial Sporothrix isolates from a 61-year-old male patient with chronic, destructive disseminated sporotrichosis. Five Sporothrix isolates were cultured from skin exudates and bone samples over a 5-year period, and all were molecularly identified as Sporothrix brasiliensis. The final isolate was significantly more virulent in Galleria mellonella larvae compared to earlier isolates. We conclude that S. brasiliensis has the capacity to increase in virulence in vivo. This finding is significant to clinicians caring for individuals with S. brasiliensis disease and it suggests that further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity enhancement during chronic disease.

  9. Purinergic effects of a hydroalcoholic Agaricus brasiliensis (A. blazei) extract on liver functions.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Andrea L; Eler, G Jacklin; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane M

    2010-06-23

    The effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Agaricus brasiliensis (A. blazei) on functional parameters in the perfused rat liver were examined with emphasis on its content of nucleotides and nucleosides. Several nucleosides and nucleotides were identified in the A. brasiliensis extract, which was active on several liver functions. A significant part of the effects is the result of the purinergic action of nucleosides and nucleotides: pressure increment, glycogenolysis stimulation, transient inhibition of oxygen consumption, and redox state changes. Other phenomena such as the stimulation of gluconeogenesis, ureogenesis, and oxygen consumption are more likely consequences of the metabolic transformation of substrates contained within the extract, especially amino acids. It seems apparent that consumption of A. brasiliensis represents not only the ingestion of metabolic precursors but also the ingestion of substances that, even at low concentrations, can exert important signaling functions in the liver as well as in the organism as a whole.

  10. Heterologous Expression, Purification, and Immunological Reactivity of a Recombinant HSP60 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Daniela A.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Roseli M.; Sueli, M.; Felipe, S.; Salem-Izacc, Silvia M.; Deepe Jr., George S.; Soares, Célia M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The complete coding cDNA of HSP60 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was overexpressed in an Escherichia coli host to produce high levels of recombinant protein. The protein was purified by affinity chromatography. A total of 169 human serum samples were tested for reactivity by Western blot analysis with the purified HSP60 recombinant protein. Immunoblots indicated that the recombinant P. brasiliensis HSP60 was recognized by antibodies in 72 of 75 sera from paracoccidioidomycosis patients. No cross-reactivity was detected with individual sera from patients with aspergillosis, sporotrichosis, cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis. Reactivity to HSP60 was observed in sera from 9.52% of control healthy individuals and 11.5% of patients with histoplasmosis. The high sensitivity and specificity (97.3 and 92.5%, respectively) for HSP60 suggested that the recombinant protein can be used singly or in association with other recombinant antigens to detect antibody responses in P. brasiliensis-infected patients. PMID:11874881

  11. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Rua, Cintia P J; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E; Appolinario, Luciana R; Venas, Tainá M; Garcia, Gizele D; Carvalho, Lucas S; Lima, Alinne; Kruger, Ricardo; Pereira, Renato C; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Valle, Rogério A B; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32), Bacillus (N = 26), Shewanella (N = 17), Pseudovibrio (N = 12), and Ruegeria (N = 8) were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health.

  12. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Rua, Cintia P.J.; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Appolinario, Luciana R.; Venas, Tainá M.; Garcia, Gizele D.; Carvalho, Lucas S.; Lima, Alinne; Kruger, Ricardo; Pereira, Renato C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Valle, Rogério A.B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32), Bacillus (N = 26), Shewanella (N = 17), Pseudovibrio (N = 12), and Ruegeria (N = 8) were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health. PMID:25024903

  13. The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C.; Sun, Chi-Chin; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH)2D3 and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin) and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition) process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC. PMID:27110769

  14. Adenovirus MART-1–engineered Autologous Dendritic Cell Vaccine for Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, Lisa H.; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Vujanovic, Lazar; Lee, Yohan; Dissette, Vivian B.; Yang, Jin-Quan; Vu, Hong T.; Seja, Elizabeth; Oseguera, Denise K.; Potter, Douglas M.; Glaspy, John A.; Economou, James S.; Ribas, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Summary We performed a phase 1/2 trial testing the safety, toxicity, and immune response of a vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a replication-defective adenovirus (AdV) encoding the full-length melanoma antigen MART-1/Melan-A (MART-1). This vaccine was designed to activate MART-1–specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Metastatic melanoma patients received 3 injections of 106 or 107 DCs, delivered intradermally. Cell surface phenotype and cytokine production of the DCs used for the vaccines were tested, and indicated intermediate maturity. CD8+ T-cell responses to MART-127-35 were assessed by both major histocompatibility complex class I tetramer and interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) before, during, and after each vaccine and CD4+ T-cell responses to MART-151-73 were followed by IFN-γ ELISPOT. We also measured antigen response breadth. Determinant spreading from the immunizing antigen MART-1 to other melanoma antigens [gp100, tyrosinase, human melanoma antigen-A3 (MAGE-A3)] was assessed by IFN-γ ELISPOT. Twenty-three patients were enrolled and 14 patients received all 3 scheduled DC vaccines. Significant CD8+ and/or CD4+ MART-1–specific T-cell responses were observed in 6/11 and 2/4 patients evaluated, respectively, indicating that the E1-deleted adeno-virus encoding the cDNA for MART-1/Melan-A (AdV-MART1)/DC vaccine activated both helper and killer T cells in vivo. Responses in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to additional antigens were noted in 2 patients. The AdVMART1-transduced DC vaccine was safe and immunogenic in patients with metastatic melanoma. PMID:18317358

  15. Detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis melanin in in vitro and in vivo studies during infection.

    PubMed

    Urán, Martha E; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J; Gómez, Beatriz L; Cano, Luz E

    2011-10-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice.

  16. Proteomic Analysis Reveals That Iron Availability Alters the Metabolic Status of the Pathogenic Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Ana F. A.; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Borges, Clayton L.; Parente, Juliana A.; Magalhães, Adriana D.; Ricart, Carlos A. O.; Soares, Célia M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D) gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways. PMID:21829521

  17. Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780)) (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Garcia, D M; Marmontel, M; Rosas, F W; Santos, F R

    2007-12-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currently, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations.

  18. In vitro antiproliferative activity of uncommon xanthones from branches of Garcinia achachairu.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Luisa Nathália Bolda; Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Corrêa, Rogério; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Delle Monache, Franco; Niero, Rivaldo

    2016-09-01

    Context Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) popularly known as 'achachairu' is used in folk medicine to treat rheumatism, inflammation, pain and gastric disorder. Objective The present study investigated the chemical profile and antiproliferative effects of the methanolic extract, fractions and two xanthones, against some carcinoma cell lines in vitro. Materials and methods The compounds were isolated and identified by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The extract, fractions and compounds were tested human tumour cell lines of U-251 (glioma), MCF-7 (breast), NCI/ADR-RES (ovary expressing multi-drug resistance phenotype), 786-0 (kidney), NCI-H460 (lung, non-small cells), PC-3 (prostate) and HT-29 (colon), non-tumour cell line HaCat (human keratinocytes) in doses of 0.25-250 μg mL (-) (1) for 48 h. The antiproliferative activity was determined by spectrophotometric quantification (at 540 nm) of the cellular protein content using sulphorhodamine B assay. The prediction of parameters involved in the molecular bioavailability was executed directly by ChemDoodle (version 5.0.1) software (iChemLabs, LLC, Somerset, NJ). Results 3-Demethyl-2-geranyl-4-prenylbellidypholine (1) and 1,5,8-trihydroxy-4',5'-dimethyl-2H-pyrane (2,3:3,2)-4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) xanthone (2), gartanin (3) and stigmasterol (4) were identified on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytocidal activity, especially against breast, prostate and kidney cell lines, with TGI values of 15.8, 4.9, 9.1 and 39.4, 44.7, 40.9 μg/mL, respectively. Discussion and conclusion The presence of two sets of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups in separate domains in each molecule might play a role in the mediation of tumour-specific action. Our data show that G. achachairu have potent antiproliferative action and should be considered an important source of potent anticancer compounds.

  19. Antibacterial constituents of three Cameroonian medicinal plants: Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance is a worrying cause of treatment failure in bacterial infections. The search of bioactive constituents from medicinal plants against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has significantly evolved in the two last decades. In the present study, twenty-two compounds (three terpenoids, eleven phenolics and eight alkaloids) isolated from three Cameroonian medicinal plants, namely Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis, as well as the crude extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacteria amongst which were MDR active efflux pumps expressing phenotypes. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the studied samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicate that, the best crude extract was that from G. nobilis (GNB), its inhibitory effects being noted against 12 of the 14 tested bacteria. The extract of GNB also exhibited better anti-tuberculosis (MIC of 128 μg/ml M. tuberculosis against ATCC 27294 strain) and antibacterial (MIC of 64 μg/ml against Escherichia coli ATCC10536) activities compared to the extracts of O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis. Interestingly, 4-prenyl-2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (2), isolated from the most active extract GNB, also showed the best activity amongst compounds, inhibiting the growth of all the fourteen tested microorganisms. The lowest MIC value obtained with compound 2 was 8 μg/ml against M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294 and M. tuberculosis clinical MTCS2 strains. Other compounds showed selective activities with 11 of the 14 tested bacteria being sensitive to the xanthone, morusignin I (5) and the alkaloid, kokusaginine (13). Conclusions The results of the present investigation provide evidence that the crude

  20. Therapeutic Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Neonatal Jaundice in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Yuan, Bo; Wang, HuiPing; Gao, Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract (ABE) on phenylhydrazine-induced neonatal jaundice in rats. Administration of ABE dose-dependently reduced the elevated bilirubin level induced by phenylhydrazine. It can be somewhat supported from the results of in vitro bilirubin degradation experiment. ABE treatment also reduced the total antioxidant status (TAOS), cascade O2−/SOD, level of NF-κB protein, and adrenomedullin (AM). Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that Agaricus brasiliensis extract may be beneficial to reducing bilirubin level without causing hepatotoxicity in neonatal jaundice. PMID:25883968

  1. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Fukuwatari, Yasushi; Okumura, Ko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Furukawa, Mai; Ohno, Naohito; Mori, Kazu; Gao, Ming; Motoi, Masuro

    2008-01-01

    We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei). Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food. PMID:18604247

  2. TLR9 Activation Dampens the Early Inflammatory Response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Impacting Host Survival

    PubMed Central

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Alves, Ana G.; Lobo-Silva, Diogo; Sturme, Mark; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Saraiva, Ana Laura; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Cunha, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho; Romani, Luigina; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Thus, understanding the characteristics of the protective immune response to P. brasiliensis is of interest, as it may reveal targets for disease control. The initiation of the immune response relies on the activation of pattern recognition receptors, among which are TLRs. Both TLR2 and TLR4 have been implicated in the recognition of P. brasiliensis and regulation of the immune response. However, the role of TLR9 during the infection by this fungus remains unclear. Methodology/Principal findings We used in vitro and in vivo models of infection by P. brasiliensis, comparing wild type and TLR9 deficient (−/−) mice, to assess the contribution of TLR9 on cytokine induction, phagocytosis and outcome of infection. We show that TLR9 recognizes either the yeast form or DNA from P. brasiliensis by stimulating the expression/production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by bone marrow derived macrophages, also increasing their phagocytic ability. We further show that TLR9 plays a protective role early after intravenous infection with P. brasiliensis, as infected TLR9−/− mice died at higher rate during the first 48 hours post infection than wild type mice. Moreover, TLR9−/− mice presented tissue damage and increased expression of several cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6. The increased pattern of cytokine expression was also observed during intraperitoneal infection of TLR9−/− mice, with enhanced recruitment of neutrophils. The phenotype of TLR9−/− hosts observed during the early stages of P. brasiliensis infection was reverted upon a transient, 48 hours post-infection, neutrophil depletion. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that TLR9 activation plays an early protective role against P. brasiliensis, by avoiding a deregulated type of inflammatory response associated to neutrophils that may lead to tissue damage. Thus

  3. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and characterization of antigens from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, C A; Jesuino, R S; Felipe, M S; Cunha, D A; Brito, W A; Soares, C M

    2001-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a fungal pathogen of humans. To identify antigens from P. brasiliensis we fractionated a crude preparation of proteins from the fungus and detected the IgG reactive proteins by immunoblot assays of yeast cellular extracts with sera of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). We identified and characterized six new antigens by amino acid sequencing and homology search analyses with other proteins deposited in a database. The newly characterized antigens were highly homologous to catalase, fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase (aldolase), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and triosephosphate isomerase from several sources. The characterized antigens presented preferential synthesis in yeast cells, the host fungus phase.

  4. Xanthones from the Leaves of Garcinia cowa Induce Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Autophagy in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhengxiang; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Danqing; Lao, Yuanzhi; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Cao, Peng; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-06-19

    Two new xanthones, cowaxanthones G (1) and H (2), and 23 known analogues were isolated from an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia cowa. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines and immortalized HL7702 normal liver cells, whereby compounds 1, 5, 8, and 15-17 exhibited significant cytotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed that 5 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase in a dose-dependent manner, 1 and 16 at the G2/M phase, and 17 at the G1 phase, while 16 and 17 induced apoptosis. Moreover, autophagy analysis by GFP-LC3 puncta formation and western blotting suggested that 17 induced autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that these xanthones possess anticancer activities targeting cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy signaling pathways.

  5. Three new biphenyls from the twigs of Garcinia tetralata and their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiu-Fen; Wang, Yue-De; Zhu, Dong-Lai; Yu, Zhen-Hua; Zhan, Jian-Bo; Xing, Huan-Huan; Ma, Hang-Ying; Yang, Yan; Li, Yin-Ke; Chen, Zhang-Yu; Gao, Xue-Mei

    2016-12-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the ethanol extract of the twigs of Garcinia tetralata resulted in the isolation of three new biphenyls, tetralatabiphenyls A-C (1-3), along with three known biphenyl derivatives (4-6). Structural elucidations of 1-3 were performed by spectroscopic methods such as 1D and 2D NMR spectra, in addition to high-resolution mass spectra. Compounds 1-6 were also evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activity. The results showed that compound 3 showed high anti-TMV activity with inhibition rate of 31.1%. Compounds 1, 2, and 4-6 also showed modest anti-TMV activities with inhibition rates in the range of 18.9-24.5%, respectively.

  6. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linfeng; Lao, Yuanzhi; Zhao, Yanhui; Qin, Jian; Fu, Wenwei; Zhang, Yingjia; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode of action were evaluated. 33-Hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid exhibited about 1 μM IC50 values against JAK2/JAK3 kinases and less than 1 μM IC50 values against NCI-H1650 cell which autocrined IL-6. Thus these two compounds provided a new antitumor molecular scaffold. Our report describes 33-hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid that inhibited NCI-H1650 cell growth by suppressing constitutive STAT3 activation via direct inhibition of JAK kinase activity.

  7. Immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. against collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanxia; Zhou, Hailing; Wang, Mengqi; Cen, Juren; Wei, Qun

    2014-05-07

    Isogarcinol is a natural compound that we extracted from Garcinia mangostana L., and we were the first to report that it is a new immunosuppressant. In the present study, we investigated the immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and explored its potential mechanism in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The oral administration of isogarcinol significantly reduced clinical scores, alleviated cartilage and bone erosion, and reduced the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines in CIA mice. Isogarcinol inhibited xylene-induced mouse ear edema in vivo. In vitro, isogarcinol decreased iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression and NO content by inhibiting NF-κB expression. Furthermore, isogarcinol decreased the activity of NFAT and inhibited IL-2 expression. The mechanism of action of isogarcinol is associated with down-regulation of both autoimmune and inflammatory reactions.

  8. Complete NMR assignments of bioactive rotameric (3 → 8) biflavonoids from the bark of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-07-01

    The genus Garcinia is reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV activities. Garcinia hombroniana in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to isolate the chemical constituents from the bark of G. hombroniana and explore their possible pharmacological potential. Ethyl acetate extract afforded one new (1) and six (2-7) known 3 → 8 rotameric biflavonoids. Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopy together with electron ionization/ESI mass spectrometric techniques and were identified as (2R, 3S) volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (1), volkensiflavone (2), 4″-O-methyl-volkensiflavone (3), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (4), morelloflavone (5), 3″-O-methyl-morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (7). The absolute configuration of compound 1 was assigned by circular dichroism spectroscopy as 2R, 3S. The coexistence of conformers of isolated biflavonoids in solution at 25 °C in different solvents was confirmed by variable temperature NMR studies. At room temperature (25 °C), compounds 1-7 exhibited duplicate NMR signals, while at elevated temperature (90 °C), a single set of signals was obtained. Compound 5 showed significant in vitro antioxidant activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals. The antibacterial studies showed that compounds 5 and 6 are the most active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Compounds 3 and 6 also showed moderate antituberculosis activity against H38 Rv. Based on the research findings, G. hombroniana could be concluded as a rich source of flavanone-flavone (3 → 8) biflavonoids that exhibit rotameric behaviour at room temperature and display significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  9. Evaluation of the satiating properties of a nutraceutical product containing Garcinia cambogia and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Marcos A; Finlayson, Graham; Fischman, Daniela; de Paz, Carolina; Telleriarte, Martín R; Ferrero, Alejandro J; Bobillo, Cecilia; Fernández, Belisario E

    2014-04-01

    A nutraceutical product composed of a combination of Garcinia cambogia, l-carnitine and a seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum has been recently developed. The aim of the present study was to characterize its effects on subjective satiety sensations and food preferences in healthy volunteers. In a crossover design, 28 subjects (21 females and 7 males, aged 31 ± 5, BMI 22.6 ± 1.7) were randomly assigned to receive the active treatment (LIS) or placebo (PL) over one week. At the end of each treatment period, subjects were instructed to consume ad libitum a test meal. Food preferences and appetite sensations were evaluated by means of the Leeds Food Preferences Questionnaire and visual analog scales, before and after meal, over three hours. There were no differences in energy intake between study groups. LIS was associated with a reduction in subjective hunger sensations (p = 0.018) and to an increase in satiety (p = 0.02) and fullness (p = 0.01) ratings. The preference for high fat foods was reduced after consuming the test meal in both study groups. There was a significant effect of LIS treatment on food explicit liking and implicit wanting, as evidenced by an increase in preference for sweet foods (relative to savory foods; p = 0.03 and p = 0.004, respectively), but no differences were observed regarding the preference for low or high fat foods (NS). These results provide proof of principle for the satiating properties of a nutraceutical containing Garcinia cambogia, Ascophyllum nodosum extract and l-carnitine and suggest that it might be useful as an appetite modulator.

  10. Protective effect of methanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruits in 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Antala, Bhaveshkumar V.; Patel, Manishkumar S.; Bhuva, Satish V.; Gupta, Shiv; Rabadiya, Samir; Lahkar, Mangala

    2012-01-01

    Context: Several studies have reported that antioxidants play an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Garcinia indica extract is a natural antioxidant, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of methanolic extract of Garcinia indica (GIM) against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxicity for striatal dopaminergic neurons in the rat. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups namely control, 6-OHDA model, and GIM (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight suspended in one ml of 0.1% carboxymethyl cellulose). The treatment was started three days before surgery and continued for next 14 days. The surgery was done on third day in all groups for administration of 6-OHDA into the right striatum and right substantia nigra, whereas control group injected with 6-OHDA vehicle. Various behavior and biochemical tests (Apomorphine-induced rotational behavior, Stepping test, Initiation time, Postural balance test, and Disengage time) were used to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of GIM. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test was used to compare inter-group differences. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: GIM had significant (P<0.05, P<0.01) preventive effect in biochemical tests, i.e., dopamine and its metabolites measurement and in various behavior tests, i.e., apomorphine-induced rotational behavior, stepping test, initiation time, postural balance test, and disengage time as compared to 6-OHDA-treated rats. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that GIM acted as an effective neuroprotective agent for striatal dopaminergic neurons in 6-OHDA lesioned rat model of PD. PMID:23248394

  11. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke.

    PubMed

    Avato, P; Pesante, M A; Fanizzi, F P; Santos, C Aimbiré de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 3% of the total oil from guaraná seeds, whereas acylglycerols accounted for 28%. 1H and 13C NMR analyses indicated that type I cyanolipids (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol diesters) are present in the oil from P. cupana. GC and GC-MS analysis showed that cis-11-octadecenoic (cis-vaccenic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids were the main FA (30.4 and 38.7%) esterified to the nitrile group. Paullinic acid (7.0%) was also an abundant component. Oleic acid (37.4%) was the dominant fatty acyl chain in the acylglycerols.

  12. Systemic AL amyloidosis in a Beech Marten (Martes foina).

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F E; Mignone, W; Ferrero, E; Poggi, M; Biolatti, B; Bollo, E

    2013-10-01

    A wild Beech Marten (Martes foina), was referred for necropsy to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). At gross examination, whitish and firm masses, 10-mm in diameter, were found on the heart and in the kidney. Spleen showed lighter color and greater consistency, and the cut surface of the liver appeared scattered with whitish-yellow coalescing foci homogeneously distributed. Amyloid deposits were present in the perivascular and intercellular spaces of the visceral organs, such as the heart, liver, and kidneys. Amyloid stained positively with Congo red with and without 5% potassium permanganate pretreatment and showed green birefringence observable under polarized light. A diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis was made. This is the first description of systemic AL amyloidosis in a wild Stone Marten.

  13. Dispersal and genetic structure in the American marten, Martes americana.

    PubMed

    Broquet, T; Johnson, C A; Petit, E; Thompson, I; Burel, F; Fryxell, J M

    2006-05-01

    Natal dispersal in a vagile carnivore, the American marten (Martes americana), was studied by comparing radio-tracking data and microsatellite genetic structure in two populations occupying contrasting habitats. The genetic differentiation determined among groups of individuals using F(ST) indices appeared to be weak in both landscapes, and showed no increase with geographical distance. Genetic structure investigated using pairwise genetic distances between individuals conversely showed a pattern of isolation by distance (IBD), but only in the population occurring in a homogeneous high-quality habitat, therefore showing the advantage of individual-based analyses in detecting within-population processes and local landscape effects. The telemetry study of juveniles revealed a leptokurtic distribution of dispersal distances in both populations, and estimates of the mean squared parent-offspring axial distance (sigma2) inferred both from the genetic pattern of IBD and from the radio-tracking survey showed that most juveniles make little contribution to gene flow.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of sable, Martes zibellina.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunzhu; Zhang, Honghai; Ma, Jianzhang; Liu, Zhonghua

    2012-06-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of the Sable (NC_011579) was determined using long PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). The genome was 16,523 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The gene composition and order of which was similar to most other mammals. The overall base composition of the heavy strand in descending order is A (32.0%), C (27. 6%), T (25.8%) and G (14.7%). The base compositions present clearly the A-C skew, which is most obviously in the control region and protein-coding genes. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain, and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of Sable. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in phylogenetics and systematics of Martes zibellina.

  15. eSciMart: Web Platform for Scientific Software Marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, A. P.; Demichev, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we suggest a design of a web marketplace where users of scientific application software and databases, presented in the form of web services, as well as their providers will have presence simultaneously. The model, which will be the basis for the web marketplace is close to the customer-to-customer (C2C) model, which has been successfully used, for example, on the auction sites such as eBay (ebay.com). Unlike the classical model of C2C the suggested marketplace focuses on application software in the form of web services, and standardization of API through which application software will be integrated into the web marketplace. A prototype of such a platform, entitled eSciMart, is currently being developed at SINP MSU.

  16. Using BioMart as a framework to manage and query pancreatic cancer data.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Rosalind J; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Lemoine, Nicholas R; Chelala, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We describe the Pancreatic Expression Database (PED), the first cancer database originally designed based on the BioMart infrastructure. The PED portal brings together multidimensional pancreatic cancer data from the literature including genomic, proteomic, miRNA and gene expression profiles. Based on the BioMart 0.7 framework, the database is easily integrated with other BioMart-compliant resources, such as Ensembl and Reactome, to give access to a wide range of annotations alongside detailed experimental conditions. This article is intended to give an overview of PED, describe its data content and work through examples of how to successfully mine and integrate pancreatic cancer data sets and other BioMart resources.

  17. Using BioMart as a framework to manage and query pancreatic cancer data

    PubMed Central

    Cutts, Rosalind J.; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Lemoine, Nicholas R.; Chelala, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We describe the Pancreatic Expression Database (PED), the first cancer database originally designed based on the BioMart infrastructure. The PED portal brings together multidimensional pancreatic cancer data from the literature including genomic, proteomic, miRNA and gene expression profiles. Based on the BioMart 0.7 framework, the database is easily integrated with other BioMart-compliant resources, such as Ensembl and Reactome, to give access to a wide range of annotations alongside detailed experimental conditions. This article is intended to give an overview of PED, describe its data content and work through examples of how to successfully mine and integrate pancreatic cancer data sets and other BioMart resources. Database URL: http://www.pancreasexpression.org PMID:21666272

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia species using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Lee, Stephanie; Choi, Franky Fung Kei; Xu, Gang; Liu, Xin; Song, Jing-Zheng; Li, Song-Lin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-09-23

    Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are a group of natural products isolated from different Garcinia species with a wide range of important biological activities. In this study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to photodiode-array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF) method was developed to characterize 16 PPAPs in 10 Garcinia species. In source dissociation techniques based on cone voltage fragmentation were used to fragment the deprotonated molecules and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using ramping collision energy were used to further break down the resulting product ions. The resulting characteristic fragment ions were generated by cleavage of C1-C5 bond and C7-C8 bond through concerted pericyclic reaction, which is especially valuable for differentiating three types of PPAPs isomers. As such, two new PPAPs isomers present in minor amount in the extracts of Garcinia oblongifolia were tentatively characterized by comparing their tandem mass spectra to the known ones. In addition, an UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was validated for the quantitative determination of PPAPs. The method exhibited limits of detection from 2.7 to 21.4 ng mL(-1) and intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 3.7% and the recovery was in the range of 89-107% with RSD less than 9.0%. This UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method has successfully been applied to quantify 16 PPAPs in 32 samples of 10 Garcinia species, which were found to be a rich source of PPAPs.

  19. Adenovirus MART-1-engineered autologous dendritic cell vaccine for metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Lisa H; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Vujanovic, Lazar; Lee, Yohan; Dissette, Vivian B; Yang, Jin-Quan; Vu, Hong T; Seja, Elizabeth; Oseguera, Denise K; Potter, Douglas M; Glaspy, John A; Economou, James S; Ribas, Antoni

    2008-04-01

    We performed a phase 1/2 trial testing the safety, toxicity, and immune response of a vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a replication-defective adenovirus (AdV) encoding the full-length melanoma antigen MART-1/Melan-A (MART-1). This vaccine was designed to activate MART-1-specific CD+8 and CD4+ T cells. Metastatic melanoma patients received 3 injections of 10(6) or 10(7) DCs, delivered intradermally. Cell surface phenotype and cytokine production of the DCs used for the vaccines were tested, and indicated intermediate maturity. CD8+ T-cell responses to MART-1 27-35 were assessed by both major histocompatibility complex class I tetramer and interferon (IFN)-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) before, during, and after each vaccine and CD4+ T-cell responses to MART-1 51-73 were followed by IFN-gamma ELISPOT. We also measured antigen response breadth. Determinant spreading from the immunizing antigen MART-1 to other melanoma antigens [gp100, tyrosinase, human melanoma antigen-A3 (MAGE-A3)] was assessed by IFN-gamma ELISPOT. Twenty-three patients were enrolled and 14 patients received all 3 scheduled DC vaccines. Significant CD8+ and/or CD4+ MART-1-specific T-cell responses were observed in 6/11 and 2/4 patients evaluated, respectively, indicating that the E1-deleted adenovirus encoding the cDNA for MART-1/Melan-A (AdVMART1)/DC vaccine activated both helper and killer T cells in vivo. Responses in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to additional antigens were noted in 2 patients. The AdVMART1-transduced DC vaccine was safe and immunogenic in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  20. [Population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the Mustelidae: Mustela lutreola, Neovison vison, Mustela putorius, Martes martes as an example].

    PubMed

    Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2013-01-01

    Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements.

  1. A Morphological and Cytochemical Study of the Interaction between Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and Neutrophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda R. G.; Filgueira, Absalom L.; de Souza, Wanderley

    2004-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is the most prevalent systemic mycosis of Latin America and 80% of the reported cases are from Brazil. Because of the great number of neutrophils found in the P. brasiliensis granuloma, studies have been done to evaluate the role of these cells during the development of the infection. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of thin sections showed that the neutrophils ingest yeast cells through a typical phagocytic process with the formation of pseudopodes. The pseudopodes even disrupt the connection established between the mother and the bud cells. Neutrophils also associate to each other, forming a kind of extracellular vacuole where large yeast cells are encapsulated. Cytochemical studies showed that once P. brasiliensis attaches to the neutrophil surface, it triggers a respiratory burst with release of oxygen-derived products. Attachment also triggers neutrophils' degranulation, with release of endogenous peroxidase localized in cytoplasmic granules. Together, these processes lead to killing of both ingested and extracellular P. brasiliensis.

  2. The micromorphology and protein characterization of rubber particles in Ficus carica, Ficus benghalensis and Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Adya P; Wi, Seung Gon; Chung, Gap Chae; Kim, Yoon Soo; Kang, Hunseung

    2003-03-01

    Rubber biosynthesis takes place on the surface of rubber particles. These particles are surrounded by a monolayer membrane in which the rubber transferase is anchored. In order to gain better insight into whether rubber particles from different plant species share common structural characteristics, the micromorphology of rubber particles from Ficus carica, Ficus benghalensis, and Hevea brasiliensis was examined by electron microscopy. Rubber particles of all three species were spherical in shape, and the size of rubber particles of H. brasiliensis was much smaller than those of F. carica and F. benghalensis. In addition, investigations were undertaken to compare the cross-reactivity of the antibody raised against either the H. brasiliensis small rubber particle protein (SRPP) which is suggested to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, or the cis-prenyltransferase (CPT) which has an activity similar to rubber transferase. Both western analysis and TEM-immunogold labelling studies showed that rubber particles of F. carica and F. benghalensis do not contain the SRPP. None of the rubber particles in F. carica, F. benghalensis and H. brasiliensis contained the CPT, suggesting that the CPT itself could not catalyse the formation of high molecular weight rubber. These results indicate that rubber particles in the three different plant species investigated share some degree of similarity in architecture, and that the SRPP and CPT themselves are not the core proteins necessary for rubber biosynthesis.

  3. Oxidative stress response in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: assessing catalase and cytochrome c peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Alessandra S; Andrade, Rosângela V; de Carvalho, Maria J; Felipe, Maria Sueli S; Campos, Elida G

    2008-06-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that infects humans and establishes infection in the yeast form. We are interested in the mechanisms this fungus uses to evade the human immune system, and in its survival strategies within infected host cells. Reactive oxygen species play an important role in host defence, but are detoxified by pathogen-derived antioxidant enzymes to prevent oxidative damage. The transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of P. brasiliensis catalase and cytochrome-c peroxidase (CCP) antioxidant enzymes upon culture treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is described. High H(2)O(2) concentrations (up to 100 mm) still permitted 70-100% survival of exponential and stationary phase yeast cells, though stationary phase cells were consistently more resistant. P. brasiliensis has both cytosolic and peroxisomal catalase isoenzymes and a single cytochrome-c peroxidase. High-dose treatments with H(2)O(2) led to an early increase in total catalase and CCP enzymatic activities, indicative of post-transcriptional regulation. The expression levels of the catalase genes increased three to fourfold when the cells were treated with 50 mm H(2)O(2) for 40 or 50 min. Lipid peroxidation, as assessed by the thiobarbituric acid method, was relatively low upon treatment with H(2)O(2), which was consistent with our results demonstrating that P. brasiliensis has a powerful antioxidant defence system enabling it to survive H(2)O(2)-mediated stress.

  4. Cell signaling pathways in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis--inferred from comparisons with other fungi.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Larissa; Araújo, Marcus A M; Amaral, André; Reis, Viviane Castelo Branco; Martins, Natália F; Felipe, M S

    2005-06-30

    The human fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is an ascomycete that displays a temperature-dependent dimorphic transition, appearing as a mycelium at 22 degrees C and as a yeast at 37 degrees C, this latter being the virulent form. We report on the in silico search made of the P. brasiliensis transcriptome-expressed sequence tag database for components of signaling pathways previously known to be involved in morphogenesis and virulence in other species of fungi, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Using this approach, it was possible to identify several protein cascades in P. brasiliensis, such as i) mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling for cell integrity, cell wall construction, pheromone/mating, and osmo-regulation, ii) the cAMP/PKA system, which regulates fungal development and virulence, iii) the Ras protein, which allows cross-talking between cascades, iv) calcium-calmodulin-calcineurin, which controls cell survival under oxidative stress, high temperature, and membrane/cell wall perturbation, and v) the target of rapamycin pathway, controlling cell growth and proliferation. The ways in which P. brasiliensis responds to the environment and modulates the expression of genes required for its survival and virulence can be inferred through comparison with other fungi for which this type of data is already available.

