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Sample records for garcinia kola seeds

  1. Garcinia kola seeds: is the aqueous extract a true aphrodisiac in male Wistar rats?

    PubMed

    Yakubu, M T; Quadri, A L

    2012-01-01

    The age long acclaimed aphrodisiac potentials of Garcinia kola seeds in some parts of Western Nigeria has not been substantiated with scientific evidence. In this study, we have decided to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of G. kola at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight on sexual behaviour of male rats. Male rats weighing 215.00 ± 18.58 g were randomized completely into four groups (A-D) of six animals each. Animals in group A received, orally, 0.5 ml of distilled water only while those in groups B, C and D received same volume containing 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the seed extract respectively. Frequencies of mount (MF), intromission (IF), genital toilet (GTF) and ejaculation (EF) as well as latencies of mount (ML), intromission (IL) and ejaculation (EL) were evaluated following the pairing of male rats (1:1) with non-oestrous female rats. The parameters were monitored for the first (15-30 min), second (75-90 min) and third (180195 min) observatory periods. The levels of testosterone, luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) were also determined. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of saponins (2.78%), cardiac glycosides (0.26%), cardenolides and dienolides (0.24%), flavonoids (1.28%) and steroids (1.14%). The 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight increased (P<0.05) the MF whereas the ML was decreased by all the doses of the extract. MF and ML were not altered during the second observatory period whereas the 50 mg/kg body weight increased these parameters during the third observatory period. Other sexual behaviour parameters as well as serum testosterone, FSH and LH were not significantly altered throughout the observatory periods. Overall, the results revealed that G. kola seeds did not have sex enhancing potential as claimed. Therefore, the acclaimed pro sexual effect of Garcinia kola seeds is scientifically untrue. This study has refuted the claim that one of the rationales for consuming the seeds

  2. Effect of dietary Garcinia kola seed on selected serum electrolytes and trace metals in male Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Agada, P O; Braide, V B

    2009-06-01

    The effects of various doses of dietary intake of Garcinia kola seed powder [incorporated in animal feed at levels of 5% w/w, 10% w/w and 20% w/w and fed daily for six weeks] on serum levels of selected electrolytes [K+, Na+, CI-, HCO3-, Mg2+ and Ca2+] and trace metals [Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+] were studied in male Albino rats [100-150 g body wt]. The pair-fed controls received basal feed diet daily for six weeks. Results showed a significant [P<0.05] dose dependent elevation of serum CI-, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+. These findings point to a possible relationship with already documented histopathology of various organs [such as the gonads] induced by Garcinia kola seed. It is also conjectured that the documented antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, antidiabetic and antifertility effects of Garcinia kola seed may have underlying involvement of alterations in body levels of trace metals and electrolytes.

  3. Antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects of methanolic extract from seeds of Garcinia kola on isolated rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Udia, P M; Braide, V B; Owu, D U

    2009-12-01

    The antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects of methanolic extract of seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel were studied on smooth muscle preparations in vitro. The influence of the extract on rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum was investigated using acetylcholine and barium chloride as agonists. The extract exhibited dose-dependent antispasmodic effects on contractions induced by acetylcholine, and dose-dependent spasmolytic effects on spasms induced by cumulatively increased concentrations of acetylcholine and barium chloride. The graded log concentration-response curves for acetylcholine were non-parallel but shifted to the right in the presence of the extract. It is concluded that the Garcinia kola extract inhibits smooth muscle activity via other mechanisms but not involving neither cholinergic nor adrenergic receptor interaction.

  4. Potential use ofGarcinia kola as hop substitute in lager beer brewing.

    PubMed

    Aniche, G N; Uwakwe, G U

    1990-09-01

    The chemical, brewing and anti-microbial properties of a tropical seed,Garcinia kola, were compared with traditional hops. Treatment ofGarcinia kola with methanolic lead acetate produced a yellow precipitate from which organic acids (alpha acids) were contirmed to be present by thin-layer chromatography. Hops, however, had a higher concentration of organic acids thanGarcinia kola. Laboratory brewing trials withGarcinia kola and hops gave beers with simillar chemical properties. Organoleptically,Garcinia kola beer was as acceptable to tasters as hopped beer except that it had an improved bitterness.Garcinia kola and hop extracts exerted similar anti-microbial effects on two beer spollage micro-organisms (Lactobacillus delbruckii andCandida vini).

  5. Detection of a Gentamicin-Resistant Burn Wound Strain of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa but Sensitive to Honey and Garcinia Kola (Heckel) Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Adeleke, O.E.; Coker, M.E.; Oke, O.B.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Studies on Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus intermedius from dog and cat, and also on Staphylococcus aureus from wound and pyoderma infections, have shown a correlation between the site of microbial infection and antimicrobial susceptibility. Both the methanolic extract concentrate of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds and natural honey have been associated with activity on bacterial isolates from respiratory tract infections. In this study, selected bacteria belonging to genera from burn wound infection sites were treated with natural honey and methanolic extract concentrate of Garcinia kola in antimicrobial susceptibility tests separately and in combined form, and also with gentamicin and methanol as controls. The two natural products were found to be active on the bacterial isolates, excluding Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, all of which showed resistance to honey. Combination forms of the two natural products were active only on the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At 4 and 8 µg/ml, gentamicin was ineffective on the three strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae while 8 µg/ml was moderately active on only two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, UCH002, was resistant to gentamicin beyond 1,000 µ/ml. Gentamicin at 4 µ/ml was inhibitory to one strain of Escherichia coli and two strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Though the antimicrobial activity of the two natural products tested had been previously reported against microbial agents of respiratory tract infection, it was also recorded in this study. The lack of activity of each of the three honey types used in this study against the Klebsiella pneumoniae strains tested underscores the need to exclude this organism from burn wound infections before embarking on treatment with honey. The sensitivity of one high-level gentamicin-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to honey and Garcinia kola seed extract was noteworthy considering the therapeutic failures of gentamicin

  6. Effect of gavage treatment with pulverised Garcinia kola seeds on erythrocyte membrane integrity and selected haematological indices in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ahumibe, A A; Braide, V B

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the effect of the whole seed of Garcinia kola [GKS] on various blood parameters, in adult male albino rats. Five groups, of 6 animals per group, were treated by gavage with suspensions of graded concentrations of GKS daily for 5 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and blood was obtained for estimation of the data herein presented. Packed red cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], and red blood cell count [RBC] showed significantly [P<0.05], increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell [WBC] counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red blood cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] levels decreased with increasing GKS dosage. Prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [APPT] were both prolonged with increased GKS dosage; while the serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) decreased significantly [P<0.05] with increased GKS dosage.

  7. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex of Garcinia kola seeds modulates apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Ayepola, Omolola R; Cerf, Marlon E; Brooks, Nicole L; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2014-12-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is a complex disease that involves increased production of free radicals which is a strong stimulus for the release of pro-inflammatory factors. We evaluated the renal protective effect of kolaviron (KV) - a Garcinia kola seed extract containing a mixture of 5 flavonoids, in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: untreated controls (C); normal rats treated with kolaviron (C+KV); untreated diabetic rats (D); kolaviron treated diabetic rats (D+KV). A single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50mg/kg) was used for the induction of diabetes. Renal function parameters were estimated in a clinical chemistry analyzer. Markers of oxidative stress in the kidney homogenate were analyzed in a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader and Bio-plex Promagnetic bead-based assays was used for the analysis of inflammatory markers. The effect of kolaviron on diabetes-induced apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay. In the diabetic rats, alterations in antioxidant defenses such as an increase in lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity, glutathione (GSH) levels and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were observed. There was no difference in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Diabetes induction increased apoptotic cell death and the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α with no effect on IL-10. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes, reduced lipid peroxidation and increased ORAC and GSH concentration in renal tissues. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats also suppressed renal IL-1β. The beneficial effects of kolaviron on diabetes-induced kidney injury may be due to its inhibitory action on oxidative stress, IL-1β production and apoptosis.

  8. Effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, on the antioxidant, hormonal and spermatogenic indices of diabetic male rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, O A; Lawal, S O

    2014-10-01

    The antihyperglycaemic effect of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola has been established in previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of KV (200 mg kg(-1) ) on the antioxidant, hormonal and spermatogenic indices of alloxan-diabetic male rats, and metformin hydrochloride (MET) (30 mg kg(-1) ) served as standard drug. The results showed that KV and MET significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the fasting blood glucose of the diabetic rats. Also, untreated and MET-treated diabetic groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower body-weight gain and relative weights of testes. In addition, epididymal sperm abnormalities were increased, whereas sperm count, motility, testicular protein and sialic acid were decreased in untreated diabetic group. Also, antioxidant parameters, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in the testes with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation in untreated diabetic group. Furthermore, untreated diabetic group had significantly (P < 0.05) lower levels of testosterone, luteinising and follicle-stimulating hormones relative to controls. Treatment with KV restored the relative weights of testes, activities of antioxidant enzymes, sperm and hormonal indices of the diabetic animals. This study demonstrated the role of KV to promote fertility in diabetic male rats by enhancing the hormonal and antioxidant status of the rats. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Garcinia kola aqueous suspension prevents cerebellar neurodegeneration in long-term diabetic rat - a type 1 diabetes mellitus model.

    PubMed

    Farahna, Mohammed; Seke Etet, Paul F; Osman, Sayed Y; Yurt, Kıymet K; Amir, Naheed; Vecchio, Lorella; Aydin, Isınsu; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Sheikh, Azimullah; Chijuka, John C; Kaplan, Süleyman; Adem, Abdu

    2017-01-04

    The development of compounds able to improve metabolic syndrome and mitigate complications caused by inappropriate glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus is challenging. The medicinal plant with established hypoglycemic properties Garcinia kola Heckel might have the potential to mitigate diabetes mellitus metabolic syndrome and complications. We have investigated the neuroprotective properties of a suspension of G. kola seeds in long-term type 1 diabetes mellitus rat model. Wistar rats, made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were monitored for 8 months. Then, they were administered with distilled water or G. kola oral aqueous suspension daily for 30 days. Body weight and glycemia were determined before and after treatment. After sacrifice, cerebella were dissected out and processed for stereological quantification of Purkinje cells. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of markers of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration were performed. Purkinje cell counts were significantly increased, and histopathological signs of apoptosis and neuroinflammation decreased, in diabetic animals treated with G. kola compared to diabetic rats given distilled water. Glycemia was also markedly improved and body weight restored to non-diabetic control values, following G. kola treatment. These results suggest that G. kola treatment improved the general condition of long-term diabetic rats and protected Purkinje cells partly by improving the systemic glycemia and mitigating neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbiological exploitation of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids from Garcinia kola, Borreria ocymoides, Kola nitida and Citrus aurantifolia.

    PubMed

    Ebana, R U; Madunagu, B E; Ekpe, E D; Otung, I N

    1991-11-01

    The four medicinal plants, Garcinia kola (roots), Borreria ocymoides (leaves), Kola nitida (bark) and Citrus aurantifolia (roots) were screened for phytochemical components. They were found to contain tannins, phlobatannins, polyphenols, hydroxymethyl anthraquinones, glucides, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavanoids and reducing compounds. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts as well as alkaloids and cardiac glycosides of the medicinal plants were tested on various pathogenic bacteria. They were found to inhibit such organisms as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, beta-haemolytic streptococci, Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The usefulness of the phytochemical bases of these plants as potential sources of pharmaceutical drug preparation is discussed.

  11. Isolation, characterization, crystal structure, free radical scavenging- and computational studies of 9-[4-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione from Garcinia kola seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agunbiade, Rachael Y.; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Millikan, Sean P.; Sanusi, Kayode; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Ceylan, Ümit; Fadare, Olatomide A.; Obafemi, Craig A.

    2017-09-01

    A new crystallographic form of a pure xanthenedione derivative (11‧), C22H24O3, was isolated from the hexane extract of the seeds of Garcinia kola. The structure of the compound was determined on the basis of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The compound crystallized as C22H24O3 H2O H3O+ Cl-, as the result of the extraction process, adopts monoclinic, space group P21/n (no. 14) and is stabilized by OWsbnd H⋯OW, OWsbnd H⋯Cl, Csbnd H⋯OW, Csbnd H⋯Cl intramolecular hydrogen bonds and weak OWsbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O, intermolecular interactions forming a 3-D supramolecular structure. The molecular property of the pure xanthene derivative, C22H24O3, has also been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The calculated IR, 1H and 13C data were found to be in good agreement with experimental values. The compound C22H24O3 showed weak DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 2.37 ± 0.08 mg/ml.

  12. Amino acid composition of two masticatory nuts (Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola) and a snack nut (Anacardium occidentale).

    PubMed

    Adeyeye, E I; Asaolu, S S; Aluko, A O

    2007-06-01

    The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. The total amino acids were 356.24 mg/g protein, 112.90 mg/g protein and 659.17 mg/g protein for C. acuminata, G. kola and A. occidentale, respectively. The percentage total essential amino acids were 38.39% (C. acuminata), 47.05% (G. kola) and 51.04% (A. occidentale). Also the percentage total acidic amino acids were 38.16% (C. acuminata), 30.61% (G. kola) and 30.35% (A. occidentale). The calculated isoelectric points were 2.0 (C. acuminata), 0.7 (G. kola) and 3.9 (A. occidentale), showing they can all be precipitated at acidic pH. While threonine was the limiting amino acid in A. occidentale, it was valine in both C. acuminata and G. kola. The percentage cystine (Cys) levels in the total sulphur amino acid were 44.27% (C. acuminata), 37.75% (G. kola) and 50.51% (A. occidentale). The aim of this work was to compare the amino acid profile of the samples. It is recommended that C. acuminata and G. kola consumption be avoided by ulcer patients because of their high levels of acidic amino acids. A. occidentale amino acid scores ranged from 42% to 127%, suggesting that it could be used to enhance the protein quality of cereals through food complementation.

  13. Antibacterial and cytotoxic cytochalasins from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. harbored in Garcinia kola (Heckel) nut.

    PubMed

    Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Tamokou, Jean-de-Dieu; Mbazoa, Céline Djama; Douala-Meli, Clovis; Sarkar, Prodipta; Bag, Prasanta Kumar; Wandji, Jean

    2016-11-14

    The continuous emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria drastically reduced the efficacy of our antibiotic armory and consequently, increased the frequency of therapeutic failure. The search for bioactive constituents from endophytic fungi against MDR bacteria became a necessity for alternative and promising strategies, and for the development of novel therapeutic solutions. We report here the isolation and structure elucidation of antibacterial and cytotoxic compounds from Phomopsis sp., an endophytic fungus associated with Garcinia kola nuts. The fungus Phomopsis sp. was isolated from the nut of Garcinia kola. The crude extract was prepared from mycelium of Phomopsis sp. by maceration in ethyl acetate and sequentially fractionated by column chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral studies and comparison with published data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticancer properties by broth microdilution and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide methods respectively. The samples were also tested spectrophotometrically for their hemolytic properties against human red blood cells. The fractionation of the crude extract afforded three known cytochalasins including 18-metoxycytochalasin J (1), cytochalasins H (2) and J (3) together with alternariol (4). The cytochalasin compounds showed different degrees of antibacterial activities against the tested bacterial pathogens. Shigella flexneri was the most sensitive microorganism while Vibrio cholerae SG24 and Vibrio cholerae PC2 were the most resistant. Ampicillin did not show any antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae NB2, Vibrio cholerae PC2 and Shigella flexneri at concentrations up to 512 μg/mL, but interestingly, these multi-drug resistant bacterial strains were sensitive to the cytochalasin metabolites. These compounds also showed significant cytotoxic properties against human cancer cells (LC50

  14. Isolation and characterization of an antibacterial biflavonoid from an African chewing stick Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiaceae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Xi; Mughal, Sumaya; Taiwo, Oluronke; Lee, Song F

    2013-05-20

    The use of African chewing sticks in maintaining oral health is widely practiced in African countries. It has been reported that chewing stick users have a lower rate of dental caries and a better general oral health than non-users. It is generally thought that the beneficial effect of chewing stick is attributed to the mechanical cleansing effect and antimicrobial substances present in the stick. However, the active antimicrobial substances remain uncharacterized. To provide a scientific basis for the anti-caries effect of African chewing sticks, the authors purify an active antibacterial compound from Garcinia kola Heckel, a Nigerian chewing stick and examined the antibacterial activity of this compound against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. Methanol extract was prepared from Garcinia kola and was further fractionated by solvent extractions. Silica gel chromatography was used to purify the antibacterial compound from the active fraction. The identity of the purified compound was determined by NMR analysis. The antibacterial activity of the purified compound was examined by standard microbiological assays. The antibacterial activity was found in the ether fraction and the active compound was isolated and determined to be a biflavonoid named GB1. GB1 was active against Streptococcus mutans and other oral bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 32-64μg/ml. The basis for the antibacterial effect of GB1 was investigated using Streptococcus mutans as the target. At 256μg/ml, GB1 exhibited some bacteriocidal activity against Streptococcus mutans and induced the aggregation of Streptococcus mutans. GB1 has no apparent effects on protein synthesis and DNA synthesis but inhibited glucose uptake and utilization by Streptococcus mutans suggesting that GB1 exerts its antibacterial effect by inhibiting metabolism. GB1 also inhibited the formation of water-insoluble glucan by the extracellular glucosyltransferases from Streptococcus

  15. Efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% Aqueous Eye Drops in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Adefule-Ositelu, Adebukunola O.; Adegbehingbe, Bernice O.; Adefule, Adebayo K.; Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O.; Samaila, Elsie; Oladigbolu, Kehinde

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% aqueous solution eye drops in patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (POAG/OH). Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-masked, multicenter, active-controlled prospective study. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned in equal numbers to receive Timolol 0.5% eye drops as a control medication (A = Group 1 eyes) or Garcinia kola 0.5% eye drops as the study medication (B = Group 2 eyes). All drops were instilled at 6 am and 6 pm daily. Goldman applanation tonometry was performed at 9 am, 12 pm and 3 pm at baseline, week-6, week-12 and week-24 visits. Voluntary and actively elicited reports of adverse events were documented. The mean change in IOP over 24 weeks was the primary outcome measure. Both groups were compared for statistically significant differences at all visits. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 178 patients were randomly assigned to G. kola and Timolol groups. At baseline there were no differences in mean IOP between groups, based on age, sex, or diagnosis. At the end of the study period (24th week), the mean (± SD) reduction in IOP was 12.93 ± 2.3 mmHg (47.8% ± 0.8% reduction) in G. Kola group and 13.09 ± 2.8 mm Hg (48.2% ± 1.03% reduction) in the Timolol group (P > 0.05). Adverse events were mild in nature with no statistically significant differences between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Garcinia kola ophthalmic solution significantly reduces IOP as compared to baseline. The IOP lowering effect of both treatments was equivalent. PMID:20543944

  16. Morphological and biochemical investigation into the possible neuroprotective effects of kolaviron (Garcinia kola bioflavonoid) on the brains of rats exposed to vanadium.

    PubMed

    Igado, Olumayowa O; Olopade, James O; Adesida, Adebukola; Aina, Oluwasanmi O; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the morphological and biochemical susceptibility of the rat brain to vanadium, in the form of sodium metavanadate, and the comparative ameliorative effect of Garcinia kola and kolaviron (G. kola extract), was examined. Brain regions examined were the cerebrum, cerebellum, hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. We showed that vanadium administration caused cellular vacuolation, congestion, and Purkinje cell degeneration and a marked reduction in myelin tracts. Biochemical tests revealed increased lipid peroxidation induced by vanadium, which was ameliorated with the administration of G. kola and kolaviron. Vanadium administration caused an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the cerebrum and hippocampus, whereas the administration of kolaviron resulted in a reduction of the TBARS level by 65.7 and 80%, respectively, in the regions aforementioned. Also, the administration of kolaviron resulted in an increased activity of superoxide dismutase (61.24%) in all brain regions assessed, when compared with the group administered vanadium alone. Results obtained from this study led to the conclusion that kolaviron reduces vanadium-induced oxidative stress in the brain.

  17. Evaluation of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamais (Mots).

    PubMed

    Ogunleye, R F; Adefemi, S O

    2007-12-01

    Insecticidal effects of different doses of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais were tested. The dust had no significant effect on the two insects; none of them died even at 3 d after treatment. The methanol extracts, however, had rapid lethal effects on both C. maculatus and S. zeamais. The mortality of C. maculatus by the lowest concentration of methanol extracts ranged from 95%~100% whereas in S. zeamais, the mortality ranged from 87.5% to approximately 100% and 70% to approximately 100% in concentrations of 1 g extract+3 ml methanol and 1 g extract+5 ml methanol, respectively, from 24 to 48 h. The least concentration of 1 g extract+15 ml methanol had no significant lethal effect on Sitophilus zeamais.

  18. RNA-seq assembly and analysis of Garcinia mangostana transcriptome during seed germination.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Nur Diyana Kamal; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Zainal, Zamri

    2017-10-01

    Garcinia mangostana is a tropical fruit plant rich in antioxidant and bears recalcitrant seeds. The extent of water loss and low temperature tolerable by recalcitrant seed varies from regular orthodox seeds. Present study generates transcriptome resources for G. mangostana to postulate potential transcriptome differences between recalcitrant and orthodox seeds during seed germination process. Raw reads of pooled samples used for the assembly have been deposited in genbank accession SRR5412332.

  19. Three indigenous plants used in anti-cancer remedies, Garcinia kola Heckel (stem bark), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (root) and Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. (root) show analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models.

    PubMed

    Popoola, Temidayo D; Awodele, Olufunsho; Omisanya, Adeola; Obi, Nkechinyerem; Umezinwa, Chioma; Fatokun, Amos A

    2016-12-24

    Phytochemicals with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties are known to inhibit tumour initiation, promotion and progression. Hence, there is an increasingly-convincing rationale for employing remedies containing those phytochemicals in the treatment of cancers and also as analgesic and anti-inflammatory adjuvants in therapy. The plants Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiaceae), stem bark; Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (Annonaceae), root; and Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. (Olacaceae), root, have been documented to be part of various indigenous anti-cancer regimens. To determine if the three plants exhibit significant anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Using established models, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the three plants were investigated. Pre-treatment with the plant extracts at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg produced inhibition of writhes; G. kola and U. chamae showed no significant effect on formalin-induced pain, but O. subscorpioidea produced inhibition in both phases of the formalin test. Similarly, while G. kola and U. chamae did not produce any significant inhibitory effect in the xylene-induced ear oedema model, the oedema was significantly reduced by O. subscorpioidea pre-treatment. However, all the three plants significantly inhibited the time-dependent increase in paw circumference in the carrageenan- and formaldehyde-induced rat paw oedema tests, with peak effects observed at 400mg/kg, 6h after the induction of oedema, comparable in some cases to the effects of two standard drugs, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and the anti-inflammatory antibiotic doxycycline. We conclude that the three plant extracts possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, thus providing a scientific rationale for their inclusion in some traditional anti-cancer regimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidative and chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid.

    PubMed

    Farombi, Ebenezer O; Owoeye, Olatunde

    2011-06-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as "bitter kola", plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors.

  1. Effectiveness of primate seed dispersers for an "oversized" fruit, Garcinia benthamii.

    PubMed

    McConkey, Kim R; Brockelman, Warren Y; Saralamba, Chanpen; Nathalang, Anuttara

    2015-10-01

    The largest fruits found in tropical forests may depend on complementary seed dispersal strategies. These fruits are dispersed most effectively by megafauna, but populations can persist where megafauna are absent or erratic visitors. Smaller animals often consume these large fruits, but their capacity to disperse these seeds effectively has rarely been assessed. We evaluated the contributions of gibbons (Hylobates lar) and other frugivores in the seed dispersal of the megafaunal fruit Garcinia benthamii, using the SDE (seed dispersal effectiveness) landscape. Gibbons preferentially consumed G. benthamii fruits and were the main seed disperser that we observed. However, gibbons became satiated when availability was high, with 57% of fruits falling to the ground unhandled. Recruitment of seedlings from gibbon-dispersed seeds was also very low. Elephants consumed G. benthamii fruit, but occurred at low density and were rare visitors to the trees. We suggest that gibbons might complement the seed dispersal role of elephants for G. benthamii, allowing limited recruitment in areas (such as the study site) where elephants occur at low density. Fruit availability varied between years; when availability was low, gibbons reliably consumed most of the crop and dispersed some seeds that established seedlings, albeit at low numbers (2.5 seedlings per crop). When fruit availability was high, the fruit supply overwhelmed the gibbons and other arboreal frugivores, ensuring a large abundance of fruit available to terrestrial seed dispersers. Although gibbons effectively dispersed more seeds at these times (20.7 seedlings per crop), there was the potential for elephants to move many more seeds. Complementary seed dispersal strategies may be important for megafaunal fruit, because they ensure that very large fruits are able to benefit from megafaunal dispersal but also persist where this dispersal becomes erratic. However, our data suggest that smaller seed dispersers might not be

  2. Antioxidative and Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid

    PubMed Central

    Farombi, Ebenezer O.; Owoeye, Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as “bitter kola”, plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors. PMID:21776245

  3. Anticariogenic potentials of clove, tobacco and bitter kola.

    PubMed

    Uju, Dibua Esther; Obioma, Nnamani Petra

    2011-10-01

    To investigate three tropical plant materials - clove seeds [Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum)], bitter kola fruits [Garcinia kola (G. kola)] and tobacco leaves (Nicotiana species) as potential targeted killers of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), a cavity-causing bacterium (gram-positive, facultative anaerobe) that resides in a multispecies microbial community (dental plaque) for the treatment of dental caries (tooth decay). Thirty one (31) teeth samples were collected from patients with obvious signs of tooth decay (swollen gum, weak or fallen tooth, etc.) using sterile swab sticks. These samples were collected from two major dental clinics in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria and investigated by spread inoculation onto sterile blood agar and Mueller Hinton agar (MHA) respectively and incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The discrete colonies obtained were further re-inoculated onto sterile Mitis salivarius agar (MSA) plates and incubated as above. The isolates were characterized by gram staining and catalase test. Tobacco leaves, clove seeds and bitter kola fruits were ground into powder, extracted with three different solvents (n-hexane, hot water and ethanol), filtered, dried and stored in clean containers, corked and kept until used. The plant extracts were investigated for phytochemistry, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum cidal concentration (MCC) and compared with some conventional antibiotics commonly used against tooth decay. Antibiotic sensitivity test was also carried out. The results were statistically analyzed. The extracts showed varied phytochemical composition but most abundantly the flavonoids. Our result also shows that females (16) have more tooth decay than males (15) and that 16 samples were very bloody while 15 were slightly bloody. The microbial characterization showed that 18 samples were catalase-positive indicating the presence of S. mutans while 13 were catalase-negative suspected to be Staphylococcus spp. The Gram reaction confirmed

  4. Characterization of acyl-ACP thioesterases of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) seed and high levels of stearate production in transgenic canola.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, D J; Kridl, J C

    1998-03-01

    Acyl-acyl-carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are, at least in part, responsible for the fatty acyl chain length composition of seed storage oils. Acyl-ACP thioesterases with specificity for each of the saturated acyl-ACP substrates from 8:0 through 16:0 have been cloned, with the exception of 18:0, and are members of the FatB class of thioesterases. The authors have determined that the tropical tree species mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) stores 18:0 (stearate) in its seed oil in amounts of up to 56% by weight. Acyl-ACP thioesterase activity as measured in crude mangosteen seed extracts showed a preference for 18:1-ACP substrates, but had significant activity with 18:0 relative to that with 16:0-ACP, suggesting a thioesterase might be involved in the production of stearate. Three distinct acyl-ACP thioesterases were cloned from mangosteen seed cDNA; two representative of the FatA class and one representative of the FatB class. When expressed in vitro, the enzyme encoded by one of the FatAs (Garm FatA1) while preferring 18:1-ACP showed relatively low activity with 16:0-ACP as compared to 18:0-ACP, similar to the substrate preferences shown by the crude seed extract. Expression of Garm FatA1 in Brassica seeds led to the accumulation of stearate up to 22% in seed oil. These results suggest that Garm FatA1 is at least partially responsible for determining the high stearate composition of mangosteen seed oil and that FatA as well FatB thioesterases have evolved for specialized roles.

  5. [Secondary embryonary root associated with seed germination in Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae) and its possible role in seedling survival].

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, José Fco; Marín, Walter A; Díaz, Marco A

    2006-09-01

    Germination tests on Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae) seeds showed the growth of two types of roots: additionally to the primary root, a secondary root crosses the seed lengthwise. To determine its possible role on the survival and growth of this species, 90 seedlings at least six months old (collected in Central Costa Rica) were planted in plastic bags with organic soil, and placed in a greenhouse. The seedlings were treated as follows: treatments in which the primary or secondary root was cut off, and a control group with both roots intact (30 replicates each). After three months 10 seedlings/month/treatment were extracted to measure their height, basal diameter, root length (main and secondary root), and biomass of the stem, roots and seed (without its coat). Control seedlings had the highest growth, followed by those without secondary roots. Nonetheless, more than 90% of the seedlings whose primary roots were cut off, survived after five months of the excision treatment, in part due to the capacity of this species to regenerate its radical system through the seed reserves, sprouting of a primary-like root, and/or the growth stimulus of the secondary root (60% of the total: 20% with sprouts from the primary root stump, 13.3% with a growth stimulus of the secondary root, and 26.7% with both conditions). The length of the sprouted roots was significantly different only on those plants that were extracted during the first two monthly measurements, when compared with the control (F6 = 18.6, F7 = 16.0, p < 0.01).

  6. Total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Rababah, Taha M; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Horax, Ronny

    2004-08-11

    The total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone, were determined. Grape seed and green tea were analyzed for their phenolic constituents using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolics of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent/g dry material. The antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts determined by conjugated diene measurement of methyl linoleate were 3.4-86.3%. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using chicken fat by an oxidative stability instrument (4.6-10.2 h of induction time) followed a similar trend in antioxidant activity as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Seven phenolics in grape seed and green tea extracts were identified that ranged from 15.38 to 1158.49 and 18.3 to 1087.02 mg/100 g of extract, respectively. Plant extracts such as green tea and grape seed extracts can be used to retard lipid oxidation in a variety of food products.

  7. Evaluation and Characterization of Malabar Tamarind [Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr.] Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Choppa, Tharachand; Selvaraj, Chinnadurai Immanuel; Zachariah, Abraham

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the chemical compounds present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil. The oil was extracted from the seeds of Malabar tamarind fruits collected from NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur. The seeds yielded 46.5 % of oil. Parameters such as the peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, and acid value of the extracted Malabar tamarind seed oil were determined. These values were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters present in the oil. UV absorption spectroscopy of the oil showed hypsochromic shift, and the maximum absorbance was at 269 nm. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum revealed the presence of olefin hydrogen and carbonyl group of ester compounds in the oil sample. The evaluation of the chemical compounds in the oil using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that, a total of five fatty acid methyl esters were present in the oil sample. Among the five fatty acid esters present in the Malabar tamarind seed oil, Methyl 16-methyl heptadecanoate (54.57 %) was found to be the predominant compound. This study also supports the presence of olefins in the long chain fatty acids from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. There is a significant correlation between the properties and the characteristic profile of the oil sample. This study is the first report that shows Malabar tamarind as a promising source of oil seeds.

  8. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid of Garcinia kola seed mitigates ischemic/reperfusion injury by modulation of pro-survival and apoptotic signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Bester, Dirk; Esterhuyse, Johan; Farombi, Ebenezer Olatunde

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effect of Kolaviron (KV) on ischemic/reperfusion injury in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: Group 1 received corn oil as a vehicle and rats in Group 2 were administered KV at 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. The rats were fed with rat standard chow pellet and water administered ad libitum. After 4 weeks of KV administration, hearts were excised and mounted on the working heart perfusion system. Western blot analysis for protein expression was carried out on frozen heart samples. Results: There was significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase with concomitant reduction in oxygen radical absorbance capacity in ischemic rat heart of control compared to group pre-treated with KV, respectively. Similarly, intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde were significantly elevated in control compared to KV pre-treated rats. KV significantly increased total Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), phosphorylated Akt/PKB at serine 473 and also caused a significant reduction in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Caspase 3, and cleaved poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase. Conclusion: Taken together, KV offered significant cardioprotection via free radical scavenging activity and upregulation of pro-survival pathway. PMID:28163959

  9. Plant-mediated green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Garcinia gummi-gutta seed extract: Photoluminescence, screening of their catalytic activity in antioxidant, formylation and biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavendra, M.; Yatish, K. V.; Lalithamba, H. S.

    2017-08-01

    The green synthesis of multifunctional ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was prepared by treatment of zinc nitrate with an extract of Garcinia gummi-gutta seed by the combustion method. The ZnO NPs were characterized by XRD, scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible, FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The prepared ZnO NPs were evaluated for photoluminescence (PL), antioxidant properties and also utilized as a catalyst for the formylation of aromatic amines and biodiesel production. The study reveals that the reaction is simple, mild and environmental friendly. Furthermore, the reaction results in excellent yield of products.

  10. Kolaviron, a Garcinia biflavonoid complex ameliorates hyperglycemia-mediated hepatic injury in rats via suppression of inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in hyperglycemia-induced liver injury. Kolaviron (KV), a natural biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds have been shown to possess anti- inflammatory properties which has not been explored in diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of KV on pro-inflammatory proteins in the liver of diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. Kolaviron (100 mg/kg) was administered orally five times a week for six weeks. The concentrations of cytokines and chemokine were measured using Bio-plex Pro™ magnetic bead-based assays (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, USA). Plasma glucose and serum biomarkers of liver dysfunction were analyzed with diagnostic kits in an automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Insulin concentration was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Result Kolaviron (100mg/kg) treatment significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and liver dysfunction. Serum levels of hepatic marker enzymes were significantly reduced in kolaviron treated diabetic rats. Kolaviron prevented diabetes induced increase in the hepatic levels of proinflammatory cytokines; interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the hepatoprotective effects of kolaviron in diabetic rats may be partly associated with its modulating effect on inflammatory responses. PMID:24359406

  11. Microbiology of the Gut of the Kola Nut Weevil, Balanogastris kolae

    PubMed Central

    Femi-Ola, T. O.; Babalola, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Reports have shown that many insects have microbes in their gut system. Gut microbes are very important for insect vitality and much of their nutrition is derived from products of microbial metabolism. The habitat of Balanogastris kolae (Desbrocher des Loges) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suggests that they possess the ability to digest varieties of sugars particularly starch and protein materials present in the kola nut, Cola nitida Schott & Endlicher (Malvales: Malvaceae). The aim of this study was to characterize the gut bacterial communities of the kola weevil, B. kolae. To ascertain this, the gut bacterial community of a kola nut-feeding weevil, B. kolae was characterized using culture-dependent methods. The bacterial counts in the foregut, midgut and hindgut were 7.14 ± 0.11 × 106cfu ml-1, 2.68 ± 0.13 × 107 cfu ml-1 and 1.43 ± 0.20 × 106 cfu ml-1 respectively. There were no significant differences in the total bacterial count of the foregut, midgut and hindgut. The bacterial species were identified to be Fusobacterium nucleatum, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium fascians, Arthrobacter globiformis, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus brevis, Vibrio haemolyticus and Flavobacterium breve. The majority of these isolates were demonstrated to have both proteolytic and amylolytic activities. PMID:23421598

  12. Xanthones from Garcinia propinqua Roots.

    PubMed

    Meesakul, Pornphimol; Pansanit, Acharavadee; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Machana, Theeraphan; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Garcinia propinqua roots led to the isolation and identification of a new xanthone, doitunggarcinone D (1), together with 15 known compounds (2-16). Their structures were elucidated by intensive analysis of spectroscopic data. Compounds 3, 6, 7, 14, 15 and 16 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis TISTR 088 with MIC values in the range of 1-4 µg/mL. Compounds 3, 7, 10 and 14 also showed good antibacterial activity against B. cereus TISTR 688 with MIC values ranging from 4-8 µg/mL.

  13. Benzophenones of Garcinia pseudoguttifera (Clusiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ali, S; Goundar, R; Sotheeswaran, S; Beaulieu, C; Spino, C

    2000-01-01

    Four biogenetically related benzophenones have been isolated from the Fijian Garcinia pseudoguttifera. They are: 6-hydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-3,5-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzophenone (myrtiaphenone-A); 2,2-dimethyl-8-benzoyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzopy ran (myrtiaphenone-B); 2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3,5-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzophenone (vismiaphenone-C) and a new benzophenone, 2,2-dimethyl-8-benzoyl-3,7-dihydroxy-5-methoxy- 6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-3,4-dihydrobenzopyran (pseudoguttiaphenone-A). Pseudoguttiaphenone-A could be biogenetically derived from vismiaphenone-C. The major component of G. pseudoguttifera was identified as eupha-8,24-dien-3 beta-ol.

  14. Antifibrotic constituents from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Chin, Young-Won; Shin, Eunjin; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2011-09-01

    From the CHCl3-soluble fraction of the fruits of Garcinia mangostana (Clusiaceae), six xanthone derivatives, alpha-mangostin (1), gamma-mangostin (2), gartanin (3), deoxygartanin (4), 1-isomangstanin (5) and garcinone E (6), were isolated. All these compounds significantly inhibited HSC-T6 viability as assessed by employing HSC-T6 hepatic stellate cells as an in vitro assay system. Among them, compounds 1 and 2, the most potent and major constituents of G. mangostana, inhibited HSC-T6 viability in dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 significantly reduced collagen content, a pathological characteristic of liver fibrosis. Taken together, G. mangostana and its constituents might be beneficial for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  15. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for identification and quantification of two biologically active polyisoprenylated benzophenones, isoxanthochymol and camboginol, in Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sunil K; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2007-11-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometrical (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous identification and quantification of two polyisoprenylated benzophenones, isoxanthochymol and camboginol, in the extracts of the fruit rinds, stem bark, seed and leaves of Garcinia indica and in the fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia. The separation of isoxanthochymol and camboginol was achieved on an RP-8 column using the solvent system consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile-water (80:20) and methanol-acetic acid (99.0:1.0) as a mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. A multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method was developed for quantification of isoxanthochymol and camboginol in the above extracts of Garcinia species. Based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, the limits of detection in MRM mode for isoxanthochymol and camboginol were 2.0 and 5.0 ng/mL respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision for 6 days. The method developed was found to be useful for identification and quantification of isoxanthochymol and camboginol in the extracts of the fruit rinds, stem bark, seed and leaves of Garcinia indica and in the fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia.

  16. Molecular diversity of fungal endophytes isolated from Garcinia mangostana and Garcinia parvifolia.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jiun-Horng; Khoo, Chai-Hoon; Lee, Learn-Han; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen

    2010-04-01

    Garcinia is commonly found in Malaysia, but limited information is available regarding endophytic fungi associated with this plant. In this study, 24 endophytic fungi were successfully recovered from different parts of two Garcinia species. Characterization of endophytic fungi was performed based on the conserved internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequence analysis and the antimicrobial properties. Results revealed that fruits of the plant appeared to be the highest inhabitation site (38 %) as compared with others. Glomerella sp., Guignardia sp., and Phomopsis sp. appeared to be the predominant endophytic fungi group in Garcinia mangostana and Garcinia parvifolia. Phylogenetic relationships of the isolated endophytic fungi were estimated from the sequences of the ITS region. On the other hand, antibacterial screening showed 11 of the isolates possessed positive response towards pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. However, there was no direct association between certain antibacterial properties with the specific genus observed.

  17. UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-Guided Dereplication of the Endangered Chinese Species Garcinia paucinervis to Identify Additional Benzophenone Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Anandhi Senthilkumar, Harini; Figueroa, Mario; Wu, Shi-Biao; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chunlin

    2016-06-24

    A number of Garcinia species accumulate benzophenone derivatives that may be useful for the treatment of breast cancer. The dereplication of new benzophenone derivatives from Garcinia species is challenging due to the occurrence of multiple isomers and the known compounds found in their extracts. In the current study, a strategy is described using the UPLC-QTOFMS(E) technique to identify tentatively the known and uncharacterized benzophenones of interest based upon the characteristic fragmentation ions. Several UPLC-QTOFMS peaks (a-ee) appeared to contain benzophenone derivatives, and 12 of these peaks contained compounds with MS ionization profiles not consistent with previously identified compounds from the seeds of Garcinia paucinervis, an endangered Chinese species. The targeted isolation of unidentified compounds of interest afforded five new benzophenones, paucinones E-I (1-5), which were determined by MS and NMR analysis and ECD spectroscopy. These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three breast cancer cell lines inclusive of MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, and MCF-7. These results indicate that the UPLC-QTOFMS(E)-guided isolation procedure is an efficient strategy for isolating new benzophenones from Garcinia species.

  18. A new furanoxanthone from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; See, Irene; Teh, Soek Sin; Daud, Shaari

    2014-01-01

    Our phytochemical study on the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana has led to the discovery of a new furanoxanthone, mangaxanthone A (1), together with five known analogs. The five known analogs that were isolated are α-mangostin (2), β-mangostin (3), cowagarcinone B (4), and dulcisxanthone F (5). The structural elucidations of these compounds were carried out by interpreting their spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR spectra and MS.

  19. Four new cytotoxic xanthones from Garcinia nujiangensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhong-Yan; Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Qiao, Shi-Ping; Jiang, Chao; Shen, Guo-Rong; Cai, Mei-Xiang; Tang, Xiao-Yan

    2015-04-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the twigs of Garcinia nujiangensis resulted in the isolation of four new prenylated xanthones, nujiangexanthones C-F (1-4), and ten known related analogues. The structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against three cancer cell lines, the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells.

  20. Extraction of anthocyanins from pericarp and lipids from seeds of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) by Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and evaluation of pericarp extract enriched functional ice-cream.

    PubMed

    Hiranrangsee, Lawan; Kumaree, Kishore K; Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Anal, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract the anthocyanins from pericarp and lipids from the seeds of mangosteen. The optimum time for extraction of anthocyanin by maceration method and shaking water bath was 6 and 4 h, respectively, whereas, it was 5 min only for ultrasonic assisted extraction method. The anthocyanin content, extracted by UAE, was 23.54 mg Cyn-3-Glu/100 g. The regression equation derived by response surface methodology (RSM), was used to predict the anthocyanin content extracted by using UAE. The gas chromatography-flame ionized detector analysis showed that mangosteen seed contained both saturated (palmitic acid, 4.66 g/100 g; stearic acid, 47.64 g/100 g) and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid, 28.62 g/100 g; linoleic acid, 14.68 g/100 g). The mangosteen ice-cream exhibited up to 83.6 and 75.1 % DPPH inhibition, on addition of 2 and 1 % mangosteen pericarp extract respectively, where as control only 52.6 %.

  1. High-performance liquid chromatography and LC-ESI-MS method for identification and quantification of two isomeric polyisoprenylated benzophenones isoxanthochymol and camboginol in different extracts of Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Sharma, Shelly; Chattopadhyay, Sunil K

    2009-08-01

    A rapid, sensitive and simple reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric method has been developed for the identification and quantification of two isomeric polyisoprenylated benzophenones, isoxanthochymol and camboginol, in the extracts of the stem bark, seeds and seed pericarps of Garcinia indica and in the fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia. The separation of isoxanthochymol and camboginol was achieved on a Perkin Elmer RP(8) column (10 x 2.1 mm with 5.0 microm particle size) using a solvent system consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile-water (80:20, v/v) and methanol-acetic acid (99.0:1.0, v/v) as a mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. The limits of detection and quantification were 5 and 10 microg/mL for isoxanthochymol and 50 and 100 microg/mL for camboginol, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were 2.34 and 3.41% for isoxanthochymol and 3.35 and 3.66% for camboginol. The identity of the two isomeric compounds in the samples was determined on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with ESI interface operating in the negative ion mode. The method was used to identify and quantify isoxanthochymol and camboginol in the different extracts of two Garcinia species, Garcinia indica and Garcinia cambogia.

  2. Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.): A comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Ovalle-Magallanes, Berenice; Eugenio-Pérez, Dianelena; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2017-08-24

    Garcinia mangostana L. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia known as mangosteen which fruits possess a distinctive and pleasant taste that has granted them the epithet of "queen of the fruits". The seeds and pericarps of the fruit have a long history of use in the traditional medicinal practices of the region, and beverages containing mangosteen pulp and pericarps are sold worldwide as nutritional supplements. The main phytochemicals present in the species are isoprenylated xanthones, a class of secondary metabolites with multiple reports of biological effects, such as antioxidant, pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic and anti-obesity. The diversity of actions displayed by mangosteen xanthones shows that these compounds target multiple signaling pathways involved in different pathologies, and place them as valuable sources for developing new drugs to treat chronic and degenerative diseases. This review article presents a comprehensive update of the toxicological findings on animal models, and the preclinical anticancer, analgesic, neuroprotective, antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of G. mangostana L. extracts and its main isolates. Pharmacokinetics, drug delivery systems and reports on dose-finding human trials are also examined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Technology for NPP decantate treatment realized at Kola NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Stakhiv, Michael; Avezniyazov, Slava; Savkin, Alexander; Fedorov, Denis; Dmitriev, Sergei; Kornev, Vladimir

    2007-07-01

    At Moscow SIA 'Radon' jointly with JSC 'Alliance Gamma', the technology for NPP Decantate Treatment was developed, tested and realized at Kola NPP. This technology consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferro-cyanide sorbents. The nonactive salt solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for 'exempt waste' products by IAEA classification. This technology was realized at Kola NPP in December 2006 year. At this time more than 1000 m{sup 3} of decantates log time stored are treated. It allows solving very old problem to empty decantates' tanks at NPPs in environmentally safe manner and with high volume reduction factor. (authors)

  4. Helminths of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Kola Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, S V; Tirronen, K F; Panchenko, D V; Kopatz, A; Hagen, S B; Eiken, H G; Kuznetsova, A S

    2017-06-01

    We present data on the species composition of helminths in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from the Murmansk Region, Russia. The absence of any information about helminths of brown bear in the region necessitated the conduct of these studies. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 in the southern part of the Kola Peninsula from the White Sea coastal habitats. Annually, in the study area, 1-3 bears are legally hunted and biological samples for examination are very difficult to obtain. Therefore, we used fecal samples. We studied 93 feces and identified parasite eggs identified in 43 of them by morphometric criteria. The surveys revealed eggs of the following helminths: Dicrocoelium sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., Anoplocephalidae, Capillariidae, Baylisascaris sp., Strongylida 1, and Strongylida 2. These results represent the first reconnaissance stage, which allowed characterizing the taxonomic diversity and prevalence of parasites of brown bears of the Kola Peninsula.

  5. DNA-seq analysis of Garcinia mangostana

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Syuhaidah; Sampathrajan, Sureshkumar; Loke, Kok-Keong; Goh, Hoe-Han; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2015-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a tropical tree mainly found in South East Asia and considered as “the queen of fruits”. The asexually produced fruit is dark purple or reddish in color, with white flesh which is slightly acidic with sweet flavor and a pleasant aroma. The purple pericarp tissue is rich in xanthones which are useful for medical purposes. We performed the first genome sequencing of this commercially important fruit tree to study its genome composition and attempted draft genome assembly. Raw reads of the DNA sequencing project have been deposited to SRA database with the accession number SRX1426419. PMID:26981362

  6. New cholinesterase inhibitors from Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Khaw, Kooi-Yeong; Vikneswaran, Murugaiyah

    2014-09-01

    A triflavanone, Garcineflavanone A (1) and a biflavonol, Garcineflavonol A (2) have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae), collected in Peninsular Malaysia. Their structures were established using one and two-dimensional NMR, UV, IR and mass spectrometry and evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies of the isolated compounds were performed using docking procedure of AutoDock to disclose the binding interaction and orientation of these molecules into the active site gorge.

  7. Updates on Antiobesity Effect of Garcinia Origin (−)-HCA

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (−)-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. PMID:23990846

  8. A new prenylated biflavonoid from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Saelee, Arun; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2015-01-01

    A new prenylated biflavonoid, named dulcisbiflavonoid A, together with five biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were elucidated by analysing their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR.

  9. Antioxidative compounds from Garcinia buchananii stem bark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Salger, Mathias; Frank, Oliver; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-02-27

    An aqueous ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii showed strong antioxidative activity using H2O2 scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Activity-guided fractionation afforded three new compounds, isomanniflavanone (1), an ent-eriodictyol-(3α→6)-dihydroquercetin-linked biflavanone, 1,5-dimethoxyajacareubin (2), and the depsidone garcinisidone-G (3), and six known compounds, (2″R,3″R)-preussianon, euxanthone, 2-isoprenyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone, jacareubin, isogarcinol, and garcinol. All compounds were described for the first time in Garcinia buchananii. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR, ECD spectroscopy, and polarimetry. These natural products showed high in vitro antioxidative power, especially isomanniflavanone, with an EC50 value of 8.5 μM (H2O2 scavenging), 3.50/4.95 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-TEAC), and 7.54/14.56 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-ORAC).

  10. Attenuation of colitis injury in rats using Garcinia cambogia extract.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Samara Bonesso; de Oliveira, Caroline Candida; Acedo, Simone Coghetto; Miranda, Daniel Duarte da Conceição; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Pedrazzoli, José; Gambero, Alessandra

    2009-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic enteropathies that probably result from a dysregulated mucosal immune response. These pathologies are characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, leukocyte infiltration and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory substances. Current IBD treatment presents limitations in both efficacy and safety that stimulated the search for new active compounds. Garcinia cambogia extract has attracted interest due to its pharmacological properties, including gastroprotective effects. In this study, the antiinflammatory activity of a garcinia extract was assessed in TNBS-induced colitis rats. The results obtained revealed that garcinia administration to colitic rats significantly improved the macroscopic damage and caused substantial reductions in increases in MPO activity, COX-2 and iNOS expression. In addition, garcinia extract treatment was able to reduce PGE(2) and IL-1beta colonic levels. These antiinflammatory actions could be related to a reduction in DNA damage in isolated colonocytes, observed with the comet assay. Finally, garcinia extract caused neither mortality nor toxicity signals after oral administration. As such, the antiinflammatory effects provided by the Garcinia cambogia extract result in an improvement of several parameters analysed in experimental colitis and could provide a source for the search for new antiinflammatory compounds useful in IBD treatment.

  11. Genotoxicity assessment of Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) extract in mammalian cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marques, Eduardo de Souza; Silva, Suellen; Niero, Rivaldo; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Rosa, Paulo Cesar Pires; Perazzo, Fabio Ferreira; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2012-07-13

    Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) is popularly known as "achachairu", and is used in Bolivian folk medicine for its healing, digestive, and laxative properties, and in the treatment of gastritis, rheumatism and inflammation. Despite its widespread therapeutic use, there is a lack of data regarding its in vivo genotoxic effects. Therefore, in this study, we used the comet assay and the micronucleus test, respectively, to evaluate the possible genotoxic and clastogenic effects of Garcinia achachairu seed extract (GAE) on different cells of mice. The GAE was administered by oral gavage at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. For the analysis, the comet assay was performed on the leukocytes (collected 4 and 24 h after treatment), liver, bone marrow and testicular cells (collected 24 h after treatment), and the micronucleus test (MN) on bone marrow cells. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring 200 consecutive polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes (PCE/NCE ratio). The results showed that GAE did not induce significant DNA damage in leukocytes (4 h and 24 h samples), liver, bone marrow and testicular cells (24 h samples). GAE also did not show any significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) at the three tested doses. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. Under our experimental conditions, the data obtained suggest that a single oral administration of G. achachairu extract does not cause genotoxicity and clastogenicity in different cells of mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Benzophenone synthase from Garcinia mangostana L. pericarps.

    PubMed

    Nualkaew, Natsajee; Morita, Hiroyuki; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Kinjo, Keishi; Kushiro, Tetsuo; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Abe, Ikuro

    2012-05-01

    The cDNA of a benzophenone synthase (BPS), a type III polyketide synthase (PKS), was cloned and the recombinant protein expressed from the fruit pericarps of Garcinia mangostana L., which contains mainly prenylated xanthones. The obtained GmBPS showed an amino acid sequence identity of 77-78% with other plant BPSs belonging to the same family (Clusiaceae). The recombinant enzyme produced 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone as the predominant product with benzoyl CoA as substrate. It also accepted other substrates, such as other plant PKSs, and used 1-3 molecules of malonyl CoA to form various phloroglucinol-type and polyketide lactone-type compounds. Thus, providing GmBPS with various substrates in vivo might redirect the xanthone biosynthetic pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A comprehensive scientific overview of Garcinia cambogia.

    PubMed

    Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    The fruit rind of Garcinia gummi-gutta, commonly known as Garcinia cambogia (syn.), is extensively used traditionally as a flavourant in fish curries due to its sharp sour taste. Additional ethnobotanical uses include its use as a digestive and a traditional remedy to treat bowel complaints, intestinal parasites and rheumatism. This small fruit, reminiscent of a pumpkin in appearance, is currently most popularly used and widely advertised as a weight-loss supplement. Studies have shown that the extracts as well as (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind, exhibited anti-obesity activity including reduced food intake and body fat gain by regulating the serotonin levels related to satiety, increased fat oxidation and decreased de novo lipogenesis. HCA is a potent inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, a catalyst for the conversion process of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which plays a key role in fatty acid, cholesterol and triglycerides syntheses. The crude extract or constituents from the plant also exerted hypolipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anthelmintic, anticholinesterase and hepatoprotective activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Phytochemical studies of various plant parts revealed the presence of mainly xanthones (e.g. carbogiol) and benzophenones (e.g. garcinol) together with organic acids (e.g. HCA) and amino acids (e.g. gamma aminobutyric acid). Currently, a large number of G. cambogia/HCA dietary supplements for weight management are being sold although the possible toxicity associated with the regular use of these supplements has raised concerns. In most cases, complaints have been related to multicomponent formulations and at this stage G. cambogia has not been confirmed as the potentially toxic culprit. This review presents a scientific overview of G. cambogia with reference to relevant botanical aspects, ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological activity as well as

  14. Antiplasmodial and other constituents from four Indonesian Garcinia spp.

    PubMed

    Elfita, Elfita; Muharni, Muharni; Latief, Madyawati; Darwati, Darwati; Widiyantoro, Ari; Supriyatna, Supriyatna; Bahti, Husein H; Dachriyanus, Dachriyanus; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Foubert, Kenne; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc

    2009-05-01

    Phytochemical investigations of four Garcinia spp. from Indonesia, i.e. Garcinia griffithii T. Anderson, Garcinia celebica L., Garcinia cornea L. and Garcinia cymosa K. Schum (Clusiaceae), have resulted in the isolation of a xanthone, 1,5-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-2,7-diprenylxanthone, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone, isoxanthochymol, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside from the stem bark of G. griffithii; friedelin and 3beta-hydroxy-23-oxo-9,16-lanostadien-26-oic acid or garcihombronane D from leaves of G. celebica; 23-hydroxy-3-oxo-cycloart-24-en-26-oic acid and epicatechin from stem bark of G. cornea; (+/-)-morelloflavone, morelloflavone-7-O-beta-D-glucoside or fukugiside, the triterpene 3beta-hydroxy-5-glutinen-28-oic acid and canophyllol from stem bark of G. cymosa. The xanthone and garcihombronane D displayed a selective activity against Plasmodium falciparum; isoxanthochymol and the triterpene beta-hydroxy-5-glutinen-28-oic acid a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal activity.

  15. Diuretic Activity of Leaves of Garcinia Cambogia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Githa E; Mathew, B; Shaneeb, M M; Nyanthara, B

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluated . The rats treated with ethanol extract of Garcinia cambogia and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed higher urine output when compared to the respective control. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts have showed a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. PMID:22303069

  16. Effect of Garcinia mangostana on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Surassmo, Suvimol; Nukoolkarn, Veena S; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2007-09-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the activity of Thai medicinal plants on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes in terms of free radical scavenging and cytokine reducing properties. P. acnes have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH scavenging and NBT reduction assay. The result showed that Garcinia mangostana possessed the most significant antioxidant activity and reduced reactive oxygen species production. Houttuynia cordata, Eupatorium odoratum, and Senna alata had a moderate antioxidant effect. In addition, Garcinia mangostana extracts could reduce the TNF-alpha production as determined by ELISA. Garcinia mangostana was highly effective in scavenging free radicals and was able to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study has identified the promising source of anti-inflammatory agent which could be useful in treatment of acne vulgaris.

  17. Diuretic activity of leaves of garcinia cambogia in rats.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Githa E; Mathew, B; Shaneeb, M M; Nyanthara, B

    2011-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluated . The rats treated with ethanol extract of Garcinia cambogia and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed higher urine output when compared to the respective control. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts have showed a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group.

  18. A bioactive cycloartane triterpene from Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Imran; Khan, Amir Atlas; Khan, Sadiq Noor

    2016-06-01

    The dichloromethane bark extract of Garcinia hombroniana yielded one new cycloartane triterpene; (22Z,24E)-3β-hydroxycycloart-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (1) together with five known compounds: garcihombronane G (2), garcihombronane J (3), 3β acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,24-dien-26-oic acid (4), (22Z, 24E)-3β, 9α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-14,22,24-trien-26-oic acid (5) and 3β, 23α-dihydroxy-17,14-friedolanostan-8,14,24-trien-26-oic acid (6). Their structures were established by the spectral techniques of NMR and ESI-MS. These compounds together with some previously isolated compounds; garcihombronane B (7), garcihombronane D (8) 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (9), volkensiflavone (10), 4''-O-methyll-volkensiflavone (11), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (12), volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (13), Morelloflavone (14), 3''-O-methyl-morelloflavone (15) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (16) were evaluated for cholinesterase enzymes inhibitory activities using acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. In these activities, compounds 1-9 showed good dual inhibition on both the enzymes while compounds 10-16 did not reasonably contribute to both the cholinesterases inhibitory effects.

  19. Xanthones from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Yang, Renyue; Li, Ping; Li, Nana; Zhang, Qian; Bai, Xue; Wang, Lishuo; Xiao, Yiying; Sun, Lirong; Yang, Quan; Yan, Jian

    2017-04-25

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is one of the most popular tropical fruits (called the "Queen of Fruits"), and is a rich source of oxygenated and prenylated xanthone derivatives. In the present work, phytochemical investigation has resulted in one new prenylated xanthone and 13 known xanthones isolated from the pericarp of G. mangostana. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data analysis, including X-ray diffraction. The new one was further tested for cytotoxic activity against seven cancer cell lines (CNE-1, CNE-2, A549, H490, PC-3, SGC-7901, U87), displaying the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅0) values 3.35, 4.01, 4.84, 7.84, 6.21, 8.09, and 6.39 μM, respectively. It is noteworthy that the new compound can promote CNE-2 cells apoptosis in late stage, having a remarkable inhibition effect on the side population growth of CNE-2 at 1.26 μM. The bioactive compound was also detected in extract from fresh mangosteen flesh, which indicated that the popular fruit could have potential cytotoxic activity for cancer cell lines.

  20. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80 % (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2 µM for 3 and 6.3 µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3 µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives.

  1. Cytotoxic benzophenone and triterpene from Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Kamal, Nik Nur Syazni Nik Mohamed; Osman, Hasnah; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of G. hombroniana. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts of G. hombroniana yielded two new (1, 9) and thirteen known compounds which were characterized by the spectral techniques of NMR, UV, IR and EI/ESI-MS, and identified as; 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone(1), 2,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxybenzophenone (2), 2,3',4,6-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (3), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (4), 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone (5),3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxyflavanone (6), 3,3',4',5,5',7-hexahydroxyflavone (7), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside (8), 18(13→17)-abeo-3β-acetoxy-9α,13β-lanost-24E-en-26-oic acid (9), garcihombronane B (10), garcihombronane D (11), friedelan-3-one (12), lupeol (13), stigmasterol (14) and stigmasterol glucoside (15). In the in vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7, DBTRG, U2OS and PC-3 cell lines, compounds 1 and 9 displayed good cytotoxic effects against DBTRG cancer cell lines. Compounds 1-8 were also found to possess significant antioxidant activities. Owing to these properties, this study can be further extended to explore more significant bioactive components of this plant.

  2. Potent Schistosomicidal Constituents from Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Aline Pereira; de Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; Pereira, Neusa Araújo; Anchieta, Naira Ferreira; Silva, Matheus Siqueira; Dias, Danielle Ferreira; Silva, Claudinei Alves; Barros, Giulliano Vilela; Souza, Raquel Lopes Martins; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Marques, Marcos José

    2015-06-01

    Praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However, several strains of Schistosoma mansoni are resistant to praziquantel, making it necessary to discover new drugs that might be used for its treatment. With this in mind, the properties of a schistosomicidal ethanolic extract of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, the fractions obtained by partitioning this extract, including the hexane fractions, ethyl acetate fraction, and the aqueous fraction, and the isolated compounds 7-epiclusianone, a major component from these fractions, and fukugetin were tested in vitro on adult worms of S. mansoni. Mortality, damage to membranes, and excretory system activity were observed at 100.0, 50.0, 75.0, and 14.0 µg/mL for the ethanolic extract of G. brasiliensis Mart. epicarp, its hexane fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction, and 7-epiclusianone, respectively. For 7-epiclusianone, these data were confirmed by fluorescent probe Hoechst 33 258 and resorufin. Additionally, the biocidal effect of 7-epiclusianone was even higher than the hexane fractions. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of 7-epiclusianone on the egg laying of female adult S. mansoni worms was observed in cercariae and schistossomula. Thus, 7-epiclusianone is a promising schistosomicidal compound; however, more studies are needed to elucidate its mechanism of toxicity and to evaluate the in vivo activity of this compound.

  3. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Kola nut chewing among secondary school students in Osogbo, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Erinfolami, Adebayo; Eegunranti, Adekunle; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Oguntuase, Akin; Akinbode, Abiola; Erinfolami, Gloria

    2011-02-22

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of socio-demographic variables (of the students and their parents) with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385) randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage.

  4. MEASUREMENTS OF THE CONFINEMENT LEAKTIGHTNESS AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-08-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Kola Confinement Leaktightness'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.1. This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians to reduce risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Units 1 and 2, through upgrades in the confinement performance to reduce the uncontrolled leakage rate. The major technical objective of this-project was to improve the leaktightness of the Kola NPP VVER confinement boundaries, through the application of a variety of sealants to penetrations, doors and hatches, seams and surfaces, to the extent that current technology permitted. A related objective was the transfer, through training of Russian staff, of the materials application procedures to the staff of the Kola NPP. This project was part of an overall approach to minimizing uncontrolled releases from the Kola NPP VVER440/230s in the event of a serious accident, and to thereby significantly mitigate the consequences of such an accident. The US provided materials, application technology, and applications equipment for application of sealant materials, surface coatings, potting materials and gaskets, to improve the confinement leaktightness of the Kola VVER-440/23Os. The US provided for training of Russian personnel in the applications technology.

  5. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Kola nut chewing among secondary school students in Osogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Erinfolami, Adebayo; Eegunranti, Adekunle; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Oguntuase, Akin; Akinbode, Abiola; Erinfolami, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of socio-demographic variables (of the students and their parents) with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385) randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage. PMID:25478098

  6. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  7. alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Garcinia brevipedicellata (Clusiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ngoupayo, Joseph; Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Tsamo, Etienne

    2008-10-01

    In our continuous search for alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from plants, four new depsidones named brevipsidones A-D (1-4) were isolated from stem bark of Garcinia brevipedicellata together with known damnacanthal, scopoletin and a mixture of stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. Structural elucidations were made by spectroscopic analyses including 2D-NMR data.

  8. Xanthones from the green branch of Garcinia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Mecawun, Pattama; Phongpaichit, Souwalak

    2016-10-01

    Two new prenylated xanthones, namely dulcisxanthone H and dulcisxanthone I along with garciniaxanthone C, were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the green branch of Garcinia dulcis. Their structures were elucidated by the analysis of 1-D and 2-D NMR spectral data. Their antibacterial activities were also examined.

  9. Non-toxic melanin production inhibitors from Garcinia livingstonei (Clusiaceae).

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Dulcie A; Mwangi, Elizabeth M; Dlova, Ncoza C; Plant, Nick; Crouch, Neil R; Coombes, Phillip H

    2013-09-16

    The stem bark of Garcinia livingstonei is used traditionally as a skin lightening agent. To isolate and identify compounds responsible for the observed skin lightening activity of Garcinia livingstonei and to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Constituents of the stem bark and fruits of Garcinia livingstonei were isolated using chromatographic techniques and structures were determined using 1D and 2D NMR and MS analysis. MeWo cells were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity and impact on melanin levels of extracts and compounds isolated, in vitro. Twelve known compounds, morelloflavone (1), morelloflavone-7″-sulphate (2), guttiferone A (3), sargaol (4), isojacareubin (5), 6-deoxyisojacareubin (6) and in addition to the common triterpenoids, betulin, betulin aldehyde, lupeol, lupenone, euphol and stigmasterol were isolated in this investigation. Morelloflavone, morelloflavone-7″-sulphate and sargaol, were found to be considerably less cytotoxic and more effective as skin lightening agents than hydroquinone. A range of compounds was isolated from the stem bark and fruit of Garcinia livingstonei. Although the bark extract contained the cytotoxic guttiferone A, it was found to be less toxic than hydroquinone, and morelloflavone, the 7″-sulphate derivative and sargaol show potential for development as depigmentation/skin lightening agents. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Caged polyprenylated xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; He, Shiwen; Tang, Chu; Li, Jun; Yang, Guangzhong

    2016-03-01

    Five new caged polyprenylated xanthones (1a, 2a, 3, 10a and 10b), and 12 known related compounds were isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were investigated in vitro. Most of xanthones showed modest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase.

  11. Garcinia hopii (Clusiaceae), a new species from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Hironori; Dang, Van-Son; Tagane, Shuichiro; Nguyen, Ngoc Van; Naiki, Akiyo; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2017-01-01

    A new species, Garcinia hopii H.Toyama & V.S.Dang is described from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam. This species is similar to Garcinia hendersoniana Whitmore but differs from that species in having larger leaves, clustered pistillate flowers, a greater number of sterile anthers and a larger stigma of young fruits. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, illustration, photographs and DNA barcodes of the new species are provided, as well as an updated key to Garcinia sect. Hebradendron in Indochina.

  12. [Research progress of chemistry and anti-cancer activities of natural products from Chinese Garcinia plants].

    PubMed

    Fu, Wen-Wei; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-02-01

    Garcinia plants are one of the rich sources of natural xanthones and benzophenones which have attracted a great deal of attention from the scientists in the fields of chemistry and pharmacology. Recently, many structurally unique constituents with various bioactivities, especially anti-tumor activity, have been isolated from Garcinia plants. This concise review focused on the anti-cancer activity natural products isolated from Chinese Garcinia plants, and the research finding by authors and collaborators over the past several years were cited.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Garcinia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Santa-Cecília, Flávia V; Vilela, Fabiana C; da Rocha, Cláudia Q; Dias, Danielle F; Cavalcante, Gustavo P; Freitas, Lissara A S; dos Santos, Marcelo H; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2011-01-27

    In Brazilian folk medicine, the leaves of Garcinia brasiliensis are used to treat tumors, inflammation of the urinary tract and arthritis as well as to relieve pain. Nevertheless, scientific information regarding Garcinia brasiliensis is limited; there are no reports related to its possible anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. This study employed in vivo inflammatory and nociceptive models to evaluate the scientific basis for the traditional use of Garcinia brasiliensis. Carrageenan-induced paw edema, peritonitis and fibrovascular tissue growth induced by s.c. cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Garcinia brasiliensis ethanolic extract (GbEE) in rats. Formalin and acetic acid-induced writhing tests were used to investigate the antinociceptive activity in mice. GbEE at test doses of 30-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan, inhibited leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity, and in the model of chronic inflammation using the cotton pellet-induced fibrovascular tissue growth in rats, the GbEE significantly inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue. The extracts at test doses of 30-300 mg/kg, p.o., clearly demonstrated antinociceptive activity, except for the first phase of the formalin test. GbEE markedly demonstrated anti-inflammatory action in rats and antinociceptive activity in mice, which supports previous claims of the traditional use of species of the Garcinia genus for inflammation and pain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pichia garciniae sp. nov., isolated from a rotten mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae).

    PubMed

    Bhadra, Bhaskar; Begum, Zareena; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2008-11-01

    Ascogenous yeasts were isolated from a decaying mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae). Based on colony morphology and RAPD analysis, the strains were grouped into four groups (G-I, G-II, G-III and G-IV). Phenotypic properties and analysis of the D1/D2 domain sequence of the 26S rRNA gene identified representative members of groups G-II, G-III and G-IV as Pichia manshurica (=Pichia galeiformis), Pichia fermentans and Pichia anomala, respectively. Representatives of group G-I, YS110(T) and YS111, showed similar phenotypic traits, 99.9 % similarity in the sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 sequence and 92 % DNA-DNA relatedness. Hence, YS110(T) and YS111 are regarded as members of the same species. Based on D1/D2 domain and ITS region sequences, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours of YS110(T) and YS111 were identified as Pichia membranifaciens and P. manshurica. However, YS110(T) differs from these two nearest phylogenetic neighbours by >3 % in the D1/D2 domain sequence and by >18 % with respect to the ITS region sequence. In addition, YS110(T) and YS111 differ from P. membranifaciens NRRL Y-2026(T) and P. manshurica NRRL Y-27978(T) with respect to a number of phenotypic traits. The strains show 52-57 % DNA-DNA relatedness with P. membranifaciens NRRL Y-2026(T) and P. manshurica NRRL Y-27978(T). Strains YS110(T) and YS111 are proposed as two strains of a novel species, for which the name Pichia garciniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YS110(T) (=NRRL Y-48422(T) =CBS 10758(T)).

  15. Facultative Apomixis in Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae) and Effects of Different Pollination Regimes on Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    Pangsuban, Sasithorn; Bamroongrugsa, Noparat; Kanchanapoom, Kamnoon; Nualsri, Charassri

    2009-01-01

    Various aspects of the reproductive success of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. were studied. Controlled pollination experiments were carried out in an orchard located in Songkhla province, southern Thailand, from February to July 2003. Floral longevity, stigma receptivity, and pollen viability were examined before carrying out the experiments. Three pollination treatments were compared: open pollination, manual pollination with bags, and bags without pollination (apogamy). Although there was no significant difference in the initial fruit set, bagged and manual pollination produced a significantly greater fruit drop rate than apogamy or natural pollination at one week after the flowers had been pollinated. On the other hand, the apogamy treatment had a greater fruit drop rate than natural and manual pollination treatments before fruit maturation. In addition, unpollinated bagged flowers bore fewer and smaller fruit than naturally and manually cross-pollinated flowers. Although the fruits from unpollinated flowers were capable of asexual seed formation, they produced fewer seeds and had poorer seed quality (defined as average fresh weight and germination rate) than those from the other treatments. The occurrence of asexual and sexual reproduction was also studied using Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by comparing the patterns of bands produced from DNA extracted from the offspring of the naturally cross-pollinated fruits. On average, 58% of the offspring had a genetic constitution identical to that of the maternal parent (ranging from 36% to 87%), indicating that some offspring were produced without prior fertilisation. However, the remainder showed polymorphism, demonstrating the occurrence of sexual reproduction. These findings indicate that facultative apomixis occurred in the study population. However, a residual sexuality was important for fruit production, fruit size, normal seed set and seed quality. PMID:24575182

  16. Facultative Apomixis in Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae) and Effects of Different Pollination Regimes on Reproductive Success.

    PubMed

    Pangsuban, Sasithorn; Bamroongrugsa, Noparat; Kanchanapoom, Kamnoon; Nualsri, Charassri

    2009-12-01

    Various aspects of the reproductive success of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. were studied. Controlled pollination experiments were carried out in an orchard located in Songkhla province, southern Thailand, from February to July 2003. Floral longevity, stigma receptivity, and pollen viability were examined before carrying out the experiments. Three pollination treatments were compared: open pollination, manual pollination with bags, and bags without pollination (apogamy). Although there was no significant difference in the initial fruit set, bagged and manual pollination produced a significantly greater fruit drop rate than apogamy or natural pollination at one week after the flowers had been pollinated. On the other hand, the apogamy treatment had a greater fruit drop rate than natural and manual pollination treatments before fruit maturation. In addition, unpollinated bagged flowers bore fewer and smaller fruit than naturally and manually cross-pollinated flowers. Although the fruits from unpollinated flowers were capable of asexual seed formation, they produced fewer seeds and had poorer seed quality (defined as average fresh weight and germination rate) than those from the other treatments. The occurrence of asexual and sexual reproduction was also studied using Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by comparing the patterns of bands produced from DNA extracted from the offspring of the naturally cross-pollinated fruits. On average, 58% of the offspring had a genetic constitution identical to that of the maternal parent (ranging from 36% to 87%), indicating that some offspring were produced without prior fertilisation. However, the remainder showed polymorphism, demonstrating the occurrence of sexual reproduction. These findings indicate that facultative apomixis occurred in the study population. However, a residual sexuality was important for fruit production, fruit size, normal seed set and seed quality.

  17. Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica): Nutritional Properties and Plausible Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Chandrika, Udumalagala Gamage; Prasad Kumarab, Peramune A A S

    2015-01-01

    Centella asiatica L. (Gotu Kola) is a nutritionally important plant and a valued traditional medicine in South East Asia. In this review, the chemical composition, nutritional values, and health benefits of C. asiatica have been discussed in detail to emphasize its usage as traditional food and medicine. C. asiatica is one of the most commonly used green leafy vegetables (GLVs) in some countries including Sri Lanka due to its high amounts of medicinally important triterpenoids and beneficial carotenoids. It is consumed in the form of GLVs and in the preparation of juice, drink, and other food products. It is also known to contain vitamins B and C, proteins, important minerals, and some other phytonutrients such as flavonoids, volatile oils, tannins, and polyphenol. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown important health benefits like antidiabetic, wound-healing, antimicrobial, memory-enhancing, antioxidant, and neuroprotecting activities. However, detailed scientific approaches on clinical trials regarding health benefits and nutritional values of C. asiatica are limited, hindering the perception of its benefits, mechanisms, and toxicity in order to develop new drug prototypes. In vitro studies have shown that the method of processing C. asiatica has an impact on its nutritional values and health-related beneficial compounds. The composition of its compounds is influenced by different biotic and abiotic factors which need to be studied in detail to provide information to the public in order to maximize the usage of this valuable plant.

  18. Evaluation of the pharmacophoric motif of the caged Garcinia xanthones†

    PubMed Central

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Cho, Woo Cheal; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Moore, Curtis; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of unique structure and potent bioactivity exhibited by several family members of the caged Garcinia xanthones, led us to evaluate their pharmacophore. We have developed a Pd(0)-catalyzed method for the reverse prenylation of catechols that, together with a Claisen/Diels–Alder reaction cascade, provides rapid and efficient access to various caged analogues. Evaluation of the growth inhibitory activity of these compounds leads to the conclusion that the intact ABC ring system containing the C-ring caged structure is essential to the bioactivity. Studies with cluvenone (7) also showed that these compounds induce apoptosis and exhibit significant cytotoxicity in multidrug-resistant leukemia cells. As such, the caged Garcinia xanthone motif represents a new and potent pharmacophore. PMID:19907779

  19. A new bixanthone derivative from the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shixiu; Jiang, Yuyang; Li, Jiong; Qiu, Shengxiang; Chen, Tao

    2014-01-01

    A new bixanthone derivative, garciobioxanthone (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia, together with 11 known compounds. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR and other spectroscopic analysis. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the references.

  20. Opaciniols A-C, new terpenoids from Garcinia opaca.

    PubMed

    Mori, Reika; Nugroho, Alfarius Eko; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Wong, Chin Piow; Kaneda, Toshio; Shirota, Osamu; Hadi, A Hamid A; Morita, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Three new terpenoids, opaciniols A-C (1-3), were isolated from the barks of Garcinia opaca, together with malabarica-17,21-dien-3β,14-diol (4) and 13βH-malabarica-14,17,21-trien-3β-ol (5). Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data. 3 and 4 showed moderate cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells.

  1. De novo transcriptome assembly of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Matra, Deden Derajat; Kozaki, Toshinori; Ishii, Kazuo; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Inoue, Eiichi

    2016-12-01

    Garcinia mangostana L. (Mangosteen), of the family Clusiaceae, is one of the economically important tropical fruits in Indonesia. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptomic analysis of Garcinia mangostana L. through RNA-Seq technology. We obtained the raw data from 12 libraries through Ion Proton System. Clean reads of 191,735,809 were obtained from 307,634,890 raw reads. The raw data obtained in this study can be accessible in DDBJ database with accession number of DRA005014 with bioproject accession number of PRJDB5091. We obtained 268,851 transcripts as well as 155,850 unigenes, having N50 value of 555 and 433 bp, respectively. Transcript/unigene length ranged from 201 to 5916 bp. The unigenes were annotated with two main databases from NCBI and UniProtKB, respectively having annotated-sequences of 73,287 and 73,107, respectively. These transcriptomic data will be beneficial for studying transcriptome of Garcinia mangostana L.

  2. Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species.

    PubMed

    Sosef, Marc S M; Dauby, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. Garcinia chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia gnetoides and Garcinia granulata are both synonyms of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia zenkeri is a synonym of Garcinia densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. Garcinia brevipedicellata is a synonym of Garcinia afzelii, as is Garcinia antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of Garcinia smeathmannii.

  3. Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species

    PubMed Central

    Sosef, Marc S.M.; Dauby, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. Garcinia chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia gnetoides and Garcinia granulata are both synonyms of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia zenkeri is a synonym of Garcinia densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. Garcinia brevipedicellata is a synonym of Garcinia afzelii, as is Garcinia antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of Garcinia smeathmannii. PMID:23233817

  4. Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

  5. Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) Presents Genotoxic Effects in Different Cells of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Terrazas, Peterson Menezes; de Souza Marques, Eduardo; Mariano, Luisa Nathália Bolda; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo; Andrade, Sergio Faloni; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2013-01-01

    Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Considering that there are no reports that assess the genetic toxicity of Guttiferone A, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic potential of this benzophenone isolated from seeds of Garcinia achachairu in terms of DNA damage in different cells of Swiss albino mice using the comet assay, and its clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells in vivo by the micronucleus test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes ratio. Guttiferone A was administered by oral gavage at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg. The results showed that Guttiferone A produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans. PMID:24250785

  6. Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice.

    PubMed

    Terrazas, Peterson Menezes; de Souza Marques, Eduardo; Mariano, Luisa Nathália Bolda; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo; Andrade, Sergio Faloni; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2013-01-01

    Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Considering that there are no reports that assess the genetic toxicity of Guttiferone A, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic potential of this benzophenone isolated from seeds of Garcinia achachairu in terms of DNA damage in different cells of Swiss albino mice using the comet assay, and its clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells in vivo by the micronucleus test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes ratio. Guttiferone A was administered by oral gavage at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg. The results showed that Guttiferone A produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans.

  7. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    PubMed

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration

  8. Garcinia hopii (Clusiaceae), a new species from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Hironori; Dang, Van-Son; Tagane, Shuichiro; Nguyen, Ngoc Van; Naiki, Akiyo; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Garcinia hopii H.Toyama & V.S.Dang is described from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, southern Vietnam. This species is similar to Garcinia hendersoniana Whitmore but differs from that species in having larger leaves, clustered pistillate flowers, a greater number of sterile anthers and a larger stigma of young fruits. A description, preliminary conservation assessment, illustration, photographs and DNA barcodes of the new species are provided, as well as an updated key to Garcinia sect. Hebradendron in Indochina. PMID:28814920

  9. Gastrointestinal protective efficacy of Kolaviron (a bi-flavonoid from Garcinia kola) following a single administration of sodium arsenite in rats: Biochemical and histopathological studies

    PubMed Central

    Akinrinde, Akinleye S.; Olowu, Ebunoluwa; Oyagbemi, Ademola A.; Omobowale, Olutayo T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arsenic intoxication is known to produce symptoms including diarrhea and vomiting, which are indications of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Objective: We investigated whether Kolaviron (KV) administration protected against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)-induced damage to gastric and intestinal epithelium in rats. Materials and Methods: Control rats (Group I) were given a daily oral dose of corn oil. Rats in other groups were given a single dose of NaAsO2 (100 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) alone (Group II) or after pretreatment for 7 days with KV at 100 mg/kg (Group III) and 200 mg/kg (Group IV). Rats were sacrificed afterward and portions of the stomach, small intestine and colon were processed for histopathological examination. Hydrogen peroxide, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the remaining portions of the different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments. Results: NaAsO2 caused significant increases (P < 0.05) in MDA levels and MPO activity, with significant reductions (P < 0.05) in GST, GPX, CAT and SOD activities in the stomach and intestines. KV significantly reversed the changes (P < 0.05) in a largely dose-dependent manner. The different segments had marked inflammatory cellular infiltration, with hyperplasia of the crypts, which occurred to much lesser degrees with KV administration. Conclusion: The present findings showed that KV might be a potent product for mitigating NaAsO2 toxicity in the GIT. PMID:26130939

  10. Isolation and biological activity of compounds from Garcinia preussii.

    PubMed

    Biloa Messi, Bernadette; Ho, Raimana; Meli Lannang, Alain; Cressend, Delphine; Perron, Karl; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Hostettmann, Kurt; Cuendet, Muriel

    2014-06-01

    Plants of the genus Garcinia (Clusiaceae) are traditionally used to relieve stomachaches, toothaches, and as a chew stick. In order to determine which compounds were responsible for these activities, a phytochemical investigation of the fruits and leaves of Garcinia preussii Engl. was pursued. Plants were extracted by solvents of various polarities. Compounds isolation was then carried out using chromatography methods (medium- and high-pressure liquid chromatography, open column and thin-layer chromatography). The isolated compounds were identified and characterized by using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopies. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH(•), ABTS(•-), ALP, and ORAC assays. The antimicrobial activity was assayed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value. The cytotoxic activity of most of the isolated compounds was evaluated on a small panel of human cancer cell lines (DU145, HeLa, HT-29, and A431) using the XTT method. The phytochemical investigation of G. preussii led to the isolation of eight known compounds, six benzophenones and two flavonoids. These compounds were tested for their biological activities. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 8 demonstrated a high free radical scavenging activity with ER50 ranging from 0.1 to 0.7. The antimicrobial activity was shown only against Gram-positive bacteria for 1, 4, and 5. A moderate cytotoxic activity with IC50 ranging from 7 to 50 µM was observed, except for 6 which was not active. These results appear to support some of the properties reported for Garcinia species.

  11. Cytotoxic lanostanes from fruits of Garcinia wallichii Choisy (Guttiferae).

    PubMed

    Hongthong, Sakchai; Meesin, Jatuporn; Pailee, Phanruethai; Soorukram, Darunee; Kongsaeree, Palangpon; Prabpai, Samran; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Jariyawat, Surawat; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Jaipetch, Thaworn; Nuntasaen, Narong; Reutrakul, Vichai; Kuhakarn, Chutima

    2016-12-01

    Five new lanostanes, wallichinanes A-E (1-5) together with a known lanostane derivative 6 were isolated from the cytotoxic hexanes extract of fruits of Garcinia wallichii Choisy (Guttiferae). The structures of the isolated compounds were established by analysis of spectroscopic data, X-ray diffraction technique as well as comparison with the literature data. The cytotoxicity of all isolated compounds against a panel of cultured cancer cell lines was evaluated. Compound 4 exhibited good cytotoxicity with ED50 values ranging from 3.91 to 7.63μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A new xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Fu, Manqin; Qiu, Samuel X; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Chen, Yulong; Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng

    2013-12-01

    A new prenylxanthone, garcimangostanol (1), was isolated from the EtOAc-soluble partition of the ethanol extract of the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L., along with three known compounds, namely 8-deoxygartanin (2), 1-isomangostin (3), and garcinone C (4). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of its 1D, 2D NMR and MS data. Compounds 1-4 exhibited either significant o r moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7, A549, Hep-G2 and CNEhuman cancer cell lines in vitro with IC50 values from 4.0 +/- 0.3 to 23.6+/- 1.5 microM by MTT colorimetric assay.

  13. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zeng; Huang, Lei; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Xiao-Jun; Feng, Gong-Kan; Lan, Wen-Jian; Li, Hou-Jin

    2014-02-06

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract of the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana led to the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, named 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-xanthone (1) and 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl)-xanthone (2), together with the five known compounds garcinones C (3) and D (4), gartanin (5), xanthone I (6), and γ-mangostin (7). Their structures were elucidated primarily based on MS and NMR data. Compounds 1-7 showed significant cytotoxic activities against various human cancer cell lines.

  14. Two new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojun; He, Luan; Wu, Xinxing; Zhong, Yanxia; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Yuanxing; Wang, Bin; Xu, Zhifang; Qiu, Shengxiang

    2015-01-01

    Two new xanthones, designated garcimangosxanthone F (1) and garcimangosxanthone G (2), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of ethanolic extract from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Their structures were established as 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone and 1,6,7-trihydroxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':3,2]xanthone, respectively, on the basis of their 1D, 2D NMR and MS data interpretation.

  15. SMRT sequencing data for Garcinia mangostana L. variety Mesta.

    PubMed

    Midin, Mohd Razik; Loke, Kok-Keong; Madon, Maria; Nordin, Mohd Shukor; Goh, Hoe-Han; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2017-06-01

    The "Queen of Fruits" mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) produces commercially important fruits with desirable taste of flesh and pericarp rich in xanthones with medicinal properties. To date, only limited knowledge is available on the cytogenetics and genome sequences of a common variety of mangosteen (Abu Bakar et al., 2016 [1]). Here, we report the first single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing data from whole genome sequencing of mangosteen of Mesta variety. Raw reads of the SMRT sequencing project can be obtained from SRA database with the accession numbers SRX2718652 until SRX2718659.

  16. DNA shotgun sequencing analysis of Garcinia mangostana L. variety Mesta.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Syuhaidah; Kumar, Suresh; Loke, Kok-Keong; Goh, Hoe-Han; Mohd Noor, Normah

    2017-06-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is an ultra-tropical tree characterized by its unique dark purple fruits with white flesh. The xanthone-rich purple pericarp tissue contains valuable compounds with medicinal properties. Following previously reported genome sequencing of a common variety of mangosteen [1], we performed another whole genome sequencing of a commercially popular variety of this fruit species (var. Mesta) for comparative analysis of its genome composition. Raw reads of the DNA sequencing project were deposited to SRA database with the accession number SRX2709728.

  17. Two new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jin-Ping; Lu, Dan; Li, Ping-Ya; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2012-01-01

    Two new xanthones, 3-hydroxy-6-methoxy-5'-isopropyl-4',5'-dihydrofuro[2',3' : 7, 8]-6″,6″-dimethyl-4″,5″-dihydropyrano[2″,3″ : 1,2]xanthone (1) and 1,6-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-8-(3-methylbut-3-enyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2'3' : 3,2]xanthone (2), were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana. Their structures were elucidated by spectral means (1-D and 2-D NMR, MS).

  18. Three new xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yating; Li, Dahong; Jia, Cuicui; Xue, Chunmei; Bai, Jiao; Li, Zhanlin; Hua, Huiming

    2016-04-01

    Three new prenylated xanthones, garcinexanthones G-I (1-3), together with fifteen known ones (4-18) were identified from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Most of the compounds exhibited inhibitory effects against HL-60 (human leukemia), A549 (human lung cancer), and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines. Among them, compounds 7, 17, and 13 exhibited the most pronounced growth inhibitory activity against HL-60, A549, and MCF-7 cell lines with GI50 values of 1.68, 4.88, and 6.28 μM, respectively.

  19. Acute liver failure associated with Garcinia cambogia use.

    PubMed

    Corey, Rebecca; Werner, K Tuesday; Singer, Andrew; Moss, Adyr; Smith, Maxwell; Noelting, Jessica; Rakela, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Millions of Americans regularly use herbal supplements, but many are unaware of the potential hidden dangers. Numerous supplements have been associated with hepatotoxicity and, indeed dietary/herbal supplements represent an increasingly common source of acute liver injury. We report a case of acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation associated with the use of Garcinia cambogia, a supplement widely promoted for weight loss. When patients present with acute hepatitis or liver failure from an unknown etiology, a careful history of supplement use should be performed.

  20. Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi. (Clusiaceae) as a topical anti-inflammatory alternative for cutaneous inflammation.

    PubMed

    Otuki, Michel F; Bernardi, Camila A; Prudente, Arthur S; Laskoski, Kerly; Gomig, Franciane; Horinouchi, Cintia D S; Guimarães, Claudio L; Ferreira, Juliano; Delle-Monache, Franco; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2011-07-01

    Garcinia gardneriana is popularly used in skin disorders; therefore, this article investigated the effect of G. gardneriana extracts from leaves, bark and seeds and two isolated compounds in ear oedema and leucocytes migration caused by croton oil. The topical application of the extract of G. gardneriana leaves was able to reduce (70 ± 3%, and ID(50) 0.33 mg/ear) ear oedema, while the seeds (51 ± 5%) and the wood (60 ± 12%) extracts were less effective. In a time-course evaluation, the leaf extract (1 mg/ear) was effective when applied 2 hr before and until 3 hr after the stimulation, presenting a higher effectiveness when applied right after croton oil (83 ± 7% inhibition). In addition, the leaf extract was able to diminish the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in 64 ± 13%, which suggests the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. Also, both biflavonoids isolated from the leaves of G. gardneriana, fukugetin (or morelloflavone) and 13-naringenin-II 8-eriodictyol (GB-2a), were able to reduce ear oedema, with ID(50) values of 0.18 (0.10-0.28) and 0.22 (0.15-0.31) mg/ear, respectively, besides the inhibition of MPO activity of 52 ± 6% and 64 ± 5%, respectively. Using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, the leaf extract, fukugetin and GB-2a topically applied to the ear treated with croton oil reduced 52 ± 15%, 63 ± 17% and 83 ± 4%, respectively, the production of reactive oxygen species of the skin. Thus, these results reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of G. gardneriana leaves for topical usage, and both biflavonoids are responsible for this effect. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  1. Dietary Garcinia cambogia does not modify skin properties of mice with or without excessive sucrose intake.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Daichi; Hirakawa, Hachidai; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Nakamura, Yoshinori; Shiba, Nobuya; Nakanishi, Tomonori; Iwamoto, Hisao; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2005-04-01

    The influence of 3.3% Garcinia cambogia extract on the properties of mouse skin with or without 10% sucrose water loading was investigated. Mice (7-week-old) were given free access to a control diet or a diet containing Garcinia cambogia extract. They were also given water alone or both water and sucrose water. Their skin was compared by both biochemical and histological methods. The collagen and triacylglycerol contents were not significantly different among the four groups. Similarly, electron microscopy revealed no differences in the thickness of the dermis layer or the subcutaneous tissue layer. Mice given the diet containing Garcinia cambogia tended to have a reduced total number of adipocytes, but not significantly. These results suggest that Garcinia cambogia supplementation for at least 4 weeks does not induce a negative effect on skin properties in mice irrespective of excessive sucrose intake. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Hypolipemic effect of Garcinia cambogia in obese women.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Schneider, Ricardo; Klein-Júnior, Luiz C; Falavigna, Andressa; Piazza, Ivone; Rossetto, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia cambogia seems to promote weight reduction and improvement on lipid profile by its major compound, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), blocking ATP-citratelyase, potentially inhibiting lipogenesis. Furthermore, it is suggested that its extract is able to change the adipokine levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of G. cambogia on the lipid profile, endocrine, calorimetric and anthropometric parameters of obese women. The women (BMI > 25 kg/m(2) ; age 25-60 years), divided in treated (n = 30) and control (n = 13) groups, received 2.4 g (800 mg 3×/day) of garcinia extract (50% of HCA) or placebo during 60 days, respectively, as well as dietary control. Weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio and percentage of fat mass, resting metabolic rate, respiratory coefficient, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL, leptin and insulin serum levels were evaluated. TG was significantly reduced in the treated group (p = 0.0002) and the post-treatment variation was different compared to the placebo group (p = 0.04). No significant response was observed on other variables of the lipid profile, or on the anthropometric and calorimetric parameters. Leptin and insulin levels did not change significantly after the treatment. The short-term treatment with G. cambogia demonstrated a hypotriglyceridemic effect, which does not appear to be related to changes in leptinemia.

  3. Infrasound research at Kola Regional Seismological Centre, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asming, Vladimir; Kremenetskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    A small-aperture infrasound array has been installed in Kola Peninsula, Russia 17 km far from the town of Apatity in the year 2000. It comprises 3 Chaparral V microbarographs placed closely to the APA seismic array sensors and equipped with pipe wind reducing filters. The data are digitized at the array site and transmitted in real time to a processing center in Apatity. To search for infrasound events (arrivals of coherent signals) a beamforming-style detector has been developed. Now it works in near real time. We analyzed the detecting statistics for different frequency bands. Most man-made events are detected in 1-5 Hz band, microbaromes are typically detected in 0.2-1 Hz band. In lower frequencies we record mostly a wind noise. A data base of samples of infrasound signals of different natures has been collected. It contains recordings of microbaromes, industrial and military explosions, airplane shock waves, infrasound of airplanes, thunders, rocket launches and reentries, bolides etc. The most distant signals we have detected are associated with Kursk Magnetic Anomaly explosions (1700 km far from Apatity). We implemented an algorithm for association of infrasound signals and preliminary location of infrasound events by several arrays. It was tested with Apatity data together with data of Sweden - Finnish infrasound network operated by the Institute of Space Physics in Umea (Sweden). By agreement with NORSAR we have a real-time access to the data of Norwegian experimental infrasound installation situated in Karasjok (North Norway). Currently our detection and location programs work both with Apatity and Norwegian data. The results are available in Internet. Finnish militaries routinely destroy out-of-date weapon in autumns at the same compact site in North Finland. This is a great source of repeating infrasound signals of the same magnitude and origin. We recorded several hundreds of such explosions. The signals have been used for testing our location routines

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity of Garcinia or Hydroxycitric Acid: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Li Oon; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is one of the pandemic chronic diseases commonly associated with health disorders such as heart attack, high blood pressure, diabetes or even cancer. Among the current natural products for obesity and weight control, Garcinia or more specifically hydroxycitric acid (HCA) extracted from Garcinia has been widely used. The evaluation of the potential toxicity of weight control supplement is of the utmost importance as it requires long term continuous consumption in order to maintain its effects. Majority of reports demonstrated the efficacy of Garcinia/HCA without any toxicity found. However, a few clinical toxicity reports on weight-loss diet supplements of which some were combinations that included Garcinia/HCA as an active ingredient showed potential toxicity towards spermatogenesis. Nonetheless, it cannot be concluded that Garcinia/HCA is unsafe. Those products which have been reported to possess adverse effects are either polyherbal or multi-component in nature. To date, there is no case study or report showing the direct adverse effect of HCA. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of the use of Garcinia/HCA and comprehensive scientific evidence had shown “no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)” at levels up to 2800 mg/day, suggesting its safety for use. PMID:22924054

  5. Gastroprotective effects of extracts and guttiferone A isolated from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) against experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Niero, Rivaldo; Dal Molin, Marlova Manhabosco; Silva, Suellen; Damian, Natália Santos; Maia, Láis Orlof; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2012-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the gastroprotective properties of seed, leaf, and branch methanolic extracts and guttiferone A obtained from Garcinia achachairu (Clusiaceae). Mice were used in all the models, and treatments were administered orally only in pylorus-ligated model of the extracts, and drugs were administered intraduodenally. Treatment with different extracts (500 mg/kg) significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions in the ethanol/HCl-induced model; however, the seed extract was most active. When tested in different doses (50, 250, or 500 mg/kg), the seed extract of G. achaicharu showed a dose-dependent effect with a percentage of inhibition of gastric lesions of 41, 49, and 85 %, respectively. The seed extract also significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions in the indomethacin/bethanechol-induced ulcer. In this model, the percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 24, 58, and 90 %, respectively. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction of gastric juice volume and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH. Considering that the seed extract was the most active, it was subjected to silica gel column chromatography, leading to the isolation of guttiferone A. The isolated compound and omeprazole were evaluated in the HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer model. In this assay, both compounds at a dose of 30 mg/kg reduced the ulcerative lesions by about 75 %. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that extracts obtained from G. achachairu and guttiferone A produce gastroprotective effects, corroborating ethnomedicinal use of this plant.

  6. Unusual rocks and mineralisation in a new carbonatite complex at Kandaguba, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipiuk, A. N.; Ivanikov, V. V.; Bulakh, A. G.

    2001-04-01

    The paper presents the results from a reconnaissance investigation of carbonatites in a newly discovered alkaline complex in the Kola peninsula, Russia. The Kandaguba complex differs from other carbonatite plutons of the Kola alkaline province by (a) the absence of ultrabasic rocks, (b) widespread occurrence of nepheline-, cancrinite- and nepheline-cancrinite syenites and carbonatites and (c) presence of apatite-calcite ijolites and feldspar ijolites as separate intrusive phase. The Kandaguba carbonatites are notable for the predominance of late ferromagnesian varieties together with quartz and numerous accessory mineral species. The association of phosphates (monazite, gorseixite, goyazite, apatite), sulphides and tellurides (pyrite, sphalerite, galena, hessite), ilmenorutile, barite with quartz and ankerite is a remarkable feature of these carbonatites. The Kandaguba carbonatites are inferred to have been generated as the products of liquid immiscibility followed by differentiation of the carbonatite melt.

  7. The Neutron Tomography Studies of the Rocks from the Kola Superdeep Borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kichanov, S. E.; Kozlenko, D. P.; Ivankina, T. I.; Rutkauskas, A. V.; Lukin, E. V.; Savenko, B. N.

    The volume morphology of a gneiss sample K-8802 recovered from the deep of 8802 m of the Kola Superdeep Borehole and its surface homologue sample PL-36 have been studied by means of neutron radiography and tomography methods. The volumes and size distributions of a biotite-muscovite grains as well as grains orientation distribution have been obtained from experimental data. It was found that the average volumes of the biotite-muscovite grains in surface homologue sample is noticeably larger than the average volume of grains in the deep-seated gneiss sample K-8802. This drastically differences in grains volumes can be explained by the recrystallization processes in deep of the Kola Superdeep Borehole at high temperatures and high pressures.

  8. Chemistry and Biology of the Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    PubMed Central

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2011-01-01

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70% of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development. PMID:20648491

  9. Antibacterial and antioxidant xanthones and benzophenone from garcinia smeathmannii.

    PubMed

    Fouotsa, Hugues; Lannang, Alain Meli; Dzoyem, Jean Paul; Tatsimo, Simplice J N; Neumann, Beate; Mbazoa, Celine Djama; Razakarivony, Andrianambinina Andriamarolahy; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem; Eloff, Jacobus N; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-05-01

    A new prenylated xanthone, 1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxy-2-(3-methybut-2-enyl)-4-(3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl) xanthone (1), and a new benzophenone (2), together with four known xanthone derivatives, cheffouxanthone (3), smeathxanthone A (4), smeathxanthone B (5), ananixanthone (6), and two pentacyclic triterpenes, epi-friedelinol (7) and friedelin (8), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia smeathmannii. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and compound 2 was further characterized and confirmed by single X-ray analysis. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibited the most prominent antibacterial activity against gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 8, 8, and 2 µg/mL, respectively, while compounds 1, 3, 4, and 6 showed the capacity to scavenge free radicals.

  10. Polyphenolic Constituents of the Pericarp of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.).

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Morio; Ninomiya, Kana; Tagashira, Yukari; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Amakura, Yoshiaki

    2015-09-09

    Three new polyphenols, together with 14 known compounds, were isolated from a hot water extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp, a plant that has been used medicinally in Southeast Asia. The three new polyphenols were characterized as a 4-aryl-2-flavanylbenzopyran derivative (tentatively named GM-1), 1, 3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-5-methoxybenzophenone (GM-2), 2, and 2,3-dihydrochromone derivative (GM-3), 3 on the basis of NMR and MS data. The relative stereostructure of GM-1 was assigned to have 2,3-cis-3,4-trans- and 2″,3″-cis configurations on the basis of the coupling constants of heterocyclic ring protons in the (1)H NMR spectrum along with nuclear Overhauser effect correlations. The HPLC analysis indicated that major polyphenolic components in the hot water extract of mangosteen pericarp were epicatechin and procyanidin B2 (epicatechin dimer).

  11. Anti-Helicobacter pylori xanthones of Garcinia fusca.

    PubMed

    Nontakham, Jannarin; Charoenram, Napaporn; Upamai, Wanchalerm; Taweechotipatr, Malai; Suksamrarn, Sunit

    2014-08-01

    A new geranylated xanthone derivative, fuscaxanthone I (1), along with nine xanthones (2-9 and 11), a biphenyl (10) and three biflavonoids (12-14) were isolated from the roots of Garcinia fusca Pierre. Compounds 8, 10 and 11-14 were reported from this plant species for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori. Cowaxanthone (5) and fukugiside (14) exhibited stronger inhibitory activity against H. pylori DMST reference strain at MICs 4.6 and 10.8 μM, respectively, than that of the control metronidazole. Isojacareubin (8) displayed the most potent activity against H. pylori HP40 clinical isolate with MIC 23.9 μM, which was approximately two times greater than that of the standard drug amoxicillin.

  12. Four new triterpenoids isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Min; Liu, Qun-Fang; Zhao, Yi-Wu; Liu, Shuang-Zhu; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Ru-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Four new triterpenoids, 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (1), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (2), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3',4'-O-diacetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (3), and 3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (4), together with six known triterpenoids, 3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), 2-O-acetylmaslinic acid (7), 3-O-acetylmaslinic acid (8), betulinic acid (9), and 2α-hydroxy-3β-O-acetylbetulinic acid (10), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Garcinia hanburyi resin. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data and chemical methods.

  13. Chemistry and biology of the caged Garcinia xanthones.

    PubMed

    Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Batova, Ayse; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-09-03

    Natural products have been a great source of many small molecule drugs for various diseases. In spite of recent advances in biochemical engineering and fermentation technologies that allow us to explore microorganisms and the marine environment as alternative sources of drugs, more than 70 % of the current small molecule therapeutics derive their structures from plants used in traditional medicine. Natural-product-based drug discovery relies heavily on advances made in the sciences of biology and chemistry. Whereas biology aims to investigate the mode of action of a natural product, chemistry aims to overcome challenges related to its supply, bioactivity, and target selectivity. This review summarizes the explorations of the caged Garcinia xanthones, a family of plant metabolites that possess a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities, and a promising pharmacology for drug design and development.

  14. A new xanthone derivative from twigs of Garcinia nobilis.

    PubMed

    Fouotsa, Hugues; Tatsimo, Simplice J N; Neumann, Beate; Michalek, Carmela; Mbazoa, Celine Djama; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem; Sewald, Norbert; Lannang, Alain Meli

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the twigs of Garcinia nobilis led to the isolation of a new xanthone, named l-hydroxy-2,5-dimethoxyxanthone (1), together with 15 known compounds (2-16). The structures of the new and known compounds were established by means of spectroscopic methods and by comparison with previously reported data. The structure of compound 1 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 1-16 were tested for their cytotoxic activity against human cervix carcinoma cell line KB-3-1. Compounds 5 and 11 showed moderate activity while others showed weak biological activity in these cytotoxicity assays. Compounds 4 and 9 were found to be inactive.

  15. Recent research on bioactive xanthones from natural medicine: Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Jia, Buyun; Li, Shanshan; Hu, Xuerui; Zhu, Guangyu; Chen, Weidong

    2015-08-01

    Garcinia hanburyi, a tropical plant found in south Asia, has a special long history in the development of both medicine and art. This review mainly focuses on the pharmacy research of the bioactive compounds from the plant in recent years. Preparative and analysis separation methods were introduced. Moreover, the chemical structure of the isolated compounds was included. The studies of biological activities of the caged xanthones from the plant, including antitumor, anti-HIV-1, antibacterial, and neurotrophic activities, were reviewed in detail. Furthermore, the mechanisms of its antitumor activity were also reviewed. As mentioned above, some of the xanthones from G. hanburyi can be promising drug candidates, which is worth studying. However, we still need much evidence to prove their efficacy and safety. So, further research is critical for the future application of xanthones from G. hanburyi.

  16. New depsidones and xanthone from the roots of Garcinia schomburgkiana.

    PubMed

    Sukandar, Edwin Risky; Siripong, Pongpun; Khumkratok, Suttira; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2016-06-01

    Two new depsidones, schomburgdepsidones A and B (1 and 2), and one new xanthone, schomburgxanthone A (3), together with eight known compounds (4-11) were isolated from the roots of Garcinia schomburgkiana. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The in vitro cytotoxicity of all 11 compounds was evaluated against the KB, HeLa S-3, HT-29, MCF-7 and Hep G2 human cancer cell lines. Compound 7 performed a good cytotoxicity against the KB, Hela S-3 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 3.17-6.07μM. Compound 3 exhibited a good cytotoxicity against the KB cell line only, with an IC50 value of 8.14μM.

  17. Antibacterial tetraoxygenated xanthones from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Auranwiwat, Chiramet; Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Saiai, Aroonchai; Pyne, Stephen G; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee

    2014-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the acetone extract from the immature fruits of Garcinia cowa led to the isolation of two novel tetraoxygenated xanthones, garcicowanones A (1) and B (2), together with eight known tetraoxygeanted xanthones. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688, Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Escherichia coli TISTR 780, Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781, Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 292 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. α-Mangostin showed potent activity (MIC 0.25-1 μg/mL) against three Gram-positive strains and garcicowanone A and β-mangostin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus with the same MIC values of 0.25 μg/mL.

  18. Reconstruction of early Holocene paleoclimate and environment in the SW Kola region, Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grekov, Ivan; Kolka, Vasiliy; Syrykh, Liudmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    In the current period of the global climate change it becomes necessary to have a clear understanding of not only the changes taking place in the components of the natural environment, but also to understand development of all interactions between those components. Quaternary terrigenic sediments and lakes of the Kola Peninsula store information about the development of the region in the Late Glacial and Holocene: movements of the glacier, neotectonic activity, post-glacial rebound, formation and development of natural environments after deglaciation. Multi-proxy study of landscapes evolution of the Kola Peninsula in the Late Quaternary will help to establish a detailed reconstruction of climatic and environmental changes of this poor studied sector of the Arctic. Quaternary history on the Kola Peninsula is represented mainly by Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments covering the Baltic Shield (Lavrova, 1960; Evzerov, 2015). Several palaeolimnological investigations in the Baltic Shield area have been performed earlier (Donner et al., 1977; Anundsen, 1985; Berglund, 2004). Studies of the southern coast of the Kola Peninsula have shown that marine transgression took place in the Late Pleistocene that was then replaced by a regression with variable speed. The slowdown of the uplift of the area took place between 8800 - 6800 BP (cal. years) and corresponded to the time of the Tapes transgression of the Arctic Ocean (Evzerov et al. 2010; Kolka, et al., 2013). Palaeoclimatic studies based on micro-paleontological analyzes indicate uneven development of the Kola Peninsula landscapes in the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. The northern coast of the Peninsula became free of ice first. In this area tundra-steppe vegetation was established for a short time and was later replaced by tundra (Snyder et al, 2000). Southern part of the Kola Peninsula was dependent on the conditions of deglaciation of the White Sea basin and cleared of ice much later (Evzerov et al., 2010; Kolka

  19. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia Induced by High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Elancheran, Ramakrishnan; Deori, Meetali; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae) is a plant found available in Northeast (NE) region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF) and seed extract (GS) were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 4.01 μg/ml), ABTS•+ (IC50 = 0.82 μg/ml), NBT (IC50 = 0.07 μg/ml) and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.26 μg/ml). Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%), serum total cholesterol (33%), triglycerides (32%), low-density lipoprotein (38%) and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat. PMID:27642282

  20. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) on acoustic startle response in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bradwejn, J; Zhou, Y; Koszycki, D; Shlik, J

    2000-12-01

    Investigations of the pharmacologic profile of medicinal plants have revealed that a number of plants with purported anxiolytic activity bind to cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors. This finding is intriguing in view of the proposed involvement of CCK in the pathophysiology of fear and anxiety. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) in healthy subjects. Gotu Kola has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety. Recent studies in the rat have shown that long-term pretreatment with Gotu Kola decreases locomotor activity, enhances elevated-plus maze performance, and attenuates the acoustic startle response (ASR). In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of Gotu Kola on the ASR in humans. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either a single 12-g orally administered dose of Gotu Kola (N = 20) or placebo (N = 20). The results revealed that compared with placebo, Gotu Kola significantly attenuated the peak ASR amplitude 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. Gotu Kola had no significant effect on self-rated mood, heart rate, or blood pressure. These preliminary findings suggest that Gotu Kola has anxiolytic activity in humans as revealed by the ASR. It remains to be seen whether this herb has therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of anxiety syndromes.

  1. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of benzophenones and xanthones from edible fruits of Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Lyles, James T; Negrin, Adam; Khan, Shabana I; He, Kan; Kennelly, Edward J

    2014-06-01

    Species of Garcinia have been used to combat malaria in traditional African and Asian medicines, including Ayurveda. In the current study, we have identified antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from edible Garcinia species by testing for in vitro inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Whole fruits of Garcinia xanthochymus, G. mangostana, G. spicata, and G. livingstonei were extracted and tested for antiplasmodial activity. Garcinia xanthochymus was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation to identify active partitions. Purified benzophenones (1-9) and xanthones (10-18) were then screened in the plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase assay and tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian (Vero) cells. The benzophenones guttiferone E (4), isoxanthochymol (5), and guttiferone H (6), isolated from G. xanthochymus, and the xanthones α-mangostin (15), β-mangostin (16), and 3-isomangostin (17), known from G. mangostana, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values in the range of 4.71-11.40 µM. Artemisinin and chloroquine were used as positive controls and exhibited IC50 values in the range of 0.01-0.24 µM. The identification of antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from G. xanthochymus and G. mangostana provides evidence for the antiplasmodial activity of Garcinia species and warrants further investigation of these fruits as dietary sources of chemopreventive compounds.

  2. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients. PMID:28018115

  3. Dangerous dietary supplements: Garcinia cambogia-associated hepatic failure requiring transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lunsford, Keri E; Bodzin, Adam S; Reino, Diego C; Wang, Hanlin L; Busuttil, Ronald W

    2016-12-07

    Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement. One active ingredient in this supplement is hydroxycitric acid, an active ingredient also found in weight-loss supplements banned by the Food and Drug Administration in 2009 for hepatotoxicity. Heightened awareness of the dangers of dietary supplements such as Garcinia cambogia is imperative to prevent hepatoxicity and potential fulminant hepatic failure in additional patients.

  4. Comprehensive paleoseismic geological studies in a key site in southwestern Kola Peninsula (Northeast of the Fennoscandian Shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, S. B.; Nikonov, A. A.; Shvarev, S. V.; Rodkin, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers the results of detailed paleoseismic and geological investigations in a key site in the wall of the Imandra Lake depression (Kola Peninsula Region, Northeast of the Fennoscandian Shield). Study of different groups of paleoseismic deformations developed in the fault zone and the application of new methods and techniques made it possible to identify a large seismotectonic zone characterized by great earthquakes at the end of the Late Glacial and in the Holocene. The investigation data are indicative of the necessity to estimate the seismic potential in the Kola Atomic plant area in a different way.

  5. Alpine-type tectonics in the Paleoproterozoic Lapland-Kola Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudruk, S. V.; Balagansky, V. V.; Gorbunov, I. A.; Raevsky, A. B.

    2013-07-01

    The Kola region in the northeastern Baltic Shield is characterized by diverse Paleoproterozoic collision processes. The Keivy Terrane is one of the major tectonic units in the northeastern foreland of the Paleoproterozoic Lapland-Kola Collisional Orogen, which markedly differs in a number of parameters from other tectonic units of the Kola region. The study of the Keivy Terrane allowed us to unravel one more basic difference: the large Paleoproterozoic sheath synform of the Serpovidny (Crescentic) Range localized in this terrane. Its core is occupied by volcanic and sedimentary rocks, which correlate with the fill of the Imandra-Varzuga Rift; the limbs are composed of metamorphosed mature sedimentary rocks known as Keivy paraschists of Neoarchean or Paleoproterozoic age. The lower limb of the Serpovidny Synform is strongly squeezed, whereas the upper limb consists of almost undeformed rocks. The deformed rocks underwent ductile flow under conditions of simple or general shear. In the degree of its asymmetry and main parameters, the Serpovidny Synform is similar to the plunging and recumbent anticlines in the Helvetic nappes of the Alps. It is concluded that the Paleoproterozoic core of the Serpovidny Sheath Synform, or plunging anticline, is a fragment of the almost completely eroded deep Serpovidny Nappe of the Helvetic type. During the collision related to the Lapland-Kola Orogeny (1.9-2.0 Ga), this nappe was pushed out northward from the Paleoproterozoic Imandra-Varzuga Rift, which is situated 50 km south of the Serpovidny structure, and thrust over the Keivy paraschists. The latter, together with underlying the Lebyazhka Gneiss, were folded in the process of thrusting and were involved in the structure of the Serpovidny Synform. The Keivy paraschists make up a para-autochthon or a separate nappe of the Pennine type. The Archean Lebyazhka metafelsic volcanics underlie the Keivy paraschists and overlie granitoids of the Archean basement that remained undeformed

  6. Study on Antibacterial Activity of the Bark of Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Nilutpal Sharma; Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Gogoi, Barnali

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia lanceifolia Roxb. is an important and endemic medicinal plant of Assam which has been used by various ethnic communities of Northeast India to treat various disorders like dysentery, dyspepsia, and biliousness. The plant is considered to be containing much medicinal value and is also eaten raw or made into pickles by the local people. Our present study has been focused on the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of the bark of Garcinia lanceifolia which may lead us to a scientific evidence of the use of this plant in cases of dysentery and diarrhoea. PMID:27437444

  7. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as “mundu” belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell. PMID:26557713

  8. Garcinia dulcis Fruit Extract Induced Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ahmad, Nor Ezani; Suleiman, Monica; Rahmat, Asmah; Isha, Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as "mundu" belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.