  5. Pulmonary cavitation and skin lesions mimicking tuberculosis in a HIV negative patient caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Orofino-Costa, Rosane; Unterstell, Natasha; Carlos Gripp, Alexandre; de Macedo, Priscila Marques; Brota, Arles; Dias, Emylli; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; Felipe, Maria Sueli; Bernardes-Engemann, Andréa R; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old HIV negative male presented with multiple pulmonary cavitation and skin abscesses up to 15 cm in diameter mimicking tuberculosis. Sporothrix brasiliensis was isolated and patient responded well to amphotericin B followed by itraconazole, except the skin lesions that had to be surgical drained to obtain cure. PMID:24432220

  6. Ecological study of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in soil: growth ability, conidia production and molecular detection

    PubMed Central

    Terçarioli, Gisela Ramos; Bagagli, Eduardo; Reis, Gabriela Martins; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Bosco, Sandra De Moraes Gimenes; Macoris, Severino Assis da Graça; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão

    2007-01-01

    Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ecology is not completely understood, although several pieces of evidence point to the soil as its most probable habitat. The present study aimed to investigate the fungal growth, conidia production and molecular pathogen detection in different soil conditions. Methods Soils samples of clayey, sandy and medium textures were collected from ground surface and the interior of armadillo burrows in a hyperendemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis. P. brasiliensis was inoculated in soil with controlled humidity and in culture medium containing soil extracts. The molecular detection was carried out by Nested PCR, using panfungal and species specific primers from the ITS-5.8S rDNA region. Results The soil texture does not affect fungus development and the growth is more abundant on/in soil saturated with water. Some soil samples inhibited the development of P. brasiliensis, especially those that contain high values of Exchangeable Aluminum (H+Al) in their composition. Some isolates produced a large number of conidia, mainly in soil-extract agar medium. The molecular detection was positive only in samples collected from armadillo burrows, both in sandy and clayey soil. Conclusion P. brasiliensis may grow and produce the infectious conidia in sandy and clayey soil, containing high water content, mainly in wild animal burrows, but without high values of H+Al. PMID:17953742

  7. IL-4Rα-Associated Antigen Processing by B Cells Promotes Immunity in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hoving, Jennifer C.; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie; McSorley, Henry J.; Ndlovu, Hlumani; Bobat, Saeeda; Kimberg, Matti; Kirstein, Frank; Cutler, Anthony J.; DeWals, Benjamin; Cunningham, Adam F.; Brombacher, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In this study, B cell function in protective TH2 immunity against N. brasiliensis infection was investigated. Protection against secondary infection depended on IL-4Rα and IL-13; but not IL-4. Protection did not associate with parasite specific antibody responses. Re-infection of B cell-specific IL-4Rα−/− mice resulted in increased worm burdens compared to control mice, despite their equivalent capacity to control primary infection. Impaired protection correlated with reduced lymphocyte IL-13 production and B cell MHC class II and CD86 surface expression. Adoptive transfer of in vivo N. brasiliensis primed IL-4Rα expressing B cells into naïve BALB/c mice, but not IL-4Rα or IL-13 deficient B cells, conferred protection against primary N. brasiliensis infection. This protection required MHC class II compatibility on B cells suggesting cognate interactions by B cells with CD4+ T cells were important to co-ordinate immunity. Furthermore, the rapid nature of these protective effects by B cells suggested non-BCR mediated mechanisms, such as via Toll Like Receptors, was involved, and this was supported by transfer experiments using antigen pulsed Myd88−/− B cells. These data suggest TLR dependent antigen processing by IL-4Rα-responsive B cells producing IL-13 contribute significantly to CD4+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against N. brasiliensis infection. PMID:24204255

  8. Wild animals as sentinels of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albano, A P N; Klafke, G B; Brandolt, T M; Da Hora, V P; Minello, L F; Jorge, S; Santos, E O; Behling, G M; Camargo, Z P; Xavier, M O; Meireles, M C A

    2014-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, causes the principal form of systemic mycosis in Brazil. The literature furnishes only limited data on the ecology of this fungus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungal infection in wild animals, using serological tests and using the animals as sentinels of the presence of P. brasiliensis in three specified mesoregions of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 128 wild animals from the three mesoregions were included in the study. The serum samples were evaluated by immunodiffusion and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to detect anti-gp43 antibodies from P. brasiliensis. Two conjugates were tested and compared with the ELISA technique. Although no positive samples were detected by immunodiffusion, 26 animals (20%), belonging to 13 distinct species, were found to be seropositive by the ELISA technique. The seropositive animals were from two mesoregions of the state. The results were similar according to the gender, age, and family of the animals, but differed significantly according to the conjugate used (p < 0.001), showing more sensitivity to protein A-peroxidase than to protein G-peroxidase. The finding that wild animals from the state of Rio Grande do Sul are exposed to P. brasiliensis suggests that the fungus can be found in this region despite the often-rigorous winters, which frequently include below-freezing temperatures.

  9. Cell-free antigens of Sporothrix brasiliensis: antigenic diversity and application in an immunoblot assay.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Pizzini, Cláudia Vera; Reis, Rosani Santos; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Peralta, José Mauro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2012-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis diagnosed by isolation of the fungus in culture. Serological tests for help in diagnosis in general do not use purified or recombinant antigens, because there is a paucity of described immunoreactive proteins, especially for the new described Sporothrix species, such as Sporothrix brasiliensis. This study aims to characterise antigens from S. brasiliensis and verify their application in serodiagnosis of sporotrichosis. An immunoblot assay allied with computer-based analysis was used to identify putative antigenic molecules in a cell-free extracts of both morphological phases of this fungus, and to delineate antigenic polymorphism among seven S. brasiliensis isolates and one S. schenckii Brazilian strain. The mycelial and yeast phase of the fungus originated 14 and 23 reactive bands, respectively, which were variable in intensity. An 85 kDa antigen, verified in the yeast phase of the fungus, was observed in all strains used and the immunodominant protein was identified. This protein, however, cross-react with serum samples from patients infected with other pathogens. The results show that the S. brasiliensis cell-free antigen extract is a single and inexpensive source of antigens, and can be applied on the sporotrichosis serodiagnosis.

  10. Comparison of various techniques for determining viability of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast-form cells.

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, A; Cano, L E; de Bedout, C; Brummer, E; Stevens, D A

    1982-01-01

    The viability of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast-form cells was determined by colony-forming units, direct fluorescent staining, and production of germ tubes in slide culture. The first procedure was unreliable and time consuming; the latter two showed better correlation with hemacytometer total cell counts and required significantly less time. PMID:7107858

  11. Expression of Nocardia brasiliensis superoxide dismutase during the early infection of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Revol, Agnès; Espinoza-Ruiz, Marisol; Medina-Villanueva, Igor; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2006-12-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is the main agent of actinomycetoma in Mexico, but little is known about its virulence and molecular pathogenic pathways. These facultative intracellular bacteria are able to survive and divide within the host phagocytic cells, in part by neutralizing the reactive oxygen intermediates. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) participates in the intracellular survival of several bacterial species and, in particular, constitutes one of Nocardia asteroides virulence factors. To clarify SOD participation in the N. brasiliensis early infective process, we report its isolation and the consequent comparison of its transcript level. A 630 bp polymerase chain reaction fragment that included most of the coding sequence of N. brasiliensis sodA was cloned. A competitive assay was developed, allowing comparison of bacterial sod expression in exponential culture and 1 h after infecting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. At that time, there were viable bacteria in the macrophages. The intracellular bacteria presented a clear decrease in their sod transcript amount, although their 16S rRNA (used as an internal control) and hsp levels were maintained or slightly increased, respectively. These results indicate that sodA transcription is not maintained within the SOS bacterial response induced by phagosomal conditions. Further kinetics will be necessary to precisely define sod transcriptional regulation during N. brasiliensis intra-macrophage growth.

  12. IL-13 receptor alpha-2 regulates the immune and functional response to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-13 has a prominent role in host defense against the gastrointestinal nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis; however, the role of IL-13 alpha2 in the immune and functional response to enteric infection is not known. In the current study, we investigated changes in smooth muscle and epithelial ce...

  13. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Cerataphis brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the palm aphid, Cerataphis brasiliensis, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures...

  14. Inhibition of growth of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by ajoene.

    PubMed Central

    San-Blas, G; San-Blas, F; Gil, F; Mariño, L; Apitz-Castro, R

    1989-01-01

    Ajoene, a garlic-derived compound that prevents platelet activation, inhibited the growth of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a fungal pathogen for humans, by affecting the integrity of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane. This action may be the basis for the study of ajoene as a possible specific antifungal drug. Images PMID:2817865

  15. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, A.A.C.; Petroni, T.F.; Fedatto, P.F.; Bianchini, R.R.; Venancio, E.J.; Itano, E.N.; Ono, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50) hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p ≤ 0.05). This is the first report of dog alternative complement pathway activation by P. brasiliensis and suggests that it may play a protective role in canine paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:24031350

  16. Susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates to amphotericin B, azoles, and terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Gagini, Thalita Braga; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Castro, Rafaela; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Nucci, Marcio; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria; Ishida, Kelly; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity of the antifungal agents amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITC), posaconazole (PSC), voriconazole (VRC), and terbinafine (TRB) against 32 Brazilian isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis, including 16 isolates from a recent (2011-2012) epidemic in Rio de Janeiro state, was examined. We describe and genotype new isolates and clustered them with 16 older (from 2004 or earlier) S. brasiliensis isolates by phylogenetic analysis. We tested both the yeast and the mycelium form of all isolates using broth microdilution methods based on the reference protocols M38-A2 and M27-A3 (recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). Considering minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), TRB was found to be the most active drug in vitro for both fungal forms, followed by PSC. Several isolates showed high MICs for AMB and/or ITC, which are currently used as first-line therapy for sporotrichosis. VRC displayed very low activity against S. brasiliensis isolates. The primary morphological modification observed on treated yeasts by transmission electron microscopy analysis was changes in cell wall. Our results indicate that TRB is the antifungal with the best in vitro activity against S. brasiliensis and support the use of TRB as a promising option for the treatment of cutaneous and/or lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis.

  17. Decreased expression of 14-3-3 in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis confirms its involvement in fungal pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Caroline Maria; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Assato, Patrícia Akemi; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Lopez, Angela Maria; Tamayo, Diana Patricia; Hernandez-Ruiz, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and host cells is usually mediated by specific binding events between adhesins on the fungal surface and receptors on the host extracellular matrix or cell surface. One molecule implicated in the P. brasiliensis-host interaction is the 14-3-3 protein. The 14-3-3 protein belongs to a family of conserved regulatory molecules that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in diverse cellular functions. Here, we investigated the relevance of the 14-3-3 protein to the virulence of P. brasiliensis. Using antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, we generated a 14-3-3-silenced strain (expression reduced by ˜55%). This strain allowed us to investigate the interaction between 14-3-3 and the host and to correlate the functions of P. brasiliensis 14-3-3 with cellular features, such as morphological characteristics and virulence, that are important for pathogenesis. PMID:26646480

  18. A Novel Anelloviridae Species Detected in Tadarida brasiliensis Bats: First Sequence of a Chiropteran Anellovirus

    PubMed Central

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; de Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; do Santos, Helton Fernandes; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Using metagenomic approaches, we identified a novel Torque teno virus from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) (TT-TbV). The TT-TbV genome and deduced protein sequences share extremely low identity with known anelloviruses. Due to a high degree of phylogenetic divergence, such putative virus could not be allocated into any Anelloviridae genera. PMID:25359906

  19. Psychophysical frequency modulation thresholds in a FM-bat, Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, E; Schmidt, S

    1993-05-01

    Echolocating bats hunting flying insects discriminate complex temporal patterns of acoustic stimuli. For bats using frequency modulated sonar calls (FM bats), there are no behavioral data on the perception of sinusoidally frequency modulated (SFM) stimuli. Discrimination performance for SFM stimuli of varying modulation depth was measured in 4 Tadarida brasiliensis in a two-alternative, forced choice procedure. A center frequency of 40 kHz was modulated with rates between 10 and 2000 Hz. It was found that discrimination performance improved from a mean threshold modulation depth of 3.05 kHz at a modulation rate of 2000 Hz to 1.58 kHz at a modulation rate of 10 Hz. Psychoacoustical modulation depth thresholds of T. brasiliensis are thus distinctly larger than those observed in bat species emitting constant frequency (CF) components followed by an FM-sweep, in active echolocation experiments. The modulation thresholds of T. brasiliensis are discussed in connection with the ability of bats to discriminate insect wingbeats. A comparison between non-echolocating mammals and the FM bat T. brasiliensis shows that the ability to echolocate is not reflected in the modulation thresholds.

  20. A Novel Anelloviridae Species Detected in Tadarida brasiliensis Bats: First Sequence of a Chiropteran Anellovirus.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; de Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; do Santos, Helton Fernandes; Franco, Ana Claudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2014-10-30

    Using metagenomic approaches, we identified a novel Torque teno virus from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) (TT-TbV). The TT-TbV genome and deduced protein sequences share extremely low identity with known anelloviruses. Due to a high degree of phylogenetic divergence, such putative virus could not be allocated into any Anelloviridae genera.

  1. Gut microbiota Modulated by Probiotics and Garcinia cambogia Extract Correlate with Weight Gain and Adipocyte Sizes in High Fat-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jaeyoung; Seo, Minseok; Park, Hwanhee; Lee, Woon Kyu; Guan, Le Luo; Yoon, Joon; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Ahn, Hyeonju; Kim, Se-Young; Kang, Yoon-Mo; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Results of recent studies on gut microbiota have suggested that obesogenic bacteria exacerbate obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the host when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In order to explore obesity-associated bacterial candidates and their response to diet, the composition of faecal bacterial communities was investigated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences in mice. Dietary intervention with probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract attenuated weight gain and adipocyte size in HFD-fed mice. To identify obesity-causative microbiota, two statistical analyses were performed. Forty-eight bacterial species were found to overlap between the two analyses, indicating the commonly identified species as diet-driven and obesity-associated, which would make them strong candidates for host-microbiome interaction on obesity. Finally, correlation based network analysis between diet, microbe, and host revealed that Clostridium aminophilum, a hyper-ammonia-producing bacterium, was highly correlated with obesity phenotypes and other associated bacteria, and shown to be suppressed by the combination of probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract. Results of the present study suggest that probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract alleviate weight gain and adiposity, in part via differentially modulating the composition of gut microbiota in HFD fed mice. PMID:27658722

  2. Gut microbiota Modulated by Probiotics and Garcinia cambogia Extract Correlate with Weight Gain and Adipocyte Sizes in High Fat-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jaeyoung; Seo, Minseok; Park, Hwanhee; Lee, Woon Kyu; Guan, Le Luo; Yoon, Joon; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Ahn, Hyeonju; Kim, Se-Young; Kang, Yoon-Mo; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-09-23

    Results of recent studies on gut microbiota have suggested that obesogenic bacteria exacerbate obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the host when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In order to explore obesity-associated bacterial candidates and their response to diet, the composition of faecal bacterial communities was investigated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences in mice. Dietary intervention with probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract attenuated weight gain and adipocyte size in HFD-fed mice. To identify obesity-causative microbiota, two statistical analyses were performed. Forty-eight bacterial species were found to overlap between the two analyses, indicating the commonly identified species as diet-driven and obesity-associated, which would make them strong candidates for host-microbiome interaction on obesity. Finally, correlation based network analysis between diet, microbe, and host revealed that Clostridium aminophilum, a hyper-ammonia-producing bacterium, was highly correlated with obesity phenotypes and other associated bacteria, and shown to be suppressed by the combination of probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract. Results of the present study suggest that probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract alleviate weight gain and adiposity, in part via differentially modulating the composition of gut microbiota in HFD fed mice.

  3. Humoral Immunity through Immunoglobulin M Protects Mice from an Experimental Actinomycetoma Infection by Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    An experimental model of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis, used as an example of a facultative intracellular pathogen, was tested. N. brasiliensis was injected into the rear foot pads of BALB/c mice to establish an infection. Within 30 days, infected animals developed a chronic actinomycetoma infection. Batch cultures of N. brasiliensis were used to purify P61, P38, and P24 antigens; P61 is a catalase, and P38 is a protease with strong caseinolytic activity. Active and passive immunizations of BALB/c mice with these three purified soluble antigens were studied. Protection was demonstrated for actively immunized mice. However, immunity lasted only 30 days. Other groups of immunized mice were bled at different times, and their sera were passively transferred to naive recipients that were then infected with N. brasiliensis. Sera collected 5, 6, and 7 days after donor immunization conferred complete, long-lasting protection. The protective effect of passive immunity decreased when sera were collected 2 weeks after donor immunization. However, neither the early sera (1-, 2-, and 3-day sera) nor the later sera (30- or 45-day sera) prevented the infection. Hyperimmune sera with the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to N. brasiliensis antigens did not protect at all. The antigens tested induced two IgM peaks. The first peak was present 3 days after immunization but was not antigen specific and did not transfer protection. The second peak was evident 7 days after immunization, was an IgM response, was antigen specific, and conferred protection. This results clearly demonstrate that IgM antibodies protect the host against a facultative intracellular bacterium. PMID:15385456

  4. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L.; Campos, Claudia B. L.; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25 °C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37 °C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions.

  5. High-performance liquid chromatography and LC-ESI-MS method for identification and quantification of two isomeric polyisoprenylated benzophenones isoxanthochymol and camboginol in different extracts of Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Sharma, Shelly; Chattopadhyay, Sunil K

    2009-08-01

    A rapid, sensitive and simple reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric method has been developed for the identification and quantification of two isomeric polyisoprenylated benzophenones, isoxanthochymol and camboginol, in the extracts of the stem bark, seeds and seed pericarps of Garcinia indica and in the fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia. The separation of isoxanthochymol and camboginol was achieved on a Perkin Elmer RP(8) column (10 x 2.1 mm with 5.0 microm particle size) using a solvent system consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile-water (80:20, v/v) and methanol-acetic acid (99.0:1.0, v/v) as a mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. The limits of detection and quantification were 5 and 10 microg/mL for isoxanthochymol and 50 and 100 microg/mL for camboginol, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were 2.34 and 3.41% for isoxanthochymol and 3.35 and 3.66% for camboginol. The identity of the two isomeric compounds in the samples was determined on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with ESI interface operating in the negative ion mode. The method was used to identify and quantify isoxanthochymol and camboginol in the different extracts of two Garcinia species, Garcinia indica and Garcinia cambogia.

  6. Redescription of Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup 1858), a senior synonym of Urophycis latus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 (Gadiformes: Phycidae).

    PubMed

    Lemes, Paola C R; Loeb, Marina V; Santificetur, César; Melo, Marcelo R S

    2016-02-29

    Urophycis Gill 1864 is a genus of demersal fish composed by eight valid species with anti-tropical distributions in the western Atlantic. Only two species occur in the South Atlantic: U. brasiliensis (Kaup 1858) and U. mystacea Miranda Ribeiro 1903. These species have similar ranges from southeastern Brazil to northern Argentina, but U. brasiliensis occurs in more shallow waters than U. mystacea. Both species are important fishery resources in southern Brazil and Uruguay. Herein, we redescribe U. brasiliensis based on comparison of types and additional specimens, including the description of the Sagitta otolith, formerly place U. latus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 as a junior synonym of U. brasiliensis, and provide an updated map of distribution.

  7. Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Hristov, Nickolay I; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2012-06-07

    To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats.

  8. Immunity-dependent reduction of segmented filamentous bacteria in mice infected with the helminthic parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immune modulation by helminth (worm) parasites could protect the host against autoimmune diseases. We report that the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces changes in the expression of antimicrobial peptides that are associated with marked microbial composition shifts, including re...

  9. Functional and structural optimization of the respiratory system of the bat Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae): does airway geometry matter?

    PubMed

    Canals, Mauricio; Atala, Cristian; Olivares, Ricardo; Guajardo, Francisco; Figueroa, Daniela P; Sabat, Pablo; Rosenmann, Mario

    2005-10-01

    We studied structure and function of the respiratory system in the bat Tadarida brasiliensis and compared it with those of two species of rodents, Abrothrix andinus and A. olivaceus. Tadarida brasiliensis had lower resting oxygen consumption, but higher maximum oxygen consumption and aerobic scope, than the rodents. The blood-gas barrier of the bat was thinner and its relative lung size was larger; however, alveolar surface density was similar among the three species. In consequence, T. brasiliensis has an oxygen diffusion capacity two or three times higher than that of the rodents. In Tadarida brasiliensis the characteristics of the lung were accompanied by geometrical changes in the proximal airway, such as high physical optimization as a consequence of small variations in the symmetry and the scaling ratio of the bronchial diameters. These may constitute an efficient way to save energy in respiratory mechanics and are the first report of airway adjustments to decrease entropy generation in bats.

  10. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the medicinal plant Smilax brasiliensis (Smilacaceae) and related species1

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Aline R.; Abreu, Aluana G.; Bajay, Miklos M.; Villela, Priscilla M. S.; Batista, Carlos E. A.; Monteiro, Mariza; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Figueira, Glyn M.; Pinheiro, José B.; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Zucchi, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: A new set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for Smilax brasiliensis, which is popularly known as sarsaparilla and used in folk medicine as a tonic, antirheumatic, and antisyphilitic. Smilax brasiliensis is sold in Brazilian pharmacies, and its origin and effectiveness are not subject to quality control. • Methods and Results: Using a protocol for genomic library enrichment, primer pairs were developed for 26 microsatellite loci and validated in 17 accessions of S. brasiliensis. Thirteen loci were polymorphic and four were monomorphic. The primers successfully amplified alleles in the congeners S. campestris, S. cissoides, S. fluminensis, S. goyazana, S. polyantha, S. quinquenervia, S. rufescens, S. subsessiliflora, and S. syphilitica. • Conclusions: The new SSR markers described herein are informative tools for genetic diversity and gene flow studies in S. brasiliensis and several congeners. PMID:25202555

  11. Mitochondrial genomes reveal the pattern and timing of marten (Martes), wolverine (Gulo), and fisher (Pekania) diversification.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yanchun; Zeng, Zhaohui

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the pattern and timescale of evolutionary diversification in the marten, wolverine, fisher, and tayra subfamily Guloninae (Mustelidae, Carnivora), several important issues still remain contentious. Among these are the phylogenetic position of Gulo relative to the subgenera of Martes (Martes and Charronia), the phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus Martes, and the timing of gulonine divergences. To elucidate these issues we explored nucleotide variation in 11 whole mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from eight gulonine species and two outgroup meline species. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses yielded fully resolved and identical patterns of relationships with high support for all divergences. The generic status of Pekania (P. pennanti), the monophyly of the genus Martes containing M. flavigula (subgenus Charronia) to the exclusion of the genus Gulo (G. gulo), and the M. foina (M. americana (M. melampus (M. zibellina, M. martes))) phylogeny of the subgenus Martes were strongly supported. Dating analyses (BEAST) using a set of five newly applied fossil calibrations provided divergence times considerably younger than previous multigene mitochondrial estimates, but similar to multigene nuclear and nuclear-mitochondrial estimates. The 95% confidence (highest posterior density) intervals of our divergence times fell within those inferred from nuclear and nuclear-mitochondrial sequence data, and were markedly narrower than in earlier studies (whether nuclear, mitochondrial, or combined). Notably, and contrary to long-held beliefs, our findings indicate that fossils older than the Tortonian-Messinian transition (late Late Miocene) do not represent Martes, excluding from this genus its putative members from the Early, Middle, and early Late Miocene. This study demonstrates the high informativeness of the mitogenome for phylogenetic inference and divergence time estimation within Guloninae, and

  12. Human cord blood T-cell receptor alpha beta cell responses to protein antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast forms.

    PubMed Central

    Munk, M E; Kaufmann, S H

    1995-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes a chronic granulomatous mycosis, prevalent in South America, and cell-mediated immunity represents the principal mode of protection against this fungal infection. We investigated the response of naive cord blood T cells to P. brasiliensis lysates. Our results show: (1) P. brasiliensis stimulates T-cell expansion, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and differentiation into cytotoxic T cells; (2) T-cell stimulation depends on P. brasiliensis processing and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression; (3) the responsive T-cell population expresses alpha beta T-cell receptors (TCR) with different V beta gene products, CD4 and CD45RO; (4) the P. brasiliensis components involved in T-cell expansion primarily reside in a high molecular weight (100,000 MW) and a low molecular weight (< 1000 MW) protein fraction. These results indicate that protein antigens of P. brasiliensis stimulate cord blood CD4 alpha beta T cells, independent from in vivo presensitization, and thus question direct correlation of positive in vitro responses with protective immunity in vivo. PMID:7890308

  13. Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

    2015-03-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed.

  14. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Parente-Rocha, Juliana Alves; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Bonfim, Sheyla Maria Rondon Caixeta; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G.; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD), thioredoxins (THX) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP). Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection. PMID:26360774

  15. Differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and gp70 expression correlate with the virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rafaela A; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula H; Teixeira, Pedro A C; Sanches, Glenda F; Teixeira, Marcus M; Quintella, Leonardo P; Almeida, Sandro R; Costa, Rosane O; Camargo, Zoilo P; Felipe, Maria S S; de Souza, Wanderley; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M

    2013-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infectious disease affecting both humans and animals. For many years, this subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent; however, it is now known that this taxon consists of a complex of at least four pathogenic species, including Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Gp70 was previously shown to be an important antigen and adhesin expressed on the fungal cell surface and may have a key role in immunomodulation and host response. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphometry, cell surface topology and gp70 expression of clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis compared with two reference strains of S. schenckii. Several clinical isolates related to severe human cases or associated with the Brazilian zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis were genotyped and clustered as S. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in a murine subcutaneous model of sporotrichosis, these isolates showed a higher virulence profile compared with S. schenckii. A single S. brasiliensis isolate from an HIV-positive patient not only showed lower virulence but also presented differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and abundant gp70 expression compared with the virulent isolates. In contrast, the highly virulent S. brasiliensis isolates showed reduced levels of cell wall gp70. These observations were confirmed by the topographical location of the gp70 antigen using immunoelectromicroscopy in both species. In addition, the gp70 molecule was sequenced and identified using mass spectrometry, and the sequenced peptides were aligned into predicted proteins using Blastp with the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes.

  16. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Parente-Rocha, Juliana Alves; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Bonfim, Sheyla Maria Rondon Caixeta; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD), thioredoxins (THX) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP). Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection.

  17. A Bäcklund transformation between the four-dimensional Martínez Alonso-Shabat and Ferapontov-Khusnutdinova equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglikov, B. S.; Morozov, O. I.

    2016-09-01

    We find a Bäcklund transformation between the four-dimensional Martínez Alonso-Shabat and Ferapontov-Khusnutdinova equations. We also discuss an integrable deformation of the Martínez Alonso-Shabat equation.

  18. Identification of epitope mimics recognized by CTL reactive to the melanoma/melanocyte-derived peptide MART-1(27-35)

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    CTL reactivity to the epitope MART-1(27-35), of the melanoma (self) antigen MART-1/melan A is frequently observed in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and may be readily elicited from the peripheral blood of melanoma patients that express HLA-A*0201. Available data suggest that these observations contrast with those made for other HLA-A*0201- presented melanoma self antigens regarding the regularity of observed CTL responses. Based on preliminary findings, we hypothesized that the CTL response to MART-1 might be augmented in part by T cell encounters with peptides derived from sources other than MART-1, which show sequence similarity to MART-1(27-35). To test this idea, a protein database search for potential MART-1 epitope mimics was done using criteria developed from analyses of effector recognition of singly- substituted peptide analogues of MART-1(27-35). Synthetic peptides were made for a portion of the sequences retrieved; 12/40 peptides tested were able to sensitize target cells for lysis by one or more anti-MART- 1 effectors. The peptides recognized correspond to sequences occurring in a variety of proteins of viral, bacterial, and human (self) origin. One peptide derives from glycoprotein C of the common pathogen HSV-1; cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding native glycoprotein C were lysed by anti-MART-1 effectors. Our results overall indicate that sequences conforming to the A2.1 binding motif and possessing features essential to recognition by anti-MART-1 CTL occur frequently in proteins. These findings further suggest that T cells might encounter a variety of such sequences in vivo, and that epitope mimicry may play a role in modulating the CTL response to MART-1(27-35). PMID:8760818

  19. A common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, is an important ecotope of wild Triatoma brasiliensis populations in the Jaguaribe valley of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Lima, Marli M; Sarquis, Otília; Bezerra, Claudia M; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the Caatinga eco-region of northeastern Brazil. Wild T. brasiliensis populations have been reported only from rocky outcrops. However, this species frequently infests/re-infests houses in rock-free sedimentary lowlands. We therefore hypothesized that it should also occupy other natural ecotopes. We show that a common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, locally known as xiquexique, often harbors T. brasiliensis breeding colonies apparently associated with rodents (n = 44 cacti, infestation rate = 47.7%, 157 bugs captured). Our findings suggest that infested cacti might be involved in house re-infestation by T. brasiliensis in the Caatinga region.

  20. Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Bignoniaceae) as an antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Ana Lúcia A; Vieira, Carla J B; Sousa, Daniella G; Oliveira, Regilene F; Castilho, Rachel O

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity of the hexane extract (JCHE), methanol extract (JCME), and chloroform fraction (JCCF) of bark from Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Family Bignoniaceae), a Brazilian medicinal plant, traditionally used as anti-syphilis and anti-gonorrhea treatment. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion method followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. JCHE was not active against the bacteria evaluated. JCME presented antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae with MIC values of 16.3 mg/mL, 9.1 mg/mL, and 25.2 mg/mL, respectively. JCCF was active against Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, S. pyogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, and N. gonorrhoeae with MIC values of 18.3 mg/mL, 9.3 mg/mL, 6.3 mg/mL, 6.1 mg/mL, 9.2 mg/mL, 6.2 mg/mL, and 25.2 mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical analysis of JCME and JCCF gave positive results for saponins, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, quinones, alkaloids, triterpenes, and steroids. Verbascoside was isolated and identified as a major peak in JCME and JCCF high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and might contribute to the observed antimicrobial activity.

  1. Antiproliferative activity of Luehea candicans Mart. et Zucc. (Tiliaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Dioni A; Alves, Vanessa G; Franco, Danielle M M; Ribeiro, Laryssa C; de Souza, Maria C; Kato, Lucilia; de Carvalho, João E; Kohn, Luciana K; de Oliveira, Cecília M A; da Silva, Cleuza C

    2012-01-01

    Luehea candicans Mart. et Zucc. (Tiliaceae) is known as 'açoita-cavalo' and is one of the most important medicinal plants found in the Brazilian cerrado. The crude methanolic extracts of the branches and leaves and their fractions were evaluated using the following cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (breast), NCI-ADR (breast expressing the multidrug resistance phenotype), NCI-460 (lung), UACC-62 (melanoma), 786-0 (kidney), OVCAR (ovarian), PCO-3 (prostate), HT-29 (colon) and K-562 (leukaemia). The crude methanolic extracts from the branches (B) and leaves (L) were able to inhibit the growth of the K-562 and 786-0 cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with GI(50) values of 8.1 and 5.4 µg mL(-1), respectively. The hexane (L1), chloroform (L2) and methanol (L4) fractions derived from extract L showed a high selectivity and pronounced cytostatic activity against 786-0 (GI(50) ~ 40 µg mL(-1)). A significant amount of lupeol was isolated from fraction L2. The chloroform (B2) and methanol (B3) fractions derived from extract (B) exhibited less selectivity, showing the highest cytostatic activity against K-562, NCI-ADR, OVCAR, MCF-7 and NCI-460 cells, with GI(50) values between 27 and 40 µg mL(-1). Lupeol, betulin, a mixture of steroids, (-)-epicatechin, vitexin and liriodendrin were isolated from these active fractions.

  2. Tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine immobilization of American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Belant, Jerrold L

    2005-07-01

    The effectiveness of tiletamine-zolazepam (Telazol) and xylazine as an immobilizing combination for American martens (Martes americana) was evaluated. Fifteen martens were intramuscularly injected on 19 occasions using a 3:2 mixture of tiletamine-zolazepam (3.2+/-0.6 mg/kg [mean +/- SD]) and xylazine (2.1+/-0.4 mg/kg) at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan (USA) during May to October 2002-2003. Mean induction time was 2.5+/-1.8 min; mean recovery time was 70.8+/-31.9 min. There was no relation between the amount (mg/kg) of tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine injected and induction (r(2)=0.08, P=0.26). However, there was an inverse relation (r(2)=0.28, P<0.01) between dosage and time to first effect of immobilants. Time to recovery increased (r(2)=0.21, P=0.05) with increased dosage. Mean heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature declined through 10 min postinduction (P<0.05). No mortality occurred and no short-term adverse effects were observed in recaptured individuals. In conclusion, a 3:2 mixture of tiletamine-zolazepam/xylazine is a safe and effective immobilizing agent for martens when conducting non-surgical field procedures. Immobilizing martens with 4.2 mg/kg tiletamine-zolazepam and 2.8 mg/kg xylazine should provide < or =30 min of handling time and allow full recovery in about 70 min.

  3. A mitogenomic phylogeny and genetic history of sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina

    2014-10-15

    We assessed phylogeny of sable (Martes zibellina, Linnaeus, 1758) by sequence analysis of nearly complete, new mitochondrial genomes in 36 specimens from different localities in northern Eurasia (Primorye, Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk regions, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands and the Urals). Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences demonstrates that two clades, A and BC, radiated about 200-300 thousandyears ago (kya) according to results of Bayesian molecular clock and RelTime analyses of different mitogenome alignments (nearly complete mtDNA sequences, protein-coding region, and synonymous sites), while the age estimates of clades A, B and C fall within the Late Pleistocene (~50-140 kya). Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of sable population size change based on analysis of nearly complete mtDNAs show an expansion around 40 kya in the warm Karganian time, without a decline of population size around the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya). The BSPs based on synonymous clock rate indicate that M. zibellina experienced demographic expansions later, approximately 22 kya. The A2a clade that colonized Kamchatka ~23-50 kya (depending on the mutation rate used) survived the last glaciation there as demonstrated by the BSP analysis. In addition, we have found evidence of positive selection acting at ND4 and cytochrome b genes, thereby suggesting adaptive evolution of the A2a clade in Kamchatka.

  4. Rural maternity care: can we learn from Wal-Mart?

    PubMed

    van Teijlingen, E R; Pitchforth, E

    2010-03-01

    In many countries rural maternity care is under threat. Consequently rural pregnant women will have to travel further to attend larger maternity units to receive care and deliver their babies. This trend is not dissimilar from the disappearance of other rural services, such as village shops, banks, post offices and bus services. We use a comparative approach to draw an analogy with large-scale supermarkets, such as the Wal-Mart and Tesco and their effect on the viability of smaller rural shops, depersonalisation of service and the wider community. The closure of a community-maternity unit leads to women attending a different type of hospital with a different approach to maternity care. Thus small community-midwifery units are being replaced, not by a very similar unit that happens to be further away, but by a larger obstetric unit that operates on different models, philosophy and notions of risk. Comparative analysis allows a fresh perspective on the provision of rural maternity services. We argue that previous discussions focusing on medicalisation and change in maternity services can be enhanced by drawing on experience in other sectors and taking a wider societal lens.

  5. Occurrence of internal parasites in stone martens (Martes foina) from Cracow and suburbs.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Wierzbowska, Izabela A; Górski, Paweł; Okarma, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    The pine marten Martes martes and the stone marten Martes foina are the only representatives of the genus Martes in Poland. During the last few decades, an intensive synurbisation of stone martens has been recorded. The aim of the study was to assess the level of infection by internal parasites of Martes foina in the Cracow urban area. Eleven necropsies were performed of stone martens killed during animal-vehicle collisions. Additionally, coprological examination of 129 stone marten scats was included. For further analysis, two standard methods, i.e. flotation and decantation, were used. The intensity of infection by parasites was low. Taenia martis was found to be present in one marten individual by necropsy, while Taeniidae helminths and two genera of nematodes, Capillaria and Toxocara, were identified during coprodiagnosis. The diet analysis of stone marten scats revealed a high proportion of two food categories. Percentage frequency of occurrence for plant material and anthropogenic was calculated as 42.3% and 15.4%, respectively. This type of food composition might suggest lower infection by internal parasites in particular species, especially with an indirect life cycle.

  6. Seismic expression of Marts field (Silurian reef) in Sullivan County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Renick, H.J. Jr.; Rene, R.M.; Hester, N.C.; Stanonis, F.L. )

    1989-08-01

    The Marts field of Sullivan County, Indiana, is associated with a Silurian reef that is part of the Terre Haute bank on the eastern flank of the Illinois basin. Gas production has come from Pennsylvanian sandstones at Marts field, and oil is presently being produced from limestones of the Devonian Muscatatuck Group. Hydrocarbons were trapped in the Devonian limestones because of structural drape over the reef. A 2.8-km (1.8-mi) north-south 24-CDP reflection seismic profile across the Marts field was obtained by using a hydraulic-assisted weight drop with a source array interval of 16.7 m (55 ft). The data were digitally processed through statics corrections, deconvolution, stack, and migration. These data clearly image drape in Carboniferous and Devonian strata, a characteristic change in reflection pattern at the reef flanks, and diffractions associated with the reef flanks. Near Marts field, one well penetrates Silurian strata, and a synthetic seismogram for this off-reef well is tied to the seismic section. Using well data from Marts and other reefs, mirror-imaged cross-plots of depths to tops of formations vs. depth to top of the Devonian limestone aid in examination of the drape. These plots of transformed cross sections approximate those of vertically stacked right circular cones indicative of the linear relationships between depths to formations.