  9. An overview of anticancer activity of Garcinia and Hypericum.

    PubMed

    Brito, Lavínia de C; Rangel Berenger, Ana Luiza; Figueiredo, Maria Raquel

    2017-03-28

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide (approximately 8.2 million cases/year) and, over the next two decades, a 70% increase in new cancer cases is expected. Through analysis of the available drugs between the years of 1930 and 2014, it was found that 48% were either natural products or their derivatives. This proportion increased to 66% when semi-synthetic products were included. The family Clusiaceae Juss. (Malpighiales) includes approximately 1000 species distributed throughout all tropical and temperate regions. The phytochemical profile of this family includes many chemicals with interesting pharmacological activities, including anticancer activities. This study includes an overview of the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of secondary metabolites from Garcinia and Hypericum and the mechanisms involved in this activity. Hypericum no longer belong to Clusiaceae family, but was considered in the past by taxonomists, due to similarities with this family. Research in the area has shown that several compounds belonging to different chemical classes exhibit activity in several tumor cell lines in different experimental models. This review shows the significant antineoplasic activity of these compounds, in particular of these two genera and validates the importance of natural products in the search for anticancer drugs.

  10. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia Indica Fruit Rind Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the easily reproducible biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature with extract prepared using three year old dried Garcinia Indica (GI) fruit rind. Due to the presence of two major bioactive compounds garcinol and hydroxy citric acid, rinds of GI fruit exhibit anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. The quantity of fruit rind extract directed the morphology of the as synthesized particles. The nucleation and growth of AuNPs and catalytic activity are studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The crystalline nature of biosynthesized AuNPs is corroborated by X-ray Diffraction techniques. The morphology is studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of AuNPs. As the Fermi potential of noble metal NPs becomes more negative, they are used in various electron transfer processes. The AuNPs produced using GI extract showed excellent catalytic activity when used as a catalyst in the reduction of well-known toxic pollutant 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-Aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of excess sodium borohydride.

  11. Anti-diabetic xanthones from the bark of Garcinia xanthochymus.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chi N; Trinh, Binh T D; Tran, Toan B; Nguyen, Le-Thu T; Jäger, Anna K; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa D

    2017-08-01

    An ethyl acetate extract the bark of Garcinia xanthochymus exhibited strong inhibition towards α-glucosidase and PTP1B with IC50 values of 0.3±0.1μg/mL and 2.3±0.4μg/mL, respectively. Chemical constituents of the extract were therefore examined, and two new compounds, xanthochymusxanthones A (1) and B (2), along with ten known xanthones (3-12), were isolated. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. Inhibitory activity of the isolated compounds was then tested, and subelliptenone F (12) showed significant effect towards α-glucosidase with IC50 value of 4.1±0.3μM (compared with acarbose, IC50=900.0±3.0μM) whilst xanthochymusxanthone B (2) exhibited remarkable activity towards PTP1B with IC50 value of 8.0±0.6μM (compared with RK682, IC50=4.4±0.3μM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nitric oxide inhibitory xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianyu; Li, Dan; Wang, Anqi; Dong, Zhen; Yin, Sheng; Zhang, Qingwen; Ye, Yang; Li, Liangchun; Lin, Ligen

    2016-11-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana, Clusiaceae) is called "queen of fruit" in Southeast Asia. In the current study, three dimeric xanthones, garcinoxanthones A-C, and four monomeric xanthones, garcinoxanthones D-G, together with 18 known xanthones, were isolated from the pericarps of G. mangostana, collected in Thailand. The structures of garcinoxanthones A-G were elucidated by analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR and other spectroscopic data, and their absolute configurations were determined by the CD spectra. All seven compounds were tested for nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Garcinoxanthones B and C significantly inhibited NO production with IC50 values of 11.3 ± 1.7 and 18.0 ± 1.8 μM, respectively, which were comparable with the positive control indomethacin (IC50 3.9 ± 0.3 μM). Moreover, garcinoxanthone B suppressed inducible NO synthase expression in a dose-dependent manner. These results reveal the presence of rare dimeric xanthones in G. mangostana and their NO inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated murine macrophage cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Garcinia mangostana L.: a phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Obolskiy, Dmitriy; Pischel, Ivo; Siriwatanametanon, Nisarat; Heinrich, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen, Clusiaceae) has a long history of use as a medical plant, mostly in Southeast Asia. This is a review of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of mangosteen. Traditionally mangosteen is famous for its antiinflammatory properties and is used in the treatment of skin infections and wounds. Other applications include the therapy of various conditions such as dysentery, different urinary disorders, cystitis and gonorrhoea. This review highlights the development of this botanical drug into a widely used nutraceutical. Products derived from G. mangostana are now distributed increasingly all over the world. This has given rise to a concomitant increase in research on the phytochemical constituents and biological activity of mangosteen. Central to the biological activity of the species are xanthones which are reviewed in detail. A comprehensive assessment of the biological activities of individual xanthones as well as extracts of G. mangostana is included. In addition, its potential in terms of developing novel drug leads is assessed. Products containing its fruits are now sold widely as 'liquid botanical supplements', but evidence for the health benefits of these products is still lacking. As shown here, a serious weakness in our knowledge is the lack of clinical data and it is not yet clear to what extent the findings about pharmacological activities are of potential clinical relevance. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Antibacterial activity of Garcinia mangostana extracts on oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Samprasit, W; Opanasopit, P; Sukma, M; Kaomongkolgit, R

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts on oral pathogens. The 95% ethanol and 70% acetone extracts of the pericarp of GM was prepared and standardized by determining the amount of α-mangostin, total phenolic compounds and tannins. The antibacterial activity of GM extracts against oral pathogens was investigated by using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), and time kill assay. Bacterial morphology was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the content of α-mangostin, total phenolic compounds and tannins of the both extracts were different. The 95% ethanol extract contained higher α-mangostin and total phenolic compounds. Whereas, the tannins of 70% acetone extract were significantly higher than 95% ethanol extract. The 95% ethanol extract exhibited a potent antibacterial activity with low MIC and MBC values compared to the acetone extract. The morphology of bacteria was significantly changed after treatment with extracts for 24 h. Furthermore, time kill assay revealed that bacterial cells were decreased within 2 h. GM extracts was effective against oral bacteria pathogens. The antibacterial activity was varied by the different extraction solvents and the distinction in the contents of the compounds among extracts. These findings indicated that GM extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against oral pathogens in vitro.

  15. Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Thiengsusuk, Artitiya; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Ward, Stephen Andrew; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-07-01

    To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana Linn. (G. mangostana) (pericarp) in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp) at the concentrations of 12µg/mL (IC50 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) and 30 µg/mL (IC90 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%) for 12 h. Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS. At the IC50 concentration, about 82% of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control (non-exposed), while at the IC90 concentration, only 15% matched proteins were found. The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12 µg/mL were identified as enzymes that play role in glycolysis pathway, i.e., phosphoglycerate mutase putative, L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglycerate kinase. The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30 µg/mL of the extract. Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp).

  16. Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Thiengsusuk, Artitiya; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Ward, Stephen Andrew; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana Linn. (G. mangostana) (pericarp) in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Methods 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp) at the concentrations of 12µg/mL (IC50 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) and 30 µg/mL (IC90 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%) for 12 h. Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS. Results At the IC50 concentration, about 82% of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control (non-exposed), while at the IC90 concentration, only 15% matched proteins were found. The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12 µg/mL were identified as enzymes that play role in glycolysis pathway, i.e., phosphoglycerate mutase putative, L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglycerate kinase. The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30 µg/mL of the extract. Conclusions Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp). PMID:25183269

  17. Antioxidant compounds from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Tong, Woei-Yenn; Ibrahim, Darah

    2016-08-01

    A new xanthone, namely garcinexanthone G (1), along with eight known compounds, stigmasta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (2), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (3), 3β-acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanan-28,13β-olide (4), 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (5), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone (6), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (7), kaempferol (8) and quercetin (9), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR, and mass spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties based on the DPPH radical scavenging activities. Results showed that 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone and quercetin showed significant antioxidant activities with EC50 values of 16.20 and 12.68 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the control, ascorbic acid (7.4 μg/ml).

  18. Identification of molecular markers to study the Garcinia spp. diversity.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Utpala; Nandakishore, O P; Rosana, O B; Babu, K Nirmal; Kumar, R Senthil; Parthasarathy, V A

    2016-06-01

    The genus Garcinia shows a considerable variation in its morphological characters such as leaf, flower and fruit with taxonomic ambiguity. It is a potential under-exploited multipurpose crop that gained considerable attention for the presence of (-) hydroxycitric acid, an anti-obesity compound, in its fruit rind and leaves. Here, we evaluated the genetic relationship through molecular markers among the selected 9 species commonly available in the Western Ghats and the Northeastern Himalayan foot hills of India. The nucleotide sequence data obtained from two prominent monomorphic bands generated in ISSR profiling of the species was utilized for the study. The selected bands were found to be of ITS region (700 bp) and partial region of KNOX-1 gene (600 bp). The evolutionary cluster was formed using MEGA5 software. The study indicated 2 major clusters, influenced by floral morphology of the species and availability of (-) hydroxycitric acid in their fruit rinds. In the subclusters, one species from the Western Ghats were paired with another from Northeastern Himalayas with relatively similar morphological traits.

  19. In vivo antitrypanosomal activity of Garcinia hombroniana aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S K; Rasedee, A; Mohd Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

    2015-06-01

    The anti-Trypanosoma evansi activity of Garcinia hombroniana (seashore mangosteen) leaves aqueous extract was tested on experimentally infected Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment of infected rats with G. hombroniana extract resulted in a significantly extended post-infection longevity (p < 0.05), compared to the untreated control group. The possible mode of antitrypanosomal effect of the plant extract was also investigated on cultured T. evansi in HMI-9 medium with the addition of 25 µg/ml G. hombroniana aqueous extract. It was observed that the addition of G. hombroniana extract resulted in the inhibition of trypanosomal kinetoplast division, with no significant inhibitory effect on nuclear division. It is concluded from the current study that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has a potential antitrypanosomal activity through the inhibition of kinetoplast division, as one of the possible mechanisms of its antitrypanosomal effect. This plant could serve as a possible source of new antitrypanosomal compounds.

  20. Widespread tannin intake via stimulants and masticatories, especially guarana, kola nut, betel vine, and accessories.

    PubMed

    Morton, J F

    1992-01-01

    Tannins are increasingly recognized as dietary carcinogens and as antinutrients interfering with the system's full use of protein. Nevertheless, certain tannin-rich beverages, masticatories, and folk remedies, long utilized in African, Asiatic, Pacific, and Latin American countries, are now appearing in North American sundry shops and grocery stores. These include guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK.) from Brazil, kola nut (Cola nitida Schott & Endl. and C. acuminata Schott & Endl.) from West Africa, and betel nut (Areca catechu L.) from Malaya. The betel nut, or arecanut, has long been associated with oral and esophageal cancer because of its tannin content and the tannin contributed by the highly astringent cutch from Acacia catechu L. and Uncaria gambir Roxb. and the aromatic, astringent 'pan' (leaves of Piper betel L.) chewed with it. In addition to the constant recreational/social ingestion of these plant materials, they are much consumed as aphrodisiacs and medications. Guarana and kola nut enjoy great popularity in their native lands because they are also rich in caffeine, which serves as a stimulant. Research and popular education on the deleterious effects of excessive tannin intake could do much to reduce the heavy burden of early mortality and health care, especially in developing countries.

  1. Impact of acid and trace metals deposition on freshwater invertebrates in north-eastern Fennoscandia and Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, V.

    1996-12-31

    Freshwater invertebrate communities in a total 400 lakes and streams in northeastern Norway, Finnish Lapland and the Kola Peninsula, subjected to the atmospheric deposition were studied. The severe influence of toxic heavy metals, dusts from smelters and mineral enrichment factories were found in the Kola Peninsula. The negative acidification effects on benthic communities were found in the Jarfjord (Norway), Enontekio, Ranua-Posio and Kittila-Kolari (Finnish Lapland) areas and in the Kola Peninsula (Russia). Taxa groups, known to be sensitive to acidification, such as gammarids, snails, mayflies, stone flies, were represented with few species and in a low abundance. Heavy metals accumulation in biota is recorded in areas surrounding nickel smelters in the Kola Peninsula. The metal concentration invertebrates in remote areas is rather wide and depend on an air deposition, characteristics of lake catchment areas, as well as water acidity. The environmental variables, such as lake hydrological type, altitude of lakes, dominant substratum type, abundance of macrophytes and mosses in sampling area, content of pollutants in water also show significant relationships with metal concentration in invertebrates. The most severe negative effects on biota were found in waters with low pH and simultaneously contaminated by heavy metals. The biological method for estimation of simultaneously water acidification and contamination is suggested.

  2. Preussianone, a new flavanone-chromone biflavonoid from Garcinia preussii Engl.

    PubMed

    Messi, Bernadette Biloa; Ndjoko-Ioset, Karine; Hertlein-Amslinger, Barbara; Lannang, Alain Meli; Nkengfack, Augustin E; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Hostettmann, Kurt; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2012-05-21

    A new flavanone-chromone biflavonoid, preussianone (1), has been isolated from the leaves of Garcinia preussii, along with four known biflavonoids. The absolute stereostructures were elucidated by chemical, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The biological properties of the new biflavonoid against several bacterial strains were evaluated.

  3. Isoprenylated xanthone and benzophenone constituents of the pericarp of Garcinia planchonii.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Duong Hoang; Ha, Ly Dieu; Tran, Phuong Thu; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa Dieu

    2014-12-01

    A new xanthone, planchoxanthone (1), together with six known compounds, garcinianone A (2), cowanin (3), rubraxanthone (4), f-mangostin (5), dulcisxanthone B (6), and guttiferone Q (7), were isolated from an n-hexane extract of the pericap of Garcinia planchonii. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds was tested using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay.

  4. The potential health benefit of polyisoprenylated benzophenones from Garcinia and related genera: ethnobotanical and therapeutic importance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Sharma, Shelly; Chattopadhyay, Sunil Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The diversity present in biological activities and the medicinal significance of natural products provide a renewed interest in the use of natural compounds and, more importantly, their role as a basis for drug development. Advancements in the field of natural product chemistry provide valuable information on Garcinia fruits which revealed the presence of biologically important secondary metabolites named as polyisoprenylated benzophenones (PIBs). They are mainly present in the genus Garcinia (Guttiferae) which occupies a prominent position in the history of natural products. Compared to the long history of medicinal uses and widespread research on Garcinia, the study of polyisoprenylated benzophenones was relatively limited. During recent years, these PIBs have been recognized as interesting and valuable biologically active secondary metabolites as many of the isolated polyisoprenylated benzophenones exhibited significant cytotoxic activity in in vitro and in vivo assay. During past decades, some promising advances had been achieved in understanding the chemistry and pharmacology of polyisoprenylated benzophenones. However, there has been not any systematic review on the ethnobotanical importance, chemistry, isolation techniques, structure activity relationships and the biological activities of polyisoprenylated benzophenones. In this review, the biological activity of different structures of polyisoprenylated benzophenones isolated from genus Clusia, Garcinia, Vismia, Allanblackia, Moronobea, Symphonia, Hypericum, Tovomita, Tovomiptosis and Ochrocarpus have been described. Therefore, the goal of this review article would be a valuable reference for the natural product chemists and biologists working on these PIBs. Furthermore, the review article on polyisoprenylated benzophenones would also be useful from the drug discovery point of view as cytotoxic agents in near future. This review focuses our understanding about the specific biological effects of Garcinia

  5. Characterization of proapoptotic compounds from the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Gao, Xue-Mei; Xu, Hong-Xi; Luo, Kathy Qian

    2014-05-23

    Twenty compounds from Garcinia oblongifolia were screened for proapoptotic activity using FRET-based HeLa-C3 sensor cells. Among them, oblongifolins F and G (1 and 2), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-13,13-dimethyl-2H-pyran[7,6-b]xanthone (3), nigrolineaxanthone T (4), and garcicowin B (5) showed significant proapoptotic activity at a concentration of 10 μM. Bioassessments were then performed to evaluate the potential of these compounds for therapeutic application. All five compounds showed significant cytotoxicity and caspase-3-activating ability in cervical cancer HeLa cells, with compounds 1 and 2 having the highest potencies. All five compounds specifically induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, which could be prevented by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. In particular, 3 induced apoptosis through mitotic arrest. Compounds 1-5 displayed similar IC50 values (3.9-16.5 μM) against the three cancer cell lines HeLa, MDA-MB-435, and HepG2. In addition, compounds 1, 2, and 4 exhibited similar and potent IC50 values (2.4-5.1 μM) against several breast and colon cancer cell lines, including those overexpressing either HER2 or P-glycoprotein. HER2 and P-glycoprotein are known factors that confer resistance to anticancer drugs in cancer cells. This is the first study on the cytotoxicity, caspase-3-activing ability, and specificity of proapoptotic compounds isolated from G. oblongifolia in HeLa cells. The potential application of these compounds against HER2- or P-glycoprotein-overexpressing cancer cells was investigated.

  6. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  7. c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated anti-inflammatory effects of Garcinia subelliptica in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Chang; Cho, Sayeon

    2016-03-01

    Garcinia plants have been traditionally used to treat inflammatory diseases, such as skin infections and pain, in many regions including South‑East Asia. Garcinia subelliptica, a plant of the Garcinia species widely distributed from Japan to Thailand, has been reported to contain components similar to other Garcinia plants that exhibit anti‑inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to explore the anti‑inflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of Garcinia subelliptica (EGS) in macrophages, as there are no previous systemic studies that have investigated the effects of Garcinia subelliptica on inflammation. Non‑cytotoxic concentrations of EGS (≤200 µg/ml) were observed to reduce nitric oxide production by modulating iNOS expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The expression of cyclooxygenase‑2, the enzyme responsible for the production of prostaglandin E2, was notably reduced by EGS. EGS treatment inhibited the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including IL‑6 and IL‑1β, however, not TNF‑α. Reduced production of inflammatory mediators by EGS was followed by reduced phosphorylation of c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) however, not of other mitogen‑activated protein kinases and nuclear factor‑κB. These results indicate that EGS selectively inhibits the excessive production of inflammatory mediators in LPS‑stimulated murine macrophages by reducing the activation of JNK, suggesting that EGS is a candidate for modulating severe inflammation.

  8. The primary circuit materials properties results analysis performed on archive material used in NPP V-1 and Kola NPP Units 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P.

    1997-04-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a primary circuit piping material properties analysis. The analysis was performed for the Bohunice V-1 reactor and the Kola-1 and -2 reactors. Assessment was performed on Bohunice V-1 archive materials and primary piping material cut from the Kola units after 100,000 hours of operation. Main research program tasks included analysis of mechanical properties, corrosion stability, and microstructural properties. Analysis results are not provided.

  9. Efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens around the Pechenganikel works in the Kola Subarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2014-05-01

    Remediation of the technogenic barrens around the Pechenganikel works on the Kola Peninsula resulted in the improvement of the soil properties, namely, in a decrease in acidity and enrichment with nutrients, which continued for several years. However, the reaction of most of the treated soils remained strongly acid, and the concentrations of available calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus were much lower than their background levels and the demands of the plants for nutrients (especially, for magnesium and potassium). The soils were depleted in available manganese and zinc. Most of the treated soils contained the same (or higher) amounts of available nickel and copper compounds in comparison with their untreated analogues. The willow plantations on the remediated plots were in a satisfactory state, but they experienced a deficit of magnesium, manganese, and zinc; they consumed elevated amounts of nickel and copper. Recommendations on the nutrient regime of the soils aimed at decreasing the mobility and biological availability of heavy metals were made.

  10. A catastrophic holocene event in the lake bottom sediments of the Kola region (northeastern Fennoscandian shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, S. B.; Lavrova, N. B.; Denisov, D. B.

    2017-03-01

    Horizons with seismogenic sediments are revealed in the bottom sediments of the lake basins in the southwestern Kola Peninsula. In the borehole cores, they are represented by material that sharply differs from the overlying and underlying sediments: fragments of gyttia, siltstone, wood, sand, and peat that are embedded in the sapropelic matrix and look like breccia. These sediments reflect a strong catastrophic event from the Holocene that occurred 6000-5400 14C yr BP. The seismic events that happened in the middle Holocene in the northeastern Fennoscandian shield indicate a significant role of the tectonic component in the damping process of relaxation of the Earth's crust in the unloading of the recent glacier cover.

  11. Alternative technologies for remediation of technogenic barrens in the Kola Subarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens under the reduction of air pollutant emissions from the Severonikel smelter in the Kola Subarctic is determined largely by the soil state and the technology applied. The covering of the contaminated soils with artificially made material based on organomineral substrates and the following liming and fertilization promoted a sharp and long-term reduction of acidity, decrease in the biological availability of heavy metals, increase in the supply with nutrients, and improvement of the life state of willow and birch plantations. The effect of economically more profitable chemo-phytostabilization is short-term; it requires constant maintenance. Under the current production and a high level of soil contamination, repeated measures are required to optimize the soil reaction, supply with nutrients, and to correct the availability of heavy metals in the soils based on the results of continuous monitoring

  12. An ecotoxicity assessment of contaminated forest soils from the Kola Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Paton, Graeme I; Viventsova, Ekaterina; Kumpene, Jurate; Wilson, Michael J; Weitz, Hedda J; Dawson, Julian J C

    2006-02-15

    Point source copper and nickel contamination emanating from smelters of the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, has been observed since the mid-1960s. Previous studies have concentrated on the spatial distribution of heavy metals and their effects on forest ecology and indigenous mammals and birds. Soil is perceived as the major repository for the metal pollutants but there is a need to link the soil concentration of pollutants on the Kola Peninsula with biological parameters. Many standard methods currently used in soil ecotoxicology are developed and refined with artificial amendments and rarely modified for use in historically contaminated environments. In this study, forest soils were sampled along a 34 km transect from the smelter and analysed both chemically and with a range of ecologically relevant biological tests. Soil respiration, total nematode count, microbial heterotrophic numbers and minimal inhibitory concentrations to copper and nickel were carried out on bulk soil. The soil pore water was tested with bacterial and fungal bioluminescence-based biosensors. The heterotrophic numbers and their inhibitory concentration showed strong correlation with heavy metal concentrations while decreasing biosensor luminescence was related to increasing copper concentrations present in the pore waters. Overall, there were considerable impacts on some microbial parameters but other measures including respiration and nematode populations were insensitive to pollutant levels. While chemical analysis of heavy metals proved essential in defining the extent of contamination, environmentally relevant ecotoxicological tests complemented these data by demonstrating pollutant impact. Ecotoxicological approaches that study both the bulk soil and pore water may represent the key to understanding the fate of heavy metal in soils.

  13. Antimicrobial Effects of Garcinia Mangostana on Cariogenic Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Janardhanan, Sunitha; Mahendra, Jaideep; Girija, A S Smiline; Mahendra, Little; Priyadharsini, Vijayashree

    2017-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana commonly called as Mangosteen fruit has been used as an antibacterial agent since age old times. The mangosteen pericarp has proven to have antibacterial effect, but the effect of the same on cariogenic organisms has not been explored. The present study was an attempt to gain a better understanding of the antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp on the cariogenic bacteria, to unravel the therapeutic potential for the same. The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of the crude chloroform extract of mangosteen pericarp against cariogenic bacteria. The study was done under laboratory settings using an in vitro design. The microorganisms namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus acidophilus were procured from American Type Cell Culture (ATCC) and Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) were revived and lawn cultured. The antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp was tested using agar well diffusion method on Trypticase Soy Agar-Blood Agar (TSA-BA) and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar media. The standard antiplaque agent chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. This cross-sectional, experimental study was done in Central Research laboratory, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College for period of eight weeks. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values were determined by microbroth dilution method. Statistical analysis was done by calculating the mean of the zones of inhibition on tested microorganisms. Mann-Whitney test was done to compare the zones of inhibition of mangosteen and chlorhexidine. The antibacterial bioassay showed the highest activity for Lactobacillus acidophilus (13.6 mm) and Streptococcus sanguis (13.6 mm), whereas, it showed a medium and low activity for Streptococcus oralis (11.3 mm), Streptococcus mutans (10.6 mm) and Streptococcus salivarius (3 mm) respectively. The MBC and MIC

  14. Antimicrobial Effects of Garcinia Mangostana on Cariogenic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Janardhanan, Sunitha; Girija, A. S. Smiline; Mahendra, Little; Priyadharsini, Vijayashree

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Garcinia mangostana commonly called as Mangosteen fruit has been used as an antibacterial agent since age old times. The mangosteen pericarp has proven to have antibacterial effect, but the effect of the same on cariogenic organisms has not been explored. The present study was an attempt to gain a better understanding of the antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp on the cariogenic bacteria, to unravel the therapeutic potential for the same. Aim The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of the crude chloroform extract of mangosteen pericarp against cariogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods The study was done under laboratory settings using an in vitro design. The microorganisms namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus acidophilus were procured from American Type Cell Culture (ATCC) and Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) were revived and lawn cultured. The antibacterial effect of mangosteen pericarp was tested using agar well diffusion method on Trypticase Soy Agar-Blood Agar (TSA-BA) and de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar media. The standard antiplaque agent chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. This cross-sectional, experimental study was done in Central Research laboratory, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College for period of eight weeks. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values were determined by microbroth dilution method. Statistical analysis was done by calculating the mean of the zones of inhibition on tested microorganisms. Mann-Whitney test was done to compare the zones of inhibition of mangosteen and chlorhexidine. Results The antibacterial bioassay showed the highest activity for Lactobacillus acidophilus (13.6 mm) and Streptococcus sanguis (13.6 mm), whereas, it showed a medium and low activity for Streptococcus oralis (11.3 mm), Streptococcus mutans (10.6 mm) and Streptococcus

  15. Nutrient and phytochemical composition of two varieties of Monkey kola (Cola parchycarpa and Cola lepidota): An underutilised fruit.

    PubMed

    Ene-Obong, Henrietta N; Okudu, Helen O; Asumugha, Ukamaka V

    2016-02-15

    The nutrient and phytochemical composition of two varieties of Monkey kola: Cola parchycarpa and Cola lepidota were determined. The pulps were extracted, grated and dried using solar dryer. Dried pulps were milled into flour with attrition milling machine (0.5mm sieve size). The nutrient compositions were determined using standard AOAC methods. Gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods were used for phytochemical determinations. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in the proximate and some mineral and vitamin composition of the two varieties. Most abundant minerals were calcium (195-199mg for C. parchycarpa), potassium (204-209mg/100g for C. lepidota) and β-carotene (2755-5028μg/100g for C. parchycarpa). Calcium:phosphorus and sodium:potassium ratios were adequate (>1.0 and ⩽0.06, respectively). Monkey kola had substantial amounts of iron, zinc, and copper; the B-vitamins and vitamin C. The phytochemical contents were quiet high, the most abundant being flavonoids (415-494mg/100g). Monkey kola is a fruit that should be fully exploited for its potential health benefits.

  16. A new megastigmane sulphoglycoside and polyphenolic constituents from pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thu Huong; Le Huyen, Tram; Tran, Thi Minh; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Pham, Thanh Binh; Nguyen Tien, Dat

    2016-07-01

    A megastigmane sulphoglycoside together with three phenolic compounds were isolated from the water-soluble fraction of the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana. The structure of the new compound was determined as 4-O-sulpho-β-d-glucopyranosyl abscisate (1) by spectroscopic data. Proanthocyanidin A2 (2) showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and DPPH scavenging activities with IC50 values of 3.46 and 11.6 μM, respectively.

  17. Xanthone constituents of the fruits of Garcinia mangostana with anticomplement activity.

    PubMed

    Quan, Gui-Hua; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Chin, Young-Won

    2010-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation of a chloroform-soluble fraction of the freeze-dried fruits of Garcinia mangostana (Clusiaceace) with anticomplement activity in the classical pathway led to the identification of five known xanthones. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by interpretation of NMR and MS spectroscopic data. Of the isolates obtained, 1-isomangostin and garcinone E were found to be active constituents in the anticomplement assay used. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Two new chemical constituents from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    See, Irene; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Kadir, Arifah Abdul; Daud, Shaari

    2014-06-04

    A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques.

  19. [Progress in research of the structural optimization of natural product-like Garcinia caged xanthones].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Yang, Ying-Rui; Sun, Hao-Peng; You, Qi-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Designing of natural product-like compounds using natural products as template structures is an important strategy for the discovery of new drugs. Gambogic acid (GA), which is a Garcinia natural product with a unique caged xanthone scaffold, inhibits potent antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. This review summarized the researches on the identification of the antitumor pharmacophore of GA, and the design, structural optimization and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of natural product-like caged xanthones based on it.

  20. Microencapsulation of Garcinia fruit extract by spray drying and its effect on bread quality.

    PubMed

    Ezhilarasi, Perumal Natarajan; Indrani, Dasappa; Jena, Bhabani Sankar; Anandharamakrishnan, Chinnaswamy

    2014-04-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is the major acid present in the fruit rinds of certain species of Garcinia. HCA has been reported to have several health benefits. As HCA is highly hygroscopic in nature and thermally sensitive, it is difficult to incorporate in foodstuffs. Hence, Garcinia cowa fruit extract was microencapsulated using three different wall materials such as whey protein isolate (WPI), maltodextrin (MD) and a combination of whey protein isolate and maltodextrin (WPI + MD) by spray drying. Further, these microencapsulated powders were evaluated for their impact on bread quality and HCA retention. Maltodextrin (MD) encapsulates had higher free (86%) and net HCA (90%) recovery. Microencapsulates incorporated breads had enhanced qualitative characteristics and higher HCA content than water extract incorporated bread due to efficient encapsulation during bread baking. Comparatively, bread with MD encapsulates showed softer crumb texture, desirable sensory attributes with considerable volume and higher HCA content. The higher HCA contents of encapsulate incorporated breads were sufficient to claim for functionality of HCA in bread. Comparatively, MD had efficiently encapsulated Garcinia fruit extract during spray drying and bread baking. Spray drying proved to be an excellent encapsulation technique for incorporation into the food system. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Caged Garcinia Xanthones, a Novel Chemical Scaffold with Potent Antimalarial Activity.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hangjun; Morrisey, Joanne M; Qu, Shiwei; Chantarasriwong, Oraphin; Mather, Michael W; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A; Vaidya, Akhil B

    2017-01-01

    Caged Garcinia xanthones (CGXs) constitute a family of natural products that are produced by tropical/subtropical trees of the genus Garcinia CGXs have a unique chemical architecture, defined by the presence of a caged scaffold at the C ring of a xanthone moiety, and exhibit a broad range of biological activities. Here we show that synthetic CGXs exhibit antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum, the causative parasite of human malaria, at the intraerythrocytic stages. Their activity can be substantially improved by attaching a triphenylphosphonium group at the A ring of the caged xanthone. Specifically, CR135 and CR142 were found to be highly effective antimalarial inhibitors, with 50% effective concentrations as low as ∼10 nM. CGXs affect malaria parasites at multiple intraerythrocytic stages, with mature stages (trophozoites and schizonts) being more vulnerable than immature rings. Within hours of CGX treatment, malaria parasites display distinct morphological changes, significant reduction of parasitemia (the percentage of infected red blood cells), and aberrant mitochondrial fragmentation. CGXs do not, however, target the mitochondrial electron transport chain, the target of the drug atovaquone and several preclinical candidates. CGXs are cytotoxic to human HEK293 cells at the low micromolar level, which results in a therapeutic window of around 150-fold for the lead compounds. In summary, we show that CGXs are potent antimalarial compounds with structures distinct from those of previously reported antimalarial inhibitors. Our results highlight the potential to further develop Garcinia natural product derivatives as novel antimalarial agents. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Identification and characterization of anticancer compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy from Chinese native Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Danqing; Lao, Yuanzhi; Xu, Naihan; Hu, Hui; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Gu, Yunzhi; Song, Zhijun; Cao, Peng; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. Active compounds targeting apoptosis and autophagy are candidates for anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we collected Garcinia species from China and extracted them into water or ethanol fractions. Then, we performed a functional screen in search of novel apoptosis and autophagy regulators. We first characterized the anti-proliferation activity of the crude extracts on multiple cell lines. HeLa cells expressing GFP-LC3 were used to examine the effects of the crude extracts on autophagy. Their activities were confirmed by Western blots of A549 and HeLa cells. By using bioassay guided fractionation, we found that two caged prenylxanthones from Garcinia bracteata, neobractatin and isobractatin, can significantly induce apoptosis and inhibit autophagy. Our results suggest that different Garcinia species displayed various degrees of toxicity on different cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the use of a high content screening assay to screen natural products was an essential method to identify novel autophagy regulators.

  3. Archean to Paleoproterozoic polymetamorphic history of the Salma eclogite in Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imayama, Takeshi; Oh, Chang-Whan; Park, Chan-Soo; Yi, Keewook; Jung, Haemyeong

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important questions in the Earth Science is when and how plate tectonics operate in the Precambrian time. The tectonic and thermal evolution of the Precambrian eclogite is significant key for understanding the Precambrian geodynamic mechanisms. Eclogites in Kola Peninsula, Russia are some of the oldest eclogites of the world, but there has been much debate about the timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism: Archean (e.g. Volodichev et al. 2004; Mints et al., 2010) or Paleoproterozoic (e.g. Skublob et al., 2011, 2012). The controversy is mainly because of the lack of zircon dating coupled with the formation of garnet and omphacite. In this study, we present geochronological, petrographic, and geochemical data from the Salma eclogites in the Kola Peninsula, Russia to characterize subduction and collision processes in the Precambrian. Microstructural observations, P-T analyses, zircon inclusion analyses, and U-Pb zircon dating revealed multiple metamorphic stages that the Salma eclogite underwent. The amphibolite facies metamorphic event firstly occurred at 2.73-2.72 Ga during Archean. In the Paleoproterozoic period, the Salma eclogites underwent prograde stage of epidote-amphibolite facies metamorphism. The eclogite facies metamorphic event took place under the P-T condition of 16-18 kbar and 740-770 °C at 1.89-1.88 Ga, with a subsequent granulite facies metamorphism during decompression stage from 18 kbar to 9-12 kbar. Finally, later amphibolite facies metamorphism occurred at 8-10 kbar and 590-610 °C on cooling. The Archean metamorphic zircons that contain inclusions of Grt + Am + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Rt are unzoned grains with dark CL, and they are relatively enriched in HREE. In contrast, the 1.89-1.88 Ga sector or concentric zoned zircons with pale-grey CL include inclusions of Grt + Omp + Ca-Cpx + Am + Bt + Qtz + Rt, and they have the flat pattern of HREE due to the amounts of abundant garnet during the eclogite-facies metamorphism. Whole rock

  4. The comparative effects of chronic consumption of kola nut (Cola nitida) and caffeine diets on locomotor behaviour and body weights in mice.

    PubMed

    Umoren, E B; Osim, E E; Udoh, P B

    2009-06-01

    The comparative effects of chronic [28 days] consumption of kola nut and its active constituent, caffeine diets on locomotor behaviour and body weights in mice were investigated. Thirty adult Swiss white mice [15-30 g body weight], were used for the study. The open field-maze was employed for the evaluation of locomotor behaviour. Mice in the control group [n=10] were fed normal rodent chow, mice in the kola nut-fed group [n=10] were fed kola diet [25 % wt/wt of rodent chow] while those in the caffeine-fed group [n=10] were fed caffeine diet [0.66% wt/wt of rodent chow] for 4 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Daily food intake, water intake and body weight change were also measured. Daily food intake in the kola nut and caffeine-fed group of mice was significantly [P<0.001 respectively] lower than the control. There was also a significant [P<0.001] decrease in daily water intake in the caffeine-fed group compared to the control whereas, the apparent decrease of water intake in the kola nut-fed group was not significantly different from the control. Body weight change was also significantly [P<0.001 and P<0.05 respectively] lower in the kola nut and caffeine-fed groups of mice when compared to the control. The frequency of rearing in the open field was significantly [P<0.01] lower in the caffeine-fed group of mice when compared to the control. The frequency of grooming was also significantly [P<0.05] lower in the caffeine-fed group of mice when compared to the control. There was also a significant [P<0.05] decrease in the frequency of light-dark transitions in the light/dark transition box for the caffeine-fed group when compared to the control. The results showed that chronic consumption of kola nut and caffeine diets caused decrease in food intake and body weight. Consumption of caffeine-diet also significantly decreased water intake and locomotor activity. The effect of kola nut-diets on water intake and locomotor activity was

  5. Assessment of environmental impact zones in the Kola Peninsula forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lukina, N; Nikonov, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the condition of forest ecosystems subjected to smelter pollution in the Kola peninsula. This assessment is based on the parameters of the biogeochemical cycle. The defoliation index was used to delimit three basic forest states: background, defoliating, sparse. Close to the smelter, due to expansion of the area not covered by vegetation, a fourth type of state, so-called "industrial deserts", has been observed. The concentrations of sulphur, copper and nickel in the precipitation in the forests generally declined with distance from the smelter. The defoliating forests are noted for the highest Ca, Mg, K concentrations in the summer precipitation. In sparse forests and industrial deserts a decrease in the Ca, Mg, K concentrations in the summer precipitation in comparison with the defoliating forests, despite the particle emissions, could be attributed to the reduction in forest biomass. The higher levels of soil and soil leachate carbon and acidity in the defoliating forests was due to higher litterfall and to the higher dissolution of fulvic acids by the acidic precipitation. This increase in organic matter levels affects soil cation exchange capacity and cation saturation. The pine trees demonstrated significant changes in the uptake of elements in all types of forests under pollution. Elevated levels of S, Ni, Cu and K and reduced levels of Mg, Mn and Zn were found in the needles of different age classes.

  6. Raman spectra of probably shock-metamorphosed zircon in structures of the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaulina, Tatiana; Nerovich, Luidmila; Lialina, Luidmila; Il'chenko, Vadim; Bocharov, Vladimir; Kunakkuzin, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    Zircon crystals were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy from certain structures of the Kola Peninsula, for which impact events are expected according to geological and geochemical data: circular structure in Javrozersky area of the Tanaelv belt and granophyres of Jarva-Varaka layered massif of the Monchegorsky ore district. Zircons from anorthosites of the Javrozersky area showed some features of impact zircons: wavy extinction, blurred "aurora-like" CL image and a presence of additional bands in the Raman spectrum, which may indicate the presence of ZrSiO4 with the scheelite-type structure (reidite) surrounded by zircon material. Zircon crystals of Yavra-Varaka granophyres showed variation of Raman spectra from the core part of crystals with typical zircon Raman pattern to complete absence of spectral bands in the marginal parts and rims. There was also a transition zone between cores and marginal parts of crystals, where the Raman spectrum is "blurred". Such pattern may be associated with the transformation of crystalline zircon to diaplectic glass under the influence of shock metamorphism, since the Jarva-Varaka massif according to geological and geochemical data is compared with the Sudbury structure, for which impact origin is assumed. The work is supported by RSF grant N 16-17-10051.

  7. Time of formation and genesis of yttrium-zirconium mineralization in the Sakharjok massif, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrin, V. R.; Skublov, S. G.; Balashov, Yu. A.; Lyalina, L. M.; Rodionov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Kola geotectonic province in the northeastern Fennoscandian Shield accommodates a significant number of alkaline rock massifs differing in age. They are of mantle and mantle-crustal origin (alkali and nepheline syenites, carbonatites) and related to crustal sources (Neoarchean alkali granites). Among them, the Neoarchean Sakharjok nepheline syenite massif is related to the oldest intrusions of this kind bearing yttrium-zirconium mineralization. The crystallization of alkali syenite pertaining to the first intrusive phase of the intrusive Sakharjok massif is dated to 2645 ± 7 Ma, and this implies that this syenite postdated alkali granites (2.66-2.67 Ga). To date the yttrium-zirconium ore, we applied the local U-Pb method to zircon crystals occurring in the mineralized block hosted in nepheline syenite. The earliest fragments of zircon crystallized 1832 ± 7 Ma ago; the age of metamorphism is estimated at 1784 ± 13 Ma. These dates indicate the Paleoproterozoic age of the yttrium-zirconium mineralization, which was formed as a product of fluid reworking of the Neoarchean nepheline syenite of the Sakharjok massif.

  8. Characterization of HANARO neutron radiography facility in accordance with ASTM standard E545-91/E803-91 for KOLAS/ISO17025.

    PubMed

    Cheul-Muu, Sim; Ki-Yong, Nam; In-Cheol, Lim; Chang-Hee, Lee; Ha-Lim, Choi

    2004-10-01

    As neutron radiography is even more in demand for industrial applications of aircraft, turbine blade, automobile, explosive igniters, etc, it is necessary to review the standards which are the most appropriate for preparing the procedures for setting up the QA system. Recently, Korea Of Lab Accreditation Scheme (KOLAS) was originated from ISO 17025. It is widely recognized by research peer groups for conducting valid tests. The neutron radiography facility (NRF) of High Flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO), which started ion 1996, is the preliminary stages of KOLAS. The HANARO NRF is not only characterized using ASTM standards E545-91/E803-91 to satisfy the requirements of KOLAS, but in the design phase of the tomography system.

  9. Acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis in a patient taking Garcinia cambogia extract successfully treated with high-dose corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Allen, Scott F; Godley, Robert W; Evron, Joshua M; Heider, Amer; Nicklas, John M; Thomas, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    A previously healthy 48-year-old woman was evaluated for lightheadedness and chest heaviness 2 weeks after starting the herbal supplement Garcinia cambogia. She was found to be hypotensive and had an elevated serum troponin level. The patient had a progressive clinical decline, ultimately experiencing fulminant heart failure and sustained ventricular arrhythmias, which required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Endomyocardial biopsy results were consistent with acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis (ANEM). High-dose corticosteroids were initiated promptly and her condition rapidly improved, with almost complete cardiac recovery 1 week later. In conclusion, we have described a case of ANEM associated with the use of Garcinia cambogia extract.

  10. Perspectives of humic substances application in remediation of highly heavy metals contaminated soils in Kola Subarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tregubova, Polina; Turbaevskaya, Valeria; Zakharenko, Andrey; Kadulin, Maksim; Smirnova, Irina; Stepanov, Andrey; Koptsik, Galina

    2016-04-01

    Northwestern part of Russia, the Kola Peninsula, is one of the most heavy metals (HM) contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere. The main polluters, mining-and-metallurgical integrated works "Pechenganikel" and "Severonikel", are surrounded by heavily damaged barren lands that require remediation. The main contaminating metals are Ni and Cu. Using of exogenous humic substances could be possible effective and cost-efficient solution of HM contamination problem. Rational application of humates (Na-K salts of humic acids) can result in improvement of soil properties, localization of contamination and decreasing bioavailability through binding HM in relatively immobile organic complexes. Our research aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing doses of different origin humates on i) basic properties of contaminated soils; ii) mobility and bioavailability of HMs; iii) vegetation state and chemistry. In summer 2013 a model field experiment was provided in natural conditions of the Kola Peninsula. We investigated the Al-Fe-humus abrazem, soil type that dominates in technogenic barren lands around the "Severonikel" work. These soils are strongly acid: pHH2O was 3.7-4.1; pHKCl was 3.4-4.0. The exchangeable acidity is low (0.8-1.6 cmol(+)/kg) due to the depletion of fine particles and organic matter, being the carriers of exchange positions. The abrazems of barrens had lost organic horizon. 12 sites were created in 1 km from the work. In those sites, except 2 controls, various amendments were added: i) two different by it's origin types of humates: peat-humates and coal-humates, the last were in concentrations 0.5% and 1%; ii) lime; iii) NPK-fertilizer; iv) biomates (organic degradable cover for saving warm and erosion protection). As a test-culture a grass mixture with predominance of Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina was sowed. As a result we concluded that humates of different origin have unequal influence on soil properties and cause decreasing as well as

  11. Effects of compounds from Garcinia mangostana on inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Tewtrakul, Supinya; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan

    2009-01-30

    The fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana Linn. has been used in Thai traditional medicine for treatment of abscess and skin infection. The mangosteen fruit hull and its compounds were carried out to investigate for anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of Garcinia mangostana together with alpha- and gamma-mangostins were tested for anti-inflammatory effect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) releases as well as their mechanisms in transcriptional levels using RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Mangosteen extract possessed potent NO inhibitory effect with an IC50 value of 1.0 microg/ml. The isolated compounds from the extract including alpha-mangostin and gamma-mangostin, possessed marked inhibitory effect against NO release with IC50 values of 3.1 and 6.0 microM, respectively. The extract exhibited potent inhibitory effect on PGE2 release (IC50=6.0 microg/ml), whereas those of alpha- and gamma-mangostins were 13.9 and 13.5 microM, respectively. However, mangostins possessed only moderate effects towards TNF-alpha and IL-4 releases with IC50 values ranging from 31.8 to 64.8 microM. Both extract and alpha-mangostin suppressed transcription of gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in dose-dependent manners, whereas gamma-mangostin had only an inhibitory effect on transcription of iNOS. The present study may support the Thai traditional use of Garcinia mangostana fruit hull for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases through the inhibition of NO and PGE2 releases, but moderate effect through TNF-alpha and IL-4.

  12. Assessment of current exposure levels in different population groups of the Kola Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Travnikova, I G; Shutov, V N; Bruk, G Ya; Balonov, M I; Skuterud, L; Strand, P; Pogorely, Ju A; Burkova, T F

    2002-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in samples of vegetation and natural food products collected in the Kola Peninsula in 1998 and 1999 indicate a very slow decrease in contamination levels during the last decade, mainly due to the physical decay of the radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 137Cs in reindeer meat decreased with a half-life of about 9 years. 137Cs in lichen, moss and fungi is significantly higher than in natural vegetation (grasses) and agricultural plants (potatoes). The activity concentrations of 137Cs in reindeer meat were two orders of magnitude higher than those in locally produced beef and pork. Consumption of reindeer meat, fish, mushrooms and berries constituted the main contribution to the internal dose from 137Cs and 90Sr for reindeer-breeders in the Lovozero area. The estimated committed doses due to 137Cs intake in this group were about 10 microSv per month in summer 1998 and 15 microSv per month in winter, 1999. There was good agreement between internal dose estimates based on intake assessment and whole body measurements. The population of Umba settlement, which is not involved in reindeer breeding, received individual committed doses due to 137Cs intake of about 0.5 microSv per month, about a factor of 20 less than the reindeer-breeders in Lovozero. In this case, the main contribution to the internal dose of the general population came from consumption the of 137Cs in mushrooms and forest berries. The contribution of 90Sr to the internal dose varied from 1% to 5% in the different population groups studied.

  13. Two Unusual Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinols, Including a Pair of Enantiomers from Garcinia multiflora.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi-Min; Yi, Ping; Li, Yang; Yan, Chen; Huang, Tao; Gu, Wei; Ma, Yuan; Huang, Lie-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Yang, Chong-Lin; Li, Yan; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Two polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols, garcimulins A and B ((±)-1 and 2), including a pair of enantiomers with the unique caged tetracyclo[5.4.1.1(1,5).0(9,13)]tridecane skeleton were isolated from Garcinia multiflora. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines in vitro (IC50 3.42-13.23 μM). The acidification of lysosomes in HeLa cell was obviously affected by compound 2.

  14. LC/MS characterization of phenolic antioxidants of Brindle berry (Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Robson).

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2017-05-01

    Characterisation of antioxidant fraction of the fruit of Garcinia gummi-gutta was done using liquid chromatography mass spectroscopic (LC/MS) analyses. Total poly phenolics and radical scavenging activity of various extracts such as acetone, methanol and hydroalcohol were estimated spectrophotometrically. The active extract was analysed by LC/MS in order to identify the molecular mass and tentative structures of major compounds. Phenolic compounds such as luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, kaempferol 3-O-(6-O-acetyl) glycoside, dicaffeoylquinic acid, apigenein-6-C-pentosyl-8-C-hexoside and p-coumarylquinic acid were identified from hydro alcoholic extract of G. gummi-gutta.

  15. Chemistry of α-mangostin. Studies on the semisynthesis of minor xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Carlo F; Biagiotti, Marco; Pappalardo, Valeria M; Rabuffetti, Marco; Speranza, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    α-Mangostin is the major prenylated xanthone from Garcinia mangostana and it has been used also in recent times as starting material for the semisynthetic preparation of various biologically active derivatives. Its structure is characterised by the presence of few functional groups amenable to chemical manipulations, but present in the molecule in multiple instances (three phenolic hydroxyl groups, two prenyl chains and two unsubstituted aromatic carbons). This study represents a first approach to the systematic investigation of the reactivity of α-mangostin and describes the semisynthesis of some minor xanthones isolated from G. mangostana.

  16. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial metabolism of α-mangostin isolated from Garcinia mangostana L.

    PubMed

    Arunrattiyakorn, Panarat; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Suwannasai, Nuttika; Kanzaki, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    α-Mangostin (1), a prenylated xanthone isolated from the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana L., was individually metabolized by two fungi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (EYL131) and Neosartorya spathulata (EYR042), repectively. Incubation of 1 with C. gloeosporioides (EYL131) gave four metabolites which were identified as mangostin 3-sulfate (2), mangostanin 6-sulfate (3), 17,18-dihydroxymangostanin 6-sulfate (4)and isomangostanin 3-sulfate (5). Compound 2 was also formed by incubation with N. spathulata (EYR042). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. Of the isolated metabolites, 2 exhibited significant anti-mycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Three novel xanthones from Garcinia paucinervis and their anti-TMV activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Zhen-Yuan; Kong, Guang-Hui; Lu, Xiu-Ping; Hu, Qiu-Fen; Gao, Xue-Mei

    2013-08-13

    Phytochemical investigations of the leaves of Garcinia paucinervis resulted in the isolation of three new xanthones 1-3 and five known analogues 4-8. Structural elucidations of 1-3 were performed by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D (HMQC, HMBC, and ROESY) NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. Compounds 1-3 showed anti-TMV activities, with inhibition rates above 20%, especially for 1, which had a lower IC₅₀ value of 21.4 µM.

  19. [A new flavone from stems of Garcinia bracteata and its anti-TMV activity].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-mei; Zhou, Jun; Lou, Jie; Wang, Yue-de; Zhou, Kun; Dong, Wei; Gao, Xue-mei; Hu, Qiu-fen; Jiang, Zhi-yong

    2015-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation on the stems of Garcinia bracteata collected from Xishuangbanna resulted in the isolation of a new flavone. By analysis of the HRESIMS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectra, the structure of the new compound was determined as 7-methoxy-4',6-dihydroxy-8-isobutyryl-flavone(1). Compound 1 was also tested for its anti-tobacco mosaic virus(TMV) activity. Results suggested the 1 possessed remarkable anti-TMV activity, with an inhibition rate of 28.2%.

  20. Xanthones from Garcinia paucinervis with in vitro anti-proliferative activity against HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Hong; Li, Chen-Xi; Jia, Cui-Cui; Sun, Ya-Ting; Xue, Chun-Mei; Bai, Jiao; Hua, Hui-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Qiu; Li, Zhan-Lin

    2016-02-01

    Three new xanthones, paucinervins H-J (1-3), as well as eleven known compounds (4-14), were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia paucinervis. The structures of the new compounds (1-3) were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectra and HR ESIMS. In vitro antiproliferative activity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells was tested, among which, compounds 2, 5, 6 and 7 exhibited strong growth inhibitory effects with GI50 values ranging from 1.30 to 9.08 μM, respectively. Preliminary SARs were also discussed.

  1. A tocotrienol series with an oxidative terminal prenyl unit from Garcinia amplexicaulis.

    PubMed

    Lavaud, Alexis; Richomme, Pascal; Gatto, Julia; Aumond, Marie-Christine; Poullain, Cyril; Litaudon, Marc; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Guilet, David

    2015-01-01

    Ten tocotrienol derivatives, i.e., amplexichromanols (1-10), were isolated from stem bark of Garcinia amplexicaulis Vieill. ex Pierre collected in Caledonia. The structures of the compounds 1-5 were determined to be chromanol derivatives substituted by a polyprenyl chain oxidized in terminal position. The remaining compounds 6-10 are the corresponding dimeric derivatives. Eleven known compounds, including xanthones, tocotrienol derivatives, triterpenes and phenolic compounds, were also isolated. Their structures were mainly determined using one and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectroscopy analysis. The compounds and some amplexichromanol molecules formerly isolated from G. amplexicaulis exhibited significant antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation and in the ORAC assay.

  2. Kaennacowanols A-C, three new xanthones and their cytotoxicity from the roots of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Kaennakam, Sutin; Siripong, Pongpun; Tip-Pyang, Santi

    2015-04-01

    Three new xanthones, named kaennacowanols A-C (1-3), along with nineteen known xanthones were isolated from the roots of Garcinia cowa Roxb. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against KB and HeLa cell lines. Compounds 17 and 22 showed good cytotoxicity against KB cell with IC50 values of 7.97 and 9.10μM, respectively. On the other hand, compound 15 showed good cytotoxicity against HeLa cell with IC50 value of 9.34μM.

  3. New flavonoid C-O-C dimers and other chemical constituents from Garcinia brevipedicellata stem heartwood.

    PubMed

    Abderamane, Bintou; Tih, Anastasie E; Ghogomu, Raphael T; Blond, Alain; Bodo, Bernard

    The methanol extract of the stem heartwood of Garcinia brevipedicellata has furnished three new flavonoid C-O-C dimers, brevipedicilones A (6), B (8) and C (10), along with five previously reported flavonoid dimers, viz. amentoflavone (1), 4″'-O-methylamentoflavone (2), robustaflavone (3), 4'-O-methyl robustaflavone (4) and tetrahinokiflavone (5). The new structures, which are composed of flavanone-flavanonol or flavanonol-flavanonol sub-units, were established based on spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR (1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) spectroscopy, and by comparing their spectral data with those reported for related compounds.

  4. Modelling and Evaluation of Environmental Impact due to Continuous Emissions of the Severonickel Plant (Kola Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Gonzalez-Aparicio, I.; Nuterman, R.; Baklanov, A.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, evaluation of potential impact - through concentration, deposition and loadings patterns - on population and environment due to continuous anthropogenic emissions (on example of sulfates) of the Cu-Ni smelters of the Russian North is given. To estimate impact, the Danish Emergency Response Model for Atmosphere (DERMA) was employed to perform long-term simulations of air concentration, time integrated air concentration (TIAC), dry (DD) and wet (WD) deposition patterns resulting from continuous emissions of the Severonickel smelters located on the Kola Peninsula (Murmansk region, Russia). To perform such simulations the 3D meteorological fields (from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, ECMWF) for the year 2000 were used as input. For simplicity, it has been assumed that normalized releases of sulfates from smelters location occurred at a constant rate every day. For each daily release the atmospheric transport, dispersion, dry and wet deposition due to removal processes were estimated during 10 day interval. Output from these long-term simulations is an essential input for evaluation of impact, doses, risks, and short- and long-term consequences, etc. Detailed analyses of simulated concentration and deposition fields allowed evaluating the spatial and temporal variability of resulted patterns on different scales. Temporal variability of both wet and dry deposition as well as their contribution into total deposition have been estimated. On an annual scale, the concentration and deposition patterns were estimated for the most populated cities of the North-West Russia. The modeled annual fields were also integrated into GIS environment as well as layers with population density (from the Center for International Earth Science Information Network, CIESIN) and standard administrative division of the North-West Russia and bordering countries. Furthermore, the estimation of deposited amounts (loadings) of sulfates for selected regions of

  5. Seed Germination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Initiation of seed germination is a critical decision for plants. It is important for seed populations under natural conditions to spread the timing of germination of individual seeds to maximize the probability of species survival. Therefore, seeds have evolved the multiple layers of mechanisms tha...

  6. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  7. Efficacy of garcinia cambogia on body weight, inflammation and glucose tolerance in high fat fed male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sripradha, Ramalingam; Magadi, Sridhar Gopalakrishna

    2015-02-01

    Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance.