  7. Statistical based media optimization and production of naringinase using Aspergillus brasiliensis 1344.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaprakash, M; Kirthika, J; Ragupathy, J; Nilanee, K; Manickam, A

    2014-03-01

    Statistics based optimization, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were employed to screen and optimize the media components for the production of naringinase from Aspergillus brasiliensis MTCC 1344, using solid state fermentation. Cassava waste (CW) was used as both the solid support and carbon source for the growth of A. brasiliensis. Based on the positive influence of the Pareto chart obtained from PBD on naringinase activity, three media components--maltose, peptone and calcium chloride were screened. Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed using these three factors at three levels, for further optimization, and the second order polynomial equation was derived, based on the experimental data. Derringer's desired function methodology showed that the concentrations of maltose (7.74 g/L), peptone (4.19 g/L) and calcium chloride (7.63 mM) were the optimal levels for maximal naringinase activity (889.91 U/mg) which were validated through experiments.

  8. Microsatellites for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a useful species for agroforestry and ecosystem conservation1

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Flora; Alves, Jackeline S.; Gaiotto, Fernanda A.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite markers for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a dioecious tree that is used as a food resource by midsize animals of the Brazilian fauna. Methods and Results: We designed 30 primer pairs using next-generation sequencing and classified 25 pairs as polymorphic. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.418 to 0.907. The combined probability of exclusion was greater than 0.999 and the combined probability of identity was less than 0.001, indicating that these microsatellites are appropriate for investigations of genetic structure, individual identification, and paternity testing. Conclusions: The developed molecular tools may contribute to future studies of population genetics, answering ecological and evolutionary questions regarding efficient conservation strategies for C. brasiliensis. PMID:26697275

  9. Killing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia by pulmonary macrophages and the effect of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Cano, L E; Arango, R; Salazar, M E; Brummer, E; Stevens, D A; Restrepo, A

    1992-01-01

    The ability of conidia, the infectious form of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, to be killed in vitro by murine pulmonary macrophages was studied. Mice were immunized by intravenous injection of killed conidia, which resulted in cellular immunity demonstrated by delayed type hypersensitivity in vivo and macrophage migration inhibition factor production in vitro. Resident pulmonary macrophages from non-immune mice were able to significantly kill the conidia (28%). Such macrophages treated with supernatants (cytokines) from antigen-stimulated immune mononuclears had a markedly enhanced ability to kill conidia (73%). These results show that activated pulmonary macrophages are potent killers of conidia of P. brasiliensis and that immune mononuclears play a role in activation of macrophages. Activated macrophages may be important for pulmonary defense against the initial stages of infection with this fungus.

  10. THE POWER OF THE SMALL: THE EXAMPLE OF Paracoccidioides brasiliensis CONIDIA

    PubMed Central

    RESTREPO, Angela; CANO, Luz Elena; GONZALEZ, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Research on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has centered in the yeast cell probably because of the lack of distinctive features in the mycelium. In 1942 and for the first time, lateral conidia were noticed in the fungus' hyphae. Later on, Brazilian, Venezuelan and Argentinean researchers described "aleurias" when the fungus was grown in natural substrates. In 1970 authors became interested in the conidia and were able to obtain them in large numbers and treat them as individual units. Their shape and size were defined and the presence of all the elements of a competent eukaryotic cell were demonstrated. Conidia exhibited thermal dimorphism and, additionally, when given intranasally to BALB/c male mice, they converted into yeasts in the lungs and produce progressive pulmonary lesions with further dissemination to other organs. Studies on the phagocyte-conidia interaction were revealing and showed that these versatile structures allow a better understanding of the host- P. brasiliensis interactions. PMID:26465363

  11. [Enhancing development of children at risk and their parents by video counselling according to the Marte Meo method].

    PubMed

    Bünder, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Marte Meo is a low-intensity programme of counselling parents and other persons significantly involved with children which aims to foster parenting capacity and facilitate child development. The article describes a preliminary pilot study with the aim of identifying variables for the future evaluation of efficacy and effectiveness of the Marte Meo method.

  12. Brasilinolide A, a new macrolide antibiotic produced by Nocardia brasiliensis: producing strain, isolation and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Komaki, H; Yazawa, K; Mikami, Y; Nemoto, A; Tojyo, T; Kadowaki, K; Shigemori, H; Kobayashi, J

    1997-12-01

    A new 32-membered macrolide antibiotic, brasilinolide A was isolated from the fermentation broth of Nocardia sp. IFM 0406. The producer was identified as Nocardia brasiliensis. The antibiotic was only active against Aspergillus niger, but not active against other fungi including yeasts as well as other filamentous like fungi and bacteria. Brasilinolide A exerted an immunosuppressive activity in the assay system of a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR).

  13. [Comparative study of the pathogenicity and antigenicity of 6 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains].

    PubMed

    Finquelievich, J L; Negroni, R; Iovannitti, C A; de Elías Costa, M R

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study of antigenicity and pathogenicity for rats of six Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains was carried out. The antigenic capacity "in vitro" of cytoplasmic extract from each strain was determined by immunodiffusion test against 6 serum samples obtained from rats experimentally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, that had presented positive reactions with a metabolic control antigen. The cytoplasmic extracts were used at final concentration of 100 mg/ml. All of them showed 2 or 3 precipitation bands in this assay. One hundred twenty Wistar rats both sexes weighing approximately 200 g, were inoculated intracardiacally with suspensions of the yeast phase of different P. brasiliensis strains. Two concentrations containing 3 x 10(7) and 5 x 10(7) cells/ml of each isolate were prepared. The inoculated animals were divided in two groups, one was left to its spontaneous outcome and the percentages of deaths were registered and the other rats were sacrificed at 14, 28, 56 and 70 days post-infection. The following parameters were taken into account for evaluation: A) presence of macroscopic granulomas in lung, liver, spleen and kidney; B) presence of P. brasiliensis in microscopic exams of the same organs, in wet preparations and in histologic sections stained by H&E; C) culture of lung and D) immunodiffusion test using pre-mortem serum samples and the homologous antigen. The correlation between the most important parameters studied in each strain are summarized as follow: As no significant differences between the two inocula employed for each strain was observed, the before mention results are the average of those obtained with each inoculation doses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Nocardia brasiliensis Induces an Immunosuppressive Microenvironment That Favors Chronic Infection in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G.; Perez-Liñan, Amira R.; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Perez-Rivera, Luz I.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular microorganism and the most common etiologic agent of actinomycetoma in the Americas. Several intracellular pathogens induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment through increases in CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), thus downregulating other T-cell subpopulations and assuring survival in the host. In this study, we determined whether N. brasiliensis modulates T-lymphocyte responses and their related cytokine profiles in a murine experimental model. We also examined the relationship between N. brasiliensis immunomodulation and pathogenesis and bacterial survival. In early infection, Th17/Tc17 cells were increased at day 3 (P < 0.05) in footpad tissue and spleen. Treg subpopulations peaked at days 7 and 15 (P < 0.01) in the footpad and spleen, respectively. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleuki-10 (IL-10) are cytokines known for their immunosuppressive effects. During early and chronic infections, these cytokines were elevated with increased TGF-β1 levels from days 3 to 30 (P < 0.01) and sustained IL-10 expression throughout infection compared to uninfected mice. IL-6 production was increased at day 3 (P < 0.01), whereas gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-17A, and IL-23 levels were highest at day 15 postinfection (P < 0.01) when a decrease in the bacterial load (>1 log) was also observed (P < 0.05). After these changes, at 30 to 60 days postinfection, IFN-γ production was decreased, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the bacterial load again increased (P < 0.05). The increment in Treg cells and the related cytokine profile correlated with reduced inflammation at day 15 (P < 0.05) in the footpad. We conclude that N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment that benefits its survival during the chronic stage of infection. PMID:22547544

  15. Caspofungin Affects Growth of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Both Morphological Phases ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Brito, Sabrina; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; San-Blas, Gioconda

    2010-01-01

    Five Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates were grown in the presence of caspofungin (0 to 1 μg/ml). Inhibition of the yeast phase ranged from 20 to 65%, while in the mycelial form it ranged from 75% to 82%. Such variability was loosely related to the amount of cell wall β-1,3-glucan. No association with point mutations in the β-1,3-glucan synthase was detected. Caspofungin induced physical changes and cytoplasmic deterioration in both fungal phases. PMID:20937789

  16. P. brasiliensis Virulence Is Affected by SconC, the Negative Regulator of Inorganic Sulfur Assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Sturme, Mark; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Ludovico, Paula; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Conidia/mycelium-to-yeast transition of Paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis is a critical step for the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Thus, knowledge of the factors that mediate this transition is of major importance for the design of intervention strategies. So far, the only known pre-requisites for the accomplishment of the morphological transition are the temperature shift to 37°C and the availability of organic sulfur compounds. In this study, we investigated the auxotrophic nature to organic sulfur of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides, with special attention to P. brasiliensis species. For this, we addressed the role of SconCp, the negative regulator of the inorganic sulfur assimilation pathway, in the dimorphism and virulence of this pathogen. We show that down-regulation of SCONC allows initial steps of mycelium-to-yeast transition in the absence of organic sulfur compounds, contrarily to the wild-type fungus that cannot undergo mycelium-to-yeast transition under such conditions. However, SCONC down-regulated transformants were unable to sustain yeast growth using inorganic sulfur compounds only. Moreover, pulses with inorganic sulfur in SCONC down-regulated transformants triggered an increase of the inorganic sulfur metabolism, which culminated in a drastic reduction of the ATP and NADPH cellular levels and in higher oxidative stress. Importantly, the down-regulation of SCONC resulted in a decreased virulence of P. brasiliensis, as validated in an in vivo model of infection. Overall, our findings shed light on the inability of P. brasiliensis yeast to rely on inorganic sulfur compounds, correlating its metabolism with cellular energy and redox imbalances. Furthermore, the data herein presented reveal SconCp as a novel virulence determinant of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24066151

  17. Transcriptome characterization of the dimorphic and pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by EST analysis.

    PubMed

    Felipe, M S S; Andrade, R V; Petrofeza, S S; Maranhão, A Q; Torres, F A G; Albuquerque, P; Arraes, F B M; Arruda, M; Azevedo, M O; Baptista, A J; Bataus, L A M; Borges, C L; Campos, E G; Cruz, M R; Daher, B S; Dantas, A; Ferreira, M A S V; Ghil, G V; Jesuino, R S A; Kyaw, C M; Leitão, L; Martins, C R; Moraes, L M P; Neves, E O; Nicola, A M; Alves, E S; Parente, J A; Pereira, M; Poças-Fonseca, M J; Resende, R; Ribeiro, B M; Saldanha, R R; Santos, S C; Silva-Pereira, I; Silva, M A S; Silveira, E; Simões, I C; Soares, R B A; Souza, D P; De-Souza, M T; Andrade, E V; Xavier, M A S; Veiga, H P; Venancio, E J; Carvalho, M J A; Oliveira, A G; Inoue, M K; Almeida, N F; Walter, M E M T; Soares, C M A; Brígido, M M

    2003-02-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a pathogenic fungus that undergoes a temperature-dependent cell morphology change from mycelium (22 degrees C) to yeast (36 degrees C). It is assumed that this morphological transition correlates with the infection of the human host. Our goal was to identify genes expressed in the mycelium (M) and yeast (Y) forms by EST sequencing in order to generate a partial map of the fungus transcriptome. Individual EST sequences were clustered by the CAP3 program and annotated using Blastx similarity analysis and InterPro Scan. Three different databases, GenBank nr, COG (clusters of orthologous groups) and GO (gene ontology) were used for annotation. A total of 3,938 (Y = 1,654 and M = 2,274) ESTs were sequenced and clustered into 597 contigs and 1,563 singlets, making up a total of 2,160 genes, which possibly represent one-quarter of the complete gene repertoire in P. brasiliensis. From this total, 1,040 were successfully annotated and 894 could be classified in 18 functional COG categories as follows: cellular metabolism (44%); information storage and processing (25%); cellular processes-cell division, posttranslational modifications, among others (19%); and genes of unknown functions (12%). Computer analysis enabled us to identify some genes potentially involved in the dimorphic transition and drug resistance. Furthermore, computer subtraction analysis revealed several genes possibly expressed in stage-specific forms of P. brasiliensis. Further analysis of these genes may provide new insights into the pathology and differentiation of P. brasiliensis.

  18. The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis exports extracellular vesicles containing highly immunogenic α-Galactosyl epitopes.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Milene C; Matsuo, Alisson L; Ganiko, Luciane; Medeiros, Lia C Soares; Miranda, Kildare; Silva, Luiz S; Freymüller-Haapalainen, Edna; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Almeida, Igor C; Puccia, Rosana

    2011-03-01

    Exosome-like vesicles containing virulence factors, enzymes, and antigens have recently been characterized in fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Here, we describe extracellular vesicles carrying highly immunogenic α-linked galactopyranosyl (α-Gal) epitopes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. P. brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that causes human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). For vesicle preparations, cell-free supernatant fluids from yeast cells cultivated in Ham's defined medium-glucose were concentrated in an Amicon ultrafiltration system and ultracentrifuged at 100,000 × g. P. brasiliensis antigens were present in preparations from phylogenetically distinct isolates Pb18 and Pb3, as observed in immunoblots revealed with sera from PCM patients. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), vesicle components containing α-Gal epitopes reacted strongly with anti-α-Gal antibodies isolated from both Chagas' disease and PCM patients, with Marasmius oreades agglutinin (MOA) (a lectin that recognizes terminal α-Gal), but only faintly with natural anti-α-Gal. Reactivity was inhibited after treatment with α-galactosidase. Vesicle preparations analyzed by electron microscopy showed vesicular structures of 20 to 200 nm that were labeled both on the surface and in the lumen with MOA. In P. brasiliensis cells, components carrying α-Gal epitopes were found distributed on the cell wall, following a punctuated confocal pattern, and inside large intracellular vacuoles. Lipid-free vesicle fractions reacted with anti-α-Gal in ELISA only when not digested with α-galactosidase, while reactivity with glycoproteins was reduced after β-elimination, which is indicative of partial O-linked chain localization. Our findings open new areas to explore in terms of host-parasite relationships in PCM and the role played in vivo by vesicle components and α-galactosyl epitopes.

  19. Penialidins A-C with strong antibacterial activities from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus harboring leaves of Garcinia nobilis.

    PubMed

    Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Mouafo Talontsi, Ferdinand; Douala Meli, Clovis; Wandji, Jean; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Three new polyketides named penialidins A-C (1-3), along with one known compound, citromycetin (4), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp., harbored in the leaves of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Garcinia nobilis. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods (NMR and HRMS(n)). The antibacterial efficacies of the new compounds (1-3) were tested against the clinically-important risk group 2 (RG2) bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ecologically imposing strains of E. coli (RG1), Bacillus subtilis and Acinetobacter sp. BD4 were also included in the assay. Compound 3 exhibited pronounced activity against the clinically-relevant S. aureus as well as against B. subtilis comparable to that of the reference standard (streptomycin). Compound 2 was also highly-active against S. aureus. By comparing the structures of the three new compounds (1-3), it was revealed that altering the substitutions at C-10 and C-2 can significantly increase the antibacterial activity of 1.

  20. Assessment of Toxicity and Beneficiary Effects of Garcinia pedunculata on the Hematological, Biochemical, and Histological Homeostasis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Md. Yousuf; Rumpa, Nur-E-Noushin; Hossen, Md. Sakib; Saha, Moumoni; Bhoumik, Nikhil Chandra

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the toxicological profile of a methanolic extract of Garcinia pedunculata fruit in rats by conducting hematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations. Long Evans rats were divided into four groups, each with 6 animals, and were treated with three oral doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) once daily for 21 days. The extract did not cause significant changes in body and relative organ weight, percent water content, or hematological parameters at any administered doses. However, a significant dose-dependent positive effect in serum lipid profile and all atherogenic indices including the cardiac risk ratio, Castelli's risk index-2, and the atherogenic coefficient were observed. Significant increases in the levels of iron and decreases in serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities and the levels of serum glucose were noted when the extract was administered at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg). Histopathological examination of the target tissues further confirmed that the extract was safe and had no observed toxicological features. Our study indicates that G. pedunculata fruit is nontoxic, has the potential to be effective against atherosclerosis, and may be used as a hepatoprotectant. The fruit extract is also beneficial to those with iron deficiency and hyperglycemia. PMID:28243309

  1. Oblongifolin C and guttiferone K extracted from Garcinia yunnanensis fruit synergistically induce apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Meng, Xiao-xiao; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Bao-jun; Liu, Xin-yu; Fu, Wen-wei; Tan, Hong-sheng; Lao, Yuan-zhi; Xu, Hong-xi

    2017-01-01

    Oblongifolin C (OC) and guttiferone K (GUTK) are two anticancer compounds extracted from Garcinia yunnanensis Hu, but they act by different mechanisms. In this study we investigated whether a combination of OC and GUTK (1:1 molar ratio) could produce synergistic anticancer effects against human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. For comparison, we also examined the anticancer efficacy of ethanol extracts from G yunnanensis fruit, which contain OC and GUTK up to 5%. Compared to OC and GUTK alone, the combination of OC and GUTK as well as the ethanol extracts more potently inhibited the cancer cell growth with IC50 values of 3.4 μmol/L and 3.85 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, OC and GUTK displayed synergistic inhibition on HCT116 cells: co-treatment with OC and GUTK induced more prominent apoptosis than treatment with either drug alone. Moreover, the combination of OC and GUTK markedly increased cleavage of casapse-3 and PARP, and enhanced cellular ROS production and increased JNK protein phosphorylation. In addition, the combination of OC and GUTK exerted stronger effects under nutrient-deprived conditions than in complete medium, suggesting that autophagy played an essential role in regulating OC- and GUTK-mediated cell death. OC and GUTK are the main components that contribute to the anticancer activity of G yunnanensis and the compounds have apoptosis-inducing effects in HCT116 cells in vitro. PMID:27840412

  2. Effects of garcinol and guttiferone K isolated from Garcinia cambogia on oxidative/nitrative modifications in blood platelets and plasma.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Masullo, Milena; Olas, Beata; Piacente, Sonia; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    The effects of garcinol and guttiferone K, two polyisoprenylated benzophenones occurring a food plant called Garcinia cambogia, on oxidative/nitrative protein damage (determined by parameters such as levels of protein carbonyl groups and nitrotyrosine residues) in human blood platelets and plasma after treatment with peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) were studied in vitro. We also investigated the effects of garcinol and guttiferone K on lipid peroxidation in blood platelets and plasma induced by ONOO(-) (100 microM). Exposure of blood platelets or plasma to peroxynitrite (100 microM) resulted in an increased level of carbonyl groups and nitrotyrosine residues in proteins, and an increase of lipid peroxidation measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). In the presence of garcinol and guttiferone K (0.1-25 microg/ml), a distinct reduction in the formation of carbonyl groups in plasma and platelet proteins together with the decrease of TBARS caused by 100 microM peroxynitrite, was observed. However, garcinol and guttiferone K did not inhibit plasma and platelet protein nitration induced by peroxynitrite. Polyisoprenylated benzophenones present in human diet such as garcinol or guttiferone K in vitro have protective effects against lipid and protein oxidation and may have some promising effects in vivo because they are good antioxidants in the tested models in vitro. Garcinol and guttiferone K can be also useful as protecting factors against diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  3. Molecular Weight, Protein Binding Affinity and Methane Mitigation of Condensed Tannins from Mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L)

    PubMed Central

    Paengkoum, P.; Phonmun, T.; Liang, J. B.; Huang, X. D.; Tan, H. Y.; Jahromi, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations. PMID:26323400

  4. Effect of orlistat alone or in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of orlistat alone and in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index (VAI) in obese patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 99 obese male patients were recruited with aged range between 37 and 46 years. They were randomized into three equal groups, first group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day, second group treated with G. cambogia 166 mg/day, and third group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day plus G. cambogia 166 mg/day. The duration of the treatments was three consecutive months. Body mass index (BMI), VAI, blood pressure, blood glucose, total lipid profile, atherogenic index, and cardiac risk ratio were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. Results: The treatment with G. cambogia leads to reduction in VAI P < 0.05, whereas orlistat has a beneficial effect on cardiometabolic profiles without a reduction in VAI P > 0.05. Combined therapy of G. cambogia plus orlistat showed the more significant effect in reduction of VAI P < 0.05, cardiometabolic profiles and anthropometric measures P < 0.01 compared to pretreatment period. Conclusion: Combination of G. cambogia with orlistat lead to more significant effect than orlistat alone in amelioration of cardiometabolic profile and VAI in obese patients. PMID:27757272

  5. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as "mundu" belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.

  6. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  7. DNA strand-scission by phloroglucinols and lignans from heartwood of Garcinia subelliptica Merr. and Justicia plants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Huang; Wei, Bai-Luh; Ko, Horng-Huey; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2008-01-01

    Five 2,4,6-prenylated phloroglucinols, garcinielliptones HA (1), HB (2), HC (3), HD (4) and HE (5), were isolated from the heartwood of Garcinia subelliptica Merr. Their structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by means of spectroscopic data analysis. The ability of phloroglucinols, 1-5 and lignans, tuberculatin (8), justicidin A (9), procumbenoside A (10) and ciliatosides A (11) and B (12), isolated from Justicia ciliata and Justicia procumbens, to induce DNA-cleavage activity was examined using pBR322, a supercoiled, covalently closed circular DNA, and it was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. In the presence of Cu (II), compounds 3, 8, 10 and 11 caused significant breakage of supercoiled plasmid pBR322. The products were relaxed circles with no detectable linear forms. In the Cu(II)-mediated DNA damage of 3 and selective compound 8, Cu(I) was shown not to be an essential intermediate by using the Cu(I)-specific sequestering reagent neocuproine.

  8. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ashar, Hardik; Srinath, Sudhamani

    2012-01-01

    The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanol–elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver. PMID:23554565

  9. Phenolics from Garcinia mangostana Inhibit Advanced Glycation Endproducts Formation: Effect on Amadori Products, Cross-Linked Structures and Protein Thiols.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Hossam M; El-Bassossy, Hany; Mohamed, Gamal A; El-Halawany, Ali M; Alshali, Khalid Z; Banjar, Zainy M

    2016-02-22

    Accumulation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) in body tissues plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications. Here, the inhibitory effect of bioactive metabolites isolated from fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana on AGE formation was investigated through bio-guided approach using aminoguanidine (AG) as a positive control. Including G. mangostana total methanol extract (GMT) in the reaction mixture of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glucose or ribose inhibited the fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner. The bioassay guided fractionation of GMT revealed isolation of four bioactive constituents from the bioactive fraction; which were identified as: garcimangosone D (1), aromadendrin-8-C-glucopyranoside (2), epicatechin (3), and 2,3',4,5',6-pentahydroxybenzophenone (4). All the tested compounds significantly inhibited fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner whereas compound 3 (epicatechin) was found to be the most potent. In search for the level of action, addition of GMT, and compounds 2-4 inhibited fructosamine (Amadori product) and protein aggregation formation in both glucose and ribose. To explore the mechanism of action, it was found that addition of GMT and only compound (3) to reaction mixture increased protein thiol in both glucose and ribose while compounds 1, 2 and 4 only increased thiol in case of ribose. In conclusion, phenolic compounds 1-4 inhibited AGEs formation at the levels of Amadori product and protein aggregation formation through saving protein thiol.

  10. Nocardia brasiliensis Cell Wall Lipids Modulate Macrophage and Dendritic Responses That Favor Development of Experimental Actinomycetoma in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Villarreal, J. Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755

  11. Ecotope effect in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) suggests phenotypic plasticity rather than adaptation.

    PubMed

    Batista, V S P; Fernandes, F A; Cordeiro-Estrela, P; Sarquis, O; Lima, M M

    2013-09-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is an important vector of Chagas' disease in both sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes. Discriminating between these populations of Triatominae has been proposed as a means of investigating re-infestation rates of human dwellings. Geometric morphometrics have been widely applied in the study of Triatominae polymorphisms at species and population levels. This study characterizes morphometric differences between sylvatic and peridomestic populations, as well as between sexes in T. brasiliensis specimens from Jaguaruana, Ceará, in northeastern Brazil. No differences in either the shape or size of the cephalic capsule were apparent between sexes or ecotopes. However, the wings showed differentiation in shape and size. Sexual dimorphism was detected, with females presenting significantly higher values and conformations. Size differentiation was also evident, with sylvatic specimens being generally larger than peridomestic examples. These results indicate that differences in the wings of T. brasiliensis may be related to the existence of phenotypic plasticity, and variations in size and shape may be associated with different ecotopes, possibly as a result of conditions in each micro-habitat, such as temperature, relative humidity, food supply and density.

  12. In Vitro Susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis to Essential Oils of Lamiaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Silva, Anna Luiza; Dias de Castro, Luciana Laitano; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Ferraz, Vanny; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; Zanette, Régis; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the chemical, cytotoxic and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis properties of commercial essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and marjoram (Origanum majorana L.). Chemical composition of the oils was identified through gas chromatography with flame ionization detector, and cytotoxicity was performed through MTT assay in VERO cell line. Anti-S. brasiliensis activity was performed according to the CLSI M38-A2 guidelines using isolates obtained from cats and dogs. The major compounds found were carvacrol in the oregano oil (73.9 %) and 1,8-cineole in rosemary and marjoram oils (49.4 and 20.9 %, respectively). All S. brasiliensis isolates were susceptible to the plant oils, including itraconazole-resistant ones. Marjoram and rosemary oils showed MIC90 of 0.56 and 1.12 mg ml(-1), and MFC90 of 4.5 and 9 mg ml(-1), respectively. For oregano oil, a strong antifungal activity was observed with MIC90 and MFC90 values ≤0.07 mg ml(-1). The weakest cytotoxicity was observed for rosemary oil. Further studies should be undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these essential oils in sporotrichosis.

  13. Comparison of virulence between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii using Galleria mellonella as a host model.

    PubMed

    Scorzoni, Liliana; de Paula e Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Leite, Fernanda Sangalli; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; da Silva, Rosangela Aparecida Moraes; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis, endemic in Latin America. The etiologic agents of this mycosis are composed of 2 species: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. Murine animal models are the gold standard for in vivo studies; however, ethical, economical and logistical considerations limit their use. Galleria mellonella is a suitable model for in vivo studies of fungal infections. In this study, we compared the virulence of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii in G. mellonella model. The deaths of larvae infected with P. brasiliensis or P. lutzii were similar, and both species were able to reduce the number of hemocytes, which were estimated by microscopy and flow cytometer. Additionally, the phagocytosis percentage was similar for both species, but when we analyze hemocyte-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction using flow cytometer, P. lutzii showed higher interactions with hemocytes. The gene expression of gp43 as well as this protein was higher for P. lutzii, and this expression may contribute to a greater adherence to hemocytes. These results helped us evaluate the behavior of Paracoccidioides spp in G. mellonella, which is a convenient model for investigating the host-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction.

  14. Antioxidant Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes): Evidence from Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Yurkiv, Borys; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    With diabetes mellitus and increased glucose concentrations, the mitochondria electron transport chain is disrupted, superoxide anions are overproduced, and oxidative stress develops in cells. Thus, preventing oxidative stress can produce a decrease in the antioxidant system activity and an increase in apoptosis in immune cells. The application of medicinal mushrooms is a new possible approach to diabetes mellitus treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the influence of administration of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat leukocytes. Wistar outbred white rats were used in the study. Streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks. This revealed that in diabetes mellitus, the level of antioxidant enzyme activity is significantly decreased compared with control values, whereas the levels of lipid peroxidation is increased; this manifested in an increase in the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The medicinal mushrooms' administration is accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity to control values and is even higher in the case of A. brasiliensis administration when compared with the diabetic group. As for the indicators of lipid peroxidation under mushroom administration of A. brasiliensis and G. lucidum, we observed a significant decrease of TBARS levels compared with the diabetic group. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduction of TBARS level indicate pronounced antioxidant properties of studied mushrooms.

  15. Nocardia brasiliensis Induces Formation of Foamy Macrophages and Dendritic Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Meester, Irene; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Foamy cells have been described in various infectious diseases, for example in actinomycetoma induced by Nocardia brasiliensis. These cells are generally considered to be macrophages, although they present dendritic cell (DC)-specific surface markers. In this study, we determined and confirmed the lineage of possible precursors of foamy cells in vitro and in vivo using an experimental actinomycetoma model in BALB/c mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) or DC (BMDC) were infected in vitro with N. brasiliensis or labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). Both, macrophages and DC, differentiated into foamy cells after in vitro infection. CFSE-labeled BMDM or BMDC were tested for phagocytosis and CD11c/CD11b receptors markers expression before being transferred into the actinomycetoma lesion site of infected mice. In vivo studies showed that BMDM and BMDC were traced at the site where foamy cells are present in the experimental actinomycetoma. Interestingly, many of the transferred BMDM and BMDC were stained with the lipid-droplet fluorophore Nile Red. In conclusion, macrophages and DC cells can be differentiated into foamy cells in vitro and in vivo during N. brasiliensis infection. PMID:24936860

  16. Refractory sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis in humans appears to be unrelated to in vivo resistance.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi do; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-10-22

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute to chronic infection caused by members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. Itraconazole is the first choice antifungal drug for treating this infection, with terbinafine and potassium iodide as alternatives and amphotericin B used in cases of severe infections. Correlation of antifungal susceptibility data with the clinical outcome of the patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and mycological data in patients with refractory sporotrichosis. In this work, antifungal susceptibilities, determined according to the reference M38-A2 CLSI protocol, of 25 Sporothrix strains, isolated from seven human cases of sporotrichosis with adversities in the treatment, are presented. Tested drugs included itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine, and amphotericin B. Fungi were identified using the T3B PCR fingerprinting. This method identified all strains as Sporothrix brasiliensis and also demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains. In general, voriconazole was ineffective against all strains, and elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were observed for amphotericin B. High itraconazole and terbinafine MICs were not observed in S. brasiliensis isolates from patients of this study. Moreover, a significant increase in itraconazole and terbinafine MIC values from strains isolated from the same patient in different periods was not observed. The results suggest that the antifungal susceptibility to terbinafine and itraconazole determined by the reference method does not play an important role in therapeutic failure of sporotrichosis and that acquisition of resistance during prolonged antifungal treatment is not likely to occur in S. brasiliensis.

  17. Development of pulmonary fibrosis in mice during infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, S; Tobon, A; Trujillo, J; Restrepo, A

    1992-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a feared sequelae of paracoccidioidomycosis. We sought to determine if mice exposed to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia would develop pulmonary fibrosis. BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with P. brasiliensis conidia and sacrificed at regular intervals. One lung was sectioned for histopathology and sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, trichromic and argentic stains; the other lung was homogenized and cultured to determine the viability of the fungus. One week post-challenge, only small peribronchial foci were apparent. After 4 weeks, reticular fibres appeared disorganized and disrupted. Six to 8 weeks later peribronchial infiltrates were larger and appeared surrounded by reticular fibres; thick collagen I fibres were noticed in the infiltrated areas at this time. On weeks 10-12, infiltrates were confluent and reticular fibres were concentrated around the inflammatory foci; collagenization was apparent. Observations up to 16 weeks revealed diffuse involvement of the lung parenchyma with extensive collagenization. Lung cultures were always positive. We suggest that inhalation of P. brasiliensis conidia induces adverse lung responses leading to changes in the proportion of collagen fibres I and III.

  18. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  19. Identification and functional characterization of HbOsmotin from Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zheng; Sun, Yong; Wang, Dan; Wang, Limin; Li, Ling; Meng, Xueru; Feng, Weiqiang; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Wang, Xuchu

    2016-12-01

    Latex in the laticiferous cell network of Hevea brasiliensis tree is composed of cytoplasm that synthesizes natural rubber. Ethylene stimulation of the tree bark enhances latex production partly by prolonging the duration of latex flow during the tapping process. Here, we identified an osmotin-like cDNA sequence (HbOsmotin) from H. brasiliensis that belongs to the pathogenesis-related 5 (PR-5) gene family. The HbOsmotin protein is present in the lutoids of latex in H. brasiliensis, whereas in onion epidermal cells, this protein is predominantly distributed around the cell wall, suggesting that it may be secreted from the cytoplasm. We investigated the effects of exogenous ethylene on HbOsmotin transcription and protein accumulation in rubber latex, and further determined the protein function after osmotic stress in Arabidopsis. In regularly tapped trees, HbOsmotin expression was drastically inhibited in rubber latex after tapping, although the expression was subsequently recovered by ethylene stimulation. However, in virgin plants that had never been tapped, exogenous ethylene application slightly decreased HbOsmotin expression. HbOsmotin overexpression in Arabidopsis showed that HbOsmotin reduced the osmotic stress tolerance of the plant, which likely occurred by raising the water potential. These data indicated that HbOsmotin may contribute to osmotic regulation in laticiferous cells.

  20. Insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of the xylanolytic yeast Pseudozyma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Kaupert Neto, Antonio Adalberto; Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Damásio, André Ricardo de Lima; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2016-03-01

    In second-generation (2G) bioethanol production, plant cell-wall polysaccharides are broken down to release fermentable sugars. The enzymes of this process are classified as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and contribute substantially to the cost of biofuel production. A novel basidiomycete yeast species, Pseudozyma brasiliensis, was recently discovered. It produces an endo-β-1,4-xylanase with a higher specific activity than other xylanases. This enzyme is essential for the hydrolysis of biomass-derived xylan and has an important role in 2G bioethanol production. In spite of the P. brasiliensis biotechnological potential, there is no information about how it breaks down polysaccharides. For the first time, we characterized the secretome of P. brasiliensis grown on different carbon sources (xylose, xylan, cellobiose and glucose) and also under starvation conditions. The growth and consumption of each carbohydrate and the activity of the CAZymes of culture supernatants were analyzed. The CAZymes found in its secretomes, validated by enzymatic assays, have the potential to hydrolyze xylan, mannan, cellobiose and other polysaccharides. The data show that this yeast is a potential source of hydrolases, which can be used for biomass saccharification.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis 135 ribosomal protein.

    PubMed

    Jesuino, Rosália S A; Pereira, Maristela; Felipe, M Sueli S; Azevedo, Maristella O; Soares, Célia M A

    2004-06-01

    A 630 bp cDNA encoding an L35 ribosomal protein of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, designated as Pbl35, was cloned from a yeast expression library. Pbl35 encodes a polypeptide of 125 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 14.5 kDa and a pI of 11.0. The deduced PbL35 shows significant conservation in respect to other described ribosomal L35 proteins from eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Motifs of ribosomal proteins are present in PbL35, including a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) that could be related to the protein addressing to the nucleolus for the ribosomal assembly. The mRNA for PbL35, about 700 nucleotides in length, is expressed at a high level in P. brasiliensis. The PbL35 and the deduced amino acid sequence constitute the first description of a ribosomal protein in P. brasiliensis. The cDNA was deposited in GenBank under accession number AF416509.

  2. Monofunctional catalase P of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: identification, characterization, molecular cloning and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Sabrina F I; Bailão, Alexandre M; Barbosa, Mônica S; Jesuino, Rosalia S A; Felipe, M Sueli Soares; Pereira, Maristela; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2004-01-30

    Within the context of studies on genes from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) potentially associated with fungus-host interaction, we isolated a 61 kDa protein, pI 6.2, that was reactive with sera of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. This protein was identified as a peroxisomal catalase. A complete cDNA encoding this catalase was isolated from a Pb cDNA library and was designated PbcatP. The cDNA contained a 1509 bp ORF containing 502 amino acids, whose molecular mass was 57 kDa, with a pI of 6.5. The translated protein PbCATP revealed canonical motifs of monofunctional typical small subunit catalases and the peroxisome-PTS-1-targeting signal. The deduced and the native PbCATP demonstrated amino acid sequence homology to known monofunctional catalases and was most closely related to catalases from other fungi. The protein and mRNA were diminished in the mycelial saprobic phase compared to the yeast phase of infection. Protein synthesis and mRNA levels increased during the transition from mycelium to yeast. In addition, the catalase protein was induced when cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide. The identification and characterization of the PbCATP and cloning and characterization of the cDNA are essential steps for investigating the role of catalase as a defence of P. brasiliensis against oxygen-dependent killing mechanisms. These results suggest that this protein exerts an influence in the virulence of P. brasiliensis.

  3. Chitinase from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: molecular cloning, structural, phylogenetic, expression and activity analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Sheyla M R C; Cruz, Aline H S; Jesuino, Rosália S A; Ulhoa, Cirano J; Molinari-Madlum, Eugênia E W I; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela

    2006-03-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding a chitinase (Pbcts1) was cloned by screening a cDNA library from the yeast cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The cDNA consists of 1888 bp and encodes an ORF of 1218 bp corresponding to a protein of 45 kDa with 406 amino acid residues. The deduced PbCTS1 is composed of two signature family 18 catalytic domains and seems to belong to fungal/bacterial class. Phylogenetic analysis of PbCTS1 and other chitinases suggests the existence of paralogs of several chitinases to be grouped based on specialized functions, which may reflect the multiple and diverse roles played by fungi chitinases. Glycosyl hydrolase activity assays demonstrated that P. brasiliensis is able to produce and secrete these enzymes mainly during transition from yeast to mycelium. The fungus should be able to use chitin as a carbon source. The presence of an endocytic signal in the deduced protein suggests that it could be secreted by a vesicular nonclassical export pathway. The Pbcts1 expression in mycelium, yeast, during differentiation from mycelium to yeast and in yeast cells obtained from infected mice suggests the relevance of this molecule in P. brasiliensis electing PbCTS1 as an attractive drug target.

  4. Identification, N-terminal region sequencing and similarity analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Cunha, A F; Sousa, M V; Silva, S P; Jesuíno, R S; Soares, C M; Felipe, M S

    1999-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, which is a systemic mycosis in Latin America. This human pathogen is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelium (26 degrees C) and in infected tissues as a yeast form (36 degrees C). The in vitro differentiation process is reversible and dependent on temperature shift. In the present study, the total proteins from both forms of P. brasiliensis (isolate Pb01) were analysed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified. Two of these proteins, PbM46 (mycelium) and PbY20 (yeast), were submitted to automated protein sequencing of their N-terminal regions. The 15 amino acid residue sequence of PbM46, AITKIFALKVYDSSG, is similar to enolases from several sources, and specially those from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (80%) and Candida albicans (67%), when compared to the NR database at NCBI using the BLASTP program. The 34 amino acid residue sequence of PbY20, APKIAIVFYSLYGHIQKLAEAQKKGIEAAGGTAD, could probably represent an allergen protein since it is very similar (90%) to the minor allergen protein of Alternaria alternata and 82% similar to the allergen protein of Cladosporium herbarum. This comparative analysis of proteins from mycelium and yeast forms has allowed the identification and characterization of differentially expressed proteins, probably related to differential gene expression in P. brasiliensis.

  5. The sialotranscriptome of the blood-sucking bug Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Adriana; Ribeiro, José Marcos C.; Lehane, Michael J.; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Veloso, Artur Botelho; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R.V.; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Pereira, Marcos Horácio

    2007-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important autochthon vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil, where it is widely distributed in the semiarid areas of the Northeast. In order to advance the knowledge of the salivary biomolecules of Triatominae, a salivary gland cDNA library of T. brasiliensis was mass sequenced and analyzed. Polypeptides were sequenced by HPLC/Edman degradation experiments. 1,712 cDNA sequences were obtained and grouped in 786 clusters. The housekeeping category had 24.4% and 17.8% of the clusters and sequences, respectively. The putatively secreted category contained 47.1% of the clusters and 68.2% of the sequences. Finally, 28.5% of the clusters, containing 14% of all sequences, were classified as unknown. The sialoma of T. brasiliensis showed a high amount and great variety of different lipocalins (93.8% of secreted proteins). Remarkably, a great number of serine proteases that were not observed in previous blood-sucking sialotranscriptomes were found. Nine Kazal peptides were identified, among them one with high homology to the tabanid vasodilator vasotab, suggesting that the Triatoma vasodilator could be a Kazal protein. PMID:17550826

  6. Comparison of virulence between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii using Galleria mellonella as a host model

    PubMed Central

    Scorzoni, Liliana; de Paula e Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Leite, Fernanda Sangalli; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Moraes da Silva, Rosangela Aparecida; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis, endemic in Latin America. The etiologic agents of this mycosis are composed of 2 species: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. Murine animal models are the gold standard for in vivo studies; however, ethical, economical and logistical considerations limit their use. Galleria mellonella is a suitable model for in vivo studies of fungal infections. In this study, we compared the virulence of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii in G. mellonella model. The deaths of larvae infected with P. brasiliensis or P. lutzii were similar, and both species were able to reduce the number of hemocytes, which were estimated by microscopy and flow cytometer. Additionally, the phagocytosis percentage was similar for both species, but when we analyze hemocyte-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction using flow cytometer, P. lutzii showed higher interactions with hemocytes. The gene expression of gp43 as well as this protein was higher for P. lutzii, and this expression may contribute to a greater adherence to hemocytes. These results helped us evaluate the behavior of Paracoccidioides spp in G. mellonella, which is a convenient model for investigating the host-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction. PMID:26552324

  7. In vitro Paracoccidioides brasiliensis biofilm and gene expression of adhesins and hydrolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Pitangui, Nayla de Souza; Voltan, Aline Raquel; Braz, Jaqueline Derissi; Machado, Marcelo Pelajo; Fusco Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes Giannini, Maria Jose Soares

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioides species are dimorphic fungi that initially infect the lungs but can also spread throughout the body. The spreading infection is most likely due to the formation of a biofilm that makes it difficult for the host to eliminate the infection. Biofilm formation is crucial for the development of infections and confines the pathogen to an extracellular matrix. Its presence is associated with antimicrobial resistance and avoidance of host defenses. This current study provides the first description of biofilm formation by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18) and an analysis of gene expression, using real-time PCR, associated with 3 adhesins and 2 hydrolytic enzymes that could be associated with the virulence profile. Biofilm formation was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Metabolic activity was determined using the XTT reduction assay. P. brasiliensis was able to form mature biofilm in 144 h with a thickness of 100 μm. The presence of a biofilm was found to be associated with an increase in the expression of adhesins and enzymes. GP43, enolase, GAPDH and aspartyl proteinase genes were over-expressed, whereas phospholipase was down-regulated in biofilm. The characterization of biofilm formed by P. brasiliensis may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of paracoccidioidomycosis as well as the search for new therapeutic alternatives; while improving the effectiveness of treatment. PMID:26055497

  8. An Hcp100 gene fragment reveals Histoplasma capsulatum presence in lungs of Tadarida brasiliensis migratory bats.

    PubMed

    González-González, A E; Aliouat-Denis, C M; Carreto-Binaghi, L E; Ramírez, J A; Rodríguez-Arellanes, G; Demanche, C; Chabé, M; Aliouat, E M; Dei-Cas, E; Taylor, M L

    2012-11-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum was sampled in lungs from 87 migratory Tadarida brasiliensis bats captured in Mexico (n=66) and Argentina (n=21). The fungus was screened by nested-PCR using a sensitive and specific Hcp100 gene fragment. This molecular marker was detected in 81·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73·4-89·7] of all bats, representing 71 amplified bat lung DNA samples. Data showed a T. brasiliensis infection rate of 78·8% (95% CI 68·9-88·7) in bats captured in Mexico and of 90·4% (95% CI 75·2-100) in those captured in Argentina. Similarity with the H. capsulatum sequence of a reference strain (G-217B) was observed in 71 Hcp100 sequences, which supports the fungal findings. Based on the neighbour-joining and maximum parsimony Hcp100 sequence analyses, a high level of similarity was found in most Mexican and all Argentinean bat lung samples. Despite the fact that 81·6% of the infections were molecularly evidenced, only three H. capsulatum isolates were cultured from all samples tested, suggesting a low fungal burden in lung tissues that did not favour fungal isolation. This study also highlighted the importance of using different tools for the understanding of histoplasmosis epidemiology, since it supports the presence of H. capsulatum in T. brasiliensis migratory bats from Mexico and Argentina, thus contributing new evidence to the knowledge of the environmental distribution of this fungus in the Americas.

  9. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis interacts with dermal dendritic cells and keratinocytes in human skin and oral mucosa lesions.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira da; Pagliari, Carla; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Sotto, Mirian N

    2016-05-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. In PCM the skin and oral mucosa are often affected. Dendritic cells and keratinocytes of the integument play a role in innate and adaptive immune response against pathogens, due to their function as antigen presenting cells. Aiming to verify the interaction of P. brasiliensis with these cell populations, we studied 52 skin and 47 oral mucosa samples taken from patients with proven diagnosis of PCM. The biopsies were subjected to immunohistochemical and/or immunofluorescence staining with anti-factor XIIIa (marker of dermal dendrocytes), anti-CD207 (marker of mature Langerhans cells), anti-pan cytokeratins (AE1-AE3) and anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies. Analyses with confocal laser microscopy were also performed for better visualization of the interaction between keratinocytes and the fungi. In sum, 42% of oral mucosa samples displayed yeast forms in Factor XIIIa dermal dendrocytes cytoplasm. Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa samples did not show yeast cells in their cytoplasm. In sum, 54% of skin and 60% of mucosal samples displayed yeast cells in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes. The parasitism of keratinocytes may represent a possible mechanism of evasion of the fungus to local immune mechanisms. Factor XIIIa dendrocytes and keratinocytes may be acting as antigen-presenting cells to fulfill the probably impaired function of Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa of human PCM.

  10. Environmental controls in the water use patterns of a tropical cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    PubMed

    Eller, Cleiton B; Burgess, Stephen S O; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2015-04-01

    Trees from tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) display very dynamic patterns of water use. They are capable of downwards water transport towards the soil during leaf-wetting events, likely a consequence of foliar water uptake (FWU), as well as high rates of night-time transpiration (Enight) during drier nights. These two processes might represent important sources of water losses and gains to the plant, but little is known about the environmental factors controlling these water fluxes. We evaluated how contrasting atmospheric and soil water conditions control diurnal, nocturnal and seasonal dynamics of sap flow in Drimys brasiliensis (Miers), a common Neotropical cloud forest species. We monitored the seasonal variation of soil water content, micrometeorological conditions and sap flow of D. brasiliensis trees in the field during wet and dry seasons. We also conducted a greenhouse experiment exposing D. brasiliensis saplings under contrasting soil water conditions to deuterium-labelled fog water. We found that during the night D. brasiliensis possesses heightened stomatal sensitivity to soil drought and vapour pressure deficit, which reduces night-time water loss. Leaf-wetting events had a strong suppressive effect on tree transpiration (E). Foliar water uptake increased in magnitude with drier soil and during longer leaf-wetting events. The difference between diurnal and nocturnal stomatal behaviour in D. brasiliensis could be attributed to an optimization of carbon gain when leaves are dry, as well as minimization of nocturnal water loss. The leaf-wetting events on the other hand seem important to D. brasiliensis water balance, especially during soil droughts, both by suppressing tree transpiration (E) and as a small additional water supply through FWU. Our results suggest that decreases in leaf-wetting events in TMCF might increase D. brasiliensis water loss and decrease its water gains, which could compromise its ecophysiological performance and survival

  11. Ketamine and midazolam anesthesia in Pacific martens (Martes caurina).

    PubMed

    Mortenson, Jack A; Moriarty, Katie M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The use of midazolam as a tranquilizer for anesthesia in mustelids in conjunction with the cyclohexamine ketamine is not well documented. Because midazolam is fast acting, inexpensive, and quickly metabolized, it may serve as a good alternative to other more commonly used tranquilizers. We trapped and anesthetized 27 Pacific martens (Martes caurina) in Lassen National Forest (northern California, US) August 2010-April 2013. We assessed anesthesia with ketamine at 18 and 25 mg/kg combined with 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam by comparing mean times of induction, return to consciousness, and recovery, plus physiologic parameters. No reversal was used for the midazolam portion of the anesthetic. Mean (±SD) induction for both ketamine dosages was 1.7±0.5 and 1.8±1.0 min, respectively. Return to consciousness mean times were 8.0 min longer (P<0.001) for martens receiving a 25 mg/kg ketamine dosage. Mean recoveries were 15.1 min longer (P<0.003) for the 25 mg/kg ketamine dosage. Physiologic parameter means were similar for both ketamine dosages with no statistically significant differences. Body temperatures and heart and respiratory rates were generally stable, but percentage of oxygen saturation and end tidal carbon dioxide values were below those seen in previous mustelid studies. The combination of ketamine, at both dosages, and midazolam provided reliable field anesthesia for Pacific martens, and supplemental oxygen is recommended as needed.

  12. Efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% Aqueous Eye Drops in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Adefule-Ositelu, Adebukunola O.; Adegbehingbe, Bernice O.; Adefule, Adebayo K.; Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O.; Samaila, Elsie; Oladigbolu, Kehinde

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% aqueous solution eye drops in patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (POAG/OH). Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-masked, multicenter, active-controlled prospective study. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned in equal numbers to receive Timolol 0.5% eye drops as a control medication (A = Group 1 eyes) or Garcinia kola 0.5% eye drops as the study medication (B = Group 2 eyes). All drops were instilled at 6 am and 6 pm daily. Goldman applanation tonometry was performed at 9 am, 12 pm and 3 pm at baseline, week-6, week-12 and week-24 visits. Voluntary and actively elicited reports of adverse events were documented. The mean change in IOP over 24 weeks was the primary outcome measure. Both groups were compared for statistically significant differences at all visits. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 178 patients were randomly assigned to G. kola and Timolol groups. At baseline there were no differences in mean IOP between groups, based on age, sex, or diagnosis. At the end of the study period (24th week), the mean (± SD) reduction in IOP was 12.93 ± 2.3 mmHg (47.8% ± 0.8% reduction) in G. Kola group and 13.09 ± 2.8 mm Hg (48.2% ± 1.03% reduction) in the Timolol group (P > 0.05). Adverse events were mild in nature with no statistically significant differences between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Garcinia kola ophthalmic solution significantly reduces IOP as compared to baseline. The IOP lowering effect of both treatments was equivalent. PMID:20543944

  13. Dataset of Fourier transform-infrared coupled with chemometric analysis used to distinguish accessions of Garcinia mangostana L. in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samsir, Sri A'jilah; Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2016-09-01

    In this dataset, we distinguish 15 accessions of Garcinia mangostana from Peninsular Malaysia using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis. We found that the position and intensity of characteristic peaks at 3600-3100 cm(-) (1) in IR spectra allowed discrimination of G. mangostana from different locations. Further principal component analysis (PCA) of all the accessions suggests the two main clusters were formed: samples from Johor, Melaka, and Negeri Sembilan (South) were clustered together in one group while samples from Perak, Kedah, Penang, Selangor, Kelantan, and Terengganu (North and East Coast) were in another clustered group.

  14. rPbPga1 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Activates Mast Cells and Macrophages via NFkB

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Clarissa Xavier Resende; da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Assis, Mariana Aprigio; Fernandes, Fabricio Freitas; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2015-01-01

    Background The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the leading etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic granulomatous disease that typically affects the lungs. Cell wall components of P. brasiliensis interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. In yeast, many glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are important in the initial contact with the host, mediating host-yeast interactions that culminate with the disease. PbPga1 is a GPI anchored protein located on the surface of the yeast P. brasiliensis that is recognized by sera from PCM patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Endogenous PbPga1 was localized to the surface of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in the lungs of infected mice using a polyclonal anti-rPbPga1 antibody. Furthermore, macrophages stained with anti-CD38 were associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Additionally, rPbPga1 activated the transcription factor NFkB in the macrophage cell line Raw 264.7 Luc cells, containing the luciferase gene downstream of the NFkB promoter. After 24 h of incubation with rPbPga1, alveolar macrophages from BALB/c mice were stimulated to release TNF-α, IL-4 and NO. Mast cells, identified by toluidine blue staining, were also associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Co-culture of P. Brasiliensis yeast cells with RBL-2H3 mast cells induced morphological changes on the surface of the mast cells. Furthermore, RBL-2H3 mast cells were degranulated by P. brasiliensis yeast cells, but not by rPbPga1, as determined by the release of beta-hexosaminidase. However, RBL-2H3 cells activated by rPbPga1 released the inflammatory interleukin IL-6 and also activated the transcription factor NFkB in GFP-reporter mast cells. The transcription factor NFAT was not activated when the mast cells were incubated with rPbPga1. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that PbPga1 may act as a modulator protein in PCM pathogenesis and serve as a useful target for

  15. Epidemiological and biological aspects on Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick), an argasidae tick only found on the highlands region of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soft tick Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Acari: Argasidae) is present in farms along the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil. Reports of human parasitism by O. brasiliensis drew the attention of local health authorities. A preliminary epidemiological survey was conducted to ident...

  16. Amphotericin B, alone or followed by itraconazole therapy, is effective in the control of experimental disseminated sporotrichosis by Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kelly; de Castro, Rafaela Alves; Borba Dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is a highly virulent member of the S. schenckii complex, which is responsible for the emergence of the epidemic sporotrichosis in southeastern Brazil over the last two decades. There are no in vivo studies on the sensitivity of S. brasiliensis to the therapeutic regimens used to treat sporotrichosis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of antifungal treatments against S. brasiliensis using a murine model of disseminated sporotrichosis. In vitro, S. brasiliensis yeasts were sensitive to low concentrations of amphotericin B-deoxycholate (AMB-d) and itraconazole (ITZ), the latter having greater selectivity toward the fungus. The following treatment regimens were tested in vivo: intravenous AMB-d for 7 days post-infection (p.i.), oral ITZ for up to 30 days p.i., and AMB-d followed by ITZ (AMB-d/ITZ). AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ led to 100% survival of infected mice at the end of the 45-day experimental period. Although all treatments extended mice survival, only AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ significantly reduced fungal load in all organs, but AMB-d/ITZ led to a more consistent decrease in overall fungal burden. No treatment increased the levels of serum toxicity biomarkers. Taken together, our results indicate that AMB-d/ITZ is the best therapeutic option for controlling disseminated sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis.

  17. The malate synthase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a linked surface protein that behaves as an anchorless adhesin

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). This is a pulmonary mycosis acquired by inhalation of fungal airborne propagules that can disseminate to several organs and tissues leading to a severe form of the disease. Adhesion and invasion to host cells are essential steps involved in the internalization and dissemination of pathogens. Inside the host, P. brasiliensis may use the glyoxylate cycle for intracellular survival. Results Here, we provide evidence that the malate synthase of P. brasiliensis (PbMLS) is located on the fungal cell surface, and is secreted. PbMLS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibody was obtained against this protein. By using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, PbMLS was detected in the cytoplasm and in the cell wall of the mother, but mainly of budding cells of the P. brasiliensis yeast phase. PbMLSr and its respective polyclonal antibody produced against this protein inhibited the interaction of P. brasiliensis with in vitro cultured epithelial cells A549. Conclusion These observations indicated that cell wall-associated PbMLS could be mediating the binding of fungal cells to the host, thus contributing to the adhesion of fungus to host tissues and to the dissemination of infection, behaving as an anchorless adhesin. PMID:20034376

  18. Lactic dehydrogenase virus infection enhances parasite egg production and inhibits eosinophil and mast cell responses in mice infected with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, M; Yamada, M; Arizono, N; Hayashi, T

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDV) infection on the protective immune responses to the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were studied. Mice with chronic LDV infection showed significantly higher levels of parasite egg production than non-LDV-infected (control) mice after N. brasiliensis infection. Concurrent LDV infection also suppressed peripheral blood eosinophilia and the lung mastocytosis induced by this nematode. LDV infection showed higher expression levels of the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA in lymph nodes compared with control mice before N. brasiliensis infection. In addition, the IgG2a production in LDV-infected mice was higher than that in control mice before and after N. brasiliensis infection. These results suggest that LDV infection modulates protective immune responses against N. brasiliensis infection by the activation of T-helper type 1 cells. PMID:9659227

  19. Pulmonary infection in two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara (Scincidae) and Anolis brasiliensis (Polychrotidae) from a cloud forest in Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, S C; Ferreira, F S; Brito, S V; Teles, D A; Ávila, R W; Almeida, W O; Anjos, L A; Guarnieri, M C

    2012-11-01

    The parameters of infection by lung parasites from two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara and Anolis brasiliensis, from the Atlantic Rainforest of the lower slope of Chapada do Araripe in Northeastern Brazil were analyzed between September, 2009 and July, 2010. A total of 202 lizards were collected. 125 specimens were from Mabuya arajara and 77 from Anolis brasiliensis. M. arajara was infected by the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae while A. brasiliensis was infected by the nematode Rhabdias sp., with an overall prevalence of 1.6% and 28.6%, respectively. The mean intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. was 3.63 ± 2.58 (range 1-15). The body size and sex of lizards did not influence the intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. The overall prevalence was also not different between males and females hosts in A. brasiliensis. Both Anolis brasiliensis and Mabuya arajara represent a new host to Rhabdias sp. and Raillietiella mottae, respectively.

  20. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Methods Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s or Tukey’s post hoc tests, as appropriate. Results We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the

  1. Eruption Constraints for a Young Channelized Lava Flow, Marte Vallis, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Therkelsen, J. P.; Santiago, S. S.; Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    This study constrains flow rates for a specific channelized lava flow in Marte Vallis, Mars. We measured slope-gradient, channel width, and channel depth. Our results are similar to other recent studies which suggests similarities to long, terrestrial basaltic flow. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. EnsMart: a generic system for fast and flexible access to biological data.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Arek; Keefe, Damian; Smedley, Damian; London, Darin; Spooner, William; Melsopp, Craig; Hammond, Martin; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Cox, Tony; Birney, Ewan

    2004-01-01

    The EnsMart system (www.ensembl.org/EnsMart) provides a generic data warehousing solution for fast and flexible querying of large biological data sets and integration with third-party data and tools. The system consists of a query-optimized database and interactive, user-friendly interfaces. EnsMart has been applied to Ensembl, where it extends its genomic browser capabilities, facilitating rapid retrieval of customized data sets. A wide variety of complex queries, on various types of annotations, for numerous species are supported. These can be applied to many research problems, ranging from SNP selection for candidate gene screening, through cross-species evolutionary comparisons, to microarray annotation. Users can group and refine biological data according to many criteria, including cross-species analyses, disease links, sequence variations, and expression patterns. Both tabulated list data and biological sequence output can be generated dynamically, in HTML, text, Microsoft Excel, and compressed formats. A wide range of sequence types, such as cDNA, peptides, coding regions, UTRs, and exons, with additional upstream and downstream regions, can be retrieved. The EnsMart database can be accessed via a public Web site, or through a Java application suite. Both implementations and the database are freely available for local installation, and can be extended or adapted to 'non-Ensembl' data sets.

  3. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J; Dassi, Erik; Di Genova, Alex; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K; Hayes, Richard D; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-07-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations.

  4. Screening a core collection of citrus genetic resources for resistance to Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A causal agent for Dry root rot (DRR) of citrus has not been definitively identified, but the organism most consistently associated with DRR is Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. To efficiently screen a citrus germplasm collection for resistance to F. solani, a core subset of the collection was evaluated...

  5. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J.; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W.; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J.; Dassi, Erik; Genova, Alex Di; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C.; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M.; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K.; Hayes, Richard D.; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M.; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W.; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z.; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-01-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations. PMID:25897122

  6. Massive infestation with fur mites (Lynxacarus mustelae) of a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol.

    PubMed

    Visser, Martin; Messner, Christian; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    A massive infestation with Lynxacarus mustelae (Megnin, 1885) (Acari, Astigmata, Listrophoridae) was diagnosed in a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol, Austria. In addition, Ixodes rugicollis and Trichodectes retusus are reported for the first time in Austria, and the five species of helminths found (Capillaria aerophila, C. mustelorum, C. paranalis, C. plica, Molineus patens) are first records in the stone marten in the country.

  7. COMPLEX HOST-PARASITE SYSTEMS IN MARTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY OF ENDEMIC FAUNAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex assemblages of hosts and parasites reveal insights about biogeography and ecology and inform us about processes which serve to structure faunal diversity and the biosphere in space and time. Exploring aspects of parasite diversity among martens (species of Martes) and other mustelids reveal...

  8. EnsMart: A Generic System for Fast and Flexible Access to Biological Data

    PubMed Central

    Kasprzyk, Arek; Keefe, Damian; Smedley, Damian; London, Darin; Spooner, William; Melsopp, Craig; Hammond, Martin; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Cox, Tony; Birney, Ewan

    2004-01-01

    The EnsMart system (www.ensembl.org/EnsMart) provides a generic data warehousing solution for fast and flexible querying of large biological data sets and integration with third-party data and tools. The system consists of a query-optimized database and interactive, user-friendly interfaces. EnsMart has been applied to Ensembl, where it extends its genomic browser capabilities, facilitating rapid retrieval of customized data sets. A wide variety of complex queries, on various types of annotations, for numerous species are supported. These can be applied to many research problems, ranging from SNP selection for candidate gene screening, through cross-species evolutionary comparisons, to microarray annotation. Users can group and refine biological data according to many criteria, including cross-species analyses, disease links, sequence variations, and expression patterns. Both tabulated list data and biological sequence output can be generated dynamically, in HTML, text, Microsoft Excel, and compressed formats. A wide range of sequence types, such as cDNA, peptides, coding regions, UTRs, and exons, with additional upstream and downstream regions, can be retrieved. The EnsMart database can be accessed via a public Web site, or through a Java application suite. Both implementations and the database are freely available for local installation, and can be extended or adapted to `non-Ensembl' data sets. PMID:14707178

  9. La Verneda-Sant Martí Adult School: A Reference for Neighborhood Popular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubert, Adrianna; Villarejo, Bea; Cabré, Joan; Santos, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The Adult School of La Verneda Sant Martí, located in Barcelona, Spain, is a reference at the international level because of its trajectory and its contributions to the transformative movement in democratic education. The school was created in 1978 to address the demands of the working-class residents of the La Verneda…

  10. A miniature Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (miniMART) as a compact breaking wave analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, M. Dale; Deane, Grant; Collins, Douglas B.; Cappa, Christopher; Bertram, Timothy; Dommer, Abigail; Schill, Steven; Forestieri, Sara; Survilo, Mathew

    2016-09-01

    In order to understand the processes governing the production of marine aerosols, repeatable, controlled methods for their generation are required. A new system, the miniature Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (miniMART), has been designed after the success of the original MART system, to approximate a small oceanic spilling breaker by producing an evolving bubble plume and surface foam patch. The smaller tank utilizes an intermittently plunging jet of water produced by a rotating water wheel, into an approximately 6 L reservoir to simulate bubble plume and foam formation and generate aerosols. This system produces bubble plumes characteristic of small whitecaps without the large external pump inherent in the original MART design. Without the pump it is possible to easily culture delicate planktonic and microbial communities in the bulk water during experiments while continuously producing aerosols for study. However, due to the reduced volume and smaller plunging jet, the absolute numbers of particles generated are approximately an order of magnitude less than in the original MART design.

  11. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biologi...

  12. [Water and energy metabolism in representatives of the genus Martes and Mustela (Mammalia: Mustelidae)].

    PubMed

    Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Rozhnov, V V; Naĭdenko, S V

    2003-01-01

    The quantities of consumed food and water, quantity and moisture content of faeces, as well as quantity and concentration of excreted urine were determined in representatives of Martes--marten (M. martes) and sable (M. zibellina)--as well as in polecat (Mustela putorius). Under the same cage conditions and free access to food, all three species had similar energy value of the daily diet. However, the level of drinking water consumption and the ratio between the quantities of arriving water and energy was reliably higher in both Martes species than in polecat. In addition, both marten and sable featured a much higher rate of evaporation loss in the overall water balance and, consequently, a higher quantity of heat dissipated with evaporation as compared to polecat. Comparison of the obtained and previous data (Sokolov et al., 1995; Rozhnov, 1991) allowed us to propose that the mentioned differences can be specific for representatives of Martes and Mustela genera irrespective of ecological specialization of particular species.

  13. Flavonoids from acai (euterpe oleracea mart.) Pulp and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five flavonoids, (2S,3S)-dihyrokaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (1) and its isomer (2R,3R)-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-'-D-glucoside (2) , isovitexin (3), velutin (4) and 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyflavone (5), were isolated from acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp. The structures of these compounds ...

  14. Molecular evolution and adaptation of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Malyarchuk, B; He, X B; Derenko, M

    2013-09-23

    Martes species represent a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation and a recent speciation event. To identify regions of the genome that experienced adaptive evolution, which might provide clues to their functional importance and may be informative about the features that make each species unique, we sought evidence of molecular adaptation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes. Complete sequences of the cytochrome b gene were obtained from 87 samples, including 49 sables, 28 pine martens, and 10 stone martens, and were combined with mtDNA sequences of other true martens, such as M. melampus and M. americana. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene variation in true martens has shown that the evolution of this gene is under negative selection. In contrast, positive selection on the cytochrome b protein has been detected by means of the software TreeSAAP using a phylogenetic reconstruction of Martes taxa. Signatures of adaptive variation in cytochrome b were restricted to the transmembrane domains, which likely function as proton pumps. We compared results of different methods for testing selection and molecular adaptation, and we supposed that the radical changes of the cytochrome b amino acid residues in the subgenus Martes may be the result of molecular adaptation to specific environmental conditions coupled with species dispersals.

  15. Exploración del Nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploración de Marte, y conozca las nuevas tecnologías que el nuevo robot Curiosity del Laboratorio Científico d...

  16. The vitamin D analog, MART-10, represses metastasis potential via downregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Jan, Yi-Yin; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-11-28

    Pancreatic cancer (PDA) is a devastating disease and there is no effective treatment available at present. To develop new regiments against PDA is urgently needed. Previously we have shown that vitamin D analog, MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), exerted potent antiproliferative effect on PDA in vitro and in vivo without causing hypercalcemia. Since metastasis is the major cause of PDA-related death, we therefore investigate the anti-metastasis effect of MART-10 on PDA. Our results showed that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 repressed migration and invasion of BxPC-3 and PANC cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer cells through downregulation of Snail, Slug, and Vimentin expression in BxPC-3 and PANC cells. MART-10 further blocked cadherin switch (from E-cadherin to N-cadherin) in BxPC-3 cells. The F-actin synthesis in the cytoplasm of BxPC-3 cells was also repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 as determined by immunofluorescence stain. Both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 decreased MMP-2 and -9 secretion in BxPC-3 cells as determined by western blot and zymography. Collectively, MART-10 should be deemed as a promising regimen against PDA.

  17. Effects of polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus on alcoholic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Uyanoglu, Mustafa; Canbek, Mediha; van Griensven, Leo J L D; Yamac, Mustafa; Senturk, Hakan; Kartkaya, Kazım; Oglakcı, Aysegul; Turgak, Ozge; Kanbak, Gungor

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the curative effects of crude polysaccharides (PSs) from mushrooms on the symptoms of alcoholic liver injury were investigated. PSs from Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus fruiting bodies were administered by gavage at levels of 100 mg per kg body weight per day for 7 d after the onset of the disease. The caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial outer membrane integrity of the liver tissues of sacrificed rats, and the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were determined. In addition, light and transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies were performed for histopathological and cytological evaluations on liver sections. PSs from A. brasiliensis decreased ALT level and mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the outer membrane integrity; microscopic examinations also revealed normal hepatocytes and tissue. On the basis of our data, it can be argued that crude PSs from Agaricus brasiliensis have therapeutic potential for alcoholic liver injury.

  18. Antibodies Against Glycolipids Enhance Antifungal Activity of Macrophages and Reduce Fungal Burden After Infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Renata A; Thomaz, Luciana; Muñoz, Julian E; da Silva, Cássia J; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Pinto, Márcia R; Travassos, Luiz R; Taborda, Carlos P

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. Pathological examination of the lungs of animals treated with antibodies to GSL showed well-organized granulomas and minimally damaged parenchyma compared to the untreated control. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus.

  19. UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS-guided isolation of prenylated xanthones and benzoylphloroglucinols from the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia and their migration-inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Dan, Zheng; Ding, Zhi-Jie; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-01-01

    A UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS-guided isolation strategy was employed to screen and track potentially new compounds from Garcinia oblongifolia. As a result, two new prenylated xanthones, oblongixanthones D and E (1–2), six new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, oblongifolins V–Z (3–7) and oblongifolin AA (8), as well as a known compound oblongifolin L (9), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia guided by UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS analysis. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD spectra were used to determine the absolute configurations. The results of wound healing and transwell migration assay showed that oblongixanthones D (1), E (2), and oblongifolin L (9) have the ability to inhibit cancer cell migration in lower cytotoxic concentrations. Western blotting results showed that these compounds exhibited an anti-metastasis effect mainly through downregulating RAF protein levels. In addition, 2 and 9 could inhibit phospho-MEK and phospho-ERK at downstream. Moreover, 1, 2, and 9 could inhibit snail protein level, suggesting that they could regulate the EMT pathway. PMID:27767059

  20. The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Onakpoya, Igho; Hung, Shao Kang; Perry, Rachel; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to examine the efficacy of Garcinia extract, hydroxycitric acid (HCA) as a weight reduction agent, using data from randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Electronic and nonelectronic searches were conducted to identify relevant articles, with no restrictions in language or time. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Twenty-three eligible trials were identified and twelve were included. Nine trials provided data suitable for statistical pooling. The meta-analysis revealed a small, statistically significant difference in weight loss favouring HCA over placebo (MD: −0.88 kg; 95% CI: −1.75, −0.00). Gastrointestinal adverse events were twice as common in the HCA group compared with placebo in one included study. It is concluded that the RCTs suggest that Garcinia extracts/HCA can cause short-term weight loss. The magnitude of the effect is small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain. Future trials should be more rigorous and better reported. PMID:21197150

  1. UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS-guided isolation of prenylated xanthones and benzoylphloroglucinols from the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia and their migration-inhibitory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Dan, Zheng; Ding, Zhi-Jie; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-10-01

    A UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS-guided isolation strategy was employed to screen and track potentially new compounds from Garcinia oblongifolia. As a result, two new prenylated xanthones, oblongixanthones D and E (1–2), six new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, oblongifolins V–Z (3–7) and oblongifolin AA (8), as well as a known compound oblongifolin L (9), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia guided by UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS analysis. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD spectra were used to determine the absolute configurations. The results of wound healing and transwell migration assay showed that oblongixanthones D (1), E (2), and oblongifolin L (9) have the ability to inhibit cancer cell migration in lower cytotoxic concentrations. Western blotting results showed that these compounds exhibited an anti-metastasis effect mainly through downregulating RAF protein levels. In addition, 2 and 9 could inhibit phospho-MEK and phospho-ERK at downstream. Moreover, 1, 2, and 9 could inhibit snail protein level, suggesting that they could regulate the EMT pathway.