  8. Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorates visceral adiposity in C57BL/6J mice fed on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun-Young; Lee, Hye Nam; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Taesun

    2008-07-01

    The aim of present study is to evaluate the effects of Garcinia cambogia on the mRNA levels of the various genes involved in adipogenesis, as well as on body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and other biochemical markers of obesity in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. Consumption of the Garcinia cambogia extract effectively lowered the body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, blood and hepatic lipid concentrations, and plasma insulin and leptin levels in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model. The Garcinia cambogia extract reversed the HFD-induced changes in the expression pattern of such epididymal adipose tissue genes as adipocyte protein aP2 (aP2), sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1c (SREBP1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2), and CCAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha). These findings suggest that the Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorated HFD-induced obesity, probably by modulating multiple genes associated with adipogenesis, such as aP2, SREBP1c, PPARgamma2, and C/EBPalpha in the visceral fat tissue of mice.

  9. Possible mechanism of horizontal overpressure generation of the Khibiny, Lovozero, and Kovdor ore clusters on the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebetsky, Yu. L.; Sim, L. A.; Kozyrev, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    The paper discusses questions related to the generation of increasing crustal horizontal compressive stresses compared to the idea of the standard gravitational state at the elastic stage or even from the prevalence of horizontal compression over vertical stress equal to the lithostatic pressure. We consider a variant of superfluous horizontal compression related to internal lithospheric processes occurrin in the crust of orogens, shields, and plates. The vertical ascending movements caused by these motions at the sole of the crust or the lithosphere pertain to these and the concomitant exogenic processes giving rise to denudation and, in particular, to erosion of the surfaces of forming rises. The residual stresses of the gravitational stressed state at the upper crust of the Kola Peninsula have been estimated for the first time. These calculations are based on the volume of sediments that have been deposited in Arctic seas beginning from the Mesozoic. The data speak to the possible level of residual horizontal compressive stresses up to 90 MPa in near-surface crustal units. This estimate is consistent with the results of in situ measurements that have been carried out at the Mining Institute of the Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), for over 40 years. It is possible to forecast the horizontal stress gradient based on depth using our concept on the genesis of horizontal overpressure, and this forecasting is important for studying the formation of endogenic deposits.

  10. Gotu Kola (Centella Asiatica) extract enhances phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein in neuroblastoma cells expressing amyloid beta peptide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanan; Cao, Zhiming; Khan, Ikhlas; Luo, Yuan

    2008-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that shows cognitive deficits and memory impairment. Extract from the leaves of Gotu Kola (Centella Asiatica) have been used as an alternative medicine for memory improvement in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for a long time. Although several studies have revealed its effect in ameliorating the cognitive impairment in rat models of AD and stimulating property on neuronal dendrites of hippocampal region, the molecular mechanism of Gotu Kola on neuroprotection still remains to be elucidated. In this study, we report that phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is enhanced in both a neuroblastoma cell line expressing amyloid beta 1-42 (Abeta) and in rat embryonic cortical primary cell culture. In addition, the contribution of two major single components to the enhanced CREB phosphorylatioin was examined. Furthermore, inhibitors were applied in this study revealing that ERK/RSK signaling pathway might mediate this effect of Gotu Kola extract. Taken together, we provide a possible molecular mechanism for memory enhancing property of Gotu Kola extract for the first time.

  11. Garcinia benzophenones inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells and synergize with sulindac sulfide and turmeric.

    PubMed

    Einbond, Linda Saxe; Mighty, Jason; Kashiwazaki, Ryota; Figueroa, Mario; Jalees, Filza; Acuna, Ulyana Munoz; Le Gendre, Onica; Foster, David A; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that extracts and purified components from Garcinia species inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells. Garcinia benzophenones activate the expression of genes in the endoplasmic reticulum and cellular energy stress (mTOR) pathways. This study examines the growth inhibitory and synergistic effects of Garcinia benzophenones, alone or combined with chemopreventive agents, on human colon cancer cells. To find optimal combination treatments, HT29 colon cancer cells were treated with benzophenones alone, or combined with chemopreventive agents, and cell growth measured using the MTT assay. To reveal effects on signaling pathways, we assessed effects of the MEK inhibitor U0126 and the ER IP3 receptor antagonist heparin, as well as effects on the phosphorylation of 4E-BP-1 (mTOR pathway), using Western blot analysis. New and known benzophenones from Garcinia intermedia inhibited the growth of human colon cancer cells; an alcohol extract of Garcinia xanthochymus, as well as purified guttiferones (guttiferone E and xanthochymol), preferentially inhibited the growth of colon cancer versus nonmalignant intestinal epithelial cells. Guttiferone E exhibited synergy with the NSAID sulindac sulfide and xanthochymol, with the spice turmeric. Guttiferone A did not alter phosphorylation of 4E-BP-1, indicating that the mTORC1 pathway is not involved in its action. The effects of xanthochymol were enhanced by U0126, at low doses, and were blocked by heparin, indicating that the MEK pathway is involved, while the ER IP3 receptor is critical for its action. These studies indicate the potential of benzophenones, alone or combined with sulindac sulfide or turmeric, to prevent and treat colon cancer.

  12. Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Properties of Indigenous Garcinia parvifolia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as “asam kandis” or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents. PMID:24288662

  13. Review of Garcinia mangostana and its Xanthones in Metabolic Syndrome and Related Complications.

    PubMed

    Tousian Shandiz, Hourieh; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is coexistence of abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension that causes cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and their complications, low quality and short lifespan. Garcinia mangostana and its xanthones such as α-mangostin have been shown desirable effects such as anti-obesity, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-dyslipidemia, anti-diabetic and antiinflammatory effects in experimental studies. Various databases such as PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science with keywords of 'Garcinia mangostana', 'mangosteen', 'α-mangostin', 'metabolic syndrome', 'hypoglycemic', 'antihyperglicemic', 'antidiabetic', 'hypotensive', 'antihypertensive', 'atherosclerosis', 'arteriosclerosis' and 'hyperlipidemia' have been investigated in this search without publication time limitation. This study reviewed all pharmacological effects and molecular pathways of G. mangostana and its xanthones in the management of metabolic syndrome and its complications in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Based on these studies, mangosteen and its xanthones have good potential to design human studies for controlling and modification of metabolic syndrome and its related disorders such as obesity, disrupted lipid profile, diabetes and its complications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Phytochemicals content, antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties of indigenous Garcinia parvifolia fruit.

    PubMed

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Fry, Jeffrey R; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia parvifolia belongs to the same family as mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), which is known locally in Sabah as "asam kandis" or cherry mangosteen. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemicals content (total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content) and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity of the flesh and peel of G. parvifolia. All samples were freeze-dried and extracted using 80% methanol and distilled water. For the 80% methanol extract, the flesh of G. parvifolia displayed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents than the peel, with values of 7.2 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Anthocyanins were detected in the peel part of G. parvifolia but absent in the flesh. The peel of G. parvifolia displayed higher total carotenoid content as compared to the flesh part with the values of 17.0 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.0 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/100 g, respectively. The free-radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effect of the flesh were higher as compared to the peel in both extracts. These findings suggested that the edible part of G. parvifolia fruit has a potential as a natural source of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer's agents.

  15. Molecular docking studies and in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of chemical constituents of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Yeong, Khaw Kooi; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Atlas, Amir; Khan, Imran; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khairuddean, Melati; Osman, Hasnah

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia species are reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV and anti-Alzheimer's activities. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of garcihombronane C (1), garcihombronane F (2), garcihombronane I (3), garcihombronane N (4), friedelin (5), clerosterol (6), spinasterol glucoside (7) and 3β-hydroxy lup-12,20(29)-diene (8) isolated from Garcinia hombroniana, and to perform molecular docking simulation to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. The cholinesterase inhibitory activities were evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. In this study, compound 4 displayed the highest concentration-dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE. Docking studies exhibited that compound 4 binds through hydrogen bonds to amino acid residues of AChE and BChE. The calculated docking and binding energies also supported the in vitro inhibitory profiles of IC50. In conclusion, garcihombronanes C, F, I and N (1-4) exhibited dual and moderate inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE.

  16. Zircon-pyrochlore ores of Proterozoic Gremyakha-Vyrmes polyphase massif, Kola Peninsula: source and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokhtina, Natalia; Belyatsky, Boris; Antonov, Anton; Kononkova, Natalia; Lepekhina, Elena; Kogarko, Lia

    2017-04-01

    The alkaline-ultrabasic Gremyakha-Vyrmes massif occurs within the Central Kola terrane in the northern part of the Fennoscandian Shield and consists of diverse rock complexes: basic-ultrabasic rocks, foidolites, alkaline metasomatic rocks and carbonatites, alkaline granites and granosyenites. Nb-Zr ore deposit is confined to alkaline metasomatic rocks developed over foidolites. The metasomatites are represented by albitites and aegirinites occur as submeridionally orientated zones extending up to 6-8 km and several hundred meters thickness. They are mainly composed of albite and aegirine, but amphibole, annite, microcline, fluorapatite, titanite, ilmenite, pyrochlore group minerals, zircon are present [Sorokhtina et al., 2016]. Carbonatites are developed sporadically and accessory zircon but not the pyrochlore is observed only in contact zones with albitites and aegerinites. In metasomatites, zircon and pyrochlore are main rare metal minerals, which are formed at the latest stages of crystallization. Ca-dominant fluorcalcio- and hydroxycalciopyrochlores are the most abundant, whereas U-dominant pyrochlore, oxyuranobetafite, zero-valent-dominant (Ba, Sr-dominant) pyrochlore, hydro- or kenopyrochlore are rare. The pyrochlore-group minerals form heterogeneous metacrystals containing inclusions of host rock minerals, calcite, ilmenite, zircon, sulfides, and graphite. While pyrochlore is replaced by Si-rich "pyrochlore" (SiO2 is up to 18 wt.%.), cation-deficient hydrated pyrochlore, Fe-Si-Nb, U-Si-Nb, and Al-Si-Nb phases along fracture zones and margins. The early generation zircon is represented by large heterogeneous metacrystals filled with inclusions of various host rock minerals, calcite, ilmenite, thorite, thorianite and sulfides, while the late zircons are empty of inclusions. Zircons are nearly stoichiometric in composition; but intermediate zones are enriched in Pb, Y and Th, and overgrowths are enriched Hf only. According to CL and ion-microprobe analysis

  17. Direct seeding

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman; G. A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    At present, direct seeding of hardwoods in the Lake States is more of a supplemental than a primary means of artificial regeneration. Direct seeding may be used to augment a poor seed crop or increase the proportion of a preferred species. In the future, it will no doubt play a bigger role-in anticipation of this we need to collect and store the amounts of seed needed...

  18. Apatite Fission Track Thermochronology of Khibina Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia): Implications for post-Devonian Tectonics of the NE Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Thomson, S. N.; Arzamastsev, A.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal history of the Kola Peninsula area of NE Fennoscandia remains almost fully unknown because of absence of any thermochronological data such as apatite and/or zircon fission track or (U-Th)/He ages. In order to fill this gap and to constrain the post-Devonian erosion and exhumation history of this region, we present the results of apatite fission track (AFT) dating of eleven samples selected from the cores taken from different depths of the northern part of the Khibina intrusive massif. This alkaline magmatic complex is located at the center of Kola Peninsula and formed at about 370 Ma (Kramm and Kogarko, 1994). Samples were analyzed from depths between +520 to -950 meters and yielded AFT ages between 290-268 Ma with an average age uncertainty (1σ) of ±30 Ma. Mean track lengths (MTL) lie between 12.5-14.4 μm. We used the most reliable AFT ages and distribution of MTL in two samples, corresponding to depths of +280 and -920 m, to conduct inverse time-temperature modelling of the Khibina massif. Thermal histories that best predict the measured data show three stages: (1) 290-250 Ma - rapid cooling from >110°C to 70°C/50°C for lower/upper sample correspondingly; (2) 250-50 Ma - a stable temperature stage; (3) 50-0 Ma - slightly increased cooling rates down to modern temperatures. We propose that the first cooling stage is related to late-Hercynian orogenesis; the second cooling stage may be associated with tectonics accompanying with opening of Arctic oceanic basin. The obtained data show that geothermal gradient at the center of Kola Peninsula has remained close to the modern value of 20°C/km for at least the last 250 Myr. AFT data show that the Khibina massif has been exhumed not more then 5-6 km in the last 290 Myr. This study was funded by grants 15-35-20599, 15-05-02116, 15-05-01860 and 13-05-01033 from the Russian Foundation of Basic Research, grant 3.38.224.2015 from the St. Petersburg State University, grant 14.Z50.31.0017 from the Government

  19. Soil catenas on denudation plains in the forest-tundra and northern taiga zones of the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urusevskaya, I. S.

    2017-07-01

    Morphogenetic features of soils of two catenas developed on sandy to loamy sandy moraine deposits in the forest-tundra and northern taiga zones on denudation plains of the Kola Peninsula are discussed. It is shown that these catenas are similar with respect to the major directions of soil formation, regularities of soil distribution by the elements of mesotopography, and the factors of the soil cover differentiation. The differences between the catenas are of quantitative character and are related to the intensities of manifestation of the particular processes and features. Both catenas are characterized by the pronounced differentiation of soils with respect to their moistening with hydromorphic peat bog soils in the subordinate positions and Al-Fe-humus podzols in the automorphic positions.

  20. [Occupational morbidity among miners engaged into contemporary method of extracting copper-nickel ores in Kola Transpolar regions].

    PubMed

    Siurin, S A; Shilov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The risks for developing occupational pathology and its specific features were studied in 358 Kola Transpolar copper-nickel miners who were diagnosed with 722 cases of occupational diseases (OD) in the years 1990-2013. The highest risk for developing OD, which are dominated by the diseases of the musculoskeletal system, has been found in tunnellers (OR = 12,8) and operators of drilling rigs (OR = 10,4). A significant increase in the risk of OD has been established in miners with length of service at 11-15 years and over 25 years. The conclusion is made about the need to improve the technical, medical and organizational measures targetted at preventing health problems in this group of workers.

  1. Minerals of zirconolite group from fenitized xenoliths in nepheline syenites of Khibiny and Lovozero plutons, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshikov, Yu. P.; Mikhailova, Yu. A.; Pakhomovsky, Ya. A.; Yakovenchuk, V. N.; Ivanyuk, G. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Zirconolite, its Ce-, Nd-, and Y-analogs, and laachite, another member of the zirconolite group, are typomorphic minerals of the fenitized xenoliths in nepheline syenite and foidolite of the Khibiny-Lovozero Complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia. All these minerals are formed at the late stage of fenitization as products of ilmentie alteration under the effect of Zr-bearing fluids. The diversity of these minerals is caused by the chemical substitutions of Na and Ca for REE, Th, and U compensated by substitution of Ti and Zr for Nb, Fe and Ta, as well as by the redistribution of REE between varieties enriched in Ti (HREE) or Nb (LREE). The results obtained can be used in the synthesis of Synroc-type titanate ceramics assigned for the immobilization of actinides.

  2. Changes in the molecular hydrogen concentration in an underground mine (Lovozero rare-metal deposit, Kola Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nivin, V. A.; Pukha, V. V.; Lovchikov, A. V.; Rakhimov, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term monitoring yielded significant variations in the hydrogen volume concentration in an underground mine at the developed Lovozero rare-metal deposit of the nepheline-syenite massif in the Kola Peninsula. The deposit is characterized by emission of natural combustible gases. Basic structural elements of the time series obtained include relatively stable and long ranges of low background concentrations, low- and medium-amplitude rises of various duration, and short-term, commonly high-amplitude peaks. The range structure is characterized by a general decreasing trend, a low intensity random noise component, and seasonal and off-seasonal periodic and other cyclical components. Periodic circadian and semidiurnal harmonics are the most pronounced.

  3. Effectiveness of Gotu Kola Extract 750 mg and 1000 mg Compared with Folic Acid 3 mg in Improving Vascular Cognitive Impairment after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wibowo, Samekto

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of gotu kola (Centella asiatica) in improving cognitive function in patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). This study uses a quasi-experimental design. Subjects in this study were patients with poststroke cognitive impairment who were treated at two hospitals in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The number of subjects was 48: 17 subjects were treated with 1000 mg/day of gotu kola extract, 17 subjects treated with 750 mg/day of gotu kola extract, and 14 subjects treated with 3 mg/day of folic acid for 6 weeks. A Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian version (MoCA-Ina) was conducted at the beginning of treatment and after 6 weeks of therapy. It was found that all trials effectively improved poststroke VCI based on MoCA-Ina scores over the course of the study. There is no significant difference in ΔMoCA-Ina (score at the 6th week of treatment − score at the beginning) mean score among the three groups, indicating that gotu kola is as effective as folic acid in improving poststroke VCI. Gotu kola was shown to be more effective than folic acid in improving memory domain. This study suggested that gotu kola extract is effective in improving cognitive function after stroke. PMID:27340413

  4. Effectiveness of Gotu Kola Extract 750 mg and 1000 mg Compared with Folic Acid 3 mg in Improving Vascular Cognitive Impairment after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Farhana, Kun Marisa; Malueka, Rusdy Ghazali; Wibowo, Samekto; Gofir, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of gotu kola (Centella asiatica) in improving cognitive function in patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). This study uses a quasi-experimental design. Subjects in this study were patients with poststroke cognitive impairment who were treated at two hospitals in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The number of subjects was 48: 17 subjects were treated with 1000 mg/day of gotu kola extract, 17 subjects treated with 750 mg/day of gotu kola extract, and 14 subjects treated with 3 mg/day of folic acid for 6 weeks. A Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian version (MoCA-Ina) was conducted at the beginning of treatment and after 6 weeks of therapy. It was found that all trials effectively improved poststroke VCI based on MoCA-Ina scores over the course of the study. There is no significant difference in ΔMoCA-Ina (score at the 6th week of treatment - score at the beginning) mean score among the three groups, indicating that gotu kola is as effective as folic acid in improving poststroke VCI. Gotu kola was shown to be more effective than folic acid in improving memory domain. This study suggested that gotu kola extract is effective in improving cognitive function after stroke.

  5. Digital relief 3D model of the Khibiny massive (Kola peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2015-04-01

    at the bottom and at the edge of the valley. Changing these parameters for different climatic seasons allows us to estimate the duration of the existence of gas in homogeneities in the aerial under soil and up soil layers. Complex ring structure site and manifestations of recent tectonic movements allow it to allocate more closed areas with different plant-land cover and different geomorphological features. In particular stand out - bogs, forest area on the slopes and riparian forest zone, the zone of mountain tundra and rocky plateau. Designated areas should be considered together with the full history of the evolution relief Khibin, processes of decrease glaciers and their occurrence. One of the results of the work performed is the allocation within the array of closed circuses, paleo-ice landforms drumlin and moraine ridges. These landforms represent the latest stage of the glacial history of glaciation on the Kola Peninsula and the Arctic coast. Estimated areal characteristics of different forms. In some cases it was possible to separate a sequence of glacial relief forms, which suggests staging a retreat of glaciers in the area. The project highlighted areas open mining apatite ores in Khibiny massif. Career located in the inner part of the massif form a closed area drain mine water pollution and wind. While the new career located on the border of the array and the forest zone characterized by a single watershed and accordingly included in the ecological life support cycle of residential villages and towns of Kirovsk and Apatity. This fact forces us to view mining activity as a powerful source of contamination. Designed GIS project thus can be used to solve a number of problems geomorphological orientation. In addition a number of application issues - the environment, paleoclimatology, geotectonic can be successfully addressed on the basis of the digital 3D model.

  6. Platinum-Group Element Mineralization in the Fedorovatundra layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groshev, Nikolay; Subbotin, Victor; Korchagin, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    The 2526 to 2485 Ma Fedorovatundra layered mafic intrusion in the central part of the Kola Peninsula, Russia, is the western massif of the Fedorova-Pana Complex (2526-2446 Ma), which is situated along the northern contact of the Early Proterozoic Imandra-Varzuga rift and Archean granite gneiss. The Fedorovatundra intrusion of approximately 4 km thick has two major parts: (1) located at the bottom of the intrusion Taxitic series (10 to 900 m) and composing the main volume of the massif Layered series (4000 m). The Taxitic series is distinctive, due to its predominant vary-textured often quartz-saturated norites and gabbronorites (with fewer amounts of leucogabbro, melanorite and Ol-gabbronorite) and abundant pyroxenite, less harzburgite xenoliths. Medium to coarse-grained mottled or massive leucocratic gabbronorite and leucogabbro prevails in the Layered series with mesocratic gabbronorite, pyroxenite and troctolite as subordinate rocks. Depending on its localization, geochemical features, mineral composition and economic value platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization of the Fedorovatundra intrusion is divided into 'marginal' (basal, contact) and 'reef' types. 'Marginal' type of mineralization is presented by irregular disseminated interstitial sulfides (1-2 vol. %) of pentlandite-pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite association (Cu/Ni = 1.8) in the Taxitic series. Less sulfides occur as uniformly disseminated aggregates, thin massive lenses and nests. PGE and base metals are concentrated in several ore horizons of 3.5 km long complicated structure. Thickness of ore horizons varies generally within 10-150 m, but it can rise up to 280 m in bulges. In the most common ore-bearing rock (taxitic gabbronorite) average Pt + Pd content is 1.6 ppm (Pd/Pt 4.5). The pyroxenite xenoliths occurring within the Taxitic series are practically barren of sulfide and can dilute higher PGE and base metal grades in the gabbronorite matrix. 'Marginal' mineralization of the Fedorovotundrovsky

  7. Antimicrobial prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives and xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia goudotiana.

    PubMed

    Mahamodo, Sania; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel; Abedini, Amin; Ranarivelo, Heritiana; Duhal, Nathalie; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Lemoine, Amélie; Razafimahefa, Dorothée; Razanamahefa, Bakonirina; Bailleul, François; Andriamihaja, Bakolinirina

    2014-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation using antimicrobial assay of the crude acetonic extract of Garcinia goudotiana leaves and of its five partitions led to the isolation of two new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, goudotianone 1 (1) and goudotianone 2 (2), in addition to two known compounds including one xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-isoprenylxanthone (3), and one triterpenoid, friedelin (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of different spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The crude acetonic extract, the methylene chloride and ethyl acetate partitions, and some tested compounds isolated from this species (1-3) demonstrated selective significant antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Enterococcus faecalis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. The potential cytotoxic activities of these extracts and compounds were evaluated against human colon carcinoma HT29 and human fetal lung fibroblast MRC5 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of microsatellite markers in Garcinia paucinervis (Clusiaceae), an endangered species of karst habitats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Yuan, Chang-An

    2017-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed for Garcinia paucinervis (Clusiaceae), an endangered and endemic tree species of karst habitats, to analyze its genetic diversity and genetic structure. Using shotgun sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq platform, a total of 22 microsatellite primer sets were characterized, of which 17 were identified as polymorphic. For these polymorphic loci, the total number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 12 across 54 individuals from three populations. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 1.000 and from 0.000 to 0.850, respectively. No pair of loci showed significant linkage disequilibrium. Three loci in one population deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05). Seven loci (JSL3, JSL5, JSL22, JSL29, JSL32, JSL39, and JSL43) were successfully amplified in G. bracteata. These markers will be useful in studies on genetic diversity and population structure of G. paucinervis.

  9. Xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia oblongifolia and their antidiabetic activity.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Binh T D; Quach, Tam T T; Bui, Dung N; Staerk, Dan; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa D; Jäger, Anna K

    2017-04-01

    Three new xanthones, oblongixanthone F-H (1-3), along with eight known xanthones (4-11), were isolated from an EtOAc extract of the twigs of Garcinia oblongifolia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The antidiabetic effects of all isolated compounds were evaluated by in vitro α-glucosidase and PTP1B inhibition assays. Compound 11 was the most active compound, and inhibited α-glucosidase and PTP1B with IC50 values of 1.7±0.5 and 14.1±3.5μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A-Ring Oxygenation Modulates the Chemistry and Bioactivity of Caged Garcinia Xanthones

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Kristyna M.; Guizzunti, Gianni; Theodoraki, Maria A.; Xu, Jing; Batova, Ayse; Dakanali, Marianna; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products of the caged Garcinia xanthones (CGX) family are characterized by a unique chemical structure, potent bioactivities and promising pharmacological profiles. We have developed a Claisen/Diels-Alder reaction cascade that, in combination with a Pd(0)-catalyzed reverse prenylation, provide rapid and efficient access to the CGX pharmacophore, represented by the structure of cluvenone. To further explore this pharmacophore, we have synthesized various A-ring oxygenated analogues of cluvenone and have evaluated their bioactivities in terms of growth inhibition, mitochondrial fragmentation, induction of mitochondrial-dependent cell death and Hsp90 client inhibition. We found that installation of an oxygen functionality at various positions of the A-ring influences significantly both the site-selectivity of the Claisen/Diels-Alder reaction and the bioactivity of these compounds, due to remote electronic effects. PMID:23563530

  11. Polyprenylated Benzoylphloroglucinols with DNA Polymerase Inhibitory Activity from the Fruits of Garcinia schomburgkiana.

    PubMed

    Le, Duy Hoang; Nishimura, Katsumi; Takenaka, Yukiko; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Tanahashi, Takao

    2016-07-22

    Chemical investigation of the fruits of Garcinia schomburgkiana collected in Vietnam led to the isolation of eight new schomburgkianones, A-H (1-8), four known (9-12) polyprenylated benzoylphloroglucinols, and four known biflavonoids. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical means. The absolute configuration at C-40 of 1 and 2 was determined by (1)H NMR analyses of their MPA esters. The configuration of the bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane core of the polyprenylated benzoylphloroglucinols was assigned by comparison of their experimental ECD spectra with those of related compounds. The polyprenylated benzoylphloroglucinols exhibited inhibitory activities against mammalian DNA polymerases α and λ, with IC50 values ranging from 5.0 to 8.8 μM. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, and 9-11 showed cytotoxic effects against HeLa human cervical cancer cells with median lethal dose values lower than 10 μM.

  12. Bioactive polyprenylated benzophenone derivatives from the fruits extracts of Garcinia xanthochymus.

    PubMed

    Youn, Ui Joung; Sripisut, Tawanun; Miklossy, Gabriella; Turkson, James; Laphookhieo, Surat; Chang, Leng Chee

    2017-08-15

    Two new polycyclic prenylated xanthones (1 and 2) and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside (3), along with seven known compounds (4-10) were isolated from the fruits of Garcinia xanthochymus. The structures were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR, and HRMS experiments. The isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against the viability of U251MG glioblastoma and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that harbor an aberrantly active signal transducer and exhibit activation of transcription 3 (STAT3), and compared to normal NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Among the isolates, compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6-9 inhibited the viability of glioma cancer cells with IC50 values in the range of 1.6-6.5μM. Furthermore, treatment of U251MG with 6 and 7 inhibited intracellular STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and glioma cell migration in vitro, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioassay-guided isolation of prenylated xanthones and polycyclic acylphloroglucinols from the leaves of Garcinia nujiangensis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zheng-Xiang; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Liang, Shuang; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Shi-Lin; Wang, Xin-Hong; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2012-08-24

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia nujiangensis resulted in the isolation of two new prenylated xanthones, nujiangexanthones A (1) and B (2), three new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols, nujiangefolins A-C (3-5), and 10 known related analogues. The structures of compounds 1-5 were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 3 and 4 are unusual polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols in which the enol hydroxy group forms a six-membered ring with a benzene ring carbon. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against 11 cancer cell lines and immortalized MIHA normal liver cells, and the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells. Isojacareubin (6) was found to be the most potent cytotoxic compound of those tested.

  14. Determination of organic acids in leaves and rinds of Garcinia indica (Desr.) by LC.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Sakariah, K K

    2002-04-15

    Organic acids in leaves and rinds of Garcinia indica (Kokam) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major organic acid in leaves and rinds has been found to be (-)-hydroxycitric acid present to the extent of 4.1-4.6 and 10.3-12.7%, respectively, by isocratic elution with 8 mM sulfuric acid as mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min using UV detection at 210 nm. Hydroxycitric acid lactone and citric acid are present in leaves and rinds in minor quantities. This method has been shown to be very reproducible with the coefficient of variation ranging from 2.8 to 4.2%. This is the first report on the composition of organic acids in the leaves and rinds of G. indica by HPLC.

  15. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors of phenolic constituents isolated from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Jiang, He Zhong; Quan, Xiao Fang; Tian, Wei Xi; Hu, Jiang Miao; Wang, Peng Cheng; Huang, Sheng Zhuo; Cheng, Zhong Quan; Liang, Wen Juan; Zhou, Jun; Ma, Xiao Feng; Zhao, You Xing

    2010-10-15

    Natural inhibitors of fatty acid synthase (FAS) are emerging as potential therapeutic agents to treat cancer and obesity. The bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the hulls of Garcinia mangostana led to the isolation of 13 phenolic compounds (1-13) mainly including xanthone and benzophenone, in which compounds 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 were isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 9 was a new natural product. These isolates possess strong inhibitory activity of FAS with the IC(50) values ranging from 1.24 to 91.07 μM. The study indicates that two types of natural products, xanthones and benzophenones, could be considered as promising FAS inhibitors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Xanthones from the Botanical Dietary Supplement Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) with Aromatase Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Balunas, Marcy J.; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Twelve xanthone constituents of the botanical dietary supplement, mangosteen (the pericarp of Garcinia mangostina) were screened using a non-cellular, enzyme-based microsomal aromatase inhibition assay. Of these compounds, garcinone D (3), garcinone E (5)α-mangostin (8), and γ-mangostin (9) exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory activity. In a follow-up cell-based assay using SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells that express high levels of aromatase, the most potent of these four xanthones was γ-mangostin (9). Because xanthones may be consumed in substantial amounts from commercially available mangosteen products, the consequences of frequent intake of mangosteen botanical dietary supplements requires further investigation to determine their possible role in breast cancer chemoprevention. PMID:18558747

  17. A new antioxidant xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jin-Ping; Lu, Dan; Li, Ping-Ya; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2010-10-01

    The air-dried fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana Linn. were extracted with 85% ethanol. Furthermore, a new xanthone, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2,5-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':7,8]xanthone, along with five known xanthones related to their antioxidant activity was purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified using spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, MS). The antioxidant activities were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capability. An activity-guided isolation and purification process were used to identify the components, showing the strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity of G. mangostana.

  18. Comparison of the skin penetration of Garcinia mangostana extract in particulate and non-particulate form.

    PubMed

    Tachaprutinun, Amornset; Meinke, Martina C; Richter, Heike; Pan-In, Porntip; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Knorr, Fanny; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to solve the water insolubility limitation of the medically and cosmetically interesting substance Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML) extract by encapsulation, and to evaluate and investigate the penetration efficacy of free and encapsulated GML in two different vehicles (water and cream) in porcine ear skin. The follicular penetration depth was determined in 50 hair follicles for each of the four formulations by means of fluorescence microscopy. Tape stripping was used to compare the distribution properties of GML with all formulations on the stratum corneum. The results showed that encapsulated and free GML in the cream base penetrated deeper into hair follicles than if applied in an aqueous base. In addition, encapsulated GML could be distributed more homogeneously on the stratum corneum than the free GML. In conclusion, it was found that encapsulated GML in a cream base had the most effective penetration level in porcine ear skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibacterial activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana (L.) and their structure-activity relationship studies.

    PubMed

    Dharmaratne, H R W; Sakagami, Yoshikazu; Piyasena, K G P; Thevanesam, Vasanthi

    2013-01-01

    Antibacterial activities of prenylated xanthones from Garcinia mangostana and their synthetic analogues were investigated, and their structure-activity relationships have been studied. γ-Mangostin has shown antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus (VSE) strains at MICs 3.13, 6.25, 6.25 and 6.25 µg mL(-1), respectively. In these experiments, gentamicin was used as the positive control. Further, some analogues of γ-mangostin and α-mangostin were synthesised and their activity was tested against MRSA and VRE strains. The analysis of the bioassay results above indicated that, the combination of C-6 and C-3 hydroxyl groups along with the prenyl side chain at C-2 in the 1,3,6,7-tetraoxygenated xanthones from G. mangostana is essential to have a high antibacterial activity.

  20. Combating Helicobacter pylori infections with mucoadhesive nanoparticles loaded with Garcinia mangostana extract.

    PubMed

    Pan-in, Porntip; Tachapruetinun, Amornset; Chaichanawongsaroj, Nuntaree; Banlunara, Wijit; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2014-03-01

    To combat the resistance of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics through the use of Garcinia mangostana extract (GME) in the form that can be localized at stomach mucosa. GME and its major active component, α-mangostin, are encapsulated into the moderately acid stable mucoadhesive nanocarriers, and tested for anti-H. pylori and antiadhesion activities in vitro and their ability to eradicate H. pylori in infected mice. The two in vitro activities are observed and are enhanced when the materials are encapsulated into nanocarriers. Preliminary in vivo tests revealed the ability to combat H. pylori in mice following oral administration of the encapsulated GME, but not the unencapsulated GME. Nanoencapsulated GME is a potential anti-H. pylori agent.

  1. Antimicrobial and quorum sensing inhibitory activities of the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Asfour, Hani Z

    2016-07-01

    A prenylated xanthone, α-mangostin was separated from the alcoholic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp. Its structure was established by different spectroscopic analysis. The total methanolic extract (TME) and different fractions of G. mangostana pericarp as well as α-mangostin were assessed for their antimicrobial and quorum sensing inhibitory effects (QSI). The TME, CHCl3 fraction, and α-mangostin exhibited strong activity against all tested strains. While, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and aqueous fractions showed moderate activity against some of the tested organisms. In addition TME, CHCl3, EtOAc, and α-mangostin showed promising QSI, while n-BuOH and aqueous fractions showed moderate activity. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for TME, CHCl3 fractions, and α-mangostin was also assessed.

  2. Polyphenols from the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit for breast and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gongbo; Thomas, Stacey; Johnson, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia and has long been reported to contain multiple health promoting properties. This fruit is an abundant source of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds with a distinctive tricyclic aromatic ring system and is largely responsible for its biological activities including anti-cancer activity. Herein we describe the anti-cancer activity and mechanisms of mangosteen polyphenolic xanthones including α-Mangostin against breast cancer and prostate cancer. So far, extracts and individual xanthones have been found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Based on the reported findings there is clear evidence that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate and breast cancer chemoprevention. PMID:23805102

  3. Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Isogarcinol Extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. Mangosteen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengqi; Xie, Yufei; Zhong, Youxiu; Cen, Juren; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Ying; Tong, Li; Wei, Qun

    2016-11-30

    Isogarcinol is a new natural immunosuppressant that was extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. in our laboratory. Knowledge of its effects on treatable diseases and its mechanism of action is still very limited. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effect of isogarcinol in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Treatment with oral 100 mg/kg isogarcinol markedly ameliorated clinical scores, alleviated inflammation and demyelination of the spinal cord, and reduced intracranial lesions in EAE mice. The percentages of Th cells and macrophages were also strongly reduced. Isogarcinol appeared to act by inhibiting T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 cell differentiation via the janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway and by impairing macrophage function. Our data suggest that isogarcinol has the potential to be an effective therapeutic agent of low toxicity for treating MS and other autoimmune diseases.

  4. Polyprenylated benzophenones from Garcinia assigu and their potential cancer chemopreventive activities.

    PubMed

    Ito, Chihiro; Itoigawa, Masataka; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Onoda, Saori; Rao, K Sundar; Mukainaka, Teruo; Tokuda, Harukuni; Nishino, Hoyoku; Furukawa, Hiroshi

    2003-02-01

    In a further study on the chemical constituents of Garcinia assigu, two new benzophenones corresponding to the 13-O-methyl ethers (1 and 2) of the known isogarcinol and garcinol, respectively, were isolated and characterized, along with known benzophenones (3-6). Inhibitory effects of the benzophenones isolated from this plant on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells and their radical-scavenging ability against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were demonstrated. The cyclized polyprenylbenzophenones (1-5) showed comparable or stronger potential cancer chemopreventive activity when compared to glycyrrhetic acid, a known anti-tumor promoter.

  5. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-07-25

    Five new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, garciesculentones A-E (1-5), a new xanthone, garciesculenxanthone A (6), and 15 known compounds were isolated from the petroleum ether extract and the EtOAc-soluble fraction of a 80% (v/v) EtOH extract of Garcinia esculenta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD and a convenient modified Mosher's method were used to determine the absolute configurations. The cytotoxicity of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231) and against normal hepatic cells (HL-7702). In addition, these isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on interferon-γ plus lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells.

  6. Prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols and xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia with antienteroviral activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Tao, Ling; Fu, Wen-Wei; Liang, Shuang; Yang, Yi-Fu; Yuan, Qing-Hong; Yang, Da-Jian; Lu, Ai-Ping; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-04-25

    An acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia showed antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 (EV71) using a cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded 12 new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinols, oblongifolins J-U (1-12), and five known compounds. The structures of 1-12 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR and mass spectrometry methods. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of a Mosher ester procedure carried out in NMR tubes and ECD calculations. Compared to ribavirin (IC50 253.1 μM), compounds 1, 4, and 13 exhibited significant anti-EV71 activity in vitro, with IC50 values of 31.1, 16.1, and 12.2 μM, respectively. In addition, the selectivity indices of these compounds were 1.5, 2.4, and 3.0 in African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells, respectively.

  7. Scalemic Caged Xanthones Isolated from the Stem Bark Extract of Garcinia propinqua.

    PubMed

    Sriyatep, Teerayut; Andersen, Raymond J; Patrick, Brian O; Pyne, Stephen G; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Seemakhan, Sawinee; Borwornpinyo, Suparerk; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2017-05-26

    Seven new caged xanthones, doitunggarcinones E-K (1-7), all as scalemic mixtures and 10 known compounds (8-17), were isolated from the stem bark extract of Garcinia propinqua. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The separation of the enantiomers of 1-6 was achieved by semipreparative chiral HPLC. The absolute configuration of compound (+)-1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis using Cu Kα radiation. The absolute configurations of the other related compounds were determined from comparisons of their ECD spectra with that of compound (+)-1. Compounds (-)-6 and 7 showed cytotoxicity against a colon cancer cell line with IC50 values of 14.23 and 23.95 μM, respectively.

  8. Bioactive prenylated xanthones from the young fruits and flowers of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Sriyatep, Teerayut; Siridechakorn, Ittipon; Maneerat, Wisanu; Pansanit, Acharavadee; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Andersen, Raymond J; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2015-02-27

    Five new xanthones, garciniacowones A-E (1-5), together with 14 known xanthones, 6-19, were isolated from the young fruits and fresh flowers of Garcinia cowa. The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra and mass spectrometric data. The compounds 1-19 were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity and for their ability to inhibit α-glucosidase. Compounds 16 and 17 showed the most potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 7.8 ± 0.5 and 8.7 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. Compounds 8, 9, and 19 showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis TISTR 088 with identical MIC values of 2 μg/mL, while 8, 10, and 19 exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus TISTR 688 with identical MIC values of 4 μg/mL.

  9. Effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum sex hormones in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Tomi, Hironori; Kaneko, Izuru; Shen, Manzhen; Soni, Madhu G; Yoshino, Gen

    2008-06-01

    (-) Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), an active ingredient extracted from the Garcinia cambogia fruit rind, has been commonly used as a dietary supplement for weight management. Given the controversy over HCA related testicular toxicity in animal studies, we investigated changes in serum sex hormones levels as an extension of our previous double-blind placebo-controlled trial in human subjects, in which 44 participants received either G. cambogia extract (1667.3 mg/day equivalent to 1000 mg HCA/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Compared to the placebo group, administration of the extract did not significantly alter the serum testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Similarly, hematology, serum triacylglycerol and serum clinical pathology parameters did not reveal any significant adverse effects. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that ingestion of G. cambogia extract at dose levels commonly recommended for human use does not affect serum sex hormone levels and blood parameters.

  10. A comparative study of karyomorphology among three populations of Garcinia indica (Clusiaceae) (Thomas-Dupetite) Choisy.

    PubMed

    Anerao, Jayesh; Desai, Neetin; Deodhar, Manjushri

    2013-06-01

    Garcinia indica is a tree species of the family Clusiaceae. This species is endemically distributed only in Ratnagiri and Sindhudurga district of Maharashtra. Plants collected in particularly Dive Agar and Sawantwadi show morphological variations. Mitotic chromosomes from three different population from the Konkan region were studied using propionic orcein stain. Chromosome numbers 2n = 54 is reported for all the populations. Three populations differed from each other in some aspects. Karyotype analysis showed that Deorukh population from Ratnagiri region showed one pair of satellite and one pair of secondary constrictions while Otawane population from Sawantwadi showed one satellite chromosome but differ in pattern of secondary constriction. Third, Diveagar population from Raigad district showed three pairs of satellite chromosomes and one pair of secondary constriction. So, it can be concluded that, plants from Bapat Garden of Dive Agar and Otawane region can be considered as cytotypes.

  11. Polyisoprenylated benzophenones and an unusual polyisoprenylated tetracyclic xanthone from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia.

    PubMed

    Masullo, Milena; Bassarello, Carla; Suzuki, Hisanori; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2008-07-09

    In light of the wide range of biological activities of garcinol and with the aim of exploring some of them, we carried out its isolation from the fruits of Garcinia cambogia L. (Guttiferae). Surprisingly, the fruits were also found to contain guttiferones I, J, and K, compounds never reported in G. cambogia, along with three new compounds, namely, guttiferone M (1), guttiferone N (2), and the oxidized derivative of guttiferone K (6). Oxy-guttiferone K (6) is the first example of tetracyclic xanthone derived from the oxidation of a polyisoprenylated benzophenone from natural source. The natural formation of oxy-guttiferone K is in agreement with the previously described cyclization of garcinol by DPPH.

  12. Structure elucidation, DNA binding specificity and antiproliferative proficiency of isolated compounds from Garcinia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Mehtab; Azaz, Shaista; Zafar, Atif; Ahmad, Faheem; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Silva, Pedro Sidonio Pereira

    2017-02-01

    Garcinia nervosa is an abundant source of bioactive phytochemicals. The present paper deals with the isolation of a novel isoflavone 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(3'-hydroxy-4',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one (1) along with a known compound DL-Allantoin (2) from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Garcinia nervosa (Family: Guttiferae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physical evidences viz. elemental analysis, UV, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectral analysis. Single-crystal X-ray analysis was further used for the authentication of structure of both compounds (1 and 2). Interaction studies of compound (1) and (2) with ctDNA were studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorescence, KI quenching studies, competitive displacement assay and circular dichroism studies, which showed groove binding interaction (non-intercalation) of both the compounds 1 and 2 with ctDNA. However, compound 1 (K=3.9×10(4)M(-1)) shows higher binding affinity to the ctDNA than compound 2 (K=1.44×10(4)M(-1)). The molecular modeling results also illustrated that compound 1 strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -6.82kcal/mol. In addition the antiproliferative activity also showed high potential of compound 1 against MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell line with IC50 value 8.44±3.5μM and 6.94±2.6μM, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Garcinia buchananii bark extract is an effective anti-diarrheal remedy for lactose-induced diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Boakye, Paul A; Brierley, Stuart M; Pasilis, Sofie P; Balemba, Onesmo B

    2012-07-13

    The extract from the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii trees is used as an anti-diarrhea remedy in sub-Saharan Africa. We tested the hypothesis that G. buchananii bark extract and its anti-motility fractions are effective treatments against lactose-induced diarrhea. A high-lactose (35%) diet was used to induce diarrhea in Wistar rats, which were then treated with either G. buchananii bark extract (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 g bark powder), and its anti-motility fractions isolated using preparative thin layer chromatography; termed PTLC1 (15 mg) and PTLC5 (3.8 mg) or loperamide (8.4 mg). Drug preparations were dissolved in 1L except PTCL1 and PTLC5 that were dissolved in 100mL tap water. Numerous parameters were measured in each condition including consistency, fluid and mucus content of feces, body weight, water and food consumption, urine production and bloating. Diarrheic rats produced watery or loose, mucuoid, sticky, feces. Fluids constituted 86% of stool mass compared with only 42% for control rats fed standard chow. Compared with controls, diarrheic rats produced more urine, lost weight and had bloated ceca and colons. All doses of the extract, its anti-motility fractions and loperamide individually stopped diarrhea within 6-24 h of administration, whilst significantly reducing mucus and fecal fluid content, urine production and intestinal bloating. Rats treated with 0.1g extract, PTLC1 and PTLC5 gained weight, whilst PTLC5 also increased water intake. Garcinia buchananii extract and its anti-motility fractions are effective remedies against lactose-induced diarrhea. The extract contains compounds that reverse weight loss, promote food and water intake, supporting the notion that characterization of the compounds could lead to new therapies against diarrheal diseases. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Identification and quantification of adulteration in Garcinia cambogia commercial products by chromatographic and spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Choi, Ji Yeon; Hong, Joon Ho; Nho, Eun Yeong; Khan, Naeem; Jo, Cheon Ho; Chun, Hyang Sook; Kim, Kyong Su

    2016-12-01

    Species of genus Garcinia are rich sources of bioactive constituents with antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV activities. Commercial products of Garcinia cambogia are used as anti-obesity drugs with increasing market demand. Because of the high price of its products, it can be adulterated with similar lower-priced species. This study was designed to develop and validate an accurate and efficient method for the detection of any adulteration (G. indica) in G. cambogia products. For this purpose, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyse the ethanolic fruit rind extracts of G. cambogia and G. indica, their formulations of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 95% G. indica with G. cambogia, and 11 G. cambogia commercial products. The analytical methods were validated by quality assurance parameters of linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Two marker peaks were detected in G. indica fruit extract, whereas G. cambogia did not show these peaks. The detected peaks were identified as anthocyanins; cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. In the study to determine the effect of pH and temperature on the stability of its anthocyanin content, HPLC analysis of G. indica extract showed the highest content at pH 1 and 50°C. Using two different mobile phases, the limits of detection (LOD) for cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were 0.036 and 0.059, and 0.022 and 0.033 mg kg(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the inter-day precision (< 3.2%) confirmed that the applied analytical method fulfils the required criteria of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). From this study, it was found that the HPLC method used for the detection of adulteration in G. cambogia products is rapid and accurate.

  15. Evaluation of the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of Garcinia cambogia plus Amorphophallus konjac for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Rossetto, Simone; Halmenschlager, Graziele; Linden, Rafael; Heckler, Eliane; Fernandez, Maria S Poblador; Alonso, José L Lancho

    2008-09-01

    Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), the main compound of Garcinia cambogia extract, is a competitive blocker of ATP-citrate-lyase, presenting a potential inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis. Glucomannan fibers, abundant in Amorphophallus konjac, seem to reduce the absorption kinetics of dietary fat. Therefore, the aim of this double-blind randomized study was to evaluate the pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of standardized extracts of G. cambogia (52.4% HCA) plus A. konjac (94.9% glucomannan) in the treatment of obesity. Fifty-eight obese subjects (BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) were assigned to the placebo group (n = 26) or the treatment group (n = 32); no dietary restrictions were applied. Over a 12-week period, subjects were given daily doses of either Garcinia (2.4 g) plus Konjac (1.5 g) or placebo prior to their main meals (3 times/day). Before the start of treatment, and every 4 weeks thereafter, the following were recorded: height, weight, circumferences and body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), lipid profile and glucose levels. The treatment had no significant effect on anthropometric parameters, REE, triglycerides or glucose levels. However, a significant reduction was observed in total cholesterol (-32.0 +/- 35.1 mg/dL) and LDL-c levels (-28.7 +/- 32.7 mg/dL) in the treated group, the final levels being significantly lower than those of the placebo group (p = 0.008 and p = 0.020, respectively). The results obtained suggest that the treatment had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect, without influencing the anthropometric or calorimetric parameters tested.

  16. Garcinia vilersiana bark extract activates the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Ichiro; Duong, Ho Huynh Thuy; Quynh, Nguyen Thi; Kanaho, Yasunori; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia vilersiana is a traditional medicinal plant in Vietnam. The petroleum ether extract of stem bark of Garcinia vilersiana (GVE) was prepared to evaluate its potential to activate Nrf2, a transcription factor of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Exposure of mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells to GVE (0.625-2.5 µg/ml) resulted in a significant activation of Nrf2, as evaluated by nuclear accumulation of this transcription factor, and increased antioxidant response element (ARE) binding activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. As a result, GVE caused ARE-dependent up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cells. These results suggest that GVE contains components that have the ability to activate the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway, leading to cellular protection.

  17. An unusually rich scuttle fly fauna (Diptera, Phoridae) from north of the Arctic Circle in the Kola Peninsula, N. W. Russia.

    PubMed

    Disney, R H L

    2013-01-01

    64 species of Phoridae, in 6 genera, are reported from the Kola Peninsula, north of the Arctic Circle. The new species Megaselia elenae and Megaselia kozlovi are described. 33 species of Megaselia, only known from females, are given code numbers. Keys to the species of all the females of Megaselia and Phora are provided; and also a key to the males European Megaselia species with a notopleural cleft.

  18. The results of marine electromagnetic sounding with a high-power remote source in the Kola Bay in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, V. F.; Korotaev, S. M.; Kruglyakov, M. S.; Orekhova, D. A.; Popova, I. V.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Tereshchenko, P. E.; Schors, Yu. G.

    2013-05-01

    The first Russian six-component seafloor electromagnetic (EM) receivers were tested in an experiment carried out in Kola Bay in the Barents Sea. The signals transmitted by a remote high-power ELF source at several frequencies in the decahertz range were recorded by six receivers deployed on the seafloor along the profile crossing the Kola Bay. Although not all the stations successfully recorded all the six components due to technical failures, the quality of the data overall is quite suitable for interpretation. The interpretation was carried out by the three-dimensional (3D) modeling of an electromagnetic field with neural network inversion. The a priori geoelectrical model of Kola Bay, which was reconstructed by generalizing the previous geological and geophysical data, including the data of the ground magnetotelluric sounding and magnetovariational profiling, provided the EM fields that are far from those measured in the experiment. However, by a step-by-step modification of the initial model, we achieved quite a satisfactory fit. The resulting model provides the basis for introducing the corrections into the previous notions concerning the regional geological and geophysical structure of the region and particularly the features associated with fault tectonics.

  19. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant.

  20. Kolaviron Improved Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in the Blood (Erythrocyte, Serum, and Plasma) of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayepola, Omolola R.; Brooks, Nicole L.; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. Bitter kola seed (Garcinia kola, family: Guttiferae) has been used as a social masticatory agent in Africa for several years and is believed to possess many useful medicinal properties. The present study evaluates the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antilipidemic effects of kolaviron (an extract from the Garcinia kola seeds) in the blood of streptozotocin- (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods. Diabetic rats were treated with kolaviron (100 mg/kg b·wt) orally, five times a week for a period of six weeks. Serum glucose and HBA1C concentrations were estimated in experimental groups. The activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) (in erythrocytes) as well as plasma concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were investigated. Serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factor: interleukin- (IL-) 1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), respectively, were also analyzed. Results. Kolaviron treatment markedly improved antioxidant status and abated inflammatory response evidenced by reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factor, lipid peroxidation product, and the restoration of activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in the blood of diabetic rats. Conclusion. Kolaviron improved antioxidant status, reduced inflammation, and protected against hyperglycemic-induced oxidative damage in the blood of diabetic rats. PMID:24795542

  1. Protective effect of Garcinia against renal oxidative stress and biomarkers induced by high fat and sucrose diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity became major health problem in the world, the objective of this work was to examine the effect of high sucrose and high fat diet to induce obesity on antioxidant defense system, biochemical changes in blood and tissue of control, non treated and treated groups by administration of Garcinia cambogia, and explore the mechanisms that link obesity with altered renal function Methods Rats were fed a standard control diet for 12 week (wk) or a diet containing 65% high sucrose (HSD) or 35% fat (HFD) for 8 wk and then HFD group divided into two groups for the following 4 wks. One group was given Garcinia+HFD, the second only high fat, Also the HSD divided into two groups, 1st HSD+Garcinia and 2nd HSD. Blood and renal, mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues were collected for biochemical assays. Results HFD and HSD groups of rats showed a significant increase in feed intake, Body weight (BW) and body mass index (BMI). Also there were significant increases in weights of mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues in HFD and HSD groups. HFD and HSD affect the kidney by increasing serum urea and creatinine levels and decreased level of nitric oxide (NO) and increased blood glucose, low density lipoproteins (LDL), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities were significantly decreased in HFD while there were significant increases in HSD and HSD+G groups p ≤ 0.05 compared with control. Moreover, renal catalase activities and MDA levels were significantly increased while NO level was lowered. These changes improved by Garcinia that decreased the oxidative stress biomarkers and increased NO level. There were significant positive correlations among BMI, kidney functions (Creatinine and urea), TG and Oxidative markers (renal MDA and catalase). Conclusions Rats fed a diet with HFD or HSD showed, hypertriglyceridemia, increased LDL production, increased

  2. Magma genesis and evolution in the Kola alkaline-carbonatitic province. A Pb-Sr-Nd isotope study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassinnes, S.; Balaganskaya, E.; Demaiffe, D.

    2003-04-01

    The Kola Peninsula (NW Russia) is well known for its late Devonian (380-360Ma) ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic magmatic province, that comprises more than 20 intrusions including the two giant massifs of agpaitic nepheline syenite of Khibina and Lovozero and numerous smaller annular differentiated complexes (i.e. : Kovdor, Vuorijarvi, …). These massifs intrude the Archean to Proterozoic crustal terranes. Whole rock Pb isotope data are reported for the first time on these intrusions. Representative samples of the Kovdor massif (carbonatites, ultramafic cumulates, ijolites-melteigites) have been analysed. Two U-rich pyrochlore-bearing carbonatites have extremely high measured 206Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb ratios (94.1 to 253.6 and to 19.6 to 28.2 respectively). Together with 5 other samples, these carbonatites plot along a linear array in the 207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb diagram. Interpreted as a secondary isochron, this array gives an age indication of 392+/-15 Ma (MSWD = 22), in agreement with the U-Pb baddeleyite age of 380+/-4 Ma. Crustal contamination or source heterogeneity are hardly detectable with such radiogenic Pb composition. Some samples of other massifs of the Kola region (Khibina, Lovozero, Sebljavr and Ozernaya Varaka) have also been analysed, they plot reasonably close to the Kovdor Pb-Pb isochron, confirming that all the complexes of the province are grossly contemporaneous. Although most rocks plot in the depleted mantle quadrant of the Sr-Nd diagram, the data show some dispersion. The Kovdor ultramafic cumulates and carbonatites have overlapping compositions (epsNd(t): +0.5 to +6 ; (87Sr/86Sr)I: 0.7031 to 0.7039) while the ijolites-melteigites tend to have lower epsNd(t) (+0.5 to -3.4) and higher (87Sr/86Sr)I (0.7035 to 0.7047) values. This dispersion can be explained either by heterogeneities of the mantle (or mixing between different geochemical reservoirs) or by open system behaviour during complex emplacement history and hydrothermalism

  3. THE EFFECT OF GARCINIA CAMBOGIA AS COADJUVANT IN THE WEIGHT LOSS PROCESS.

    PubMed

    Fassina, Patricia; Scherer Adami, Fernanda; Terezinha Zani, Valdeni; Kasper Machado, Isabel Cristina; Garavaglia, Juliano; Quevedo Grave, Magali Terezinha; Ramos, Renata; Morelo Dal Bosco, Simone

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: debido al aumento significativo de la tasa de obesidad en los últimos años, la salud pública se ha enfrentado en muchos países del mundo a los principales problemas causados por esta enfermedad. Debido a ello, surgen productos naturales, a base de hierbas, para ayudar en el tratamiento de la obesidad debido a sus efectos más seguros. Entre estos productos destaca el extracto obtenido a partir de frutas secas de Garcinia Cambogia (GC), que se ha estudiado y utilizado como un suplemento natural para la pérdida de peso. Objetivo: investigar la administración de GC como un factor coadyuvante en el tratamiento de la obesidad en cuanto a su eficacia, la forma de acción, la cantidad diaria recomendada, los efectos secundarios y las contraindicaciones, para su uso como un suplemento alimentario natural en la pérdida de peso. Metodología: revisión de la literatura. Se consultaron las bases de datos LILACS-BIREME, SciELO y MEDLINE, y se seleccionaron los artículos científicos publicados en inglés, portugués y español, entre el período de 2007 y 2014, llevando a cabo estudios sobre la administración de la GC como una forma de tratamiento de la obesidad. Los descriptores utilizados para los artículos de investigación fueron: en portugúes Cambogia Garcinia, y en inglés “Garcinia Cambogia”, “pérdida de peso y obesidad”, y “ácido hidroxicítrico (HCA)”; este último no es un descriptor indexado en Decs, pero dada la importancia de este término para la búsqueda, se adoptó como una palabra clave. Se identificaron treinta y cuatro artículos, pero solo 21 estaban relacionados con los objetivos de este estudio. El primer análisis de los artículos fue realizada por el título y luego por el resumen. Además, se incluyeron 17 referencias por su relevancia para el estudio. Resultados: en algunos trabajos analizados se observó que GC mostró efectos positivos en el proceso de pérdida de peso, reducción de apetito, porcentaje de

  4. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fruit Rind Extract of Garcinia dulcis (Roxburgh) Kurz

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Nabajyoti; Gogoi, Ankur; Neog, Bijoy; Baruah, Dibyojyoti; Singh, Khumanthem Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Background: Garcinia spp. belongs to the family Clusiaceae has been traditionally used for the treatment of many ailments including the liver damage. Garcinia dulcis found in North Eastern region of Assam; India can be a potential candidature to combat different ailments. Objective: The present work has been designed in such a way to appraisal the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of fruit rind extract of this plant. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was investigated through the various in vitro models, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, nitrite oxide. Phytochemical investigation for total phenolic and flavonoids contents were carried out by standard protocol. For the evaluation of hepatoprotective activity, albino Wistar rats were divided into five groups, five animals per group and activity was determined by measuring the contents of liver function marker enzymes such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and biochemical parameter, that is, Bilirubin and total protein. Histopathology observation of liver sections was conducted. Results: Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of both phenolic and flavonoid groups in the extract in a significant amount. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was observed in all models and percentage of inhibition was dose-dependent. Intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride, elevated the liver function enzymes, bilirubin, and suppressed the production of total protein. Pretreatment with the extract decreased the SGOT, SGPT, ALP, and bilirubin level significantly and increased the production level of total protein in a dose-dependent manner. The histopathological observation supported the hepatoprotective potentiality of the extract. Conclusion: The results indicate that fruit rind part of G. dulcis is nontoxic and the plant can utilize as an

  5. Long-term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Eastern Lapland, Finland: the impact of Kola air pollution to new particle formation and potential CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Väänänen, Riikka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Virkkula, Aki; Asmi, Ari; Nieminen, Tuomo; Dal Maso, Miikka; Petäjä, Tuukka; Keronen, Petri; Aalto, Pasi; Riipinen, Ilona; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Hari, Pertti; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Sulphur and primary emissions have been decreasing largely all over Europe, resulting in improved air quality and decreased direct radiation forcing by aerosols. The smelter industry in Kola Peninsula is one of largest sources of anthropogenic SO2 within the Arctic domain and since late 1990s the sulphur emissions have been decreasing rapidly (Paatero et al., 2008; Prank et al., 2010). New particle formation (NPF) is tightly linked with the oxidizing product of SO2, namely sulphuric acid (H2SO4), since it is known to be the key component in atmospheric nucleation (Sipilä et al., 2010). Thus, decreasing sulphur pollution may lead to less NPF. However, low values of condensation sink (CS), which is determined by the amount of pre-existing particles, favours NPF. We used 14 years (1998-2011) of aerosol number size distribution and trace gas data from SMEAR I station in Eastern Lapland, Finland, to investigate these relationships between SO2, NPF and CS. The station is a clean background station with occasional sulphur pollution episodes when the air masses arrive over Kola Peninsula. We found that while SO2 decreased by 11.3 % / year, the number of clear NPF event days was also decreasing by 9.9 % / year. At the same time, CS was decreasing also (-8.0 % / year) leading to formation of more particles per single NPF event (J3 increased by 29.7 % / year in 2006-2011) but the low vapour concentrations of H2SO4 (proxy decreased by 6.2 % / year) did not allow them to grow into climatically relevant sizes. Over the time, concentrations of potential CCN (cloud condensing nuclei) were also decreasing with more moderate pace, -4.0 % / year. The events started on average earlier after sunrise when the SO2 concentration during the start of the event was higher and NPF occurred more frequently in air masses which were travelling over Kola. Despite the total decrease in sulphur pollution originating from Kola there is currently no evidence of cleaning of the emissions, rather the

  6. Modern pollen and stomate deposition in lake surface sediments from across the treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gervais, B R.; MacDonald, G M.