  2. Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests.

    PubMed

    Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

    2008-03-01

    The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 +/- 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 +/- 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (-12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as "tired eyes," "blurry eyes," "muscle pain/stiffness," "early satiety," "epigastralgia," "dizziness," "arthralgia" and "easily breaking into a sweat." The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for "dizziness." On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy.

  3. Competitive protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors, prenylated caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi and their inhibitory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xue Fei; Uddin, Zia; Park, Chanin; Song, Yeong Hun; Son, Minky; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Ki Hun

    2017-04-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays important role in diabetes, obesity and cancer. The methanol extract of the gum resin of Garcinia hanburyi (G. hanburyi) showed potent PTP1B inhibition at 10µg/ml. The active compounds were identified as prenylated caged xanthones (1-9) which inhibited PTP1B in dose-dependent manner. Carboxybutenyl group within caged motif (A ring) was found to play a critical role in enzyme inhibition such as 1-6 (IC50s=0.47-4.69µM), whereas compounds having hydroxymethylbutenyl 7 (IC50=70.25µM) and methylbutenyl 8 (IC50>200µM) showed less activity. The most potent inhibitor, gambogic acid 1 (IC50=0.47µM) showed 30-fold more potency than ursolic acid (IC50=15.5µM), a positive control. In kinetic study, all isolated xanthones behaved as competitive inhibitors which were fully demonstrated with Km, Vmax and Kik/Kiv ratio. It was also proved that inhibitor 1 operated under the enzyme isomerization model having k5=0.0751µM(-)(1)S(-)(1), k6=0.0249µM(-)(1)S(-)(1) and Ki(app)=0.499µM. To develop a pharmacophore model, we explored the binding sites of compound 1 and 7 in PTP1B. These modeling results were in agreement with our findings, which revealed that the inhibitory activities are tightly related to caged motif and prenyl group in A ring.

  4. Amino acid composition of two masticatory nuts (Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola) and a snack nut (Anacardium occidentale).

    PubMed

    Adeyeye, E I; Asaolu, S S; Aluko, A O

    2007-06-01

    The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. The total amino acids were 356.24 mg/g protein, 112.90 mg/g protein and 659.17 mg/g protein for C. acuminata, G. kola and A. occidentale, respectively. The percentage total essential amino acids were 38.39% (C. acuminata), 47.05% (G. kola) and 51.04% (A. occidentale). Also the percentage total acidic amino acids were 38.16% (C. acuminata), 30.61% (G. kola) and 30.35% (A. occidentale). The calculated isoelectric points were 2.0 (C. acuminata), 0.7 (G. kola) and 3.9 (A. occidentale), showing they can all be precipitated at acidic pH. While threonine was the limiting amino acid in A. occidentale, it was valine in both C. acuminata and G. kola. The percentage cystine (Cys) levels in the total sulphur amino acid were 44.27% (C. acuminata), 37.75% (G. kola) and 50.51% (A. occidentale). The aim of this work was to compare the amino acid profile of the samples. It is recommended that C. acuminata and G. kola consumption be avoided by ulcer patients because of their high levels of acidic amino acids. A. occidentale amino acid scores ranged from 42% to 127%, suggesting that it could be used to enhance the protein quality of cereals through food complementation.

  5. Characterization of PbPga1, an Antigenic GPI-Protein in the Pathogenic Fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Clarissa X. R.; Basso, Luiz Roberto; dos Reis Almeida, Fausto B.; Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Damásio, André Ricardo Lima; Arruda, Luisa Karla; Martinez, Roberto; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), one of the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. P. brasiliensis cell wall components interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. Cell wall components, such as glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-proteins play a critical role in cell adhesion and host tissue invasion. Although the importance of GPI-proteins in the pathogenesis of other medically important fungi is recognized, little is known about their function in P. brasiliensis cells and PCM pathogenesis. We cloned the PbPga1 gene that codifies for a predicted GPI-anchored glycoprotein from the dimorphic pathogenic fungus P. brasiliensis. PbPga1 is conserved in Eurotiomycetes fungi and encodes for a protein with potential glycosylation sites in a serine/threonine-rich region, a signal peptide and a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol attachment signal sequence. Specific chicken anti-rPbPga1 antibody localized PbPga1 on the yeast cell surface at the septum between the mother cell and the bud with stronger staining of the bud. The exposure of murine peritoneal macrophages to rPbPga1 induces TNF-α release and nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages. Furthermore, the presence of O-glycosylation sites was demonstrated by β-elimination under ammonium hydroxide treatment of rPbPga1. Finally, sera from PCM patients recognized rPbPga1 by Western blotting indicating the presence of specific antibodies against rPbPga1. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the PbPga1gene codifies for a cell surface glycoprotein, probably attached to a GPI-anchor, which may play a role in P. brasiliensis cell wall morphogenesis and infection. The induction of inflammatory mediators released by rPbPga1 and the reactivity of PCM patient sera toward rPbPga1 imply that the protein favors the innate mechanisms of defense and induces humoral immunity during P. brasiliensis infection. PMID:23024763

  6. Differences in Cell Morphometry, Cell Wall Topography and Gp70 Expression Correlate with the Virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Rafaela A.; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula H.; Teixeira, Pedro A. C.; Sanches, Glenda F.; Teixeira, Marcus M.; Quintella, Leonardo P.; Almeida, Sandro R.; Costa, Rosane O.; Camargo, Zoilo P.; Felipe, Maria S. S.; de Souza, Wanderley; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M.

    2013-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infectious disease affecting both humans and animals. For many years, this subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent; however, it is now known that this taxon consists of a complex of at least four pathogenic species, including Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Gp70 was previously shown to be an important antigen and adhesin expressed on the fungal cell surface and may have a key role in immunomodulation and host response. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphometry, cell surface topology and gp70 expression of clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis compared with two reference strains of S. schenckii. Several clinical isolates related to severe human cases or associated with the Brazilian zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis were genotyped and clustered as S. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in a murine subcutaneous model of sporotrichosis, these isolates showed a higher virulence profile compared with S. schenckii. A single S. brasiliensis isolate from an HIV-positive patient not only showed lower virulence but also presented differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and abundant gp70 expression compared with the virulent isolates. In contrast, the highly virulent S. brasiliensis isolates showed reduced levels of cell wall gp70. These observations were confirmed by the topographical location of the gp70 antigen using immunoelectromicroscopy in both species. In addition, the gp70 molecule was sequenced and identified using mass spectrometry, and the sequenced peptides were aligned into predicted proteins using Blastp with the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes. PMID:24116065

  7. The Homeostasis of Iron, Copper, and Zinc in Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis, Cryptococcus Neoformans Var. Grubii, and Cryptococcus Gattii: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mirelle Garcia; Schrank, Augusto; Bailão, Elisa Flávia L.C.; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Staats, Charley Christian; Parente, Juliana Alves; Pereira, Maristela; Salem-Izacc, Silvia Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Oliveira, Rosely Maria Zancopé; Silva, Lívia Kmetzsch Rosa e; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Iron, copper, and zinc are essential for all living organisms. Moreover, the homeostasis of these metals is vital to microorganisms during pathogenic interactions with a host. Most pathogens have developed specific mechanisms for the uptake of micronutrients from their hosts in order to counteract the low availability of essential ions in infected tissues. We report here an analysis of genes potentially involved in iron, copper, and zinc uptake and homeostasis in the fungal pathogens Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, and Cryptococcus gattii. Although prior studies have identified certain aspects of metal regulation in Cryptococcus species, little is known regarding the regulation of these elements in P. brasiliensis. We also present amino acid sequences analyses of deduced proteins in order to examine possible conserved domains. The genomic data reveals, for the first time, genes associated to iron, copper, and zinc assimilation and homeostasis in P. brasiliensis. Furthermore, analyses of the three fungal species identified homologs to genes associated with high-affinity uptake systems, vacuolar and mitochondrial iron storage, copper uptake and reduction, and zinc assimilation. However, homologs to genes involved in siderophore production were only found in P. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in silico analysis of the genomes of P. brasiliensis Pb01, Pb03, and Pb18 revealed significant differences in the presence and/or number of genes involved in metal homeostasis, such as in genes related to iron reduction and oxidation. The broad analyses of the genomes of P. brasiliensis, C. neoformans var. grubii, and C. gattii for genes involved in metal homeostasis provide important groundwork for numerous interesting future areas of investigation that are required in order to validate and explore the function of the identified genes and gene pathways. PMID:21833306

  8. Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Urán, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

    2011-01-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice. PMID:21813659

  9. Influence of blood meal and mating in reproduction patterns of Triatoma brasiliensis females (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Daflon-Teixeira, Natália Faria; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Aníbal; Chiang, Ralem Gary; Lima, Marli Maria

    2009-11-01

    The influence of blood meal and mating on Triatoma brasiliensis (Neiva) female fecundity, fertility, life-span and the preoviposition period were investigated under laboratory conditions. Nourishment increased fecundity, fertility and adult lifespan, whereas mating increased fecundity, fertility and decreased the preoviposition period. Females also required more than one mating to reach their full reproductive potential. Results indicate that both nourishment and mating are important in T. brasiliensis proliferation. Such information will help towards developing effective control strategies of this vector of Chagas disease.

  10. Diet and helminths of Enyalius brasiliensis (Lacertilia, Iguania, Leiosauridae) in an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorigo, T A; Maia-Carneiro, T; Almeida-Gomes, M; Siqueira, C C; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M; Rocha, C F D

    2014-02-01

    Our study aimed to add information about the diet and endoparasites of Enyalius brasiliensis from an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Regarding diet, E. brasiliensis consumed arthropods, with caterpillars and beetles being the most important preys. Regarding helminth parasites, overall prevalence was low (9.5%), with 238 nematodes of the genus Physaloptera found in the stomach of one specimen and one nematode of the genus Rhabdias inside the lung of another. Our results corroborate the observations of previous studies that indicate that lizards of the genus Enyalius tend to feed mainly on relatively large-bodied arthropods and to harbour depauperate endoparasite fauna.

  11. Cytotoxicity and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis activity of the Origanum majorana Linn. oil.

    PubMed

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Ferraz, Vanny; Picoli, Tony; Cleff, Marlete Brum; de Faria, Renata Osório; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    The study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of the essential oil of Origanum majorana Linn. (marjoram), its chemical analysis, and its cytotoxic activity. A total of 18 fungal isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis (n: 17) from humans, dogs and cats, and a standard strain of Sporothrix schenckii (n: 1) were tested using the broth microdilution technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute - CLSI M27-A3) and the results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The MIC50 and MIC90 of itraconazole against S. brasiliensis were 2μg/mL and 8μg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50 and MFC90 were 2μg/mL and >16μg/mL, respectively, with three S. brasiliensis isolates resistant to antifungal. S. schenckii was sensitive at MIC of 1μg/mL and MFC of 8μg/mL. For the oil of O. majorana L., all isolates were susceptible to MIC of ≤2.25-9mg/mL and MFC of ≤2.25-18mg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 were ≤2.25mg/mL and 4.5mg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50/90 values were twice more than the MIC. Twenty-two compounds were identified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (CG-FID) and 1,8-cineole and 4-terpineol were the majority. Through the colorimetric (MTT) assay, the toxicity was observed in 70-80% of VERO cells between 0.078 and 5mg/mL. For the first time, the study demonstrated the satisfactory in vitro anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of marjoram oil and further studies are needed to ensure its safe and effective use.

  12. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei.

    PubMed

    Hurtado Páez, Uriel Alonso; García Romero, Ibonne Aydee; Restrepo Restrepo, Silvia; Aristizábal Gutiérrez, Fabio Ancizar; Montoya Castaño, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB) disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis). RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi) with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET)-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA) was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens.

  13. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo Restrepo, Silvia; Aristizábal Gutiérrez, Fabio Ancizar; Montoya Castaño, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB) disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis). RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi) with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET)-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA) was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens. PMID:26287380

  14. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    PubMed

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

  15. Bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of metal in freshwater Neotropical fish Geophagus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Carmen Lúcia; da Silva, Cleber Pinto; Doria, Halina Binde; Randi, Marco Antônio Ferreira; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto; de Campos, Sandro Xavier

    2015-06-01

    From the concentration in water and sediments, bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr), silver (Ag), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), aluminum (Al), and arsenic (As) were determined in the gills, liver, and muscles of Geophagus brasiliensis in the Alagados Reservoir, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. Metals were quantified through AAS, and a study was carried out on the existing relations between metal and body weight, size, and genre of this species. The level of metal in the water of the reservoir was lower than the maximum set forth in the legislation, except for that of Cd and Fe. In sediments, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Ni presented concentrations above the threshold effect level (TEL). Pb and Cr were above the limits for the G. brasiliensis. The tendency of metals present in the muscles of G. brasiliensis was Al > Cu > Zn > Fe > Co > Mn > Cr > Ag > Ni > Pb > Cd > As. In the gills, it was Al > Fe > Zn > Mn > Co > Ag > Cr > Ni > Cu > As > Pb > Cd, and the liver presented Al > Cu > Zn > Co > Fe > Mn > Pb > Ag > Ni > Cr > As > Cd. The bioconcentration and bioaccumulation of metal in the tissues follow the global tendency liver > gills > muscle. The statistical analysis did not point to significant differences in the metal concentration and body weight, size, and gender of the species in the three tissues under analysis.

  16. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    González-Martínez, Norma Alejandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Castro-Garza, Jorge; De Osio-Cortez, Alexandra; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Makarov, Vadim; Cole, Stewart T.; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ) are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1), an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity. Conclusion These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels. PMID:26474057

  17. Melanin as a virulence factor of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and other dimorphic pathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Taborda, Carlos P.; da Silva, Marcelo B.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Travassos, Luiz R.

    2008-01-01

    Melanin pigments are substances produced by a broad variety of pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and helminths. Microbes predominantly produce melanin pigment via tyrosinases, laccases, catecholases, and the polyketide synthase pathway. In fungi, melanin is deposited in the cell wall and cytoplasm, and melanin particles (“ghosts”) can be isolated from these fungi that have the same size and shape of the original cells. Melanin has been reported in several human pathogenic dimorphic fungi including Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Coccidioides posadasii. Melanization appears to contribute to virulence by reducing the susceptibility of melanized fungi to host defense mechanisms and antifungal drugs. PMID:18777637

  18. Under-Expression of Chemosensory Genes in Domiciliary Bugs of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Axelle; Mougel, Florence; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Background In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (re)colonize houses—a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T. brasiliensis samples from different ecotopes. Methodology/Principal Finding In a reference transcriptome built using de novo assembly, we found transcripts encoding 27 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 3 odorant receptors (ORs), 5 transient receptor potential channel (TRPs), 1 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMPs), 25 takeout proteins, 72 cytochrome P450s, 5 gluthatione S-transferases, and 49 cuticular proteins. Using protein phylogenies, we showed that most of the OBPs and CSPs for T. brasiliensis had well supported orthologs in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We also showed a higher number of these genes within the bloodsucking bugs and more generally within all Hemipterans compared to the other species in the super-order Paraneoptera. Using both DESeq2 and EdgeR software, we performed differential expression analyses between samples of T. brasiliensis, taking into account their environment (sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary) and sex. We also searched clusters of co-expressed contigs using HTSCluster. Among differentially expressed (DE) contigs, most were under-expressed in the chemosensory organs of the domiciliary bugs compared to the other samples and in females compared to males. We clearly identified DE genes that play a role in the chemosensory system. Conclusion/Significance Chemosensory genes could be good

  19. New Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolate reveals unexpected genomic variability in this human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Lilia L; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; Teixeira, Marcus M; Carvalho, Maria Jose A; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela; Jesuino, Rosália S A; McEwen, Juan G; Mendoza, Leonel; Taylor, John W; Felipe, Maria Sueli; San-Blas, Gioconda

    2008-05-01

    By means of genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition (GCPSR), we have investigated coding and non-coding regions from various genes and the ITS sequences of 7 new and 14 known isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Such isolates grouped within the three phylogenetic groups recently reported in the genus Paracoccidioides, with one single exception, i.e., Pb01, a strain that has been the subject of intense molecular studies for many years. This isolate clearly separates from all other Paracoccidioides isolates in phylogenetic analyses and greatly increases the genomic variation known in this genus.

  20. Induction of antigen-specific T suppressor cells by soluble Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Finkel, B E; Murphy, J W

    1988-01-01

    In naturally acquired paracoccidioidomycosis, patients have depressed in vivo and in vitro cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen. In addition, it has been reported that these patients have significant levels of circulating paracoccidioidal antigen in their sera. The primary purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of P. brasiliensis antigen on the CMI responses in a mouse model. On the basis of findings with other fungal agents, we predicted that circulating paracoccidioidal antigen may be inducing suppressor cells which modulate the CMI response. In this study, we show (i) that a soluble P. brasiliensis culture filtrate antigen (Pb.Ag) emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant and injected subcutaneously into mice induces reasonably high levels of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in CBA/J mice; (ii) that Pb.Ag elicits DTH reactions specific for P. brasiliensis when injected into footpads of immunized mice; and (iii) that an intravenous injection of Pb.Ag induces a population of lymph node and spleen cells which, upon adoptive transfer, suppress the afferent limb of the DTH response to paracoccidioidal antigen. The afferent suppressor cells can be detected in spleens as early as 5 days after Pb.Ag treatment, are present in significant numbers by 7 days in both spleens and lymph nodes, and are virtually absent by 14 days. In contrast, at 14 days after antigen injection, efferent suppressor cells were detected in spleens and lymph nodes. The Pb.Ag-induced afferent suppressor cells specifically inhibit the antiparacoccidioidal DTH response. They are nylon wool-nonadherent cells, and their activity is abrogated by anti-Thy-1 and complement treatment, indicating that they are T lymphocytes. The phenotype of these afferent suppressor T cells is L3T4+ Lyt-1+2- I-J+. The Pb.Ag-specific suppressor cells described in this paper are similar to the Ts1 cells in the azobenzenearsonate, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl, and

  1. MART-10, a newly synthesized vitamin D analog, represses metastatic potential of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Tsai, Chi-Ying; Pan, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Juang, Horng-Heng; Chen, Tai C; Chiang, Kun-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Even with multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis and quality of life of patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are still not satisfactory. Previously, 19-Nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3 (MART-10), the new brand 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been demonstrated to be an effective drug to inhibit HNSCC growth in vitro. Since most cancer patients die of metastasis, in this study, the antimetastatic effect of MART-10 on HNSCC was investigated. Our results reveal that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 effectively repressed the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, with MART-10 being much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The antimetastatic effect of 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 was mediated by attenuation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was supported by the finding that the expression of EMT-inducing transcriptional factors, Sail and Twist, was inhibited by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. The upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin in FaDu cells induced by both drugs further confirmed the repression of EMT. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment inhibited intracellular MMP-9 expression and extracellular MMP activity in FaDu cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the less-calcemia 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, is a promising drug for HNSCC treatment. Further clinical studies are warranted.

  2. Prevalence and molecular identification of the sinus worm Skrjabingylus petrowi (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) from Martes spp. in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heddergott, M; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2015-06-01

    The nematodes of the genus Skrjabingylus (family Metastrongylidae) can parasitise the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of different carnivore species. Until recently, Skrjabingylus petrowi Bageanov & Petrov, 1941, has mainly been described in pine martens (Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758) sampled in the European part of the former Soviet Union. Newer finds in the stone marten (Martes foina Erxleben, 1777) and from different parts of Europe suggest, however, that the species might have a broader host-species range than previously assumed and be geographically more widespread as well. Since most S. petrowi records have resulted from chance discoveries rather than systematic surveys, very little is known about the prevalence of S. petrowi in marten populations. Here, we report results of a 20-year extensive survey of fresh marten skulls, where we tested 1.059 marten carcasses originating from 248 localities in Germany for the presence of S. petrowi. We identified an infestation in only four M. martes individuals and one M. foina, despite using a reliable identification method. Based on the spicule lengths of the male nematodes, the parasites were identified as S. petrowi and genetic barcoding confirmed the identification of the samples. In a phylogenetic analysis, S. petrowi and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842), formed a sister clade to all the other members of the family Metastrongylidae. The low prevalence of S. petrowi is possibly due to its parasitising in the two marten species that are either not very common (M. martes) or predominantly live in urban habitat (M. foina).

  3. Polyketide Synthase Gene Diversity within the Microbiome of the Sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, Endemic to the Southern Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Rua, Cintia P. J.; Andrade, Bruno G. N.; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.

    2013-01-01

    Microbes associated with marine sponges are considered important producers of bioactive, structurally unique polyketides. The synthesis of such secondary metabolites involves type I polyketide synthases (PKSs), which are enzymes that reach a maximum complexity degree in bacteria. The Haplosclerida sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis hosts a complex microbiota and is the source of arenosclerins, alkaloids with cytotoxic and antibacterial activity. In the present investigation, we performed high-throughput sequencing of the ketosynthase (KS) amplicon to investigate the diversity of PKS genes present in the metagenome of A. brasiliensis. Almost 4,000 ketosynthase reads were recovered, with about 90% annotated automatically as bacterial. A total of 235 bacterial KS contigs was rigorously assembled from this sequence pool and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. A great diversity of six type I PKS groups has been consistently detected in our phylogenetic reconstructions, including a novel and A. brasiliensis-exclusive group. Our study is the first to reveal the diversity of type I PKS genes in A. brasiliensis as well as the potential of its microbiome to serve as a source of new polyketides. PMID:23275501

  4. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological diagnosis of Nocardia brasiliensis and clinical correlation with mycetoma infections.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Casillas, S M

    1993-11-01

    We previously identified three immunodominant antigens obtained from a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and recognized by sera from mycetoma patients (M. C. Salinas-Carmona, L. Vera, O. Welsh, and M. Rodríguez, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 276:390-397, 1992). In the present work, we obtained a crude extract from a mass culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and purified two immunodominant antigens, the 26- and 24-kDa proteins, by using simple physiochemical techniques. With these antigens, we developed a conventional solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and tested 30 serum samples from mycetoma patients, 29 from tuberculosis patients, 24 from a leprosy group, and 31 from healthy individuals. Our results show for the first time statistically significant differences in serology among these groups. All mycetoma patients with a positive culture for N. brasiliensis had absorbance values higher than 0.3. On the other hand, the mycobacterium-infected patients as well as the healthy individuals all had absorbance values below that level. Moreover, we found a close correlation between the clinical condition of the mycetoma patients and the anti-26- and anti-24-kDa protein antibody concentrations. We therefore propose the use of this assay in routine clinical laboratories to confirm the diagnosis of N. brasiliensis infection in human mycetoma cases. In addition, the possible application of this assay in the serodiagnosis of Nocardia asteroides infection is also discussed.

  5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological diagnosis of Nocardia brasiliensis and clinical correlation with mycetoma infections.

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Carmona, M C; Welsh, O; Casillas, S M

    1993-01-01

    We previously identified three immunodominant antigens obtained from a Nocardia brasiliensis cell extract and recognized by sera from mycetoma patients (M. C. Salinas-Carmona, L. Vera, O. Welsh, and M. Rodríguez, Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 276:390-397, 1992). In the present work, we obtained a crude extract from a mass culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and purified two immunodominant antigens, the 26- and 24-kDa proteins, by using simple physiochemical techniques. With these antigens, we developed a conventional solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and tested 30 serum samples from mycetoma patients, 29 from tuberculosis patients, 24 from a leprosy group, and 31 from healthy individuals. Our results show for the first time statistically significant differences in serology among these groups. All mycetoma patients with a positive culture for N. brasiliensis had absorbance values higher than 0.3. On the other hand, the mycobacterium-infected patients as well as the healthy individuals all had absorbance values below that level. Moreover, we found a close correlation between the clinical condition of the mycetoma patients and the anti-26- and anti-24-kDa protein antibody concentrations. We therefore propose the use of this assay in routine clinical laboratories to confirm the diagnosis of N. brasiliensis infection in human mycetoma cases. In addition, the possible application of this assay in the serodiagnosis of Nocardia asteroides infection is also discussed. Images PMID:8263174

  6. Comparative study on the technological properties of latex and natural rubber from Hancornia speciosa Gomes and Hevea brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work reports a systematic comparative study of the properties of natural lattices and rubbers extracted from Hancornia speciosa Gomes and Hevea brasiliensis [(Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-Arg.] (clone RRIM 600) trees from 11 collections in Brazil throughout 2004. Natural rubber latex particl...

  7. Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) ( = CBS 13268(T) = UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis.

  8. Revalidation of Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and phylogeny of the T. brasiliensis species complex.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Vagner José; Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Pinotti, Heloisa; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Pita, Sebastián; Guerra, Ana Letícia; Panzera, Francisco; De Araújo, Renato Freitas; Azeredo-Oliveir, Maria Tercília Vilela De; Rosa, João Aristeu Da

    2016-05-02

    Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, T. lenti Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, and T. pessoai Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 were described based on material collected in the Brazilian state of Bahia. These species were later included in the T. brasiliensis complex based on their geographic distribution. Triatoma bahiensis and T. pessoai were subsequently synonymized with T. lenti. However, the phylogenetic position of T. lenti within the T. brasiliensis complex has remained doubtful. This study aims to assess the taxonomic status of T. bahiensis and to infer the phylogenetic relationships between T. lenti, T. bahiensis and the other members of the T. brasiliensis species complex. The identities of the species in concern were confirmed by comparisons with high resolution photos of the respective type materials; lectotypes are designated for T. pessoai and T. bahiensis. Morphological, morphometric, molecular, and cytogenetic approaches as well as experimental crosses were used. The low viability of experimental crosses combined with morphological and morphometric data allow the differentiation of T. bahiensis and T. lenti. Pairwise cyt b sequence divergence between T. lenti and T. bahiensis was 2.5%. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses grouped T. lenti and T. bahiensis as members of the T. brasiliensis complex. These results revalidate the specific status of T. bahiensis.

  9. Description of the female, pupa and gall of Pisphondylia brasiliensis Couri and Maia, 1992 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, Schizomyiina) with new records.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Fleury, G; Soares, G L G; Isaias, R M S

    2010-11-01

    The gall of Pisphondylia brasiliensis on Guapira opposita, its female and pupa are described and illustrated. The geographic distribution of this species is now widened to Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). For the first time, a female of the genus is described.

  10. Detrimental Effect of Fungal 60-kDa Heat Shock Protein on Experimental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Fabrício Freitas; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Landgraf, Taise Natali; Peron, Gabriela; Costa, Marcelo Vieira; Coelho-Castelo, Arlete A. M.; Bonato, Vânia L. D.; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson

    2016-01-01

    The genus Paracoccidioides comprises species of dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic disease prevalent in Latin America. Here, we investigated whether administration of native 60-kDa heat shock protein of P. brasiliensis (nPbHsp60) or its recombinant counterpart (rPbHsp60) affected the course of experimental PCM. Mice were subcutaneously injected with nPbHsp60 or rPbHsp60 emulsified in complete’s Freund Adjuvant (CFA) at three weeks after intravenous injection of P. brasiliensis yeasts. Infected control mice were injected with CFA or isotonic saline solution alone. Thirty days after the nPbHsp60 or rPbHsp60 administration, mice showed remarkably increased fungal load, tissue inflammation, and granulomas in the lungs, liver, and spleen compared with control mice. Further, rPbHsp60 treatment (i) decreased the known protective effect of CFA against PCM and (ii) increased the concentrations of IL-17, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β in the lungs. Together, our results indicated that PbHsp60 induced a harmful immune response, exacerbated inflammation, and promoted fungal dissemination. Therefore, we propose that PbHsp60 contributes to the fungal pathogenesis. PMID:27598463

  11. Secretomic Insight into Glucose Metabolism of Aspergillus brasiliensis in Solid-State Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Salgado-Bautista, Daniel; Bergmann, Carl; Wells, Lance; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2016-10-07

    The genus Aspergillus is ubiquitous in nature and includes various species extensively exploited industrially due to their ability to produce and secrete a variety of enzymes and metabolites. Most processes are performed in submerged fermentation (SmF); however, solid-state fermentation (SSF) offers several advantages, including lower catabolite repression and substrate inhibition and higher productivity and stability of the enzymes produced. This study aimed to explain the improved metabolic behavior of A. brasiliensis ATCC9642 in SSF at high glucose concentrations through a proteomic approach. Online respirometric analysis provided reproducible samples for secretomic studies when the maximum CO2 production rate occurred, ensuring consistent physiological states. Extracellular extracts from SSF cultures were treated by SDS-PAGE, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Of 531 sequences identified, 207 proteins were analyzed. Twenty-five were identified as the most abundant unregulated proteins; 87 were found to be up-regulated and 95 were down-regulated with increasing glucose concentration. Of the regulated proteins, 120 were enzymes, most involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates (51), amino acids (23), and nucleotides (9). This study shows the high protein secretory activity of A. brasiliensis under SSF conditions. High glucose concentration favors catabolic activities, while some stress-related proteins and those involved in proteolysis are down-regulated.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a glucan synthase gene from the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M; Felipe, M S; Brígido, M M; Soares, C M; Azevedo, M O

    2000-03-30

    1,3-beta-D-glucan is a fungal cell wall polymer synthesized by the multi-subunit enzyme 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase. A subunit of this integral membrane protein was first described as the product of the FKS1 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae using echinocandin mutants. Other FKS1 genes were also reported for Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of the first homologous FKS gene cloned from the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. An open reading frame of 5942 bp was identified in the complete sequence, interrupted by two putative introns, the first close to the 5' end and the second close to the 3' end of the gene. A promoter region is also described containing consensus sequences such as canonical TATA and CAAT boxes and, possibly, multiple sites for glucose regulation by creA protein. The deduced sequence of 1926 amino acid show more than 85% similarity to FksAp from A. nidulans, and 71% to Fks1p and Fks2p from S. cerevisiae. Computational analysis of P. brasiliensis Fks1p suggests a similar structure to transmembrane proteins, such as FksAp, with the presence of two domains composed by hydrophobic helices that limit the putative highly hydrophilic catalytic domain within the cytoplasm.

  13. Analysis of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis virulence in Galleria mellonella.

    PubMed

    Clavijo-Giraldo, Diana M; Matínez-Alvarez, José A; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Franco, Bernardo; Almeida, Ricardo S; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-03-01

    The study of the host-pathogen interaction is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying adhesion, colonization and tissue damage by pathogens. This is usually achieved by performing in vivo studies using small mammals, such as rats, mice and guinea pigs. Nowadays, the mouse models of systemic or subcutaneous infection are the gold standard assays to analyze the virulence of members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. There are, however, invertebrates that have been recently used as alternative hosts to assess the virulence of both bacteria and fungi, and among them, larvae of Galleria mellonella are popular because they are easy to breed, and require non-specialized facilities to maintain the colony. Here, we assessed the use of G. mellonella larvae to test the virulence of S. schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis strains, and found that infection with yeast-like cells, but not with conidia or germlings, reproduces the virulence data generated in the mouse model of infection. Furthermore, with this insect model we could classify the virulence of some strains as low, intermediate or high, in line with the observations in the mammalian model. Therefore, G. mellonella is suitable, and a new alternative, to test virulence of both S. schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis.

  14. Geographic Discrimination of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Strains by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Ana María; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; San-Blas, Felipe; San-Blas, Gioconda

    1998-01-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of 33 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela produced reproducible amplification products which were sufficiently polymorphic to allow differentiation of the strains. Types generated with five primers (OPG 03, OPG 05, OPG 14, OPG 16, and OPG 18) resulted in a high discriminatory index (0.956). The discriminatory index was slightly reduced (0.940) when only two primers (OPG 3 and OPG 14) were used. A dendrogram based on these results showed a high degree of similarity among the strains, and genetic differences were expressed in clusters related to geographical regions but not to pathological features of the disease. With a few exceptions, strains were sorted into five groups by geographical origin as follows: group I, Venezuelan strains; group II, Brazilian strains; group III, Peruvian strains; group IV, Colombian strains; and group V, Argentinian strains. The group containing the most disparate strains was group V (discriminatory index, 0.633); the discriminatory index for the other four groups was 0.824. The use of primer OPG 18 by itself was sufficient to discriminate species specificity, and the use of primer OPG 14 by itself was sufficient to discriminate among the geographical locations of the strains in the sample. This method may be helpful for epidemiological studies of P. brasiliensis. PMID:9620409

  15. Inhibition by estrogens of conidium-to-yeast conversion in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Salazar, M E; Restrepo, A; Stevens, D A

    1988-03-01

    Conidia produced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are inhibited by mammalian estrogens in their in vitro conversion into yeast-form cells. This was demonstrated with four different isolates. In these experiments, conversion was reduced to 10.7 and 34.4% of the control values by 17-beta-estradiol at 10(-6) and 10(-8) M, respectively. At the same concentrations, the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol was slightly less inhibitory. In contrast, other sex hormones and analogs, i.e., testosterone, 17-alpha-estradiol, tamoxifen, and hydroxytamoxifen, had no effect on conidium-to-yeast conversion. Previous studies have shown that estrogens similarly inhibit mycelium-to-yeast-form transition in P. brasiliensis. Conidia, and not mycelial fragments, are believed to be the natural infectious propagules. These findings with conidia support the hypothesis that estrogens, affecting the initial host-parasite interactions by suppressing conversion to the parasitic form of the organism, are, at least in part, responsible for the greater resistance of females to paracoccidioidomycosis.

  16. Inhibition by estrogens of conidium-to-yeast conversion in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, M E; Restrepo, A; Stevens, D A

    1988-01-01

    Conidia produced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are inhibited by mammalian estrogens in their in vitro conversion into yeast-form cells. This was demonstrated with four different isolates. In these experiments, conversion was reduced to 10.7 and 34.4% of the control values by 17-beta-estradiol at 10(-6) and 10(-8) M, respectively. At the same concentrations, the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol was slightly less inhibitory. In contrast, other sex hormones and analogs, i.e., testosterone, 17-alpha-estradiol, tamoxifen, and hydroxytamoxifen, had no effect on conidium-to-yeast conversion. Previous studies have shown that estrogens similarly inhibit mycelium-to-yeast-form transition in P. brasiliensis. Conidia, and not mycelial fragments, are believed to be the natural infectious propagules. These findings with conidia support the hypothesis that estrogens, affecting the initial host-parasite interactions by suppressing conversion to the parasitic form of the organism, are, at least in part, responsible for the greater resistance of females to paracoccidioidomycosis. Images PMID:3343055

  17. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causing a rib lesion in an adult AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Roseli Santos; Dantas, Kátia Cristina; Garcia, Roberta Scholz Pinto; Magri, Marcello Mihailenko Chaves; de Andrade, Heitor Franco

    2010-09-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis with a geographic distribution that is limited to Central and South America; Brazil has the highest number of cases. Severe disseminated disease caused by paracoccidioidomycosis was observed in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients who live or have resided in endemic paracoccidioidomycosis areas. Here we describe a male patient admitted to a large public hospital with diffuse nodular infiltrates observed in chest radiographs and with erosion at the second rib near the sternum. Blood tests showed anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibodies, a human immunodeficiency virus viral load of 59,700 (4.8 log), and CD4 144/mm(3), with negative serology result for fungal infections. Aspirate of the rib lesion showed cells with a typical morphology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, aside from benign inflammatory cells. The histology of the rib biopsy showed typical granulomas and immunostained fungal cells. Although there was no growth in the Sabouraud cultures, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis gp43 and rDNA genes were detected in the aspirate by polymerase chain reaction. Therapy with amphotericin resulted in complete recovery. This type of bone lesion is rare and has been described primarily in the juvenile form of paracoccidioidomycosis; it must be included in the differential diagnosis of bone lesions in adult acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients of endemic areas.

  18. Dose response effect of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in an experimental model of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Biazim, Samia Khalil; Dos Santos, José Henrique Fermino Ferreira; Puccia, Rosana; Brancalhão, Rosimeire Costa; Chasco, Lucinéia de Fátima; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Simão, Rita de Cássia Garcia; de Franco, Marcello Fabiano

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) and corresponds to prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the dose response effect of the fungal yeast phase for the standardization of an experimental model of septic arthritis. The experiments were performed with groups of 14 rats that received doses of 103, 104 or 105 P. brasiliensis (Pb18) cells. The fungi were injected in 50 µL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) directly into the knee joints of the animals. The following parameters were analyzed in this work: the formation of swelling in knees infused with yeast cells and the radiological and anatomopathological alterations, besides antibody titer by ELISA. After 15 days of infection, signs of inflammation were evident. At 45 days, some features of damage and necrosis were observed in the articular cartilage. The systemic dissemination of the fungus was observed in 11% of the inoculated animals, and it was concluded that the experimental model is able to mimic articular PCM in humans and that the dose of 105 yeast cells can be used as standard in this model.

  19. Assessment of water quality and genotoxic impact by toxic metals in Geophagus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Morais, Cássio Resende; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Araujo, Galber Rodrigues; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Morelli, Sandra; Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário

    2016-06-01

    This study used the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis as a bioindicator to survey the health of the aquatic environment on four sites (P1, P2, P3 and P4) of the Mumbuca stream located at Monte Carmelo/MG, Brazil. The selection of different sites was made with reference to the gradient of urban activity and via physicochemical and biological evaluation of water quality and genotoxicity. The water quality index was classified as 'good' for P1 and P4, regular in P2 and 'poor' for P3. The micronuclei (MN) frequency obtained from blood analysis was in agreement with the water quality, such that the higher values of MN were detected in sites evaluated as poor. Water degradation conditions worsen according to the flow of the stream over the sites P1, P2 and P3, but for site P4, located after the Monte Carmelo Sewage Treatment Plant, improvements in the micronuclei frequency are detected. Our results showed high levels of potentially toxic metals (chromium, lead, aluminum and nickel) in specific stream sites (P2 and P3). We suggest that the micronuclei induction in G. brasiliensis could be due to the presence of these compounds.

  20. Lipidomic Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles from the Pathogenic Phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Larissa V. G.; Ganiko, Luciane; Lopes, Felipe G.; Matsuo, Alisson L.; Almeida, Igor C.; Puccia, Rosana

    2012-01-01

    Background Fungal extracellular vesicles are able to cross the cell wall and transport molecules that help in nutrient acquisition, cell defense, and modulation of the host defense machinery. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present a detailed lipidomic analysis of extracellular vesicles released by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis at the yeast pathogenic phase. We compared data of two representative isolates, Pb3 and Pb18, which have distinct virulence profiles and phylogenetic background. Vesicle lipids were fractionated into different classes and analyzed by either electrospray ionization- or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found two species of monohexosylceramide and 33 phospholipid species, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylglycerol. Among the phospholipid-bound fatty acids in extracellular vesicles, C181 predominated in Pb3, whereas C18:2 prevailed in Pb18. The prevalent sterol in Pb3 and Pb18 vesicles was brassicasterol, followed by ergosterol and lanosterol. Inter-isolate differences in sterol composition were observed, and also between extracellular vesicles and whole cells. Conclusions/Significance The extensive lipidomic analysis of extracellular vesicles from two P. brasiliensis isolates will help to understand the composition of these fungal components/organelles and will hopefully be useful to study their biogenesis and role in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22745761

  1. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D.; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO 3 contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO 3 concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  2. Characterization of a gene which encodes a mannosyltransferase homolog of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alessandra A; Gómez, Francisco J; Pereira, Maristela; Felipe, M Sueli S; Jesuino, Rosália S A; Deepe, George S; de Almeida Soares, Célia M

    2002-08-01

    We screened an expression library of the yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis with a pool of human sera that was pre-adsorbed with mycelium, from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). A sequence (PbYmnt) was obtained and characterized. A genomic clone was obtained by PCR of P. brasiliensis total DNA. The sequence contained a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 357 amino acid residues, with a molecular mass of 39.78 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited identity to mannosyl- and glycosyltransferases from several sources. A DXD motif was present in the translated gene and this sequence is characteristic of the glycosyltransferases. Hydropathy analysis revealed a single transmembrane region near the amino terminus of the molecule that suggested a type II membrane protein. The PbYmnt was expressed preferentially in the yeast parasitic phase. The accession number of the nucleotide sequence of PbYmnt and its flanking regions is AF374353. A recombinant protein was generated in Escherichia coli. Our data suggest that PbYmnt encodes one member of a glycosyltransferase family of proteins and that our strategy was useful in the isolation of differentially expressed genes.

  3. Transcriptional profiles of the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in mycelium and yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Felipe, Maria Sueli S; Andrade, Rosângela V; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Nicola, André M; Maranhão, Andréa Q; Torres, Fernando A G; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete; Poças-Fonseca, Márcio J; Campos, Elida G; Moraes, Lídia M P; Andrade, Patrícia A; Tavares, Aldo H F P; Silva, Simoneide S; Kyaw, Cynthia M; Souza, Diorge P; Pereira, Maristela; Jesuíno, Rosália S A; Andrade, Edmar V; Parente, Juliana A; Oliveira, Gisele S; Barbosa, Mônica S; Martins, Natália F; Fachin, Ana L; Cardoso, Renato S; Passos, Geraldo A S; Almeida, Nalvo F; Walter, Maria Emília M T; Soares, Célia M A; Carvalho, Maria José A; Brígido, Marcelo M

    2005-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a disease that affects 10 million individuals in Latin America. This report depicts the results of the analysis of 6,022 assembled groups from mycelium and yeast phase expressed sequence tags, covering about 80% of the estimated genome of this dimorphic, thermo-regulated fungus. The data provide a comprehensive view of the fungal metabolism, including overexpressed transcripts, stage-specific genes, and also those that are up- or down-regulated as assessed by in silico electronic subtraction and cDNA microarrays. Also, a significant differential expression pattern in mycelium and yeast cells was detected, which was confirmed by Northern blot analysis, providing insights into differential metabolic adaptations. The overall transcriptome analysis provided information about sequences related to the cell cycle, stress response, drug resistance, and signal transduction pathways of the pathogen. Novel P. brasiliensis genes have been identified, probably corresponding to proteins that should be addressed as virulence factor candidates and potential new drug targets.

  4. Characterization of a chaperone ClpB homologue of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Jesuino, Rosália S A; Azevedo, Maristela O; Felipe, M Sueli S; Pereira, Maristela; De Almeida Soares, Célia M

    2002-08-01

    We report the cloning and sequence analysis of a genomic clone encoding a Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ClpB chaperone homologue (PbClpB). The clpb gene was identified in a lambda Dash II library. Sequencing of Pbclpb revealed a long open reading frame capable of encoding a 792 amino acid, 87.9 kDa protein, pI of 5.34. The predicted polypeptide contains several consensus motifs of the ClpB proteins. Canonical sequences such as two putative nucleotide-binding sites, chaperonins ClpA/B signatures and highly conserved casein kinase phosphorylation domains are present. ClpB is 69% to 49% identical to members of the ClpB family from several organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The transcript of PbclpB was detected as a mRNA species of 3.0 kb, preferentially expressed in the yeast parasitic phase of the fungus. A 89 kDa protein was also detected in yeast cells of P. brasiliensis.

  5. Protein synthesis patterns of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis isolates in stage-specific forms and during cellular differentiation.

    PubMed

    Salem-Izacc, S M; Jesuino, R S; Brito, W A; Pereira, M; Felipe, M S; Soares, C M

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we compared the protein synthesis patterns of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates. The protein profiles were compared for both yeast and mycelial forms and similarity analysis among them was performed by calculating similarity matrices and grouping the isolates in dendrograms. The examined isolates exhibited highly variable cellular morphology at 36 degrees C, when typical yeast cells were expected. On the other hand, at 26 degrees C all the isolates showed mycelial morphology. The analysis of protein synthesis profiles made it possible to cluster the P. brasiliensis isolates into groups that correlated with the morphological data. Interestingly, growth at 36 degrees C strongly decreased the heterogeneity of protein synthesis patterns seen in mycelial isolates. It was possible to cluster the isolates grown at 36 degrees C in three groups based on their two-dimensional protein synthesis analysis. The similarity index observed among the mycelial isolates was lower than that obtained with yeast cells, suggesting a more homogenous gene expression pattern in the host-adapted form than in the saprobic phase.

  6. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO(3) contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO(3) concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  7. Seasonal and experimental reactivation of Leydig cells of the bat Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Aoki, A

    1997-04-01

    The Leydig cells of the bat Tadarida brasiliensis, exhibit two well-defined periods of secretory activity that are intimately associated to the bat reproductive cycle. During the breeding season (August-September, late Winter and early Spring in the southern hemisphere), the interstitial tissue contains hypertrophic Leydig cells characterized ultrastructurally by the presence of pleomorphic mitochondria, depletion of lipid droplets, proliferation of membranes of agranular endoplasmic reticulum (AER) and enlargement of the Golgi complexes. By contrast, from Spring to Fall concurrent with regression of seminiferous tubules, the Leydig cells acquire a quiescent appearance with reduction in size and volume of AER membranes, atrophy of the Golgi complex and a massive storage of lipid droplets. The changes occurring in Leydig cells during the breeding season can be duplicated experimentally in non-breeding bats with exogenous stimulation with hCG. The gonadotropic treatment induces rapid changes in both interstitial cells and seminiferous tubules. The latter present evident signs of reactivation including proliferation of the spermatogenic cell line, permeation of the tubular lumen and depletion of lipid droplets. The Leydig cells display similar features to those found in the bat during the mating season at the peak of secretory activity. The bat T. brasiliensis is an excellent model to correlate the morphological organization of the Leydig cells with either seasonal fluctuations of its secretory activity or after experimental stimulation with gonadotropins.

  8. Cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Mondragón-González, Rafael; Vega-López, Francisco; Dockrell, Hazel M; Hay, Roderick; López-Martínez, Rubén; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Padilla-Desgarennes, Carmen; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2004-11-01

    IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 concentrations in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures and the in vitro proliferation of PBMC were studied in 25 patients with actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis and in 10 healthy controls from endemic zones. Cell cultures were stimulated by a N. brasiliensis crude cytoplasmic antigen (NB) and five semi-purified protein fractions (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8, and NB10) separated by isoelectric. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as control antigens. Skin tests were performed by injecting 0.1 ml of candidin and PPD intradermally (ID). Patients showed a poor response to tuberculin, while their response to candidin was more than two fold greater than that observed in the controls. Cell proliferation showed no statistically significant differences in either group. IFN-gamma production was higher in the healthy controls than in the patients, whereas TNF-alpha secretion was slightly higher in the patients' cultures. IL-4 was detected in the patients' cultures but not in the controls. IL-10 and IL-12 were present at low concentrations in both groups. These results suggest that patients with actinomycetoma show normal antigen recognition, but with low IFN-gamma production, and higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in the patients' PBMC cultures, indicating that they probably have a Th2 type of immune response.

  9. Rediscovering hermaphroditism in Grammatidae with the description of the testicular gland in Brazilian Basslet Gramma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Leite, J R; Freitas, M O; Sanches, E G; Gomes, M L M; Hostim-Silva, M; Cole, K S

    2016-04-19

    Many aspects of sex change in reef fishes have been studied, including behavior and social organization. However, gonad histology remains the most robust way to identify sexual patterns in fishes. Some uncommon tissues remain poorly described, such as the accessory gonadal structures found in species from the Gobiidae family, which are rare in other bony fishes. This is the first report of the testicular gland in Gramma brasiliensis and for the Grammatidae family. Between April 2011 and February 2012 eighty specimens were collected during four dive campaigns on the Taipus de Fora reef (13°56'20"S 38°55'32"W), Bahia, Northeast Brazil, and their sex was determined. Thirteen per cent of the active-females and 90% of the active-males had testicular gland tissue in their ovotestis. This discovery led to additional research into the characteristics of the gland tissue and its relationship with gonadal maturation. Three patterns of testicular gland development were found in Brazilian basslet ovotestis. Both ova and sperm-producing gonad contained testicular gland tissue, and the appearance of this tissue seems to be the first modification of ovotestis tissue marking the beginning of the protogynous sex-change process in G. brasiliensis.

  10. A new NMR approach for structure determination of thermally unstable biflavanones and application to phytochemicals from Garcinia buchananii.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Salger, Mathias; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Previous activity-guided phytochemical studies on Garcinia buchananii stem bark, which is traditionally used in Africa to treat various gastrointestinal and metabolic illnesses, revealed xanthones, polyisoprenylated benzophenones, flavanone-C-glycosides, biflavonoids, and/or biflavanones as bioactive key molecules. Unequivocal structure elucidation of biflavonoids and biflavanones by means of NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the hindered rotation of the monomers around the C-C axis (atropisomerism), resulting in a high spectral complexity. In order to facilitate an unrestricted rotation, NMR spectra are usually recorded at elevated temperatures, commonly over 80 °C, which effects in a single set of resonance signals. However, under these conditions, one of the target compounds of this investigation, (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone (1), undergoes degradation. Therefore, we demonstrated in the present study that the 1,1-ADEQUATE could be successfully used as a powerful alternative approach to confirm the C-C connectivities in 1, avoiding detrimental conditions. However, a moderate increase in temperature up to 50 °C was sufficient to deliver sharp signals in the proton NMR experiment of (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-isomanniflavanone (2) and (2″R,3″R)-preussianone (3). In addition, two new compounds could be isolated, namely (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-GB-2 7″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone-7″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), and whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry methods. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy. The aforementioned compounds exhibited high anti-oxidative capacity in the H2O2 scavenging, hydrophilic Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (H-TEAC) and hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC) assays.

  11. BioMart Central Portal--unified access to biological data.

    PubMed

    Haider, Syed; Ballester, Benoit; Smedley, Damian; Zhang, Junjun; Rice, Peter; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2009-07-01

    BioMart Central Portal (www.biomart.org) offers a one-stop shop solution to access a wide array of biological databases. These include major biomolecular sequence, pathway and annotation databases such as Ensembl, Uniprot, Reactome, HGNC, Wormbase and PRIDE; for a complete list, visit, http://www.biomart.org/biomart/martview. Moreover, the web server features seamless data federation making cross querying of these data sources in a user friendly and unified way. The web server not only provides access through a web interface (MartView), it also supports programmatic access through a Perl API as well as RESTful and SOAP oriented web services. The website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement.

  12. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; de Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-01-01

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous. PMID:25410992

  13. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-08-22

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.

  14. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Souza, Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Jansen, Ana Maria; Ramalho, Relrison Dias; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2014-11-01

    The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53), while in pigs it was 6% (2/34). The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112) and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112). Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749) were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369). In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.

  15. Genomic Changes Associated with the Loss of Nocardia brasiliensis Virulence in Mice after 200 In Vitro Passages

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Carrillo, Carolina; Millan-Sauceda, Cassandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Welsh, Oliverio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species, particularly Nocardia brasiliensis, are etiologic agents of mycetoma, a chronic subcutaneous infection. Until now, little has been known about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in nocardial infection. Traditionally, subculture in rich media has been a simple way to induce attenuation. In this work, we report the changes in virulence toward mice and in genomic constitution of N. brasiliensis produced after 200 continuous subcultures in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (P-200 strain). The ability of the N. brasiliensis P-200 strain to produce experimental infection was tested using BALB/c mice. P-200 was also used to immunize mice to determine whether it could induce resistance against a challenge with a nonsubcultured isolate (P-0). Comparative proteomic analysis between N. brasiliensis P-0 and P-200 was performed by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis, and the genome sequence was obtained through Roche 454 sequence analysis. Virulence in BALB/c mice was completely lost, and BALB/c mice immunized with P-200 bacterial cells were resistant to mycetoma production by the nonsubcultured strain. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that P-200 lost a total of 262,913 bp distributed in 19 deleted regions, involving a total of 213 open reading frames (ORFs). The deleted genes included those encoding bacterial virulence factors, e.g., catalase, nitrate reductase enzymes, and a group of mammalian cell entry (MCE) family proteins, which may explain the loss of virulence of the isolate. Thus, completely attenuated N. brasiliensis was obtained after 200 passages in BHI medium, and putative Nocardia virulence genes were identified for the first time. PMID:27354446

  16. Molecular evidence for the presence of Dirofilaria repens in beech marten (Martes foina) from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Hurníková, Z; Zaleśny, G; Chovancová, B

    2013-09-23

    Herein we present the first finding of Dirofilaria repens, agent of the subcutaneous form of dirofilariosis, in Martes foina. Molecular analyses from the spleen of 3 individuals originated from Tatra National Park, Northern Slovakia, confirmed the presence of D. repens in one of them. Finding of D. repens in beech marten instigates to more intense research on free living carnivores as the potential source of Dirofilaria parasites.

  17. Ionizing radiation affects human MART-1 melanoma antigen processing and presentation by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Butterfield, Lisa H; Economou, James S; Ribas, Antoni; Meng, Wilson S; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; McBride, William H

    2004-08-15

    Radiation is generally considered to be an immunosuppressive agent that acts by killing radiosensitive lymphocytes. In this study, we demonstrate the noncytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation on MHC class I Ag presentation by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) that have divergent consequences depending upon whether peptides are endogenously processed and loaded onto MHC class I molecules or are added exogenously. The endogenous pathway was examined using C57BL/6 murine DCs transduced with adenovirus to express the human melanoma/melanocyte Ag recognized by T cells (AdVMART1). Prior irradiation abrogated the ability of AdVMART1-transduced DCs to induce MART-1-specific T cell responses following their injection into mice. The ability of these same DCs to generate protective immunity against B16 melanoma, which expresses murine MART-1, was also abrogated by radiation. Failure of AdVMART1-transduced DCs to generate antitumor immunity following irradiation was not due to cytotoxicity or to radiation-induced block in DC maturation or loss in expression of MHC class I or costimulatory molecules. Expression of some of these molecules was affected, but because irradiation actually enhanced the ability of DCs to generate lymphocyte responses to the peptide MART-1(27-35) that is immunodominant in the context of HLA-A2.1, they were unlikely to be critical. The increase in lymphocyte reactivity generated by irradiated DCs pulsed with MART-1(27-35) also protected mice against growth of B16-A2/K(b) tumors in HLA-A2.1/K(b) transgenic mice. Taken together, these results suggest that radiation modulates MHC class I-mediated antitumor immunity by functionally affecting DC Ag presentation pathways.

  18. The antibody response against MART-1 differs in patients with melanoma-associated leucoderma and vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Teulings, Hansje-Eva; Willemsen, Karin J; Glykofridis, Iris; Krebbers, Gabrielle; Komen, Lisa; Kroon, Marije W; Kemp, E Helen; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; van der Veen, J P Wietze; Luiten, Rosalie M; Tjin, Esther P M

    2014-11-01

    Patients with melanoma may develop skin depigmentation spontaneously or following therapy, referred to as melanoma-associated leucoderma (MAL). As clinical presentation of MAL may precede primary/metastatic melanoma detection, recognition of MAL is important to prevent its misdiagnosis as vitiligo and the subsequent application of immunosuppressive treatment. To reveal the immunity involved in MAL development, we investigated the presence of antibody and T-cell immune responses directed against the melanocyte-differentiation-antigens MART-1 (Melan-A), tyrosinase and gp100 in patients with MAL, as compared to patients with vitiligo. Autoantibodies to gp100 and tyrosinase were commonly found in both diseases. Interestingly, MART-1 antibodies were only present in patients with MAL. Melanocyte antigen-specific T cells were found in all patients, with relatively more specific T cells in patients with active vitiligo. Although MAL and vitiligo may appear clinically similar, our results indicate that the humoral immune responses against MART-1 differ between these diseases, which can help to differentiate MAL from vitiligo.

  19. Ensembl BioMarts: a hub for data retrieval across taxonomic space.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, Rhoda J; Kähäri, Andreas; Haider, Syed; Zamora, Jorge; Proctor, Glenn; Spudich, Giulietta; Almeida-King, Jeff; Staines, Daniel; Derwent, Paul; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kersey, Paul; Flicek, Paul

    2011-01-01

    For a number of years the BioMart data warehousing system has proven to be a valuable resource for scientists seeking a fast and versatile means of accessing the growing volume of genomic data provided by the Ensembl project. The launch of the Ensembl Genomes project in 2009 complemented the Ensembl project by utilizing the same visualization, interactive and programming tools to provide users with a means for accessing genome data from a further five domains: protists, bacteria, metazoa, plants and fungi. The Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes BioMarts provide a point of access to the high-quality gene annotation, variation data, functional and regulatory annotation and evolutionary relationships from genomes spanning the taxonomic space. This article aims to give a comprehensive overview of the Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes BioMarts as well as some useful examples and a description of current data content and future objectives. Database URLs: http://www.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://metazoa.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://plants.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://protists.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://fungi.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://bacteria.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/.

  20. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjie; Dong, Qi; Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-02-23

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection.

  1. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-01-01

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection. PMID:26848777

  2. Effect of gavage treatment with pulverised Garcinia kola seeds on erythrocyte membrane integrity and selected haematological indices in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ahumibe, A A; Braide, V B

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the effect of the whole seed of Garcinia kola [GKS] on various blood parameters, in adult male albino rats. Five groups, of 6 animals per group, were treated by gavage with suspensions of graded concentrations of GKS daily for 5 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and blood was obtained for estimation of the data herein presented. Packed red cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], and red blood cell count [RBC] showed significantly [P<0.05], increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell [WBC] counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red blood cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] levels decreased with increasing GKS dosage. Prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [APPT] were both prolonged with increased GKS dosage; while the serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) decreased significantly [P<0.05] with increased GKS dosage.

  3. A single chiroptical spectroscopic method may not be able to establish the absolute configurations of diastereomers: dimethylesters of hibiscus and garcinia acids.

    PubMed

    Polavarapu, Prasad L; Donahue, Emily A; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K; Rizzo, Carmelo; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Thomas, Grace; Habel, Deenamma; Sebastian, Dellamol

    2011-06-09

    Electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of hibiscus acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed in combination with quantum chemical calculations of corresponding spectra. These results, along with those reported previously for garcinia acid dimethyl ester, reveal that none of these three (ECD, ORD, or VCD) spectroscopic methods, in isolation, can unequivocally establish the absolute configurations of diastereomers. This deficiency is eliminated when a combined spectral analysis of either ECD and VCD or ORD and VCD methods is used. It is also found that the ambiguities in the assignment of absolute configurations of diastereomers may also be overcome when unpolarized vibrational absorption is included in the spectral analysis.

  4. A Single Chiroptical Spectroscopic Method May Not Be Able To Establish the Absolute Configurations of Diastereomers: Dimethylesters of Hibiscus and Garcinia Acids

    PubMed Central

    Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Donahue, Emily A.; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Thomas, Grace; Habel, Deenamma; Sebastian, Dellamol

    2013-01-01

    Electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of hibiscus acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed in combination with quantum chemical calculations of corresponding spectra. These results, along with those reported previously for garcinia acid dimethyl ester, reveal that none of these three (ECD, ORD, or VCD) spectroscopic methods, in isolation, can unequivocally establish the absolute configurations of diastereomers. This deficiency is eliminated when a combined spectral analysis of either ECD and VCD or ORD and VCD methods is used. It is also found that the ambiguities in the assignment of absolute configurations of diastereomers may also be overcome when unpolarized vibrational absorption is included in the spectral analysis. PMID:21568330

  5. Evaluation of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamais (Mots).

    PubMed

    Ogunleye, R F; Adefemi, S O

    2007-12-01

    Insecticidal effects of different doses of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais were tested. The dust had no significant effect on the two insects; none of them died even at 3 d after treatment. The methanol extracts, however, had rapid lethal effects on both C. maculatus and S. zeamais. The mortality of C. maculatus by the lowest concentration of methanol extracts ranged from 95%~100% whereas in S. zeamais, the mortality ranged from 87.5% to approximately 100% and 70% to approximately 100% in concentrations of 1 g extract+3 ml methanol and 1 g extract+5 ml methanol, respectively, from 24 to 48 h. The least concentration of 1 g extract+15 ml methanol had no significant lethal effect on Sitophilus zeamais.

  6. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  7. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of gambogic acid and gambogenic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of Garcinia hanburyi extracts by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xiangdong; Liang, Chuang; Dong, Lei; Qu, Xiaotong; Zhao, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Gambogic acid and gambogenic acid are two major bioactive components of Garcinia hanburyi, and play a pivotal role in biologic activity. In this study, a specific and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of gambogic acid and gambogenic acid in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using an isocratic elution with methanol-10 m m ammonium acetate buffer-acetic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray positive ionization using multiple reaction monitoring modes. The transitions monitored were m/z 629.3 [M + H](+) → 573.2 for gambogic acid, m/z 631.2 [M + H](+) → 507.2 for gambogenic acid and m/z 444.2 [M + NH4 ](+) → 83.1 for IS. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 2.00-1000 ng/mL for gambogic acid and 0.500-250 ng/mL for gambogenic acid. The lower limits of quantification of gambogic acid and gambogenic acid in rat plasma were 2.00 and 0.500 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD) values were <11.7% and accuracy (RE) was -10.6-12.4% at three QC levels for both analytes. The assay was successfully applied to evaluate pharmacokinetics behavior in rats after oral administration of Garcinia hanburyi extracts.

  8. New highly in vitro antioxidative 3,8″-linked Biflav(an)ones and Flavanone-C-glycosides from Garcinia buchananii stem bark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Germann, Daniel; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-12-26

    Very recently, we described highly antioxidative polyphenols isolated from the stem bark extract of the Garcinia buchananii tree. In this study, we describe additional antioxidants from Garcinia buchananii bark extract using hydrogen peroxide scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. UPLC-HR-ESI-TOF-MS(e) analysis, 1- and 2D-NMR, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy led to the unequivocal identification of the antioxidative molecules as a series of five 3,8″-linked biflav(an)ones and two flavanone-C-glycosides. (2S,3R)-Taxifolin-6-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), (2R,3S,2″S,3″S)-manniflavanone (3), (2R,3S)-buchananiflavonol (4), and (2S,3R,2″R,3″R)-GB-1 (6) are new compounds, and (2S,3S)-taxifolin-6-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) was described so far only in one other plant. The structure of (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-GB-1 (5) and (2R,3S,2″S)-GB2a (7) were confirmed. The H2O2 scavenging, TEAC, and the ORAC assays demonstrated that these natural products have an extraordinarily high antioxidative power, especially (2R,3S,2″S,3″S)-manniflavanone (3) with an EC50 value of 3.0 μM, 4.00 mmol TE/mmol, and 10.30 μmol TE/ μmol.

  9. MART-10 represses cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and high vitamin D receptor expression indicates better prognosis for cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Huang, Cheng-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Chan; Juang, Horng-Heng; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Hsu, Jun-Te; Takano, Masashi; Chen, Tai C.; Kittaka, Atsushi; Hsiao, Michael; Yeh, Chun-Nan

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease due to no effective treatments available. Since the non-mineral functions of vitamin D emerges, 1α,25(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D, has been applied in anti-cancer researches. In this study, we demonstrated that both the 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, and 1α,25(OH)2D3 possessed anti-growth effect on human CCA cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The growth inhibition of both drugs were mediated by induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through upregulation of p27 and downregulation of CDK4, CDK6, and cyclin D3. Human neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) was found to be involved in 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 meditated growth inhibition for CCA as knockdown of NGAL decreased Ki-67 expression in SNU308 cells and rendered SNU308 cells less responsive to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockdown partly abolished MART-10-induced inhibition of NGAL and cell growth in SNU308 cells. The xenograft animal study demonstrated MART-10 could effectively repressed CCA growth in vivo without inducing obvious side effects. The IHC examination of human CCA specimen for VDR revealed that higher VDR expression was linked with better prognosis. Collectively, our results suggest that MART-10 could be a promising regimen for CCA treatment. PMID:28256614

  10. Insights into a hotspot in the Brasiliensis subcomplex (Hemiptera, Triatominae) by analysis of D2 domain of the nuclear gene 28S.

    PubMed

    Guerra, A L; Alevi, K C C; Banho, C A; Oliveira, J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-03-24

    The Brasiliensis subcomplex is a monophyletic group formed by the species Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica, and T. sherlocki. However, using cytogenetic data and experimental hybrid crosses, T. lenti and T. petrochiae were also grouped into this subcomplex. This study aims to analyze the properties of hotspot in the D2 domain of the nuclear gene 28S in all species of the Brasiliensis subcomplex as well as T. lenti and T. petrochiae. These species show two transversions at position 385 (G↔C and T↔G). We suggest that this mutation in haplotype 4 may be an initial molecular tool that supports the relationship of these species with the subcomplex. In addition to the transversion at haplotype 4, these species, aside from T. melanica, also possess a transversion at position 385 (G↔T) in haplotype 1. Thus, we describe the hotspot mutations of the D2 domain of the nuclear gene 28S for species in Brasiliensis subcomplex as follows: three transversions are present at position 385 of haplotypes 1 and 4, which are shared by members of the subcomplex as well as T. lenti and T. petrochiae. These transversions may be considered a synapomorphy between these species. However, we emphasize that new phylogenetic studies should be conducted to evaluate whether T. lenti and T. petrochiae are truly members of the Brasiliensis subcomplex.

  11. Developmental and reproductive patterns of Triatoma brasiliensis infected with Trypanosoma cruzi under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tiago G; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Gomes, Taís F; Sarquis, Otília; Sposina, Ricardo; Lima, Marli M

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction between Trypanosoma cruzi-1 and Triatoma brasiliensis. A group of 1st instar nymphs was initially fed on T. cruzi-infected mice and a control group was fed on uninfected mice. From the second feeding onwards, both groups were otherwise fed on non-infected mice. The resulting adults were grouped in pairs: infected male/uninfected female, uninfected male/infected female, infected male and female and uninfected male/uninfected female. The infection affected only the 1st instar nymphs, which took significantly more time to reach the 2nd instar than uninfected nymphs. The differences in the molting time between the infected and uninfected nymphs from the 2nd to the 5th instars were not statistically significant. Both groups presented similar rates of nymphal mortality and reproductive performance was not significantly affected by infection in any of the treatments.

  12. Factors associated with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis infection among permanent residents of three endemic areas in Colombia.

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid, D.; Restrepo, A.

    1993-01-01

    The natural habitat of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has not been determined. Consequently, the events leading to the acquisition of infection remain controversial. To identify factors associated with infection in endemic areas we conducted a survey in three rural communities in Colombia where we had previously diagnosed paracoccidioidomycosis in children. Permanent residents were surveyed taking into consideration environmental and occupational variables. Skin tests were used to classify subjects as infected or non-infected. Variables found associated with infection were: (i) community A: previous residence around Porce river and agriculture in vegetable gardens; (ii) community C: frequent use of specific water sources; (iii) community V: housekeeping activities, and (iv) total group: age > 25 years and contact with bats. Residents in communities with higher prevalence of infection were older, had more complex residence history, and referred more contact with armadillos than residents of communities with lower infection. PMID:8348926

  13. Growth and production of iron chelants by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelial and yeast forms.

    PubMed

    Arango, R; Restrepo, A

    1988-04-01

    The mycelial and yeast forms of the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were cultured in a chemically defined liquid medium with different iron concentrations and the growth measured spectrophotometrically. The iron binding capacity of culture supernatants was measured by a colorimetric assay. Both the mycelial and yeast forms were able to grow in media containing trace amounts of iron (0.02 mgl-1) but when the iron chelant 1.10 phenantroline was added there was a delay in the initiation of growth of the yeast and almost total inhibition of the mycelium. When iron excess was added to media containing phenantroline, this inhibitory effect was reversed, partially for the mycelial, and completely for the yeast form. For both mycelial and yeast forms, the iron binding capacity of the culture supernatants was greater in media with low iron concentrations.

  14. Factors associated with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis infection among permanent residents of three endemic areas in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cadavid, D; Restrepo, A

    1993-08-01

    The natural habitat of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the aetiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has not been determined. Consequently, the events leading to the acquisition of infection remain controversial. To identify factors associated with infection in endemic areas we conducted a survey in three rural communities in Colombia where we had previously diagnosed paracoccidioidomycosis in children. Permanent residents were surveyed taking into consideration environmental and occupational variables. Skin tests were used to classify subjects as infected or non-infected. Variables found associated with infection were: (i) community A: previous residence around Porce river and agriculture in vegetable gardens; (ii) community C: frequent use of specific water sources; (iii) community V: housekeeping activities, and (iv) total group: age > 25 years and contact with bats. Residents in communities with higher prevalence of infection were older, had more complex residence history, and referred more contact with armadillos than residents of communities with lower infection.

  15. Microtopography of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae): free-living larval stages.

    PubMed

    Nembo, B; Goudey-Perriere, F; Gayral, P; Perriere, C; Brousse-Gaury, P

    1993-09-01

    Microtopographic features of the various growth stages of the three free-living larval stages of the rat hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda) were surveyed by scanning electron microscopy. These worms have a rounded anterior end and an elongated tail. Cuticular annulations were observed along the body, which also bore two ribbon-like lateral alae. Two rings of six lip-like lappets were observed around the triradiate oral opening in all larval stages. The cephalic space contained two lateral amphidial pits. The excretory pore in the third anterior part was observed in a ventral view of the larvae. No deirids were observed. The anus with a crescent-shape opening was located posteriorly. Phasmidial apertures, only observed in the third-stage larvae, opened on the lateral alae in the tail region.