    2001-04-01

    We sampled and analyzed surface sediments from 31 lakes along a latitudinal transect crossing the coniferous treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. The major vegetation zones along the transect were tundra, birch-forest tundra, pine-forest tundra, and forest. The results indicate that the major vegetation types in our study area have distinct pollen spectra. Sum-of-squares cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA) groupings of pollen sites correspond to the major vegetation zones. PCA ordination of taxa indicates that the first axis separates taxa typical of the forest zone (Pinus, Picea) from taxa typical of tundra and forest-tundra zones (Polypodiaceae, Ericaceae, and Betula). The current position of the coniferous treeline, defined in our region by Pinus sylvestris, occurs roughly where Pinus pollen values reach 35% or greater. Arboreal pollen (AP)/non-arboreal pollen (NAP) ratios were calculated for each site and plotted against geographic distance along the transect. AP/NAP ratios of 7 or greater are found within pine-forest tundra and forest vegetation zones. Pinus stomates (dispersed stomatal guard cells) are absent from sites north of the coniferous treeline and all but two samples from the forested sites contain stomates. Stomate concentrations among the samples are highly variable and range from 10 to 458 per ml and positively correlate with the changing Pinus pollen values.

  7. Emission of CO2 by soils in the impact zone of the Severonikel smelter in the Kola subarctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadulin, M. S.; Koptsik, G. N.

    2013-11-01

    The intensity of the in situ soil respiration in the background northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola subarctic region reaches 120-290 mg C-CO2/m2 per h. In the impact zone of the Severonikel smelter, it decreases to 90-140, 30, and 15-30 mg C-CO2/m2 per h at the stages of spruce defoliation, spruce-birch woodland, and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. For the first time, the impact of the industrial pollution on root respiration has been assessed, and the dependences of the CO2 emission, the contribution of mineral soil horizons to this process, the microbial biomass, and root respiration on the concentrations of available nickel and copper compounds have been determined. The efficiency of two remediation technologies applied to technogenic barrens near the smelter has been evaluated on the basis of four parameters of the soil biological activity. The results indicate that remediation with the creation of a new filled soil layer is more efficient than chemical and phytoremediation methods.

  8. Emissions from the copper-nickel industry on the Kola Peninsula and at Noril'sk, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Ron; Barnes, S.-J.; De Caritat, P.; Chekushin, V.A.; Melezhik, V.A.; Reimann, C.; Zientek, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Published estimates for base metal emissions from the copper-nickel industry on the Kola Peninsula are re-examined in the light of (a) chemical data on the composition of the ores; (b) official emission figures for 1994; and (c) modelled emissions based on dry and wet deposition estimates derived from data for snow and rain samples collected in 1994. The modelled emissions, official emission figures and chemical data are mutually compatible for Ni, Cu and Co and show that previously published figures underestimated the emissions of the major elements, Ni and Cu (though within the same order of magnitude) and overestimated the emissions of As, Pb, Sb and Zn by up to several orders of magnitude, in some cases exceeding the calculated total input to the plants. Published estimates have neglected information on the nature and chemistry of the ores processed in metallurgical industries in the Noril'sk area of Siberia and the Urals. Revised emission estimates for 1994, using knowledge of the chemistry of the ores, are proposed: taken with published information on total emissions up to 2000 these data give an indication of emission levels in more recent years. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Autumn migration and wintering areas of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus nesting on the Kola Peninsula, northern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganusevich, S.A.; Maechtle, T.L.; Seegar, W.S.; Yates, M.A.; McGrady, M.J.; Fuller, M.; Schueck, L.; Dayton, J.; Henny, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Four female Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus breeding on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, were fitted with satellite-received transmitters in 1994. Their breeding home ranges averaged 1175 (sd = ??714) km2, and overlapped considerably. All left their breeding grounds in September and migrated generally south-west along the Baltic Sea. The mean travel rate for three falcons was 190 km/day. Two Falcons wintered on the coasts of France and in southern Spain, which were, respectively, 2909 and 4262 km from their breeding sites. Data on migration routes suggested that Falcons took a near-direct route to the wintering areas. No prolonged stopovers were apparent. The 90% minimum convex polygon winter range of a bird that migrated to Spain encompassed 213 km2 (n = 54). The area of the 50% minimum convex polygon was 21.5 km2 (n = 29). Data from this study agree with others from North America that show that Falcons breeding in a single area do not necessarily follow the same migratory path southward and do not necessarily use the same wintering grounds.

  10. Seed proteomics.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, Ján A; Hajduch, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Seeds comprise a protective covering, a small embryonic plant, and a nutrient-storage organ. Seeds are protein-rich, and have been the subject of many mass spectrometry-based analyses. Seed storage proteins (SSP), which are transient depots for reduced nitrogen, have been studied for decades by cell biologists, and many of the complicated aspects of their processing, assembly, and compartmentation are now well understood. Unfortunately, the abundance and complexity of the SSP requires that they be avoided or removed prior to gel-based analysis of non-SSP. While much of the extant data from MS-based proteomic analysis of seeds is descriptive, it has nevertheless provided a preliminary metabolic picture explaining much of their biology. Contemporary studies are moving more toward analysis of protein interactions and posttranslational modifications, and functions of metabolic networks. Many aspects of the biology of seeds make then an attractive platform for heterologous protein expression. Herein we present a broad review of the results from the proteomic studies of seeds, and speculate on a potential future research directions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural Xanthones from Garcinia mangostana with Multifunctional Activities for the Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Nan; Li, Qian; Jing, Ming-Hua; Alba, Espargaró; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Sabaté, Raimon; Han, Yi-Fan; Pi, Rong-Biao; Lan, Wen-Jian; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Jing-Kao

    2016-07-01

    Natural xanthones have diversity pharmacological activities. Here, a series of xanthones isolated from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana Linn, named α-Mangostin, 8-Deoxygartanin, Gartanin, Garciniafuran, Garcinone C, Garcinone D, and γ-Mangostin were investigated. Biological screening performed in vitro and in Escherichia coli cells indicated that most of the xanthones exhibited significant inhibition of self-induced β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and also β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1, acted as potential antioxidants and biometal chelators. Among these compounds, α-Mangostin, Gartanin, Garcinone C and γ-Mangostin showed better antioxidant properties to scavenge Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical than Trolox, and potent neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death partly by up-regulating HO-1 protein level and then scavenging reactive oxygen species. Moreover, Gartanin, Garcinone C and γ-Mangostin could be able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. These findings suggest that the natural xanthones have multifunctional activities against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and could be promising compounds for the therapy of AD.

  12. Anticancer Activity of Garcinia morella on T-Cell Murine Lymphoma Via Apoptotic Induction

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Bhaswati; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Monisha, Javadi; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B.; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Traditional knowledge (TK) based medicines have gained worldwide attention and presently the scientific community is focussing on proper pharmacological validation and identification of lead compounds for the treatment of various diseases. The North East region of India is the home of valuable traditional herbal remedies. Garcinia morella Desr. (Guttiferae) is one such medicinal plant used by traditional healers for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer activity of methanol extracts of the leaf, bark and fruit of G. morella (GM) in different in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. The results of this study showed that GM methanol extracts possessed in vitro antioxidant and anticancer properties, where the fruit extract (GF) showed maximum activity. The anticancer activity was further confirmed by the results of in vivo administration of GF (200 mg/kg) for ten days to Dalton’s lymphoma (DLA) induced mice. GF extract significantly increased the mean survival time (MST) of the animals, decreased the tumor volume and restored the hematological and biochemical parameters. The present study for the first time reported the anticancer property of GF on DLA. Further from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action of GF on DLA, it can be concluded that GF exerts its anticancer effect through induction of caspases and DNA fragmentation that ultimately leads to apoptosis. However, further experimentation is required to elucidate the active principle and validate these findings in various in vivo settings. PMID:26858645

  13. Garcinia xanthochymus Benzophenones Promote Hyphal Apoptosis and Potentiate Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Desmond N.; Yang, Lin; Wu, ShiBiao; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Xanthochymol and garcinol, isoprenylated benzophenones purified from Garcinia xanthochymus fruits, showed multiple activities against Candida albicans biofilms. Both compounds effectively prevented emergence of fungal germ tubes and were also cytostatic, with MICs of 1 to 3 μM. The compounds therefore inhibited development of hyphae and subsequent biofilm maturation. Xanthochymol treatment of developing and mature biofilms induced cell death. In early biofilm development, killing had the characteristics of apoptosis, including externalization of phosphatidyl serine and DNA fragmentation, as evidenced by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence. These activities resulted in failure of biofilm maturation and hyphal death in mature biofilms. In mature biofilms, xanthochymol and garcinol caused the death of biofilm hyphae, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 30 to 50 μM. Additionally, xanthochymol-mediated killing was complementary with fluconazole against mature biofilms, reducing the fluconazole EC50 from >1,024 μg/ml to 13 μg/ml. Therefore, xanthochymol has potential as an adjuvant for antifungal treatments as well as in studies of fungal apoptosis. PMID:26195512

  14. Spermatogenic structure and fertility of Mus musculus after exposure of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, Alfiah; Agustin, Melia Eka; Rokhimaningrum, Farida Ayu; Adro'i, Hasan; Darmanto, Win

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract on spermatogenics number, seminiferous tubules sized, profile protein of epididymal and testicular sperm, and fertility of mice (Mus musculus). Fourty two male mice strain BALB/C was divided equally into 7 groups. The control group was given 0.05 ml of 0.05% CMC solution. Three group were given mangosteen pericarp extract at various doses (75, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 7 days, while the other three groups were given the same extract dose for 35 days. Parameters evaluated on histological of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, seminiferous tubule diameter, and thickness of germinal epithelium, analysis of testicular and epidydimal protein profile with SDS-Page, and than fertility test on female mice. The results showed that mangosteen pericarp extract at 75 and 100 mg/kg dose for 7 days had no effect on spermatogenics number and seminiferous tubule sizes, but the treatment dose of 150 mg/kg for 7 days and all treatment (doses of 75, 100, and 150 mg/kg) for 35 days led to significant decrease on the number of spermatogenics and seminiferous tubule sizes; effect on protein profiles testicular and epididymal sperm; and lower fertilization.

  15. Anticancer activity of 7-epiclusianone, a benzophenone from Garcinia brasiliensis, in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sales, Leilane; Pezuk, Julia Alejandra; Borges, Kleiton Silva; Brassesco, María Sol; Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga; dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Ionta, Marisa; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Carvalho

    2015-10-30

    Glioblastoma is the most common tumor of the central nervous system and one of the hardest tumors to treat. Consequently, the search for novel therapeutic options is imperative. 7-epiclusianone, a tetraprenylated benzophenone isolated from the epicarp of the native plant Garcinia brasiliensis, exhibits a range of biological activities but its prospect anticancer activity is underexplored. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of 7-epiclusianone on proliferation, clonogenic capacity, cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis in two glioblastoma cell lines (U251MG and U138MG). Cell viability was measured by the MTS assay; for the clonogenic assay, colonies were stained with Giemsa and counted by direct visual inspection; For cell cycle analysis, cells were stained with propidium iodide and analyzed by cytometry; Cyclin A expression was determined by immunoblotting; Apoptotic cell death was determined by annexin V fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling and Caspase-3 activity in living cells. Viability of both cell lines was drastically inhibited; moreover, the colony formation capacity was significantly reduced, demonstrating long-term effects even after removal of the drug. 7-epiclusianone treatment at low concentrations also altered cell cycle progression, decreased the S and G2/M populations and at higher concentrations increased the number of cells at sub-G1, in concordance with the increase of apoptotic cells. The present study demonstrates for the first time the anticancer potential of 7-epiclusianone against glioblastoma cells, thus meriting its further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent.

  16. Development of microsatellite markers in Garcinia paucinervis (Clusiaceae), an endangered species of karst habitats1

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gang; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Yuan, Chang-An

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Garcinia paucinervis (Clusiaceae), an endangered and endemic tree species of karst habitats, to analyze its genetic diversity and genetic structure. Methods and Results: Using shotgun sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq platform, a total of 22 microsatellite primer sets were characterized, of which 17 were identified as polymorphic. For these polymorphic loci, the total number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 12 across 54 individuals from three populations. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 1.000 and from 0.000 to 0.850, respectively. No pair of loci showed significant linkage disequilibrium. Three loci in one population deviated significantly from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05). Seven loci (JSL3, JSL5, JSL22, JSL29, JSL32, JSL39, and JSL43) were successfully amplified in G. bracteata. Conclusions: These markers will be useful in studies on genetic diversity and population structure of G. paucinervis. PMID:28090413

  17. Isolation and activity of two antibacterial biflavonoids from leaf extracts of Garcinia livingstonei (Clusiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kaikabo, Adamu A; Samuel, Babatunde B; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2009-10-01

    The antibacterial activity of the acetone extract of Garcinia livingstonei leaves was studied using bioautography and by determining the minimum antibacterial concentration against four nosocomial pathogens. Bioautograms showed that two compounds were mainly responsible for the antibacterial activity. These were isolated by a combination of solvent-solvent fractionation and bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation and were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and 2D NMR spectroscopy as amentoflavone and 4"-methoxy amentoflavone. The antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds was determined against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three of the tested organisms were sensitive to both compounds with MIC values ranging from 8-100 microg/mL. P. aeruginosa was resistant with MICs > 100 microg/mL. The safety of the two compounds was assessed with a tetrazolium based colorimetric assay (MTT assay) using Vero monkey kidney cells. The compounds had low toxicity against the cell line with cytotoxic concentrations to 50% of the cells (LD50) of 386 microg/mL and > 600 microg/mL for amentoflavone and 4"-methoxy amentoflavone, respectively. Berberine, the positive control had a CC50 of 170 microg/mL. 4"-Methoxy amentoflavone was more active and much less toxic than amentoflavone.

  18. Garcinia subelliptica Merr. (Fukugi): A multipurpose coastal tree with promising medicinal properties

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomomi; Kainuma, Mami; Baba, Karin; Oshiro, Nozomi; Kimura, Norimi; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang

    2017-01-01

    In this short review, the current knowledge on the botany, ecology, uses, and medicinal properties of the multipurpose Garcinia subelliptica (Fukugi) is updated. As yet, there are no reviews on this indigenous and heritage coastal tree species of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan, which has ethnocultural, ecological, and pharmacological significance. Planted by the Okinawan people some 300 years ago, Fukugi trees serve as windbreaks and accord protection against the destructive typhoons. The species has become a popular ornamental tree, and its bark has been used for dyeing fabrics. It forms part of the food chain for mammals and insects and serves as nesting sites for birds. Endowed with bioactive compounds of benzophenones, xanthones, biflavonoids, and triterpenoids, G. subelliptica possesses anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, trypanocidal, antibacterial, DNA topoisomerase inhibitory, DNA strand scission, choline acetyltransferase enhancing, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 inhibitory, and antiandrogenic activities. Fukugetin and fukugiside are two novel biflavonoids named after the species. The chemical constituents of Fukugi fruits when compared with those of mangosteen yielded interesting contrasts. PMID:28163970

  19. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Prenylated Xanthone Derivatives from the Leaves of Garcinia oligantha.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yue-Xun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Wu, Rong; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Shen, Zhen-Wu; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-07-22

    Four new dihydroxanthone derivatives (1-4), four new tetrahydroxanthone derivatives (5-8), two new xanthone derivatives (9 and 10), and two known caged tetrahydroxanthones were isolated from extracts of the leaves of Garcinia oligantha by bioassay-guided fractionation. These structures of the new compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 5-7 were determined by electronic circular dichroism and/or single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 6-9 were shown to be unusual xanthone derivatives with an isopropyl group, which was confirmed by the X-ray crystallographic structure of compound 8. The inhibitory activities of these isolates against four human tumor cell lines (A549, HepG2, HT-29, and PC-3) were assayed, and compounds 1, 2, 5, 11, and 12 showed inhibitory effects on tumor cell growth, with IC50 values ranging from 2.1 to 8.6 μM.

  20. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Selective Extraction of Oblongifolin C from Garcinia yunnanensis Hu.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Fu, Wenwei; Shen, Yunhui; Tan, Hongsheng; Xu, Hongxi

    2017-03-23

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized and applied for the selective extraction of oblongifolin C (OC) from fruit extracts of Garcinia yunnanensis Hu. A series of experiments and computational approaches were employed to improve the efficiency of screening for optimal MIP systems in the study. The molar ratio (1:4) was eventually chosen based on the comparison of the binding energy of the complexes between the template (OC) and the functional monomers using density functional theory (DFT) at the RI-PBE-D3-gCP/def2-TZVP level of theory. The binding characterization and the molecular recognition mechanism of MIPs were further explained using the molecular modeling method along with NMR and IR spectra data. The reusability of this approach was demonstrated in over 20 batch rebinding experiments. A mass of 140.5 mg of OC (>95% purity) was obtained from the 5 g extracts, with 2 g of MIPs with the best binding properties, through a gradient elution program from 35% to 70% methanol-water solution. At the same time, another structural analog, 46.5 mg of guttiferone K (GK) (>88% purity), was also obtained by the gradient elution procedure. Our results showed that the structural analogs could be separated from the crude extracts by the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) using a gradient elution procedure for the first time.

  1. Emerging role of Garcinol, the antioxidant chalcone from Garcinia indica Choisy and its synthetic analogs

    PubMed Central

    Padhye, Subhash; Ahmad, Aamir; Oswal, Nikhil; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-01-01

    Garcinol, harvested from Garcinia indica, has traditionally been used in tropical regions and appreciated for centuries; however its biological properties are only beginning to be elucidated. There is ample data to suggest potent antioxidant properties of this compound which have been used to explain most of its observed biological activities. However, emerging evidence suggests that garcinol could be useful as an anti-cancer agent, and it is increasingly being realized that garcinol is a pleiotropic agent capable of modulating key regulatory cell signaling pathways. Here we have summarized the progress of our current research knowledge on garcinol and its observed biological activities. We have also provided an explanation of observed properties based on its chemical structure and provided an insight into the structure and properties of chalcones, the precursors of garcinol. The available data is promising but more detailed investigations into the various properties of this compound, particularly its anti-cancer activity are urgently needed, and it is our hope that this review will stimulate further research for elucidating and appreciating the value of this nature's wonder agent. PMID:19725977

  2. DOXORUBICIN-INDUCED CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM TOXICITY AND PROTECTION BY XANTHONE DERIVATIVE OF GARCINIA MANGOSTANA

    PubMed Central

    Tangpong, J.; Miriyala, S.; Noel, T.; Sinthupibulyakit, C.; Jungsuwadee, P.; St. Clair, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is a potent, broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic drug used around the world. Despite its effectiveness, it has a wide range of toxic side effects, many of which most likely result from its inherent pro-oxidant activity. It has been reported that Dox has toxic effects on normal tissues, including brain tissue. The present study tested the protective effect of a xanthone derivative of Garcinia Mangostana against Dox-induced neuronal toxicity. Xanthone can prevent Dox from causing mononuclear cells to increase the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). We show that xanthone given to mice before Dox administration suppresses protein carbonyl, nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2′-nonenal (4HNE)-adducted proteins in brain tissue. The levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins p53 and Bax and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL were significantly increased in Dox-treated mice compared with the control group. Consistent with the increase of apoptotic markers, the levels of caspase-3 activity and TUNEL-positive cells were also increased in Dox-treated mice. Pretreatment with xanthone suppressed Dox-induced increases in all indicators of injury tested. Together, the results suggest that xanthone prevents Dox-induced central nervous system toxicity, at least in part, by suppression of Dox-mediated increases in circulating TNFα. Thus, xanthone is a good candidate for prevention of systemic effects resulting from reactive oxygen generating anticancer therapeutics. PMID:21074598

  3. RNA-seq analysis of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Rahman, Azhani; Goh, Hoe-Han; Loke, Kok-Keong; Noor, Normah Mohd; Aizat, Wan Mohd

    2017-06-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is known for its delectable taste and contains high amount of xanthones which have been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and other bioactive properties. However, stage-specific regulation of mangosteen fruit ripening has never been studied in detail. We have performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of three ripening stages (Stage 0, 2 and 6) of mangosteen. We have obtained a raw data from six libraries through Illumina HiSeq 4000. A total of ~ 40 Gb of raw data were generated. Clean reads of 650,887,650 (bp) were obtained from 656,913,570 (bp) raw reads. The raw transcriptome data were deposited to SRA database, with the BioProject accession number of PRJNA339916. These data will be beneficial for transcriptome profiling in order to study the regulation of mangosteen fruit ripening. The lack of a complete sequence database from this species impedes protein identification. These data sets provide a reference data for the exploration of novel genes or proteins to understand mangosteen fruit ripening behaviour.

  4. Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with Garcinia mangostana extracts.

    PubMed

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2013-08-16

    The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats and to incorporate the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts into the mats. Chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (CS-EDTA/PVA) was selected as the polymers. The GM extracts with 1, 2 and 3 wt% α-mangostin were incorporated into the CS-EDTA/PVA solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and diameters of the mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The amount of GM extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, extract release and stability of the mats were evaluated. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale and that no crystals of the extract were observed in the mats at any concentration. The mats provided suitable tensile strength and swelling properties. All of the mats exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity. During the wound healing test, the mats accelerated the rate of healing when compared to the control (gauze-covered). The mats maintained 90% of their content of α-mangostin for 3 months. In conclusion, the chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts were successfully prepared using the electrospinning method. These nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts may provide a good alternative for accelerating wound healing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytotoxic Xanthone Constituents of the Stem Bark of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ah-Reum; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Kardono, Leonardus B.S.; Riswan, Soedarsono; Chai, Heebyung; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Swanson, Steven M.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a chloroform-soluble extract of Garcinia mangostana stem bark using the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line and an enzyme-based ELISA NF-κB assay, led to the isolation of a new xanthone, 11-hydroxy-3-O-methyl-1-isomangostin (1). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. In addition, ten other known compounds, 11-hydroxy-1-isomangostin (2), 11α-mangostanin (3), 3-isomangostin (4), α-mangostin (5), β-mangostin (6), garcinone D (7), 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (8), 8-deoxygartanin (9), gartanin (10), and cratoxyxanthone (11), were isolated. Compounds 4–8 exhibited cytotoxicity against the HT-29 cell line with ED50 values of 4.9, 1.7, 1.7, 2.3, and 9.1 μM, respectively. In an ELISA NF-κB assay, compounds 5–7, 9, and 10 inhibited p65 activation with IC50 values of 15.9, 12.1, 3.2, 11.3, and 19.0 μM, respectively, and 6 showed p50 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 7.5 μM. α-Mangostin (5) was further tested in an in vivo hollow fiber assay, using HT-29, LNCaP, and MCF-7 cells, but it was found to be inactive at the highest dose tested (20 mg/kg). PMID:19839614

  6. Anti-biofilm activity of α-mangostin isolated from Garcinia mangostana L.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong T M; Vo, Bac H; Tran, Nhung T; Van, Quyen D

    2015-11-01

    This study was carried out to further examine the anti-biofilm activity of α-mangostin (αMG) isolated from Garcinia mangostana L. grown in Vietnam, against a strongly biofilm producing Streptococcus mutans, a major causative agent of dental caries. The obtained data indicated that topical applications (twice-daily, 60 s exposure each) of 150 μM αMG during biofilm formation on the surfaces of hydroxyapatite disks (sHA) by S. mutans UA159 resulted in 30.7% reduction in biofilm accumulation after 68 h of growth. The treatment did not affect the viability of S. mutans cells in the biofilms. The surface activities of two key enzymes responsible for biofilm formation, i.e. the glycosyltransferases GtfB and GtfC, were reduced by 20 and 35%, respectively (vs. vehicle control, P < 0.05). Interestingly, αMG specifically targeted S. mutans in mixed biofilms, resulting in the decrease of the S. mutans population and total biofilm biomass. αMG was also found to accumulate within the biofilm of S. mutans up to 4.5 μg/biofilm, equal to a concentration of >10 μM/biofilm. In conclusion, this study confirmed anti-biofilm activity of αMG against S. mutans. A brief exposure to αMG may suppress biofilm formation by targeting key enzymes imvolved in biofilm formation.

  7. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; Dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Henriques, João A P; Brendel, Martin; Pungartnik, Cristina; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as "mangosteen fruit," originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application.

  8. Doxorubicin-induced central nervous system toxicity and protection by xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Tangpong, J; Miriyala, S; Noel, T; Sinthupibulyakit, C; Jungsuwadee, P; St Clair, D K

    2011-02-23

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is a potent, broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic drug used around the world. Despite its effectiveness, it has a wide range of toxic side effects, many of which most likely result from its inherent pro-oxidant activity. It has been reported that Dox has toxic effects on normal tissues, including brain tissue. The present study tested the protective effect of a xanthone derivative of Garcinia Mangostana against Dox-induced neuronal toxicity. Xanthone can prevent Dox from causing mononuclear cells to increase the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). We show that xanthone given to mice before Dox administration suppresses protein carbonyl, nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2'-nonenal (4HNE)-adducted proteins in brain tissue. The levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins p53 and Bax and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL were significantly increased in Dox-treated mice compared with the control group. Consistent with the increase of apoptotic markers, the levels of caspase-3 activity and TUNEL-positive cells were also increased in Dox-treated mice. Pretreatment with xanthone suppressed Dox-induced increases in all indicators of injury tested. Together, the results suggest that xanthone prevents Dox-induced central nervous system toxicity, at least in part, by suppression of Dox-mediated increases in circulating TNFα. Thus, xanthone is a good candidate for prevention of systemic effects resulting from reactive oxygen generating anticancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. New insights into the anti-obesity activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian-Yu; Wang, Yi-Tao; Lin, Li-Gen

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. This condition, and its related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, have become major public health challenges. Fruits are important dietary components, and bioactive constituents from fruits are considered to be a promising source for developing effective and safe anti-obesity drugs. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical evergreen tree, and its fruit, mangosteen, is called 'Queen of Fruit'. The pericarp of G. mangostana has been used for centuries in Southeast Asia as a medicinal agent for treatment of various diseases. Products derived from mangosteen are widely consumed to ameliorate metabolic dysfunction and resultant metabolic syndrome. However, the chemical principles and mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. This review summarizes the recent chemical and pharmacological studies related to G. mangostana, including weight reduction, anti-adipogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation activity. The aim of this review is to shed light on the role of G. mangostana and its constituents in preventing and treating obesity, which should encourage more interest in the development of relevant therapeutic methods.

  10. Mangostanaxanthones III and IV: advanced glycation end-product inhibitors from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Hossam M; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Mohamed, Gamal A; El-Halawany, Ali M; Alshali, Khalid Z; Banjar, Zainy M

    2017-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are associated with a non-enzymatic reaction between the amino group of a protein and the carbonyl group of a sugar during hyperglycemia. The precipitation of AGEs in different tissues leads to many complications, such as endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular complications, atherosclerosis, retinopathy, neuropathy, and Alzheimer's disease. Garcinia mangostana L. (Clusiaceae) (GM) was selected owing to the ability of its polar and non-polar fractions to inhibit AGE formation. For the first time, the bioguided fractionation of its pericarp MeOH extract (GMT) gave rise to two new xanthones, namely, mangostanaxanthones III (1) and IV (3), in addition to six known compounds, β-mangostin (2), garcinone E (4), rubraxanthone (5), α-mangostin (6), garcinone C (7), and 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (8), from the non-polar faction. Their structures were verified by various spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR studies and high-resolution MS data. All of the isolated xanthones significantly inhibited both sugar (ribose) and dicarbonyl compound (methylglyoxal)-induced protein glycation in a dose-dependent manner. This is explained by the ability of the isolated xanthones to inhibit protein oxidation, as indicated by the decreases in dityrosine and N'-formylkynurenine formation.

  11. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antitumoral activity of Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen) grown in Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Bruna Lais Almeida; França, Jerônimo Pereira de; Moraes, Andrea Aparecida de Fátima Souza; Chaves, Alba Lucilvânia Fonseca; Gaiba, Silvana; Fontana, Renato; Sacramento, Celio Kersul do; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; França, Lucimar Pereira de

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the anatomy of the fruit and leaf and the presence of phytocompounds. To evaluate the antitumor and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen) cultivated in southeastern Brazil. Anatomical characterization and histochemical reactions were performed for structural identification and the presence of phytocompounds. Preparation of ethanolic extract of the fruit, leaf and resin of mangosteen. Culture B16-F10 melanoma cells for treatment with mangosteen ethanolic extract to determine cell viability by MTT and genotoxic effect by comet assay. Evaluation by antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by agar diffusion test and by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Our results showed many secretory canals in resin fruit and leaf; identifying lipids, starch, lignin and phenolic compounds. The leaf extract induced genotoxicity and apoptosis in B16-F10 cells, since the fragmentation of DNA in the comet assay. The ethanolic extract of mangosteen obtained in the resin, leaf and fruit showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with a MIC at 0.1 mg/mL. In conclusion, we have demonstrated both antimicrobial and antitumor activity of ethanol extract of mangosteen emphasizing its therapeutic potential in infectious diseases and in cancer, such as melanoma.

  12. Mangostanaxanthones I and II, new xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gamal A; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Shaaban, Mona I A; Ross, Samir A

    2014-10-01

    Two new xanthones: mangostanaxanthones I (3) and II (5) were isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, along with four known xanthones: 9-hydroxycalabaxanthone (1), parvifolixanthone C (2), α-mangostin (4), and rubraxanthone (6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of IR, UV, 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectroscopic data, in addition to comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and quorum-sensing inhibitory activities. Compounds 3 and 5 displayed promising antioxidant activity with IC50 12.07 and 14.12 μM, respectively using DPPH assay. Compounds 4-6 had weak to moderate activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, while demonstrated promising action against Bacillus cereus with MICs 0.25, 1.0, and 1.0mg/mL, respectively. The tested compounds were inactive against Candida albicans. However, they showed selective antifungal potential toward Aspergillus fumigatus. Compounds 3 and 4 possessed quorum-sensing inhibitory activity against Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Garcinia subelliptica Merr. (Fukugi): A multipurpose coastal tree with promising medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomomi; Kainuma, Mami; Baba, Karin; Oshiro, Nozomi; Kimura, Norimi; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang

    2017-01-01

    In this short review, the current knowledge on the botany, ecology, uses, and medicinal properties of the multipurpose Garcinia subelliptica (Fukugi) is updated. As yet, there are no reviews on this indigenous and heritage coastal tree species of the Ryukyu Islands in Japan, which has ethnocultural, ecological, and pharmacological significance. Planted by the Okinawan people some 300 years ago, Fukugi trees serve as windbreaks and accord protection against the destructive typhoons. The species has become a popular ornamental tree, and its bark has been used for dyeing fabrics. It forms part of the food chain for mammals and insects and serves as nesting sites for birds. Endowed with bioactive compounds of benzophenones, xanthones, biflavonoids, and triterpenoids, G. subelliptica possesses anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, trypanocidal, antibacterial, DNA topoisomerase inhibitory, DNA strand scission, choline acetyltransferase enhancing, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 inhibitory, and antiandrogenic activities. Fukugetin and fukugiside are two novel biflavonoids named after the species. The chemical constituents of Fukugi fruits when compared with those of mangosteen yielded interesting contrasts.

  14. Xanthones with antiproliferative effects on prostate cancer cells from the stem bark of Garcinia xanthochymus.

    PubMed

    Ji, Feng; Lia, Zhanlin; Liu, Gaofeng; Niu, Shengli; Zhao, Nan; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Hua, Huiming

    2012-01-01

    Investigations of the constituents of the stem barks of Garcinia xanthochymus have yielded two new compounds, garcinenones X (1) and Y (2), along with five known xanthones, 1,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (3), 1,4,6-trihydroxy-5-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (4), 1,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-7,8-di(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (5), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-4,7,8-tri(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (6), and 1,5,6-trihydroxy-7,8-di(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-6',6'dimethylpyrano(2',3':3,4)xanthone (7). The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. The cell growth inhibitory activity of the isolated compounds against the PC-3 cell line was measured. Among them, compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 exhibited significant inhibitory effects with IG50 values of 14.3, 15.5, 11.1, and 6.8 microM, respectively.

  15. Antiproliferative activities of Garcinia bracteata extract and its active ingredient, isobractatin, against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Li, Wei; Wang, Yan-Yan; Zhong, Qing-Qing; Wang, Shu-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Ren, Dong-Mei; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2014-03-01

    In our cell based screening of antitumor ingredients from plants, the EtOH extract of Garcinia bracteata displayed antiproliferative effect against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and human prostate cancer PC3 cells. Phytochemical investigation of this active extract produced nine ingredients, and their structures were established by analysis of MS and NMR spectra. Antiproliferative evaluation of isolated ingredients on A549, MCF-7 and PC3 cells indicated that a xanthone named isobractatin (1) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against the above three human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 2.90 to 4.15 μM. Treatment of PC3 cells with 1 led to an enhancement of the cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. The G0/G1 phase cycle-related proteins analysis showed that the expressions of cyclins D1 and E were reduced by 1, whereas the protein level of cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor P21 was induced. Additionally, 1 enhanced PC3 cell apoptosis by activations of Bax, caspases 3 and 9, and by inhibition of Bcl-2. Our combined data illustrated that isobractatin (1) was the antiproliferative ingredient of G. bracteata against three human cancer cell lines, which exerted its antiproliferatrive effect via cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis.

  16. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic Myrothecium spp. isolated from Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella.

    PubMed

    Ruma, Karmakar; Sunil, Kumar; Kini, Kukkundoor R; Prakash, Harischandra Sripathy

    2015-11-01

    Calophyllum apetalum and Garcinia morella, medicinal plants are endemic to Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Sixteen Myrothecium isolates were obtained from the tissues of bark and twigs of these plants. The purpose of this study was to explore the antimicrobial activity and genetic variability of the endophytic Myrothecium isolates. The antimicrobial activity as well as the genetic diversity of endophytic Myrothecium species was investigated through RAPD, ISSR and ITS sequence analysis. Myrothecium isolates were genotypically compared by RAPD and ISSR techniques, 510 and 189 reproducible polymorphic bands were obtained using 20 RAPD and ten ISSR primers respectively. The isolates grouped into four main clades and subgroups using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis. rDNA ITS sequence analysis presented better resolution for characterising the isolates of Myrothecium spp. The clustering patterns of the isolates were almost similar when compared with RAPD and ISSR dendograms. The results signify that RAPD, ISSR and ITS analysis can be employed to distinguish the genetic diversity of the Myrothecium species. The endophytic and pathogenic strains were compared by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour joining methods. One isolate (JX862206) amongst the 16 Myrothecium isolates exhibited potent antibacterial and as well as anti-Candida activity.

  17. Antibacterial and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activities of polyhydroxylated xanthones from Garcinia succifolia.

    PubMed

    Duangsrisai, Susawat; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Bessa, Lucinda J; Costa, Paulo M; Amat, Nurmuhammat; Kijjoa, Anake

    2014-11-28

    Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4), 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6). All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1), as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6) exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1) and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively.

  18. Cellular trafficking and anticancer activity of Garcinia mangostana extract-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pan-In, Porntip; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Hanes, Justin; Kim, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana Linn extract (GME) is a natural product that has received considerable attention in cancer therapy, and has the potential to reduce side effects of chemotherapeutics and improve efficacy. We formulated GME-encapsulated ethyl cellulose (GME-EC) and a polymer blend of ethyl cellulose and methyl cellulose (GME-EC/MC) nanoparticles. We achieved high drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency using a solvent-displacement method with particle sizes around 250 nm. Cellular uptake and accumulation of GME was higher for GME-encapsulated nanoparticles compared to free GME. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis showed effective anticancer activity of GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. GME-EC/MC nanoparticles showed approximately twofold-higher anticancer activity compared to GME-EC nanoparticles, likely due to their enhanced bioavailability. GME-encapsulated nanoparticles primarily entered HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and trafficked through the endolysosomal pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking mechanism of drug-loaded cellulose-based nanoparticles. In summary, encapsulation of GME using cellulose-derivative nanoparticles – GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles – successfully improved the bioavailability of GME in aqueous solution, enhanced cellular uptake, and displayed effective anticancer activity. PMID:25125977

  19. Cellular trafficking and anticancer activity of Garcinia mangostana extract-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pan-In, Porntip; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Hanes, Justin; Kim, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana Linn extract (GME) is a natural product that has received considerable attention in cancer therapy, and has the potential to reduce side effects of chemotherapeutics and improve efficacy. We formulated GME-encapsulated ethyl cellulose (GME-EC) and a polymer blend of ethyl cellulose and methyl cellulose (GME-EC/MC) nanoparticles. We achieved high drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency using a solvent-displacement method with particle sizes around 250 nm. Cellular uptake and accumulation of GME was higher for GME-encapsulated nanoparticles compared to free GME. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis showed effective anticancer activity of GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. GME-EC/MC nanoparticles showed approximately twofold-higher anticancer activity compared to GME-EC nanoparticles, likely due to their enhanced bioavailability. GME-encapsulated nanoparticles primarily entered HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and trafficked through the endolysosomal pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking mechanism of drug-loaded cellulose-based nanoparticles. In summary, encapsulation of GME using cellulose-derivative nanoparticles - GME-EC and GME-EC/MC nanoparticles - successfully improved the bioavailability of GME in aqueous solution, enhanced cellular uptake, and displayed effective anticancer activity.

  20. α-Glucosidase inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity of prenylated xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyung Won; Cho, Jung Keun; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Yuk, Heung Joo; Kim, Young Soo; Jung, Sunin; Kim, Young Suk; Lee, Byong Won; Park, Ki Hun

    2011-12-01

    An ethanol extract of the fruit case of Garcinia mangostan, whose most abundant chemical species are xanthones, showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC(50)=3.2 μg/ml). A series of isolated xanthones (1-16) demonstrated modest to high inhibition of α-glucosidase with IC(50) values of 1.5-63.5 μM. In particular, one hitherto unknown xanthone 16 has a very rare 2-oxoethyl group on C-8. Kinetic enzymatic assays with a p-nitrophenyl glucopyranoside indicated that one of them, compound (9) exhibited the highest activity (K(i)=1.4 μM) and mixed inhibition. Using, a physiologically relevant substrate, maltose, as substrate, many compounds (6, 9, 14, and 15) also showed potent inhibition which ranged between 17.5 and 53.5 μM and thus compared favorably with deoxynojirimycin (IC(50)=68.8 μM). Finally, the actual pharmacological potential of the ethanol extract was demonstrated by showing that it could elicit reduction of postprandial blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the most active α-glucosidase inhibitors (6, 9, and 14) were proven to be present in high quantities in the native seedcase by a HPLC chromatogram. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N.; Henriques, João A. P.; Brendel, Martin; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as “mangosteen fruit,” originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Garcinia cambogia Extract on CYP2B6 Enzyme Activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun Sang; Choi, Min Sun; Park, Jong Suk; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Nakamura, Katsunori; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2017-03-13

    This study assessed the inhibitory effects of Garcinia cambogia extract on the cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro. G. cambogia extract was incubated with cytochrome P450 isozyme-specific substrates in human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP2B6 isozyme, and the formation of the marker metabolites was measured to investigate the inhibitory potential on cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. The results showed that G. cambogia extract has significant inhibitory effects on CYP2B6 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the inhibition was potentiated following preincubation with NADPH, indicating that G. cambogia extract is a time-dependent inhibitor of CYP2B6. Meanwhile, hydroxycitric acid, the major bioactive ingredient of G. cambogia extract, did not exhibit significant inhibition effects on cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. G. cambogia extract could modulate the pharmacokinetics of CYP2B6 substrate drugs and lead to interactions with those drugs. Therefore, caution may be required with respect to concomitant intake of dietary supplements containing G. cambogia extract with CYP2B6 substrates.

  3. Garcinia xanthochymus Benzophenones Promote Hyphal Apoptosis and Potentiate Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Desmond N; Yang, Lin; Wu, ShiBiao; Kennelly, Edward J; Lipke, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    Xanthochymol and garcinol, isoprenylated benzophenones purified from Garcinia xanthochymus fruits, showed multiple activities against Candida albicans biofilms. Both compounds effectively prevented emergence of fungal germ tubes and were also cytostatic, with MICs of 1 to 3 μM. The compounds therefore inhibited development of hyphae and subsequent biofilm maturation. Xanthochymol treatment of developing and mature biofilms induced cell death. In early biofilm development, killing had the characteristics of apoptosis, including externalization of phosphatidyl serine and DNA fragmentation, as evidenced by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence. These activities resulted in failure of biofilm maturation and hyphal death in mature biofilms. In mature biofilms, xanthochymol and garcinol caused the death of biofilm hyphae, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 30 to 50 μM. Additionally, xanthochymol-mediated killing was complementary with fluconazole against mature biofilms, reducing the fluconazole EC50 from >1,024 μg/ml to 13 μg/ml. Therefore, xanthochymol has potential as an adjuvant for antifungal treatments as well as in studies of fungal apoptosis.

  4. UPLC-ESI-TOF MS-Based Metabolite Profiling of the Antioxidative Food Supplement Garcinia buchananii.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Balemba, Onesmo B; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-08-19

    Comparative antioxidative analyses of aqueous ethanolic extracts from leaf, root, and stem of Garcinia buchananii revealed high activity of all three organs. To investigate the metabolite composition of the different parts of G. buchananii, an untargeted metabolomics approach using UPLC-ESI-TOF MS with simultaneous acquisition of low- and high-collision energy mass spectra (MS(e)) was performed. Unsupervised statistics (PCA) highlighted clear differences in the metabolomes of the three organs. OPLS-DA revealed (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-GB-1, (2R,3S)-morelloflavone, and (2R,3S)-volkensiflavone as the most decisive marker compounds discriminating leaf from root and stem extract. Leaves represent the best source to isolate GB-1, morelloflavone, and volkensiflavone. Root extract is the best organ to isolate xanthones and stem bark extract the best source to isolate (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone; the identified polyisoprenylated benzophenones are characteristic compounds for the leaf organ. Morelloflavone, volkensiflavone, and garcicowin C were isolated for the first time from G. buchananii, identified via MS, NMR, and CD spectroscopy, and showed in H2O2 scavenging, H/L-TEAC, and H/L-ORAC assays moderate to strong in vitro antioxidative activities.

  5. In vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Sônia Aparecida; Vilela, Fernanda Maria Pinto; da Silva, Claudinei Alves; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira

    2014-02-05

    The damaging effects of sunlight to the skin has triggered studies that involve the synthesis and extraction of organic compounds from natural sources that can absorb UV radiation, and studies on polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can be used as photochemopreventive agents for reducing skin damage. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo photoprotective/photochemopreventive potential of Garcinia brasiliensis epicarp extract (GbEE). We evaluated the cell viability of L929 fibroblasts after UVB exposure using a quartz plate containing the extract solution or the GbEE formulation. The in vivo photoprotective effect of the GbEE formulation was evaluated by measuring the UVB damage-induced decrease in endogenous reduced glutathione (GSH), the increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The in vitro methodology using fibroblasts showed that the photoprotective properties of the GbEE solutions and 10% GbEE formulation were similar to the commercial sunscreen (SPF-15). In vivo results demonstrated of the GbEE formulation in decreasing UVB induced-damage such as GSH depletion, an increased in MPO activity and secretion of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. The results showed that the extract has great potential for use as a sunscreen in topical formulations in addition to UV filters.

  6. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant potential of the leaves of Garcinia travancorica Bedd.

    PubMed

    Aravind, A P Anu; Asha, K R T; Rameshkumar, K B

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the leaves of Garcinia travancorica, a hitherto uninvestigated endemic species to the Western Ghats of south India, resulted in isolation and characterisation of the polyisoprenylated benzophenones 7-epi-nemorosone (1) and garcinol (2) along with biflavonoids GB-1a (3), GB-1 (4), GB-2 (5), morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7″-O-β-D-glycoside or fukugiside (7). The compounds were identified using various spectroscopic techniques, mainly through NMR and MS. The methanol extract and the biflavonoids 3, 4, 5 and 7 showed potential in vitro antioxidant activities. The IC50 value of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of compound 7 was 8.34 ± 2.12 μg/mL, comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid (3.2 ± 0.50 μg/mL). In the superoxide radical scavenging assay, compound 7 gave IC50 value of 6.95 ± 1.33 μg/mL close to standard ascorbic acid with IC50 value of 5.8 ± 0.25 μg/mL. Validated HPTLC estimation revealed G. travancorica as a rich source of morelloflavone-7″-O-β-D-glycoside (7.12% dry wt. leaves).

  7. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of hydroxycitric acid or Garcinia cambogia extracts in humans.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Fabiola; Babio, Nancy; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that Garcinia cambogia plays an important role in the regulation of endogenous lipid biosynthesis. This effect is specially attributed to (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) inhibiting the enzyme ATP-dependent citrate lyase, which catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Although several studies have found that the administration of G. cambogia extracts is associated with body weight and fat loss in both experimental animals and humans, we should be cautious when interpreting the results as other randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials have not reported the same outcomes. Furthermore, most studies in humans have been conducted on small samples and mainly in the short term. None of them have shown whether these effects persist beyond 12 weeks of intervention. Therefore, there is still little evidence to support the potential effectiveness and long-term benefits of G. cambogia extracts. With regard to toxicity and safety, it is important to note that except in rare cases, studies conducted in experimental animals have not reported increased mortality or significant toxicity. Furthermore, at the doses usually administered, no differences have been reported in terms of side effects or adverse events (those studied) in humans between individuals treated with G. cambogia and controls.

  8. Comparative UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolomics and bioactivities analyses of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; AnandhiSenthilkumar, Harini; Wu, Shi-biao; Liu, Bo; Guo, Zhi-yong; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-lin

    2016-02-01

    Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth. (Clusiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant from southern China, with edible fruits. However, the phytochemistry and bioactivity of the different plant parts of G. oblongifolia have not been studied extensively. Comparative metabolic profiling and bioactivities of the leaf, branch, and fruit of G. oblongifolia were investigated. A total of 40 compounds such as biflavonoids, xanthones, and benzophenones were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS and MS(E), including 15 compounds reported for the first time from this species. Heatmap analyses found that benzophenones, xanthones, and biflavonoids were predominately found in branches, with benzophenones present in relatively high concentrations in all three plant parts. Xanthones were found to have limited distribution in fruit while biflavonoids were present at only low levels in leaves. In addition, the cytotoxic (MCF-7 breast cancer cell line) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH chemical tests) activities of the crude extracts of G. oblongifolia indicate that the branch extract exhibits greater bioactivity than either the leaf or the fruit extracts. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis was used to find 12 marker compounds, mainly xanthones, from the branches, including well-known antioxidants and cytotoxic agents. These G. oblongifolia results revealed that the variation in metabolite profiles can be correlated to the differences in bioactivity of the three plant parts investigated. This UPLC-QTOF-MS strategy can be useful to identify bioactive constituents expressed differentially in the various plant parts of a single species.

  9. Cytotoxic Properties and Complete Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Assignment of Isolated Xanthones from the Root of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Wahyuni, Fatma Sri; Shaari, Khozirah; Stanslas, Johnson; Lajis, Nordin HJ; Hamidi, Dachriyanus

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate compounds from the roots of Garcinia cowa and to evaluated their cytotoxic activity against breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU-145), and lung (H-460) cell lines. Materials and Methods: The ground air-dried root was sequentially macerated with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and methanol. The DCM soluble extract was fractionated by vacuum liquid chromatography, column chromatography, and radial chromatography over silica gel with hexane, EtOAc and methanol as eluent in progressively increasing polarity manner; to yield three compounds. Their structures were elucidated based on their spectroscopic data and their comparison with those of the literature. The cytotoxicity of isolated compounds was carried out against human cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The extract was added at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/ml). The level of cytotoxicity was determined by calculating the level of IC50 that was based on the percentage of the cell death following the 24 h incubation with the extract. Results: Phytochemical study on the roots of G. cowa yielded rubraxanthone (3), cowanine (4) and 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (5). Compound 4 with an IC50 value of 4.1 ± 1.0 μM, 5.4 ± 2.3 μM and 11.3 ± 10.0 μM against MCF-7, H-460, and DU-145, respectively while compound 3 was found to be in active. Conclusion: The results indicate that G. cowa roots could be important sources of natural cytotoxic compounds. SUMMARY Isolation of cytotoxic compounds from Garcinia cowaCowanine is the active constituent from the roots of Garcinia cowaComplete nuclear magnetic resonance assignment of isolated compoundsMS fragmentation of rubraxanthone. PMID:27041859

  10. Dataset of SSR markers for ISSR-Suppression-PCR to detect genetic variation in Garcinia mangostana L. in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samsir, Sri A'jilah; Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2016-09-01

    In this dataset, we present 15 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers with the motifs (AC)n, (GA)n, and (AC)n(AG)n using a ISSR-Suppression-PCR technique in order to discriminate Garcinia mangostana from diverse geographical origins in Peninsular Malaysia. A few loci showed differences between 3 and 6 bp in allele size, indicating that there are some polymorphisms between individuals correlating to the number of SSR repeats that may be useful for differentiate of genotypes. Collectively, these data show that the ISSR-Suppression-PCR is a valuable method to illustrate genetic variation of selected G. mangostana in Malaysia.

  11. Garcimultiflorone G, a novel benzoylphloroglucinol derivative from Garcinia multiflora with inhibitory activity on neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Yen, Ming-Hong; Chen, Jih-Jung

    2014-05-01

    A novel benzoylphloroglucinol derivative, garcimultiflorone G (1), was isolated from the fruits of Garcinia multiflora. The structure of 1 was determined through extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS analyses. Garcimultiflorone G (1) showed inhibitory effects against superoxide anion (O·2(-) generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB), with IC50 values of 6.97 ± 1.56 and 11.70 ± 1.58 μM, respectively.

  12. Cylindroxanthones A-C, three new xanthones and their cytotoxicity from the stem bark of Garcinia cylindrocarpa.

    PubMed

    Sukandar, Edwin Risky; Ersam, Taslim; Fatmawati, Sri; Siripong, Pongpun; Aree, Thammarat; Tip-pyang, Santi

    2016-01-01

    Three new xanthones, cylindroxanthones A-C (1-3), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia cylindrocarpa. The structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The molecular structure of 1 was unequivocally confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These three xanthones were evaluated regarding their cytotoxicity against KB, HeLa S-3, HT-29, MCF-7, and Hep G2 cancer cell lines. Compound 1 exhibited good cytotoxicity against KB cell with IC50 value of 2.36 μM.

  13. Magmatic evolution of the differentiated ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion of Vuoriyarvi (Kola Peninsula, Russia). A LA-ICP-MS study of apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassinnes, S.; Balaganskaya, E.; Demaiffe, D.

    2005-11-01

    The nature of the petrogenetic links between carbonatites and associated silicate rocks is still under discussion (i.e., [ Gittins J., Harmer R.E., 2003. Myth and reality of the carbonatite-silicate rock "association". Period di Mineral. 72, 19-26.]). In the Paleozoic Kola alkaline province (NW Russia), the carbonatites are spatially and temporally associated to ultramafic cumulates (clinopyroxenite, wehrlite and dunite) and alkaline silicate rocks of the ijolite-melteigite series [ Kogarko, L.N., 1987. Alkaline rocks of the eastern part of the Baltic Shield (Kola Peninsula). In: Fitton, J.G., and Upton, B.G.J. (eds). Alkaline igneous rocks. Geol. Soc. Special Publication 30, 531-544; Kogarko, L.N., Kononova, V.A., Orlova, M.P., Woolley, A.R., 1995. Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the world. Part 2. Former USSR. Chapman and Hall, London, 225 pp; Verhulst, A., Balaganskya, E., Kirnarsky, Y., Demaiffe, D., 2000. Petrological and geochemical (trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes) characteristics of the Paleozoic Kovdor ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion (Kola Peninsula, NW Russia). Lithos 51, 1-25; Dunworth, E.A., Bell, K., 2001. The Turiy Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia; isotopic and geochemical evidence for a multi-source evolution. J. Petrol. 42, 377-405; Woolley, A.R., 2003. Igneous silicate rocks associated with carbonatites: their diversity, relative abundances and implications for carbonatite genesis. Period. di Mineral. 72, 9-17)]. In the small (≈ 20 km 2) Vuoriyarvi massif, apatite is typically a liquidus phase during the magmatic evolution and so it can be used to test genetic relationships. Trace elements contents have been obtained for both whole rocks and apatite (by LA-ICP-MS). The apatites define a single continuous chemical evolution marked by an increase in REE and Na (belovite-type of substitution, i.e., 2Ca 2+ = Na + + REE 3+). This evolution possibly reflects a fractional crystallisation process of a single batch of isotopically

  14. Organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated dioxins and furans, and PCBs in peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus eggs from the Kola peninsula, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Ganusevich, S.A.; Ward, F.P.; Schwartz, T.R.; Meyburg, B-U.; Chancellor, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Nesting of a bog-associated population of mlgfatory Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, along the Ponoy River depression, Kola Peninsula, Russia, has been studied since 1977. In 1987 91 production rates averaged 1.94 young per active nest and the number of breeding pairs increased from 4 to 10. In 1991, most eyrie sites were visited during the egg stage and a 'sample' egg was collected for contaminant analysis. Eight Peregrine Falcon eggs contained relatively low concentrations of p,p' -DOE (DOE) (geometric mean 3.5 g/g) and of other organochlorine pesticides. These DOE concentrations are similar to those reported in Peregrine Falcon eggs from an Alaskan population that had also showed a recent population increase. Eggshell thinning (11.4%) was similar to that found in Alaska. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were higher than DOE concentrations, comparable to the contamination profile shown by Peregrine Falcon populations in Fennoscandia, and were higher than those found in Alaskan birds. Before this study, no Peregrine Falcon eggs from Russia had 'been analyzed for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), or pol ychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCD Fs). Conversions of analytical concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other PCDDs, PCDFs and PCB congeners based on relative aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction potencies allowed the estimation of total 2,3,7,8- TCDD equivalents (TEQs). The TEQs are in the range that is associated with embryonic mortality in other species. Even though the Peregrine Falcon population now seems to be released from decades of a DOT problem, exposure to other contaminant continues. There is an obvious need to assess further the sources and longer-term trends of the PCBs. We also report residue concentrations from one White-tailed Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla, egg.

  15. Long-term consequences for Northern Norway of a hypothetical release from the Kola nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Wright, S M; Salbu, B; Skuterud, K L; Hove, K; Loe, R

    2004-07-05

    The spatial and temporal variation in radiocaesium and (90)Sr doses to two population groups of the two Northernmost counties of Norway, Troms and Finnmark, following a hypothetical accident at the Kola nuclear power plant (KNPP) have been estimated using a model implemented within a geographical information system. The hypothetical accident assumes a severe loss of coolant accident at the KNPP coincident with meteorological conditions causing significant radionuclide deposition in the two counties. External doses are estimated from ground deposition and the behaviour of the different population groups, and internal doses from predicted food product activity concentrations and dietary consumption data. Doses are predicted for reindeer keepers and other Norwegian inhabitants, taking account of existing (137)Cs and (90)Sr deposition but not including the remedial effect of any countermeasures that might be used. The predicted doses, arising mainly from radiocaesium, confirm the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme assessment that residents of the Arctic are particularly vulnerable to radiocaesium contamination, which could persist for many years. External doses are predicted to be negligible compared to ingestion doses. Ingestion doses for reindeer keepers are predicted to exceed 1 mSv y(-1) for several decades primarily due to their high consumption of reindeer meat. Other Norwegians would also be potentially exposed to doses exceeding 1 mSv y(-1) for several years, especially if they consume many local products. Whilst reindeer production is the most important exposure pathway, freshwater fish, lamb meat, dairy products, mushrooms and berries are also significant contributors to predicted ingestion doses. Radionuclide fluxes, defined as the total output of radioactivity in food from an area for a unit time, are dominated by reindeer meat. The results show the need for an effective emergency response, with appropriate countermeasures, should an accident of the

  16. Structural characterization and composition of Y-rich hainite from Sakharjok nepheline syenite pegmatite (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalina, L.; Zolotarev, A.; Selivanova, E.; Savchenko, Ye.; Zozulya, D.; Krivovichev, S.; Mikhailova, Yu.

    2015-08-01

    Y-rich hainite occurs in nepheline syenite pegmatite of the Sakharjok massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia). It forms euhedral prismatic crystals up to 2 mm in length as well as rims around an unidentified mineral phase (silicate of Ca, Y, Zr and Ti). The mineral is triclinic, space group P-1, a 9.6054(10), b 5.6928(6), c 7.3344(7) Å, α 89.903(2), β 101.082(2), γ 100.830(2)°, V 386.32(7) Å3, Z = 1. The calculated density is 3.39 g/cm3. Chemical composition of Sakharjok hainite is different from the previously published data by much higher Y and Nb contents up to 0.72 and 0.20 atoms per formula unit, respectively, by the two- to five-fold depletion in the LREEs and by the strong enrichment of the HREEs. From the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, there is a significant amount of Y in the M1 site associated with the absence of Zr in it. Nb and Zr are concentrated in the M5 site substituting Ti. Combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and electron microprobe data give the empirical formula (Ca1.04Y0.63REE0.24Mn0.02)∑1.93(Na0.92Ca0.77)∑1.69Ca2.00(Na0.65Ca0.10)∑0.75(Ti0.60Zr0.21Nb0.15Fe0.03)∑0.99((Si4.00Al0.02)∑4.02O14) (F2.61O1.39)∑4.00.

  17. Urinary Schistosomiasis among Children in Murbai and Surbai Communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Agere, H.; Wama, B. E.; Bingbeng, J. B.; Amuta, E. U.

    2016-01-01

    Background. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection, and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among children in Murbai and Surbai communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area (LGA), Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods. Urine samples were analysed by the standard filtration technique using 10 ml syringe, Swinnex polypropylene filter holder (13 mm diameter), and polycarbonate membrane filters (12 μm porosity). Sociodemographic data and water contact activities were collated from children using structured questionnaires. Results. A point prevalence of 58.54% was reported out of the urine samples examined. Males were significantly more infected than their female counterparts (71.15% versus 43.66%, χ2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). The age-related prevalence showed 6–10 and 11–15 years significantly infected with 78.70% and 73.02%, respectively (χ2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). Light intensity of infection, 62.51%, was significantly higher than heavy intensity, 37.48%, among the infected children (χ2 = 365.8, p = 0.000). Water contact activities such as fishing (OR = 4.01, CI = 3.04–5.61, p = 0.000), rice farming (OR = 4.01, CI = 2.96–5.36, p = 0.000), and dry season farming (OR = 4.78, CI = 3.68–6.22, p = 0.000) were the risk factors exposing children to infection in the area. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to undertake a large scale deworming control programme using praziquantel in the area. PMID:28096819

  18. Importance of Solvation in Understanding the Chiroptical Spectra of Natural Products in Solution Phase: Garcinia Acid Dimethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Jeirath, Neha; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Habel, Deenamma; Nair, Divya Sadasivan; Haleema, Simimole

    2013-01-01

    The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of (+)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed by comparison with the corresponding spectra predicted by quantum chemical methods for (2S,3S)-garcinia acid dimethyl ester. For solution-phase calculations the recently developed continuous surface charge polarizable continuum model (PCM) has been used. It is found that gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level yield nearly mirror-image ECD spectra in the 190–250 nm region for the same absolute configuration and that gas-phase ECD predictions lead to incorrect absolute configuration. At the CAM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, however, gas-phase predictions and PCM predictions of ECD in the 190–250 nm region are not so different, but PCM predictions provide better agreement with the experimental observations. For carbonyl stretching vibrations, the vibrational band positions predicted at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level in gas-phase calculations differ significantly from the corresponding experimentally observed band positions, and this discrepancy has also been corrected by the use of PCM. In addition, the solution-phase VCD predictions provided better agreement (with experimental VCD observations) than gas-phase VCD predictions. These observations underscore the importance of including solvent effects in quantum chemical calculations of chiroptical spectroscopic properties. PMID:21114277

  19. Epigarcinol and isogarcinol isolated from the root of Garcinia ovalifolia induce apoptosis of human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60 cells).

    PubMed

    Pieme, Constant Anatole; Ambassa, Pathaleon; Yankep, Emmanuel; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2015-11-23

    Plants from garcinia genus have been used for centuries against several diseases. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of apoptosis induced by epigarcinol and isogarcinol isolated from the root of Garcinia ovalifolia (Clusiaceae) on human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60 cells). Epigarcinol and isogarcinol were isolated from the root of G. ovalifolia by using column chromatography method. The antiproliferative property of these molecules and fractions were assessed with 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The light fluorescence microscope was utilized to observe the morphological changes of HL-60 cells after 24 h treatment. Early apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were analyzed by using flow cytometry (FCM). The results showed that epigarcinol and isogarcinol inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 and PC-3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 varying between 4 and 76 µg/mL depending on the cell line and the molecule. The apoptosis rate and the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased with the augmentation of the concentration of the molecules. The results of flow cytometry (FCM) indicated that epigarcinol and isogarcinol induced significant G2/S arrest of HL-60 cells, the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These results indicated that epigarcinol and isogarcinol demonstrated in vitro antiproliferative properties and induce apoptosis of HL-60 cells which is related to the G2/S arrest, and it exerts its apoptotic effect through the loosing of mitochondrial membrane potential.

  20. Effect of extraction solvents and plant parts used on the antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Garcinia atroviridis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Al-Mansoub, Majed Ahmed; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia atroviridis is a seasonal fruit plant found in many parts of South East Asia. The fruit rind is used in cooking and traditionally consumed for various reasons, including to lower blood cholesterol. A comparative study was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction solvents and plant parts used on the lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of Garcinia atroviridis. Aqueous extracts showed better antihyperlipidemic activity than the methanol extracts. Aqueous extract of ripe fruit showed the most potent antihyperlipidemic activity, comparable to that of atorvastatin. It significantly reduced the total cholesterol (P < 0.05), triglycerides (P < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.01), very-low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.01) and atherogenic index (P < 0.01). In contrast, antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of all parts of G. atroviridis were higher than their respective aqueous extracts, whereby the stem and leaves extracts showed better antioxidant activities than the fruits. Aqueous and methanol extracts of G. atroviridis showed higher antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed significant correlations with antioxidant but not with antihyperlipidemic activities, indicating the involvement of other compounds. Contrary to the traditional belief, the present findings suggest that the fruit has higher antihyperlipidemic potential than the fruit rind. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Cowabenzophenones A and B, two new tetracyclo[7.3.3.3(3,11).0(3,7)]tetradecane-2,12,14-trione derivatives, from ripe fruits of Garcinia cowa.

    PubMed

    Sriyatep, Teerayut; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Machan, Theeraphan; Phakhodee, Wong; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2014-01-01

    Two new tetracyclo[7.3.3.3(3,11).0(3,7)]tetradecane-2,12,14-trione derivatives, cowabenzophenones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from ripe fruits of Garcinia cowa Roxb. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The tetracyclo[7.3.3.3(3,11).0(3,7)]tetradecane-2,12,14-trione skeleton from the Garcinia genus is reported for the first time.

  2. Garcinia Cambogia attenuates diet-induced adiposity but exacerbates hepatic collagen accumulation and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Je; Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Yong Bok; Kim, Sang Ryong; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Un Ju

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate long-term effects of Garcinia Cambogia (GC), weight-loss supplement, on adiposity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese mice. METHODS: Obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without GC (1%, w/w) for 16 wk. The HFD contained 45 kcal% fat, 20 kcal% protein and 35 kcal% carbohydrate. They were given free access to food and distilled water, and food consumption and body weight were measured daily and weekly, respectively. Data were expressed as the mean ± SE. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical package for the social science software program. Student’s t test was used to assess the differences between the groups. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in body weight and food intake between the groups. However, the supplementation of GC significantly lowered visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte size via inhibition of fatty acid synthase activity and its mRNA expression in visceral adipose tissue, along with enhanced enzymatic activity and gene expression involved in adipose fatty acid β-oxidation. Moreover, GC supplementation resulted in significant reductions in glucose intolerance and the plasma resistin level in the HFD-fed mice. However, we first demonstrated that it increased hepatic collagen accumulation, lipid peroxidation and mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and inflammatory responses (tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) as well as plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, although HFD-induced hepatic steatosis was not altered. CONCLUSION: GC protects against HFD-induced obesity by modulating adipose fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation but induces hepatic fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:23922466

  3. Garcinia Cambogia attenuates diet-induced adiposity but exacerbates hepatic collagen accumulation and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Je; Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Yong Bok; Kim, Sang Ryong; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Un Ju

    2013-08-07

    To investigate long-term effects of Garcinia Cambogia (GC), weight-loss supplement, on adiposity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese mice. Obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without GC (1%, w/w) for 16 wk. The HFD contained 45 kcal% fat, 20 kcal% protein and 35 kcal% carbohydrate. They were given free access to food and distilled water, and food consumption and body weight were measured daily and weekly, respectively. Data were expressed as the mean ± SE. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical package for the social science software program. Student's t test was used to assess the differences between the groups. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. There were no significant changes in body weight and food intake between the groups. However, the supplementation of GC significantly lowered visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte size via inhibition of fatty acid synthase activity and its mRNA expression in visceral adipose tissue, along with enhanced enzymatic activity and gene expression involved in adipose fatty acid β-oxidation. Moreover, GC supplementation resulted in significant reductions in glucose intolerance and the plasma resistin level in the HFD-fed mice. However, we first demonstrated that it increased hepatic collagen accumulation, lipid peroxidation and mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and inflammatory responses (tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) as well as plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, although HFD-induced hepatic steatosis was not altered. GC protects against HFD-induced obesity by modulating adipose fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation but induces hepatic fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  4. Antibacterial constituents of three Cameroonian medicinal plants: Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis.

    PubMed

    Fouotsa, Hugues; Mbaveng, Armelle T; Mbazoa, Celine D; Nkengfack, Augustin E; Farzana, Shaheen; Iqbal, Choudhary M; Meyer, Jacobus J Marion; Lall, Namrita; Kuete, Victor

    2013-04-10

    Multidrug resistance is a worrying cause of treatment failure in bacterial infections. The search of bioactive constituents from medicinal plants against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has significantly evolved in the two last decades. In the present study, twenty-two compounds (three terpenoids, eleven phenolics and eight alkaloids) isolated from three Cameroonian medicinal plants, namely Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis, as well as the crude extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacteria amongst which were MDR active efflux pumps expressing phenotypes. The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the studied samples. The results of the MIC determinations indicate that, the best crude extract was that from G. nobilis (GNB), its inhibitory effects being noted against 12 of the 14 tested bacteria. The extract of GNB also exhibited better anti-tuberculosis (MIC of 128 μg/ml M. tuberculosis against ATCC 27294 strain) and antibacterial (MIC of 64 μg/ml against Escherichia coli ATCC10536) activities compared to the extracts of O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis. Interestingly, 4-prenyl-2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (2), isolated from the most active extract GNB, also showed the best activity amongst compounds, inhibiting the growth of all the fourteen tested microorganisms. The lowest MIC value obtained with compound 2 was 8 μg/ml against M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294 and M. tuberculosis clinical MTCS2 strains. Other compounds showed selective activities with 11 of the 14 tested bacteria being sensitive to the xanthone, morusignin I (5) and the alkaloid, kokusaginine (13). The results of the present investigation provide evidence that the crude extract from G. nobilis, O. suaveolens and B

  5. A MYB transcription factor regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Palapol, Yossapol; Ketsa, Saichol; Lin-Wang, Kui; Ferguson, Ian B; Allan, Andrew C

    2009-05-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit undergo rapid red colour development, both on the tree and after harvest, resulting in high anthocyanin production in the pericarp. Here, we report the isolation of three full-length mangosteen MYB transcription factors (GmMYB1, GmMYB7 and GmMYB10) and all the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes (GmPal to GmUFGT). Phylogenetic analysis at the protein level of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family showed GmMYB10 had a high degree of similarity with production of anthocyanin pigment1 in Arabidopsis and as well as sequences from other plant species related to the elevation of anthocyanin pigmentation. In transient transactivation assays, GmMYB10, co-expressed with AtbHLH2, strongly activated the GmDFR and AtDFR promoters. Transcripts of GmMYB10 and GmUFGT were highly abundant with onset of pigmentation and subsequently during red colouration. Our results suggest that GmMYB10 plays an important role in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis both on the tree and after harvest, while GmUFGT may be a key biosynthetic gene in mangosteen pigmentation. The expression patterns of GmMYB10 and GmUFGT correlated with ethylene production that increased linearly until stage 5 (dark purple) and decreased thereafter. 1-Methycyclopropene (1-MCP) clearly delayed red colouration with resulting down-regulation of GmMYB10. These results suggest that the effect of ethylene on anthocyanin biosynthesis may be via the regulation of GmMYB10 expression.

  6. Antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana L rind and its synergistic effect with artemisinin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tjahjani, Susy

    2017-02-28

    Malaria especially falciparum malaria still causes high morbidity and mortality in tropical countries. Several factors have been linked to this situation and the most important one is the rapid spread of parasite resistance to the currently available antimalarials, including artemisinin. Artemisinin is the main component of the currently recommended antimalarial, artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT), and it is a free radical generating antimalarial. Garcinia mangostana L (mangosteen) rind contain a lot of xanthone compounds acting as an antioxidant and exhibited antimalarial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of mangosteen rind extract and its fractions and their interaction with artemisinin against the 3D7 clone of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Dry ripe mangosteen rind was extracted with ethanol followed by fractionation with hexane, ethylacetate, buthanol, and water consecutively to get ethanol extract, hexane, athylacetate, buthanol, and water fractions. Each of these substances was diluted in DMSO and examined for antimalarial activity either singly or in combination with artemisinin in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 clone. Synergism between these substances with artemisinin was evaluated according to certain formula to get the sum of fractional inhibitory concentration 50 (∑FIC50). Analysis of the parasite growth in vitro indicated that IC50 of these mangosteen rind extract, hexane, ethylacetate, buthanol, and water fraction ranged from 0.41 to > 100 μg/mL. All of the ∑FIC50 were <1. This study demonstrated a promising antimalarial activity of the extract and fractions of G.mangostana L rind and its synergistic effect with artemisinin. Further study using lead compound(s) isolated from extract and fractions should be performed to identify more accurately their mechanism of antimalarial activities.

  7. Antileptospiral activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana and synergy of gamma-mangostin with penicillin G.

    PubMed

    Seesom, Weeranuch; Jaratrungtawee, Amornmart; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Mekseepralard, Chantana; Ratananukul, Piniti; Sukhumsirichart, Wasana

    2013-07-19

    Leptospirosis, one of the most widespread zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide, is caused by spirochetes bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The present study examined inhibitory activity of purified xanthones and crude extracts from Garcinia mangostana against both non-pathogenic and pathogenic leptospira. Synergy between γ-mangostin and penicillin G against leptospires was also determined. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of crude extracts and purified xanthones from G. mangostana and penicillin G for a non-pathogenic (L. biflexa serovar Patoc) and pathogenic (L. interrogans serovar Bataviae, Autumnalis, Javanica and Saigon) leptospires were determined by using broth microdilution method and alamar blue. The synergy was evaluated by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index. The results of broth microdilution test demonstrated that the crude extract and purified xanthones from mangosteen possessed antileptospiral activities. The crude extracts were active against all five serovars of test leptospira with MICs ranging from 200 to ≥ 800 μg/ml. Among the crude extracts and purified xanthones, garcinone C was the most active compound against both of pathogenic (MIC =100 μg/ml) and non-pathogenic leptospira (MIC = 200 μg/ml). However, these MIC values were higher than those of traditional antibiotics. Combinations of γ-mangostin with penicillin G generated synergistic effect against L. interrogans serovars Bataviae, Autumnalis and Javanica (FIC = 0.52, 0.50, and 0.04, respectively) and no interaction against L. biflexa serovar Patoc (FIC =0.75). However, antagonistic activity (FIC = 4.03) was observed in L. interrogans serovar Saigon. Crude extracts and purified xanthones from fruit pericarp of G. mangostana with significant antibacterial activity may be used to control leptospirosis. The combination of xanthone with antibiotic enhances the antileptospiral efficacy.

  8. Antileptospiral activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana and synergy of gamma-mangostin with penicillin G

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis, one of the most widespread zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide, is caused by spirochetes bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The present study examined inhibitory activity of purified xanthones and crude extracts from Garcinia mangostana against both non-pathogenic and pathogenic leptospira. Synergy between γ-mangostin and penicillin G against leptospires was also determined. Methods Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of crude extracts and purified xanthones from G. mangostana and penicillin G for a non-pathogenic (L. biflexa serovar Patoc) and pathogenic (L. interrogans serovar Bataviae, Autumnalis, Javanica and Saigon) leptospires were determined by using broth microdilution method and alamar blue. The synergy was evaluated by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index. Results The results of broth microdilution test demonstrated that the crude extract and purified xanthones from mangosteen possessed antileptospiral activities. The crude extracts were active against all five serovars of test leptospira with MICs ranging from 200 to ≥ 800 μg/ml. Among the crude extracts and purified xanthones, garcinone C was the most active compound against both of pathogenic (MIC =100 μg/ml) and non-pathogenic leptospira (MIC = 200 μg/ml). However, these MIC values were higher than those of traditional antibiotics. Combinations of γ-mangostin with penicillin G generated synergistic effect against L. interrogans serovars Bataviae, Autumnalis and Javanica (FIC = 0.52, 0.50, and 0.04, respectively) and no interaction against L. biflexa serovar Patoc (FIC =0.75). However, antagonistic activity (FIC = 4.03) was observed in L. interrogans serovar Saigon. Conclusions Crude extracts and purified xanthones from fruit pericarp of G. mangostana with significant antibacterial activity may be used to control leptospirosis. The combination of xanthone with antibiotic enhances the antileptospiral efficacy. PMID

  9. Antitumor effect of forbesione isolated from Garcinia hanburyi on cholangiocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Boueroy, Parichart; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Boonmars, Thidarut; Saensa-Ard, Sunitta; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Vaeteewoottacharn, Kulthida; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignancy with no effective therapy and poor prognosis. Forbesione, a caged xanthone isolated from Garcinia hanburyi, has been reported to inhibit proliferation and to induce apoptosis in human CCA cell lines. The present study aimed to further explore the potential anticancer properties of forbesione by testing its effects against the hamster CCA cell line Ham-1 in vitro and in vivo. It was observed that forbesione inhibited the growth of Ham-1 cells in vitro and suppressed Ham-1 growth as allograft in hamsters by inducing cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This was mediated by decreasing the protein expression of cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. In addition, increased expression of p21 and p27 was detected, which could possibly explain the reduced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and of the bile duct cell marker cytokeratin 19 observed in forbesione-treated Ham-1 cells in vitro and in tumor tissues of forbesione-treated hamsters. Furthermore, forbesione induced apoptosis through multiple pathways. The death receptor pathway was activated by increased expression of Fas, Fas-associated death domain and activated caspase-3, along with decreased expression of procaspase-8 and procaspase-3. The mitochondrial pathway was driven by increased expression of B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-like protein 4, activated caspase-9 and inhibitor of κB-α, along with decreased expression of Bcl-2, survivin, procaspase-9 and nuclear factor-κB/p65. The endoplasmic reticulum pathway was stimulated by increased expression of activated caspase-12 and decreased expression of procaspase-12. No side effects or toxicity were observed in forbesione-treated hamsters. Thus, forbesione is a potential drug candidate for cancer therapy that deserves further investigation. PMID:28101220

  10. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  11. Rare gas isotopes and parent trace elements in ultrabasic-alkaline-carbonatite complexes, Kola Peninsula: identification of lower mantle plume component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikhin, I. N.; Kamensky, I. L.; Marty, B.; Nivin, V. A.; Vetrin, V. R.; Balaganskaya, E. G.; Ikorsky, S. V.; Gannibal, M. A.; Weiss, D.; Verhulst, A.; Demaiffe, D.

    2002-03-01

    During the Devonian magmatism (370 Ma ago) ˜20 ultrabasic-alkaline-carbonatite complexes (UACC) were formed in the Kola Peninsula (north-east of the Baltic Shield). In order to understand mantle and crust sources and processes having set these complexes, rare gases were studied in ˜300 rocks and mineral separates from 9 UACC, and concentrations of parent Li, K, U, and Th were measured in ˜70 samples. 4He/ 3He ratios in He released by fusion vary from pure radiogenic values ˜10 8 down to 6 × 10 4. The cosmogenic and extraterrestrial sources as well as the radiogenic production are unable to account for the extremely high abundances of 3He, up to 4 × 10 -9 cc/g, indicating a mantle-derived fluid in the Kola rocks. In some samples helium extracted by crushing shows quite low 4He/ 3He = 3 × 10 4, well below the mean ratio in mid ocean ridge basalts (MORB), (8.9 ± 1.0) × 10 4, indicating the contribution of 3He-rich plume component. Magnetites are principal carriers of this component. Trapped 3He is extracted from these minerals at high temperatures 1100°C to 1600°C which may correspond to decrepitation or annealing primary fluid inclusions, whereas radiogenic 4He is manly released at a temperature range of 500°C to 1200°C, probably corresponding to activation of 4He sites degraded by U, Th decay. Similar 4He/ 3He ratios were observed in Oligocene flood basalts from the Ethiopian plume. According to a paleo-plate-tectonic reconstruction, 450 Ma ago the Baltica (including the Kola Peninsula) continent drifted not far from the present-day site of that plume. It appears that both magmatic provinces could relate to one and the same deep-seated mantle source. The neon isotopic compositions confirm the occurrence of a plume component since, within a conventional 20Ne/ 22Ne versus 21Ne/ 22Ne diagram, the regression line for Kola samples is indistinguishable from those typical of plumes, such as Loihi (Hawaii). 20Ne/ 22Ne ratios (up to 12.1) correlate well with 40

  12. Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.

    PubMed

    Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus

  13. Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., α-mangostin, β-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) μg/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) μg/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) μg/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) μg/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) μg/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro antiproliferative activity of uncommon xanthones from branches of Garcinia achachairu.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Luisa Nathália Bolda; Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Corrêa, Rogério; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Delle Monache, Franco; Niero, Rivaldo

    2016-09-01

    Context Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) popularly known as 'achachairu' is used in folk medicine to treat rheumatism, inflammation, pain and gastric disorder. Objective The present study investigated the chemical profile and antiproliferative effects of the methanolic extract, fractions and two xanthones, against some carcinoma cell lines in vitro. Materials and methods The compounds were isolated and identified by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The extract, fractions and compounds were tested human tumour cell lines of U-251 (glioma), MCF-7 (breast), NCI/ADR-RES (ovary expressing multi-drug resistance phenotype), 786-0 (kidney), NCI-H460 (lung, non-small cells), PC-3 (prostate) and HT-29 (colon), non-tumour cell line HaCat (human keratinocytes) in doses of 0.25-250 μg mL (-) (1) for 48 h. The antiproliferative activity was determined by spectrophotometric quantification (at 540 nm) of the cellular protein content using sulphorhodamine B assay. The prediction of parameters involved in the molecular bioavailability was executed directly by ChemDoodle (version 5.0.1) software (iChemLabs, LLC, Somerset, NJ). Results 3-Demethyl-2-geranyl-4-prenylbellidypholine (1) and 1,5,8-trihydroxy-4',5'-dimethyl-2H-pyrane (2,3:3,2)-4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) xanthone (2), gartanin (3) and stigmasterol (4) were identified on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytocidal activity, especially against breast, prostate and kidney cell lines, with TGI values of 15.8, 4.9, 9.1 and 39.4, 44.7, 40.9 μg/mL, respectively. Discussion and conclusion The presence of two sets of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups in separate domains in each molecule might play a role in the mediation of tumour-specific action. Our data show that G. achachairu have potent antiproliferative action and should be considered an important source of potent anticancer compounds.

  15. Antibacterial constituents of three Cameroonian medicinal plants: Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance is a worrying cause of treatment failure in bacterial infections. The search of bioactive constituents from medicinal plants against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has significantly evolved in the two last decades. In the present study, twenty-two compounds (three terpenoids, eleven phenolics and eight alkaloids) isolated from three Cameroonian medicinal plants, namely Garcinia nobilis, Oricia suaveolens and Balsamocitrus camerunensis, as well as the crude extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacteria amongst which were MDR active efflux pumps expressing phenotypes. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the studied samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicate that, the best crude extract was that from G. nobilis (GNB), its inhibitory effects being noted against 12 of the 14 tested bacteria. The extract of GNB also exhibited better anti-tuberculosis (MIC of 128 μg/ml M. tuberculosis against ATCC 27294 strain) and antibacterial (MIC of 64 μg/ml against Escherichia coli ATCC10536) activities compared to the extracts of O. suaveolens and B. camerunensis. Interestingly, 4-prenyl-2-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-1,3,5,8-tetrahydroxyxanthone (2), isolated from the most active extract GNB, also showed the best activity amongst compounds, inhibiting the growth of all the fourteen tested microorganisms. The lowest MIC value obtained with compound 2 was 8 μg/ml against M. tuberculosis ATCC 27294 and M. tuberculosis clinical MTCS2 strains. Other compounds showed selective activities with 11 of the 14 tested bacteria being sensitive to the xanthone, morusignin I (5) and the alkaloid, kokusaginine (13). Conclusions The results of the present investigation provide evidence that the crude

  16. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  17. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  18. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  19. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  20. Lead isotopic evidence for interaction between plume and lower crust during emplacement of peralkaline Lovozero rocks and related rare-metal deposits, East Fennoscandia, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zartman, R. E.; Kogarko, L. N.

    2017-05-01

    The Lovozero alkaline massif—an agpaitic nepheline syenite layered intrusion—is located in the central part of the Kola Peninsula, Russia, and belongs to the Kola ultramafic alkaline and carbonatitic province (KACP) of Devonian age. Associated loparite and eudialyte deposits, which contain immense resources of REE, Nb, Ta, and Zr, constitute a world class mineral district. Previous Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope investigations demonstrated that these rocks and mineral deposits were derived from a depleted mantle source. However, because the Sr, Nd, and Hf abundances in the Kola alkaline rocks are significantly elevated, their isotopic compositions were relatively insensitive to contamination by the underlying crustal rocks through which the intruding magmas passed. Pb occurring in relatively lower abundance in the KACP rocks, by contrast, would have been a more sensitive indicator of an acquired crustal component. Here, we investigate the lead isotopic signature of representative types of Lovozero rocks in order to further characterize their sources. The measured Pb isotopic composition was corrected using the determined U and Th concentrations to the age of the crystallization of the intrusion (376 ± 28 Ma, based on a 206Pb/204Pb versus 238U/204Pb isochron and 373 ± 9 Ma, from a 208Pb/204Pb versus 232Th/204Pb isochron). Unlike the previously investigated Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopes, the lead isotopic composition plot was well outside the FOZO field. The 206Pb/204Pb values fall within the depleted MORB field, with some rocks having lower 207Pb/204Pb but higher 208Pb/204Pb values. Together with other related carbonatites having both lower and higher 206Pb/204Pb values, the combined KACP rocks form an extended linear array defining either a 2.5-Ga secondary isochron or a mixing line. The projection of this isotopic array toward the very unradiogenic composition of underlying 2.4-2.5-Ga basaltic rocks of the Matachewan superplume and associated Archean granulite facies

  1. Immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. against collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanxia; Zhou, Hailing; Wang, Mengqi; Cen, Juren; Wei, Qun

    2014-05-07

    Isogarcinol is a natural compound that we extracted from Garcinia mangostana L., and we were the first to report that it is a new immunosuppressant. In the present study, we investigated the immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and explored its potential mechanism in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The oral administration of isogarcinol significantly reduced clinical scores, alleviated cartilage and bone erosion, and reduced the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines in CIA mice. Isogarcinol inhibited xylene-induced mouse ear edema in vivo. In vitro, isogarcinol decreased iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression and NO content by inhibiting NF-κB expression. Furthermore, isogarcinol decreased the activity of NFAT and inhibited IL-2 expression. The mechanism of action of isogarcinol is associated with down-regulation of both autoimmune and inflammatory reactions.

  2. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linfeng; Lao, Yuanzhi; Zhao, Yanhui; Qin, Jian; Fu, Wenwei; Zhang, Yingjia; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode of action were evaluated. 33-Hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid exhibited about 1 μM IC50 values against JAK2/JAK3 kinases and less than 1 μM IC50 values against NCI-H1650 cell which autocrined IL-6. Thus these two compounds provided a new antitumor molecular scaffold. Our report describes 33-hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid that inhibited NCI-H1650 cell growth by suppressing constitutive STAT3 activation via direct inhibition of JAK kinase activity. PMID:26090459

  3. Isogarcinol Extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. Ameliorates Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-like Disease in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Hu; Zhang, Mu; Zhong, Youxiu; Wang, Mengqi; Cen, Juren; Wu, Hezhen; Yang, Yanfang; Wei, Qun

    2015-09-30

    Isogarcinol is a new immunosuppressant that we extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. In the present study, we elucidate its beneficial effect in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) in mice -- a model for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in human. The oral administration of 60 mg/kg isogarcinol significantly reduced proteinuria, corrected the abnormal serum biochemical indicator, and decreased the amount of serum antibodies and lowered the renal histopathology score. In addition, isogarcinol alleviated the abnormal activation of CD4 T cells and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes and cytokines in the kidneys and peritoneal macrophages. The mechanism of action of isogarcinol is associated with downregulation of CD4 T cells and inflammatory effects. Therefore, we believe that isogarcinol may be a potential therapeutic drug candidate for future treatment of SLE.

  4. γ-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana pericarps as a dual agonist that activates Both PPARα and PPARδ.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Gamo, Kanae; Miyachi, Hiroyuki; Iinuma, Munekazu; Kawada, Teruo; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Akao, Yukihiro; Tosa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    We tested the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ agonistic activity of a Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract to develop a treatment for the metabolic syndrome, and demonstrated γ-mangostin to be an active compound on the basis of a luciferase reporter gene assay. γ-Mangostin induced the expression of the uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3) gene which is related to energy expenditure and fat metabolism in L6 cells. We showed that γ-mangostin is a dual agonist that activates both PPARδ and PPARα. γ-Mangostin also induced the expression of acyl-CoA synthase and carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A genes in HepG2 cells. These results suggest the potential of γ-mangostin as a preventive agent of the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Acetyl- and O-alkyl- derivatives of β-mangostin from Garcinia mangostana and their anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Thiruventhan; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Mohd Nor, Siti Mariam; Zamakshshari, Nor Hisam

    2017-07-17

    Pure β-mangostin (1) was isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana L. One monoacetate (2) and five O-alkylated β-mangostin derivatives (3-7) were synthesised from β-mangostin. The structures of these compounds were elucidated and determined using spectroscopic techniques such as 1D NMR and MS. The cytotoxicities and anti-inflammatory activities of these five compounds against RAW cell 264.7 were tested. The structural-activity relationship studies indicated that β-mangostin showed a significant activity against the LPS-induced RAW cell 264.7, while the acetyl- as well as the O-alkyl- β-mangostin derivatives did not give good activity. Naturally occurring β-mangostin demonstrated comparatively better anti-inflammatory activity than its synthetic counterparts.

  6. Screening Active Compounds from Garcinia Species Native to China Reveals Novel Compounds Targeting the STAT/JAK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linfeng; Lao, Yuanzhi; Zhao, Yanhui; Qin, Jian; Fu, Wenwei; Zhang, Yingjia; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds from medicinal plants are important resources for drug development. In a panel of human tumor cells, we screened a library of the natural products from Garcinia species which have anticancer potential to identify new potential therapeutic leads and discovered that caged xanthones were highly effective at suppressing multiple cancer cell lines. Their anticancer activities mainly depended on apoptosis pathways. For compounds in sensitive cancer line, their mechanisms of mode of action were evaluated. 33-Hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid exhibited about 1 μM IC50 values against JAK2/JAK3 kinases and less than 1 μM IC50 values against NCI-H1650 cell which autocrined IL-6. Thus these two compounds provided a new antitumor molecular scaffold. Our report describes 33-hydroxyepigambogic acid and 35-hydroxyepigambogic acid that inhibited NCI-H1650 cell growth by suppressing constitutive STAT3 activation via direct inhibition of JAK kinase activity.

  7. Xanthones from the Leaves of Garcinia cowa Induce Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Autophagy in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhengxiang; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Danqing; Lao, Yuanzhi; Fu, Wenwei; Tan, Hongsheng; Cao, Peng; Yang, Ling; Xu, Hongxi

    2015-06-19

    Two new xanthones, cowaxanthones G (1) and H (2), and 23 known analogues were isolated from an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia cowa. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines and immortalized HL7702 normal liver cells, whereby compounds 1, 5, 8, and 15-17 exhibited significant cytotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed that 5 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase in a dose-dependent manner, 1 and 16 at the G2/M phase, and 17 at the G1 phase, while 16 and 17 induced apoptosis. Moreover, autophagy analysis by GFP-LC3 puncta formation and western blotting suggested that 17 induced autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that these xanthones possess anticancer activities targeting cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy signaling pathways.

  8. Three new biphenyls from the twigs of Garcinia tetralata and their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiu-Fen; Wang, Yue-De; Zhu, Dong-Lai; Yu, Zhen-Hua; Zhan, Jian-Bo; Xing, Huan-Huan; Ma, Hang-Ying; Yang, Yan; Li, Yin-Ke; Chen, Zhang-Yu; Gao, Xue-Mei

    2016-12-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the ethanol extract of the twigs of Garcinia tetralata resulted in the isolation of three new biphenyls, tetralatabiphenyls A-C (1-3), along with three known biphenyl derivatives (4-6). Structural elucidations of 1-3 were performed by spectroscopic methods such as 1D and 2D NMR spectra, in addition to high-resolution mass spectra. Compounds 1-6 were also evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activity. The results showed that compound 3 showed high anti-TMV activity with inhibition rate of 31.1%. Compounds 1, 2, and 4-6 also showed modest anti-TMV activities with inhibition rates in the range of 18.9-24.5%, respectively.

  9. Beneficial effects of cocoa, coffee, green tea, and garcinia complex supplement on diet induced obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tung, Yu-Tang; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2016-03-12

    Cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia contain large amounts of polyphenols. Polyphenols are well-known phytochemicals and found in plants, and have modulated physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. To evaluate the obesity-lowering effect of a combined extract (comprising cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia; CCGG) in high-energy diet (HED)-induced obese rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12 per group): normal diet with vehicle treatment (Control), and HED to receive vehicle or CCGG by oral gavage at 129, 258, or 517 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks, designated the HED, 0.5X, 1X and 1X groups, respectively. HED induced macrovesicular fat in the liver and the formation of adipose tissues, and significantly increased the levels of serum free fatty acids (FFA), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and LDL-C/HDL-C, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ketone bodies in serum, and hepatic TG and TC levels, and decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in serum and lipase activity in fat tissues. Treatment with CCGG could significantly decrease the levels of FFA, TG, TC, LDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C, AST, ALT, and ketone bodies in serum, and hepatic TG and TC contents, and increase the levels of HDL-C in serum and lipase activity in fat tissues compared to the HED group. Liver histopathology also showed that CCGG could significantly reduce the incidence of liver lesions. These results suggested that CCGG stimulated lipid metabolism in HED-induced obese rats, which is attributable to fat mobilization from adipose tissue.

  10. Protective effect of methanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruits in 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Antala, Bhaveshkumar V; Patel, Manishkumar S; Bhuva, Satish V; Gupta, Shiv; Rabadiya, Samir; Lahkar, Mangala

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported that antioxidants play an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Garcinia indica extract is a natural antioxidant, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of methanolic extract of Garcinia indica (GIM) against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxicity for striatal dopaminergic neurons in the rat. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups namely control, 6-OHDA model, and GIM (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight suspended in one ml of 0.1% carboxymethyl cellulose). The treatment was started three days before surgery and continued for next 14 days. The surgery was done on third day in all groups for administration of 6-OHDA into the right striatum and right substantia nigra, whereas control group injected with 6-OHDA vehicle. Various behavior and biochemical tests (Apomorphine-induced rotational behavior, Stepping test, Initiation time, Postural balance test, and Disengage time) were used to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of GIM. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test was used to compare inter-group differences. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. GIM had significant (P<0.05, P<0.01) preventive effect in biochemical tests, i.e., dopamine and its metabolites measurement and in various behavior tests, i.e., apomorphine-induced rotational behavior, stepping test, initiation time, postural balance test, and disengage time as compared to 6-OHDA-treated rats. Our results demonstrated that GIM acted as an effective neuroprotective agent for striatal dopaminergic neurons in 6-OHDA lesioned rat model of PD.

  11. Protective effect of methanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruits in 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Antala, Bhaveshkumar V.; Patel, Manishkumar S.; Bhuva, Satish V.; Gupta, Shiv; Rabadiya, Samir; Lahkar, Mangala

    2012-01-01

    Context: Several studies have reported that antioxidants play an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Garcinia indica extract is a natural antioxidant, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of methanolic extract of Garcinia indica (GIM) against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxicity for striatal dopaminergic neurons in the rat. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups namely control, 6-OHDA model, and GIM (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight suspended in one ml of 0.1% carboxymethyl cellulose). The treatment was started three days before surgery and continued for next 14 days. The surgery was done on third day in all groups for administration of 6-OHDA into the right striatum and right substantia nigra, whereas control group injected with 6-OHDA vehicle. Various behavior and biochemical tests (Apomorphine-induced rotational behavior, Stepping test, Initiation time, Postural balance test, and Disengage time) were used to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of GIM. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test was used to compare inter-group differences. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: GIM had significant (P<0.05, P<0.01) preventive effect in biochemical tests, i.e., dopamine and its metabolites measurement and in various behavior tests, i.e., apomorphine-induced rotational behavior, stepping test, initiation time, postural balance test, and disengage time as compared to 6-OHDA-treated rats. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that GIM acted as an effective neuroprotective agent for striatal dopaminergic neurons in 6-OHDA lesioned rat model of PD. PMID:23248394

  12. Complete NMR assignments of bioactive rotameric (3 → 8) biflavonoids from the bark of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khan, Naeem

    2014-07-01

    The genus Garcinia is reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective and anti-HIV activities. Garcinia hombroniana in Malaysia is used to treat itching and as a protective medicine after child birth. This study was aimed to isolate the chemical constituents from the bark of G. hombroniana and explore their possible pharmacological potential. Ethyl acetate extract afforded one new (1) and six (2-7) known 3 → 8 rotameric biflavonoids. Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopy together with electron ionization/ESI mass spectrometric techniques and were identified as (2R, 3S) volkensiflavone-7-O-rhamnopyranoside (1), volkensiflavone (2), 4″-O-methyl-volkensiflavone (3), volkensiflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (4), morelloflavone (5), 3″-O-methyl-morelloflavone (6) and morelloflavone-7-O-glucopyranoside (7). The absolute configuration of compound 1 was assigned by circular dichroism spectroscopy as 2R, 3S. The coexistence of conformers of isolated biflavonoids in solution at 25 °C in different solvents was confirmed by variable temperature NMR studies. At room temperature (25 °C), compounds 1-7 exhibited duplicate NMR signals, while at elevated temperature (90 °C), a single set of signals was obtained. Compound 5 showed significant in vitro antioxidant activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals. The antibacterial studies showed that compounds 5 and 6 are the most active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Compounds 3 and 6 also showed moderate antituberculosis activity against H38 Rv. Based on the research findings, G. hombroniana could be concluded as a rich source of flavanone-flavone (3 → 8) biflavonoids that exhibit rotameric behaviour at room temperature and display significant antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  13. Evaluation of the satiating properties of a nutraceutical product containing Garcinia cambogia and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Marcos A; Finlayson, Graham; Fischman, Daniela; de Paz, Carolina; Telleriarte, Martín R; Ferrero, Alejandro J; Bobillo, Cecilia; Fernández, Belisario E

    2014-04-01

    A nutraceutical product composed of a combination of Garcinia cambogia, l-carnitine and a seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum has been recently developed. The aim of the present study was to characterize its effects on subjective satiety sensations and food preferences in healthy volunteers. In a crossover design, 28 subjects (21 females and 7 males, aged 31 ± 5, BMI 22.6 ± 1.7) were randomly assigned to receive the active treatment (LIS) or placebo (PL) over one week. At the end of each treatment period, subjects were instructed to consume ad libitum a test meal. Food preferences and appetite sensations were evaluated by means of the Leeds Food Preferences Questionnaire and visual analog scales, before and after meal, over three hours. There were no differences in energy intake between study groups. LIS was associated with a reduction in subjective hunger sensations (p = 0.018) and to an increase in satiety (p = 0.02) and fullness (p = 0.01) ratings. The preference for high fat foods was reduced after consuming the test meal in both study groups. There was a significant effect of LIS treatment on food explicit liking and implicit wanting, as evidenced by an increase in preference for sweet foods (relative to savory foods; p = 0.03 and p = 0.004, respectively), but no differences were observed regarding the preference for low or high fat foods (NS). These results provide proof of principle for the satiating properties of a nutraceutical containing Garcinia cambogia, Ascophyllum nodosum extract and l-carnitine and suggest that it might be useful as an appetite modulator.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia species using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Lee, Stephanie; Choi, Franky Fung Kei; Xu, Gang; Liu, Xin; Song, Jing-Zheng; Li, Song-Lin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-09-23

    Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are a group of natural products isolated from different Garcinia species with a wide range of important biological activities. In this study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to photodiode-array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF) method was developed to characterize 16 PPAPs in 10 Garcinia species. In source dissociation techniques based on cone voltage fragmentation were used to fragment the deprotonated molecules and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using ramping collision energy were used to further break down the resulting product ions. The resulting characteristic fragment ions were generated by cleavage of C1-C5 bond and C7-C8 bond through concerted pericyclic reaction, which is especially valuable for differentiating three types of PPAPs isomers. As such, two new PPAPs isomers present in minor amount in the extracts of Garcinia oblongifolia were tentatively characterized by comparing their tandem mass spectra to the known ones. In addition, an UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was validated for the quantitative determination of PPAPs. The method exhibited limits of detection from 2.7 to 21.4 ng mL(-1) and intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 3.7% and the recovery was in the range of 89-107% with RSD less than 9.0%. This UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method has successfully been applied to quantify 16 PPAPs in 32 samples of 10 Garcinia species, which were found to be a rich source of PPAPs.

  15. Gut microbiota Modulated by Probiotics and Garcinia cambogia Extract Correlate with Weight Gain and Adipocyte Sizes in High Fat-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jaeyoung; Seo, Minseok; Park, Hwanhee; Lee, Woon Kyu; Guan, Le Luo; Yoon, Joon; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Ahn, Hyeonju; Kim, Se-Young; Kang, Yoon-Mo; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Results of recent studies on gut microbiota have suggested that obesogenic bacteria exacerbate obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the host when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In order to explore obesity-associated bacterial candidates and their response to diet, the composition of faecal bacterial communities was investigated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences in mice. Dietary intervention with probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract attenuated weight gain and adipocyte size in HFD-fed mice. To identify obesity-causative microbiota, two statistical analyses were performed. Forty-eight bacterial species were found to overlap between the two analyses, indicating the commonly identified species as diet-driven and obesity-associated, which would make them strong candidates for host-microbiome interaction on obesity. Finally, correlation based network analysis between diet, microbe, and host revealed that Clostridium aminophilum, a hyper-ammonia-producing bacterium, was highly correlated with obesity phenotypes and other associated bacteria, and shown to be suppressed by the combination of probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract. Results of the present study suggest that probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract alleviate weight gain and adiposity, in part via differentially modulating the composition of gut microbiota in HFD fed mice. PMID:27658722

  16. Gut microbiota Modulated by Probiotics and Garcinia cambogia Extract Correlate with Weight Gain and Adipocyte Sizes in High Fat-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jaeyoung; Seo, Minseok; Park, Hwanhee; Lee, Woon Kyu; Guan, Le Luo; Yoon, Joon; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Ahn, Hyeonju; Kim, Se-Young; Kang, Yoon-Mo; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-09-23

    Results of recent studies on gut microbiota have suggested that obesogenic bacteria exacerbate obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the host when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In order to explore obesity-associated bacterial candidates and their response to diet, the composition of faecal bacterial communities was investigated by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences in mice. Dietary intervention with probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract attenuated weight gain and adipocyte size in HFD-fed mice. To identify obesity-causative microbiota, two statistical analyses were performed. Forty-eight bacterial species were found to overlap between the two analyses, indicating the commonly identified species as diet-driven and obesity-associated, which would make them strong candidates for host-microbiome interaction on obesity. Finally, correlation based network analysis between diet, microbe, and host revealed that Clostridium aminophilum, a hyper-ammonia-producing bacterium, was highly correlated with obesity phenotypes and other associated bacteria, and shown to be suppressed by the combination of probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract. Results of the present study suggest that probiotics and Garcinia cambogia extract alleviate weight gain and adiposity, in part via differentially modulating the composition of gut microbiota in HFD fed mice.

  17. Bean Seed Imbibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Enables students to examine the time course for seed imbibition and the pressure generated by imbibing seeds. Provides background information, detailed procedures, and ideas for further investigation. (DDR)

  18. Was the Devonian geomagnetic field dipolar or multipolar? Palaeointensity studies of Devonian igneous rocks from the Minusa Basin (Siberia) and the Kola Peninsula dykes, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Biggin, A. J.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Shatsillo, A. V.; Hawkins, L. M. A.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.

    2017-05-01

    Defining variations in the behaviour of the geomagnetic field through geological time is critical to understanding the dynamics of Earth's core and its response to mantle convection and planetary evolution. Furthermore, the question of whether the axial dipole dominance of the recent palaeomagnetic field persists through the whole of Earth's history is fundamental to determining the reliability of palaeogeographic reconstructions and the efficacy of the magnetosphere in shielding Earth from solar wind radiation. Previous palaeomagnetic directional studies have suggested that the palaeofield had a complex configuration in the Devonian period (419-359 Ma). Here we present new high-quality palaeointensity determinations from rocks aged between 408 and 375 Ma from the Minusa Basin (southern Siberia), and the Kola Peninsula that enable the first reliable investigation of the strength of the field during this enigmatic period. Palaeointensity experiments were performed using the thermal Thellier, microwave Thellier and Wilson methods on 165 specimens from 25 sites. Six out of eight successful sites from the Minusa Basin and all four successful sites from the Kola Peninsula produced extremely low palaeointensities (<10 μT). These findings challenge the uniformitarian view of the palaeomagnetic field: field intensities of nearly an order of magnitude lower than Neogene values (except during relatively rare geomagnetic excursions and reversals) together with the widespread appearance of strange directions found in the Devonian suggest that the Earth's field during this time may have had a dominantly multipolar geometry. A persistent, low intensity multipolar magnetic field and associated diminished magnetosphere would increase the impact of solar particles on the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere with potential major implications for Earth's climate and biosphere.

  19. Was the Devonian geomagnetic field dipolar or multipolar? Palaeointensity studies of Devonian igneous rocks from the Minusa Basin (Siberia) and the Kola Peninsula dykes, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Biggin, A. J.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Shatsillo, A. V.; Hawkins, L.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.

    2017-02-01

    Defining variations in the behaviour of the geomagnetic field through geological time is critical to understanding the dynamics of Earth's core and its response to mantle convection and planetary evolution. Furthermore, the question of whether the axial dipole dominance of the recent palaeomagnetic field persists through the whole of Earth's history is fundamental to determining the reliability of palaeogeographic reconstructions and the efficacy of the magnetosphere in shielding Earth from solar wind radiation. Previous palaeomagnetic directional studies have suggested that the palaeofield had a complex configuration in the Devonian period (419-359 Ma). Here we present new palaeointensity determinations from rocks aged between 408 and 375 Ma from the Minusa Basin (southern Siberia), and the Kola Peninsula to investigate the strength of the field during this enigmatic period. Palaeointensity experiments were performed using the thermal Thellier, microwave Thellier, and Wilson methods on 165 specimens from 25 sites. Six out of eight successful sites from the Minusa Basin and all four successful sites from the Kola Peninsula produced extremely low palaeointensities (< 10 μT). These findings challenge the uniformitarian view of the palaeomagnetic field: field intensities of nearly an order of magnitude lower than Neogene values (except during relatively rare geomagnetic excursions and reversals) together with the widespread appearance of strange directions found in the Devonian suggest that the Earth's field during this time may have had a dominantly multipolar geometry. A persistent, low intensity multipolar magnetic field and associated diminished magnetosphere would increase the impact of solar particles on the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere with potential major implications for Earth's climate and biosphere.

  20. Uranium-lead dating of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia) using LA-ICP-MS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguir, E.; Camacho, A.; Yang, P.; Chakhmouradian, A. R.; Halden, N. M.

    2009-04-01

    ) The application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to in situ U-Pb zircon geochronology. Chem. Geol.,211, 47-69. Kramm, U., Kogarko, L.N., Kononova, V.A. and Vartiainen, H. (1993) The Kola alkaline province of the CIS and Finland. Lithos, 30, 33-44. Tera, F. and Wasserburg, G.J. (1972) U-Th-Pb systematics in three Apollo 14 basalts and the problem of initial Pb in lunar rocks. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 14, 281-304.

  1. The features of element concentration in natural waters of the Kola North in conditions of environmental contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazova, Mariya; Moiseenko, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    The intensive use of fossil fuels and industrial development in last century led to the formation of acid rain and water acidification. The problem of water acidification greatly was denoted in the middle of last century in North America and in Europe as a result of air emissions of acid gases, primarily sulfur dioxide. The process of water acidification due to the interaction of two factors: 1) the high deposition of acidifying substances, taking into account the duration of exposure; 2) the sensitivity of the natural catchment area of geological, landscape, geographic and climatic characteristics (Moiseenko, 2005). The effects of acid rains on metal migration and cycling were discussed in a number of previous studies (Jeffries, 1997; Moiseenko, 1999; Manio, 2001; Moiseenko, Gashkina, 2007). The distribution of elements in water lakes has been mixed and due to the change of geochemical cycles of elements occurring in the catchment area and in water. On the Kola Peninsula as a result of long-term operation of the copper-nickel smelter was the anthropogenic acidification and water pollution metals. Increased contents of elements due to the combined effect of three factors: 1) landscape-geochemical characteristics of watersheds; 2) dispersion with flue emissions; 3) leaching elements and bonding of metals with organic matter, especially in forested watersheds and wetlands. This region is subject to long-term effects of mining and smelting industries, and therefore difficult to find of water bodies, which can serve as a background lakes. It is proved that manmade acid rain lead to leach into the water of a large group of elements entering the water as a result of man-made streams, as well as the elements that consist of the rocks forming the watersheds. In order to identify the relationships between the components of the elemental composition of the water in the lake was made a factor analysis using a computer program «STATISTICA 10". Factor analysis revealed the

  2. Kyanoxalite, a new cancrinite-group mineral species with extraframework oxalate anion from the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Pekov, I. V.; Olysych, L. V.; Massa, W.; Yakubovich, O. V.; Zadov, A. E.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Vigasina, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    Kyanoxalite, a new member of the cancrinite group, has been identified in hydrothermally altered hyperalkaline rocks and pegmatites of the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It was found at Mount Karnasurt (holotype) in association with nepheline, aegirine, sodalite, nosean, albite, lomonosovite, murmanite, fluorapatite, loparite, and natrolite and at Mt. Alluaiv. Kyanoxalite is transparent, ranging in color from bright light blue, greenish light blue and grayish light blue to colorless. The new mineral is brittle, with a perfect cleavage parallel to (100). Mohs hardness is 5-5.5. The measured and calculated densitiesare 2.30(1) and 2.327 g/cm3, respectively. Kyanoxalite is uniaxial, negative, ω = 1.794(1), ɛ = 1.491(1). It is pleochroic from colorless along E to light blue along O. The IR spectrum indicates the presence of oxalate anions C2O{4/2-} and water molecules in the absence of CO{3/2-} Oxalate ions are confirmed by anion chromatography. The chemical composition (electron microprobe; water was determined by a modified Penfield method and carbon was determined by selective sorption from annealing products) is as follows, wt %: 19.70 Na2O, 1.92 K2O, 0.17 CaO, 27.41 Al2O3, 38.68 SiO2, 0.64 P2O5, 1.05 SO3, 3.23 C2O3, 8.42 H2O; the total is 101.18. The empirical formula (Z = 1) is (Na6.45K0.41Ca0.03)Σ6.89(Si6.53Al5.46O24)[(C2O4)0.455(SO4)0.13(PO4)0.09(OH)0.01]Σ0.68 · 4.74H2O. The idealized formula is Na7(Al5-6Si6-7O24)(C2O4)0.5-1 · 5H2O. Kyanoxalite is hexagonal, the space group is P63, a = 12.744(8), c = 5.213(6) -ray powder diffraction pattern are as follows, [ d, [A] ( I, %)( hkl)]: 6.39(44) (110), 4.73 (92) (101), 3.679 (72) (300), 3.264 (100) (211, 121), 2.760 (29) (400), 2.618 (36) (002), 2.216, (29) (302, 330). According to the X-ray single crystal study ( R = 0.033), two independent C2O4 groups statistically occupy the sites on the axis 63. The new mineral is the first natural silicate with an additional organic anion and is the most

  3. Tree Seed Technology Training Course

    Treesearch

    F.T. Bonner; James A. Vozzo; W.W. Elam; S.B. Land

    1994-01-01

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but it can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses. The manual covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling, seed-quality...

  4. Use of Digital Elevation Models to understand map landforms and history of the magmatism Khibiny Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2016-04-01

    most intense free gas emission. The technical possibilities that are offered by Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) facilitate the geomorphological investigation of inhospitable and inaccessible mountain areas Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are valuable tools for approximation of the real world's continuous surface. They allow a visual analysis of the earth's surface morphology, quanti?cation of sediment volumes and the calculation of topographic derivatives such as the slope gradient, slope aspect and pro?le curvature that consume ?eld investigations and optimize time The project has been sponsored by programmm Presidium of RAS P44. Reference Ivanyuk G, Kalashnikov A, Mikhailova J, Konoplyova N, Goryainov P, Yakovenchuk V, Pakhomovsky Y. Self-Organization of the Khibiny Alkaline Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia). In Earth Sciences, Dr. Imran Ahmad Dar(Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-861-8, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/earth-sciences/self-organization-of-the-khibiny-alkaline -massif -kolapeninsula-russia INTECH Open Access Publisher; 2012, Head7, P.131-156.

  5. Plume-derived rare gases in 380 Ma carbonatites from the Kola region (Russia) and the argon isotopic composition in the deep mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, Bernard; Tolstikhin, Igor; Kamensky, Igor L.; Nivin, Valentin; Balaganskaya, Elena; Zimmermann, Jean-Louis

    1998-12-01

    In an effort to document the source of the parental melts to carbonatites, we have measured rare gases in 380 Ma carbonatites and associated mineral assemblages from the Kola Peninsula, eastern part of the Baltic shield in Russia. These series were emplaced during widespread Devonian magmatism when several large ultrabasic-alkaline-carbonatite massifs were formed. 4He/ 3He ratios vary from 1×10 6 to 1×10 7 in the bulk He extracted by melting of samples from three localities, including the large Kovdor massif. A comparison of measured abundances of 3He and 4He with those expected from in-situ production revealed a large (up to 10 5 times) excess of 3He, implying a significant contribution from a mantle-derived 3He-bearing fluid. Crushing of these samples allowed extraction of fluids with 4He/ 3He ratios down to 38,000, lower than those of mid-ocean ridge basalts and in the range of 4He/ 3He observed in 3He-rich ocean island basalts (OIBs) related to mantle plumes. 20Ne/ 22Ne up to 12.1±0.2 are higher than the atmospheric value of 9.80, implying the occurrence of primordial (solar-type) neon in the carbonatite source. 20Ne/ 22Ne and 21Ne/ 22Ne ratios display a good correlation, with the regression line close to (slightly to the right of) the Loihi Seamount correlation. Extrapolation of the regression to solar 20Ne/ 22Ne of 13.8 gives a 21Ne/ 22Ne of 0.045 for the plume end-member, well below the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source (upper mantle) end-member of 0.07. The measured 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios up to 2790 correlate very well with the Ne isotopic ratios, and the best estimate of the 40Ar/ 36Ar ratio of the plume source is within 5000±1000. Although the 3He/ 22Ne ratio in the plume source appears to be comparable to the solar value within a factor of 2, the 22Ne/ 36Ar ratio, computed from Ne-Ar isotope correlation, is two orders of magnitude lower than the solar value. Such difference is unlikely to be due to magmatic fractionation since the observed 4He/ 40Ar

  6. The stages and duration of the Kieveiskoe and Fedorovskoe Pt-Pd deposits formation: U-Pb zircon data (Kola Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitkina, Elena

    2010-05-01

    The Kola Peninsula is one of the unique geological provinces both in Russia and in the world, where Pt-Pd Kieveiskoe and Fedorovskoe deposits have been discovered (Mitrofanov, 2005). Several deposits within the Northern and Southern belts contain first hundreds of tons of estimated platinum metal resources, allowing us to ascribe the intrusions of the belts to the class of large igneous province (Schissel et al., 2002; Mitrofanov, 2005). The Kieveiskoe and Fedorovskoe deposits belong to the Pt-bearing Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion which is situated in the central part of the Kola Peninsula and is one of 14 major Early Proterozoic layered massifs of the Northern belt occurring at the border between Early Proterozoic volcano-sedimentary rift sequences and Archaean basement gneisses (Zagorodny, Radchenko, 1983; Bayanova, 2004). The aim of this report is to summarize all U-Pb data for Kieveiskoe and Fedorovskoe deposits including single grain dating with Pb205 tracer. At present, the following ages have been defined for the different stages of the massif evolution: 2526 - 2516 Ma - pyroxenite and gabbro of the Fedorovskoe deposit magma chamber (Nitkina, 2006), 2515 - 2518 Ma - Pt-bearing gabbro of Federovskoe stratiforme deposit; 2505 - 2496- 2485 Ma (Bayanova, 2004; Nitkina, 2006) - gabbro-norite and gabbro of the main phase of the Kieveiskoe deposit magma chamber and disseminated platinum-metal mineralization and relatively rich Cu-Ni sulphide mineralization in the basal part of the Kieveiskoe and Fedorovskoe non-stratiforme deposits; ca. 2470 Ma (Bayanova, 2004) - pegmatoid gabbro-anothosite and, probably, fluid-associated rich platinum-metal ores of the Lower Layered Horizon (Kieveiskoe deposit); ca. 2447+/-12 Ma (U-Pb zircon and baddeleyte (Bayanova, 2004)) - anorthositic injections and, probably, local lens-like rich Pt-Pd accumulations of the Upper layered Horizon (Kieveiskoe deposit). The U-Pb zircon ages of the massif evolution stages corroborate the

  7. Permeability of the rocks from the Kola superdeep borehole at high temperature and pressure: implication to fluid dynamics in the continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharikov, A. V.; Vitovtova, V. M.; Shmonov, V. M.; Grafchikov, A. A.

    2003-07-01

    Permeability of the samples collected from the surface and from the depths of 8-11 km in the Kola SG-3 and from the depth of 3.8 in the KTB boreholes was studied at temperatures up to 600 °C and pressures up to 150 MPa. These PT correspond to in situ conditions of the deep parts of the superdeep boreholes and to the conditions of progressive and regressive metamorphism of the Kola series rocks. The experiments were carried out with fluid filtration parallel and normal to rock foliation and parallel to core axis. The temperature-permeability trend behavior depends on effective pressure and depth of sample collection. At low effective pressure, a temperature increase leads first to a permeability decrease and then to its increase. At higher effective pressure, inversions appear on all the temperature trends of the samples collected from great depths. In contrast, permeability of the samples selected at shallow depth (3.8 km) and on the surface decreases within the entire temperature range. As a rule, with flow parallel to foliation, the values of permeability are higher than with flow normal to foliation. The results of microstructure studies allow to conclude that microcrack initiation and closure, due to a competitive influence of temperature and pressure cause such permeability behavior. In the samples, there are two families of microcracks: with low aspect ratio and those with high aspect ratio. Their effect on rock permeability changes with temperature. On sample heating, the low aspect ratio microcracks close and, on the contrary, high aspect ratio ones open. The total effect is expressed by minima in the temperature-permeability trends. Permeability anisotropy increases with temperature, reaches a maximum at 200 °C and then decreases. Sample permeability decreases with different gradients at simultaneous increase of temperature and pressure, simulating in situ depth increase. Hence, the deep seat rocks can vary greatly in permeability and against the common

  8. Apoptotic effects of γ-mangostin from the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana on human malignant glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Fang; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Chen, Hui-Ju; Yang, Ling-Ling

    2010-12-07

    Gliomas are a common type of primary brain tumor with glioblastoma multiforme accounting for the majority of human brain tumors. In this paper, high grade human malignant glioblastomas (MGs) including U87 MG and GBM 8401 were used to evaluate the antitumor effects of γ-mangostin, a xanthone derivative isolated and purified from the hull of the tropical fruit Garcinia mangostana. The γ-mangostin showed potent antiproliferative activity toward MGs in dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, flow cytometric analysis of cell morphology in the apoptotic cells revealed an increase in hypodiploid cells in γ-mangostin treated U87 MG and GBM 8401 cells, while significant enhancement of intracellular peroxide production was detected in the same γ-mangostin treated cells by DCHDA assay and DiOC(6)(3) stain. g-Mangostin induced apoptosis, which in turn mediates cytotoxicity in human MG cells was prevented by the addition of catalase. Naturally derived medicines and herbal therapies are drawing increasing attention in regard to the treatment of many health issues, and this includes the testing of new phytochemicals or nutrients for brain tumor patients. This has led to γ-mangostin being identified as a potential leading compound for the development of an anti-brain tumor agent.

  9. Structure-activity relationship of Garcinia xanthones analogues: Potent Hsp90 inhibitors with cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoli; Wu, Yue; Hu, Mingyang; Li, Xiang; Gu, Congying; You, Qidong; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2016-10-01

    Hsp90 has long been recognized as an attractive and crucial molecular target for cancer therapy. Gambogic acid (GA), the main active compound of Gamboge hanburyi, has been reported as a natural inhibitor of Hsp90. Here, we present the structure-activity relationship of Garcinia xanthones analogues as Hsp90 inhibitors and identify that compound 25, with a simplified skeleton, had an improved inhibitory effect toward Hsp90. Compound 25 inhibited the ATPase activity of Hsp90 with an IC50 value of 3.68±0.18μM. It also exhibited potent antiproliferative activities in some solid tumor cells. In SK-BR-3 cells with high Hsp90 expression, compound 25 induced the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins including Akt and Erk1/2 without causing the heat shock response. Additionally, compound 25 inhibited angiogenesis in HUVEC cells through Hsp90 regulation of the HIF-1α pathway. These results demonstrate that compound 25 as an Hsp90 inhibitor with a new structure could be further studied for the development of tumor therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. DNA strand-scission by phloroglucinols and lignans from heartwood of Garcinia subelliptica Merr. and Justicia plants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Huang; Wei, Bai-Luh; Ko, Horng-Huey; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2008-01-01

    Five 2,4,6-prenylated phloroglucinols, garcinielliptones HA (1), HB (2), HC (3), HD (4) and HE (5), were isolated from the heartwood of Garcinia subelliptica Merr. Their structures, including relative configurations, were elucidated by means of spectroscopic data analysis. The ability of phloroglucinols, 1-5 and lignans, tuberculatin (8), justicidin A (9), procumbenoside A (10) and ciliatosides A (11) and B (12), isolated from Justicia ciliata and Justicia procumbens, to induce DNA-cleavage activity was examined using pBR322, a supercoiled, covalently closed circular DNA, and it was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. In the presence of Cu (II), compounds 3, 8, 10 and 11 caused significant breakage of supercoiled plasmid pBR322. The products were relaxed circles with no detectable linear forms. In the Cu(II)-mediated DNA damage of 3 and selective compound 8, Cu(I) was shown not to be an essential intermediate by using the Cu(I)-specific sequestering reagent neocuproine.

  11. Effect of orlistat alone or in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M; Al-Gareeb, Ali I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of orlistat alone and in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index (VAI) in obese patients. A total of 99 obese male patients were recruited with aged range between 37 and 46 years. They were randomized into three equal groups, first group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day, second group treated with G. cambogia 166 mg/day, and third group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day plus G. cambogia 166 mg/day. The duration of the treatments was three consecutive months. Body mass index (BMI), VAI, blood pressure, blood glucose, total lipid profile, atherogenic index, and cardiac risk ratio were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. The treatment with G. cambogia leads to reduction in VAI P < 0.05, whereas orlistat has a beneficial effect on cardiometabolic profiles without a reduction in VAI P > 0.05. Combined therapy of G. cambogia plus orlistat showed the more significant effect in reduction of VAI P < 0.05, cardiometabolic profiles and anthropometric measures P < 0.01 compared to pretreatment period. Combination of G. cambogia with orlistat lead to more significant effect than orlistat alone in amelioration of cardiometabolic profile and VAI in obese patients.

  12. Nujiangexathone A, a novel compound from Garcinia nujiangensis, suppresses cervical cancer growth by targeting hnRNPK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Feng, Jiling; Kong, Siyuan; Wu, Man; Xi, Zhichao; Zhang, Baojun; Fu, Wenwei; Lao, Yuanzhi; Tan, Hongsheng; Xu, Hongxi

    2016-10-01

    Cervical cancer is among the most frequently diagnosed cancers in females worldwide. Nujiangexathone A (NJXA), a novel compound from Garcinia nujiangensis, has been shown to have anti-cancer potential. In this study, the anti-tumor effects and the underlying mechanisms of NJXA action were investigated. Our results suggested that NJXA induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in HeLa and SiHa cells by down-regulating cyclins B1, E1, and A and cyclin-dependent kinases 2, 4 and 6, while selectively restoring p27. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we showed that NJXA reduced the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK) by accelerating ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent hnRNPK degradation, which then induced cell cycle arrest through the c-Myc-cyclin/Cdk-Rb-E2F1 pathway. The loss-of-function study showed NJXA induced cell cycle arrest was mediated by down regulation of hnRNPK protein. In vivo results further confirmed the tumor inhibitory effect of NJXA via the down-regulation of hnRNPK, and NJXA induced no apparent toxicity. Our study suggests that NJXA may be a novel anti-cancer drug candidate, especially for treating cancers with abnormally high hnRNPK expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oblongifolin C and guttiferone K extracted from Garcinia yunnanensis fruit synergistically induce apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Meng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Bao-Jun; Liu, Xin-Yu; Fu, Wen-Wei; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2017-02-01

    Oblongifolin C (OC) and guttiferone K (GUTK) are two anticancer compounds extracted from Garcinia yunnanensis Hu, but they act by different mechanisms. In this study we investigated whether a combination of OC and GUTK (1:1 molar ratio) could produce synergistic anticancer effects against human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. For comparison, we also examined the anticancer efficacy of ethanol extracts from G yunnanensis fruit, which contain OC and GUTK up to 5%. Compared to OC and GUTK alone, the combination of OC and GUTK as well as the ethanol extracts more potently inhibited the cancer cell growth with IC50 values of 3.4 μmol/L and 3.85 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, OC and GUTK displayed synergistic inhibition on HCT116 cells: co-treatment with OC and GUTK induced more prominent apoptosis than treatment with either drug alone. Moreover, the combination of OC and GUTK markedly increased cleavage of casapse-3 and PARP, and enhanced cellular ROS production and increased JNK protein phosphorylation. In addition, the combination of OC and GUTK exerted stronger effects under nutrient-deprived conditions than in complete medium, suggesting that autophagy played an essential role in regulating OC- and GUTK-mediated cell death. OC and GUTK are the main components that contribute to the anticancer activity of G yunnanensis and the compounds have apoptosis-inducing effects in HCT116 cells in vitro.

  14. Effect of orlistat alone or in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of orlistat alone and in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index (VAI) in obese patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 99 obese male patients were recruited with aged range between 37 and 46 years. They were randomized into three equal groups, first group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day, second group treated with G. cambogia 166 mg/day, and third group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day plus G. cambogia 166 mg/day. The duration of the treatments was three consecutive months. Body mass index (BMI), VAI, blood pressure, blood glucose, total lipid profile, atherogenic index, and cardiac risk ratio were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. Results: The treatment with G. cambogia leads to reduction in VAI P < 0.05, whereas orlistat has a beneficial effect on cardiometabolic profiles without a reduction in VAI P > 0.05. Combined therapy of G. cambogia plus orlistat showed the more significant effect in reduction of VAI P < 0.05, cardiometabolic profiles and anthropometric measures P < 0.01 compared to pretreatment period. Conclusion: Combination of G. cambogia with orlistat lead to more significant effect than orlistat alone in amelioration of cardiometabolic profile and VAI in obese patients. PMID:27757272

  15. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Garcinia indica fruit rind in ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ashar, Hardik; Srinath, Sudhamani

    2012-01-01

    The protective effects of aqueous extracts of the fruit rind of Garcinia indica (GIE) on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and the probable mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated in rats. Liver damage was induced in rats by administering ethanol (5 g/kg, 20% w/v p.o.) once daily for 21 days. GIE at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg and the reference drug silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days to ethanol treated rats, this treatment beginning 7 days prior to the commencement of ethanol administration. Levels of marker enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), triglyceride (sTG), albumin (Alb) and total protein (TP) were evaluated in serum. Antioxidant parameters (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)), hepatic triglycerides (hTG) and the lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in liver. GIE and silymarin elicited significant hepatoprotective activity by attenuating the ethanol–elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP, sTG, hTG and MDA and restored the ethanol-depleted levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, Alb and TP. GIE 800 mg/kg demonstrated greater hepatoprotection than GIE 400 mg/kg. The present findings indicate that hepatoprotective effects of GIE in ethanol-induced oxidative damage may be due to an augmentation of the endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in liver. PMID:23554565

  16. Identification of Lead Molecules in Garcinia mangostana L. Against Pancreatic Cholesterol Esterase Activity: An In Silico Approach.

    PubMed

    Varghese, George Kadakasseril; Abraham, Rini; Chandran, Nisha N; Habtemariam, Solomon

    2017-07-24

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Hence, inhibitors of cholesterol absorption have been investigated for decades as a strategy to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia. Cholesterol esterase (CEase) in pancreatic juice plays a vital role in the hydrolysis of dietary cholesterol esters to cholesterol and fatty acids. Since inhibition of CEase might lead to a reduction of cholesterol absorption, an attempt is made in this study to identify lead molecules of Garcinia mangostana by the in silico approach. The study employed software applications viz., AutoDock 4.2 and GOLD Suite of Programs 5.2. The study revealed the efficacy of three compounds viz., epicatechin, euxanthone, and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-xanthone, which exhibited least binding energy in AutoDock and moderate scoring in GOLD. The molecular properties as well as biological activity of these three compounds were predicted by molinspiration prediction tool. The results show the crucial role of polyphenolic compounds to limit the activity of CEase. The drug-likeness prediction revealed the prospects of the identified lead molecules as potential drug candidates.

  17. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiprotozoal evaluation of Garcinia mangostana pericarp and α-mangostin, its major xanthone derivative.

    PubMed

    Al-Massarani, Shaza M; El Gamal, Ali A; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Basudan, Omer A; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Farag, Mohamed; Assaf, Mahmoud H; El Tahir, Kamaleldin H; Maes, Louis

    2013-09-02

    Five xanthone derivatives and one flavanol were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of Garcinia mangostana. Dichloromethane, ethyl acetate extract and the major xanthone (α-mangostin) were evaluated in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. The major constituent α-mangostin was also checked for antimicrobial potential against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillius subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, M. cheleneoi, M. xenopi and M. intracellulare. Activity against P. falciparum (IC₅₀ 2.7 μg/mL) and T. brucei (IC₅₀ 0.5 μg/mL) were observed for the dichloromethane extract, however, with only moderate selectivity was seen based on a parallel cytotoxicity evaluation on MRC-5 cells (IC₅₀ 9.4 μg/mL). The ethyl acetate extract was inactive (IC₅₀ > 30 µg/mL). The major constituent α-mangostin showed rather high cytotoxicity (IC₅₀ 7.5 µM) and a broad but non-selective antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activity profile. This in vitro study endorses that the antiprotozoal and antimicrobial potential of prenylated xanthones is non-conclusive in view of the low level of selectivity.

  18. Optimized extraction and characterization of antimicrobial phenolic compounds from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) cultivation and processing waste.

    PubMed

    Palakawong, Choothaweep; Sophanodora, Pairat; Toivonen, Peter; Delaquis, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Applications for antimicrobials derived from the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) plant are presently restricted by high production costs. Extraction from cultivation or processing waste streams using a solvent-free approach could lessen to permit commercial applications in food processing and preservation. Phenolics were extracted from mangosteen bark, leaf and fruit pericarp in methanol and in water using response surface methodology to optimize recovery. Initial examination of antimicrobial effects revealed a lack of antimicrobial activity against fungi and weak activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. In contrast, extracts prepared from bark or fruit pericarp exhibited strong pH-dependent bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Activity was slightly weaker in aqueous extracts due to lower concentrations of tartaric acid esters and flavonols than in methanolic extracts. Measurement of propidium iodide uptake and ATP leakage indicated that the extracts induced damage to the membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. Extracts of mangosteen bark and fruit pericarp contain mixtures of phenolic compounds with activity against Gram-positive bacteria, notably Listeria monocytogenes. Extraction of phenolics from mangosteen waste could yield fractions for potential applications in the formulation of low-cost processing aids or sanitizers for the food industry. © 2013 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Cytotoxic effect of xanthones from pericarp of the tropical fruit mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) on human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing J; Sanderson, Barbara J S; Zhang, Wei

    2011-09-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) is a tropical tree from South East Asia and its fruit pericarp is a well-known traditional medicine. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of three xanthone compounds (α-mangostin, γ-mangostin, and 8-deoxygartanin) from mangosteen pericarp was investigated using the human melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell line. Significant dose-dependent reduction in % cell viability was induced. γ-Mangostin and 8-deoxygartanine at 5 μg/ml increased the cell cycle arrest in G(1) phase (90% and 92%) compared with untreated cells (78%). All compounds induced apoptosis, of the highest being α-mangostin at 7.5 μg/ml that induced 59.6% early apoptosis, compared to 1.7% in untreated cells. The apoptotic effect of α-mangostin was via caspase activation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane pathways as evidenced by 25-fold increased caspase-3 activity and 9-fold decreased mitochondrial membrane potential when compared to untreated cells. In conclusion, these xanthones, especially α-mangostin, are potential candidates as anti-melanoma agents. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural Characterization, Biological Effects, and Synthetic Studies on Xanthones from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), a Popular Botanical Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Young-Won; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae) is a popular botanical dietary supplement in the United States, where it is used principally as an antioxidant. It is referred to as the “queen of fruits” in Thailand, a country of origin. The major secondary metabolites of mangosteen, the xanthones, exhibit a variety of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, and potential cancer chemopreventive activities. Moreover, some of the xanthones from mangosteen have been found to influence specific enzyme activities, such as aromatase, HIV-1 protease, inhibitor κB kinase, quinone reductase, sphingomyelinase, topoisomerase and several protein kinases, and they also modulate histamine H1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor binding. Several synthetic procedures for active xanthones and their analogs have been conducted to obtain a better insight into structure-activity relationships for this compound class. This short review deals with progress made in the structural characterization of the chemical constituents of mangosteen, as well as the biological activity of pure constituents of this species and synthetic methods for the mangosteen xanthones. PMID:21562610

  1. Isogarcinol Extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. Ameliorates Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-like Skin Lesions in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanzao; Han, Kesheng; Li, Hu; Cen, Juren; Yang, Yanfang; Wu, Hezhen; Wei, Qun

    2017-02-01

    Isogarcinol (YDIS), a natural compound extracted from Garcinia mangostana L., has a significant immunosuppressive effect on systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. This paper reports that it reduced imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions in mice. It strongly attenuated the aberrant proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Moreover, the expression of genes involving the interleukin-23 (IL-23)/T-helper 17 (Th17) axis was significantly inhibited in the dorsal skin of the YDIS-treated mice, as was that of the other pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-2, and even interferon (IFN)-γ. Furthermore, YDIS prevented the abnormal distribution of T cell types and suppressed the differentiation of CD4(+) T cells into Th17 cells in the spleens of mice exposed to imiquimod. Interestingly, it elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the spleen and boosted IL-10 expression in the skin. In agreement with the above, YDIS increased serum IL-10 and reduced serum IL-17. It also caused less damage to the liver and, especially, kidneys of mice than cyclosporine A (CsA). In vitro, YDIS caused more death of HaCaT keratinocytes than CsA. It also strongly inhibited inflammatory factor expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated HaCaT cells. These findings suggest that YDIS is a promising immunosuppressive agent for treating psoriasis.

  2. Inhibition effects of mangosenone F from Garcinia mangostana on melanin formation in B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyung Won; Jeong, Seong Hun; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Jung, Sunin; Lee, Ji Won; Woo, Hyun Sim; Cho, Jung Keun; Park, Ki Hun

    2012-08-29

    Melanogenesis can be controlled by tyrosinase inhibition or by blocking the maturation processes of tyrosinase and its related proteins. Mangostenone F was isolated from the seedcases of Garcinia mangostana . Mangostenone F was shown to be inactive against tyrosinase (IC50 > 200 μM) but was a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor in vitro (IC50 = 21.0 μM). Mangostenone F was found to inhibit production of melanin in the mouse melanoma cell line B16F10. Importantly, unlike most glycosidase inhibitors, mangostenone F displayed very low cytotoxicity (EC50 > 200 μM). The Western blot for expression levels of proteins involved in melanogenesis showed that mangostenone F down-regulated tyrosinase and TRP-2 expression. Treating B16F10 cells with mangostenone F significantly increased the susceptibility of tyrosinase to endoglycosidase H digestion, indicating that tyrosinase was unable to mature fully and pass to the trans-golgi apparatus. Consistent with these data, in lysate assays, mangostenone F was shown to be a better inhibitor of α-glucosidases than deoxynojirimycin, a representative glycosidase inhibitor.

  3. Molecular Weight, Protein Binding Affinity and Methane Mitigation of Condensed Tannins from Mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L)

    PubMed Central

    Paengkoum, P.; Phonmun, T.; Liang, J. B.; Huang, X. D.; Tan, H. Y.; Jahromi, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations. PMID:26323400

  4. Phenolics from Garcinia mangostana Inhibit Advanced Glycation Endproducts Formation: Effect on Amadori Products, Cross-Linked Structures and Protein Thiols.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Hossam M; El-Bassossy, Hany; Mohamed, Gamal A; El-Halawany, Ali M; Alshali, Khalid Z; Banjar, Zainy M

    2016-02-22

    Accumulation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) in body tissues plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications. Here, the inhibitory effect of bioactive metabolites isolated from fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana on AGE formation was investigated through bio-guided approach using aminoguanidine (AG) as a positive control. Including G. mangostana total methanol extract (GMT) in the reaction mixture of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glucose or ribose inhibited the fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner. The bioassay guided fractionation of GMT revealed isolation of four bioactive constituents from the bioactive fraction; which were identified as: garcimangosone D (1), aromadendrin-8-C-glucopyranoside (2), epicatechin (3), and 2,3',4,5',6-pentahydroxybenzophenone (4). All the tested compounds significantly inhibited fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs formation in a dose dependent manner whereas compound 3 (epicatechin) was found to be the most potent. In search for the level of action, addition of GMT, and compounds 2-4 inhibited fructosamine (Amadori product) and protein aggregation formation in both glucose and ribose. To explore the mechanism of action, it was found that addition of GMT and only compound (3) to reaction mixture increased protein thiol in both glucose and ribose while compounds 1, 2 and 4 only increased thiol in case of ribose. In conclusion, phenolic compounds 1-4 inhibited AGEs formation at the levels of Amadori product and protein aggregation formation through saving protein thiol.

  5. Penialidins A-C with strong antibacterial activities from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus harboring leaves of Garcinia nobilis.

    PubMed

    Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Mouafo Talontsi, Ferdinand; Douala Meli, Clovis; Wandji, Jean; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Three new polyketides named penialidins A-C (1-3), along with one known compound, citromycetin (4), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp., harbored in the leaves of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Garcinia nobilis. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods (NMR and HRMS(n)). The antibacterial efficacies of the new compounds (1-3) were tested against the clinically-important risk group 2 (RG2) bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ecologically imposing strains of E. coli (RG1), Bacillus subtilis and Acinetobacter sp. BD4 were also included in the assay. Compound 3 exhibited pronounced activity against the clinically-relevant S. aureus as well as against B. subtilis comparable to that of the reference standard (streptomycin). Compound 2 was also highly-active against S. aureus. By comparing the structures of the three new compounds (1-3), it was revealed that altering the substitutions at C-10 and C-2 can significantly increase the antibacterial activity of 1.

  6. Assessment of Toxicity and Beneficiary Effects of Garcinia pedunculata on the Hematological, Biochemical, and Histological Homeostasis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Md. Yousuf; Rumpa, Nur-E-Noushin; Hossen, Md. Sakib; Saha, Moumoni; Bhoumik, Nikhil Chandra

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the toxicological profile of a methanolic extract of Garcinia pedunculata fruit in rats by conducting hematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations. Long Evans rats were divided into four groups, each with 6 animals, and were treated with three oral doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) once daily for 21 days. The extract did not cause significant changes in body and relative organ weight, percent water content, or hematological parameters at any administered doses. However, a significant dose-dependent positive effect in serum lipid profile and all atherogenic indices including the cardiac risk ratio, Castelli's risk index-2, and the atherogenic coefficient were observed. Significant increases in the levels of iron and decreases in serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities and the levels of serum glucose were noted when the extract was administered at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg). Histopathological examination of the target tissues further confirmed that the extract was safe and had no observed toxicological features. Our study indicates that G. pedunculata fruit is nontoxic, has the potential to be effective against atherosclerosis, and may be used as a hepatoprotectant. The fruit extract is also beneficial to those with iron deficiency and hyperglycemia. PMID:28243309

  7. Oblongifolin C and guttiferone K extracted from Garcinia yunnanensis fruit synergistically induce apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Meng, Xiao-xiao; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Bao-jun; Liu, Xin-yu; Fu, Wen-wei; Tan, Hong-sheng; Lao, Yuan-zhi; Xu, Hong-xi

    2017-01-01

    Oblongifolin C (OC) and guttiferone K (GUTK) are two anticancer compounds extracted from Garcinia yunnanensis Hu, but they act by different mechanisms. In this study we investigated whether a combination of OC and GUTK (1:1 molar ratio) could produce synergistic anticancer effects against human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. For comparison, we also examined the anticancer efficacy of ethanol extracts from G yunnanensis fruit, which contain OC and GUTK up to 5%. Compared to OC and GUTK alone, the combination of OC and GUTK as well as the ethanol extracts more potently inhibited the cancer cell growth with IC50 values of 3.4 μmol/L and 3.85 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, OC and GUTK displayed synergistic inhibition on HCT116 cells: co-treatment with OC and GUTK induced more prominent apoptosis than treatment with either drug alone. Moreover, the combination of OC and GUTK markedly increased cleavage of casapse-3 and PARP, and enhanced cellular ROS production and increased JNK protein phosphorylation. In addition, the combination of OC and GUTK exerted stronger effects under nutrient-deprived conditions than in complete medium, suggesting that autophagy played an essential role in regulating OC- and GUTK-mediated cell death. OC and GUTK are the main components that contribute to the anticancer activity of G yunnanensis and the compounds have apoptosis-inducing effects in HCT116 cells in vitro. PMID:27840412

  8. Effects of garcinol and guttiferone K isolated from Garcinia cambogia on oxidative/nitrative modifications in blood platelets and plasma.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Masullo, Milena; Olas, Beata; Piacente, Sonia; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    The effects of garcinol and guttiferone K, two polyisoprenylated benzophenones occurring a food plant called Garcinia cambogia, on oxidative/nitrative protein damage (determined by parameters such as levels of protein carbonyl groups and nitrotyrosine residues) in human blood platelets and plasma after treatment with peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) were studied in vitro. We also investigated the effects of garcinol and guttiferone K on lipid peroxidation in blood platelets and plasma induced by ONOO(-) (100 microM). Exposure of blood platelets or plasma to peroxynitrite (100 microM) resulted in an increased level of carbonyl groups and nitrotyrosine residues in proteins, and an increase of lipid peroxidation measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). In the presence of garcinol and guttiferone K (0.1-25 microg/ml), a distinct reduction in the formation of carbonyl groups in plasma and platelet proteins together with the decrease of TBARS caused by 100 microM peroxynitrite, was observed. However, garcinol and guttiferone K did not inhibit plasma and platelet protein nitration induced by peroxynitrite. Polyisoprenylated benzophenones present in human diet such as garcinol or guttiferone K in vitro have protective effects against lipid and protein oxidation and may have some promising effects in vivo because they are good antioxidants in the tested models in vitro. Garcinol and guttiferone K can be also useful as protecting factors against diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  9. Efficiency of seed production in southern pine seed orchards

    Treesearch

    David L. Bramlett

    1977-01-01

    Seed production in southern pine seed orchards can be evaluated by estimating the efficiency of four separate stages of cone, seed, and seedling development. Calculated values are: cone efficiency (CE), the ratio of mature cones to the initial flower crop; seed efficiency (SE), the ratio of filled seeds per cone to the seed potential; extraction efficiency (EE), the...

  10. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds (crop...

  11. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds (crop...

  12. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds (crop...

  13. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds (crop...

  14. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds (crop...

  15. Seed Treatment. Sale Publication 4076.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information about types of seeds that may require chemical protection against pests, seed treatment pesticide formulations, seed treatment methods, labeling treated seed, and safety and environmental precautions. (Author/BB)

  16. What Are Chia Seeds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by Native Americans in ... Sprinkle ground or whole chia seeds on cereal, rice, yogurt or vegetables. In Mexico, a dish called ...

  17. Dataset of Fourier transform-infrared coupled with chemometric analysis used to distinguish accessions of Garcinia mangostana L. in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Samsir, Sri A'jilah; Bunawan, Hamidun; Yen, Choong Chee; Noor, Normah Mohd

    2016-09-01

    In this dataset, we distinguish 15 accessions of Garcinia mangostana from Peninsular Malaysia using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis. We found that the position and intensity of characteristic peaks at 3600-3100 cm(-) (1) in IR spectra allowed discrimination of G. mangostana from different locations. Further principal component analysis (PCA) of all the accessions suggests the two main clusters were formed: samples from Johor, Melaka, and Negeri Sembilan (South) were clustered together in one group while samples from Perak, Kedah, Penang, Selangor, Kelantan, and Terengganu (North and East Coast) were in another clustered group.

  18. Seed Development and Germination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  19. Needs of Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  20. Pasture seed banks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In our surveys of northeastern pastures, we found the equivalent of more than 8 million seeds per acre in the surface soil (the top four inches) from the seed bank study. These seeds came from 58 species of plants. The annual forbs (all broadleaf plants with the exception of legumes and trees) domin...

  1. Preservation of recalcitrant seeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recalcitrant and intermediate seeds are not included in seed banks because of misperceptions that these efforts would be futile. Between 20 and 25% of the Earth’s angiosperm species are estimated to produce recalcitrant or intermediate seeds. These species are more prevalent in the tropics and sub...

  2. Going to Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a unit on seeds designed to introduce students to their scientific and nutritional uses. Unit activities are easily done, employ a variety of process skills, and can be used at various grade levels. Suggests field trips to gather seeds, seed sprouting, and making cookies out of various whole grains. (JM)

  3. Seed Proteomics"

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...

  4. Needs of Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  5. Britholite-group minerals as sensitive indicators of changing fluid composition during pegmatite formation: evidence from the Keivy alkaline province, Kola peninsula, NW Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zozulya, Dmitry R.; Lyalina, Lyudmila M.; Savchenko, Yevgeny E.

    2017-09-01

    The Keivy alkaline province, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, consists of vast alkali granite massifs and several dike-like nepheline syenite bodies. It contains numerous rare-metal occurrences, formed by a complex sequence of magmatic, late-magmatic and post-magmatic (including pegmatitic) processes. The Sakharjok nepheline syenite pegmatite contains a remarkably diverse number of britholite group minerals, pointing to different physico-chemical conditions in the fluid. REE and actinides distribution in the host rock indicates that the late-magmatic (and pegmatitic) fluids were alkaline, with significant amounts of F and CO2. From REE and F variations of the britholite group minerals possible fluid compositions at different stages are suggested. The earliest fluorbritholite-(Ce) formed locally from a late magmatic, high temperature F-rich fluid. Fluorbritholite-(Y) presumably crystallized from a F-bearing and CO2-rich fluid; marked F saturation resulted in precipitation of abundant fluorite due to a temperature drop. Variations in REE and F contents in the most abundant fluorcalciobritholite indicate a successive decrease of F in the fluid during its evolution. The relationship between intergrown fluorapatite and fluorcalciobritholite and the presence of zones with a REE-rich fluorapatite between them indicate a continuous to sudden crystallization in this mineral sequence. The crystallization of the latest "calciobritholite" is related to the input into the fluid of CO2 and/or H2O.

  6. Britholite-group minerals as sensitive indicators of changing fluid composition during pegmatite formation: evidence from the Keivy alkaline province, Kola peninsula, NW Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zozulya, Dmitry R.; Lyalina, Lyudmila M.; Savchenko, Yevgeny E.

    2017-01-01

    The Keivy alkaline province, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, consists of vast alkali granite massifs and several dike-like nepheline syenite bodies. It contains numerous rare-metal occurrences, formed by a complex sequence of magmatic, late-magmatic and post-magmatic (including pegmatitic) processes. The Sakharjok nepheline syenite pegmatite contains a remarkably diverse number of britholite group minerals, pointing to different physico-chemical conditions in the fluid. REE and actinides distribution in the host rock indicates that the late-magmatic (and pegmatitic) fluids were alkaline, with significant amounts of F and CO2. From REE and F variations of the britholite group minerals possible fluid compositions at different stages are suggested. The earliest fluorbritholite-(Ce) formed locally from a late magmatic, high temperature F-rich fluid. Fluorbritholite-(Y) presumably crystallized from a F-bearing and CO2-rich fluid; marked F saturation resulted in precipitation of abundant fluorite due to a temperature drop. Variations in REE and F contents in the most abundant fluorcalciobritholite indicate a successive decrease of F in the fluid during its evolution. The relationship between intergrown fluorapatite and fluorcalciobritholite and the presence of zones with a REE-rich fluorapatite between them indicate a continuous to sudden crystallization in this mineral sequence. The crystallization of the latest "calciobritholite" is related to the input into the fluid of CO2 and/or H2O.

  7. The seed nuclear proteome.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight.

  8. UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS-guided isolation of prenylated xanthones and benzoylphloroglucinols from the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia and their migration-inhibitory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Dan, Zheng; Ding, Zhi-Jie; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-10-01

    A UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS-guided isolation strategy was employed to screen and track potentially new compounds from Garcinia oblongifolia. As a result, two new prenylated xanthones, oblongixanthones D and E (1–2), six new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, oblongifolins V–Z (3–7) and oblongifolin AA (8), as well as a known compound oblongifolin L (9), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia guided by UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS analysis. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD spectra were used to determine the absolute configurations. The results of wound healing and transwell migration assay showed that oblongixanthones D (1), E (2), and oblongifolin L (9) have the ability to inhibit cancer cell migration in lower cytotoxic concentrations. Western blotting results showed that these compounds exhibited an anti-metastasis effect mainly through downregulating RAF protein levels. In addition, 2 and 9 could inhibit phospho-MEK and phospho-ERK at downstream. Moreover, 1, 2, and 9 could inhibit snail protein level, suggesting that they could regulate the EMT pathway.

  9. Antioxidant, free radical-scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of different solvent extracts and their phenolic constituents from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana).

    PubMed

    Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopi, Praneet; Sukma, Monrudee; Sittisombut, Chavalit; Kat, Atsushi; Adachi, Isao

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidative, skin protective activities, and cytotoxicity of three extracts (water, methanol, and hexane) from the fruit hull of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Guttiferae)) and their phenolic constituents such as alpha-mangostin, epicatechin, and tannin, were evaluated. The amounts of alpha-mangostin, total flavonoid, and total tannin were different among the three extracts, except those of total tannin in methanol and hexane extracts. For the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical-scavenging, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation experiment, the water extract showed higher activity than the methanol extract and hexane extract. alpha-Mangostin, epicatechin, and tannin also revealed these antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities. When added simultaneously with H(2)O(2) (200 microM) to keratinocyte cells, the water extract (50 microg/mL), epicatechin (200 microM), and tannin (200 microM) effectively protected cells from oxidative damage, but the methanol extract, hexane extract, and alpha-mangostin did not. The methanol extract and hexane extract exhibited moderate cytotoxicity, whereas alpha-mangostin showed strong cytotoxicity. The present study provides the evidence that Garcinia mangostana extracts, especially the G. mangostana water extract, act as antioxidants and cytoprotective agents against oxidative damage, which is at least partly due to its phenolic compounds in mangosteen.

  10. The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Onakpoya, Igho; Hung, Shao Kang; Perry, Rachel; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to examine the efficacy of Garcinia extract, hydroxycitric acid (HCA) as a weight reduction agent, using data from randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Electronic and nonelectronic searches were conducted to identify relevant articles, with no restrictions in language or time. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. Twenty-three eligible trials were identified and twelve were included. Nine trials provided data suitable for statistical pooling. The meta-analysis revealed a small, statistically significant difference in weight loss favouring HCA over placebo (MD: −0.88 kg; 95% CI: −1.75, −0.00). Gastrointestinal adverse events were twice as common in the HCA group compared with placebo in one included study. It is concluded that the RCTs suggest that Garcinia extracts/HCA can cause short-term weight loss. The magnitude of the effect is small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain. Future trials should be more rigorous and better reported. PMID:21197150

  11. Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests.

    PubMed

    Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

    2008-03-01

    The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 +/- 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 +/- 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (-12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as "tired eyes," "blurry eyes," "muscle pain/stiffness," "early satiety," "epigastralgia," "dizziness," "arthralgia" and "easily breaking into a sweat." The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for "dizziness." On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy.

  12. UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS-guided isolation of prenylated xanthones and benzoylphloroglucinols from the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia and their migration-inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Dan, Zheng; Ding, Zhi-Jie; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-01-01

    A UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS-guided isolation strategy was employed to screen and track potentially new compounds from Garcinia oblongifolia. As a result, two new prenylated xanthones, oblongixanthones D and E (1–2), six new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, oblongifolins V–Z (3–7) and oblongifolin AA (8), as well as a known compound oblongifolin L (9), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia guided by UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS analysis. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD spectra were used to determine the absolute configurations. The results of wound healing and transwell migration assay showed that oblongixanthones D (1), E (2), and oblongifolin L (9) have the ability to inhibit cancer cell migration in lower cytotoxic concentrations. Western blotting results showed that these compounds exhibited an anti-metastasis effect mainly through downregulating RAF protein levels. In addition, 2 and 9 could inhibit phospho-MEK and phospho-ERK at downstream. Moreover, 1, 2, and 9 could inhibit snail protein level, suggesting that they could regulate the EMT pathway. PMID:27767059

  13. Competitive protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors, prenylated caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi and their inhibitory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xue Fei; Uddin, Zia; Park, Chanin; Song, Yeong Hun; Son, Minky; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Ki Hun

    2017-04-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays important role in diabetes, obesity and cancer. The methanol extract of the gum resin of Garcinia hanburyi (G. hanburyi) showed potent PTP1B inhibition at 10µg/ml. The active compounds were identified as prenylated caged xanthones (1-9) which inhibited PTP1B in dose-dependent manner. Carboxybutenyl group within caged motif (A ring) was found to play a critical role in enzyme inhibition such as 1-6 (IC50s=0.47-4.69µM), whereas compounds having hydroxymethylbutenyl 7 (IC50=70.25µM) and methylbutenyl 8 (IC50>200µM) showed less activity. The most potent inhibitor, gambogic acid 1 (IC50=0.47µM) showed 30-fold more potency than ursolic acid (IC50=15.5µM), a positive control. In kinetic study, all isolated xanthones behaved as competitive inhibitors which were fully demonstrated with Km, Vmax and Kik/Kiv ratio. It was also proved that inhibitor 1 operated under the enzyme isomerization model having k5=0.0751µM(-)(1)S(-)(1), k6=0.0249µM(-)(1)S(-)(1) and Ki(app)=0.499µM. To develop a pharmacophore model, we explored the binding sites of compound 1 and 7 in PTP1B. These modeling results were in agreement with our findings, which revealed that the inhibitory activities are tightly related to caged motif and prenyl group in A ring.

  14. Redox-active biflavonoids from Garcinia brasiliensis as inhibitors of neutrophil oxidative burst and human erythrocyte membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Saroni Arwa, Phanuel; Zeraik, Maria Luiza; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Siqueira Silva, Dulce Helena

    2015-11-04

    Garcinia brasiliensis, a plant native to the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation of the urinary tract, peptic ulcers, arthritis and other conditions. The purposes of this study were to analyze the chemical constituents of G. brasiliensis branches and leaves and to evaluate the potential of isolated compounds to act as inhibitors of both the oxidative burst of stimulated neutrophils and oxidative damage in human erythrocyte membranes to verify the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of this plant. Neutrophils were isolated from the blood of healthy donors by Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation. Superoxide anion and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by stimulated neutrophils were measured by WST-1 reduction and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assays, respectively. Radical-induced lipoperoxidation and hemolysis were performed using erythrocytes from the blood of healthy donors. Compounds were isolated from G. brasiliensis branches and leaves by HPLC microfractionation, and structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was performed based on NMR and HR-MS analyses. The biflavonoids procyanidin, fukugetin, amentoflavone and podocarpusflavone isolated from G. brasiliensis showed potent inhibitory effects on the oxidative burst of human neutrophils, inhibiting ROS production by 50% at 1 μmol L(-1). These biflavonoids also proved to be potent inhibitors of hemolysis (with 88 ± 7% inhibition at 50 µmol L(-1) for procyanidin) and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes, with a malondialdehyde level (a biomarker of oxidative stress) of 8.5 ± 0.3 nmol/mg Hb at 50 µmol L(-1) for procyanidin. These findings indicate that the biflavonoids extracted from G. brasiliensis branches and leaves modulate oxidative stress via inhibition of NADPH oxidase and ROS production by stimulated human neutrophils. Furthermore, the biflavonoids exhibited potent inhibition of oxidant hemolysis and lipid peroxidation

  15. IN VIVO CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF GARCINIA HOMBRONIANA (SEASHORE MANGOSTEEN)

    PubMed Central

    Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Amir Atlas; Khan, Imran; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Zakaria, Zainal Amiruddin; Khairuddean, Melati; Osman, Hasnah; Kim, Kyong Su

    2017-01-01

    Background: Garcinia hombroniana, known as “manggis hutan” (jungle mangosteen) in Malaysia, is distributed in tropical Asia, Borneo, Thailand, Andaman, Nicobar Islands, Vietnam and India. In Malaysia, its ripened crimson sour fruit rind is used as a seasoning agent in curries and culinary dishes. Its roots and leaves decoction is used against skin infections and after child birth. This study aimed to evaluate in vivo hepatoprotective and in vitro cytotoxic activities of 20% methanolic ethyl acetate (MEA) G. hombroniana bark extract. Materials and Methods: In hepatoprotective activity, liver damage was induced by treating rats with 1.0 mL carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)/kg and MEA extract was administered at a dose of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg 24 h before intoxication with CCl4. Cytotoxicity study was performed on MCF-7 (human breast cancer), DBTRG (human glioblastoma), PC-3 (human prostate cancer) and U2OS (human osteosarcoma) cell lines. 1H, 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), and IR (infrared) spectral analyses were also conducted for MEA extract. Results: In hepatoprotective activity evaluation, MEA extract at a higher dose level of 500 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.05) potency. In cytotoxicity study, MEA extract was more toxic towards MCF-7 and DBTRG cell lines causing 78.7% and 64.3% cell death, respectively. MEA extract in 1H, 13C-NMR, and IR spectra exhibited bands, signals and J (coupling constant) values representing aromatic/phenolic constituents. Conclusions: From the results, it could be concluded that MEA extract has potency to inhibit hepatotoxicity and MCF-7 and DBTRG cancer cell lines which might be due to the phenolic compounds depicted from NMR and IR spectra. PMID:28573253

  16. Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extract of Garcinia cambogia on high fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Sripradha, Ramalingam; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu

    2016-03-01

    The study investigated the antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extract of Garcinia cambogia on high fat diet-fed rats. The phytochemical constituents, total polyphenol content and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were estimated in the G. cambogia extract (GE). Male Wistar rats were fed with either standard rodent diet or 30% high-fat diet and administered with GE at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 weeks. At the end, lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters were estimated. The analyses revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, sterols, tannins, flavonoids and saponins in GE. The total polyphenol content and FRAP of GE were 82.82±7.64 mg of gallic acid equivalents and 260.49±10.18 µM FRAP per gram of the GE. High-fat feeding elevated plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced HDL-C and blood antioxidants, glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase. Increase in total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and decrease in the total antioxidant status (TAS) were observed in plasma, liver and kidney of fat-fed rats. Administration of GE decreased food intake, plasma TC, TAG, non HDL-C, MDA, increased HDL-C and blood antioxidants GSH, GPx, catalase. GE also reduced TOS, OSI and elevated TAS in plasma and liver of fat-fed rats. Renal OSI was significantly reduced upon GE treatment. Our study demonstrated that GE is effective in ameliorating high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress.

  17. IN VIVO CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-INDUCED HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF GARCINIA HOMBRONIANA (SEASHORE MANGOSTEEN).

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Amir Atlas; Khan, Imran; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Zakaria, Zainal Amiruddin; Khairuddean, Melati; Osman, Hasnah; Kim, Kyong Su

    2017-01-01

    Garcinia hombroniana, known as "manggis hutan" (jungle mangosteen) in Malaysia, is distributed in tropical Asia, Borneo, Thailand, Andaman, Nicobar Islands, Vietnam and India. In Malaysia, its ripened crimson sour fruit rind is used as a seasoning agent in curries and culinary dishes. Its roots and leaves decoction is used against skin infections and after child birth. This study aimed to evaluate in vivo hepatoprotective and in vitro cytotoxic activities of 20% methanolic ethyl acetate (MEA) G. hombroniana bark extract. In hepatoprotective activity, liver damage was induced by treating rats with 1.0 mL carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)/kg and MEA extract was administered at a dose of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg 24 h before intoxication with CCl4. Cytotoxicity study was performed on MCF-7 (human breast cancer), DBTRG (human glioblastoma), PC-3 (human prostate cancer) and U2OS (human osteosarcoma) cell lines. (1)H, (13)C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), and IR (infrared) spectral analyses were also conducted for MEA extract. In hepatoprotective activity evaluation, MEA extract at a higher dose level of 500 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.05) potency. In cytotoxicity study, MEA extract was more toxic towards MCF-7 and DBTRG cell lines causing 78.7% and 64.3% cell death, respectively. MEA extract in (1)H, (13)C-NMR, and IR spectra exhibited bands, signals and J (coupling constant) values representing aromatic/phenolic constituents. From the results, it could be concluded that MEA extract has potency to inhibit hepatotoxicity and MCF-7 and DBTRG cancer cell lines which might be due to the phenolic compounds depicted from NMR and IR spectra.

  18. Cerebellar Molecular and Cellular Characterization in Rat Models of Alzheimer's Disease: Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Garcinia Biflavonoid Complex.

    PubMed

    Olajide, Olayemi Joseph; Ugbosanmi, Anita Temi; Enaibe, Bernard Ufuoma; Ogunrinola, Kehinde Yomi; Lewu, Susan Folashade; Asogwa, Nnaemeka Tobechukwu; Akapa, Tosan; Imam, Aminu; Ibrahim, Abdulmumin; Gbadamosi, Ismail Temitayo; Yawson, Emmanuel Olusola

    2017-05-01

    Recent evidences suggest that cerebellar degeneration may be associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, previous reports were mainly observational, lacking substantial characterization of cellular and molecular cerebellar features during AD progression. This study is aimed at characterizing the cerebellum in rat models of AD and assessing the corresponding neuroprotective mechanisms of Garcinia biflavonoid complex (GBc). Male Wistar rats were grouped and treated alone or in combination with PBS (ad libitum)/day, corn oil (CO; 2 mL/kgBw/day), GBc (200 mg/kgBw/day), sodium azide (NaN3) (15 mg/kgBw/day) and aluminium chloride (AlCl3) (100 mg/kgBw/day). Groups A and B received PBS and CO, respectively; C received GBc; D received NaN3; E received AlCl3; F received NaN3 then GBc subsequently; G received AlCl3 then GBc subsequently; H received NaN3 and GBc simultaneously while I received AlCl3 and GBc simultaneously. Following treatments, cerebellar cortices were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry and colorimetric assays. Our data revealed that cryptic granule neurons and pyknotic Purkinje cell bodies (characterized by short dendritic/axonal processes) correspond to indistinctly demarcated cerebellar layers in rats treated with AlCl3 and NaN3. These correlates, with observed hypertrophic astrogliosis, increased the neurofilament deposition, depleted the antioxidant system-shown by expressed superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and cerebellar glucose bioenergetics dysfunction-exhibited in assayed lactate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. We further showed that GBc reverses cerebellar degeneration through modulation of neurochemical signaling pathways and stressor molecules that underlie AD pathogenesis. Cellular, molecular and metabolic neurodegeneration within the cerebellum is associated with AlCl3 and NaN3-induced AD while GBc significantly inhibits corresponding neurotoxicity and is more efficacious

  19. High Performance Thin layer Chromatography: Densitometry Method for Determination of Rubraxanthone in the Stem Bark Extract of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Dachriyanus; Aulia, Hilyatul; Susanti, Meri

    2017-01-01

    Garcinia cowa is a medicinal plant widely grown in Southeast Asia and tropical countries. Various parts of this plant have been used in traditional folk medicine. The bark, latex, and root have been used as an antipyretic agent, while fruit and leaves have been used as an expectorant, for indigestion and improvement of blood circulation. This study aims to determine the concentration of rubraxanthone found in ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of G. cowa by the high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). HPTLC method was performed on precoated silica gel G 60 F254 plates using an HPTLC system with a developed mobile-phase system of chloroform: ethyl acetate: methanol: formic acid (86:6:3:5). A volume of 5 μL of standard and sample solutions was applied to the chromatographic plates. The plates were developed in saturated mode of twin trough chamber at room temperature. The method was validated based on linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and specificity. The spots were observed at ultraviolet 243 nm. The linearity of rubraxanthone was obtained between 52.5 and 157.5 ppm/spot. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 4.03 and 13.42 ppm/spot, respectively. The proposed method showed good linearity, precision, accuracy, and high sensitivity. Therefore, it may be applied for the quantification of rubraxanthone in ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of G. cowa. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method provides rapid qualitative and quantitative estimation of rubraxanthone as a marker com¬pound in G. cowa extract used for commercial productRubraxanthone found in ethyl acetate extracts of G. cowa was successfully quantified using HPTLC method. Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin-layer chromatography, HPTLC: High-performance thin-layer chromatography, LOD: Limit of detection, LOQ: Limit of quantification, ICH: International Conference on Harmonization.

  20. Neuroprotective effects of xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetylcholinesterase dysfunction and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2014-08-01

    Lead poisoning is a common environmental toxicity and low level of lead exposure is responsible for neurobehavioral or intelligence defects. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of a xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana against lead-induced acetycholinesterase (AChE) dysfunction and cognitive impairment in mice. ICR mice were exposed to lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1%) with or without xanthone co-administration (100 and 200mg/kgBW/day) for 38days. Xanthone possesses a high phenolic content, which is positive correlation with its antioxidant activity (R(2)=0.98). The IC50 of xanthone on scavenging free radical activities, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in cell-free system were 0.48±0.08, 1.88±0.09, 2.20±0.03 and 0.98±0.40mg/mL, respectively. We found that Pb induced AChE dysfunction and memory deficit in a dose dependent manner, indicated by in vitro and in vivo studies. However, xanthone significantly restored AChE activity in the blood and brains of mice and prevented Pb-induced neurobehavioral defect indicators with Forced Swimming and Morris water maze tests. Xanthone treatment improved all indicators compared to the Pb-treated group. In conclusion, xanthone alleviates Pb-induced neurotoxicity, in part, by suppression of oxidative damage and reversing AChE activity with a reduction in learning deficit and memory loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trace-element study and uranium-lead dating of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex, Kola Peninsula (Russia) using LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguir, Ekaterina P.; Camacho, Alfredo; Yang, Panseok; Chakhmouradian, Anton R.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Halden, Norman M.

    2010-11-01

    The U-Pb geochronology of perovskite is a powerful tool in constraining the emplacement age of silica-undersaturated rocks. The trace-element and U-Pb isotopic compositions of perovskite from clinopyroxenite and silicocarbonatite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Kola, Russia) were determined by laser-ablation inductively-coupled mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). In addition, the Sr isotopic composition of perovskite was measured by isotope-dilution mass-spectrometry to better constrain the relations between its host rocks. Perovskite from the two rock types shows a different degree of enrichment in Na, Mg, Mn, Pb, Fe, Al, V, rare-earth elements, Zr, Hf, Th, U and Ta. The perovskite 87Sr/86Sr values are within analytical uncertainty of one another and fall within the range of mantle values. The 206Pb/238U ages (corrected for common lead using 207Pb-method) of perovskite from silicocarbonatite statistically yield a single population with a weighted mean of 371 ± 8 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 0.071). This age is indistinguishable, within uncertainty, to the clinopyroxenite weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 374 ± 10 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 0.18). Our data are in good agreement with the previous geochronological study of the Afrikanda complex. The observed variations in trace-element composition of perovskite from silicocarbonatite and clinopyroxenite indicate that these rocks are not related by crystal fractionation. The Sr isotopic ratios and the fact that the two rocks are coeval suggest that they were either produced from a single parental melt by liquid immiscibility, or from two separate magmas derived at different degrees of partial melting from an isotopically equilibrated, but modally complex mantle source.

  2. Paleomagnetism of Devonian dykes in the northern Kola Peninsula and its bearing on the apparent polar wander path of Baltica in the Precambrian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskiy, Roman V.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Arzamastsev, Andrey A.

    2016-04-01

    Mafic dykes and large alkaline and carbonatite intrusions of Middle-Late Devonian age are widespread on the Kola Peninsula in NE Fennoscandia. These magmatic rocks are well characterized with petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data but no paleomagnetic results have been reported yet. We studied dolerite dykes from the northern part of the Peninsula and isolated three paleomagnetic components in these rocks. A low-temperature component is aligned along the present-day field, while a major constituent of natural remanent magnetization is an intermediate-temperature component (Decl. = 79.6°, Inc. = 78.5°, α95 = 5,9°, N = 17 sites) that is present in most Devonian dykes but is found in some baked metamorphic rocks and Proterozoic dykes too. Finally, a primary Devonian component could be reliably isolated from two dykes only. Rock-magnetic studies point to presumably primary low-Ti titanomagnetite and/or pure magnetite as the main remanence carriers but also reveal alteration of the primary minerals and the formation of new magnetic phases. The directions of a major component differ from the Middle Paleozoic reference data for Baltica but closely match those for the 190 ± 10 Ma interval recalculated from the apparent polar wander path of the craton. We assume that this Early Jurassic component is a low-temperature overprint of chemical origin. The main impact of the new results is not to mid-Paleozoic or Early Mesozoic times but to much older epochs. Analysis of paleomagnetic data shows that the directionally similar remanences are present in objects with the ages ranging from 500 Ma to 2 Ga over entire Fennoscandia. Hence we argue that an Early Jurassic remagnetization is of regional extent but cannot link it to a certain process and a certain tectonic event. If true, this hypothesis necessitates a major revision of the APWP for Baltica over a wide time interval.

  3. Differing responses of zircon, chevkinite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce) and fergusonite-(Y) to hydrothermal alteration: Evidence from the Keivy alkaline province, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Ray; Bagiński, Bogusław; Zozulya, Dmitry

    2017-09-01

    A quartzolite from the Rova occurrence, Keivy alkali granite province, Kola Peninsula, Russia, is used to examine the differing responses of certain rare-metal minerals during interaction with hydrothermal fluids. The minerals are two silicates [chevkinite-(Ce) and zircon], a phosphate [monazite-(Ce)] and an oxide [fergusonite-(Y)]. Textural evidence is taken to show that the dominant alteration mechanism was interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Zircon was the most pervasively altered, possibly by broadening of cleavage planes or fractures; the other minerals were altered mainly on their rims and along cracks. The importance of cracks in promoting fluid access is stressed. The compositional effects of the alteration of each phase are documented. The hydrothermal fluids carried few ligands capable of transporting significant amounts of rare-earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE) and actinides; alteration is inferred to have been promoted by mildly alkaline, Ca-bearing fluids. Expansion cracks emanating from fergusonite-(Y) are filled with unidentified material containing up to 35 wt% UO2 and 25 wt% REE2O3, indicating late-stage, short-distance mobility of these elements. Electron microprobe chemical dating of monazite yielded an age of 1665 ± 22 Ma, much younger than the formation age of the Keivy province (2.65-2.67 Ga) but comparable to that of the Svecofennian metamorphic event which affected the area (1.9-1.7 Ga) or during fluid-thermal activation of the region during rapakivi granite magmatism (1.66-1.56 Ga). Dates for altered monazite range from 2592 ± 244 Ma to 773 ± 88 Ma and reflect disturbance of the U-Th-Pb system during alteration.

  4. Geological structure and ore mineralization of the South Sopchinsky and Gabbro-10 massifs and the Moroshkovoe Lake target, Monchegorsk area, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pripachkin, Pavel V.; Rundkvist, Tatyana V.; Miroshnikova, Yana A.; Chernyavsky, Alexey V.; Borisenko, Elena S.

    2016-12-01

    The South Sopchinsky massif (SSM), Gabbro-10 (G-10) massif, and Moroshkovoe Lake (ML) target Monchegorsk area, Kola Peninsula, are located at the junction of the Monchepluton and Monchetundra layered intrusions. The intrusions were studied in detail as they are targets for platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization. The rocks in these targets comprise medium- to coarse-grained mesocratic to leucocratic gabbronorites, medium-grained mesocratic to melanocratic norites and pyroxenites, and various veins mainly comprising norite, plagioclase-amphibole-magnetite rocks, and quartz-magnetite rocks. The veins contain Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization associated with magnetite and chromite. In all targets, the contacts between gabbronorite and norite-pyroxenite are undulating, and the presence of magmatic (intrusive) breccias suggests that these rocks formed through mingling of two distinct magmatic pulses. In places, the gabbronorites clearly crosscut the modal layering of the norites and pyroxenites. Trace element data indicate that the gabbronorites have similar compositions to rocks of the upper part of the Monchetundra intrusion, whereas the norites and pyroxenites resemble rocks from the lower to intermediate stratigraphic levels of the Monchepluton, such as in the Nude-Poaz and Sopcha massifs. Sulfide mineralization in the studied targets principally consists of secondary bornite, millerite, and chalcopyrite. In contrast, the primary sulfide assemblage within the layered sequence of the adjacent Monchepluton is characterized by pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite. Therefore, the mineralization in the studied targets is interpreted to be of a contact style. We argue that the studied area represents the contact zone between gabbronorites of the Monchetundra intrusion and norites and pyroxenites of the Monchepluton. In addition, the rocks were overprinted by postmagmatic veining and remobilization of contact style sulfide and PGE mineralization.

  5. Differing responses of zircon, chevkinite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce) and fergusonite-(Y) to hydrothermal alteration: Evidence from the Keivy alkaline province, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Ray; Bagiński, Bogusław; Zozulya, Dmitry

    2017-03-01

    A quartzolite from the Rova occurrence, Keivy alkali granite province, Kola Peninsula, Russia, is used to examine the differing responses of certain rare-metal minerals during interaction with hydrothermal fluids. The minerals are two silicates [chevkinite-(Ce) and zircon], a phosphate [monazite-(Ce)] and an oxide [fergusonite-(Y)]. Textural evidence is taken to show that the dominant alteration mechanism was interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Zircon was the most pervasively altered, possibly by broadening of cleavage planes or fractures; the other minerals were altered mainly on their rims and along cracks. The importance of cracks in promoting fluid access is stressed. The compositional effects of the alteration of each phase are documented. The hydrothermal fluids carried few ligands capable of transporting significant amounts of rare-earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE) and actinides; alteration is inferred to have been promoted by mildly alkaline, Ca-bearing fluids. Expansion cracks emanating from fergusonite-(Y) are filled with unidentified material containing up to 35 wt% UO2 and 25 wt% REE2O3, indicating late-stage, short-distance mobility of these elements. Electron microprobe chemical dating of monazite yielded an age of 1665 ± 22 Ma, much younger than the formation age of the Keivy province (2.65-2.67 Ga) but comparable to that of the Svecofennian metamorphic event which affected the area (1.9-1.7 Ga) or during fluid-thermal activation of the region during rapakivi granite magmatism (1.66-1.56 Ga). Dates for altered monazite range from 2592 ± 244 Ma to 773 ± 88 Ma and reflect disturbance of the U-Th-Pb system during alteration.

  6. Artificial Ripening of Sweetgum Seeds

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1969-01-01

    Untrained collectors of hardwood seeds often start picking the seeds too early in the year. The immature seeds germinate poorly, if at all, and nursery production suffers. In the study reported here, sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) seeds collected in central Mississippi in mid-August were ripe. Seeds collected as early as July 19 were artificially ripened by...

  7. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. PMID:26184996

  8. Crystallization on prestructured seeds.

    PubMed

    Jungblut, Swetlana; Dellago, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization transition of an undercooled monodisperse Lennard-Jones fluid in the presence of small prestructured seeds is studied with transition path sampling combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the homogeneous crystallization, clusters of a few particles arranged into a face- and body-centered cubic structure enhance the crystallization, while icosahedrally ordered seeds do not change the reaction rate. We identify two distinct nucleation regimes-close to the seed and in the bulk. Crystallites form close to the face- and body-centered structures and tend to stay away from the icosahedrally ordered seeds.

  9. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  10. A quick SEED tutorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A number of different government-funded seismic data centers offer free open-access data (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), and Data Management System), which can be freely downloaded and shared among different members of the community (Lay, 2009). To efficiently share data, it is important that different data providers follow a common format. The Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data (SEED) provides one such format for storing seismic and other geophysical data. The SEED format is widely used in earthquake seismology; however, SEED and its structure can be difficult for many first-time users (ourselves included). Below is a quick tutorial that outlines the basic structure of SEED format. This write-up is in no way intended to replace the comprehensive SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), and instead of going into the details of any specific part of the SEED format we refer the reader to the manual for additional details. The goal of this write-up is to succinctly explain the basic structure of SEED format as well as the associated jargon, as most commonly used now, in a colloquial way so that novice users of SEED can become more familiar with the format and its application quickly. Our goal is to give the reader the necessary background so that when problems or questions about SEED format arise they will have some understanding of where they should look for more details or from where the problem might be stemming. As a secondary goal, we hope to help the reader become familiar with the SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), which contains detailed information about all aspects of the SEED format.

  11. Seed dormancy and germination.

    PubMed

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  13. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  14. [Quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-yue; Zhu, Zai-biao; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-lin

    2015-02-01

    In order to establish the quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds, thirty-one batches of P. suffruticosa seeds from different provenances were selected. The seed rooting rate, seed germination rate, seed purity, seed viability, 1,000-seed weight and moisture content were determined and analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. Seed rooting rate, seed germination rate and seed purity were selected as the main index for classification, while 1,000-seed weight, seed viability and moisture content could be used as important references. The seed quality grading of P. suffruticosa was set as three grades. The seed quality of each grade should meet following requirements: For the first grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 80%, seed germination rate ≥ 80%, seed purity ≥ 90%, seed viability ≥ 80%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 250 g, moisture content, ≤ 10. For the second grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 50%, seed germination rate ≥ 60%, seed purity ≥ 70%, seed viability ≥ 75%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 225 g, moisture content ≤ 10. For the third grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 20%, seed germination rate ≥ 45%, seed purity ≥ 60%, seed viability ≥ 45%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 205 g, moisture content ≤ 10. The quality classification criteria of P. suffruticosa seeds have been initially established.

  15. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN…

  16. Longleaf Pine Seed Dispersal

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1963-01-01

    Production and dispersal of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seeds were sampled in 1955, 1957, and 1958 on the Escambia Experimental Forest in southwest Alabama.Two transects of seed traps were established at right angles to each of four forest walls enclosing a rectangular 80-acre clearing. Walls were oriented in the cardinal...

  17. Chapter 26. Seed germination

    Treesearch

    Kent R. Jorgensen; G. Richard Wilson

    2004-01-01

    Seed germination represents the means for survival and spread of many plants (McDonough 1977). Germination consists of three overlapping processes: (1) absorption of water, mainly by imbibition, causing swelling of the seed; (2) concurrent enzymatic activity and increased respiration and assimilation rates; and (3) cell enlargement and divisions resulting in emergence...

  18. California tree seed zones

    Treesearch

    John M. Buck; Ronald S. Adams; Jerrold Cone; M. Thompson Conkle; William J. Libby; Cecil J. Eden; Michel J. Knight

    1970-01-01

    California forest tree seed zones were established originally by Fowells (1946), with revisions proposed by Roy (1963) and Schubert (1966). The Forest Tree Seed Committee of the Northern California Section, Society of American Foresters, has revised the original zones and updated the recording system described in the earlier reports. Fowells' (1946) Research Note...

  19. Southern Pine Seed Sources

    Treesearch

    Ronald C. Schmidtling

    2001-01-01

    The selection of an appropriate seed source is critical for successful southern pine plantations. Guidelines for selection of seed sources are presented for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.), slash (P. elliottii Engelm.), longleaf (P. palustris Mill.), Virginia (P. virginiana Mill.), shortleaf (P. echinata...

  20. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN…

  1. Effects of garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) on visceral fat accumulation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial☆

    PubMed Central

    Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Ishii, Yuri; Kaneko, Izuru; Shen, Manzhen; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Shigematsu, Norihiro; Tomi, Hironori; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yoshino, Gen; Shimasaki, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Background (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is an active ingredient extracted from the rind of the Indian fruit Garcinia cambogia. It inhibits adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase and has been used in the treatment of obesity. Objective The primary end point of this study was the effects of 12 weeks of G cambogia extract administration on visceral fat accumulation. The secondary end points were body indices (including height, body weight, body mass index [BMI], waist and hip circumference, and waist–hip ratio) and laboratory values (including total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and free fatty acid). Methods This study was performed according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Subjects aged 20 to 65 years with a visceral fat area >90 cm2 were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive treatment for 12 weeks with G cambogia (containing 1000 mg of HCA per day) or placebo. At the end of the treatment period, both groups were administered placebo for 4 weeks to assess any rebound effect. Each subject underwent a computed tomography scan at the umbilical level at −2, 0, 12, and 16 weeks. Results Forty-four subjects were randomized at baseline, and 39 completed the study (G cambogia group, n = 18; placebo group, n = 21). At 16 weeks, the G cambogia group had significantly reduced visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat areas compared with the placebo group (all indices P<0.001). No severe adverse effect was observed at any time in the test period. There were no significant differences in BMI or body weight at week 12, but there were slight numeric decreases in body weight and BMI in men. There were no signs of a rebound effect from week 12 to week 16. Conclusion G cambogia reduced abdominal fat accumulation in subjects, regardless of sex, who had the visceral fat accumulation type of obesity. No rebound effect was observed. It is therefore expected that G cambogia may be useful for the prevention and reduction of

  2. Hypoglycaemic activity of ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana Linn. in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Taher, Muhammad; Tg Zakaria, Tg Muhamad Faris Syafiq; Susanti, Deny; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2016-05-21

    Various parts of Garcinia mangostana Linn., including its pericarp, have been traditionally used to treat a variety of ailments. In an attempt to establish its medicinal value, the present study was carried out to determine the hypoglycaemic potential of G. mangostana pericarp ethanolic extract (GME) using the streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats. GME at 2,000 mg/kg was subjected to a single-dose acute toxicity test. Following this, the effect of GME (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) on blood glucose level of normoglycaemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats was determined using single-dose (acute) and multiple-dose (subacute) approaches. Subsequent to the multiple-dose study, serum biochemical analysis and liver histopathological examination were also performed. Throughout the experiments, the effect of GME was compared against the standard hypoglycaemic drug, glibenclamide. GME was safe for oral consumption up to the dose of 2,000 mg/kg. In both single- and multiple-dose studies, GME significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the blood glucose level in normoglycaemic rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats when compared against the normal control group or diabetic control group, respectively. Moreover, GME also significantly (p < 0.05) increased the rats' body weight in comparison to the diabetic control group in the multiple-dose study. GME also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the levels of certain biochemical parameters [i.e., triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), urea, and creatinine] while increased the others [i.e., high density lipoprotein (HDL) and total protein (TP)] when compared to the diabetic control group. Histopathological assessment of the collected liver revealed a mild increase in the population of β-cells in the diabetic rats. GME exerts the hypoglycaemic activity possibly by increasing

  3. Phenolics from Garcinia mangostana alleviate exaggerated vasoconstriction in metabolic syndrome through direct vasodilatation and nitric oxide generation.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Hossam M; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Mohamed, Gamal A; El-Halawany, Ali M; Alshali, Khalid Z; Banjar, Zainy M

    2016-09-13

    Exaggerated vasoconstriction plays a very important role in the hypertension, a major component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In the current work, the potential protective effect of methanol extract of fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana L. on the exaggerated vasoconstriction in MetS has been investigated. In addition, the bioactive fraction and compounds as well as the possible mechanism of action have been illustrated. The effect of methanol extract of G. mangostana (GMT) fruit hulls on the vascular reactivity of aorta isolated from animals with MetS was investigated through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures. GMT was partitioned with chloroform (I) and the remaining mother liquor was fractionated on a Diaion HP-20 with H2O, 50 and 100 % methanol to give fractions II, III, and IV, respectively. The effect of total extract (GMT), bioactive fraction and the bioactive compounds on the vasoconstriction were examined in aortae isolated from animals with MetS by incubation for 30 min before exposing aortae to cumulative concentrations of phenylephrine (PE). The direct relaxant effect was also examined by adding cumulative concentrations of the bioactive fraction and its bioactive compounds to PE precontracted vessels. In addition, aortic nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was investigated. Bioassay-guided fractionation of GMT revealed isolation of garcimangosone D (1), aromadendrin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 2,4,3'-trihydroxy benzophenone-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), maclurin-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (rhodanthenone) (4), epicatechin (5), and 2,3',4,5',6-pentahydroxy benzophenone (6). Only compounds 2, 4, and 5 significantly alleviated the exaggerated vasoconstriction of MetS aortae and in the same time showed significant vasodilation of PE pre-contracted aortae. To further illustrate the mechanism of action, the observed vasodilation was completely blocked by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl

  4. A new NMR approach for structure determination of thermally unstable biflavanones and application to phytochemicals from Garcinia buchananii.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Salger, Mathias; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Previous activity-guided phytochemical studies on Garcinia buchananii stem bark, which is traditionally used in Africa to treat various gastrointestinal and metabolic illnesses, revealed xanthones, polyisoprenylated benzophenones, flavanone-C-glycosides, biflavonoids, and/or biflavanones as bioactive key molecules. Unequivocal structure elucidation of biflavonoids and biflavanones by means of NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the hindered rotation of the monomers around the C-C axis (atropisomerism), resulting in a high spectral complexity. In order to facilitate an unrestricted rotation, NMR spectra are usually recorded at elevated temperatures, commonly over 80 °C, which effects in a single set of resonance signals. However, under these conditions, one of the target compounds of this investigation, (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone (1), undergoes degradation. Therefore, we demonstrated in the present study that the 1,1-ADEQUATE could be successfully used as a powerful alternative approach to confirm the C-C connectivities in 1, avoiding detrimental conditions. However, a moderate increase in temperature up to 50 °C was sufficient to deliver sharp signals in the proton NMR experiment of (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-isomanniflavanone (2) and (2″R,3″R)-preussianone (3). In addition, two new compounds could be isolated, namely (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-GB-2 7″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-manniflavanone-7″-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), and whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry methods. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy. The aforementioned compounds exhibited high anti-oxidative capacity in the H2O2 scavenging, hydrophilic Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (H-TEAC) and hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC) assays.

  5. The earliest seeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillespie, W.H.; Rothwell, G.W.; Scheckler, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Lagenostomalean-type seeds in bifurcating cupule systems have been discovered in the late Devonian Hampshire Formation of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA (Fig. 1). The associated megaflora, plants from coal balls, and vertebrate and invertebrate faunas demonstrate that the material is Famennian; the microflora indicates a more specific Fa2c age. Consequently, these seeds predate Archaeosperma arnoldii1 from the Fa2d of northeastern Pennsylvania, the oldest previously reported seed. By applying precision fracture, transfer, de??gagement, and thin-section techniques to selected cupules from the more than 100 specimens on hand, we have determined the three-dimensional morphology and histology of the seeds (Fig. 2a-h, k) and cupule systems. A comparison with known late Devonian to early Carboniferous seeds reveals that ours are more primitively organized than all except Genomosperma2,3. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Seed germination and vigor.

    PubMed

    Rajjou, Loïc; Duval, Manuel; Gallardo, Karine; Catusse, Julie; Bally, Julia; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Germination vigor is driven by the ability of the plant embryo, embedded within the seed, to resume its metabolic activity in a coordinated and sequential manner. Studies using "-omics" approaches support the finding that a main contributor of seed germination success is the quality of the messenger RNAs stored during embryo maturation on the mother plant. In addition, proteostasis and DNA integrity play a major role in the germination phenotype. Because of its pivotal role in cell metabolism and its close relationships with hormone signaling pathways regulating seed germination, the sulfur amino acid metabolism pathway represents a key biochemical determinant of the commitment of the seed to initiate its development toward germination. This review highlights that germination vigor depends on multiple biochemical and molecular variables. Their characterization is expected to deliver new markers of seed quality that can be used in breeding programs and/or in biotechnological approaches to improve crop yields.

  7. Physiology of Oil Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ketring, D. L.; Morgan, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    To further elucidate the regulation of dormancy release, we followed the natural afterripening of Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seeds from about the 5th to 40th week after harvest. Seeds were kept at low temperature (3 ± 2 C) until just prior to testing for germination, ethylene production, and internal ethylene concentration. Germination tended to fluctuate but did not increase significantly during the first 30 weeks; internal ethylene concentrations and ethylene production remained comparatively low during this time. When the seeds were placed at room temperature during the 30th to 40th weeks after harvest, there was a large increase in germination, 49% and 47% for apical and basal seeds, respectively. The data confirm our previous suggestion that production rates of 2.0 to 3.0 nanoliters per gram fresh weight per hour are necessary to provide internal ethylene concentrations at activation levels which cause a substantial increase of germination. Activation levels internally must be more than 0.4 microliter per liter and 0.9 microliter per liter for some apical and basal seeds, respectively, since dormant-imbibed seeds containing these concentrations did not germinate. Abscisic acid inhibited germination and ethylene production of afterripened seeds. Kinetin reversed the effects of ABA and this was correlated with its ability to stimulate ethylene production by the seeds. Ethylene also reversed the effects of abscisic acid. Carbon dioxide did not compete with ethylene action in this system. The data indicate that ethylene and an inhibitor, possibly abscisic acid, interact to control dormant peanut seed germination. The inability of CO2 to inhibit competitively the action of ethylene on dormancy release, as it does other ethylene effects, suggests that the primary site of action of ethylene in peanut seeds is different from the site for other plant responses to ethylene. PMID:16658179

  8. A single chiroptical spectroscopic method may not be able to establish the absolute configurations of diastereomers: dimethylesters of hibiscus and garcinia acids.

    PubMed

    Polavarapu, Prasad L; Donahue, Emily A; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K; Rizzo, Carmelo; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Thomas, Grace; Habel, Deenamma; Sebastian, Dellamol

    2011-06-09

    Electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of hibiscus acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed in combination with quantum chemical calculations of corresponding spectra. These results, along with those reported previously for garcinia acid dimethyl ester, reveal that none of these three (ECD, ORD, or VCD) spectroscopic methods, in isolation, can unequivocally establish the absolute configurations of diastereomers. This deficiency is eliminated when a combined spectral analysis of either ECD and VCD or ORD and VCD methods is used. It is also found that the ambiguities in the assignment of absolute configurations of diastereomers may also be overcome when unpolarized vibrational absorption is included in the spectral analysis.

  9. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-01-01

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection. PMID:26848777

  10. [Optimize technique of extracting alpha-mangostin from pericarp of Garcinia mangostana by supersonic wave using central composite design-response surface methodology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Tang, Qiang; Jin, Da-Ming; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2012-06-01

    To optimize the extraction technique for alpha-mangostin from pericarp of Garcinia Mangostana. The effects of ethanol concentration, ultrasonic extraction time, the liquid to solid ratio and their interaction on extraction rate were studied by central composite design. The predictive model and reliability were developed by SAS software and response surface analysis. The optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions were achieved. The optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration 67.8%, ultrasonic extraction time 85.9 min, the liquid to solid ratio 24.2 mL/g. Under the optimum conditions, the extraction yield of alpha-mangostin was 5.53%. This study provides an effective method for the industrial extraction of alpha-mangostin.

  11. A Single Chiroptical Spectroscopic Method May Not Be Able To Establish the Absolute Configurations of Diastereomers: Dimethylesters of Hibiscus and Garcinia Acids

    PubMed Central

    Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Donahue, Emily A.; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Thomas, Grace; Habel, Deenamma; Sebastian, Dellamol

    2013-01-01

    Electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of hibiscus acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed in combination with quantum chemical calculations of corresponding spectra. These results, along with those reported previously for garcinia acid dimethyl ester, reveal that none of these three (ECD, ORD, or VCD) spectroscopic methods, in isolation, can unequivocally establish the absolute configurations of diastereomers. This deficiency is eliminated when a combined spectral analysis of either ECD and VCD or ORD and VCD methods is used. It is also found that the ambiguities in the assignment of absolute configurations of diastereomers may also be overcome when unpolarized vibrational absorption is included in the spectral analysis. PMID:21568330

  12. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjie; Dong, Qi; Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-02-23

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection.

  13. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  14. Effects on the Human Body of a Dietary Supplement Containing L-Carnitine and Garcinia cambogia Extract: A Study using Double-blind Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yonei, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Yoko; Hibino, Sawako; Watanabe, Miwako; Yoshioka, Toshito

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 ± 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 ± 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (−12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as “tired eyes,” “blurry eyes,” “muscle pain/stiffness,” “early satiety,” “epigastralgia,” “dizziness,” “arthralgia” and “easily breaking into a sweat.” The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for “dizziness.” On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy. PMID:18385825

  15. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of gambogic acid and gambogenic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of Garcinia hanburyi extracts by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xiangdong; Liang, Chuang; Dong, Lei; Qu, Xiaotong; Zhao, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Gambogic acid and gambogenic acid are two major bioactive components of Garcinia hanburyi, and play a pivotal role in biologic activity. In this study, a specific and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of gambogic acid and gambogenic acid in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using an isocratic elution with methanol-10 m m ammonium acetate buffer-acetic acid (90:10:0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray positive ionization using multiple reaction monitoring modes. The transitions monitored were m/z 629.3 [M + H](+) → 573.2 for gambogic acid, m/z 631.2 [M + H](+) → 507.2 for gambogenic acid and m/z 444.2 [M + NH4 ](+) → 83.1 for IS. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 2.00-1000 ng/mL for gambogic acid and 0.500-250 ng/mL for gambogenic acid. The lower limits of quantification of gambogic acid and gambogenic acid in rat plasma were 2.00 and 0.500 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD) values were <11.7% and accuracy (RE) was -10.6-12.4% at three QC levels for both analytes. The assay was successfully applied to evaluate pharmacokinetics behavior in rats after oral administration of Garcinia hanburyi extracts.

  16. New highly in vitro antioxidative 3,8″-linked Biflav(an)ones and Flavanone-C-glycosides from Garcinia buchananii stem bark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Germann, Daniel; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-12-26

    Very recently, we described highly antioxidative polyphenols isolated from the stem bark extract of the Garcinia buchananii tree. In this study, we describe additional antioxidants from Garcinia buchananii bark extract using hydrogen peroxide scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. UPLC-HR-ESI-TOF-MS(e) analysis, 1- and 2D-NMR, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy led to the unequivocal identification of the antioxidative molecules as a series of five 3,8″-linked biflav(an)ones and two flavanone-C-glycosides. (2S,3R)-Taxifolin-6-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), (2R,3S,2″S,3″S)-manniflavanone (3), (2R,3S)-buchananiflavonol (4), and (2S,3R,2″R,3″R)-GB-1 (6) are new compounds, and (2S,3S)-taxifolin-6-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) was described so far only in one other plant. The structure of (2R,3S,2″R,3″R)-GB-1 (5) and (2R,3S,2″S)-GB2a (7) were confirmed. The H2O2 scavenging, TEAC, and the ORAC assays demonstrated that these natural products have an extraordinarily high antioxidative power, especially (2R,3S,2″S,3″S)-manniflavanone (3) with an EC50 value of 3.0 μM, 4.00 mmol TE/mmol, and 10.30 μmol TE/ μmol.

  17. E-microsatellite markers for Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) genome: validation and cross-transferability in Apiaceae family for plant omics research and development.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Das Talukdar, Anupam; Devi, Kamalakshi; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) is a plant that grows in tropical swampy regions of the world and has important medicinal and culinary use. It is often considered as part of Ayurvedic medicine, traditional African medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. The unavailability of genomics resources is significantly impeding its genetic improvement. To date, no attempt has been made to develop Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers (eSSRs) from the Centella genome. Hence, the present study aimed to develop eSSRs and their further experimental validation and cross-transferability of these markers in different genera of the Apiaceae family to which Centella belongs. An in-house pipeline was developed for the entire analyses by combining bioinformatics tools and perl scripts. A total of 4443 C. asiatica EST sequences from dbEST were processed, which generated 2617 nonredundant high quality EST sequences consisting 441 contigs and 2176 singletons. Out of 1776.5 kb of examined sequences, 417 (15.9%) ESTs containing 686 SSRs were detected with a density of one SSR per 2.59 kb. The gene ontology study revealed 282 functional domains involved in various processes, components, and functions, out of which 64 ESTs were found to have both SSRs and functional domains. Out of 603 designed EST-SSR primers, 18 pairs of primers were selected for validation based on the optimum parameter value. Reproducible amplification was obtained for six primer pairs in C. asiatica that were further tested for cross-transferability in nine other important genera/species of the Apiaceae family. Cross-transferability of the EST-SSR markers among the species were examined and Centella javanica showed highest transferability (83.3%). The study revealed six highly polymorphic EST-SSR primers with an average PIC value of 0.95. In conclusion, these EST-SSR markers hold a big promise for the genomics analysis of Centella asiatica, to facilitate comparative

  18. Changes in detection of birth defects and perinatal mortality after introduction of prenatal ultrasound screening in the Kola Peninsula (North-West Russia): combination of two birth registries.

    PubMed

    Postoev, Vitaly A; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2015-11-23

    Prenatal diagnostics ultrasound was established in Russia in 2000 as a routine method of screening for birth defects. The aims of the current study were twofold: to assess changes in birth defects prevalence at birth and perinatal mortality after ultrasound screening was implemented and to estimate prenatal detection rates for congenital malformations in the city of Monchegorsk (Murmansk County, North-West Russia). The Murmansk County Birth Registry and the Kola Birth Registry were the primary sources of information, and include 30 448 pregnancy outcomes in Monchegorsk for the period 1973-2011. Data from these registries were supplemented with information derived from hospital records about pregnancy terminations for 2000-2007. The total number of newborns with any kind of birth defects in Monchegorsk during 1973-2011 was 1099, of whom 816 were born in the 1973-2000 period. The prevalence of defects at birth increased from 34.2/1000 (95% CI = 31.9-36.5) to 42.8/1000 newborns (95% CI = 38.0-47.7) after prenatal ultrasound screening was formally implemented. We observed significant decreases (p < 0.05) in the birth prevalence of congenital malformations of the circulatory system, the musculoskeletal system (including deformations), and other (excluding multiple); those of the urinary system increased from 0.9/1000 to 17.1/1000 (p < 0.0001). The perinatal mortality among newborns with any kind of malformation decreased from 106.6 per 1000 newborns with birth defects (95% CI = 84.3-129.1) to 21.2 (95 % CI = 4.3-38.1). Mothers who had undergone at least one ultrasound examination during pregnancy (n = 9883) had a decreased risk of having a newborn die during the perinatal period [adjusted OR = 0.49 (95% CI = 0.27-0.89)]. The overall prenatal detection rate was 34.9% with the highest for malformations of the nervous system. Improved detection of severe malformations with subsequent pregnancy termination was likely the main contributor

  19. Concerning seed spots

    Treesearch

    J. A. Larsen; R. J. Smith

    1913-01-01

    In connection with the sowing of Yellow pine, White pine and Western larch on The Blackfeet National Forest during the sea sons of 1911 and 1912, seventeen and one-half acres were sowed directly in seed spots.

  20. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  1. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  2. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePlus

    ... grape seed Latin Name: Vitis vinifera Background Since ancient Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and ... 8):1173-1181. Fine AM. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes: history, structure, and phytopharmaceutical applications. Alternative Medicine Review. 2000; ...

  3. Seeds in Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Willard K.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the seed dispersal mechanisms of six different plants: big-leaf maple, pincushion tree, tree of heaven, squirting cucumber, digger pine, and bull thistle. Elaborate color and black-and-white drawings illustrate the text. (MA)

  4. Seeds in Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Willard K.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the seed dispersal mechanisms of six different plants: big-leaf maple, pincushion tree, tree of heaven, squirting cucumber, digger pine, and bull thistle. Elaborate color and black-and-white drawings illustrate the text. (MA)

  5. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  6. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Seed dispersal in fens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  8. New xanthones and cytotoxic constituents from Garcinia mangostana fruit hulls against human hepatocellular, breast, and colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gamal A; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; El-Halawany, Ali M; Abdallah, Hossam M; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M

    2017-02-23

    Cancer has proceeded to surpass one of the most chronic illnesses to be the major cause of mortality in both the developing and developed world. Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen, family Guttiferae) known as the queen of fruits, is one of the most popular tropical fruits. It is cultivated in Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, and Philippines. Traditionally, numerous parts of G. mangostana have been utilized to treat various ailments such as abdominal pain, haemorrhoids, food allergies, arthritis, leucorrhoea, gonorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, wound infection, suppuration, and chronic ulcer. Although anticancer activity has been reported for the plant, the goal of the study was designed to isolate and characterize the active metabolites from G. mangostana and measure their cytotoxic properties. In this research, the mechanism of antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects of the tested compounds was investigated. The CHCl3 fraction of the air-dried fruit hulls was repeatedly chromatographed on SiO2, RP18, Diaion HP-20, and polyamide columns to furnish fourteen compounds. The structures of these metabolites were proven by UV, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR measurements and HRESIMS. Additionally, the cytotoxic potential of all compounds was assessed against MCF-7, HCT-116, and HepG2 cell lines using SRB-U assay. Antiproliferative and cell cycle interference effects of potentially potent compounds were tested using DNA content flow cytometry. The mechanism of cell death induction was also studied using annexin-V/PI differential staining coupled with flow cytometry. The CHCl3 soluble fraction afforded two new xanthones: mangostanaxanthones V (1) and VI (2), along with twelve known compounds: mangostanaxanthone IV (3), β-mangostin (4), garcinone E (5), α-mangostin (6), nor-mangostin (7), garcimangosone D (8), aromadendrin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene (10), 2,4,3`-trihydroxybenzophenone-6-O-β-glucopyranoside (11

  9. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tree Seed Technology Training Course - Instructor's Manual

    Treesearch

    F.T. Bonner; John A. Vozzo; W.W. Elam; S.B. Land

    1994-01-01

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but it can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses. The manual covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling, seed-quality...

  11. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the phosphate mineral rimkorolgite (Mg,Mn2+)5(Ba, Sr)(PO4)4·8H2O from Kovdor massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Theiss, Federick L.; Aarão, Guilherme Marcos; Scholz, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    We have studied aspect of the molecular structure of the phosphate mineral rimkorolgite from Zheleznyi iron mine, Kovdor massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia, using SEM with EDX and vibrational spectroscopy. Qualitative chemical analysis shows a homogeneous phase, composed by P, Mg, Ba, Mn and Ca. Small amounts of Si were also observed. An intense Raman peak at 975 cm-1 is assigned to the PO43- ν1 symmetric stretching mode. The Raman band at 964 cm-1 is attributed to the HPO42- ν1 symmetric stretching vibration. Raman bands observed at 1016, 1035, 1052, 1073, 1105 and 1135 cm-1 are attributed to the ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations of the HPO42- and PO43- units. Complexity in the spectra of the phosphate bending region is observed. The broad Raman band at 3272 cm-1 is assigned to the water stretching vibration. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects on the molecular structure of rimkorolgite to be undertaken.

  12. Seeds in space experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  13. Seeds in space experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  14. Seed Transmission of Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E.; Galperin, Mariana; Ploch, Sebastian; Runge, Fabian; Thines, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing devastating foliar disease in species of the Cucurbitaceae family, was never reported in seeds or transmitted by seeds. We now show that P. cubensis occurs in fruits and seeds of downy mildew-infected plants but not in fruits or seeds of healthy plants. About 6.7% of the fruits collected during 2012–2014 have developed downy mildew when homogenized and inoculated onto detached leaves and 0.9% of the seeds collected developed downy mildew when grown to the seedling stage. This is the first report showing that P. cubensis has become seed-transmitted in cucurbits. Species-specific PCR assays showed that P. cubensis occurs in ovaries, fruit seed cavity and seed embryos of cucurbits. We propose that international trade of fruits or seeds of cucurbits might be associated with the recent global change in the population structure of P. cubensis. PMID:25329308

  15. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Division fabricated three seed separators utilizing pressure gradients to move and separate wheat seeds. These separators are called minnow buckets and use air, water, or a combination of both to generate the pressure gradient. Electrostatic fields were employed in the seed separator constructed by the Electrical Division. This separator operates by forcing a temporary electric dipole on the wheat seeds and using charged electrodes to attract and move the seeds. Seed delivery to the hydroponic growth tray is accomplished by the seed cassette. The cassette is compatible with all the seed separators, and it consists of a plastic tube threaded with millipore filter paper. During planting operations, the seeds are placed in an empty cassette. The loaded cassette is then placed in the growth tray and nutrient solution provided. The solution wets the filter paper and capillary action draws the nutrients up to feed the seeds. These seeding systems were tested and showed encouraging results. Seeds were effectively separated and the cassette can support the growth of wheat plants. Problems remaining to be investigated include improving the success of delivering the seeds to the cassette and providing adequate spacing between seeds for the electric separator.

  16. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Ar/Ar age data of muscovite from the Keivy Terrane (central Kola Peninsula, arctic European Russia) imply a prolonged fluid-assisted recrystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, K.; Ruffet, G.; Marker, M.

    2012-04-01

    Single grain muscovite 40Ar/39Ar age data from metasediments of the Keivy Terrane point to a prolonged recrystallisation, and imply that the younger age set in metamorphic terranes with a long history cannot always be simply interpreted as due to late and slow cooling. The Keivy terrane is an element of the Palaeoproterozoic Lapland-Kola collisional belt developed along the northern margin of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) Shield. It comprises a lower series of late Archaean meta-volcanic rocks, intruded by earliest Palaeoproterozoic alkali granites that are covered by strongly deformed quartz-rich kyanite-staurolite-garnet-micaschists of the Keivy unit that have yielded magmatic zircons as young as ~2.35 Ga, which were derived from the substratum's alkaline granite. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating dating with a defocussed laser beam of muscovite grains from seven metasediments of the Keivy unit yielded saddle-shaped age spectra in most experiments. In five out of seven cases the base of the saddle corresponded to a plateau age in the range of 1667 to 1593 Ma (60-90% of the gas release; 1 sigma errors: 1.0-1.2 Ma). We do not simply interpret these 40Ar/39Ar ages in the classical way as due to cooling, because the saddle shape of the spectra enables a more complete and detailed interpretation. Saddle-shaped age spectra may result from the presence of different argon reservoirs in partially recrystallised and chemically distinct micas that degas over a different energy interval: a primary, not recrystallised or inherited domain (low and high temperature steps) and a newly formed or recrystallised one (saddle minimum in the intermediate steps). The younger subdomains formed by growth or recrystallisation could characterise the last isotopic record during an extended (re)crystallisation history. It is striking that 1612 and 1615 Ma saddle minimum ages in two samples correspond to a plateau age of 1612 Ma in another sample. Also elevated high and/or low temperature apparent ages of

  18. The rare-metal ore potential of the Proterozoic alkaline ultramafic massifs from eastern part of the Baltic Shield in the Kola alkaline province.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokhtina, Natalia; Kogarko, Lia

    2014-05-01

    The Kola Alkaline Province consists of intrusions of two main stages of the intraplate alkaline magmatism. The early stage of igneous activity occurred in Proterozoic 1.9 billion years ago, the next in Paleozoic at 380 million years. The Proterozoic alkaline magmatism produced Gremyakha-Vyrmes and Elet'ozero large alkaline-ultrabasic massifs, Tiksheozero carbonatite massif and numerous small syenite complexes. Paleozoic magmatism on Baltic Shield exhibited more widely, than Proterozoic. The world largest Khibiny and Lovozero alkaline intrusions, numerous alkaline-ultrabasic massifs with carbonanites, alkaline dike swarms and diatremes were formed. It is well known that carbonatites of Paleozoic alkaline-ultrabasic massifs contain large-scale deposits of rare-metal ores (Afanasiev et al., 1998). The metasomatic rocks on foidolites and carbonatites of Gremyakha-Vyrmes are final products of differentiation of Proterozoic alkaline-ultrabasic magma enriched in incompatible elements, including Nb and Zr similar to Paleozoic carbonatites. The massif Gremyakha-Vyrmes is one of the largest titanomagnetite-ilmenite deposits in Russia associated with ultrabasites. Our investigation showed that albite-microcline and aegirine-albite metasomatites formed rich rare-metal ores consisting of 3.2 wt. % Nb2O5 and 0.7 ZrO2. Zircon and pyrochlore-group minerals represent the main minerals of rare-metal ores. The following evolutionary sequences of pyrochlore group minerals has been observed: betafite or U pyrochlore - Na-Ca pyrochlore - Ba-Sr pyrochlore - "silicified" pyrochlore - Fe-Nb, Al-Nb silicates. Such evolution from primary Nb oxides to secondary silicates under low temperature hydrothermal conditions is similar to the evolution of rare metal phases in Paleozoic alkaline massifs analogous to Lovozero syenites and in carbonatites. The rare metal minerals of Gremyakha-Vyrmes crystallized in high alkaline hydrothermal environment at increased activity of Nb, Ta, Zr, U, Th and at

  19. Yegorovite, Na4[Si4O8(OH)4]·7H2O, a new mineral from the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Zubkova, N. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Zadov, A. E.; Grishin, V. G.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2010-12-01

    A new mineral, yegorovite, has been identified in the late hydrothermal, low-temperature assemblage of the Palitra hyperalkaline pegmatite at Mt. Kedykverpakhk, Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The mineral is intimately associated with revdite and megacyclite, earlier natrosilite, microcline, and villiaumite. Yegorovite occurs as coarse, usually split prismatic (up to 0.05 × 0.15 × 1 mm) or lamellar (up to 0.05 × 0.7 × 0.8 mm) crystals. Polysynthetic twins and parallel intergrowths are typical. Mineral individuals are combined in bunches or chaotic groups (up to 2 mm); radial-lamellar clusters are less frequent. Yegorovite is colorless, transparent with vitreous luster. Cleavage is perfect parallel to (010) and (001). Fracture is splintery; crystals are readily split into acicular fragments. The Mohs hardness is ˜2. Density is 1.90(2) g/cm3 (meas) and 1.92 g/cm3 (calc). Yegorovite is biaxial (-), with α = 1.474(2), β = 1.479(2), and γ = 1.482(2), 2 V meas > 70°, 2 V calc = 75°. The optical orientation is X ∧ a ˜ 15°, Y = c, Z = b. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition determined using an electron microprobe (H2O determined from total deficiency) is (wt %): 23.28 Na2O, 45.45 SiO2, 31.27 H2Ocalc; the total is 100.00. The empirical formula is Na3.98Si4.01O8.02(OH)3.98 · 7.205H2O. The idealized formula is Na4[Si4O8(OH)4] · 7H2O. Yegorovite is monoclinic, space group P21/ c. The unit-cell dimensions are a = 9.874, b= 12.398, c = 14.897 Å, β = 104.68°, V = 1764.3 Å3, Z = 4. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder pattern ( d, Å ( I, %)([ hkl]) are 7.21(70)[002], 6.21(72)[012, 020], 4.696(44)[022], 4.003(49)[211], 3.734(46)[ bar 2 13], 3.116(100)[024, 040], 2.463(38)[ bar 4 02, bar 2 43]. The crystal structure was studied by single-crystal method, R hkl = 0.0745. Yegorovite is a representative of a new structural type. Its structure consists of single chains of Si tetrahedrons [Si4O8(OH)4]∞ and sixfold polyhedrons

  20. Seed harvesting is influenced by associational effects in mixed seed neighbourhoods, not just by seed density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan; Klinger, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Rodents frequently forage in a density-dependent manner, increasing harvesting in patches with greater seed densities. Although seldom considered, seed harvesting may also depend on the species identities of other individuals in the seed neighbourhood. When the seed harvest of a focal species increases in association with another seed species, the focal species suffers from Associational Susceptibility. In contrast, if seeds of the focal species are harvested less when in association with a second species, the focal species benefits from Associational Resistance.To evaluate density dependence and associational effects among seeds in mixtures, we conducted seed removal experiments using a completely additive design patterned after a two-species competition experiment using seeds of either Achnatherum hymenoides(Indian ricegrass), Leymus cinereus (basin wildrye) or Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass), all native perennial grasses, combined with seeds of Bromus tectorum(cheatgrass), a non-native annual grass. The experiment involved placing five fixed quantities of the native seeds mixed with five fixed quantities of B. tectorum seeds in a factorial design, resulting in 35 seed mixture combinations. The seed-eating rodent community at our study sites, in order of abundance, is composed of Peromyscus maniculatus (North American deer mouse), Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat) and Perognathus parvus (Great Basin pocket mouse).Native seed harvesting was density dependent, with a greater proportion of seeds being harvested as density increased. In the mixed density model, the presence of B. tectorumdid not affect harvest of any of the native species' seeds when analysed individually. However, when all three native species were analysed together, increasing quantities of B. tectorum resulted in reduced harvest of native seeds, demonstrating weak but significant Associational Resistance. In contrast, harvest of B. tectorum seeds increased

  1. Soybean seed proteome rebalancing

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Eliot M.

    2014-01-01

    The soybean seed’s protein content and composition are regulated by both genetics and physiology. Overt seed protein content is specified by the genotype’s genetic framework and is selectable as a breeding trait. Within the genotype-specified protein content phenotype soybeans have the capacity to rebalance protein composition to create differing proteomes. Soybeans possess a relatively standardized proteome, but mutation or targeted engineering can induce large-scale proteome rebalancing. Proteome rebalancing shows that the output traits of seed content and composition result from two major types of regulation: genotype and post-transcriptional control of the proteome composition. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that specifies the seed proteome can enable engineering new phenotypes for the production of a high-quality plant protein source for food, feed, and industrial proteins. PMID:25232359

  2. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  3. Cone and seed yields in white spruce seed production areas

    Treesearch

    John A. Pitcher

    1966-01-01

    The source of seed is an important consideration in the reforestation program on the National Forests in the North Central Region. Thirty-five seed production areas have been set up in the Region, along the lines proposed by the North Central Forest Experiment Station, to provide control of seed source. Red pine, white pine, shortleaf and loblolly pine, and white...

  4. Restoration seed reserves for assisted gene flow within seed orchards

    Treesearch

    C.S. Echt; B.S. Crane

    2017-01-01

    Changing climate and declining forest populations imperil the future of certain forest tree species. To complement forest management and genetic conservation plans, we propose a new paradigm for seedling seed orchards: foster genetic mixing among a variety of seed sources to increase genetic diversity and adaptive potential of seed supplies used for forest restoration...

  5. Seed-feeding insects impacting globemallow seed production

    Treesearch

    Robert Hammon; Melissa Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Weevils (Anthonomus sphaeralciae Fall [Coleoptera: Curculionidae]), which attack flowers and developing seeds, can significantly impact globemallow Sphaeralcea spp. A. St.-Hil. (Malvaceae) seed production without a grower even noticing there was insect damage. This weevil damaged almost one-quarter of the flowers in a seed production field in Delta County, Colorado,...

  6. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  7. Multiple seeds sensitivity using a single seed with threshold.

    PubMed

    Egidi, Lavinia; Manzini, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Spaced seeds are a fundamental tool for similarity search in biosequences. The best sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs are obtained using many seeds simultaneously: This is known as the multiple seed approach. Unfortunately, spaced seeds use a large amount of memory and the available RAM is a practical limit to the number of seeds one can use simultaneously. Inspired by some recent results on lossless seeds, we revisit the approach of using a single spaced seed and considering two regions homologous if the seed hits in at least t sufficiently close positions. We show that by choosing the locations of the don't care symbols in the seed using quadratic residues modulo a prime number, we derive single seeds that when used with a threshold t > 1 have competitive sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs, indeed close to the best multiple seeds known in the literature. In addition, the choice of the threshold t can be adjusted to modify sensitivity and selectivity a posteriori, thus enabling a more accurate search in the specific instance at issue. The seeds we propose also exhibit robustness and allow flexibility in usage.

  8. Physical View of Cloud Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribus, Myron

    1970-01-01

    Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

  9. Physical View of Cloud Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribus, Myron

    1970-01-01

    Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

  10. The importance of good seed

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2013-01-01

    The importance of seed to human culture and conservation of the natural world is briefly discussed. The effect of seed on seedling quality and cost is described through several examples and illustrations.

  11. Seeds: A Celebration of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Bob

    The Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) Project offered science classes at the 5-12 and college levels the opportunity to conduct experiments involving tomato seeds that had been space-exposed over long periods of time. SEEDS kits were complete packages obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for…

  12. Germination of red alder seed.

    Treesearch

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  13. Corridors cause differential seed predation.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.

    2005-06-01

    Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

  14. Sexual reproduction, seeds, and seedlings

    Treesearch

    Walter T. McDonough

    1985-01-01

    Natural genetic interchange and extensive colonization of aspen by seed strongly depends upon favorable climatic and microclimatic conditions and upon human intervention. At times, in regions with the right combination of environmental conditions, there is significant L, reproduction by seed; elsewhere such establishment is rare. Seed production generally is profuse;...

  15. Direct seeding of shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    Corinne S. Mann; David Gwaze

    2007-01-01

    Direct seeding is a potentially viable method for regenerating shortleaf pine, but it has not been used extensively. In Missouri, an estimated 10,000 acres have been direct-seeded with shortleaf pine; half of which are at Mark Twain National Forest. Direct seeding offers a flexible and efficient alternative to planting as a way to restore shortleaf pine in the Ozarks....

  16. Phomopsis seed decay of soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) causes poor seed quality and suppresses yield in most soybean-growing countries. The disease is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla along with other Phomopsis and Diaporthe spp. Infected seed range from symptomless to shriveled, elongated, ...

  17. Upgrading Yellow-Poplar Seeds

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner; G. L. Switzer

    1971-01-01

    Yellow-poplar seed lots can be upgraded considerably by dewinging in a debearder and then cleaning and separating the seeds into four specific-gravity fractions with a fractionating aspirator or a gravity separator. By this process, lots with an original soundness of 6 to 10 percent were upgraded to between 60 and 65 percent full seeds.

  18. The SEED Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  19. The Seeds of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Herman J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses "Seeds of Change," a Columbian quincentenary exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution. Describes the rapid transformation of the Americas after contact with the Europeans. Reports that the exhibit explores the destruction of the native population by disease, war, slavery, the ongoing decimation of the rain forest, and the…

  20. Direct seeding for forestation

    Treesearch

    Walter H. Davidson

    1980-01-01

    Direct seeding, an attractive alternative to planting, is not a simple method of forestation. Past experiences show far more failures than successes. Well documented procedures must be followed to insure any degree of success. In general, conifers have given the best results. Black walnut and black locust are notable exceptions. Current research suggests that other...

  1. Seed cotton unloading systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this article was to review the literature and describe the current technology used by U.S. cotton gins for seed cotton unloading. Unloading systems supply the gin with raw material. Their essential functions are 1) to remove non-cotton materials such as protective covers used duri...

  2. SEED Software Annotations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethke, Dee; And Others

    This document provides a composite index of the first five sets of software annotations produced by Project SEED. The software has been indexed by title, subject area, and grade level, and it covers sets of annotations distributed in September 1986, April 1987, September 1987, November 1987, and February 1988. The date column in the index…

  3. Seeding and planting birch

    Treesearch

    John C. Bjorkbom

    1969-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of hardwoods does not have a very good reputation. Many of the early attempts to establish these species by seeding or planting resulted in failure. Then too, natural regeneration is usually adequate on cut over areas, so that there is little need for artificial regeneration on such areas. Nevertheless there are situations where artificial...

  4. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  5. The Seeds of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Herman J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses "Seeds of Change," a Columbian quincentenary exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution. Describes the rapid transformation of the Americas after contact with the Europeans. Reports that the exhibit explores the destruction of the native population by disease, war, slavery, the ongoing decimation of the rain forest, and the…

  6. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  7. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  8. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  9. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  10. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  11. Seeding big sagebrush successfully on Intermountain rangelands

    Treesearch

    Susan E. Meyer; Thomas W. Warren

    2015-01-01

    Big sagebrush can be seeded successfully on climatically suitable sites in the Great Basin using the proper seeding guidelines. These guidelines include using sufficient quantities of high-quality seed of the correct subspecies and ecotype, seeding in late fall to mid-winter, making sure that the seed is not planted too deeply, and seeding into an environment...

  12. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  13. [Effects of seed priming on vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Xiu; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Wang, Yan-Ru

    2008-03-01

    To select an effective way to enhance vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds. Three population seeds were treated at the 20 degrees C and dark enviroment. Priming with 20% - 30% PEG and 200 - 400 mg x L(-1) GA3 could enhance seeds germination and vigor. Germination percentage of three population seeds treated with 0. 6% - 3.0% NaCl reduced, but they started to germinate in advance. Treated with 0.6% - 2.4% KNO3-KH2PO4, germination rate and vigor of seeds in Zijinshan and Pan' an both increased and the one in Bozhou decreased. Vigor of P. vulgaris seed treated with PEG and GA3 under proper concentration increases, while treated with KNO3-KH2PO, and NaCl low vigor seeds germination rate reduces.

  14. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos incubated in crude extracts of camellia seed and mangosteen pericarp.

    PubMed

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-10-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides.

  16. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    PubMed Central

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

  17. Identification of hepatoprotective xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, guided with tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative injury in HL-7702 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Liu, Qianyu; Ye, Yang; Wang, Yitao; Lin, Ligen

    2015-09-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an ethanol-soluble extract from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana, using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced oxidative damage in human normal hepatocytes (HL-7702), led to the identification of 10 known xanthones. Among them, γ-mangostin (γ-Man) exhibited the most potent activity to attenuate t-BHP induced hepatocyte injury. γ-Man significantly ameliorated t-BHP induced reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cell nuclei morphology change in HL-7702 cells. t-BHP decreased the intracellular levels of key enzymes including glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase, which was totally reversed by γ-Man. Moreover, γ-Man significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione, resulting in the alleviation of oxidative stress. The above results suggest γ-Man is a potential hepatoprotective agent against t-BHP induced oxidative injury, which may benefit the further application of G. mangostana as a health food.

  18. Combined microwave-assisted extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography for separation and purification of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Liu, Yuqin; Zhuang, Huiyong; Liu, Wei; Wang, Xiao; Huang, Luqi

    2011-10-15

    A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method is presented for the extraction of xanthones, α-mangostin and γ-mangostin from Garcinia mangostana. The MAE conditions including extraction temperature, liquid/solid ratio, extraction time and concentration of ethanol were optimized with an orthogonal test, and 5 g sample was extracted with the optimized conditions. The crude extraction of MAE was successfully isolated and purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (0.8:0.8:1:0.6, v/v) in one-step separation. The separation yielded 75 mg of α-mangostin at 98.5% purity, and 16 mg of γ-mangostin at 98.1% purity from 360 mg crude extract of G. mangostana in less than 7h. The purity of the two xanthones was determined by HPLC. Their structures were further identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Screening of mammalian DNA polymerase and topoisomerase inhibitors from Garcinia mangostana L. and analysis of human cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takefumi; Takenaka, Yukiko; Kozaki, Sachiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    We purified and identified eight xanthones from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and investigated whether these compounds inhibited the activities of mammalian DNA polymerases (Pols) and human DNA topoisomerases (Topos). β-Mangostin was the strongest inhibitor of both mammalian Pols and human Topos among the isolated xanthones, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 6.4-39.6 and 8.5-10 µM, respectively. Thermal transition analysis indicated that β-mangostin did not directly bind to double-stranded DNA, suggesting that this compound directly bound the enzyme protein rather than the DNA substrate. β-Mangostin showed the strongest suppression of human cervical cancer HeLa cell proliferation among the eight compounds tested, with a 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 27.2 µM. This compound halted cell cycle in S phase at 12-h treatment and induced apoptosis. These results suggest that decreased proliferation by β-mangostin may be a result of the inhibition of cellular Pols rather than Topos, and β-mangostin might be an anticancer chemotherapeutic agent.

  20. Inhibition of CHOP accentuates the apoptotic effect of α-mangostin from the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana) in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-10-10

    The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit has been a popular food in Southeast Asia for centuries and is increasing in popularity in Western countries. We identified α-Mangostin as a primary phytochemical modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer cells and propose that α-Mangostin is responsible for exerting a biological effect in prostate cancer cells. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with α-Mangostin and evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blot, fluorescent microscopy and siRNA transfection to evaluate ER stress. Next, we evaluated α-Mangostin for microsomal stability, pharmacokinetic parameters, and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. α-Mangostin significantly upregulated ER stress markers in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, α-Mangostin did not promote ER stress in prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) from prostate cancer patients. CHOP knockdown enhanced α-Mangostin-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. α-Mangostin significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Our study suggests that α-Mangostin is not the only active constituent from the mangosteen fruit requiring further work to understand the complex chemical composition of the mangosteen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.