  16. Isolation and preliminary characterization of auxotrophic and morphological mutants of the yeastlike form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed Central

    San Blas, F; Centeno, S

    1977-01-01

    N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, which is known to be a very effective mutagen in many systems, was used to induce mutants in the yeastlike form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain IVIC Pb9, an imperfect fungus. Forty-three auxotrophic and 27 prototrophic morphological mutants were isolated after treatment with 50 mug of nitrosoguanidine per ml in 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 5.0. Auxotrophic mutants required primarily either amino acids, purines, or pyrimidines. Some auxotrophs were also morphological mutants. The main morphological difference from the parental strain was the texture or the color of the yeast-like colonies. Only one prototrophic morphological mutant differed in the size and form of the yeastlike cells when compared with the parental strain. Suxotrophic mutants were used in pairwise combination to attempt heterokaryon formation without success. Images PMID:830638

  17. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: Conversion of Yeastlike Forms into Mycelia in Submerged Culture

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, J. R. Ramírez

    1971-01-01

    Details of the sequential morphological changes occurring during yeastlike to mycelial-form conversion of the dimorphic pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are described and illustrated by photomicrographs. Conversion of yeastlike to hyphal morphology was initiated by changing the temperature of incubation from 37 to 23 C. Production by the parent yeastlike cells of elongated buds developing into hyphae started to be conspicuous after 24 hr of incubation at 23 C. After 120 hr of incubation, growth was almost exclusively filamentous. Direct transformation of parent yeastlike cells into hyphae was not observed. Dry weight increased continuously during the conversion process in spite of the gradual disappearance of the parent yeastlike cells. Concurrent studies showed that changes in ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid content per unit dry weight are about the same whether the yeastlike cells are undergoing conversion at 23 C or growing normally at 37 C, and that deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis is apparently required for bud formation in both cases. Images PMID:5541529

  18. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: conversion of yeastlike forms into mycelia in submerged culture.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Martínez, J R

    1971-02-01

    Details of the sequential morphological changes occurring during yeastlike to mycelial-form conversion of the dimorphic pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are described and illustrated by photomicrographs. Conversion of yeastlike to hyphal morphology was initiated by changing the temperature of incubation from 37 to 23 C. Production by the parent yeastlike cells of elongated buds developing into hyphae started to be conspicuous after 24 hr of incubation at 23 C. After 120 hr of incubation, growth was almost exclusively filamentous. Direct transformation of parent yeastlike cells into hyphae was not observed. Dry weight increased continuously during the conversion process in spite of the gradual disappearance of the parent yeastlike cells. Concurrent studies showed that changes in ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid content per unit dry weight are about the same whether the yeastlike cells are undergoing conversion at 23 C or growing normally at 37 C, and that deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis is apparently required for bud formation in both cases.

  19. Anthocyanins from Eugenia brasiliensis edible fruits as potential therapeutics for COPD treatment.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Paulino, Sturlainny; Whalen, Kathleen; Dabo, Abdoulaye J; Reynertson, Kurt A; Foronjy, Robert F; D'Armiento, Jeanine M; Kennelly, Edward J

    2012-10-01

    Nine anthocyanins (1-9) from the edible fruits of Eugenia brasiliensis were identified by HPLC-PDA and LC-MS, and seven of these are described for the first time in this Brazilian fruit. Two of the major anthocyanins, delphinidin (8) and cyanidin (9), were studied for their inhibitory activity against chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) production before and after cigarette smoke extract (CSE) treatment of cells. In non-treated cells the amount of IL-8 was unchanged following treatment with cyanidin and delphinidin in concentrations 0.1-10 μM. Both delphinidin (8) and cyanidin (9) decreased the production of IL-8 in treated cells, at 1 and 10 μM, respectively. Delphinidin (8) demonstrated IL-8 inhibition in the CSE treated cells in a dose-dependent manner.

  20. Anthocyanins from Eugenia brasiliensis edible fruits as potential therapeutics for COPD treatment

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Gema; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Paulino, Sturlainny; Whalen, Kathleen; Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Reynertson, Kurt A.; Foronjy, Robert F.; D Armiento, Jeanine M.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Nine anthocyanins (1–9) from the edible fruits of Eugenia brasiliensis were identified by HPLC-PDA and LC-MS, and seven of these are described for the first time in this Brazilian fruit. Two of the major anthocyanins, delphinidin (8) and cyanidin (9), were studied for their inhibitory activity against chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) production before and after cigarette smoke extract (CSE) treatment of cells. In non-treated cells the amount of IL-8 was unchanged following treatment with cyanidin and delphinidin in concentrations 0.1–10 M. Both delphinidin (8) and cyanidin (9) decreased the production of IL-8 in treated cells, at 1 M and 10 M, respectively. Delphinidin (8) demonstrated IL-8 inhibition in the CSE treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:25005941

  1. Tourism values for Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) viewing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Widerholdt, Ruscena

    2013-01-01

    Migratory species provide diverse ecosystem services to people, but these values have seldom been estimated rangewide for a single species. In this article, we summarize visitation and consumer surplus for recreational visitors to viewing sites for the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) throughout the Southwestern United States. Public bat viewing opportunities are available at 17 of 25 major roosts across six states; on an annual basis, we estimate that over 242,000 visitors view bats, gaining over $6.5 million in consumer surplus. A better understanding of spatial mismatches between the areas where bats provide value to people and areas most critical for maintaining migratory populations can better inform conservation planning, including economic incentive systems for conservation.

  2. The proximal airway of the bat Tadarida brasiliensis: a minimum entropy production design.

    PubMed

    Canals, Mauricio; Sabat, Pablo; Veloso, Claudio

    2008-03-01

    The bronchial tree of most mammalian lungs is a good example of an efficient distribution system whose geometry and dimensions of branched structures are important factors in determining the efficiency of respiration. Small and flying endothermic animals have high-energy requirements, requiring morphological and physiological adaptations to reduce energy loss. Here we show that Tadarida brasiliensis, a nocturnal small bat whose energy requirements are exacerbated by this small size and by their frequent exposure to high altitude, has a different morphology in the proximal airway, sustained by a wider trachea and better scaling factors, than other non-flying mammals. This design allows a great decrease of the volume specific resistance of the proximal airway and in consequence a very low entropy production during breathing, approximately 1/18 of that expected for a non-flying mammals of similar body size.

  3. Dracunculus brasiliensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Dracunculidae) from the anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Ophidia: Boidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Santos, C P

    2009-02-01

    Dracunculus brasiliensis sp. n. (Dracunculidae), is described based on a single female specimen found in the body cavity of the anaconda, Eunectes murinus (L.) (Ophidia: Boidae), from the Mexiana Island, Amazon River delta, Brazil and one female previously recorded from the subcutaneous tissue of this host species imported from South America into Europe (ZOO in the Czech Republic). The new species is characterised mainly by markedly large, anteriorly protruding dorsal and ventral double papillae of the internal circle and small lateral papillae of the same circle, a widely rounded caudal end, the excretory pore situated just posterior to the nerve ring, a distinctly transversely striated cuticle and by the length (396-429 mum) of larvae from uterus. This is the first species of Dracunculus described from reptiles in South America.

  4. MART-1 adenovirus-transduced dendritic cell immunization in a murine model of metastatic central nervous system tumor.

    PubMed

    Broder, Howard; Anderson, Andrea; Kremen, Thomas J; Odesa, Sylvia K; Liau, Linda M

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that have been shown to play a critical role in the initiation of host immune responses against tumor antigens. In this study, a recombinant adenovirus vector encoding the melanoma-associated antigen, MART-1, was used to transduce murine DCs, which were then tested for their ability to activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and induce protective immunity against B16 melanoma tumor cells implanted intracranially. Genetic modifications of murine bone marrow-derived DCs to express MART-1 was achieved through the use of an E1-deficient, recombinant adenovirus vector. Sixty-two C57BL/6 mice were immunized subcutaneously with AdVMART-1-transduced DCs (n = 23), untransduced DCs (n = 17), or sterile saline (n = 22). Using the B16 murine melanoma, which naturally expresses the MART-1 antigen, all the mice were then challenged intracranially with viable, unmodified syngeneic B16 tumor cells 7 days later. Splenocytes from representative animals in each group were harvested for standard cytotoxicity (CTL) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. The remaining mice were followed for survival. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with DCs transduced with an adenoviral vector encoding the MART-1 antigen elicited the development of antigen-specific CTL responses. As evidenced by a prolonged survival curve when compared to control-immunized mice with intracranial B16 tumors, AdMART-1-DC vaccination was able to elicit partial protection against central nervous system tumor challenge in vivo.

  5. Selenoprotein Expression in Macrophages Is Critical for Optimal Clearance of Parasitic Helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis*

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Shakira M.; Shay, Ashley E.; James, Jamaal L.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Urban, Joseph F.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The plasticity of macrophages is evident in helminthic parasite infections, providing protection from inflammation. Previously we demonstrated that the micronutrient selenium induces a phenotypic switch in macrophage activation from a classically activated (pro-inflammatory; M1/CAM) toward an alternatively activated (anti-inflammatory; M2/AAM) phenotype, where cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent cyclopentenone prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) plays a key role. Here, we hypothesize that dietary selenium modulates macrophage polarization toward an AAM phenotype to assist in the increasing clearance of adult Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, a gastrointestinal nematode parasite. Mice on a selenium-adequate (0.08 ppm) diet significantly augmented intestinal AAM presence while decreasing adult worms and fecal egg production when compared with infection of mice on selenium-deficient (<0.01 ppm) diet. Further increase in dietary selenium to supraphysiological levels (0.4 ppm) had very little or no impact on worm expulsion. Normal adult worm clearance and enhanced AAM marker expression were observed in the selenium-supplemented Trspfl/flCreWT mice that express selenoproteins driven by tRNASec (Trsp), whereas N. brasiliensis-infected Trspfl/flCreLysM selenium-supplemented mice showed a decreased clearance, with lowered intestinal expression of several AAM markers. Inhibition of the COX pathway with indomethacin resulted in delayed worm expulsion in selenium-adequate mice. This was rescued with 15d-PGJ2, which partially recapitulated the effect of selenium supplementation on fecal egg output in addition to increasing markers of AAMs in the small intestine. Antagonism of PPARγ blocked the effect of selenium. These results suggest that optimal expression of selenoproteins and selenium-dependent production of COX-derived endogenous prostanoids, such as Δ12-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2, may regulate AAM activation to enhance anti-helminthic parasite responses. PMID:26644468

  6. Sucrose importation into laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis, in relation to ethylene stimulation of latex production

    PubMed Central

    Dusotoit-Coucaud, Anaïs; Brunel, Nicole; Kongsawadworakul, Panida; Viboonjun, Unchera; Lacointe, André; Julien, Jean-Louis; Chrestin, Hervé; Sakr, Soulaïman

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The major economic product of Hevea brasiliensis is a rubber-containing cytoplasm (latex), which flows out of laticifers (latex cells) when the bark is tapped. The latex yield is stimulated by ethylene. Sucrose, the unique precursor of rubber synthesis, must cross the plasma membrane through specific sucrose transporters before being metabolized in the laticifers. The relative importance of sucrose transporters in determining latex yield is unknown. Here, the effects of ethylene (by application of Ethrel®) on sucrose transporter gene expression in the inner bark tissues and latex cells of H. brasiliensis are described. Methods Experiments, including cloning sucrose transporters, real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, were carried out on virgin (untapped) trees, treated or untreated with the latex yield stimulant Ethrel. Key Results Seven putative full-length cDNAs of sucrose transporters were cloned from a latex-specific cDNA library. These transporters belong to all SUT (sucrose transporter) groups and differ by their basal gene expression in latex and inner soft bark, with a predominance of HbSUT1A and HbSUT1B. Of these sucrose transporters, only HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A were distinctly increased by ethylene. Moreover, this increase was shown to be specific to laticifers and to ethylene application. Conclusion The data and all previous information on sucrose transport show that HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A are related to the increase in sucrose import into laticifers, required for the stimulation of latex yield by ethylene in virgin trees. PMID:19567416

  7. Cloning and characterization of laccase DNA from the Royal Sun medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto-Akanuma, Akiko; Akanuma, Satoshi; Motoi, Masuro; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Ohno, Naohito

    2014-01-01

    Laccase isozymes have been identified in several fungi. We report the cloning of 4 laccase genes from the medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis. The lac1 gene contained a 1560-base pair (bp) open reading frame (ORF) encoding 520 amino acids that was interrupted with 14 introns in genomic DNA. The deduced amino acid sequence indicated a multicopper oxidase signature 1 and 2 multicopper oxidase signature 2. The lac2 gene contained a 1566-bp ORF encoding 522 amino acids that was interrupted with 13 introns in genomic DNA. A number of different nucleotides were observed in whole regions containing the substitution of amino acid residues (lac2a and lac2b). The partial DNA fragments of lac3 and lac4 genes were subcloned using the semi-random two-step polymerase chain reaction method. The lac3 and lac4 genes contained coding sequences with a 1575-bp ORF encoding 525 amino acids and a 1584-bp ORF encoding 528 amino acids, respectively. However, the whole complementary DNA fragment of both laccases could not be amplified with polymerase chain reaction against the complementary DNA library; therefore, introns were deduced based on the GT-AG rule and multiple alignment of laccases from other fungi, which showed high identity. All laccases from A. brasiliensis conserved the fungal laccase signature sequence and suggest 2 subfamilies according to the location of introns and phylogenetic analysis. The genes lac2 and lac4 had a high degree of identity, and the lac2a gene was located upstream of the lac4 gene.

  8. Population growth of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) predates human agricultural activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting, and habitat modification, exert a significant effect on native species. Although many species have suffered population declines, increased population fragmentation, or even extinction in connection with these human impacts, others seem to have benefitted from human modification of their habitat. Here we examine whether population growth in an insectivorous bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) can be attributed to the widespread expansion of agriculture in North America following European settlement. Colonies of T. b. mexicana are extremely large (~106 individuals) and, in the modern era, major agricultural insect pests form an important component of their food resource. It is thus hypothesized that the growth of these insectivorous bat populations was coupled to the expansion of agricultural land use in North America over the last few centuries. Results We sequenced one haploid and one autosomal locus to determine the rate and time of onset of population growth in T. b. mexicana. Using an approximate Maximum Likelihood method, we have determined that T. b. mexicana populations began to grow ~220 kya from a relatively small ancestral effective population size before reaching the large effective population size observed today. Conclusions Our analyses reject the hypothesis that T. b. mexicana populations grew in connection with the expansion of human agriculture in North America, and instead suggest that this growth commenced long before the arrival of humans. As T. brasiliensis is a subtropical species, we hypothesize that the observed signals of population growth may instead reflect range expansions of ancestral bat populations from southern glacial refugia during the tail end of the Pleistocene. PMID:21457563

  9. Accurate Enumeration of Aspergillus brasiliensis in Hair Color and Mascara by Time-Lapse Shadow Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Hideaki; Saito, Mikako

    2015-01-01

    The growth of black mold (Aspergillus brasiliensis) in black-colored samples such as hair color and mascara was measured with an automatic count system based on time-lapse shadow image analysis (TSIA). A. brasiliensis suspended in a lecithin and polysorbate (LP) solution of each sample (hair color or mascara) was spread on a potato dextrose agar medium plate containing LP. The background image darkness of the agar plate could be adjusted to attain accurate colony counts. 95 colonies in hair color and 22 colonies in mascara could be automatically determined at 48 h. The accuracy of the colony counts could be confirmed from the timelapse image data. In contrast, conventional visual counting at a specified time could not determine the number of colonies or led to false colony counts.

  10. Enzymes in Glycolysis and the Citric Acid Cycle in the Yeast and Mycelial Forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Kanetsuna, Fuminori; Carbonell, Luis M.

    1966-01-01

    Kanetsuna, Fuminori (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas, Venezuela), and Luis M. Carbonell. Enzymes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle in the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. J. Bacteriol. 92:1315–1320. 1966.—Enzymatic activities in glycolysis, the hexose monophosphate shunt, and the citric acid cycle in cell-free extracts of the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were examined comparatively. Both forms have the enzymes of these pathways. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic dehydrogenase of the mycelial form were higher than those of the yeast form. Another 15 enzymatic activities of the mycelial form were lower than those of the yeast form. The activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase showed the most marked difference between the two forms, its activity in the mycelial form being about 20% of that in the yeast form. PMID:5924267

  11. Enzymes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle in the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Kanetsuna, F; Carbonell, L M

    1966-11-01

    Kanetsuna, Fuminori (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas, Venezuela), and Luis M. Carbonell. Enzymes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle in the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. J. Bacteriol. 92:1315-1320. 1966.-Enzymatic activities in glycolysis, the hexose monophosphate shunt, and the citric acid cycle in cell-free extracts of the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were examined comparatively. Both forms have the enzymes of these pathways. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic dehydrogenase of the mycelial form were higher than those of the yeast form. Another 15 enzymatic activities of the mycelial form were lower than those of the yeast form. The activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase showed the most marked difference between the two forms, its activity in the mycelial form being about 20% of that in the yeast form.

  12. Parasitological and molecular features of the Hepatozoon species in the myocardium of Japanese Martens (Martes melampus melampus).

    PubMed

    Kubo, Masahito; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Sakai, Hiroki; Masegi, Toshiaki; Panciera, Roger J; Yanai, Tokuma

    2009-12-01

    The Hepatozoon species in the myocardium of Japanese martens (Martes melampus melampus) was characterized by histological and molecular methods. Histologically, granulomatous nodules with Hepatozoon sp. merozoites/gametocytes, or schizonts, or both were observed in the hearts of Japanese martens. The most frequently observed forms were merozoites/gametocytes within phagocytes; each host cell included a zoite, which was not microscopically identifiable as a merozoite or gametocyte. Schizonts were oval in shape and 36.9 ± 5.7 x 28.9 ± 3.4 μm in size; each schizont had approximately 20-60 nuclei. The size of the merozoites could not be measured because no mature schizonts were observed. In the analyses of the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence, it was strongly suggested that the Hepatozoon sp. in Japanese marten and the Hepatozoon sp. in pine marten (Martes martes) in Scotland were the same species.

  13. Chemical morphology of glucan and chitin in the cell wall of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, L M; Kanetsuna, F; Gil, F

    1970-02-01

    Short and thick fibers were observed on the outer surface of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and long and thin fibers were seen on the inner surface. The long fibers disappear with chitinase treatment and are composed of chitin. The short fibers disappear under alkali treatment and are composed of alpha-glucan. Comparisons with alpha-(1 --> 3)-glucan isolated from Aspergillus niger and Polyporus betulinus and with chitin from fungal origin support our point of view.

  14. Distribution of a Nocardia brasiliensis Catalase Gene Fragment in Members of the Genera Nocardia, Gordona, and Rhodococcus

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Johnson, Wendy M.; Welsh, Oliverio; Resendiz-Uresti, Francisco L.; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.

    1999-01-01

    An immunodominant protein from Nocardia brasiliensis, P61, was subjected to amino-terminal and internal sequence analysis. Three sequences of 22, 17, and 38 residues, respectively, were obtained and compared with the protein database from GenBank by using the BLAST system. The sequences showed homology to some eukaryotic catalases and to a bromoperoxidase-catalase from Streptomyces violaceus. Its identity as a catalase was confirmed by analysis of its enzymatic activity on H2O2 and by a double-staining method on a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine and ferricyanide; the result showed only catalase activity, but no peroxidase. By using one of the internal amino acid sequences and a consensus catalase motif (VGNNTP), we were able to design a PCR assay that generated a 500-bp PCR product. The amplicon was analyzed, and the nucleotide sequence was compared to the GenBank database with the observation of high homology to other bacterial and eukaryotic catalases. A PCR assay based on this target sequence was performed with primers NB10 and NB11 to confirm the presence of the NB10-NB11 gene fragment in several N. brasiliensis strains isolated from mycetoma. The same assay was used to determine whether there were homologous sequences in several type strains from the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordona, and Streptomyces. All of the N. brasiliensis strains presented a positive result but only some of the actinomycetes species tested were positive in the PCR assay. In order to confirm these findings, genomic DNA was subjected to Southern blot analysis. A 1.7-kbp band was observed in the N. brasiliensis strains, and bands of different molecular weight were observed in cross-reacting actinomycetes. Sequence analysis of the amplicons of selected actinomycetes showed high homology in this catalase fragment, thus demonstrating that this protein is highly conserved in this group of bacteria. PMID:10325357

  15. Distributional potential of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex at present and under scenarios of future climate conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Triatoma brasiliensis complex is a monophyletic group, comprising three species, one of which includes two subspecific taxa, distributed across 12 Brazilian states, in the caatinga and cerrado biomes. Members of the complex are diverse in terms of epidemiological importance, morphology, biology, ecology, and genetics. Triatoma b. brasiliensis is the most disease-relevant member of the complex in terms of epidemiology, extensive distribution, broad feeding preferences, broad ecological distribution, and high rates of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi; consequently, it is considered the principal vector of Chagas disease in northeastern Brazil. Methods We used ecological niche models to estimate potential distributions of all members of the complex, and evaluated the potential for suitable adjacent areas to be colonized; we also present first evaluations of potential for climate change-mediated distributional shifts. Models were developed using the GARP and Maxent algorithms. Results Models for three members of the complex (T. b. brasiliensis, N = 332; T. b. macromelasoma, N = 35; and T. juazeirensis, N = 78) had significant distributional predictivity; however, models for T. sherlocki and T. melanica, both with very small sample sizes (N = 7), did not yield predictions that performed better than random. Model projections onto future-climate scenarios indicated little broad-scale potential for change in the potential distribution of the complex through 2050. Conclusions This study suggests that T. b. brasiliensis is the member of the complex with the greatest distributional potential to colonize new areas: overall; however, the distribution of the complex appears relatively stable. These analyses offer key information to guide proactive monitoring and remediation activities to reduce risk of Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24886587

  16. De novo transcriptome analysis of Hevea brasiliensis tissues by RNA-seq and screening for molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, is a species native to the Brazilian Amazon region and it supplies almost all the world’s natural rubber, a strategic raw material for a variety of products. One of the major challenges for developing rubber tree plantations is adapting the plant to biotic and abiotic stress. Transcriptome analysis is one of the main approaches for identifying the complete set of active genes in a cell or tissue for a specific developmental stage or physiological condition. Results Here, we report on the sequencing, assembling, annotation and screening for molecular markers from a pool of H. brasiliensis tissues. A total of 17,166 contigs were successfully annotated. Then, 2,191 Single Nucleotide Variation (SNV) and 1.397 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci were discriminated from the sequences. From 306 putative, mainly non-synonymous SNVs located in CDS sequences, 191 were checked for their ability to characterize 23 Hevea genotypes by an allele-specific amplification technology. For 172 (90%), the nucleotide variation at the predicted genomic location was confirmed, thus validating the different steps from sequencing to the in silico detection of the SNVs. Conclusions This is the first study of the H. brasiliensis transcriptome, covering a wide range of tissues and organs, leading to the production of the first developed SNP markers. This process could be amplified to a larger set of in silico detected SNVs in expressed genes in order to increase the marker density in available and future genetic maps. The results obtained in this study will contribute to the H. brasiliensis genetic breeding program focused on improving of disease resistance and latex yield. PMID:24670056

  17. Expression of glycoprotein gp43 in stage-specific forms and during dimorphic differentiation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Mattar-Filho, R; Azevedo, M O; Pereira, M; Jesuino, R S; Salem-Izacc, S M; Brito, W A; Gesztesi, J L; Soares, R B; Felipe, M S; Soares, C M

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the 43 kDa glycoprotein (gp43) was analysed in several Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates. Using one- and two-dimensional analysis of crude cellular extracts, it was shown that protein expression in yeast and mycelium was dependent on the isolate analysed. In two strains, in both yeast and mycelium cells. gp43 was present, whereas expression was restricted to the yeast phase of two other strains. The clinical implications of this phase-specific gp43 expression are uncertain.

  18. Hevea brasiliensis REF (Hev b 1) and SRPP (Hev b 3): An overview on rubber particle proteins.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Peruch, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    This review article aims to gather all the knowledge on two important proteins associated with Hevea brasiliensis rubber particles: namely the rubber elongation factor (REF) and the small rubber particle protein (SRPP). It covers more then three decades of research on these two proteins and their homologues in plants, and particularly emphasizes on the different possible properties or functions of these various proteins found in plants.

  19. Miltefosine is active against Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates with in vitro low susceptibility to amphotericin B or itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Gagini, Thalita; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a common mycosis caused by dimorphic fungi from the Sporothrix schenckii complex. In recent years, sporotrichosis incidence rates have increased in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro, where Sporothrix brasiliensis is the species more frequently isolated from patients. The standard antifungals itraconazole and amphotericin B are recommended as first-line therapy for cutaneous/lymphocutaneous and disseminated sporotrichosis, respectively, although decreased sensitivity to these drugs in vitro was reported for clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis. Here, we evaluated the activity of the phospholipid analogue miltefosine - already in clinical use against leishmaniasis - towards the pathogenic yeast form of S. brasiliensis isolates with low sensitivity to itraconazole or amphotericin B in vitro. Miltefosine had fungicidal activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1-2 µg ml(-1). Miltefosine exposure led to loss of plasma membrane integrity, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a decrease in cytoplasmic electron density, alterations in the thickness of cell wall layers and accumulation of an electron-dense material in the cell wall. Flow cytometry analysis using an anti-melanin antibody revealed an increase in cell wall melanin in yeasts treated with miltefosine, when compared with control cells. The cytotoxicity of miltefosine was comparable to those of amphotericin B, but miltefosine showed a higher selectivity index towards the fungus. Our results suggest that miltefosine could be an effective alternative for the treatment of S. brasiliensis sporotrichosis, when standard treatment fails. Nevertheless, in vivo studies are required to confirm the antifungal potential of miltefosine for the treatment of sporotrichosis.

  20. Chemical Characterization and Cytoprotective Effect of the Hydroethanol Extract from Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum)

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, José G. A. S.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Boris, Ticiana C. C.; Cristo, Janyketchuly S.; Pereira, Nara L. F.; Figueiredo, Fernando G.; Cunha, Francisco A. B.; Aquino, Pedro E. A.; Nascimento, Polyana A. C.; Mesquita, Francisco J. C.; Moreira, Paulo H. F.; Coutinho, Sáskia T. B.; Souza, Ivon T.; Teixeira, Gabriela C.; Ferreira, Najla M. N.; Farina, Eleonora O.; Torres, Cícero M. G.; Holanda, Vanderlan N.; Pereira, Vandbergue S.; Guedes, Maria I. F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Annona coriacea Mart. (araticum) is a widely distributed tree in the cerrado. Its value is attributed principally to the consumption of its fruit which possesses a large nutritive potential. The objective was to identify the chemical profile and evaluate the antimicrobial and cytoprotective activity of the hydroethanol extract of A. coriacea Mart. (HEAC) leaves against the toxicity of mercury chloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization of components was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution method in broth with strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For evaluation of the modulatory and cytoprotective activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin) and mercury chloride (HgCl2), the substances were associated with the HEAC at subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8). Results and Discussion: The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids such as Luteolin (1.84%) and Quercetin (1.19%) in elevated concentrations. The HEAC presented an MIC ≥512 μg/mL and significant antagonistic action in aminoglycosides modulation, and it also showed cytoprotective activity to S. aureus (significance P < 0.0001) and E. coli (significance P < 0.05) bacteria against the mercury chloride heavy metal with significance, this action being attributed to the chelating properties of the flavonoids found in the chemical identification. Conclusions: The results acquired in this study show that the HEAC presents cytoprotective activity over the tested strains in vitro and can also present antagonistic effect when associated with aminoglycosides, reinforcing the necessity of taking caution when combining natural and pharmaceutical products. SUMMARY The hydroalcoholic extract of A. coriacea Mart. presents in vitro cytoprotective activity against the toxic effect of Hg. Abbreviations Used: HPLC-DAD: High

  1. Extraction of lycopene from tomato sauce with mushrooms (Agaricus brasiliensis), determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cristiane Schüler; Miguel, Obdulio G; Eugênia, Balbi Maria; Penteado, Patrícia Teixeira Padilha Da Silva; Haracemiv, Sonia Maria Chaves

    2009-01-01

    Lycopene belongs to the subgroup of non-oxygenated carotenoids with antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties that are comparatively more powerful than the majority of plasma carotenoids. When foodstuffs containing lycopene are processed, the cell wall breaks down during the thermal process--thus enabling the extraction of lycopene from chromoplasts, improving their bioavailability. Edible mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis stands out given its medicinal properties and antioxidant potential when used to treat heart diseases and to prevent cancer. Given the interest in lycopene-rich foods, the purpose of the present study was to determine the lycopene present in different types of tomato sauce with A. brasiliensis and/or its extract by high-performance liquid chromatography. The type of solvent (dichloromethane, hexane and ethanol) to remove water from the tomato sauce was tested before the extraction of carotenoids. Lycopene determination in tomato sauces, in tomatoes and in the A. brasiliensis extract was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography. Findings show that when tomato sauce and raw materials underwent heat treatment, the type of treatment did not interfere with carotenoid and lycopene bioavailability--indicating that those sauces have a significant concentration of carotenoids and, in particular, their content in the lycopene proportion compared with total carotenoids.

  2. Estrogens inhibit mycelium-to-yeast transformation in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: implications for resistance of females to paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, A; Salazar, M E; Cano, L E; Stover, E P; Feldman, D; Stevens, D A

    1984-01-01

    Evidence that disease due to the thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis occurs post-puberty predominantly in males led us to hypothesize that hormonal factors critically affect its pathogenesis. We show here that estrogens inhibit mycelial- to yeast-form transformation of P. brasiliensis in vitro. Transformation of three isolates was inhibited to 71, 33, and 19% of the control values in the presence of 10(-10), 10(-8), and 10(-6) M 17 beta-estradiol, respectively. The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol was active but less potent than estradiol, whereas testosterone, 17 alpha-estradiol, tamoxifen, and corticosterone were inactive. This function was specifically inhibited, since yeast-to-mycelium transformation, yeast growth, and yeast reproduction by budding were unaffected by 17 beta-estradiol. Of note is the fact that mycelium-to-yeast transformation occurs as the first step in vivo in the establishment of infection. The cytosol of the three isolates studied possesses a steroid-binding protein which has high affinity for 17 beta-estradiol. We believe that this binding protein represents a P. brasiliensis hormone receptor which can also recognize mammalian estrogens. We hypothesize that the ability of estrogen to decrease or delay mycelium-to-yeast transformation at the initial site of infection contributes to or is responsible for the marked resistance of females, and that the binder described is the molecular site of action. Images PMID:6500694

  3. Foliar uptake of fog water and transport belowground alleviates drought effects in the cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    PubMed

    Eller, Cleiton B; Lima, Aline L; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2013-07-01

    Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a common water acquisition mechanism for plants inhabiting temperate fog-affected ecosystems, but the prevalence and consequences of this process for the water and carbon balance of tropical cloud forest species are unknown. We performed a series of experiments under field and glasshouse conditions using a combination of methods (sap flow, fluorescent apoplastic tracers and stable isotopes) to trace fog water movement from foliage to belowground components of Drimys brasiliensis. In addition, we measured leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, leaf water repellency and growth of plants under contrasting soil water availabilities and fog exposure in glasshouse experiments to evaluate FWU effects on the water and carbon balance of D. brasiliensis saplings. Fog water diffused directly through leaf cuticles and contributed up to 42% of total foliar water content. FWU caused reversals in sap flow in stems and roots of up to 26% of daily maximum transpiration. Fog water transported through the xylem reached belowground pools and enhanced leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth relative to plants sheltered from fog. Foliar uptake of fog water is an important water acquisition mechanism that can mitigate the deleterious effects of soil water deficits for D. brasiliensis.

  4. Influence of N-glycans on Expression of Cell Wall Remodeling Related Genes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fausto; Antoniêto, Amanda Cristina Campos; Pessoni, André Moreira; Monteiro, Valdirene Neves; Alegre-Maller, Ana Claudia Paiva; Pigosso, Laurine Lacerda; Pereira, Maristela; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. It is caused by the temperature-dependent dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The P. brasiliensis cell wall is a dynamic outer structure, composed of a network of glycoproteins and polysaccharides, such as chitin, glucan and N-glycosylated proteins. These glycoproteins can interact with the host to affect infection rates, and are known to perform other functions. We inhibited N-linked glycosylation using tunicamycin (TM), and then evaluated the expression of P. brasiliensis genes related to cell wall remodeling. Our results suggest that cell wall synthesis related genes, such as β-1,3-glucanosyltransferase (PbGEL3), 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase (PbFKS1), and α-1,4-amylase (PbAMY), as well as cell wall degrading related genes, such as N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (PbNAG1), α-1,3-glucanase (PbAGN), and β-1,3-glucanase (PbBGN1 and PbBGN2), have their expression increased by the N-glycosylation inhibition, as detected by qRT-PCR. The observed increases in gene expression levels reveal possible compensatory mechanisms for diminished enzyme activity due to the lack of glycosylation caused by TM. PMID:27226767

  5. Relative distribution of gastrin-, CCK-8-, NPY- and CGRP-immunoreactive cells in the digestive tract of dorado (Salminus brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Pereira, R T; Costa, L S; Oliveira, I R C; Araújo, J C; Aerts, M; Vigliano, F A; Rosa, P V

    2015-04-01

    The endocrine cells (ECs) of the gastrointestinal mucosa form the largest endocrine system in the body, not only in terms of cell numbers but also in terms of the different produced substances. Data describing the association between the relative distributions of the peptide-specific ECs in relation to feeding habits can be useful tools that enable the creation of a general expected pattern of EC distribution. We aimed to investigate the distribution of ECs immunoreactive for the peptides gastrin (GAS), cholecystokinin (CCK-8), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in different segments of the digestive tract of carnivorous fish dorado (Salminus brasiliensis) by using immunohistochemistry procedures. The distribution of endocrine cells immunoreactive for gastrin (GAS), cholecystokinin (CCK-8), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in digestive tract of dorado S. brasiliensis was examined by immunohistochemistry. The results describe the association between the distribution of the peptide-specific endocrine cells and feeding habits in different carnivorous fish. The largest number of endocrine cells immunoreactive for GAS, CCK-8, and CGRP were found in the pyloric stomach region and the pyloric caeca. However, NPY-immunoreactive endocrine cells were markedly restricted to the midgut. The distribution pattern of endocrine cells identified in S. brasiliensis is similar to that found in other carnivorous fishes.

  6. Identification and characterisation of elongation factor Tu, a novel protein involved in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-host interaction.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Caroline Maria; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Assato, Patricia Akemi; Yamazaki, Daniella Sayuri; da Silva, Rosângela Aparecida Moraes; Santos, Cláudia Tavares; Santos-Filho, Norival Alves; Portuondo, Deivys Leandro; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2016-11-01

    Paracoccidioides spp., which are temperature-dependent dimorphic fungi, are responsible for the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America, the paracoccidioidomycosis. The aim of this study was to characterise the involvement of elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-host interaction. Adhesive properties were examined using recombinant PbEF-Tu proteins and the respective polyclonal anti-rPbEF-Tu antibody. Immunogold analysis demonstrated the surface location of EF-Tu in P. brasiliensis. Moreover, PbEF-Tu was found to bind to fibronectin and plasminogen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and it was determined that the binding to plasminogen is at least partly dependent on lysine residues and ionic interactions. To verify the participation of EF-Tu in the interaction of P. brasiliensis with pneumocytes, we blocked the respective protein with an anti-rPbEF-Tu antibody and evaluated the consequences on the interaction index by flow cytometry. During the interaction, we observed a decrease of 2- and 3-fold at 8 and 24 h, respectively, suggesting the contribution of EF-Tu in fungal adhesion/invasion.

  7. Recognition of laminin by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia: a possible mechanism of adherence to human type II alveolar cells.

    PubMed

    Caro, Erika; Gonzalez, Angel; Muñoz, César; Urán, Marta E; Restrepo, Angela; John Hamilton, Andrew; Elena Cano, Luz

    2008-12-01

    This study addresses the recognition of laminin by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia, as well as its possible role in the adherence of conidia to A549 cells. Adherence of conidia to immobilized laminin was shown to be specific, as anti-laminin antibodies, soluble laminin or the laminin-derived peptides IKVAV and CDPGYIGSR inhibited this interaction. RGD containing peptides and various monosaccharides had no effect on adherence, with the exception of N-acetylneuraminic acid. Pre-treatment of conidia with fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not with BSA, also resulted in significant inhibition, suggesting that P. brasiliensis conidia might cross-recognize host proteins involved in colonization. In assays using transmission electron microscopy, we observed internalization of conidia 30 min after exposition to A549 cells. Laminin present on the surface of A549 cells shown to serve as mediator of this interaction, with a significant decrease in fungal adherence when the epithelial cells were pre-treated with anti-laminin antibodies or when conidia were pre-incubated with either soluble laminin or the laminin-specific peptides. Together these results suggest that the recognition of laminin by P. brasiliensis conidia is a key process in the interaction with pulmonary epithelial cells, where this extracellular matrix protein acts as bridging molecule.

  8. The tiny difference between foraging and communication buzzes uttered by the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Christine; Tressler, Jedidiah; Keller, Halli; Vanzant, Marc; Ezell, Sarah; Smotherman, Michael

    2007-08-01

    Echolocating insectivorous bats consummate prey captures using a distinct vocal motor pattern commonly known as the terminal or feeding buzz, which is widely considered a fixed motor pattern executed independently of auditory feedback influences. The Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, offers an opportunity to explore the role of sensory feedback in buzzing because they emit similar buzzes both in flight during foraging and while stationary as communication sounds. Here we compared the spectral and temporal patterns of foraging and communication buzzes to address whether or not auditory feedback may influence buzz patterns. We found that while foraging buzzes uttered in open space were composed of generic FM calls, communication buzzes were composed of an adapted CF-FM call similar to the call type used by T. brasiliensis when navigating in confined spaces. This provides the first evidence that some bats can make significant context-dependent changes in the spectral parameters of calls within their buzz. We also found that inter-pulse intervals, but not call durations, were different within the two buzz types. These observations indicate that though a common pattern generator hierarchically organizes all buzzes, T. brasiliensis retains a significant capacity to adapt the spectral and temporal patterns of elements within its buzzes.

  9. Roosting ecology and variation in adaptive and innate immune system function in the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Allen, Louise C; Turmelle, Amy S; Mendonça, Mary T; Navara, Kristen J; Kunz, Thomas H; McCracken, Gary F

    2009-04-01

    Bats have recently been implicated as reservoirs of important emerging diseases. However, few studies have examined immune responses in bats, and even fewer have evaluated these responses in an ecological context. We examined aspects of both innate and adaptive immune response in adult female Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) at four maternity roosts (two natural caves and two human-made bridges) in south-central Texas. Immune measurements included in vitro bactericidal ability of whole blood and in vivo T cell mediated response to mitogenic challenge. Bactericidal activity in T. brasiliensis varied with roosting ecology, but appears to be sensitive to colony-level effects. Blood from females living at one cave had significantly lower bactericidal ability than blood from females at three other sites. T cell mediated response in this species was associated with variation in roost ecology, with females from two caves having greater responses than females from two bridges. T cell mediated response and bactericidal activity were negatively correlated with one another within individuals that were tested for both. Variation in immunological response of T. brasiliensis is important for understanding the influence of the environment on the frequency and distribution of immunologically competent individuals and for understanding disease-host dynamics in this and other colonial species.

  10. Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the antifungal compounds from the extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) against clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Methods The hexane and dichlomethane fractions from leaves and stems of S. terebinthifolius were fractionated using several chromatography techniques to afford four compounds. Results The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol (1), a new biphenyl compound, namely, 4'-ethyl-4-methyl-2,2',6,6'-tetrahydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dicarboxylate (2), quercetin (3), and kaempferol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 were active against different strains of P. brasiliensis, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration value against the isolate Pb B339 of 15.6 μg/ml. The isolate Pb 1578 was more sensitive to compound 1 with a MIC value of 7.5 μg/ml. Schinol presented synergistic effect only when combined with itraconazole. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were not able to inhibit cell wall synthesis or assembly using the sorbitol assay. Conclusion This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of compound 2 and discloses activity of compounds 1 and 2 against several clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis. These results justify further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action of these compounds. PMID:20939907

  11. Francisella tularensis infection in a stone marten (Martes foina) without classic pathological lesions consistent with tularemia.

    PubMed

    Origgi, Francesco C; Wu, Natacha; Pilo, Paola

    2013-07-01

    The current report describes the isolation and typing of a strain of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, from the spleen of a stone marten (Martes foina) showing no classic lesions consistent with the disease. The identification of this bacterium, belonging to the World Health Organization risk 3 category and considered to have a low infectious dose, could be performed only because of an ongoing project screening F. tularensis in the environment sensu lato. The findings described herein should alert diagnostic laboratories of the possible presence of F. tularensis in clinical samples in countries where tularemia is endemic even in cases with no consistent anamnesis and from unsuspected animal species.

  12. Sarcocystis neurona-associated meningoencephalitis and description of intramuscular sarcocysts in a fisher (Martes pennanti).

    PubMed

    Gerhold, Richard W; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Lindsay, David S

    2005-01-01

    A free-ranging juvenile fisher (Martes pennanti) with ataxia, lethargy, stupor, and intermittent, whole-body tremors was examined postmortem. Microscopically, the fisher had protozoal meningoencephalitis caused by Sarcocystis neurona, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism testing, and genetic sequencing. Sarcocysts found in the skeletal muscle of the fisher were negative for S. neurona by PCR, but were morphologically similar to previous light and electron microscopy descriptions of S. neurona. This is the first report of clinical neural S. neurona infection in a fisher.

  13. [Growth of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms Laubach) in the tropics].

    PubMed

    Lareo, L

    1981-12-01

    The growth and reproduction rates of water hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes (Mart) Solms Laubach) in tropical areas, under natural and fertilized controlled conditions, were studied. The fertilizer used was swine fecal matter at three different levels: 1.25, 2.5 and 5%. The highest rate of growth was found with the 2.5% concentration, and this value was 49.16 g/m2/day on a dry-weight basis. Under natural conditions the rate of growth was 18.39 g/m2/day on a dry-weight basis. These results represent a yearly production in ton/ha among the highest reported in the world.

  14. [Changes in correlations between commercially valuable characters of the sable Martes zibellina L. during artificial selection].

    PubMed

    Kashtanov, S N; Labeznyĭ, O E; Imasheva, A G

    2008-11-01

    A farm population of the sable Martes zibellina L. has been selected for darker coat color during 40 years. Correlations between fitness characters and correlations of these characters with the selected character have been monitored. Correlation analysis has shown that the female fertility in the first year of reproduction is a promising predictor of how valuable the female will be for further breeding. Artificial directional selection has been shown to change the correlations that have been formed in natural populations of the sable. The relationship of this phenomenon with a decrease in the overall fitness during selection that has been observed in the sable population is discussed.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Korean yellow-throated marten, Martes flavigula (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Kuem Hee; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Martes flavigula, which is an endangered and endemic species in South Korea, was determined. The genome is 16,533 bp in length and its gene arrangement pattern, gene content, and gene organization is identical to those of martens. The control region was located between the tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes and is 1087 bp in length. This mitogenome sequence data might be an important role in the preservation of genetic resources by allowing researchers to conduct phylogenetic and systematic analyses of Mustelidae.

  16. A new dammarane saponin and other triterpenoids from Siolmatra brasiliensis and evaluation of the antidiabetic activity of its extract.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Carlos Henrique Corrêa; Borges, Izabeau Pontes; da Silva, Virgínia Claudia; de Sousa, Paulo Teixeira; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de

    2016-09-01

    Context Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill (Cucurbitaceae) is a climbing plant widely used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus symptoms. Objective This work evaluates the antidiabetic activity of an extract of S. brasiliensis in streptozotocin-diabetic rats and promotes the phytochemical investigation to isolate the major compounds of the same extract. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were divided into normal (N) and diabetic rats (DC) treated with water; diabetic rats treated with 3U insulin (DI) or with 250 (DSb250) or 500 mg/kg (DSb500) of hydroalcoholic extract of the stalks of S. brasiliensis, via oral gavage, for 21 days. Physiological and biochemical parameters classically altered in diabetes were monitored. The triterpenoids were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction under silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex-LH20 methods and their structures were determined by NMR, HR-ESI-MS and DC analysis. Results When compared with DC, DSb250 rats showed a reduction in the hyperglycemia (DC: 26.46 ± 0.69 versus DSb250: 19.67 ± 1.06 mmol/L) and glycosuria (DC: 43.02 ± 3.19 versus DSb250: 28.46 ± 2.14 mmol/24 h) and increase in hepatic glycogen (DC: 14.44 ± 1.26 versus DSb250: 22.08 ± 4.26 mg/g). Three known cucurbitacins were isolated from a hydroalcoholic extract of S. brasiliensis, i.e., cayaponosides A1, B4, D, and a new dammarane saponin 3-O-β-d-gentiobiosyl-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-20-hydroxydammar-24-ene. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectral data analysis of the natural products and their acetyl derivatives. Discussion and conclusion The known cucurbitacins and/or the new identified saponin may be related with the antidiabetic activity of S. brasiliensis.

  17. An analysis of natural ventilation techniques to achieve indoor comfort in Wal-Mart express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Shona

    Despite global efforts to reduce world fossil fuel dependency the world still obtains 81% of its energy from fossil fuels (IEA,2009). Modern renewable alternatives have been around since the mid twentieth century these alternatives have not been integrated into electrical grid systems at the exponential rate required to eradicate fossil fuels dependency. The problem, world energy demand, is too large to be satisfied by anything other than the energy-dense fossil fuels used today. We must change our energy intensive processes in order to conserve energy and hence reduce the demands that alternatives must satisfy. This research aims to identify sustainable design opportunities through the application of innovative technologies for the largest retailer in the US with the view that a viable conservative design measure could be applied to the store model, which is replicated across the country, causing a cumulative and hence larger impact on the company energy consumption as a whole. This paper will present the literature available on the 'big box' industry and Wal-Mart, comfort, natural ventilation and building simulation software and then perform an analysis into the viability of naturally ventilating the Wal-Mart Express sales zone using Monodraught natural ventilation windcatcher products

  18. SigReannot-mart: a query environment for expression microarray probe re-annotations

    PubMed Central

    Moreews, François; Rauffet, Gaelle; Dehais, Patrice; Klopp, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Expression microarrays are commonly used to study transcriptomes. Most of the arrays are now based on oligo-nucleotide probes. Probe design being a tedious task, it often takes place once at the beginning of the project. The oligo set is then used for several years. During this time period, the knowledge gathered by the community on the genome and the transcriptome increases and gets more precise. Therefore re-annotating the set is essential to supply the biologists with up-to-date annotations. SigReannot-mart is a query environment populated with regularly updated annotations for different oligo sets. It stores the results of the SigReannot pipeline that has mainly been used on farm and aquaculture species. It permits easy extraction in different formats using filters. It is used to compare probe sets on different criteria, to choose the set for a given experiment to mix probe sets in order to create a new one. Database URL: http://sigreannot-mart.toulouse.inra.fr/ PMID:21930501

  19. Analysis of bioactivities and chemical composition of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. using HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Brito, Sharlene M O; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Talvani, Andre; Coronel, Cathia; Barbosa, Andreza G R; Vega, Celeste; Figueredo, Fernando G; Tintino, Saulo R; Lima, Luciene F; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Menezes, Irwin R A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile and antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ). The antioxidant DPPH and FRAP assays and chemical profile were determined by colorimetric methods and HPLC/DAD. The antiparasitic, antibiotic and antibiotic-modifying activity were evaluated by microdilution assays. The HPLC-DAD assay showed the presence of mostly tannins and flavonoids, such as caffeic acid and quercetin. The levels of polyphenols and flavonoids were 183.136 mg/g extract and 7.37 mg/g extract, respectively. DPPH and FRAP showed low antioxidant activity for the extract. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were not of clinical relevance, showing MIC>1024 μg/mL. However, synergism was observed between HELZJ and the antibiotics amikacin and gentamicin, which resulted in decreased bacterial drug resistance. EHFZJ showed low toxicity in fibroblasts in vitro, while antiparasitic results against Trypnosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum were not clinically relevant. Thus, our results indicate that Z. joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ) could be a source of plant-derived natural products that could lead to the development of promising new antibiotic compounds for infectious diseases.

  20. Cloning and characterization of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway genes of a natural-rubber producing plant, Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Sando, Tomoki; Takeno, Shinya; Watanabe, Norie; Okumoto, Hiroshi; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Yamashita, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Ogasawara, Naotake; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Kobayashi, Akio

    2008-11-01

    Natural rubber is synthesized as rubber particles in the latex, the fluid cytoplasm of laticifers, of Hevea brasiliensis. Although it has been found that natural rubber is biosynthesized through the mevalonate pathway, the involvement of an alternative 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is uncertain. We obtained all series of the MEP pathway candidate genes by analyzing expressed sequence tag (EST) information and degenerate PCR in H. brasiliensis. Complementation experiments with Escherichia coli mutants were performed to confirm the functions of the MEP pathway gene products of H. brasiliensis together with those of Arabidopsis thaliana, and it was found that 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase, 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase of H. brasiliensis were functionally active in the E. coli mutants. Gene expression analysis revealed that the expression level of the HbDXS2 gene in latex was relatively high as compared to those of other MEP pathway genes. However, a feeding experiment with [1-(13)C] 1-deoxy-D-xylulose triacetate, an intermediate derivative of the MEP pathway, indicated that the MEP pathway is not involved in rubber biosynthesis, but is involved in carotenoids biosynthesis in H. brasiliensis.

  1. The kex2 gene from the dimorphic and human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Emerson J; Daher, Bruno S; Andrade, Rosângela V; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Ildinete Silva; Felipe, Maria Sueli S

    2002-10-01

    Kexin-like protein is a component of the subtilase family of proteinases involved in the processing of proproteins to their active forms. Kexin-like proteins are also synthesized as a propeptide and this is involved in (auto)inhibition, correct folding and subcellular sorting of proteins. The kexin-like protein was described as the product of the kex2 gene for Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Yarrowia lipolytica and other fungi. Disruption of the kex2 gene in C. albicans and Y. lipolytica affects hyphae production and induces morphological cell defects, strongly suggesting a possible role of kexin-like proteins in dimorphism of human pathogenic fungi. In this work, we report the nucleotide sequence of the kex2 gene cloned from the dimorphic and human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pbkex2). An open reading frame (ORF) of 2622 bp was identified in the complete sequence, interrupted by only one intron of 93 bp. The 5' non-coding region contains consensus sequences such as canonical TATA, CAAT boxes and putative motifs for transcriptional factors binding sites, such as HSE-like regulating genes involved in thermo-dependent processes; Xbp1, reported as a transcriptional factor that may control genes involved in cell morphology; and StuAp, which may regulate spore differentiation and pseudohyphal growth in fungi. In the 3' non-coding region were observed the canonical motifs necessary for correct mRNA processing and polyadenylation. The deduced protein sequence consists of 842 amino acid residues, showing identity to kexin-like proteinases from A. niger (55%), Emericella nidulans (53%) and C. albicans (48%). Comparative sequence analysis of P. brasiliensis kexin-like protein reveals the presence of homologous regions related to a signal peptide, a propeptide, a subtilisin-like catalytic domain, a P domain, a S/T rich region and a transmembrane domain. A putative Golgi retrieval signal (YEFEMI) has also been found in the

  2. Melan-A/MART-1(51-73) represents an immunogenic HLA-DR4-restricted epitope recognized by melanoma-reactive CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Zarour, H M; Kirkwood, J M; Kierstead, L S; Herr, W; Brusic, V; Slingluff, C L; Sidney, J; Sette, A; Storkus, W J

    2000-01-04

    The human Melan-A/MART-1 gene encodes an HLA-A2-restricted peptide epitope recognized by melanoma-reactive CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Here we report that this gene also encodes at least one HLA-DR4-presented peptide recognized by CD4(+) T cells. The Melan-A/MART-1(51-73) peptide was able to induce the in vitro expansion of specific CD4(+) T cells derived from normal DR4(+) donors or from DR4(+) patients with melanoma when pulsed onto autologous dendritic cells. CD4(+) responder T cells specifically produced IFN-gamma in response to, and also lysed, T2.DR4 cells pulsed with the Melan-A/MART-1(51-73) peptide and DR4(+) melanoma target cells naturally expressing the Melan-A/MART-1 gene product. Interestingly, CD4(+) T cell immunoreactivity against the Melan-A/MART-1(51-73) peptide typically coexisted with a high frequency of anti-Melan-A/MART-1(27-35) reactive CD8(+) T cells in freshly isolated blood harvested from HLA-A2(+)/DR4(+) patients with melanoma. Taken together, these data support the use of this Melan-A/MART-1 DR4-restricted melanoma epitope in future immunotherapeutic trials designed to generate, augment, and quantitate specific CD4(+) T cell responses against melanoma in vivo.

  3. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid compounds isolated from acai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), luteolin (4)...

  4. Coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and Canine Distemper Virus in a Yellow-throated Marten ( Martes flavigula koreana) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Surim; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hae Beom; Cho, Ho Seong; Kim, Wonil; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-04-28

    We describe coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and canine distemper virus (CDV) in a yellow-throated marten ( Martes flavigula koreana). We found Hepatozoon cysts in muscular tissue and viral inclusion bodies in the brain. Hepatozoon sp., and CDV was confirmed in blood and brain, respectively, by PCR.

  5. Non-fermented and fermented Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces of as valuable sources of functional ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart) is a non-climacteric, highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. The processing to obtain these products generates a great amount of by-products (p...

  6. Rapid screening and identification of α-amylase inhibitors from Garcinia xanthochymus using enzyme-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles coupled with HPLC and MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfang; Chen, Yu; Xiao, Chuying; Chen, Dan; Xiao, Yuxiu; Mei, Zhinan

    2014-06-01

    α-Amylase inhibitors play an important role in management of diabetes and obesity. In order to rapidly discover potent α-amylase inhibitors from medicinal plants, a ligands-screening method based on enzyme-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles integrated with HPLC was developed. Amine-terminated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared for the immobilization of α-amylase. Based on the affinity theory, the α-amylase-coated magnetic nanoparticles were employed to fish out the ligands from the extracts of Garcinia xanthochymus, and the elutes were examined by HPLC. As a result, three ligands were screened out. Isolation and identification were carried out subsequently. By analyzing the UV, MS and NMR spectra, they were identified as three biflavonoids including GB2a glucoside (2), GB2a (3) and fukugetin (4). The IC50 values of the three compounds were also determined. The results suggest the proposed approach is efficient and accurate, and has great potential in rapid discovery of drug candidates from medical plants.

  7. Nujiangexathone A, a Novel Compound Derived from Garcinia nujiangensis, Induces Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer through the ROS/JNK Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Kong, Si-Yuan; Zheng, Zhao-Qing; Meng, Xiao-Xiao; Feng, Ji-Ling; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Xiao, Lian-Bo; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-10-12

    Nujiangexathone A (NJXA), a novel compound derived from Garcinia nujiangensis, has been demonstrated to inhibit the proliferation of several human cancer cell lines. This study is the first to demonstrate the apoptosis inductive activities of NJXA and the possible underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that NJXA inhibited colony formation by HeLa and SiHa cells in a dose-dependent manner. An Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay showed that NJXA strongly triggered apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting analyses showed that NJXA induced the caspase-dependent apoptosis of HeLa and SiHa cells by triggering a series of events, including changes in the levels of Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and chromosome fragmentation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that NJXA induced cell apoptosis by activating the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated JNK signaling pathway. Consistent with this finding, a ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, 10 mM), hindered NJXA-induced apoptosis and attenuated the sensitivity of HeLa and SiHa cells to NJXA. In vivo results further confirmed that the tumor inhibitory effect of NJXA was partially through the induction of apoptosis. Taken together, our results demonstrated that NJXA induced the apoptosis of HeLa and SiHa cells through the ROS/JNK signaling pathway, indicating that NJXA could be important candidate for the clinical treatment of cervical cancer.

  8. Diagnostic filtering to screen polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia oblongifolia by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Dan; Li, Hao-Hao; Wang, Hui; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-03-17

    A novel multistage MS approach, insource collision-induced dissociation (CID) combined with Time Aligned Parallel (TAP) fragmentation, was established to study the fragmentation behavior of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs), which could provide a more reliable fragmentation relationship between precursor and daughter ions. The diagnostic ions for different subtypes of PPAPs and their fragmentation behaviors have been summarized. Moreover, a new and reliable multidimensional analytical workflow that combines ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), data-independent mass spectrometry (MS(E)), and tandem MS with ion mobility (IM) has been optimized and established for the analysis of PPAPs in the plant Garcinia oblongifolia by diagnostic filtering. Diagnostic fragment ions were used to selectively screen PPAPs from extracts, whereas IM coupled to MS was used to maximize the peak capacity. Under the optimized UHPLC-IM-MS(E) and UHPLC-IM-MS/MS method, 140 PPAPs were detected from the crude extract of G. oblongifolia, and 10 of them were unambiguously identified by comparing them to the reference compounds. Among those PPAPs, 7 pairs of coeluting isobaric PPAPs that were indistinguishable by conventional UHPLC-HRMS alone, were further resolved using UHPLC-IM-MS. It is anticipated that the proposed method will be extended to the rapid screening and characterization of the other targeted or untargeted compounds, especially these coeluting isomers in complex samples.

  9. The co-pigmentation of anthocyanin isolated from mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia Mangostana L.) as Natural Dye for Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munawaroh, H.; adillah, G. F.; Saputri, L. N. M. Z.; Hanif, Q. A.; Hidayat, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2016-02-01

    Study of color stability of anthocyanin from extract mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) with co-pigmentation method has been conducted. Malic acid and ascorbic acid used as a co-pigment to stabilize the anthocyanin structure through formation of new binding between anthocyanin. Anthocyanin from mangosteen pericarp were isolated by several steps, including maceration, extraction, and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The anthocyanin separation was conducted by TLC, while the identification of functional groups of those compound, were used FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) for spectra analysis. Ultraviolet- visible absorption spectra have represented differences absorbance and color intensity in various pH. Copigmentation with malic acid and ascorbic acid in many composition and temperature were also well described. Meanwhile, anthocyanin-malic acid and anthocyanin-ascorbic acid have color retention higher than that of pure anthocyanin. Maximum color retention has been achieved at a ratio of 1:3 and 1:5 for ascorbic acid and malic acid, respectively. Therefore, the addition of ascorbic acid and malic acid as a copigment shows the ability to protect color retention of anthocyanin (mangosteen pericarp) from degradation process. The better efficiency of DSSC (η) have been achieved, whereas n of controlled anthocyanin, anthocyanin-ascorbic acid, and anthocyanin-malic acid were 0,1996%, 0,2922%, 0,3029%, respectively.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of 1,3,5,7-Tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone Isolated from Twigs of Garcinia esculenta on Stimulated Macrophage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Hong; Lao, Yuan-zhi; Wu, Rong; Xu, Jin-wen; Murad, Ferid; Bian, Ka; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia Linn. plants having rich natural xanthones and benzophenones with anti-inflammatory activity attracted a great deal of attention to discover and develop them as potential drug candidates. Through screening targeting nitric oxide accumulation in stimulated macrophage, we found that 1,3,5,7-tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone (TIE) had potential anti-inflammatory effect. To understand how TIE elicits its anti-inflammatory activity, we uncovered that it significantly inhibits the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS/IFNγ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In further study, we showed that TIE reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), two key molecules responsible for the production of NO and PGE2 during inflammation progress. Additionally, TIE also suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. TIE-led suppression in iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines production were probably the consequence of TIE's capability to block ERK and p38MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, TIE blocked activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) as well as NF-κB regulation of miR155 expression. Our study suggests that TIE may represent as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  11. Griffipavixanthone from Garcinia oblongifolia champ induces cell apoptosis in human non-small-cell lung cancer H520 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-Min; Huang, Hui-Juan; Qiu, Sheng-Xiang; Feng, Shi-Xiu; Li, Xu-E

    2014-01-27

    Griffipavixanthone (GPX) is a dimeric xanthone which was isolated in a systematic investigation of Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. In this study, we investigate the effect of GPX on cell proliferation and apoptosis on human Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and determine the mechanisms of its action. GPX inhibited the growth of H520 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners, with IC50 values of 3.03 ± 0.21 μM at 48 h. The morphologic characteristics of apoptosis and apoptotic bodies were observed by fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope. In addition, Annexin V/PI double staining assay revealed that cells in early stage of apoptosis were significantly increased upon GPX treatment dose-dependently. Rh123 staining assay indicated that GPX reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential. DCFH-DA staining revealed that intracellular ROS increased with GPX treatment. Moreover, GPX cleaved and activated caspase-3. In summary, this study showed that GPX inhibited H520 cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner. Further mechanistic study indicated that GPX induced cell apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway accompanying with ROS production. Our results demonstrate the potential application of GPX as an anti-non-small cell lung cancer agent.

  12. Identification of hepatoprotective xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, guided with tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative injury in HL-7702 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Liu, Qianyu; Ye, Yang; Wang, Yitao; Lin, Ligen

    2015-09-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced oxidative damage in human normal hepatocytes (HL-7702), led to the identification of 10 known xanthones. Among them, γ-mangostin (γ-Man) exhibited the most potent activity to attenuate t-BHP induced hepatocyte injury. γ-Man significantly ameliorated t-BHP induced reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cell nuclei morphology change in HL-7702 cells. t-BHP decreased the intracellular levels of key enzymes including glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was totally reversed by γ-Man. Moreover, γ-Man significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione, resulting in the alleviation of oxidative stress. The above results suggest γ-Man is a potential hepatoprotective agent against t-BHP induced oxidative injury, which may benefit the further application of G. mangostana as a health food.

  13. Morphological and biochemical investigation into the possible neuroprotective effects of kolaviron (Garcinia kola bioflavonoid) on the brains of rats exposed to vanadium.

    PubMed

    Igado, Olumayowa O; Olopade, James O; Adesida, Adebukola; Aina, Oluwasanmi O; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the morphological and biochemical susceptibility of the rat brain to vanadium, in the form of sodium metavanadate, and the comparative ameliorative effect of Garcinia kola and kolaviron (G. kola extract), was examined. Brain regions examined were the cerebrum, cerebellum, hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. We showed that vanadium administration caused cellular vacuolation, congestion, and Purkinje cell degeneration and a marked reduction in myelin tracts. Biochemical tests revealed increased lipid peroxidation induced by vanadium, which was ameliorated with the administration of G. kola and kolaviron. Vanadium administration caused an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the cerebrum and hippocampus, whereas the administration of kolaviron resulted in a reduction of the TBARS level by 65.7 and 80%, respectively, in the regions aforementioned. Also, the administration of kolaviron resulted in an increased activity of superoxide dismutase (61.24%) in all brain regions assessed, when compared with the group administered vanadium alone. Results obtained from this study led to the conclusion that kolaviron reduces vanadium-induced oxidative stress in the brain.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of 1,3,5,7-Tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone Isolated from Twigs of Garcinia esculenta on Stimulated Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Hong; Lao, Yuan-zhi; Wu, Rong; Xu, Jin-wen; Murad, Ferid; Bian, Ka; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia Linn. plants having rich natural xanthones and benzophenones with anti-inflammatory activity attracted a great deal of attention to discover and develop them as potential drug candidates. Through screening targeting nitric oxide accumulation in stimulated macrophage, we found that 1,3,5,7-tetrahydroxy-8-isoprenylxanthone (TIE) had potential anti-inflammatory effect. To understand how TIE elicits its anti-inflammatory activity, we uncovered that it significantly inhibits the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS/IFNγ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In further study, we showed that TIE reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), two key molecules responsible for the production of NO and PGE2 during inflammation progress. Additionally, TIE also suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. TIE-led suppression in iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines production were probably the consequence of TIE's capability to block ERK and p38MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, TIE blocked activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) as well as NF-κB regulation of miR155 expression. Our study suggests that TIE may represent as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26538826

  15. Systemic Identification of Hevea brasiliensis EST-SSR Markers and Primer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Benjun

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to systematically identify and preliminarily validate the Hevea brasiliensis expressed sequence tag (EST) information using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and provide evidence for further development of SSR molecular marker. The definition of general SSR features of Hevea EST splicing sequences and development of SSR primers founded the basis of diversity analysis and variety identification for Hevea tree resource. 1134 SSR loci were identified in the EST splicing sequence and distributed in 840 Unigene. The occurrence rate of SSR loci was 23.9%, and the average distribution distance of EST-SSR was 2.59 kb. The major repeat type was mononucleotide repeat motif, which accounted for 38.89%, while the corresponding value was 36.95% for dinucleotide repeat motif and 18.17% for trinucleotide repeat motif; the proportion of other motifs was only 5.99%. The superior repeat motifs for mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide were A/T, AG/CT, and AAG/CTT, respectively. 739 pair of primers were designed for 1134 SSR loci. PCR amplification was performed on Hevea Reyan5-11, Reyan87-6-47, and PR107, and 180 pairs of primers were selected which were able to amplify polymorphism bands. PMID:28232872

  16. Description of Leptopharynx brasiliensis nov. spec. and Leptopharynx costatus gonohymen nov. subspec. (Ciliophora, Microthoracida)

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Atef; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Using standard morphological methods, we describe one new Leptopharynx species and a new subspecies of L. costatus, both from soil of the neotropic region. Further, we studied two populations of L. costatus costatus. Leptopharynx brasiliensis nov. spec., which was discovered in the Mato Grosso, Brazil, is a large member (60 μm) of the genus with an enormous oral basket. It differs from similar congeners in having six monokinetids in kinety 6, widely spaced kinetids in kinety 1, and an average of 294 kinetids. Leptopharynx costatus gonohymen nov. subspec., which was discovered in southern Florida, makes a small (35 μm) and a large morph (55 μm) both with narrow oral basket. The small morph is inseparable from the small morph of L. costatus costatus, while the large morph has right-angled adoral membranelles and widely (vs. narrowly) spaced kinetids in kinety 1. The small morphs of a Brazilian and an Austrian L. costatus match Mexican and other European populations, all having on average 181–187 kinetids. As yet, we know four morphs of L. costatus that differ by body size (small vs. large), the oral basket (narrow vs. wide), membranelle 1 (present vs. absent), and the arrangement of the membranelles (flat vs. angled). PMID:21855305

  17. Purification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis catalase P: subsequent kinetic and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Ronney Fernandes; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia; Winters, Michael S; Pereira, Maristela; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    Catalases are essential components of the cellular equipment to cope with oxidative stress. Here we have purified a highly abundant catalase P of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (PbCatP) that is preferentially expressed in the parasitic yeast phase. This oxidative stress-induced protein was isolated from yeast cells grown in the presence of 15 mM of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). We have used consecutive steps of protein precipitation and gel filtration chromatography to achieve the purified protein. Protein purification was validated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis. The purified enzyme showed strong similarity to small-subunit catalases. Like most monofunctional catalases, PbCatP is a homotetramer, resistant to inactivation by acidic conditions, temperature and denaturants. Furthermore, the kinetic behaviour of catalase P was observed to be different at low compared to high H(2)O(2) concentrations. The results demonstrated that a purified PbCatP is a homotetrameric enzyme, classified as a small subunit catalase.

  18. Identification and subcellular localization analysis of two rubber elongation factor isoforms on Hevea brasiliensis rubber particles.

    PubMed

    Dai, Longjun; Nie, Zhiyi; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Zeng, Rizhong

    2017-02-01

    Rubber elongation factor (REF) is the most abundant protein found on the rubber particles or latex from Hevea brasiliensis (the Para rubber tree) and is considered to play important roles in natural rubber (cis-polyisoprene) biosynthesis. 16 BAC (benzyldimethyl-n-hexadecylammonium chloride)/SDS-PAGE separations and mass spectrometric identification had revealed that two REF isoforms shared similar amino acid sequences and common C-terminal sequences. In this study, the gene sequences encoding these two REF isoforms (one is 23.6 kDa in size with 222 amino acid residues and the other is 27.3 kDa in size with 258 amino acid residues) were obtained. Their proteins were relatively enriched by sequential extraction of the rubber particle proteins and separated by 16 BAC/SDS-PAGE. The localization of these isoforms on the surfaces of rubber particles was further verified by western blotting and immunogold electron microscopy, which demonstrated that these two REF isoforms are mainly located on the surfaces of larger rubber particles and that they bind more tightly to rubber particles than the most abundant REF and SRPP (small rubber particle protein).

  19. Biochemical characterization of three phase partitioned naringinase from Aspergillus brasiliensis MTCC 1344.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaprakash, M; Vinothkumar, V; Ragupathy, J; Reddy, D Amala

    2015-09-01

    Naringinase is a complex enzyme composed of α-L-rhamnosidase and β-D-glucosidase, which has a vast potential application in the field of industrial biotechnology. The novel aspect in the present study is employing a three-phase partitioning (TPP) technique for the purification of naringinase by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus brasiliensis MTCC 1344. At optimum conditions of 28±2 °C and 30% (w/v) ammonium sulfate along with a 1:1 ratio of t-butanol to crude extract, the purification is enhanced by 4.2-fold .Temperature and pH profile of TPP purified naringinase was found to be active with an optimal activity of 719.6 units at an elevated temperature of 60 °C. The kinetic constants K(m) and V(max) using naringin as substrate were 3.21 mM and 321 U/ml. The purified enzyme was not inhibited by any metal ions except Hg(2+) but completely inhibited by adding chelating agents such as EDTA and SDS at a concentration of 10 mM. These results can be inevitable to establish the TPP method to be an inexpensive, economical and attractive technology for better recovery and to find its application in the industrial sector.

  20. Phosphorylation is the major mechanism regulating isocitrate lyase activity in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Aline H da Silva; Brock, Matthias; Zambuzzi-Carvalho, Patrícia F; Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Troian, Rogério F; Góes, Alfredo M; Soares, Célia M de Almeida; Pereira, Maristela

    2011-07-01

    The glyoxylate cycle plays an essential role for anaplerosis of oxaloacetate during growth of microorganisms on carbon sources such as acetate or fatty acids and has been shown to contribute to virulence of several pathogens. Here, we investigated the transcriptional and post-translational regulation of the glyoxylate cycle key enzyme isocitrate lyase (PbICL) in the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Although sequence analyses on fungal isocitrate lyases revealed a high phylogenetic conservation, their regulation seems to differ significantly. Closely related Aspergillus species regulate the glyoxylate cycle at the transcriptional level, whereas Pbicl was constitutively expressed in yeast cells. However, only low PbICL activity was detected when cells were grown in the presence of glucose. Two-dimensional gel analyses with subsequent antibody hybridization revealed constitutive production of PbICL, but low PbICL activity on glucose coincided with extensive protein phosphorylation. Since an in vitro dephosphorylation of PbICL from glucose grown cells strongly increased ICL activity and resembled the phosphorylation pattern of highly active acetate grown cells, post-translational modification seems the main mechanism regulating PbICL activity in yeast cells. In agreement, a transfer of yeast cells from glucose to acetate medium increased PbICL activity without requirement of de novo protein synthesis. Thus, inactivation of PbICL by phosphorylation is reversible, denoting a new strategy for the rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions.