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Sample records for gardar province south

  1. Crystallisation of mela-aillikites of the Narsaq region, Gardar alkaline province, south Greenland and relationships to other aillikitic carbonatitic associations in the province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, B. G. J.; Craven, J. A.; Kirstein, L. A.

    2006-11-01

    Aillikites (carbonated, melilite-free ultramafic lamprophyres grading to carbonatites) are minor components of the Gardar alkaline igneous province. They occur principally as minor intrusions and as clasts in diatremes, but more voluminous aillikitic intrusions crop out near the Ilímaussaq Complex, which they predate by a few million years. These larger intrusions were emplaced at 1160 ± 5 Ma. They are essentially carbonate-free and, consisting almost wholly of ferromagnesian silicate and oxide minerals, are mela-aillikites. Typically the mela-aillikites are fine-grained rocks composed largely of olivine, clinopyroxene, phlogopite and magnetite that crystallised in open systems, permitting loss of volatile-rich residues. The petrography is highly complex, involving at least 28 mineral species. Pyroxenitic veins were emplaced while the host-rocks were still at high temperatures and represent channels through which fluorinated silico-carbonatitic residual melts escaped, with exsolving CO 2 as propellant. Precipitation of Ca-rich minerals including monticellite, perovskite, vesuvianite, wollastonite and cuspidine was a result of dissociation of the calcium carbonate in the residual melts. Late-stage crystallisation was in a highly oxidising environment in which the 'common minerals' attain extreme compositions (almost pure forsterite, ferrian-diopside, highly magnesian ilmenite, Ba-Ti-rich phlogopite and Sr-rich kaersutite). Spatially associated diatremes may be vents through which CO 2-rich gases erupted. The whole-rock compositions are considered to be well removed from those of co-existing melts: compaction and expulsion of highly mobile residual melts is inferred to have left the mela-aillikites as aberrant cumulates. The mela-aillikites are a late-Gardar manifestation of the aillikitic magmatism that occurred intermittently in the province for over 120 Ma. Repetitive formation of metasomite vein systems in the deep lithospheric mantle is postulated. These

  2. The palaeomagnetism of (Mesoproterozoic) Eriksfjord Group red beds, South Greenland: multiphase remagnetization during the Gardar and Grenville episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, J. D. A.; Thomas, D. N.; Share, S.; Rui, Zhang Qi

    1999-03-01

    The Eriksfjord Group comprises ~3000 m of lavas and sediments rapidly deposited in a rift which developed within an Andean-type batholith in juxtaposition to the southern margin of the Laurentian Shield in South Greenland at ca. 1300 Ma. The lavas have been shown to preserve a detailed record of the geomagnetic field at the time of eruption, incorporating normal, reversed and transitional directions. This study has examined the magnetic properties of the intervening red sediments. They are found to possess a diagenetic remanence imparted by mediating fluids at later times. The impact of diagenesis is stratigraphically controlled: the base of the rift infill has magnetizations partially resident in magnetite which are either unstable to thermal cleaning or record a single polarity `B' magnetization (D/I = 284/67°, 31 samples, α95 = 5.5°, palaeopole at 244.1°E, 47.5°N, dp/dm = 7.5/9.1° ). This corresponds in polarity, and closely in direction, to remanence observed in mid-Gardar gabbro giant dykes and dyke swarms emplaced along the axis of the rift system at ca. 1160 Ma the causative diagenetic magnetite appears to have grown from hydrothermal systems motivated by this magmatism in a sealed reservoir setting within the lower part of the rift infill. The Ilímaussaq alkaline igneous complex was emplaced into the southern extension of the rift at ca. 1130 Ma and possesses a dual polarity magnetization (D/I = 327/81°, α95 = 6.4°, 10 sites). Eriksfjord lavas within the thermal aureole are overprinted to varying degrees by comparable magnetizations with steep inclinations. The mean pole position (283°E, 71°N, dp/dm = 12/12° ) lies near the apex of an apparent polar wander loop incorporating the Gardar Track (ca. 1300-1140 Ma) and the Keweenawan Track (ca. 1115-1050 Ma). Magnetizations in the Eriksfjord sedimentary succession have not been significantly reset by emplacement of the Ilímaussaq complex, but higher levels of the rift infill are dominated by an `A

  3. Origin of the South Atlantic igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulger, Gillian R.

    2018-04-01

    The South Atlantic Igneous Province comprises the Paraná Basalts, Rio Grande Rise, Tristan archipelago and surrounding guyot province, Walvis Ridge, Etendeka basalts and, in some models, the alkaline igneous lineament in the Lucapa corridor, Angola. Although these volcanics are often considered to have a single generic origin, complexities that suggest otherwise are observed. The Paraná Basalts erupted 5 Ma before sea-floor spreading started in the neighborhood, and far more voluminous volcanic margins were emplaced later. A continental microcontinent likely forms much of the Rio Grande Rise, and variable styles of volcanism built the Walvis Ridge and the Tristan da Cunha archipelago and guyot province. Such complexities, coupled with the northward-propagating mid-ocean ridge crossing a major transverse transtensional intracontinental structure, suggest that fragmentation of Pangaea was complex at this latitude and that the volcanism may have occurred in response to distributed extension. The alternative model, a deep mantle plume, is less able to account for many observations and no model variant can account for all the primary features that include eruption of the Paraná Basalts in a subsiding basin, continental breakup by rift propagation that originated far to the south, the absence of a time-progressive volcanic chain between the Paraná Basalts and the Rio Grande Rise, derivation of the lavas from different sources, and the lack of evidence for a plume conduit in seismic-tomography- and magnetotelluric images. The region shares many common features with the North Atlantic Igneous Province which also features persistent, widespread volcanism where a propagating mid-ocean ridge crossed a transverse structural discontinuity in the disintegrating supercontinent.

  4. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    the cooler highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Paleointensity of the 1.3 Ga Gardar Basalts, Southern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnes, L. K.; Kodama, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    Biggin et al. (2015) suggest that inner core nucleation (ICN) may have occurred 1.3 Ga based on Thomas's (1993) high paleointensity result for the Gardar Basalts in the Eriksfjord Formation of southern Greenland (VDMs up to 150 ZAm2). However, this result has been found to contradict the timing of ICN from recent thermal evolution models and modern paleointensity studies from nearly coeval rocks. We sampled the Gardar Basalts to conduct a modern paleointensity study to check the results of the Thomas (1993) study. We report results from a Thellier-Thellier experiment on 106 Gardar basalt samples collected from 39 flows using the IZZI protocol with pTRM and tail checks. Hysteresis measurements and FORC diagrams indicate that pseudo-single domain magnetite (Curie temperature of 580° C based on χ vs T) is the dominant magnetic mineral in the basalts. Low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) did not improve the paleointensity results so standard measurements of heating in a nitrogen controlled atmosphere are reported here. Thomas (1993) only interpreted his paleointensity results up to 450˚C and found a steep slope in the Arai plots indicating a high paleointensity. Heating at temperatures up to the Curie point showed a second component of magnetization and two slope behavior on the Arai plots with the high temperature results showing lower paleointensities. Between temperatures of 520-580 °C, good results were found for 35 samples yielding an average paleointensity of 5.02±4.32 μT. Thermal demagnetization yielded a mean direction for these flows of D=276.5˚, I=18.9˚, K=11.0, N=33. Based on the paleolatitude from the NRM measurements, an average virtual dipole moment (VDM) of 13.2 ± 11.3 ZAm2 was obtained for 19 of the Gardar flows based on 35 sample measurements. The best results came from the lower flow sequence far from the Illímaussaq intrusion. These VDMs are significantly lower than the previously published Gardar Basalt paleointensity results, suggesting

  6. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…

  8. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  9. Assessment of coalbed gas resources of the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces, Indonesia, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-12-09

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 20 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable coalbed gas resource in the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces of Indonesia.

  10. IT Implementation in ITE in the Limpopo Province (South Africa): A Dream or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monobe, Ratau John

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a survey about the most critical issues facing the implementation of IT (information technology) ITE (initial teacher education) in all the HBUs (historically black universities) in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Over 250 responses were received and both universities in the Limpopo Province were…

  11. Shaded Relief of South Africa, Northern Cape Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Located north of the Swartberg Mountains in South Africa's Northern Cape Province, this topographic image shows a portion of the Great Karoo region. Karoo is an indigenous word for 'dry thirst land.' The semi-arid area is known for its unique variety of flora and fauna. The topography of the area, with a total relief of 200 meters (650 feet), reveals much about the geologic history of the area. The linear features seen in the image are near-vertical walls of once-molten rock, or dikes, that have intruded the bedrock. The dikes are more resistant to weathering and, therefore, form the linear wall-like features seen in the image. In relatively flat arid areas such as this, small changes in the topography can have large impacts on the water resources and the local ecosystem. These data can be used by biologists to study the distribution and range of the different plants and animals. Geologists can also use the data to study the geologic history of this area in more detail.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  13. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the South Sumatra Basin Province, Indonesia, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2016-12-09

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 689 million barrels of continuous shale oil and 3.9 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the South Sumatra Basin Province in Indonesia.

  14. Cape Province, South Africa as seen from STS-58

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-10-30

    STS058-77-083 (18 Oct-1 Nov 1993) --- In this scene of the south coast of Africa, Cape Agulhas, the southernmost point on the continent, appears as the leftmost cape. Viewed with the Earth's limb top left, clouds at bottom, the view direction is west and north top right. The Cape of Good Hope, with Cape Town nearby, is the thin spike beyond. The great bay in the foreground is Algoa Bay with the city of Port Elizabeth. This was the first time European voyagers are known to have rounded the Cape of Good Hope in their quest to reach India by sea. The entire fold mountain belt of southern Africa is visible: these mountains appear as green (forested) wavy structures stretching west form the foreground, to the Cape of Good Hope, and then northwards some distance. One theory about their origin is that the Falkland Plateau, now an undersea extension of South America, was jostled up against Africa more than 150 million years ago, in times before the Atlantic Ocean existed, before Africa and South America drifted apart from one another. The jostling caused the evolution of the fold mountain belt.

  15. Differences in antiretroviral scale up in three South African provinces: the role of implementation management

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background South Africa’s antiretroviral programme is governed by defined national plans, establishing treatment targets and providing funding through ring-fenced conditional grants. However, in terms of the country’s quasi-federal constitution, provincial governments bear the main responsibility for provision of health care, and have a certain amount of autonomy and therefore choice in the way their HIV/AIDS programmes are implemented. Methods The paper is a comparative case study of the early management of ART scale up in three South African provincial governments – Western Cape, Gauteng and Free State – focusing on both operational and strategic dimensions. Drawing on surveys of models of ART care and analyses of the policy process conducted in the three provinces between 2005 and 2007, as well as a considerable body of grey and indexed literature on ART scale up in South Africa, it draws links between implementation processes and variations in provincial ART coverage (low, medium and high) achieved in the three provinces. Results While they adopted similar chronic disease care approaches, the provinces differed with respect to political and managerial leadership of the programme, programme design, the balance between central standardisation and local flexibility, the effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation systems, and the nature and extent of external support and programme partnerships. Conclusions This case study points to the importance of sub-national programme processes and the influence of factors other than financing or human resource capacity, in understanding intervention scale up. PMID:20594370

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in cattle from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hlokwe, Tiny Motlatso; Said, Halima; Gcebe, Nomakorinte

    2017-10-10

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) in human and Mycobacterium bovis commonly causes tuberculosis in animals. Transmission of tuberculosis caused by both pathogens can occur from human to animals and vice versa. In the current study, M. tuberculosis, as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting 3 regions of difference (RD4, RD9 and RD12) on the genomes, was isolated from cattle originating from two epidemiologically unrelated farms in the Eastern Cape (E.C) Province of South Africa. Although the isolates were genotyped with variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing, no detailed epidemiological investigation was carried out on the respective farms to unequivocally confirm or link humans as sources of TB transmission to cattle, a move that would have embraced the 'One Health' concept. In addition, strain comparison with human M. tuberculosis in the database from the E.C Province and other provinces in the country did not reveal any match. This is the first report of cases of M. tuberculosis infection in cattle in South Africa. The VNTR profiles of the M. tuberculosis strains identified in the current study will form the basis for creating M. tuberculosis VNTR database for animals including cattle for future epidemiological studies. Our findings however, call for urgent reinforcement of collaborative efforts between the veterinary and the public health services of the country.

  17. South Sumatra Basin Province, Indonesia; the Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic total petroleum system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    Oil and gas are produced from the onshore South Sumatra Basin Province. The province consists of Tertiary half-graben basins infilled with carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks unconformably overlying pre-Tertiary metamorphic and igneous rocks. Eocene through lower Oligocene lacustrine shales and Oligocene through lower Miocene lacustrine and deltaic coaly shales are the mature source rocks. Reserves of 4.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent have been discovered in reservoirs that range from pre-Tertiary basement through upper Miocene sandstones and carbonates deposited as synrift strata and as marine shoreline, deltaic-fluvial, and deep-water strata. Carbonate and sandstone reservoirs produce oil and gas primarily from anticlinal traps of Plio-Pleistocene age. Stratigraphic trapping and faulting are important locally. Production is compartmentalized due to numerous intraformational seals. The regional marine shale seal, deposited by a maximum sea level highstand in early middle Miocene time, was faulted during post-depositional folding allowing migration of hydrocarbons to reservoirs above the seal. The province contains the Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic total petroleum system with one assessment unit, South Sumatra.

  18. Spatiotemporal characteristics of severe dry and wet conditions in the Free State Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbiriri, M.; Mukwada, G.; Manatsa, D.

    2018-02-01

    This paper assesses the spatiotemporal characteristics of agricultural droughts and wet conditions in the Free State Province of South Africa for the period between 1960 and 2013. Since agriculturally, the Free State Province is considered the bread basket of the country, understanding the variability of drought and wet conditions becomes necessary. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) computed from gridded monthly precipitation data was used to assess the rainfall extreme conditions. Hot spot analysis was used to divide the province into five homogenous clusters where the spatiotemporal characteristics for each cluster were analysed. The results show a west to east increase in seasonal average total precipitation. However, the eastern part of the province demonstrates higher occurrences of droughts, with SPI ≤ - 1.282. This is despite the observation that the region shows a recent increase in droughts unlike the western region. It is also noted that significant differences in drought/wet intensities between clusters are more pronounced during the early compared to the late summer period.

  19. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  20. Challenges Experienced by District-Based Support Teams in the Execution of Their Functions in a Specific South African Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhalemele, Thabo; Nel, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an embedded mixed-method South African study that investigated the challenges experienced by District-Based Support Team (DBST) members in the sub-directorate of Inclusive Education of a South African province in the execution of their functions. A Likert-scale questionnaire and individual semi-structured…

  1. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The ongoing worldwide phenomenon of a shortage of about 4.3 million nurses and midwives poses a threat to health service delivery. Limpopo province had the worst nurse shortage of over 60% in 2010. Authors attribute this shortage to turnover of nurses. The quest to describe factors contributing to nurses’ turnover led to this study in Limpopo province, South Africa. Objectives To explore and describe factors that contribute to nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa by assessing public sector nurses’ job satisfaction in relation to common determinants of job satisfaction. Method A descriptive cross-sectional approach used primary quantitative data collected from 141 of 380 respondents (31.1% response rate) contacted incidentally. Self-administered hand-delivered questionnaires were used to gather ordinal data, which were analysed in terms of frequency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 6. The sum of positive and negative effects was used to determine satisfaction; if positive effects were greater than negative effects respondents were judged to be satisfied and vice versa. Results Frequency and percentage tables revealed that nurses in Limpopo province were more dissatisfied (53.9%) than satisfied (37.8%) with their jobs. Factors which respondents were found to be dissatisfied with included staffing (85.2%), availability of workplace resources (83.7%), salaries (78.8%), workplace safety (73.7%), career development opportunities (64.5%) and hours of work (47.6%). Conclusion Nurses’ turnover is attributed to nurses’ dissatisfaction with staffing, resources, salaries and workplace safety. Attention needs to be given to these specific issues if retention of nurses is to be achieved.

  2. The Kimberlites and related rocks of the Kuruman Kimberlite Province, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Cara L.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman J.; Shee, Simon R.

    2011-03-01

    The Kuruman Kimberlite Province is comprised of 16 small pipes and dikes and contains some of the oldest known kimberlites (>1.6 Ga). In this study, 12 intrusions are subdivided into three groups with distinct petrology, age, and geochemical and isotopic compositions: (1) kimberlites with groundmass perovskites defining a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1787 ± 69 Ma, (2) orangeite with a U-Pb perovskite age of 124 ± 16 Ma, and (3) ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikite and mela-aillikite) with a zircon U-Pb age of 1642 ± 46 Ma. The magma type varies across the Province, with kimberlites in the east, lamprophyres in the west and orangeite and ultramafic lamprophyres to the south. Differences in the age and petrogenesis of the X007 orangeite and Clarksdale and Aalwynkop aillikites suggest that these intrusions are probably unrelated to the Kuruman Province. Kimberlite and orangeite whole-rock major and trace element compositions are similar to other South African localities. Compositionally, the aillikites typically lie off kimberlite and orangeite trends. Groundmass mineral chemistry of the kimberlites has some features more typical of orangeites. Kimberlite whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopes show zoning across the Province. When the kimberlites erupted at ~1.8 Ga, they sampled a core volume (ca 50 km across) of relatively depleted SCLM that was partially surrounded by a rim of more metasomatized mantle. This zonation may have been related to the development of the adjacent Kheis Belt (oldest rocks ~2.0 Ga), as weaker zones surrounding the more resistant core section of SCLM were more extensively metasomatized.

  3. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    PubMed

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  4. Factors influencing the retention of registered nurses in the Gauteng Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mokoka, Kgaogelo E; Ehlers, Valerie J; Oosthuizen, Martha J

    2011-12-14

    South Africa is a source country for many destination countries that recruit registered nurses who emigrate for personal and/or professional reasons. A large number of South African nurses belong to the baby boomer generation (born between 1943 and 1964) who will retire within the foreseeable future. Statistics from the South African Nursing Council show a decline of 42.0% in the number of nurses who completed their training in South Africa from 1996 to 2005. These aspects combine to predict a potential dire shortage of nurses in South Africa within the foreseeable future. Retention of registered nurses should be the focus of health-care planners to avoid crises in South Africa's health-care services. This study attempted to identify factors that would influence registered nurses' decisions to stay with their current employers in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. An exploratory descriptive quantitative design was adopted and questionnaires were sent to a sample of nurses, registered with the South African Nursing Council (SANC), with addresses in the Gauteng Province. A total of 108 nurses completed and returned questionnaires, of whom 77 (73.1%) had considered leaving their current employers. The most important factors that would influence more than 90.0% of these nurses' decisions to stay with their current employers related to finances, safety and security, equipment and/or supplies, management, staff and patients. In terms of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory, deficiency needs (physiological, safety and social needs) should be met by improved salaries revised on an annual basis, paying long-service and outstanding-service bonuses, and improving the safety and security, as well the available equipment and supplies, at institutions. Sufficient numbers of nurses should be employed and vacancies should be filled rapidly. However, not all changes required to enhance nurses' retention rates involve increased costs. Managers should lead by example and respect

  5. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  6. Analysing post-apartheid gender and racial transformation in medical education in a South African province

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Taskeen; Thomas, Leena S.; Naidoo, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical graduates to be representative of the population. In this article, we explore progress and challenges with regard to transformation, defined as intentional and planned changes aimed at addressing historical disadvantages, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using data on medical school admissions and graduations from the Health and Education Departments for the period 1999–2011. Admission and graduation statistics of 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2011 were analysed according to race and gender. Results The results show that there has been progress in transforming the race and gender composition of medical students and graduates, in line with the transformation strategies of the South African government. In 1999, black African enrolments and graduates were conspicuously low in two of the three medical schools in the Gauteng province. By 2011, an almost six-fold increase in black African student enrolments was seen in one medical school that was previously designated as a white institution. In contrast, at the historically black medical school, whites only represented 0.40% of enrolments in 1999 and 7.4% in 2011. Since 1999, the number and proportion of female medical enrolments and graduates has also increased substantially. Conclusion While there has been progress with redressing historical disparities and inequities in terms of race and gender, further efforts are needed to ensure that student intakes and graduations

  7. Analysing post-apartheid gender and racial transformation in medical education in a South African province.

    PubMed

    Khan, Taskeen; Thomas, Leena S; Naidoo, Shan

    2013-01-24

    In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical graduates to be representative of the population. In this article, we explore progress and challenges with regard to transformation, defined as intentional and planned changes aimed at addressing historical disadvantages, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using data on medical school admissions and graduations from the Health and Education Departments for the period 1999-2011. Admission and graduation statistics of 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2011 were analysed according to race and gender. The results show that there has been progress in transforming the race and gender composition of medical students and graduates, in line with the transformation strategies of the South African government. In 1999, black African enrolments and graduates were conspicuously low in two of the three medical schools in the Gauteng province. By 2011, an almost six-fold increase in black African student enrolments was seen in one medical school that was previously designated as a white institution. In contrast, at the historically black medical school, whites only represented 0.40% of enrolments in 1999 and 7.4% in 2011. Since 1999, the number and proportion of female medical enrolments and graduates has also increased substantially. While there has been progress with redressing historical disparities and inequities in terms of race and gender, further efforts are needed to ensure that student intakes and graduations are in line with the South African

  8. Fauna and Geographical Distribution of Scorpions in Ilam Province, South Western Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifinia, Narges; Gowhari, Iman; Hoseiny-Rad, Manijeh; Aivazi, Ali Ashraf

    2017-06-01

    Scorpions' stings and their own mortalities place them among the most important health and medical problems. The dreadful features and especially their poisonous stings are considered a major cause of human stress and abhorrence/phobia. The current study aimed to study the scorpion fauna of Ilam Province, south western Iran in order to manage scorpionism related problems. In this field-laboratory investigation during March 2014 to February 2015, different parts of Ilam Province were surveyed. Nine sampling parts were selected based on geographical situation, scorpionism reports, weather, flora, and local data. Capturing scorpion was done employing a black light, and a long forceps from dusk to midnight. The collected scorpions were placed to 70% ethyl alcohol. All specimens were determined based on the valid taxonomic keys, furthermore their sexes were studied. Out of the 391 collected scorpions, 11 species were identified as follows: Hottentotta saulcyi , Mesobuthus eupeus , Compsobuthus matthiesseni , Razianus zarudnyi , Hemiscorpius lepturus , Androctonus crassicauda , Orthochirus iranus , Odontobuthus bidentatus , Buthacus macrocentrus , Scorpio maurus , and Polisius persicus . Eleven species of Buthidae, Scorpionidae and Hemiscorpiidae families from high risk areas were identified. Despite the low surface of the province, such different species reveals a diverse scorpion fauna that, in turn, shows good and suitable habits of scorpions, as considered by health staff.

  9. Molecular detection of Porcine circovirus type 2 in swine herds of Eastern Cape Province South Africa.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kayode Olayinka; Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2017-11-02

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) remains the main causative viral pathogen of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD) of great economic importance in pig industry globally. This present study aims at determining the occurrence of the viral pathogen in swine herds of the Province. The data obtained revealed that 15.93% of the screened samples (54/339) from the swine herds of the studied areas were positive for PCV2; while the severity of occurrence of the viral pathogen as observed at farm level ranges from approximately 5.6 to 60% in the studied farms. The majority (15 out of 17 = 88%) of the analyzed sequences were found clustering with other PCV2b strains in the phylogenetic analysis. More interestingly, two other sequences obtained were also found clustering within PCV2d genogroup, which is presently another fast-spreading genotype with observable higher virulence in global swine herds. This is the first report of PCV2 in swine herds of the Province and the first detection of PCV2b and PCV2d in South African swine herds. It follows the first reported case of PCV2a in an outbreak of porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Gauteng Province, South Africa more than one decade ago. This finding confirmed the presence of this all-important viral pathogen in pigs of the region; which could result in a serious outbreak of PCVAD and huge economic loss at the instances of triggering factors if no appropriate measures are taken to effectively curb its spread.

  10. The association between artificial light at night and prostate cancer in Gwangju City and South Jeolla Province of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ka Young; Lee, Eunil; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Jinsun

    2017-01-01

    ABSRACT Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) has been reported to be associated with various pathological changes including sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm disruption, and melatonin suppression with increase in various cancers such as breast or prostate cancers. In this study, we sought to elucidate the association between ALAN and prostate cancer in 27 districts within Gwangju City and urban and rural areas from South Jeolla Province in South Korea. We analyzed the correlation between ALAN and the incidence of a range of cancers by Poisson regression analysis, after adjustment for confounding risk factors, such as smoking, drinking, obesity, stress, air pollution (particulate matter <10 μm in diameter), urbanization (proportion of urbanized area), and the cancer screening rate. Interestingly, the incidence of prostate cancer was significantly associated with ALAN (risk ratio = 1.02, p = 0.0369) and urbanization (risk ratio = 1.06, p = 0.0055). In particular, comparing the prostate cancer incidence at 25% and 75% level of ALAN, the risk ratio was 1.726 (12.6 over 7.3, respectively). No significant association was observed between ALAN and other cancers, including stomach, esophageal, liver, pancreatic, laryngeal, lung and tracheal, bladder, and brain and central nervous system cancers, as well as lymphoma and multiple myeloma. In conclusion, this study shows that a high incidence of prostate cancer may be independently associated with light pollution and urbanization, which represent significant factors in the rapid process of industrialization of South Korea.

  11. Radical scavenging activity of selected medicinal plants from Limpopo province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chauke, A M; Shai, L J; Mphahlele, P M; Mogale, M A

    2012-01-01

    Plants collected from Limpopo province of South Africa were investigated for their antioxidative potential using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Acetone extracts of Flueggea virosa had the highest antioxidant activity with an IC₅₀ value of 30 µg/ml, closely matching the ascorbic acid with an IC₅₀ value of 25 µg/ml. The lowest antioxidant readings were observed with extracts of Rhynchosia venulosa (root extract) and Ficus ingens (leaf extract). Acetone extract of Bridelia virosa leaves had the highest phenolic content (156 mg GAE/g extract), while the lowest content was recorded for R. venulosa root extract and leaf extract of F. ingens (8.3 and 17.7 mg GAE/g extract, respectively). There was a linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Extracts with high phenolic content had low IC₅₀ values, while extracts with low phenolic concentrations had high IC₅₀ values.

  12. Lamniform Shark Teeth from the Late Cretaceous of Southernmost South America (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Schroeter, Elena R.; Egerton, Victoria M.; Ibiricu, Lucio M.; Lacovara, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report multiple lamniform shark teeth recovered from fluvial sediments in the (Campanian-Maastrichtian) Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. This small tooth assemblage is compared to various lamniform sharks possessing similar dental morphologies, including Archaeolamna, Cretalamna, Dwardius, Dallasiella, and Cretodus. Although the teeth share numerous morphological features with the genus Archaeolamna, including a developed neck that maintains a relatively consistent width along the base of the crown, the small sample size and incomplete nature of these specimens precludes definitive taxonomic assignment. Regardless, the discovery of selachian teeth unique from those previously described for the region broadens the known diversity of Late Cretaceous South American sharks. Additionally, the discovery of the teeth in fluvial sandstone may indicate a euryhaline paleobiology in the lamniform taxon or taxa represented by this tooth assemblage. PMID:25141301

  13. Lamniform shark teeth from the late cretaceous of southernmost South America (Santa Cruz province, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Elena R; Egerton, Victoria M; Ibiricu, Lucio M; Lacovara, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Here we report multiple lamniform shark teeth recovered from fluvial sediments in the (Campanian-Maastrichtian) Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. This small tooth assemblage is compared to various lamniform sharks possessing similar dental morphologies, including Archaeolamna, Cretalamna, Dwardius, Dallasiella, and Cretodus. Although the teeth share numerous morphological features with the genus Archaeolamna, including a developed neck that maintains a relatively consistent width along the base of the crown, the small sample size and incomplete nature of these specimens precludes definitive taxonomic assignment. Regardless, the discovery of selachian teeth unique from those previously described for the region broadens the known diversity of Late Cretaceous South American sharks. Additionally, the discovery of the teeth in fluvial sandstone may indicate a euryhaline paleobiology in the lamniform taxon or taxa represented by this tooth assemblage.

  14. Malaria in tree crop plantations in south-eastern and western provinces of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singhasivanon, P; Thimasarn, K; Yimsamran, S; Linthicum, K; Nualchawee, K; Dawreang, D; Kongrod, S; Premmanisakul, N; Maneeboonyang, W; Salazar, N

    1999-09-01

    During the past three decades almost half of the existing natural tropical forests in Thailand were destroyed and replaced by cash crops, rubber, coffee, fruit orchards (durian, rambutan, mangosteen) and other commercial plantations. In order to determine the proportion of malaria cases contracted from such commercial plantations, an epidemiological study was conducted between June 1996 to May 1997 in two districts, one in Pong Nam Ron, located in a south-eastern province near the Cambodian border and another in Sai Yok, in a western province along the Myanmar border. Data were collected by passive case detection from patients attending the existing malaria clinics and active case detection by monthly malariometric survey in selected villages. All malaria cases were thoroughly investigated and classified according to exposure to different ecotypes prior to onset of malaria symptoms in the preceding two weeks. Malaria cases acquired from commercial plantations accounted for 35.2% and 11.2% in Pong Nam Ron and in Sai Yok districts respectively. In such plantations, most of the malaria cases were contracted from fruit orchards and to a lesser extent from rubber and teak plantations. From this study it is evident that commercial plantations provide a significant site of malaria transmission in addition to the forest and foothills areas in Southeast Asia where efficient vectors such as An. dirus and An. minimus are prevalent and have adapted to such changed ecosystems.

  15. Mycotoxin contamination of home-grown maize in rural northern South Africa (Limpopo and Mpumalanga Provinces).

    PubMed

    Mngqawa, P; Shephard, G S; Green, I R; Ngobeni, S H; de Rijk, T C; Katerere, D R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mycotoxin contamination of crops grown by rural subsistence farmers over two seasons (2011 and 2012) in two districts, Vhembe District Municipality (VDM, Limpopo Province) and Gert Sibande District Municiality (GSDM, Mpumalanga Province), in northern South Africa and to evaluate its impact on farmers' productivity and human and animal health. A total of 114 maize samples were collected from 39 households over the two seasons and were analysed using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry mycotoxins method. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) occurrence ranged from 1 to 133 µg kg(-1) in VDM while AFB1 levels in GSDM were less than 1.0 µg kg(-1) in all maize samples. Fumonisin B1 levels ranged from 12 to 8514 µg kg(-1) (VDM) and 11-18924 µg kg(-1) (GSDM) in 92% and 47% positive samples, respectively, over both seasons. Natural occurrence and contamination with both fumonisins and aflatoxins in stored home-grown maize from VDM was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher than from GSDM over both seasons.

  16. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wanda, Elijah M M; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B; Msagati, Titus A M

    2017-01-13

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province.

  17. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province. PMID:28098799

  18. Student Perceptions of Agricultural Education Programme Processes at Selected High Schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidane, T. T.; Worth, S. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates student perceptions of different aspects of Agricultural Education and Training (AET) programme processes that have been offered in secondary schools by the formal educational sector in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study seeks to identify the existing shortcomings in the implementation of the…

  19. Mycotoxin contamination of dietary and medicinal wild plants in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sewram, Vikash; Shephard, Gordon S; van der Merwe, Lize; Jacobs, Thomas V

    2006-07-26

    Nineteen dietary and 30 medicinal wild plants used by residents of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were investigated for the presence of fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1. The plants were extracted in water, and cleanup was undertaken on immunoaffinity cartridges; analysis was by HPLC using fluorescence detection. None of the plant extracts contained detectable levels of aflatoxin B1; however, eight plants, four dietary and four medicinal, were positive for fumonisin B1 at levels ranging from 34 to 524 microg/kg and from 8 to 1553 microg/kg, respectively. The presence of fumonisin B1 was confirmed by LC-MS/MS using positive ion electrospray ionization. Fumonisin B1 provided characteristic fragment ions at m/z 704, 686, 546, 528, 370, and 352 corresponding to sequential loss of H2O and tricarboxylic acid moieties from the alkyl backbone. These results indicate that exposure to fumonisin B1 is much more widespread than initially thought and is the first report of mycotoxin contamination in South African medicinal and dietary wild plants.

  20. Public awareness of audiology, hearing and hearing health in the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sebothoma, Ben; Kgare, Khomotjo S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The burden of hearing loss is on the increase, especially in low-income countries such as South Africa. The need for urgent action to prevent ear and hearing problems is a priority, especially as in many cases permanent hearing loss is preventable. In South Africa, as in other developing countries, there is a limited number of hearing health professionals and audiological resources. The lack of hearing health services may impact the general public’s awareness of hearing and hearing health. Limited information is available on the South African public’s knowledge of audiologists and the services they provide, especially in underserved rural communities. Aim The aim of this study was to describe individuals’ awareness of the audiology profession, hearing and hearing loss, and hearing health in a rural area of the Limpopo Province. Method A cross-sectional survey design was employed for the purpose of this study. Using a random sampling strategy, 297 households in four rural villages were selected and a self-developed questionnaire was administered to one individual (18 years and older) per household. The questionnaire consisted of 23 questions targeting awareness of the audiology profession, as well as knowledge of hearing, hearing loss and hearing health. Results Only 14% of participants were aware of the audiology profession, indicating that individuals living in rural communities are not aware of the role of audiologists and the services they provide. Doctors and nurses were identified by participants as the individuals who assist them with hearing-related problems. Although most participants (87%) acknowledged that it is very important to undergo a hearing test, only 5% have previously visited an audiologist. Most participants were aware that ear infections and excessive noise exposure can cause hearing loss. The majority also believed that ears must be kept clean at all times and used cotton buds to maintain ear hygiene. Conclusion There is a

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces, South Asia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna–Godavari Provinces, South Asia. The estimated mean volumes are as follows: (1) Assam Province, 273 million barrels of crude oil, 1,559 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 43 million barrels of natural gas liquids; (2) Bombay Province, 1,854 million barrels of crude oil, 15,417 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 498 million barrels of natural gas liquids; (3) Cauvery Province, 941 million barrels of crude oil, 25,208 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 654 million barrels of natural gas liquids; and (4) Krishna–Godavari Province, 466 million barrels of crude oil, 37,168 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 484 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The totals for the four provinces are 3,534 million barrels of crude oil, 79,352 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,679 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  2. Generation, migration, and entrapment of Precambrian oils in the Eastern Flank Heavy Oil province, south Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Konert, G.; Van Den Brink, H.A.; Visser, W.

    1991-08-01

    The prolific Eastern Flank Heavy Oil province east of the South Oman Salt basin is unique because of the widespread occurrence of Precambrian source rocks from which the hydrocarbons originated. Fission-track analysis and burial studies suggest that most of these source rocks became mature and generated hydrocarbons in the Ordovician; subsequently, the source beds were uplifted and did not re-enter the oil window. Its uniqueness is also based on the all-important role played by Precambrian salt. The traps in Palaeozoic clastics were initially structured by halokinesis, and subsequently by salt dissolution. The latter process gradually removed the salt from themore » area is largely responsible for the present-day structure with palaeo-withdrawal basins inverted in present-day turtles. Present-day traps are mainly post-Late Jurassic in age, significantly post-dating the time of oil generation. Detailed field studies indicate that charge phases appear to correlate with periods of increased salt dissolution in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous, and Tertiary. Oil was probably stored in intermediate traps below and within the salt. It was gradually released upon progressive tilting of the basin flank; it migrated updip toward the basinward retreating salt edge, and subsequently (back) spilled into the stratigraphically younger traps. Also, removal of the top seal of intra-salt and sub-salt traps by salt dissolution allowed upward remigration. It follows that charge concepts in the Eastern Flank Heavy Oil province depend on defining salt-edge-related hydrocarbon release areas, rather than on kitchen modeling.« less

  3. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Methods Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT) were used for analysing two response variables ‘ever used condom’ and ‘ever refused condom’. Results Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by ‘knowledge of correct use of condom’, condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. ‘Perceived need’ for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one’s HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms). In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. Conclusions The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need for condom-use and

  4. Research evidence and policy: qualitative study in selected provinces in South Africa and Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Naude, Celeste E; Zani, Babalwa; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Wiysonge, Charles S; Dudley, Lillian; Kredo, Tamara; Garner, Paul; Young, Taryn

    2015-09-03

    . Policymaking is complicated, lengthy and mostly done at national level. Provinces/regions are tasked with implementation, with more room for adaptation in South Africa than in Cameroon. Research evidence plays a role in policy but does not drive it and is seen as mostly unavailable. Researchers need a thorough understanding of the policy process and environment, how the health system operates, as well as the priorities of policymakers. This can inform effective dialogue between researchers and policymakers, and contribute to enhancing use of research evidence in decision-making.

  5. Job satisfaction of registered nurses in a community hospital in the Limpopo Province in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kekana, H P P; du Rand, E A; van Wyk, N C

    2007-06-01

    Nurses are confronted daily with the demands of an increased workload and insufficient facilities in the public healthcare sector in South Africa. The purpose of the study was therefore to determine the degree ofjob satisfaction of registered nurses in a community hospital in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A quantitative descriptive design was used to meet the objectives of the study. The population was not sampled because of the small size of it. All the registered nurses who had one or more years experience in this hospital were included in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from them regarding the working conditions in the hospital including the emotional and social climate. The questionnaire was based on an instrument developed by Humphries and Turner (1989:303) to determine the degree of job satisfaction of nursing staff in a unit for elderly mentally retarded patients. The findings indicated that the majority of the respondents were dissatisfied about the working conditions and emotional climate in the hospital while they were fairly satisfied with the social climate. The workload and degree of fair remuneration, under the working conditions, were the most highly rated as dissatisfying (83% of the participants) while under the emotional climate they indicated that the pressure under which they worked was highly dissatisfying (82% of the participants). As the results indicated that the social climate was satisfactory; having a best friend at work and the chance to help other people while at work, were rated positively by 88% and 76% of the participants respectively. Recommendations made included that managers have to show the staff that their best interest is their number one concern. Leaders have to be available for the staff and being willing to buffer the stress caused by increased workload and insufficient resources. Greater visibility of supervisory staff should therefore be encouraged.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  7. Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A case study of two hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Nemathaga, Felicia; Maringa, Sally; Chimuka, Luke

    2008-07-01

    The shortcomings in the management practices of hospital solid waste in Limpopo Province of South Africa were studied by looking at two hospitals as case studies. Apart from field surveys, the generated hospital waste was weighed to compute the generation rates and was followed through various management practices to the final disposal. The findings revealed a major policy implementation gap between the national government and the hospitals. While modern practices such as landfill and incineration are used, their daily operations were not carried according to minimum standards. Incinerator ash is openly dumped and wastes are burned on landfills instead ofmore » being covered with soil. The incinerators used are also not environmentally friendly as they use old technology. The findings further revealed that there is no proper separation of wastes according to their classification as demanded by the national government. The mean percentage composition of the waste was found in the following decreasing order: general waste (60.74%) > medical waste (30.32%) > sharps (8.94%). The mean generation rates were found to be 0.60 kg per patient per day.« less

  8. [Spatiotemporal differentiation of construction land expansion in a typical town of south Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Li, Yue-hui; Hu, Yuan-man; Su, Hai-long; Wang, Jin-nian

    2011-03-01

    Choosing Xinzhuang Town in south Jiangsu Province as study area, and by using 1980, 1991, 2001, and 2009 high-resolution remote sensing images and GIS spatial analysis technology, an integrated expansion degree index model was established based on the existing indicators of construction land expansion, and the general and spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics of construction land expansion in the Town in three time periods of 1980-2009 were quantitatively analyzed. In 1980-2009, with the acceleration of rural urbanization and industrialization, the area of construction land in the Town increased significantly by 19.24 km2, and especially in 2001-2009, the expanded area, expanded contribution rate, and expansion intensity reached the maximum. The construction land expansion had an obvious spatial differentiation characteristic. In 1980-1991, the newly increased construction land mainly concentrated in town area. After 1991, the focus of construction land gradually spread to the villages with developed industries. Most of the increased construction lands were converted from paddy field and dry land, accounting for 88.1% of the total increased area, while the contribution from other land types was relatively small.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Barriers to Care in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Topper, Kegan; van Rooyen, Kempie; Grobler, Christoffel; van Rooyen, Dalena; Andersson, Lena M C

    2015-08-01

    A range of barriers to seeking mental health care in low- and middle-income countries has been investigated. Little, however, is known of the barriers to care and help-seeking behavior among people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low- and middle-income countries. This was a population-based study including 977 people aged 18-40 years from the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Current PTSD was assessed by using a diagnostic questionnaire (Mini International Psychiatric Interview). An additional questionnaire captured socioeconomic and health-related data. The prevalence of current PTSD was 10.8%. Only 48.1% of people with current PTSD accessed health care services. Younger people aged 18 to 29 years were less likely to seek health care, OR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.15, 0.85]. People earning a salary or wage, OR = 2.91, 95% CI [1.26, 6.71]; and those with tuberculosis, OR = 11.63, 95% CI [1.42, 95.56], were more likely to seek health care. A range of barriers to seeking care were identified, the most striking being stigma and a lack of knowledge regarding the nature and treatment of mental illness. People with current PTSD may seek help for other health concerns and brief screening means those affected may be readily identified. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  10. Menstrual knowledge and practices of female adolescents in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ramathuba, Dorah U

    2015-11-26

    Although sexual issues are openly discussed in the media, sexuality and reproductive functions are treated as taboo. Menstruation is a normal physiologic process, but carries various meanings within cultures and is rarely discussed amongst families and communities. This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of secondary school girls towards menstruation in the Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls. The sample consisted of 273 secondary school girls doing Grades 10-12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12). The findings revealed that respondents experienced menarche at 13 years and that menstruation is a monthly bleeding (80%) that happens to every female; it is a sign of adulthood (91%). 15% reported that it is the removal of dirt from the stomach and abdomen, 67% indicated the source of menstruation being the uterus, 65% the vagina and 13% from the abdomen. 73% reported having fear and anxiety at the first experience of bleeding and that they could not maintain adequate hygienic practices due to a lack of privacy and sanitary towels. Interventions are needed to increase girls' opportunities to discuss menstruation and access information from adults including mothers, parents and guardians. School-based sexuality education should be comprehensive, begin early and be regularly repeated.

  11. A conceptual framework for cost management training in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jooste, Karien; Mothiba, Tebogo Maria

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the perceptions of nurse managers about their dual role in nursing units as cost centres. The tertiary hospital in the Limpopo province is the first institution to appoint nurse managers with a dual role in cost centres. The development of a conceptual framework for a context-specific programme for Cost Centre Managers is the first of its nature in South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was followed. The target population included nurse managers (n = 35) formally appointed as cost centre managers with a dual role of delivering quality care and cost management. A focus group and individual interviews were conducted until data saturation occurred. Personal and professional distress, an empowering potential of being a cost centre manager, and the need for decentralized cost centre management were indicated as barriers for nurse managers that led to a framework for a context-specific training programme. There is a need for a context-specific training programme for cost centre managers in a hospital with cost centres. The training of cost centre managers for their dual role in cost centres could enhance cost effectiveness, quality care and staff satisfaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Inventory of geomorphosites with educational purposes in the Province of Málaga (South of Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.; Ferre-Bueno, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    The geomorphological landscape, as it was defined by Reynard (2004) can be considered a portion of the geomorphological context that is viewed, perceived, (and sometimes ex- ploited) by Man and, when perceived by humans and characterised by certain attributes, it may be considered a wider geomorphosite (Reynard and Panizza, 2005) or a complex of geomorphosites inside of which single geomorphosites can be individuated. Moreover, single geomorphosites belong to a landscape system that is dynamic, and thus the comprehension of a geomorphosite mechanism requires good observations, measurements and quantifications of processes (Reynard 2004). Since 1990s, interest on geomorphosite studies has increased, especially, due to their educational. The aim of this study is to present a complete inventory of the main geomorphosites that can be found in the Province of Málaga, with educational purposes. The Province of Málaga, located in the South of Spain, in the Mediterranean Coast but very close to the Atlantic Ocean, is characterised by a wide range of geomorphological landscape, with many different landforms and very dynamic land uses. The methodology follows that proposed by the Spanish Geological and Mining Institute (IGME, 2014). In total, more than 100-geomorphosites were recognised, inventoried and classified in order to achieve a better comprehension and improve the learning of high academic level students. References IGME, 2014. Documento metodológico para la elaboración del inventario español de lugares de interés geológico (IELIG). Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Madrid, España, pp. 64. Pelfini, M., Bollati, I. 2014. Landforms and geomorphosites ongoing changes: concepts and implications for geoheritage promotion. Quaestiones Geographicae, 33-1: 131-143. Reynard E., 2004. Géotopes, géo(morpho)sites et paysag- es géomorphologiques. In: E. Reynard, J.P. Pralong (eds), Paysages géomorphologiques, Institut de géographie, Travaux et Recherches

  13. Evaluation of an operational malaria outbreak identification and response system in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael; Mabuza, Aaron M; Kok, Gerdalize; Coetzee, Maureen; Durrheim, David N

    2008-04-27

    To evaluate the performance of a novel malaria outbreak identification system in the epidemic prone rural area of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, for timely identification of malaria outbreaks and guiding integrated public health responses. Using five years of historical notification data, two binomial thresholds were determined for each primary health care facility in the highest malaria risk area of Mpumalanga province. Whenever the thresholds were exceeded at health facility level (tier 1), primary health care staff notified the malaria control programme, which then confirmed adequate stocks of malaria treatment to manage potential increased cases. The cases were followed up at household level to verify the likely source of infection. The binomial thresholds were reviewed at village/town level (tier 2) to determine whether additional response measures were required. In addition, an automated electronic outbreak identification system at town/village level (tier 2) was integrated into the case notification database (tier 3) to ensure that unexpected increases in case notification were not missed.The performance of these binomial outbreak thresholds was evaluated against other currently recommended thresholds using retrospective data. The acceptability of the system at primary health care level was evaluated through structured interviews with health facility staff. Eighty four percent of health facilities reported outbreaks within 24 hours (n = 95), 92% (n = 104) within 48 hours and 100% (n = 113) within 72 hours. Appropriate response to all malaria outbreaks (n = 113, tier 1, n = 46, tier 2) were achieved within 24 hours. The system was positively viewed by all health facility staff. When compared to other epidemiological systems for a specified 12 month outbreak season (June 2003 to July 2004) the binomial exact thresholds produced one false weekly outbreak, the C-sum 12 weekly outbreaks and the mean + 2 SD nine false weekly outbreaks. Exceeding the binomial

  14. Risk Factors of Porcine Cysticercosis in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Krecek, Rosina Claudia; Mohammed, Hamish; Michael, Lynne Margaret; Schantz, Peter Mullineaux; Ntanjana, Lulama; Morey, Liesl; Werre, Stephen Rakem; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2012-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in select districts of the ECP. Data were collected in 2003 by interviewing 217 pig producers from the area. Blood samples were collected from 261 of their pigs, which were tested using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies to cysticercosis. Frequencies of both owner- and pig-level characteristics were determined. For pig-level analysis, all bivariable and multivariable associations were determined using the surveylogistic procedure of the SAS/STAT® software to accommodate for the intraclass correlation that exists for clusters of pigs within one owner and for clusters of owners within a district. All tests for significance were performed at the α = 0.05 level, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. Among the respondents, 48% of their households lacked a latrine, 98% slaughtered pigs at home, and 99% indicated that meat inspection services were not available. On bivariable analysis, there was a significant association between porcine infection and district (p = 0.003), breed (p = 0.041) and the absence of a latrine (p = 0.006). On multivariable analysis, the absence of a latrine was the only variable significantly associated with porcine infection (aOR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.07, 3.35) (p = 0.028). The increased odds of porcine infection with households lacking a latrine contributes to our understanding of the transmission of this parasite in the ECP. Determining and addressing the risk factors for T. solium infection can potentially lower the very high prevalence in humans and pigs in this endemic area. PMID:22655065

  15. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

    2014-07-09

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  16. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Municipal Sewage Sludge: A Case Study of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shamuyarira, Kudakwashe K.; Gumbo, Jabulani R.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals in high concentrations can cause health and environmental damage. Nanosilver is an emerging heavy metal which has a bright future of use in many applications. Here we report on the levels of silver and other heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge. Five towns in Limpopo province of South Africa were selected and the sludge from their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was collected and analysed. The acid digested sewage sludge samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods. The concentrations of silver found were low, but significant, in the range 0.22 to 21.93 mg/kg dry mass. The highest concentration of silver was found in Louis Trichardt town with a concentration of 21.93 ± 0.38 mg/kg dry mass while the lowest was Thohoyandou with a concentration of 6.13 ± 0.12 mg/kg dry mass. A control sludge sample from a pit latrine had trace levels of silver at 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry mass. The result showed that silver was indeed present in the wastewater sewage sludge and at present there is no DWAF guideline standard. The average Cd concentration was 3.10 mg/kg dry mass for Polokwane municipality. Polokwane and Louis Trichardt municipalities exhibited high levels of Pb, in excess DWAF guidelines, in sludge at 102.83 and 171.87 mg/kg respectfully. In all the WWTPs the zinc and copper concentrations were in excess of DWAF guidelines. The presence of heavy metals in the sewage sludge in excess of DWAF guidelines presents environmental hazards should the sludge be applied as a soil ameliorant. PMID:24595211

  17. Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. δ13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). δ34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive δ13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ∑REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in δ13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of δ34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior

  18. Assessment of learners’ exposure to health education and promotion at school in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tosin, Oni. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background School participation and educational attainment among adolescents have been rising rapidly in the developing world. Thus, to attain Millennium Development Goal 6 (Combat HIV and/or AIDs, malaria and other diseases), it is crucial to seize the opportunity to educate and encourage teenagers about healthy choices and proper social behaviours that will continue into adulthood. Aim This study aimed to assess the exposure of rural secondary school learners to health education and promotion at schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Setting This study was carried out at 10 secondary schools in Vhumbedzi educational circuit. Methodology The study adopted a cross-sectional quantitative approach. Data were collected from 338 randomly selected learners from 10 secondary schools that make up a rural Vhumbedzi circuit in the Limpopo province. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results The findings showed that, 102 (66.07%) male and 121 (67.60%) female learners reported that they were taught about physical changes that occur during adolescence. In the same vein, most of the participants (n = 128, 84.39%) and (n = 152, 85.39%) males and females respectively claimed to have been taught about sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusion In this study the secondary schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa are making efforts to uphold and expose their learners to health education and promotion at school. PMID:27380860

  19. Molecular detection of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from ruminants in four South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Mtshali, Khethiwe; Khumalo, Zth; Nakao, Ryo; Grab, Dennis J; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Thekisoe, Omm

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. With little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern Africa, the aim of our study was to screen for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia species and Ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa. The most abundant tick species identified in this study were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (40%), Rhipicephalus species (35%), Amblyomma hebraeum (10%) and Rhipicephalus decoloratus (14%). A total of 1634 ticks were collected. DNA was extracted, and samples were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing. The overall infection rates of ticks with the target pathogens in the four Provinces were as follows: A. phagocytophilum, 7%; C. burnetii, 7%; E. ruminantium, 28%; and Rickettsia spp., 27%. The presence of B. burgdorferi could not be confirmed. The findings of this study show that zoonotic pathogens are present in ticks in the studied South African provinces. This information will aid in the epidemiology of tick-borne zoonotic diseases in the country as well as in raising awareness about such diseases in the veterinary, medical and tourism sectors, as they may be the most affected.

  20. Geographical distribution and profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ntuli, Samuel T; Maboya, Edwin

    2017-09-27

    The shortage and unequal distribution of medical doctors in low- and middle-income countries continues to be a public health concern. To establish the geographical distribution and demographic profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The PERSAL system was used to obtain information on the number of medical doctors employed in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. Data were exported from PERSAL's database and then analysed using STATA version 9.0. The mean age of the 887 medical doctors was 40.1 ± 11.2 years (range 24-79 years). Sixty per cent of the doctors were male, 66% were aged ≤ 45 years and 84% were African. Most of the doctors (86%) were medical officers, of which 55% had < 5 years working experience. Overall, the doctor-to-population ratio for the five districts in the province was 16.4/100 000, with Capricorn (33.7/100 000) and Waterberg (20.2/100 000) recording the highest ratios. A large proportion (43%) of medical officers are employed in the Capricorn District, of which 71% were practising at the tertiary hospital. This study demonstrated a shortage and maldistribution of medical doctors in the public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. This has a potentially negative effect on the delivery of an appropriate and efficient healthcare service to the population and requires urgent attention.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Clear-Water Pier and Contraction Scour Envelope Curves in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Provinces of South Carolina

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation collected clear-water pier- and contraction-scour data at 116 bridges in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Physiographic Provinces of South Carolina. Pier-sco...

  2. Occurrence of Clinostomum complanatum in Aphanius dispar (Actinoptrygii: Cyprinodontidae) collected from Mehran River, Hormuzgan Province, South of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Z; Mobedi, I; Esmaeili, HR; Kia, EB

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possibility of Aphanius dispar (A.dispar) acting as intermediate host for Clinostomum complanatum (C. complanatum), from Mehran River, Hormuzgan Province of Iran. Methods During a biological study of A. dispar in Mehran River, Hormuzgan Province, South of Iran, a total of 97 fish specimens were collected in 24 January 2006. Results 4 specimens (4.12%) including 1 male and 3 female were found infected with C. complanatum metacercaria. These metacercaria were coiled in the epiderm on the body surface of infected fishes. The infection is known as yellow spot disease. The parasite abundance, intensity and prevalence were 0.05%, 1.25% and 4.12%, respectively. The infection was higher in females than males. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on occurrence of C. complanatum metacercaria in A. dispar in Iran. PMID:23569757

  3. A Systems Dynamic Model for Drug Abuse and Drug-Related Crime in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Lezanie

    2017-01-01

    The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems. PMID:28555161

  4. Factors influencing treatment default among tuberculosis patients in a high burden province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kigozi, G; Heunis, C; Chikobvu, P; Botha, S; van Rensburg, D

    2017-01-01

    To determine and describe the factors influencing treatment default of tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Free State Province of South Africa. A retrospective records review of pulmonary TB cases captured in the ETR.Net electronic TB register between 2003 and 2012 was performed. Subjects were >15 years of age and had a recorded pre-treatment smear result. The demographic and clinical characteristics of defaulters were described. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with treatment default. The odds ratios (OR) together with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Statistical significance was considered at 0.05. A total of 7980 out of 110 349 (7.2%) cases defaulted treatment. Significantly higher proportions of cases were male (8.3% vs. female: 5.8%; p<0.001), <25 years old (9.1% vs. 25-34 years: 8.7%; 35-44 years: 7.0%; 45-54 years: 5.2%; 55-64 years: 4.4%; >64 years: 3.9%; p<0.001), undergoing TB retreatment (11.0% vs. new cases: 6.3%; p<0.001), had a negative pre-treatment sputum smear result (7.8% vs. positive smear results: 7.1%; p<0.001), were in the first 2 months of treatment (95.5% vs. >2 months: 4.8%; p<0.001), and had unknown HIV status (7.8% vs. HIV-positive: 7.0% and HIV-negative: 5.7%; p<0.001). After controlling for potential confounders, multivariate analysis revealed a two-fold increased risk of defaulting treatment when being retreated compared to being treated for the first time for TB (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.0, 95% CI 1.85-2.25). Female cases were 40% less likely to default treatment compared to their male counterparts (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.51-0.71). Treatment default was less likely among cases >24 years old compared to younger cases (25-34 years: AOR 0.8, 95% CI 0.77-0.87; 35-44 years: AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.50-0.64; 45-54 years: AOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.32-0.49; 55-64 years: AOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.21-0.43; >64 years: AOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.19-0.35). Co-infected cases receiving antiretroviral therapy

  5. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, William James; Klinger, Herbert Christian

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy, W.J. and Klinger, H.C. 2013. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (4), 527-543. Warszawa. Scaphitid ammonites are described and illustrated from the Upper Cretaceous of the coastal region of north-eastern South Africa. Scaphites kieslingswaldensis Langenhan and Grundey, 1891, Scaphites manasoaensis Collignon, 1965, and Yezoites concinna sp. nov. occur in the Coniacian part of the St Lucia Formation in northern KwaZulu-Natal. A further Yezoites sp. may also be from this level. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. occurs in the Santonian to Lower Campanian Mzamba Formation on the northernmost coast of Eastern Cape Province. Yezoites australis sp. nov. occurs in the Upper Santonian part of the St Lucia and Mzamba formations of these areas, and Scaphites reesidei Collignon, 1969, is recorded from the Lower Campanian part of the Mzamba Formation. The scaphitid assemblage includes species previously described from Western Europe and Madagascar, together with Argentoscaphites, previously known only from Patagonia (and possibly South India). Dimorphism is recognised in Scaphites reesidei, Yezoites concinna sp. nov. and Y. australis sp. nov. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. and Yezoites sp. are represented by microconchs only. Dimorphism has not been recognised in Scaphites kieslingswaldensis.

  6. Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild and cultivated plants in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2017-08-08

    Traditional ecological knowledge among indigenous communities plays an important role in retaining cultural identity and achieving sustainable natural resource management. Hundreds of millions of people mostly in developing countries derive a substantial part of their subsistence and income from plant resources. The aim of this study was to assess useful plant species diversity, plant use categories and local knowledge of both wild and cultivated useful species in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. The study was conducted in six villages in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa between June 2014 and March 2017. Data on socio-economic characteristics of the participants, useful plants harvested from the wild, managed in home gardens were documented by means of questionnaires, observation and guided field walks with 138 participants. A total of 125 plant species belonging to 54 genera were recorded from the study area. More than half of the species (59.2%) are from 13 families, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Araliaceae, Asparagaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae and Solanaceae. More than a third of the useful plants (37.6%) documented in this study are exotic to South Africa. About three quarters of the documented species (74.4%) were collected from the wild, while 20.8% were cultivated and 4.8% were spontaneous. Majority of the species (62.4%) were used as herbal medicines, followed by food plants (30.4%), ethnoveterinary medicine (18.4%), construction timber and thatching (11.2%). Other minor plant use categories (1-5%) included firewood, browse, live fence, ornamentals, brooms and crafts. This study demonstrated that local people in the Eastern Cape province harbour important information on local vegetation that provides people with food, fuel and medicines, as well as materials for construction and the manufacturing of crafts and many other products. This study also demonstrated the dynamism of

  7. Assessment of Permian coalbed gas resources of the Karoo Basin Province, South Africa and Lesotho, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-02-21

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 5.27 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in the Karoo Basin Province.

  8. Health-care utilization and associated factors in Gauteng province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Abera Abaerei, Admas; Ncayiyana, Jabulani; Levin, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    More than a billion people, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, are unable to access needed health-care services for a variety of reasons. Possible factors influencing health-care utilization include socio-demographic and economic factors such as age, sex, education, employment and income. However, different studies have showed mixed results. Moreover, there are limited studies on health-care utilization. This study aimed to determine health-care utilization and associated factors among all residents aged 18 or over in Gauteng province, South Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted from data collected for a Quality of Life survey which was carried out by Gauteng City-Region Observatory in 2013. Simple random sampling was used to select participants. A total of 27,490 participants have been interviewed. Data were collected via a digital data collection instrument using an open source system called Formhub. Coarsened Exact Matching (CEM) was used to improve estimation of causal effects. Stepwise multiple logistic regression was employed to identify factors associated with health-care utilization. Around 95.7% reported usually utilizing health-care services while the other 4.3% reported not having sought health-care services of any type. Around 75% of participants reported reduced quality of public health services as a major reason not to visit them. Higher odds of reported health-care utilization were associated with being female (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.88-2.53; p < 0.001), being White compared to being African (OR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.84-2.74; p < 0.001), and having medical insurance (OR = 5.41, 95% CI: 4.06-7.23; p < 0.001). Lower odds of seeking health-care were associated with being an immigrant (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.53-0.70; p < 0.001). The results indicated that there is a need to improve the quality of public health-care services and perception towards them as improved health-care quality increases the choice of health-care providers.

  9. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Magadzire, Bvudzai P; Ward, Kim; Leng, Henry M J; Sanders, David

    2017-06-30

    South Africa (SA) has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM) in the Western Cape Province, SA. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers). We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i) delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii) absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii) suppliers' inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i) health facility operations; (ii) the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU), which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii) community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU's prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were asked to return for undispensed medication at a later

  10. Regional earthquake loss estimation in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Beside storm events geophysical events cause a majority of natural hazard losses on a global scale. However, in alpine regions with a moderate earthquake risk potential like in the study area and thereupon connected consequences on the collective memory this source of risk is often neglected in contrast to gravitational and hydrological hazards processes. In this context, the comparative analysis of potential disasters and emergencies on a national level in Switzerland (Katarisk study) has shown that earthquakes are the most serious source of risk in general. In order to estimate the potential losses of earthquake events for different return periods and loss dimensions of extreme events the following study was conducted in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). The applied methodology follows the generally accepted risk concept based on the risk components hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability, whereby risk is not defined holistically (direct, indirect, tangible and intangible) but with the risk category losses on buildings and inventory as a general risk proxy. The hazard analysis is based on a regional macroseismic scenario approach. Thereby, the settlement centre of each community (116 communities) is defined as potential epicentre. For each epicentre four different epicentral scenarios (return periods of 98, 475, 975 and 2475 years) are calculated based on the simple but approved and generally accepted attenuation law according to Sponheuer (1960). The relevant input parameters to calculate the epicentral scenarios are (i) the macroseismic intensity and (ii) the focal depth. The considered macroseismic intensities are based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Italian earthquake catalogue on a community level (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile). The relevant focal depth are considered as a mean within a defined buffer of the focal depths of the harmonized earthquake catalogues of Italy and Switzerland as well as

  11. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Background: Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Materials and methods: An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. Results: The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National

  12. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    PubMed

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  13. Household food security and hunger in rural and urban communities in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Corinna M; van Rooyen, Francois C

    2015-01-01

    Household food security impacts heavily on quality of life. We determined factors associated with food insecurity in 886 households in rural and urban Free State Province, South Africa. Significantly more urban than rural households reported current food shortage (81% and 47%, respectively). Predictors of food security included vegetable production in rural areas and keeping food for future use in urban households. Microwave oven ownership was negatively associated with food insecurity in urban households and using a primus or paraffin stove positively associated with food insecurity in rural households. Interventions to improve food availability and access should be emphasized.

  14. [Epidemic research in the south of Fujian Province in modern times from the viewpoints of overseas communication].

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan; Zhang, Sun-Biao; Zeng, Yi-Ling

    2012-09-01

    Under the particular geographical environment and social structure, different spatiality of epidemics was observed in the south of Fujian Province. Some important factors cannot be ignored in the study of local epidemics, such as its developed overseas communication, prosperous commercial activities between the East and the West and deep-rooted overseas emigration tradition. In modern times, public health ideas, therapies and prevention measures of west medicine were introduced, taking epidemic disease prevention as a turning point in this area, which promoted medical development of this area objectively, and valuable experience in disease prevention was accumulated.

  15. A serological survey of leptospirosis in cattle of rural communities in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, U W; Bagnall, R; Bosch, B; Perrett, K; Horner, R; Gummow, B

    2009-03-01

    A serological survey of leptospirosis in cattle originating from rural communities of the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) in South Africa was carried out between March 2001 and December 2003. The survey was designed as a 2-stage survey, using the local diptank as the primary sampling point. In total, 2021 animals from 379 diptanks in 33 magisterial districts were sampled and tested with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The apparent prevalence at district level was adjusted for clustering and diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity and displayed in maps. The prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle originating from communal grazing areas of KZN was found to be 19.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 14.8-24.1%. At district level the prevalence of leptospirosis varied from 0 to 63% of cattle. Bovine leptospirosis was found to occur in communal grazing areas throughout the province with the exception of 2 districts. The southeastern regions showed a higher prevalence than other areas of the province; while in some of the northern and western districts a lower prevalence was noted. Several serovars were detected by the MAT and although Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona occurred most frequently, serovars tarrasovi, bratislava, hardjo, canicola and icterohaemorrhagica were also frequently identified. The findings of the survey are discussed.

  16. Health Care Capacity and Allocations Among South Africa's Provinces: Infrastructure–Inequality Traps After the End of Apartheid

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the determinants of health care funding allocations among South Africa's provinces and their effects on health care from 1996 through 2007. Methods. We performed multivariate regression of funding allocation data against measures of disease burden and health system infrastructure by province. Results. Disease burden was increasingly negatively correlated with funding allocations and explained less than one quarter of the variation in allocations among provinces. Nearly three quarters of the variation in allocations was explained by preexisting hospital infrastructure and health care workers. The density of private hospitals in the preceding year was associated with greater government allocations (bprivate = 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08, 0.15), but public hospital density in the preceding year was not (bpublic = 0.05; 95% CI = −0.02, 0.11). Greater allocations were associated with a higher number of doctors (b = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.75) but fewer nurses (b = −0.37; 95% CI = −0.72,−0.25) in the same year. Conclusions. Regions with a greater capacity to spend funds received more funding and created more infrastructure than those with greater health needs. Historical infrastructure inequalities may have created an infrastructure–inequality trap, in which the distribution of funds to those with greater “absorptive capacity” exacerbates inequalities. PMID:21148716

  17. Health care capacity and allocations among South Africa's provinces: infrastructure-inequality traps after the end of apartheid.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the determinants of health care funding allocations among South Africa's provinces and their effects on health care from 1996 through 2007. We performed multivariate regression of funding allocation data against measures of disease burden and health system infrastructure by province. Disease burden was increasingly negatively correlated with funding allocations and explained less than one quarter of the variation in allocations among provinces. Nearly three quarters of the variation in allocations was explained by preexisting hospital infrastructure and health care workers. The density of private hospitals in the preceding year was associated with greater government allocations (b(private) = 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08, 0.15), but public hospital density in the preceding year was not (b(public) = 0.05; 95% CI = -0.02, 0.11). Greater allocations were associated with a higher number of doctors (b = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.75) but fewer nurses (b = -0.37; 95% CI = -0.72,-0.25) in the same year. Regions with a greater capacity to spend funds received more funding and created more infrastructure than those with greater health needs. Historical infrastructure inequalities may have created an infrastructure-inequality trap, in which the distribution of funds to those with greater "absorptive capacity" exacerbates inequalities.

  18. Indoor household residual spraying program performance in Matabeleland South province, Zimbabwe: 2011 to 2012; a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chimberengwa, Pugie Tawanda; Masuka, Nyasha; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Takundwa, Lucia; Bangure, Donewell

    2015-01-01

    Matabeleland South launched the malaria pre-elimination campaign in 2012 but provincial spraying coverage has failed to attain 95% target, with some districts still encountering malaria outbreaks. A study was conducted to evaluate program performance against achieving malaria pre-elimination. A descriptive cross sectional study was done in 5 districts carrying out IRS using the logical framework involving inputs, process, outputs and outcome evaluation. Health workers recruited into the study included direct program implementers, district and provincial program managers. An interviewer administered questionnaire, checklists, key informant interviewer guide and desk review of records were used to collect data. We enrolled 37 primary respondents and 5 key informants. Pre-elimination, Epidemic Preparedness and Response plans were absent in all districts. Shortages of inputs were reported by 97% of respondents, with districts receiving 80% of requested budget. Insecticides were procured centrally at national level. Spraying started late and districts failed to spray all targeted households by end of December. The province is using makeshift camps with inappropriate evaporation ponds where liquid DDT waste is not safely accounted for. The provincial IHRS coverage for 2011 was 84%. Challenges cited included; food shortages for spraymen, late delivery of inputs and poor state of IHRS equipment. The province has failed to achieve Malaria pre-elimination IRS coverage targets for 2011/12 season. Financial and logistical challenges led to delays in supply of program inputs, recruitment and training of sprayers. The Province should establish camping infrastructure with standard evaporation ponds to minimise contamination of the environment.

  19. Modeling the Complexities of Water and Hygiene in Limpopo Province South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, J. E.; Smith, J. A.; Learmonth, G.; Netshandama, V.; Dillingham, R.

    2012-12-01

    Access to sustainable water and sanitation services is one of the biggest challenges the developing world faces as an increasing number of people inhabit those areas. Inadequate access to water and sanitation infrastructure often leads children to drink poor quality water which can result in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Repeated episodes of ECD can cause serious problems such as growth stunting, cognitive impairment, and even death. Although researchers have long studied the connection between poor access to water and hygiene facilities and ECD, most studies have relied on intervention-control methods to study the effects of singular interventions. Such studies are time-consuming, costly, and fail to acknowledge that the causes and prevention strategies for ECD are numerous and complex. An alternate approach is to think of a community as a complex system in which the engineered, natural and social environments interact in ways that are not easily predicted. Such complex systems have no central or coordinating mechanism and may exhibit emergent behavior which can be counterintuitive and lead to valuable insights. The goal of this research is to develop a robust, quantitative understanding of the complex pathogen transmission chain that leads to ECD. To realize this goal, we have developed an Agent-Based Model (ABM) which simulates individual community member behavior. We have validated this transdisciplinary model with four years of field data from a community in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Our model incorporates data such as household water source preferences, collection habits, household- and source-water quality, water-source reliability and biological regrowth. Our outcome measures are household water quality, ECD incidences, and child growth stunting. This technique allows us to test hypotheses on the computer. Future researchers can implement promising interventions with our partner institution, the University of Venda, and the model can be refined as

  20. Positive practice environments influence job satisfaction of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Munyewende, Pascalia Ozida; Rispel, Laetitia Charmaine; Chirwa, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Nurses constitute the majority of the health workforce in South Africa and they play a major role in providing primary health care (PHC) services. Job satisfaction influences nurse retention and successful implementation of health system reforms. This study was conducted in light of renewed government commitment to reforms at the PHC level, and to contribute to the development of solutions to the challenges faced by the South African nursing workforce. The objective of the study was to determine overall job satisfaction of PHC clinic nursing managers and the predictors of their job satisfaction in two South African provinces. During 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Stratified random sampling was used to survey a total of 111 nursing managers working in PHC clinics. These managers completed a pre-tested Measure of Job Satisfaction questionnaire with subscales on personal satisfaction, workload, professional support, training, pay, career prospects and standards of care. Mean scores were used to measure overall job satisfaction and various subscales. Predictors of job satisfaction were determined through multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 108 nursing managers completed the survey representing a 97% response rate. The mean age of respondents was 49 years (SD = 7.9) and the majority of them (92%) were female. Seventy-six percent had a PHC clinical training qualification. Overall mean job satisfaction scores were 142.80 (SD = 24.3) and 143.41 (SD = 25.6) for Gauteng and Free State provinces respectively out of a maximum possible score of 215. Predictors of job satisfaction were: working in a clinic of choice (RRR = 3.10 (95% CI: 1.11 to 8.62, P = 0.030)), being tired at work (RRR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.50, P = 0.001)) and experience of verbal abuse (RRR = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.55, P = 0.001). Allowing nurses greater choice of clinic to work in, the prevention of violence

  1. Positive practice environments influence job satisfaction of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses constitute the majority of the health workforce in South Africa and they play a major role in providing primary health care (PHC) services. Job satisfaction influences nurse retention and successful implementation of health system reforms. This study was conducted in light of renewed government commitment to reforms at the PHC level, and to contribute to the development of solutions to the challenges faced by the South African nursing workforce. The objective of the study was to determine overall job satisfaction of PHC clinic nursing managers and the predictors of their job satisfaction in two South African provinces. Methods During 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Stratified random sampling was used to survey a total of 111 nursing managers working in PHC clinics. These managers completed a pre-tested Measure of Job Satisfaction questionnaire with subscales on personal satisfaction, workload, professional support, training, pay, career prospects and standards of care. Mean scores were used to measure overall job satisfaction and various subscales. Predictors of job satisfaction were determined through multiple logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 108 nursing managers completed the survey representing a 97% response rate. The mean age of respondents was 49 years (SD = 7.9) and the majority of them (92%) were female. Seventy-six percent had a PHC clinical training qualification. Overall mean job satisfaction scores were 142.80 (SD = 24.3) and 143.41 (SD = 25.6) for Gauteng and Free State provinces respectively out of a maximum possible score of 215. Predictors of job satisfaction were: working in a clinic of choice (RRR = 3.10 (95% CI: 1.11 to 8.62, P = 0.030)), being tired at work (RRR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.50, P = 0.001)) and experience of verbal abuse (RRR = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.55, P = 0.001). Conclusion Allowing nurses greater choice of clinic

  2. Secondary School Teachers' Experiences of Teaching Pregnant Learners in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlala, Sogo F.; Nolte, A. G. W.; Temane, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on the experiences of secondary school teachers on teaching pregnant learners in Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten purposively selected secondary school teachers. Data analysis yielded six themes,…

  3. Measuring the Quality of Communication Linkages between Farmers and the Agricultural Agencies Responsible for the Diffusion of Innovations in the South West Province of Cameroon. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Bridget Ayuk

    The quality of communication linkages between farmers and the agricultural agencies responsible for diffusion of innovations in the South West Province of Cameroon was examined in a study of all 25 researchers and 150 extension agents in the province and 385 farmers who were randomly selected from the province's 3,000 farmers. Data were collected…

  4. Tracking data from nine free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) collared in the Thabazimbi area, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marnewick, Kelly; Page-Nicholson, Samantha; Roxburgh, Lizanne; Somers, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust's Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners. The data were collected between September 2003 and November 2008, resulting in a total of 3165 location points (65 points from VHF collars and 3100 from GPS collars) for nine individual Cheetahs. This dataset provides distribution information about this Vulnerable species occurring outside of protected areas within South Africa. The dataset has been published to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (www.GBIF.org) and provides the largest dataset on Cheetahs thus far, and, although it is spatially limited to a relatively small region on the African continent, it is the first study of its kind within South Africa. Also of significance is that the fate of 6 of the 9 collared Cheetahs is known, all except one of which died of anthropogenic causes.

  5. Tracking data from nine free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) collared in the Thabazimbi area, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marnewick, Kelly; Roxburgh, Lizanne; Somers, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust’s Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners. The data were collected between September 2003 and November 2008, resulting in a total of 3165 location points (65 points from VHF collars and 3100 from GPS collars) for nine individual Cheetahs. New information This dataset provides distribution information about this Vulnerable species occurring outside of protected areas within South Africa. The dataset has been published to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (www.GBIF.org) and provides the largest dataset on Cheetahs thus far, and, although it is spatially limited to a relatively small region on the African continent, it is the first study of its kind within South Africa. Also of significance is that the fate of 6 of the 9 collared Cheetahs is known, all except one of which died of anthropogenic causes. PMID:28325981

  6. Epidemiological profile of patients utilising public oral health services in Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thema, Lawrence K; Singh, Shenuka

    2017-07-12

    Despite the impact of oral diseases on the quality of life, there is limited updated evidence on oral health status in Limpopo province. To determine the epidemiological profile of patients utilising public oral health services in Limpopo province. This was a descriptive retrospective clinical chart review conducted in five purposively selected district hospitals in Limpopo province. The collected data included the patient's sociodemographic information, reasons for dental consultation, information on the dental or oral diseases and the treatment received. Five hundred clinical files were systematically selected (100 from each district hospital) for the period 01 January 1995 to 31 December 2013. Data were collected using the World Health Organization's indicator age groups, namely 6-year-olds, 12-year-olds, 18-year-olds and 35-44-year-old groups. A data capturing sheet was used to record the collected information. Data were analysed using the statistical software package for social sciences SPSS version 23.0. The majority of patients were in the age group of 6 to 20 years (n = 375, 75%). The majority were male patients (n = 309; 62%). Dental caries was the most common complaint (n = 298, 60%). The second most common main complaint in this age group was retained primary or deciduous teeth (n = 60, 12%) affecting children mainly in the age group of 6 to 12 years. The most common clinical procedure across all five districts was dental extractions (n = 324, 64%). Other clinical interventions included scaling and polishing (n = 33, 12%) and dental restorative care (n = 20, 3%). There is an urgent need to reorient oral health service delivery in Limpopo province to focus more on preventive oral health programmes.

  7. The Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Central South America: Los Monos - Machareti(!) Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Los Monos - Machareti(!) total petroleum system is in the Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Bolivia, Argentina and Paraguay. Province history is that of a Paleozoic, intracratonic, siliciclastic rift basin that evolved into a Miocene (Andean) foreland fold and thrust belt. Existing fields are typified by alternating reservoir and seal rocks in post-Ordovician sandstones and shales on anticlines. Thick Devonian and Silurian shale source rocks, depositionally and erosionally confined to this province, at a minimum have generated 4.1 BBOE known ultimate recoverable reserves (as of 1995, 77% gas, 15% condensate, 8% oil) into dominantly Carboniferous reservoirs with average 20% porosity and 156 md permeability. Major detachment surfaces within the source rocks contributed to the thin-skinned and laterally continuous nature of the deformation. Tertiary foreland burial adequate for significant source maturation coincided with the formation of compressional traps. Further hydrocarbon discovery in the fold and thrust belt is expected. In the foreland basin, higher thermal gradients and variable burial history - combined with the presence of unconformity and onlap wedges - create potential there for stratigraphic traps and pre-Andean, block-fault and forced-fold traps.

  8. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

  9. Changes in malaria morbidity and mortality in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa (2001- 2009): a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a serious epidemic threat in Mpumalanga Province. In order to appropriately target interventions to achieve substantial reduction in the burden of malaria and ultimately eliminate the disease, there is a need to track progress of malaria control efforts by assessing the time trends and evaluating the impact of current control interventions. This study aimed to assess the changes in the burden of malaria in Mpumalanga Province during the past eight malaria seasons (2001/02 to 2008/09) and whether indoor residual spraying (IRS) and climate variability had an effect on these changes. Methods This is a descriptive retrospective study based on the analysis of secondary malaria surveillance data (cases and deaths) in Mpumalanga Province. Data were extracted from the Integrated Malaria Information System. Time series model (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) was used to assess the association between climate and malaria. Results Within the study period, a total of 35,191 cases and 164 deaths due to malaria were notified in Mpumalanga Province. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of malaria from 385 in 2001/02 to 50 cases per 100,000 population in 2008/09 (P < 0.005). The incidence and case fatality (CFR) rates for the study period were 134 cases per 100,000 and 0.54%, respectively. Mortality due to malaria was lower in infants and children (CFR < 0.5%) and higher in those >65 years, with the mean CFR of 2.1% as compared to the national target of 0.5%. A distinct seasonal transmission pattern was found to be significantly related to changes in rainfall patterns (P = 0.007). A notable decline in malaria case notification was observed following apparent scale-up of IRS coverage from 2006/07 to 2008/09 malaria seasons. Conclusions Mpumalanga Province has achieved the goal of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality by over 70%, partly as a result of scale-up of IRS intervention in combination with other control strategies. These

  10. Compassion satisfaction, burnout and secondary traumatic stress among termination of pregnancy providers in two South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Teffo, Mantshi E; Levin, Jonathan; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2018-05-23

    Focusing on compassion satisfaction, burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS) among termination of pregnancy (TOP) providers, a cross - sectional study was conducted among these providers in Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa during 2014 and 2015. During 2014 and 2015, a cross-sectional study was conducted among TOP service providers in Gauteng and North West provinces. Consented providers completed a self-administered professional quality of life (PRoQOL) questionnaire, sociodemographic information and possible reasons for working as TOP providers. STATA 13 was used for data analysis. We recruited 105 TOP providers, obtaining 98% response rate. Participants mean age was 43.4 (standard deviation [SD] = 8.7), majority were nurses (70.9%), female (82%), married (47.6%) and 63% were working in hospitals. The overall mean score for compassion satisfaction was high at 42 (SD 5.5). Predictors of compassion satisfaction were finding work stimulating, belief in making a difference, enjoying relationships with other nurses and years of TOP service (P < 0.05). Province and gender were significant, with significant interaction. Burnout mean scores were average at 33 (SD = 4.0), with belief in helping women to make informed choices a marginally significant predictor of burnout. The overall STS mean score was average with a mean of 23 (SD = 6.8). Significant predictors of STS scores were finding work stimulating, belief in women's rights, belief in allowing informed choices, age and gender. Health policy makers and managers should endeavor to provide employee assistance programs that enhance compassion satisfaction and reduce burnout and STS among TOP providers. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  12. E-W strike slip shearing of Kinwat granitoid at South East Deccan Volcanic Province, Kinwat, Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplay, R. D.; Kumar, T. Vijay; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Wesanekar, P. R.; Babar, Md; Chavan, Sumeet

    2017-07-01

    We study the margin of South East Deccan Volcanic Province around Kinwat lineament, Maharashtra, India, which is NW extension of the Kaddam Fault. Structural field studies document ˜ E-W strike-slip mostly brittle faults from the basement granite. We designate this as `Western boundary East Dharwar Craton Strike-slip Zone' (WBEDCSZ). At local level, the deformation regime from Kinwat, Kaddam Fault, micro-seismically active Nanded and seismically active Killari corroborate with the nearby lineaments. Morphometric analyses suggest that the region is moderately tectonically active. The region of intense strike-slip deformation lies between seismically active fault along Tapi in NW and Bhadrachalam in the SE part of the Kaddam Fault/lineament. The WBEDCSZ with the surface evidences of faulting, presence of a major lineaments and intersection of faults could be a zone of intraplate earthquake.

  13. Onychostoma brevibarba, a new cyprinine fish (Pisces: Teleostei) from the middle Chang Jiang basin in Hunan Province, South China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xue-Ling; Cao, Liang; Zhang, E

    2018-04-16

    Onychostoma brevibarba, a new cyprinid species, is described from two tributaries flowing into the Xiang Jiang (= River) of the middle Chang Jiang basin in Hunan Province, South China. The new species is morphologically similar to two Chinese congeners, O. minnanense and O. barbatulum, but differs from them in the anteromedian extension of the postlabial groove. It further differs from O. minnanense in the maxillary-barbel length, shape and body coloration, and from O. barbatulum in the number of lateral-line perforated scales and the width of the mouth opening. The validity of the new species and its close relationship with these two species were affirmed by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial cyt b and CO1 genes.

  14. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lebese, Tsakani R.; Maputle, Sonto M.; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. Aim To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Setting Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. Methodology A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Results Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school) and (2) teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Conclusion Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP. PMID:27380849

  15. An evaluation of the emergency care training workshops in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Mergan

    2017-03-30

    Emergency care in South Africa is both complex and complicated which is further compromised by inadequately trained healthcare workers. Academic disciplines at the University of KwaZulu-Natal have run emergency care workshops for doctors and nurses providing primary emergency care, in the province for the last 14 years. This delivery of such training has evolved over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feedback and knowledge of participants attending the last nine workshops. An evaluation questionnaire asked participants to assess the workshops held in the province and to rate their perceived improvement in knowledge. A multiple choice questionnaire was conducted in the last few workshops and was administered pre- and postworkshop. The data were extracted onto an Excel spreadsheet and analysed in Stata version 13. Outcome measures were generated using percentages. A paired t-test was used to compare knowledge scores. Open-ended questions were also used to identify areas for future improvement. The majority (89.4%) of the participants worked in the primary emergency care setting. All participants found the quality of training, the facilitators and the training material good or excellent. Participants' perceived improvement in knowledge and skills and the objective measure of knowledge improved significantly (p < 0.001). Emergency care education using a combination of inter-professional simulation and lecture-based teaching has the potential of contributing towards better educational outputs in both undergraduate and postgraduate curricula.

  16. Inclusion of climate change strategies in municipal Integrated Development Plans: A case from seven municipalities in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has made it clear that anthropogenic greenhouse gasses are the main cause of observed global warming that leads to climate change. Climate change is now a global reality. In the South African political set-up, local municipalities are the structures that are in direct contact with communities and they draw up Integrated Development Plans (IDPs), which are reviewed and upgraded annually. The article seeks to investigate the extent to which climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies are embedded IDPs in seven vulnerable municipalities in the Limpopo Province. The article conducted an in-depth content analysis of the IDPs of the seven municipalities and the results have revealed that these municipalities have not included adaptation and mitigation strategies adequately in their IDPs despite being the most vulnerable municipalities in the province. The article concludes that these municipalities have not as yet institutionalised climate change in their daily operations, planning and decision making. To this end, the paper recommends that local municipalities should include climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in their IDPs.

  17. Predictability of Malaria Transmission Intensity in the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, Using Land Surface Climatology and Autoregressive Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grass, David; Jasinski, Michael F.; Govere, John

    2003-01-01

    There has been increasing effort in recent years to employ satellite remotely sensed data to identify and map vector habitat and malaria transmission risk in data sparse environments. In the current investigation, available satellite and other land surface climatology data products are employed in short-term forecasting of infection rates in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, using a multivariate autoregressive approach. The climatology variables include precipitation, air temperature and other land surface states computed by the Off-line Land-Surface Global Assimilation System (OLGA) including soil moisture and surface evaporation. Satellite data products include the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and other forcing data used in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) model. Predictions are compared to long- term monthly records of clinical and microscopic diagnoses. The approach addresses the high degree of short-term autocorrelation in the disease and weather time series. The resulting model is able to predict 11 of the 13 months that were classified as high risk during the validation period, indicating the utility of applying antecedent climatic variables to the prediction of malaria incidence for the Mpumalanga Province.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria transmission in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa 2015.

    PubMed

    Manana, Pinky N; Kuonza, Lazarus; Musekiwa, Alfred; Mpangane, Hluphi D; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2017-07-20

    In South Africa malaria is endemic in Mpumalanga, Limpopo and the north-eastern areas of KwaZulu-Natal provinces. South Africa has set targets to eliminate malaria by 2018 and research into complementary vector control tools such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is ongoing. It is important to understand community perceptions regarding malaria transmission and control interventions to enable development of community awareness campaign messages appropriate to the needs of the community. We aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding malaria transmission to inform a public awareness campaign for SIT in Jozini Local Municipality, Mamfene in KwaZulu-Natal province. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three communities in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal during 2015. A structured field piloted questionnaire was administered to 400 randomly selected heads of households. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Of the 400 participants interviewed, 99% had heard about malaria and correctly associated it with mosquito bites. The sources of malaria information were the local health facility (53%), radio (16%) and community meetings (7%). Approximately 63% of the participants were able to identify three or four symptoms of malaria. The majority (76%) were confident that indoor residual spraying (IRS) kills mosquitoes and prevents infection. Bed nets were used by 2% of the participants. SIT knowledge was poor (9%), however 63% of the participants were supportive of mosquito releases for research purposes. The remaining 37% raised concerns and fears, including fear of the unknown and lack of information on the SIT. Appropriate knowledge, positive attitude and acceptable treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria were demonstrated by members of the community. Community involvement will be crucial in achieving success of the SIT and future studies should further investigate concerns raised by the community. The existing communication channels used by the

  19. Knowledge of High School Learners Regarding Substance Use within High School Premises in the Buffalo Flats of East London, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manu, Emmanuel; Maluleke, Xavela T.; Douglas, Mbuyiselo

    2017-01-01

    South Africa has a high rate of substance abuse among youths both in and out of school with East London in the Eastern Cape Province experiencing an increase in young people ages 20 years and below seeking treatment for substance abuse. The purpose of the study was to explore the knowledge of high school learners (grades 10 to 12) regarding…

  20. Establishing a Computerized Substance Abuse Surveillance System for District Social Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Methods, Successes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan; Parry, Charles; Carelse, Jermaine

    2011-01-01

    The provision of accurate, in-depth data on substance abuse trends and service needs has become increasingly important in light of the growing wave of substance abuse in South Africa and particularly in the Western Cape Province. This article describes the design and implementation of an electronic substance abuse surveillance system (SASS)…

  1. The noncommunicable disease outcomes of primary healthcare screening in two rural subdistricts of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Middle and lower income countries are challenged with a double burden of disease: while still coping with the onslaught of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and increasing levels of tuberculosis (TB), there is a considerable increase in the level of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The poor are especially disadvantaged and are at an increased risk for NCDs. Adequate healthcare resources for this environment can only be allocated once the extent and exact nature of the problem is determined. Aim and setting The aim of this study was to collect demographic and NCD-related data in the poorest community of the poorest province of South Africa in order to determine the extent of the problem and advise on allocation of resources accordingly. Methods Data were collected via a household primary health screening process, which included taking anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and blood glucose and referring to clinics for further testing and treatment where necessary. Results It was found that the population screened was generally older, consisted of women, and had a high incidence of obesity and hypertension. Of note was the fact that in those without known hypertension, close to 40% of individuals had possible newly diagnosed hypertension. This increased with increase in age and body mass index (BMI). The total prevalence of diabetes was close to 5%, but possible new diabetes was considerably lower at approximately 1%. Conclusion In this rural area of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, undiagnosed hypertension is a major concern and renewed efforts at detection and control are warranted. PMID:29113445

  2. Poverty and Disability in Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Mitchell; Eide, Arne H.; Jelsma, Jennifer; Toni, Mzolisi ka; Maart, Soraya

    2008-01-01

    The impact of disability on the living conditions of people living in specifically resource-poor areas in South Africa has not previously been addressed. This paper presents a comparison of people with a disability and their non-disabled peers with respect to some key poverty indicators among a sample of Xhosa speaking individuals in resource-poor…

  3. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, Gudrun A; Tyler, Joanne; Mandeya, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25); and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14). They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9). Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31). Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the children of rural South

  4. Using diaries to explore the work experiences of primary health care nursing managers in two South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Munyewende, Pascalia O; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2014-01-01

    South Africa is on the brink of another wave of major health system reforms that underscore the centrality of primary health care (PHC). Nursing managers will play a critical role in these reforms. The aim of the study was to explore the work experiences of PHC clinic nursing managers through the use of reflective diaries, a method hitherto under-utilised in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries. During 2012, a sub-set of 22 PHC nursing managers was selected randomly from a larger nurses' survey in two South African provinces. After informed consent, participants were requested to keep individual diaries for a period of 6 weeks, using a clear set of diary entry guidelines. Reminders consisted of weekly short message service reminders and telephone calls. Diary entries were analysed using thematic content analysis. A diary feedback meeting was held with all the participants to validate the findings. Fifteen diaries were received, representing a 68% response rate. The majority of respondents (14/15) were female, each with between 5 and 15 years of nursing experience. Most participants made their diary entries at home. Diaries proved to be cathartic for individual nursing managers. Although inter-related and not mutually exclusive, the main themes that emerged from the diary analysis were health system deficiencies; human resource challenges; unsupportive management environment; leadership and governance; and the emotional impact of clinic management. Diaries are an innovative method of capturing the work experiences of managers at the PHC level, as they allow for confidentiality and anonymity, often not possible with other qualitative research methods. The expressed concerns of nursing managers must be addressed to ensure the success of South Africa's health sector reforms, particularly at the PHC level.

  5. Using diaries to explore the work experiences of primary health care nursing managers in two South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    Munyewende, Pascalia O.; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background South Africa is on the brink of another wave of major health system reforms that underscore the centrality of primary health care (PHC). Nursing managers will play a critical role in these reforms. Objective The aim of the study was to explore the work experiences of PHC clinic nursing managers through the use of reflective diaries, a method hitherto under-utilised in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries. Design During 2012, a sub-set of 22 PHC nursing managers was selected randomly from a larger nurses’ survey in two South African provinces. After informed consent, participants were requested to keep individual diaries for a period of 6 weeks, using a clear set of diary entry guidelines. Reminders consisted of weekly short message service reminders and telephone calls. Diary entries were analysed using thematic content analysis. A diary feedback meeting was held with all the participants to validate the findings. Results Fifteen diaries were received, representing a 68% response rate. The majority of respondents (14/15) were female, each with between 5 and 15 years of nursing experience. Most participants made their diary entries at home. Diaries proved to be cathartic for individual nursing managers. Although inter-related and not mutually exclusive, the main themes that emerged from the diary analysis were health system deficiencies; human resource challenges; unsupportive management environment; leadership and governance; and the emotional impact of clinic management. Conclusions Diaries are an innovative method of capturing the work experiences of managers at the PHC level, as they allow for confidentiality and anonymity, often not possible with other qualitative research methods. The expressed concerns of nursing managers must be addressed to ensure the success of South Africa's health sector reforms, particularly at the PHC level. PMID:25537937

  6. Phylogeny and colonization history of Pringlea antiscorbutica (Brassicaceae), an emblematic endemic from the South Indian Ocean Province.

    PubMed

    Bartish, Igor V; Aïnouche, Abdelkader; Jia, Dongrui; Bergstrom, Dana; Chown, Steven L; Winkworth, Richard C; Hennion, Françoise

    2012-11-01

    The origins and evolution of sub-Antarctic island floras are not well understood. In particular there is uncertainty about the ages of the contemporary floras and the ultimate origins of the lineages they contain. Pringlea R. Br. (Brassicaceae) is a monotypic genus endemic to four sub-Antarctic island groups in the southern Indian Ocean. Here we used sequences from both the chloroplast and nuclear genomes to examine the phylogenetic position of this enigmatic genus. Our analyses confirm that Pringlea falls within the tribe Thelypodieae and provide a preliminary view of its relationships within the group. Divergence time estimates and ancestral area reconstructions imply Pringlea diverged from a South American ancestor ~5 Myr ago. It remains unclear whether the ancestor of Pringlea dispersed directly to the South Indian Ocean Province (SIOP) or used Antarctica as a stepping-stone; what is clear, however, is that following arrival in the SIOP several additional long-distance dispersal events must be inferred to explain the current distribution of this species. Our analyses also suggest that although Pringlea is likely to have inherited cold tolerance from its closest relatives, the distinctive morphology of this species evolved only after it split from the South American lineage. More generally, our results lend support to the hypothesis that angiosperms persisted on the sub-Antarctic islands throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Taken together with evidence from other sub-Antarctic island plant groups, they suggest the extant flora of sub-Antarctic is likely to have been assembled over a broad time period and from lineages with distinctive biogeographic histories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality and readability of information pamphlets on hearing and paediatric hearing loss in the Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Karin; Githinji, Esther

    2014-02-01

    The implementation of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programmes is necessary in order to facilitate the early identification of hearing loss. An important component of EHDI is parental education. International and national guidelines stipulating that comprehensive, unbiased and appropriate information pamphlets should be provided to parents as part of EHDI programmes, however little is known about the availability and readability of such materials in South Africa. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine the availability of information pamphlets on hearing and hearing loss in children at public hospitals in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. In addition, the quality and readability levels of these pamphlets were determined. A non-experimental, descriptive research design was employed for this study. Information on the availability of leaflets at public health hospitals was obtained through a telephonic survey. Twenty-one information pamphlets available at these hospitals were then evaluated to determine the quality and readability levels. It was found that 73% of audiology departments at public hospitals in Gauteng had information pamphlets available on hearing and hearing loss in children. Of the pamphlets evaluated, the majority were rated to 'present with serious problems' questioning the quality of the content included. In addition, it was found that on average the readability level of these pamphlets were at a sixth-grade level, much higher that the recommended fourth-grade reading level. The need for development of quality educational material focused on providing parents with unbiased, comprehensive and appropriate information on hearing and hearing loss in children has been highlighted. Proposed guidelines were recommended to assist audiologists in this endeavour. The importance of providing appropriate parental educational materials for the success of EHDI in South Africa should not be underestimated. Copyright © 2013

  8. Petrogenesis of early Jurassic basalts in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: Implications for the thermal state of the Mesozoic mantle beneath South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Tao; Li, Wu-xian; Wang, Xuan-ce; Pang, Chong-jin; Li, Zheng-xiang; Xing, Guang-fu; Zhao, Xi-lin; Tao, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    Early Jurassic bimodal volcanic and intrusive rocks in southern South China show distinct associations and distribution patterns in comparison with those of the Middle Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the area. It is widely accepted that these rocks formed in an extensional setting, although the timing of the onset and the tectonic driver for extension are debated. Here, we present systematic LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data for bimodal volcanic rocks from the Changpu Formation in the Changpu-Baimianshi and Dongkeng-Linjiang basins in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at ca. 190 Ma, contemporaneous with the Fankeng basalts ( 183 Ma). A compilation of geochronological results demonstrates that basin-scale basaltic eruptions occurred during the Early Jurassic within a relatively short interval (< 5 Ma). These Early Jurassic basalts have tholeiitic compositions and OIB-like trace element distribution patterns. Geochemical analyses show that the basalts were derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, dominated by a volatile-free peridotite source. The calculated primary melt compositions suggest that the basalts formed at 1.9-2.1 GPa, with melting temperatures of 1378 °C-1405 °C and a mantle potential temperature (TP) ranging from 1383 °C to 1407 °C. The temperature range is somewhat hotter than normal mid-ocean-basalt (MORB) mantle but similar to an intra-plate continental mantle setting, such as the Basin and Range Province in western North America. This study provides an important constraint on the Early Jurassic mantle thermal state beneath South China. Reference: Raczek, I., Stoll, B., Hofmann, A.W., Jochum, K.P. 2001. High-precision trace element data for the USGS reference materials BCR-1, BCR-2, BHVO-1, BHVO-2, AGV-1, AGV-2, DTS-1, DTS-2, GSP-1 and GSP-2 by ID-TIMS and MIC-SSMS. Geostandards Newsletter 25(1), 77-86.

  9. Late Triassic granites from Bangka, Indonesia: A continuation of the Main Range granite province of the South-East Asian Tin Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Samuel Wai-Pan; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Roselee, Muhammad H.; Teschner, Claudia; Murtadha, Sayed; Oliver, Grahame J. H.; Ghani, Azman A.; Chang, Su-Chin

    2017-05-01

    The South-East Asian Tin Belt is one of the most tin-productive regions in the world. It comprises three north-south oriented granite provinces, of which the arc-related Eastern granite province and the collision-related Main Range granite province run across Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. These tin-producing granite provinces with different mineral assemblages are separated by Paleo-Tethyan sutures exposed in Thailand and Malaysia. The Eastern Province is usually characterised by granites with biotite ± hornblende. Main Range granites are sometimes characterised by the presence of biotite ± muscovite. However, the physical boundary between the two types of granite is not well-defined on the Indonesian Tin Islands, because the Paleo-Tethyan suture is not exposed on land there. Both hornblende-bearing (previously interpreted as I-type) and hornblende-barren (previously interpreted as S-type) granites are apparently randomly distributed on the Indonesian Tin Islands. Granites exposed on Bangka, the largest and southernmost Tin Island, no matter whether they are hornblende-bearing or hornblende-barren, are geochemically similar to Malaysian Main Range granites. The average ɛNd(t) value obtained from the granites from Bangka (average ɛNd(t) = -8.2) falls within the range of the Main Range Province (-9.6 to -5.4). These granites have SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 225 Ma and ca. 220 Ma, respectively that are both within the period of Main Range magmatism (∼226-201 Ma) in the Peninsular Malaysia. We suggest that the granites exposed on Bangka represent the continuation of the Main Range Province, and that the Paleo-Tethyan suture lies to the east of the island.

  10. Molecular differentiation of Entamoeba spp. in a rural community of Loja province, South Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Levecke, B; Dreesen, L; Barrionuevo-Samaniego, M; Ortiz, W Benitez; Praet, N; Brandt, J; Dorny, P

    2011-12-01

    Although previous epidemiological surveys in Ecuador indicate the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, prevalence data of this parasite remain scarce. Most of the studies were based on microscopic examination, which does not allow a morphological differentiation from the non-pathogenic Ent. dispar and Ent. moshkovskii. In the present study, 674 stool samples from a South Ecuadorian rural community were screened for Entamoeba spp. Subsequently, molecular identification was performed on 101 samples containing Ent. histolytica/Ent. dispar/Ent. moshkovskii cysts. The study indicated the absence of Ent. histolytica in this South Ecuadorian community and confirmed the difficulty of differentiating Entamoeba spp. based on morphological features. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal history and differential exhumation across the Eastern Musgrave Province, South Australia: Insights from low-temperature thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glorie, Stijn; Agostino, Kate; Dutch, Rian; Pawley, Mark; Hall, James; Danišík, Martin; Evans, Noreen J.; Collins, Alan S.

    2017-04-01

    Multi-method geo- and thermochronological data obtained for Palaeo- and Mesoproterozoic granitoids traversing the main structural architecture of the eastern Musgrave Province within South Australia reveal multiphase cooling histories. Apatite U-Pb dating on six samples yield consistent ages of 1075-1025 Ma, suggesting a thermal reset coinciding with mantle-derived magmatism of the greater Warakurna Large Igneous Province ( 1080-1040 Ma). Apatite fission track (AFT) analysis indicate that four discrete thermal events affected the study area, inducing cooling through the AFT partial annealing zone ( 60-120 °C), supported by apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He data. Late Neoproterozoic cooling from deep crustal levels to temperatures < 200 °C was discerned, which is thought to be related to exhumation and denudation during the Petermann Orogeny. Subsequent cooling events at 450-400 Ma (Silurian-Devonian) and 310-290 Ma (Late Carboniferous) are interpreted to represent exhumation associated with the Alice Springs Orogeny. The latter event exhumed the sampled plutons to shallow crustal depths. An additional Triassic - early Jurassic thermal event, likely recording elevated geothermal gradients at that time, was observed throughout the study area, however, more data is needed to further support this interpretation. The high sample density across the structural architecture of the study area furthermore reveals patterns of fault reactivation and resulting differential exhumation, indicating shallower exhumation levels in the centre and deeper exhumation towards the margins of the sampled transect. The observed differential exhumation patterns match with existing seismic data and fit a model of an inverted graben system for the Phanerozoic evolution of the eastern Musgraves. The results highlight a complex Phanerozoic thermal history for the eastern Musgraves and help to elucidate the poorly appreciated tectonic evolution of inland Australia. This study further demonstrates

  12. Condom use as part of the wider HIV prevention strategy: experiences from communities in the North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Versteeg, Marije; Murray, Montagu

    2008-07-01

    Correct and consistent condom usage remains a pivotal strategy in reaching the target set by the South African government to reduce new HIV infections by 50% in the next 5 years. Studies have found that there has been an increase in condom usage by some categories of the population, but usage has not yet reached the desired levels in order to meet the target. This article reports on the findings of a study on condom usage in eight communities in the North West Province, which was part of a wider HIV and AIDS programme evaluation commissioned by the North West Provincial Department of Health. The main aim was to assess accessibility to condoms, and knowledge, attitudes and practices around condom use by four sampled communities in the North West Province. Eight focus group discussions were held and 50 households were interviewed. The study found positive results regarding accessibility and awareness of condoms. However, this often did not lead to the desired behavioural change of using condoms in risky sexual interactions. The majority of respondents still resisted condom usage, used condoms inconsistently, or were not in a position to negotiate protected sexual intercourse. The main reasons reported for this were: reduced pleasure, perceived and real physical side-effects, myths, lack of information, status, financial reasons, distrust in the efficacy of condoms, family planning, cultural reasons, gender-related reasons and trust. Many of the barriers to consistent condom use cannot be overcome by strategies that target the individual. Interventions need to address underlying developmental factors such as the non-biological factors that increase the susceptibility of women to HIV infection. As this falls outside of the scope of the mandate of the Department of Health, various partnerships with other key role players need to be established and/or strengthened, such as with local government, non-governmental organisations and faith-based organisations.

  13. The pattern of self-harm in Fars Province in South Iran: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gholamzadeh, Saeid; Zahmatkeshan, Mozhghan; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Elaheh; Hoseni, Sanaz

    2017-10-01

    Non-suicidal self-harm includes cutting, scratching, burning and minor overdosing. There have been few studies that have examined the rate and pattern of self-harm among different individuals of the society. We performed a population-based study to determine different aspects of non-suicidal self-harm in cases referred to legal medicine organization of Fars Province and south Iran. In a population-based longitudinal survey, we applied data from cases referred to legal medicine organization of Fars province. The survey included questions about the history, method, frequency, age of onset and help-seeking for non-suicidal self-harm. The data about non-suicidal self-harm were collected since 2007 to 2011 and analyzed using students' T-test for continuous data and χ 2 for binary or categorical data using SPSS ver. 21.0. Totally 2166 individuals were diagnosed who had ever harmed themselves. Self-injuries such as cutting, scratching and self-hitting were the most common forms of non-suicidal self-harm (83.2%). The mean age of onset was 25.7 ± 2.6 years. Self-injury was more frequent in males and individuals with lower education levels mostly unemployed. The most frequent injury site was posterior side of the body for example shoulders (157; 9.8%) and the most type of the injury was bruise in 398(55.26%) cases. Hard objects (1197; 55.26%) were the most used devices for self-injury followed by cutting and sharp devices. Among those who reported non-suicidal self-harm, 56% had sought help while self-injury. We found a high prevalence of non-suicidal self-harm in different individuals of the society in Fars province since 2007 to 2011. Many mental-health symptoms as well as legal and financial gains should be evaluated for any association with this behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. The Epidemiology of Meningitis among Adults in a South African Province with a High HIV Prevalence, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Britz, Erika; Perovic, Olga; von Mollendorf, Claire; von Gottberg, Anne; Iyaloo, Samantha; Quan, Vanessa; Chetty, Verushka; Sriruttan, Charlotte; Ismail, Nazir A; Nanoo, Ananta; Musekiwa, Alfred; Reddy, Carl; Viljoen, Karien; Cohen, Cheryl; Govender, Nelesh P

    Meningitis is a major cause of mortality in southern Africa. We aimed to describe the aetiologies and frequencies of laboratory-confirmed fungal and bacterial meningitis among adults in a South African province with an 11% HIV prevalence, over 4 years. We conducted a retrospective, observational study of secondary laboratory data, extracted on all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens submitted to public-sector laboratories in Gauteng province from 2009 through 2012. We calculated cause-specific incidence rates in the general and HIV-infected populations and used Poisson regression to determine if trends were significant. We identified 11,891 (10.7%) incident cases of meningitis from 110,885 CSF specimens. Cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculous meningitis and pneumococcal meningitis accounted for 62.3% (n = 7,406), 24.6% (n = 2,928) and 10.1% (n = 1,197) of cases over the four-year period. The overall incidence (cases per 100,000 persons) of cryptococcal meningitis declined by 23% from 24.4 in 2009 to 18.7 in 2012 (p <0.001) and decreased by 19% among HIV-infected persons from 178.2 to 144.7 (p <0.001). Tuberculous meningitis decreased by 40% from 11.3 in 2009 to 6.8 in 2012 (p <0.001) and decreased by 36% among HIV-infected persons from 54.4 to 34.9 (p <0.001). Pneumococcal meningitis decreased by 41% from 4.2 in 2009 to 2.5 in 2012 (p <0.001) and decreased by 38% among HIV-infected persons from 28.0 to 17.5 (p <0.001). Among cases of other bacterial meningitis (248/11,891, 2.1%), Neisseria meningitidis (n = 93), Escherichia coli (n = 72) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 20) were the most common organisms identified. In this high HIV-prevalence province, cryptococcal meningitis was the leading cause of laboratory-confirmed meningitis among adults. Over a 4-year period, there was a significant decrease in incidence of cryptococcal, tuberculous and pneumococcal meningitis. This coincided with expansion of the national antiretroviral treatment programme, enhanced

  15. The Epidemiology of Meningitis among Adults in a South African Province with a High HIV Prevalence, 2009-2012

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Erika; Perovic, Olga; von Mollendorf, Claire; von Gottberg, Anne; Iyaloo, Samantha; Quan, Vanessa; Chetty, Verushka; Sriruttan, Charlotte; Ismail, Nazir A.; Nanoo, Ananta; Musekiwa, Alfred; Reddy, Carl; Viljoen, Karien; Cohen, Cheryl; Govender, Nelesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Meningitis is a major cause of mortality in southern Africa. We aimed to describe the aetiologies and frequencies of laboratory-confirmed fungal and bacterial meningitis among adults in a South African province with an 11% HIV prevalence, over 4 years. Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational study of secondary laboratory data, extracted on all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens submitted to public-sector laboratories in Gauteng province from 2009 through 2012. We calculated cause-specific incidence rates in the general and HIV-infected populations and used Poisson regression to determine if trends were significant. Results We identified 11,891 (10.7%) incident cases of meningitis from 110,885 CSF specimens. Cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculous meningitis and pneumococcal meningitis accounted for 62.3% (n = 7,406), 24.6% (n = 2,928) and 10.1% (n = 1,197) of cases over the four-year period. The overall incidence (cases per 100,000 persons) of cryptococcal meningitis declined by 23% from 24.4 in 2009 to 18.7 in 2012 (p <0.001) and decreased by 19% among HIV-infected persons from 178.2 to 144.7 (p <0.001). Tuberculous meningitis decreased by 40% from 11.3 in 2009 to 6.8 in 2012 (p <0.001) and decreased by 36% among HIV-infected persons from 54.4 to 34.9 (p <0.001). Pneumococcal meningitis decreased by 41% from 4.2 in 2009 to 2.5 in 2012 (p <0.001) and decreased by 38% among HIV-infected persons from 28.0 to 17.5 (p <0.001). Among cases of other bacterial meningitis (248/11,891, 2.1%), Neisseria meningitidis (n = 93), Escherichia coli (n = 72) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 20) were the most common organisms identified. Conclusions In this high HIV-prevalence province, cryptococcal meningitis was the leading cause of laboratory-confirmed meningitis among adults. Over a 4-year period, there was a significant decrease in incidence of cryptococcal, tuberculous and pneumococcal meningitis. This coincided with expansion of the national

  16. Midwives' experiences of managing women in labour in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maputle, S M; Hiss, D C

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives managing women during labour at a tertiary care hospital in the Limpopo Province. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive design was applied to this qualitative research study. Purposive sampling was used to select midwives who were working in the childbirth unit and had managed women during labour. A sample of 12 midwives participated in this study. Data were collected by means of unstructured individual interviews and analysed through an open coding method by the researchers and the independent co-coder. Categories identified were lack of mutual participation and responsibility sharing, dependency and lack of decision-making, lack of information-sharing, empowering autonomy and informed choices opportunities, lack of open communication and listening, non-accommodative midwifery actions, and lack of human and material infrastructure. To ensure the validity of the results, criteria to measure trustworthiness were utilized. This study has implications for woman-centered care by midwives managing women in labour and provides appropriate guidelines that should be integrated into the Batho-Pele Principles.

  17. Comparative analysis of plant use in peri-urban domestic gardens of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively little has been researched or published on the importance of peri-urban domestic gardens as part of a household livelihood strategy in South Africa. Due to lack of comprehensive data on peri-urban domestic gardens, their potential value as luxury green space, provision of food, income and ecosystem services to the fast growing urban population in South Africa is not clearly known. The aim of this study was to document differences and similarities in plant use and diversity in domestic gardens of two peri-urban communities in the Limpopo Province that differ in proximity to an urban area. Methods Data on plant use categories of 62 domestic gardens in the peri-urban areas of the Limpopo Province were collected in Seshego and Lebowakgomo. Semi-structured interviews, observation and guided field walks with 62 participants were employed between May and October 2012. Results A total of 126 plant species were recorded for both Seshego and Lebowakgomo. Domestic gardens in the more remote areas of Lebowakgomo were characterized by higher percentage of food plants (47 species, 83.8% of the total food plants recorded) and medicinal plants (31 species, 83.7%). Lebowakgomo domestic gardens were also characterized by higher numbers of indigenous plants (76.7%) showing similarities to the natural surrounding vegetation in terms of plant species. On the contrary, domestic gardens of Seshego on the periphery of the city centre were characterized by higher percentage of exotic species (81.8%) and ornamental plants (73%), with food plants playing a supplementary role. Comparison of the two areas demonstrated a remarkable difference in plant use and composition. Conclusions This study revealed that there are differences in utilization of plant resources between households on the edge of an urban centre and those in the more remote areas. Food and medicinal plants play an important role in remote areas; while ornamental plants play an important role in urban

  18. An evaluation of the competencies of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    Munyewende, Pascalia O.; Levin, Jonathan; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Managerial competencies to enhance individual and organisational performance have gained currency in global efforts to strengthen health systems. Competent managers are essential in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) reforms that aim to achieve universal health coverage. Objective To evaluate the competencies of PHC clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Using stratified random sampling, 111 PHC clinic nursing managers were selected. All supervisors (n=104) and subordinate nurses (n=383) were invited to participate in the survey on the day of data collection. Following informed consent, the nursing managers, their supervisors, and subordinate nurses completed a 40-item, 360-degree competency assessment questionnaire, with six domains: communication, leadership and management, staff management, financial management, planning and priority setting, and problem-solving. Standard deviations, medians, and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) were computed separately for PHC nursing managers, supervisors, and subordinate nurses for competencies in the six domains. The Tinsley and Weiss index was used to assess agreement between each of the three possible pairs of raters. Results A 95.4% response rate was obtained, with 105 nursing managers in Gauteng and Free State completing the questionnaires. There was a lack of agreement about nursing managers’ competencies among the three groups of raters. Overall, clinic nursing managers rated themselves high on the five domains of communication (8.6), leadership and management (8.67), staff management (8.75), planning and priority setting (8.6), and problem-solving (8.83). The exception was financial management with a median score of 7.94 (IQR 6.33–9.11). Compared to the PHC clinic managers, the supervisors and subordinate nurses gave PHC nursing managers lower ratings on all six competency domains, with the lowest

  19. Bapedi traditional healers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Their socio-cultural profile and traditional healing practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bapedi traditional healers play a vital role in the primary health care of rural inhabitants in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. However, literature profiling their social and demographic variables, as well as their traditional healing practices is lacking. Methods Convenience sampling were used to identify and select two traditional healers from 17 municipalities (resulting in 34 healers being used in this pilot survey) of the Limpopo Province in South Africa. Information on the social and demographic variables, and traditional healing practices of these healers was gathered from January 2013 to July 2013, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented by field surveys for plant identification and collection used in the preparation of remedies. Results Males constituted nearly two-thirds of the participants. Forty eight percent of them became healers through the mentoring of another healer, while 38% acquired their traditional healing knowledge from parents and 14% from grandparents. In contrast to this, 62% of the females obtained theirs from their parents, 30% from fellow traditional healers, and 8% from grandparents. A total of 154 plant species were indicated as used by healers in the treatment of 52 health-related problems. A vast majority (89%) of these practitioners reported that prepared herbal remedies do expire, which is a temperature-dependent process. Determinations of the efficacy of remedies by most healers (67%) were via consultation with ancestors (90%). This study also found that none of the interviewees had any knowledge of provincial or national environmental legislation. Conclusions The current study has shown that Bapedi traditional healers could play a leading role in both the preservation of indigenous knowledge and the primary health care sector. However, of concern is the traditional methods (via consulting ancestors) employed by most of these healers in determining efficacy of remedies, thus indicating a need for a

  20. An evaluation of the competencies of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Munyewende, Pascalia O; Levin, Jonathan; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2016-01-01

    Managerial competencies to enhance individual and organisational performance have gained currency in global efforts to strengthen health systems. Competent managers are essential in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) reforms that aim to achieve universal health coverage. To evaluate the competencies of PHC clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Using stratified random sampling, 111 PHC clinic nursing managers were selected. All supervisors ( n =104) and subordinate nurses ( n =383) were invited to participate in the survey on the day of data collection. Following informed consent, the nursing managers, their supervisors, and subordinate nurses completed a 40-item, 360-degree competency assessment questionnaire, with six domains: communication, leadership and management, staff management, financial management, planning and priority setting, and problem-solving. Standard deviations, medians, and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) were computed separately for PHC nursing managers, supervisors, and subordinate nurses for competencies in the six domains. The Tinsley and Weiss index was used to assess agreement between each of the three possible pairs of raters. A 95.4% response rate was obtained, with 105 nursing managers in Gauteng and Free State completing the questionnaires. There was a lack of agreement about nursing managers' competencies among the three groups of raters. Overall, clinic nursing managers rated themselves high on the five domains of communication (8.6), leadership and management (8.67), staff management (8.75), planning and priority setting (8.6), and problem-solving (8.83). The exception was financial management with a median score of 7.94 (IQR 6.33-9.11). Compared to the PHC clinic managers, the supervisors and subordinate nurses gave PHC nursing managers lower ratings on all six competency domains, with the lowest rating for financial management

  1. Mitigation of landslide area around railway tunnel, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toha, M. Taufik; Setiabudidaya, Dedi; Komar, Syamsul; Bochori, Ghadafi, Moamar A.; Adiwarman, Mirza; Rahim, S. E.

    2017-09-01

    Adequate and safe railway line infrastructures as well as facilities are required to support the rail transport system in South Sumatra. The slope stability along railway line of Lahat-Lubuk Linggau South Sumatra were studied during landslide that occured on January 23th, 2016. The landslide occurred on the mouth of railway tunnel in Gunung Gajah Village, Lahat District that causing the railway transportation system had to be stopped for a few days. A comprehensive research was conducted to analyze the causes of the landslide and to identify other landslide risky areas along the railway line Lahat-Lubuk Linggau. The research activities included surveying, sampling, laboratory testing, investigating condition of geology, geotechnics, hydrogeology/hydrology, morphology and land use. The factors that cause landslide in the past studies were found to be morphology, structural geology, physical and mechanical characteristics, hydrogeology, hydrology, external forces (train vibration, earthquake). Results back analysis of slope stability when the landslide occurred showed that the value Safety Factor (SF) = 1, angle of friction = 0°, and cohesion = 0.49 kg/cm2 (49 kPa). Based on the observation and analysis of the condition of the morphology and orientation of the structure of the rock layers, there was a location prone to landslide (labile) in the surrounding area of the landslide. Mitigations to potential landslide in adjacent area were building a retaining wall, draining channels, and shortcrete at the rock wall after landslides and maintaining the land use around the slopes.

  2. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.

    2015-05-01

    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  3. Social drift of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Africans from the North West Province of South Africa: the PURE study.

    PubMed

    Pisa, P T; Behanan, R; Vorster, H H; Kruger, A

    2012-08-01

    This study examined whether the association between socio-economic status (SES) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in black South Africans from the North West Province had shifted from the more affluent groups with higher SES to the less affluent, lower SES groups over a period of nine years. Cross-sectional baseline data of 2 010 urban and rural subjects (35 years and older) participating in the Prospective Urban and Rural (PURE) study and collected in 2005 were analysed to examine the relationship of level of education, employment and urban or rural residence with dietary intakes and other CVD risk factors. These relationships were compared to those found nine years earlier in the Transition and Health during the Urbanisation of South Africans (THUSA) study conducted in the same area. The results showed that urban women had higher body mass index (BMI), serum triglyceride and fasting glucose levels compared to rural women and that both urban men and women had higher blood pressures and followed a more Westernised diet. However, rural men and women had higher plasma fibrinogen levels. The more highly educated subjects (which included both urban and rural subjects) were younger than those with no or only primary school education. Few of the risk factors differed significantly between education groups, except that more highly educated men and women had lower BMIs, and women had lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels. These women also followed a more prudent diet than those with only primary school education. Employed men and women had higher BMIs, higher energy intakes but lower plasma fibrinogen levels, and employed women had lower triglyceride levels. No significant differences in total serum cholesterol values were observed. These results suggest a drift of CVD risk factors from groups with higher SES to groups with a lower SES from 1996 to 2005, indicating that interventions to prevent CVD should also be targeted at Africans living in rural

  4. Magnetic reversal frequency in the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation, Hunan Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zongqi; Liu, Qingsong; Ren, Shoumai; Li, Lihui; Deng, Xiaolong; Liu, Jianxing

    2018-05-01

    The reversal frequency of the paleomagnetic field bears great information of evolution of the Earth's deep interior. However, there are still debates on the frequency pattern during the older periods of the Phanerozoic. This study investigated the Niutitang Formation (Lower Cambrian) of the Ciye 1 Hole from south China. Rock magnetic results indicate that the dominant magnetic carrier is magnetite. Characteristic remanence magnetizations have been successfully isolated for the weakly-magnetized shale rocks through stepwise alternated field demagnetization using the 2 G Enterprises Rapid System Magnetometer with a low-noise thin-walled quartz-glass sample holder. Constrained by radiometric ages, our paleomagnetic results indicated frequent polarity reversals during the period of ˜524-514 Ma, which backs up the speculation about the episode of the Ediacaran-Cambrian (˜550-500 Ma) with a character of reversal hyperactivity.

  5. Grain size statistics and depositional pattern of the Ecca Group sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiyegunhi, Christopher; Liu, Kuiwu; Gwavava, Oswald

    2017-11-01

    Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicate the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots show that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are lacustrine or deltaic deposits. The C-M plots indicated that the sediments were deposited mainly by suspension and saltation, and graded suspension. Visher diagrams show that saltation is the major process of transportation, followed by suspension.

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and anthelmintic resistance on small-scale farms in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tsotetsi, Ana Mbokeleng; Njiro, Stephen; Katsande, Tendai Charles; Moyo, Gugulethu; Baloyi, Faculty; Mpofu, Jaison

    2013-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths, to detect the presence of anthelmintic resistance in livestock from small-scale farms and to determine the level of helminthosis awareness among small-scale farmers in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Blood and faecal samples were collected from cattle (n = 314), sheep (n = 256) and goats (n = 311). Faecal egg counts and cultures were done, helminth genera identified and packed cell volume was assessed to detect anaemia. A faecal egg count reduction test was used to determine anthelmintic resistance against albendazole (7.5 mg/kg), levamisole (5 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg) on five small ruminant farms. A high prevalence of both nematodes and trematodes was observed; however, only 1 % of cattle had high nematode egg counts compared to goats (30 %) and sheep (32 %). Only 5 % of the animals were anaemic. Haemonchus and Calicophoron were the most dominant helminth genera in the studied ruminants. Anthelmintic resistance was detected against the three tested drugs on all the screened farms, except against albendazole and levamisole in sheep from Hammanskraal and Nigel, respectively. About 88 % of interviewed farmers were aware of veterinary helminthosis, 67 % treated against helminths and 83 % provided their livestock with nutritional supplements. This study showed that a high prevalence of helminthosis and anthelmintic resistance does occur in the study area, thus relevant strategic interventions are recommended.

  7. Census and vaccination coverage of owned dog populations in four resource-limited rural communities, Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Conan, Anne; Geerdes, Joy A C; Akerele, Oluyemisi A; Reininghaus, Bjorn; Simpson, Gregory J G; Knobel, Darryn

    2017-09-22

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) are often free-roaming in sub-Saharan African countries. Rabies virus circulates in many of these populations and presents a public health issue. Mass vaccination of dog populations is the recommended method to decrease the number of dog and human rabies cases. We describe and compare four populations of dogs and their vaccination coverage in four different villages (Hluvukani, Athol, Utah and Dixie) in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the villages of Athol, Utah and Dixie, while data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were used to describe the dog population in Hluvukani village. All households of the villages were visited to obtain information on the number, sex, age and rabies vaccination status of dogs. From May to October 2013, 2969 households were visited in the four villages and 942 owned dogs were reported. The populations were all young and skewed towards males. No differences were observed in the sex and age distributions (puppies 0-3 months excluded) among the villages. Athol had a higher proportion of dog-owning households than Hluvukani and Utah. Vaccination coverages were all above the 20% - 40% threshold required for herd immunity to rabies (38% in Hluvukani, 51% in Athol, 65% in Dixie and 74% in Utah). For the preparation of vaccination campaigns, we recommend the use of the relatively stable dog:human ratio (between 1:12 and 1:16) to estimate the number of dogs per village in Bushbuckridge Municipality.

  8. Toxic heavy metals in sediments, seawater, and molluscs in the eastern and western coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Zhang, Jingping; Jiang, Zhijian; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and distribution were studied in sediments, seawater, and molluscs, and the possible heavy metal sources in the coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China were discussed. The results showed that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr in sediments in eastern coastal waters were generally higher than those in the western coastal waters. However, concentrations of most metals in seawater and molluscs in western waters were higher than in the eastern waters, which was tightly related to the local economics and urbanization development, especially, the different industrial structure in two regions. The main heavy metal sources were attributed to the industrial and agricultural effluent, domestic sewage, and even waste gas. Furthermore, heavy metal contamination assessment indicated that high contamination levels of Cd, Zn, and Pb occurred in sediments in local areas, especially in the bays and harbors. The metal accumulation levels by molluscs ranked following the order of Cd > Cu > As > Zn > Pb > Cr, and the ecological risks introduced by heavy metals in different areas were in the order of Zhanjiang > Yangmao > Shantou > Shanhui.

  9. Forecasting the number of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in south of Fars province, Iran using seasonal ARIMA time series method.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mehdi; Ghaem, Haleh; Tabatabaee, Hamid Reza; Faramarzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    To predict the trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis and assess the relationship between the disease trend and weather variables in south of Fars province using Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model. The trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis was predicted using Mini tab software and SARIMA model. Besides, information about the disease and weather conditions was collected monthly based on time series design during January 2010 to March 2016. Moreover, various SARIMA models were assessed and the best one was selected. Then, the model's fitness was evaluated based on normality of the residuals' distribution, correspondence between the fitted and real amounts, and calculation of Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC). The study results indicated that SARIMA model (4,1,4)(0,1,0) (12) in general and SARIMA model (4,1,4)(0,1,1) (12) in below and above 15 years age groups could appropriately predict the disease trend in the study area. Moreover, temperature with a three-month delay (lag3) increased the disease trend, rainfall with a four-month delay (lag4) decreased the disease trend, and rainfall with a nine-month delay (lag9) increased the disease trend. Based on the results, leishmaniasis follows a descending trend in the study area in case drought condition continues, SARIMA models can suitably measure the disease trend, and the disease follows a seasonal trend. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Assessment of Radiological Hazards from Gold Mine Tailings in the Province of Gauteng in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Radiological hazards associated with exposure to Naturally Occurring Radionuclides Materials from gold mine tailings in the province of Gauteng in South Africa were evaluated. A comparison was made with soil samples from a control area. In this study, gamma spectroscopy was used to measure the activity concentrations of these radionuclides in 56 soil samples from the mine tailings and 10 soil samples from the control area. The average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg−1 for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the mine tailings were found to be 785.3 ± 13.7, 43.9 ± 1.0 and 427.0 ± 13.1, respectively. On the other hand, the average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg−1 for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the control area were found to be 17.0.1 ± 0.4, 22.2 ± 0.5 and 496.8 ± 15.2, respectively. Radiological hazard parameters calculated from these activity concentrations were higher than recommended safe limits. In particular, calculated average values for the external hazard (Hex) and the internal hazard (Hin) from the mine tailings were found to be 2.4 and 4.5. Both these values were higher than unity, posing a significant health risk to the population in the area. PMID:26797624

  11. Temporal-spatial variation of bacterial diversity in estuary sediments in the south of Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Chang; Zheng, Tian-Ling; Chen, Jian-Jun

    2016-03-01

    The winter and summer microbial community structure in sediment samples obtained from the estuaries of the wastewater-polluted River Ou (DO and XO), River Feiyun (DF and XF), and River Ao (DA and XA) in the south of Zhejiang Province in China was determined using 454 pyrosequencing. Sediment samples (DD and XD) were also correspondingly collected near the shore far from the estuaries for comparison. For the above sediments, 294,870 effective sequences were obtained to do the bacterial diversity and abundance determination. In total, 1924, 1517, 2071, 1956, 1995, 1800, 2261, and 2097 operational taxonomic units were obtained at 3 % distance cutoff in the DO, XO, DF, XF, DA, XA, DD, and XD sediments, respectively. Bacterial phylotype richness in DD was higher than the other sediments, and XO had the least richness. The most dominant class in the DA, DD, DF, DO, and XA sediments is Gammaproteobacteria. Deltaproteobacteria is the most dominant one in XD, XO, and XF. Circa 14.4 % sequences in XD were found to be affiliated with the Flavobacteriales order. Characterization of the estuarine sediment bacterial communities indicated that chemical pollution has the potential to decrease the natural variability that exists among estuary ecosystems. However, chemical pollutants did not cause clear bio-homogenization in these estuaries.

  12. Mantle sources and magma evolution of the Rooiberg lavas, Bushveld Large Igneous Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, T.; Haase, K. M.; Klemd, R.; Teschner, C.

    2018-06-01

    We report a new whole-rock dataset of major and trace element abundances and 87Sr/86Sr-143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios for basaltic to rhyolitic lavas from the Rooiberg continental large igneous province (LIP). The formation of the Paleoproterozoic Rooiberg Group is contemporaneous with and spatially related to the layered intrusion of the Bushveld Complex, which stratigraphically separates the volcanic succession. Our new data confirm the presence of low- and high-Ti mafic and intermediate lavas (basaltic—andesitic compositions) with > 4 wt% MgO, as well as evolved rocks (andesitic—rhyolitic compositions), characterized by MgO contents of < 4 wt%. The high- and low-Ti basaltic lavas have different incompatible trace element ratios (e.g. (La/Sm)N, Nb/Y and Ti/Y), indicating a different petrogenesis. MELTS modelling shows that the evolved lavas are formed by fractional crystallization from the mafic low-Ti lavas at low-to-moderate pressures ( 4 kbar). Primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns of the Rooiberg rocks show an enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE), rare-earth elements (REE) and pronounced negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, P, Ti and a positive Pb anomaly. Unaltered Rooiberg lavas have negative ɛNdi (- 5.2 to - 9.4) and radiogenic ɛSri (6.6 to 105) ratios (at 2061 Ma). These data overlap with isotope and trace element compositions of purported parental melts to the Bushveld Complex, especially for the lower zone. We suggest that the Rooiberg suite originated from a source similar to the composition of the B1-magma suggested as parental to the Bushveld Lower Zone, or that the lavas represent eruptive successions of fractional crystallization products related to the ultramafic cumulates that were forming at depth. The Rooiberg magmas may have formed by 10-20% crustal assimilation by the fractionation of a very primitive mantle-derived melt within the upper crust of the Kaapvaal Craton. Alternatively, the magmas represent mixtures of melts

  13. Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. – a new huntsman spider species from fynbos vegetation in Western Cape Province, South Africa (Araneae, Sparassidae, Palystinae

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Peter; Kunz, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. is described from habitats close to Kleinmond, in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Spiders of this new species live in the typical fynbos vegetation of the Western Cape region. They build retreats between apical leaves of Leucadendron bushes. The systematic position of Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. is discussed. Male and female show characters of different species groups, especially the female copulatory organ seems to be unique within the genus Palystes L. Koch, 1875. PMID:21594031

  14. Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. - a new huntsman spider species from fynbos vegetation in Western Cape Province, South Africa (Araneae, Sparassidae, Palystinae.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Peter; Kunz, Dirk

    2010-11-10

    Palystes kreutzmannisp. n. is described from habitats close to Kleinmond, in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Spiders of this new species live in the typical fynbos vegetation of the Western Cape region. They build retreats between apical leaves of Leucadendron bushes. The systematic position of Palystes kreutzmannisp. n. is discussed. Male and female show characters of different species groups, especially the female copulatory organ seems to be unique within the genus Palystes L. Koch, 1875.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Higley, Debra K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 6.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.53 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations in the Williston Basin Province of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

  16. Permian-Triassic boundary microbialites at Zuodeng Section, Guangxi Province, South China: Geobiology and palaeoceanographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuheng; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Kershaw, Stephen; Yang, Hao; Luo, Mao

    2017-05-01

    A previously unknown microbialite bed in the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary beds of Zuodeng section, Tiandong County, Guangxi, South China comprises a thin (5 cm maximum thickness) stromatolite in the lower part and the remaining 6 m is thrombolite. The Zuodeng microbialite has a pronounced irregular contact between the latest Permian bioclastic limestone and microbialite, as in other sites in the region. The stromatolite comprises low-relief columnar and broad domal geometries, containing faint laminations. The thrombolite displays an irregular mixture of sparitic dark coloured altered microbial fabric and light coloured interstitial sediment in polished blocks. Abundant microproblematic calcimicrobe structures identified here as Gakhumella are preserved in dark coloured laminated areas of the stromatolite and sparitic areas in thrombolites (i.e. the calcimicrobial part, not the interstitial sediment) and are orientated perpendicular to stromatolitic laminae. Each Gakhumella individual has densely arranged segments, which form a column- to fan-shaped structure. Single segments are arch-shaped and form a thin chamber between segments. Gakhumella individuals in the stromatolite and thrombolite are slightly different from each other, but are readily distinguished from the Gakhumella- and Renalcis-like fossils reported from other P-Tr boundary microbialites in having a smaller size, unbranching columns and densely arranged, arch-shaped segments. Renalcids usually possess a larger body size and branching, lobate outlines. Filament sheath aggregates are also observed in the stromatolite and they are all orientated in one direction. Both Gakhumella and filament sheath aggregates may be photosynthetic algae, which may have played an important role in constructing the Zuodeng microbialites. Other calcimicrobes in the Zuodeng microbialite are spheroids, of which a total of five morphological types are recognized from both stromatolite and thrombolite: (1) sparry calcite

  17. Health system factors affecting implementation of integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): qualitative insights from a South African province.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Himani; Slemming, Wiedaad; Saloojee, Haroon

    2018-03-01

    The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy has been adopted by 102 countries including South Africa, as the preferred primary health care (PHC) delivery strategy for sick children under 5 years. Despite substantial investment to support IMCI in South Africa, its delivery remains sub-optimal, with varied implementation in different settings. There is scarce research globally, and in the local context, examining the effects of health system characteristics on IMCI implementation. This study explored key determinants of IMCI delivery in a South African province, with a specific focus on health system building blocks using a health system dynamics framework. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 districts, provincial and national respondents involved with IMCI co-ordination and delivery, exploring their involvement in, and perceptions of, IMCI strategy implementation. Identified barriers included poor definition of elements of a service package for children and how IMCI aligned with this, incompetence of trained nurses exacerbated by inappropriate rotation practices, use of inappropriate indicators to track progress, multiple cadres coordinating similar activities with poor role delineation, and fragmented, vertical governance of programmes included within IMCI, such as immunization. Enabling practices in one district included the use of standardized child health records incorporating IMCI activities and stringent practice monitoring through record audits. Using IMCI as a case study, our work highlights critical health system deficiencies affecting service delivery for young children which need to be resolved to reposition IMCI within the broader child 'survive, thrive and transform' agenda. Recommendations for appropriate health system strengthening include the need for redefining IMCI within a broader PHC service package for children, prioritizing post-training supervision and mentoring of practitioners through appropriate duty allocation and

  18. The Scenario of the Potential Analysis Alternative Energy in Order to Strengthening District's Energy Resilience (The Case Study in South Sumatera Province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry Muhrom, Muhammad; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita

    2017-10-01

    The current development of fossil energy, which is the driving force of the economy in Indonesia, is a non-renewable energy and is in need to know when it will be exhausted so it may be replaced with renewable energy. Many powerplant systems in Indonesia are still using conventional system that utilizes fossil energy as the primary energy in the process of electricity generation. The occurrence of electrical energy crisis is marked by several electricity blackout phenomenon in some areas in South Sumatera province rotately, which is the proof that the installed power capacity has exceeded the capacity of generation power. Interconnection among several islands, namely Java Island, Sumatera Island, and Bali Island which has been interconnected with closed loop system through transmission network has not been able to overcome the electrical energy crisis. This paper aims to create alternative energy potential scenarios in the province of South Sumatera in sequence/ranking by using quantitative methods with sequential explanatory model formulated in the determination of alternative energy strategies then analyzed by using Analitycal Hierarchy Process(AHP) method. The simulation results from this research indicate that geothermal energy potentials get the highest value so that it becomes the priority of alternative energy strategy in South Sumatera Province.

  19. Assessment on the use and availability of rice certified seeds in Bone regency, South Sulawesi province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farid, M.; Iswoyo, H.; Ridwan, I.; Nasaruddin; Dermawan, R.

    2018-05-01

    Use of certified seeds is necessary in rice farming system to ensure high production and productivity. In South Sulawesi, as one of the main center of Rice in Indonesia, increase in the regional harvest areas and land productivity was not followed by significant increase in rice productivity. Seeds policy implemented by the government not only covers the technology applied in the seeds production but also quality insurance, availability and its distribution system. Despite these efforts, use of certified seeds in the field by farmers are still limited, therefore a survey was conducted to study the use and availability of rice certified seeds in Bone regency. Farmer groups in 9 districts were sampled to obtained data concerned to the use and availability of rice seeds including type, planting season, cropping pattern and availability at planting. Results show that the use of certified seeds in Bone regency were relatively high, however level of seeds supply was low or delayed at time of planting. To overcome the problem of seed supply, most farmers used its own seeds from previous harvest. Some suggestions to resolve this condition are discussed.

  20. Phytotherapeutic Information on Plants Used for the Treatment of Tuberculosis in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, I. O.; Grierson, D. S.; Afolayan, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The current rate of deforestation in Africa constitutes a serious danger to the future of medicinal plants on this continent. Conservation of these medicinal plants in the field and the scientific documentation of our knowledge about them are therefore crucial. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) was carried out in selected areas of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. These areas were Hala, Ncera, Sheshegu, and Gquamashe, all within the Nkonkobe Municipality. One hundred informants were interviewed. The survey included the identification of scientific and vernacular names of the plants used for treatment of TB as well as the methods of preparation and administration, the part used, dosage, and duration of treatment. The survey revealed 30 plants belonging to 21 families which are commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of TB and associated diseases. Of these plants Clausena anisata, Haemanthus albiflos, and Artemisia afra were the most cited. The leaves were the most common part used in the medicinal preparations. Our findings are discussed in relation to the importance of the documentation of medicinal plants. PMID:24864158

  1. Vegetation mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (south-west Iran).

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Ahmadreza; Naqinezhad, Alireza; Mahiny, Abdolrassoul Salman; Mostafavi, Hossein; Liaghati, Homan; Kouchekzadeh, Mohsen

    2009-03-01

    Arid regions of the world occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions, vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of arid regions is necessary and modern vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps. Sixteen map units covering 12 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata, Salicornia europaea-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  2. Epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome in a South African community in the Western Cape Province.

    PubMed Central

    May, P A; Brooke, L; Gossage, J P; Croxford, J; Adnams, C; Jones, K L; Robinson, L; Viljoen, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome in a South African community, and methodology was designed for the multidisciplinary study of fetal alcohol syndrome in developing societies. METHODS: An active case ascertainment, 2-tier methodology was used among 992 first-grade pupils. A case-control design, using measures of growth, development, dysmorphology, and maternal risk, delineated characteristics of children with fetal alcohol syndrome. RESULTS: A high rate of fetal alcohol syndrome was found in the schools--40.5 to 46.4 per 1000 children aged 5 to 9 years--and age-specific community rates (ages 6-7) were 39.2 to 42.9. These rates are 18 to 141 times greater than in the United States. Rural residents had significantly more fetal alcohol syndrome. After control for ethnic variation, children with fetal alcohol syndrome had traits similar to those elsewhere: poor growth and development, congruent dysmorphology, and lower intellectual functioning. CONCLUSIONS: This study documented the highest fetal alcohol syndrome rate to date in an overall community population. Fetal alcohol syndrome initiatives that incorporate innovative sampling and active case ascertainment methods can be used to obtain timely and accurate data among developing populations. PMID:11111264

  3. Modeling the Complexities of Water, Hygiene, and Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, Jonathan E.; Smith, James A.; Learmonth, Gerard P.; Netshandama, Vhonani O.; Dillingham, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long studied the causes and prevention strategies of poor household water quality and early childhood diarrhea using intervention-control trials. Although the results of such trails can lead to useful information, they do not capture the complexity of this natural/engineered/social system. We report on the development of an agent-based model (ABM) to study such a system in Limpopo, South Africa. The study is based on four years of field data collection to accurately capture essential elements of the communities and their water contamination chain. An extensive analysis of those elements explored behaviors including water collection and treatment frequency as well as biofilm buildup in water storage containers, source water quality, and water container types. Results indicate that interventions must be optimally implemented in order to see significant reductions in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Household boiling frequency, source water quality, water container type and the biofilm layer contribution were deemed to have significant impacts on ECD. Furthermore, concurrently implemented highly effective interventions were shown to reduce diarrhea rates to very low levels even when other, less important practices were sub-optimal. This technique can be used by a variety of stakeholders when designing interventions to reduce ECD incidences in similar settings. PMID:23186073

  4. Modeling the complexities of water, hygiene, and health in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Learmonth, Gerard P; Netshandama, Vhonani O; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2012-12-18

    Researchers have long studied the causes and prevention strategies of poor household water quality and early childhood diarrhea using intervention-control trials. Although the results of such trails can lead to useful information, they do not capture the complexity of this natural/engineered/social system. We report on the development of an agent-based model (ABM) to study such a system in Limpopo, South Africa. The study is based on four years of field data collection to accurately capture essential elements of the communities and their water contamination chain. An extensive analysis of those elements explored behaviors including water collection and treatment frequency as well as biofilm buildup in water storage containers, source water quality, and water container types. Results indicate that interventions must be optimally implemented in order to see significant reductions in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Household boiling frequency, source water quality, water container type, and the biofilm layer contribution were deemed to have significant impacts on ECD. Furthermore, concurrently implemented highly effective interventions were shown to reduce diarrhea rates to very low levels even when other, less important practices were suboptimal. This technique can be used by a variety of stakeholders when designing interventions to reduce ECD incidences in similar settings.

  5. Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa II. New locality records.

    PubMed

    Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2014-09-01

    Baseline information on parasitic infections, including monogenean infections on wild fishes, may aid in implementation of proactive measures as opposed to reactive research aimed at crisis control with reference to future aquaculture applications. The aim of this project was to examine the freshwater monogenean fauna of the Vaal Dam, Vaal River system, South Africa. This short communication reports on infection statistics for monogenean species, some representing new locality records. Parasites were collected from host species other than Labeo spp. from the Vaal Dam, during a summer (January 2010) survey. Fish collected using gill nets of varying mesh sizes were weighed and measured. Mucous smears were prepared from the skin and fins with the aid of microscope slides. Fish were killed humanely by severing the spinal cord behind the head. Gills were carefully removed and divided into areas which were separately scraped to investigate potential parasite site preference. The areas examined were dorsal, median and ventral positions on both the anterior and posterior hemibranch. Both mucous smears and gill scrapings were examined with the aid of a stereo microscope. More parasites were collected from the first or second gill arches, the medial position on the gill, and the anterior hemibranch. Preference for either left or right gill set was inconclusive. Spatial distribution of parasites is thought to result from water flow over the gills during respiration. This paper reports a new locality record for the following monogenean species: Quadriacanthus aegypticus, Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus minitus, Gyrodactylus kherulensis and Dactylogyrus lamellatus.

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in primary school children of mthatha, eastern cape province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nxasana, N; Baba, K; Bhat, Vg; Vasaikar, Sd

    2013-10-01

    The presence of intestinal parasites in a population group is indicative of lack of proper sanitation, low economic standards and poor educational background. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in primary school children of Mthatha, South Africa and relate this to their socio-economic status. The study population was randomly selected from four governmental schools, rural and urban, from April 2009 to September 2009. A total of 162 learners (85 boys and 77 girls) participated in this survey. Parasitological data were collected by analyzing stool samples using Formalin ethyl-acetate concentration technique. Socio-economic and epidemiologic data were collected by means of a pre-tested structured questionnaire, covering the important relevant aspects, in this descriptive, cross sectional and analytical study. Data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially with SPSS satistical software, and P values of <0.05 were considered as significant. Out of 162 learners analyzed, 64.8% (105/162) stool samples were positive for ova and cysts of which 57.4% (93/162) were known pathogenic parasites. The most common parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides 29.0% (47/162), followed by Giardia lamblia 9.9% (16/162) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 6.8% (11/162) (Other parasites observed but at lower rates of occurrence were Iodamoeba butschlii, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp, Chilomastix mesnili, and Fasciola spp. Our findings showed no significant difference in parasitic infections between urban and rural learners, gender and the age of these learners. Significant associations between parasitic infections and parents' unemployment and lower education were observed. Prevalence of worm infestation was more than 50%; therefore, there was a need for mass de-worming of school children in these communities and also a need for other public health interventions like health education programs and improvement of sanitation.

  7. Infective endocarditis in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: a three-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Koegelenberg, C F N; Doubell, A F; Orth, H; Reuter, H

    2003-03-01

    The last 50 years have seen major changes in the epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE). To evaluate local patient characteristics, risk factors, clinical sequelae, microbiology, morbidity and mortality in patients with definite IE. Prospective observational study. Over a three-year period, patients referred with probable IE were prospectively enrolled. All received a standardized diagnostic evaluation. Epidemiological data were documented; underlying risk factors for IE were sought. Initial evaluation and follow-up (to 6 months) included the documentation of vascular or immunological phenomena, morbidity and mortality. Of 92 patients referred with probable IE, 47 had definite IE. These patients had a mean age of 37.7 years with a male predominance (1.6:1). Rheumatic heart disease was present in 36 (76.6%). Eight had prosthetic valves. Three had congenital heart disease, mitral valve prolapse or multiple central intravascular catheters, respectively. All denied the use of intravenous recreational drugs and only one tested seropositive for HIV. Renal involvement (59.6%) and clubbing (29.8%) were commonly observed. The 6-month mortality rate was 35.6%, while 44.7% needed valvular replacement. An aetiological diagnosis was made in 21, with viridans streptococci the most common isolate. Infective endocarditis in the Western Cape of South Africa is a disease of younger adults, with a male predominance. Rheumatic heart disease is the major predisposing factor. Degenerative heart disease and intravenous drug abuse are not important risk factors. Our data do not support the notion that HIV infection is an independent risk factor for IE. Local mortality rates are much higher than recent international figures, as is the proportion of 'culture-negative' IE.

  8. Affects of mining activities on Cd pollution to the paddy soils and rice grain in Hunan province, Central South China.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Hu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Shu, Ying; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan

    2013-12-01

    Located in Central South China, Hunan province is rich in mineral resources. To study the influence of mining on Cd pollution to local agricultural eco-system, the paddy soils and rice grain of Y county in northern Hunan province were intensively monitored. The results were as follows: (1) Total Cd (T-Cd) content in the soils of the county ranges from 0.13 to 6.02 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.64 mg kg(-1), of which 57.5% exceed the allowable limit specified by the China Soil Environmental Quality Standards. T-Cd in the soils varies largely, with the coefficient of variation reaching 146.4%. The spatial distribution of T-Cd in the soils quite matches with that of mining and industries. The content of HCl-extractable Cd (HCl-Cd) in the soils ranges from 0.02 to 2.17 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.24 mg kg(-1). A significant positive correlation exists between T-Cd and HCl-Cd in the soils (r = 0.770, ρ < 0.01). (2) Cd content in the rice produced in Y county ranges from 0.01 to 2.77 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.46 mg kg(-1). The rate of rice with Cd exceeding the allowable limit specified by the Chinese Grain Security Standards reaches 59.6%; that with Cd exceeding 1 mg kg(-1), called as "Cd rice," reaches 11.1%. (3) Cd content in the rice of Y county is positively significantly correlated with HCl-Cd (r = 0.177, ρ < 0.05) but not significantly with T-Cd in the soils (r = 0.091, ρ > 0.05), which suggests that the amount of Cd accumulating in the rice is more affected by its availability in the soils, rather than the total content. (4) The dietary intake of Cd via rice consumption in Y county is estimated to be 179.9 μg day(-1) person(-1) on average, which is far beyond the allowable limit specified by FAO/WHO and the target hazard quotients of Cd much higher than 1, suggesting the high risk on human health from Cd exposure.

  9. Women as whole blood donors: offers, donations and deferrals in the province of Huelva, south-western Spain.

    PubMed

    Prados Madrona, Dalmiro; Fernández Herrera, María Dolores; Prados Jiménez, Dalmiro; Gómez Giraldo, Sonsoles; Robles Campos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Women seem more willing to donate blood than men despite the limitations that affect their donation rate. The aim of our study was to determine the role of women in altruistic donation of blood in Huelva, a province in south-western Spain. We registered 87,601 offers to donate whole blood between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2009. We statistically analysed variables such as sex, age, offers, deferrals and donations, problems in venous access, vasovagal reactions, weight and blood pressure to establish their significance according to donor gender. With regards to gender, 52.3% of donors were women and 47.7% men. Of the 87,601 offers to donate blood, 46.5% were from females and 53.5% from males. More females than males made their first donation during the study period. However, 43.9 % of donations were from women, whereas 56.1% were from men. Overall 8.7% of offers were deferred, 62.7% of which due to a low haemoglobin concentration, which was the most frequent cause of deferral in women. Difficulties in venous access and vasovagal reactions were also more frequent in female donors than in male donors. By the end of the study period, donor fidelity was 58.6% for men and 48.6% for women. In the province of Huelva, women are more altruistically inclined than men to give blood, with the percentages of donors and first-time donors being higher among females. However, there are restrictions to women giving blood, especially low haemoglobin concentration, which reduce the number of female blood donations. Women also have more difficulty when blood is withdrawn and are more susceptible to vasovagal reactions, which negatively affect their experience as donors. Measures should be taken to reduce these barriers to encourage women to continue to offer to donate blood, thereby ensuring that they become regular donors, which is a key factor in guaranteeing an adequate supply of blood within the region of Andalusia.

  10. Factors associated with good TB infection control practices among primary healthcare workers in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Michelle; Janse van Rensburg, André; Kigozi, Gladys; van Rensburg, Hcj Dingie

    2016-11-04

    Despite the availability of TB infection control guidelines, and good levels of healthcare worker knowledge about infection control, often these measures are not well implemented. This study sought to determine the factors associated with healthcare workers' good TB infection control practices in primary health care facilities in the Free State Province, South Africa. A cross-sectional self-administered survey among nurses (n = 202) and facility-based community healthcare workers (n = 34) as well as facility observations were undertaken at all 41 primary health care facilities in a selected district of the Free State Province. The majority of respondents were female (n = 200; 87.7 %) and the average age was 44.19 years (standard deviation ±10.82). Good levels of knowledge were recorded, with 42.8 % (n = 101) having an average score (i.e. 65-79 %) and 31.8 % (n = 75) a good score (i.e. ≥ 80 %). Most respondents (n = 189; 80.4 %) had positive attitudes towards TB infection control practices (i.e. ≥ 80 %). While good TB infection control practices were reported by 72.9 % (n = 161) of the respondents (i.e. ≥75 %), observations revealed this to not necessarily be the case. For every unit increase in attitudes, good practices increased 1.090 times (CI:1.016-1.169). Respondents with high levels of knowledge (≥80 %) were 4.029 (CI: 1.550-10.469) times more likely to have good practices when compared to respondents with poor levels of knowledge (<65 %). The study did not find TB/HIV-related training to be a predictor of good practices. Positive attitudes and good levels of knowledge regarding TB infection control were the main factors associated with good infection control practices. Although many respondents reported good infection control practices - which was somewhat countered by the observations - there are areas that require attention, particularly those related to administrative controls and the use of personal

  11. Women as whole blood donors: offers, donations and deferrals in the province of Huelva, south-western Spain

    PubMed Central

    Madrona, Dalmiro Prados; Herrera, María Dolores Fernández; Jiménez, Dalmiro Prados; Giraldo, Sonsoles Gómez; Campos, Rita Robles

    2014-01-01

    Background Women seem more willing to donate blood than men despite the limitations that affect their donation rate. The aim of our study was to determine the role of women in altruistic donation of blood in Huelva, a province in south-western Spain. Materials and methods We registered 87,601 offers to donate whole blood between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2009. We statistically analysed variables such as sex, age, offers, deferrals and donations, problems in venous access, vasovagal reactions, weight and blood pressure to establish their significance according to donor gender. Results With regards to gender, 52.3% of donors were women and 47.7% men. Of the 87,601 offers to donate blood, 46.5% were from females and 53.5% from males. More females than males made their first donation during the study period. However, 43.9 % of donations were from women, whereas 56.1% were from men. Overall 8.7% of offers were deferred, 62.7% of which due to a low haemoglobin concentration, which was the most frequent cause of deferral in women. Difficulties in venous access and vasovagal reactions were also more frequent in female donors than in male donors. By the end of the study period, donor fidelity was 58.6% for men and 48.6% for women. Discussion In the province of Huelva, women are more altruistically inclined than men to give blood, with the percentages of donors and first-time donors being higher among females. However, there are restrictions to women giving blood, especially low haemoglobin concentration, which reduce the number of female blood donations. Women also have more difficulty when blood is withdrawn and are more susceptible to vasovagal reactions, which negatively affect their experience as donors. Measures should be taken to reduce these barriers to encourage women to continue to offer to donate blood, thereby ensuring that they become regular donors, which is a key factor in guaranteeing an adequate supply of blood within the region of Andalusia. PMID

  12. The nutrition and health transition in the North West Province of South Africa: a review of the THUSA (Transition and Health during Urbanisation of South Africans) study.

    PubMed

    Vorster, Hester H; Venter, Christina S; Wissing, Marié P; Margetts, Barrie M

    2005-08-01

    To describe how urbanisation influences the nutrition and health transition in South Africa by using data from the THUSA (Transition and Health during Urbanisation of South Africans) study. The THUSA study was a cross-sectional, comparative, population-based survey. The North West Province of South Africa. In total, 1854 apparently healthy volunteers, men and women aged 15 years and older, from 37 randomly selected sites. Pregnant and lactating women, those with diagnosed chronic diseases and taking medication, with acute infections or inebriated were excluded but screened for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Subjects were stratified into five groups representing different levels of urbanisation in rural and urban areas: namely, deep rural, farms, squatter camps, townships and towns/cities. OUTCOME MEASURES AND METHODS: Socio-economic and education profiles, dietary patterns, nutrient intakes, anthropometric and biochemical nutrition status, physical and mental health indicators, and risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were measured using questionnaires developed or adapted and validated for this population, as well as appropriate, standardised methods for the biochemical analyses of biological samples. Subjects from the rural groups had lower household incomes, less formal education, were shorter and had lower body mass indices than those in the urban groups. Urban subjects consumed less maize porridge but more fruits, vegetables, animal-derived foods and fats and oils than rural subjects. Comparing women from rural group 1 with the urban group 5, the following shifts in nutrient intakes were observed: % energy from carbohydrates, 67.4 to 57.3; from fats, 23.6 to 31.8; from protein, 11.4 to 13.4 (with an increase in animal protein from 22.2 to 42.6 g day(-1)); dietary fibre, 15.8 to 17.7 g day(-1); calcium, 348 to 512 mg day(-1); iron from 8.4 to 10.4 mg day(-1); vitamin A from 573 to 1246 mug retinol equivalents day(-1); and ascorbic acid from 30

  13. Long-run relative importance of temperature as the main driver to malaria transmission in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a simple econometric approach.

    PubMed

    Komen, Kibii; Olwoch, Jane; Rautenbach, Hannes; Botai, Joel; Adebayo, Adetunji

    2015-03-01

    Malaria in Limpopo Province of South Africa is shifting and now observed in originally non-malaria districts, and it is unclear whether climate change drives this shift. This study examines the distribution of malaria at district level in the province, determines direction and strength of the linear relationship and causality between malaria with the meteorological variables (rainfall and temperature) and ascertains their short- and long-run variations. Spatio-temporal method, Correlation analysis and econometric methods are applied. Time series monthly meteorological data (1998-2007) were obtained from South Africa Weather Services, while clinical malaria data came from Malaria Control Centre in Tzaneen (Limpopo Province) and South African Department of Health. We find that malaria changes and pressures vary in different districts with a strong positive correlation between temperature with malaria, r = 0.5212, and a weak positive relationship for rainfall, r = 0.2810. Strong unidirectional causality runs from rainfall and temperature to malaria cases (and not vice versa): F (1, 117) = 3.89, ρ = 0.0232 and F (1, 117) = 20.08, P < 0.001 and between rainfall and temperature, a bi-directional causality exists: F (1, 117) = 19.80; F (1,117) = 17.14, P < 0.001, respectively, meaning that rainfall affects temperature and vice versa. Results show evidence of strong existence of a long-run relationship between climate variables and malaria, with temperature maintaining very high level of significance than rainfall. Temperature, therefore, is more important in influencing malaria transmission in Limpopo Province.

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Petroleum systems and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Denver Basin Province, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming - USGS Province 39

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Denver Basin Province (USGS Province 39), Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Petroleum is produced in the province from sandstone, shale, and limestone reservoirs that range from Pennsylvanian to Upper Cretaceous in age. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define seven total petroleum systems and twelve assessment units. Nine of these assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources. Gas was not assessed for two coal bed methane assessment units due to lack of information and limited potential; oil resources were not assessed for the Fractured Pierre Shale Assessment Unit due to its mature development status.

  15. Fluid evolution and ore genesis of the Dalingshang deposit, Dahutang W-Cu ore field, northern Jiangxi Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ning-Jun; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Xiong, Suo-Fei; Pi, Dao-Hui

    2018-02-01

    The Dalingshang W-Cu deposit is located in the North section of the Dahutang ore field, northern Jiangxi Province, South China. Vein- and breccia-style tungsten-copper mineralization is genetically associated with Mesozoic S-type granitic rocks. Infrared and conventional microthermometric studies of both gangue and ore minerals show that the homogenization temperatures for primary fluid inclusions in wolframite ( 340 °C) are similar to those in scheelite ( 330 °C), but about 40 °C higher than those of apatite ( 300 °C) and generally 70 °C higher than those in coexisting quartz ( 270 °C). Laser Raman analysis identifies CH4 and N2 without CO2 in fluid inclusions in scheelite and coexisting quartz, while fluid inclusions in quartz of the sulfide stage have variable CO2 content. The ore-forming fluids overall are characterized by high- to medium-temperature, low-salinity, CH4, N2, and/or CO2-bearing aqueous fluids. Chalcopyrite, muscovite, and sphalerite are the most abundant solids recognized in fluid inclusions from different ores. The H-O-S-Pb isotope compositions favor a dominantly magmatic origin for ores and fluids, while some depleted δ34S values (- 14.4 to - 0.9‰) of sulfides from the sulfide stage are most likely produced by an increase of oxygen fugacity, possibly caused by inflow of oxidized meteoric waters. The microthermometric data also indicate that a simple cooling process formed early scheelite and wolframite. However, increasing involvement of meteoric waters and fluid mixing may trigger a successive deposition of base metal sulfides. Fluid-rock interaction was critical for scheelite mineralization as indicated by in-situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in scheelite.

  16. Demographics and care-seeking behaviors of sexual violence survivors in South Kivu province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Susan A; Scott, Jennifer A; Leaning, Jennifer; Kelly, Jocelyn T; Joyce, Nina R; Mukwege, Denis; Vanrooyen, Michael J

    2012-12-01

    One of the most striking features of the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is the use of sexual violence. In spite of the brutality of these crimes, the experiences of women affected by sexual violence in Eastern DRC remain poorly characterized. This analysis aimed to (1) provide detailed demographics of sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital; (2) examine how demographic factors might impact patterns of sexual violence; and (3) describe care-seeking behavior among sexual violence survivors. The demographics and care-seeking behavior of sexual violence survivors in South Kivu Province were described from a retrospective registry-based study of sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital (2004-2008). A total of 4311 records were reviewed. The mean age of survivors was 35 years. Most women (53%) were married, self-identified with the Bashi tribe (65%), and reported agriculture as their livelihood (74%). The mean time delay between sexual assault and seeking care was 10.4 months. Five reasons were identified to help explain the lengthy delays to seeking care: waiting for physical symptoms to develop or worsen before seeking medical attention, lack of means to access medical care, concerns that family would find out about the sexual assault, stigma surrounding sexual violence, and being abducted into sexual slavery for prolonged periods of time. Many sexual assault survivors have very delayed presentations to medical attention. Promoting timely access of medical care may best be facilitated by reducing stigma and by educating women about the benefits of early medical care, even in the absence of injuries or symptoms.

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF PENTANISIA PRUNELLOIDES FROM THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Miya Gugulethu; Ajayi, Oyemitan Idris; Opeoluwa, Oyedeji Oyehan; Oluwatobi, Oluwafemi Samuel; Benedicta N, Nkeh-Chungag; Phindile, Songca Sandile; Oyedeji; Omowumi, Adebola

    2016-01-01

    Pentanisia prunelloides is a medicinal plant widely used to remedy various ailments including infections, fever and rheumatism in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. There is scanty report on the phytochemical and biological properties of the plant; hence various solvent extracts of the dried plant materials were phytochemically screened, and its aqueous extract evaluated for acute toxicity effect, analgesic and antiinflammatory properties in rodents. Different extracts of both leaf and rhizome were obtained separately with ethanol, methanol and water. Portions of the filtrate were used for qualitative screening of secondary metabolites and remaining portions were concentrated and dried. Dried grounded leaf and rhizome of the plant were also used for quantitative screening for some major components. The aqueous extract of the leaf and rhizome were used for acute toxicity (LD 50 ) test, antiinflammatory and analgesic activities in rodents. The qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of several phytoconstituents with saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids constituting highest constituents in the leaf and rhizome. The LD50: of the aqueous extracts (from leaf or rhizome) was found to be ≥5000 mg/kg orally. The leaf and rhizome aqueous extract (250-500 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.01) reduced egg albumin-induced paw oedema and paw licking in mice induced by formalin, signifying antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities respectively. It is concluded that the leaf and rhizome of P. prunelloides are rich in various phytochemicals which could be associated with their medicinal uses. The aqueous leaf and rhizome extracts are similarly non-toxic orally, showed antiinflammatory and analgesic potentials thus rationalizing its use in folkloric medicine.

  18. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF PENTANISIA PRUNELLOIDES FROM THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Miya Gugulethu; Ajayi, Oyemitan Idris; Opeoluwa, Oyedeji Oyehan; Oluwatobi, Oluwafemi Samuel; Benedicta N, Nkeh-Chungag; Phindile, Songca Sandile; Oyedeji; Omowumi, Adebola

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pentanisia prunelloides is a medicinal plant widely used to remedy various ailments including infections, fever and rheumatism in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. There is scanty report on the phytochemical and biological properties of the plant; hence various solvent extracts of the dried plant materials were phytochemically screened, and its aqueous extract evaluated for acute toxicity effect, analgesic and antiinflammatory properties in rodents. Methods and Materials: Different extracts of both leaf and rhizome were obtained separately with ethanol, methanol and water. Portions of the filtrate were used for qualitative screening of secondary metabolites and remaining portions were concentrated and dried. Dried grounded leaf and rhizome of the plant were also used for quantitative screening for some major components. The aqueous extract of the leaf and rhizome were used for acute toxicity (LD50) test, antiinflammatory and analgesic activities in rodents. Results: The qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of several phytoconstituents with saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids constituting highest constituents in the leaf and rhizome. The LD50: of the aqueous extracts (from leaf or rhizome) was found to be ≥5000 mg/kg orally. The leaf and rhizome aqueous extract (250-500 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.01) reduced egg albumin-induced paw oedema and paw licking in mice induced by formalin, signifying antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that the leaf and rhizome of P. prunelloides are rich in various phytochemicals which could be associated with their medicinal uses. The aqueous leaf and rhizome extracts are similarly non-toxic orally, showed antiinflammatory and analgesic potentials thus rationalizing its use in folkloric medicine. PMID:28480377

  19. Molecular analysis of tick-borne protozoan and rickettsial pathogens in small ruminants from two South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Ringo, Aaron Edmond; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Taioe, Moeti; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Gao, Yang; Guo, Huanping; Lee, Seung-Hun; Zheng, Weiqing; Efstratiou, Artemis; Li, Jixu; Inoue, Noboru; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Thekisoe, Oriel; Xuan, Xuenan

    2018-04-01

    Tick-borne protozoan and rickettsial diseases are a major threat to livestock in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa. In this study we investigated the presence and distribution of Theileria spp., Babesia ovis, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia ruminantium and SFG Rickettsia in sheep and goats from Free State and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. A total of 91 blood samples were screened in this study, 61 from goats and 30 from sheep. PCR assay was conducted using primers based on Theileria spp. 18S rRNA, Babesia ovis (BoSSU rRNA), Anaplasma ovis (AoMSP4), Anaplasma phagocytophilum epank1, Ehrlichia ruminantium pCS20 and SFG Rickettsia OmpA. Overall infection rates of Theileria spp., Anaplasma ovis and Ehrlichia ruminantium were 18 (19.8%), 33 (36.3%) and 13 (14.3%), respectively. The co-infection of two pathogens were detected in 17/91 (18.7%) of all samples, goats having higher rates of co-infection compared to sheep. Phylogenetic tree analysis sequence of pCS20 gene of E. ruminantium of this study was found to be in the same clade with Kumm2 and Riverside strains both from South Africa. The phylogram of SSU rRNA of Theileria ovis had longer branch length compared to all other sequences most of which were from Asia and Middle East. This study provides important data for understanding the tick-borne diseases occurrence in the study area and it is expected to improve the approach for the diagnosis and control of these diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Barriers to HIV counseling and testing uptake by health workers in three public hospitals in Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rabia; Yassi, Annalee; Engelbrecht, Michelle C; Nophale, Letshego; van Rensburg, André J; Spiegel, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Recent WHO/ILO/UNAIDS guidelines recommend priority access to HIV services for health care workers (HCWs), in order to retain and support HCWs, especially those at risk of occupationally acquired tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to uptake of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) services for HCWs receiving HCT within occupational health units (OHUs). Questions were included within a larger occupational health survey of a 20% quota sample of HCWs from three public hospitals in Free State Province, South Africa. Of the 978 respondents, nearly 65% believed that their co-workers would not want to know their HIV status. Barriers to accessing HCT at the OHU included ambiguity over whether antiretroviral treatment was available at the OHU (only 51.1% knew), or whether TB treatment was available (55.5% knew). Nearly 40% of respondents perceived that stigma as a barrier. When controlling for age and race, the odds of perceiving HIV stigma in the workplace among patient-care health care workers (PCHWs) were 2.4 times that for non-PCHWs [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80-3.15]. Of the 692 survey respondents who indicated a reason for not using HIV services at the OHU, 38.9% felt that confidentiality was the reason cited. Among PCHWs, the adjusted odds of expressing concern that confidentiality may not be maintained in the OHU were 2.4 times (95% CI: 1.8-3.2) that of non-PCHWs and were higher among Black [odds ratio (OR): 2.7, CI: 1.7-4.2] and Coloured HCWs (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.6-5.6) as compared to White HCWs, suggesting that stigma and confidentiality concerns are still barriers to uptake of HCT. Campaigns to improve awareness of HCT and TB services offered in the OHUs, address stigma and ensure that the workforce is aware of the confidentiality provisions that are in place are warranted.

  1. Informing Comprehensive HIV Prevention: A Situational Analysis of the HIV Prevention and Care Context, North West Province South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Gilvydis, Jennifer M.; Naidoo, Evasen; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Darbes, Lynae; Raphela, Elsie; Ntswane, Lebogang; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Objective Building a successful combination prevention program requires understanding the community’s local epidemiological profile, the social community norms that shape vulnerability to HIV and access to care, and the available community resources. We carried out a situational analysis in order to shape a comprehensive HIV prevention program that address local barriers to care at multiple contextual levels in the North West Province of South Africa. Method The situational analysis was conducted in two sub-districts in 2012 and guided by an adaptation of WHO’s Strategic Approach, a predominantly qualitative method, including observation of service delivery points and in-depth interviews and focus groups with local leaders, providers, and community members, in order to recommend context-specific HIV prevention strategies. Analysis began during fieldwork with nightly discussions of findings and continued with coding original textual data from the fieldwork notebooks and a select number of recorded interviews. Results We conducted over 200 individual and group interviews and gleaned four principal social barriers to HIV prevention and care, including: HIV fatalism, traditional gender norms, HIV-related stigma, and challenges with communication around HIV, all of which fuel the HIV epidemic. At the different levels of response needed to stem the epidemic, we found evidence of national policies and programs that are mitigating the social risk factors but little community-based responses that address social risk factors to HIV. Conclusions Understanding social and structural barriers to care helped shape our comprehensive HIV prevention program, which address the four ‘themes’ identified into each component of the program. Activities are underway to engage communities, offer community-based testing in high transmission areas, community stigma reduction, and a positive health, dignity and prevention program for stigma reduction and improve communication skills

  2. Informing comprehensive HIV prevention: a situational analysis of the HIV prevention and care context, North West Province South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lippman, Sheri A; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Naidoo, Evasen; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Darbes, Lynae; Raphela, Elsie; Ntswane, Lebogang; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Building a successful combination prevention program requires understanding the community's local epidemiological profile, the social community norms that shape vulnerability to HIV and access to care, and the available community resources. We carried out a situational analysis in order to shape a comprehensive HIV prevention program that address local barriers to care at multiple contextual levels in the North West Province of South Africa. The situational analysis was conducted in two sub-districts in 2012 and guided by an adaptation of WHO's Strategic Approach, a predominantly qualitative method, including observation of service delivery points and in-depth interviews and focus groups with local leaders, providers, and community members, in order to recommend context-specific HIV prevention strategies. Analysis began during fieldwork with nightly discussions of findings and continued with coding original textual data from the fieldwork notebooks and a select number of recorded interviews. We conducted over 200 individual and group interviews and gleaned four principal social barriers to HIV prevention and care, including: HIV fatalism, traditional gender norms, HIV-related stigma, and challenges with communication around HIV, all of which fuel the HIV epidemic. At the different levels of response needed to stem the epidemic, we found evidence of national policies and programs that are mitigating the social risk factors but little community-based responses that address social risk factors to HIV. Understanding social and structural barriers to care helped shape our comprehensive HIV prevention program, which address the four 'themes' identified into each component of the program. Activities are underway to engage communities, offer community-based testing in high transmission areas, community stigma reduction, and a positive health, dignity and prevention program for stigma reduction and improve communication skills. The situational analysis process successfully

  3. Self-enrolment antenatal health promotion data as an adjunct to maternal clinical information systems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Heekes, Alexa; Tiffin, Nicki; Dane, Pierre; Mutemaringa, Themba; Smith, Mariette; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Barron, Peter; Seebregts, Chris; Boulle, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Information systems designed to support health promotion in pregnancy, such as the MomConnect programme, are potential sources of clinical information which can be used to identify pregnancies prospectively and early on. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility and value of linking records collected through the MomConnect programme, to an emergent province-wide health information exchange in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, which already enumerates pregnancies from a range of other clinical data sources. MomConnect registrations were linked to pregnant women known to the public health services using the limited identifiers collected by MomConnect. Three-quarters of MomConnect registrations could be linked to existing pregnant women, decreasing over time as recording of the national identifier decreased. The MomConnect records were usually the first evidence of pregnancy in pregnancies which were subsequently confirmed by other sources. Those at lower risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes were more likely to register. In some cases, MomConnect was the only evidence of pregnancy for a patient. In addition, the MomConnect records provided gestational age information and new and more recently updated contact numbers to the existing contact registry. The pilot integration of the data in the Western Cape Province of South Africa demonstrates how a client-facing system can augment clinical information systems, especially in contexts where electronic medical records are not widely available. PMID:29713507

  4. Self-enrolment antenatal health promotion data as an adjunct to maternal clinical information systems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Heekes, Alexa; Tiffin, Nicki; Dane, Pierre; Mutemaringa, Themba; Smith, Mariette; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Barron, Peter; Seebregts, Chris; Boulle, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Information systems designed to support health promotion in pregnancy, such as the MomConnect programme, are potential sources of clinical information which can be used to identify pregnancies prospectively and early on. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility and value of linking records collected through the MomConnect programme, to an emergent province-wide health information exchange in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, which already enumerates pregnancies from a range of other clinical data sources. MomConnect registrations were linked to pregnant women known to the public health services using the limited identifiers collected by MomConnect. Three-quarters of MomConnect registrations could be linked to existing pregnant women, decreasing over time as recording of the national identifier decreased. The MomConnect records were usually the first evidence of pregnancy in pregnancies which were subsequently confirmed by other sources. Those at lower risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes were more likely to register. In some cases, MomConnect was the only evidence of pregnancy for a patient. In addition, the MomConnect records provided gestational age information and new and more recently updated contact numbers to the existing contact registry. The pilot integration of the data in the Western Cape Province of South Africa demonstrates how a client-facing system can augment clinical information systems, especially in contexts where electronic medical records are not widely available.

  5. An improved model for provision of rural community-based health rehabilitation services in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Netshandama, Vhonani O.; Francis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background In 1991, Riakona Community Rehabilitation Programme initiated community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Subsequently, the South African government adopted the programme. Aim The aim of the study was to suggest an improvement in the model of providing CBR services. Setting The study was conducted in six rehabilitation centres located in hospitals in the Vhembe District in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Method A mixed-mode research design with qualitative and quantitative elements was used to conduct the study. Content analysis, the chi-square test for Goodness of Fit and the Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests were conducted. Results The key determinants of client satisfaction with the services that the community rehabilitation workers rendered included provision of assistive devices and the adoption of a holistic approach to their work. Overall, satisfaction per domain for each one of the five domains of satisfaction scored less than 90%. More than 80% of clients were satisfied with empathy (83%) and assurance (80%) domains. Tangibles, reliability and responsiveness domains had scores of 78%, 72% and 67%, respectively. These results, together with the reasoning map of conceptual framework description, were used as the building blocks of the CBR model. Conclusion The improved CBR model is useful for putting the programme into practice. This is particularly so for the CBR managers in the districts of the Limpopo Province. PMID:27380835

  6. Patient satisfaction with nurse-delivery primary health care services in Free State and Gauteng provinces, South Africa: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Nunu, Wilfred N; Munyewende, Pascalia O

    2017-04-28

    The majority of health care users in South Africa utilise primary health care (PHC) services where these services are free at the point of entry. There is a dearth of knowledge on the factors influencing patient satisfaction with PHC clinic services. This study compared patient satisfaction with PHC services in the Free State (FS) and Gauteng (GP) provincesSetting: Secondary data analysis was conducted on a cross-sectional survey obtained from the Research on the State of Nursing Project run by the Centre for Health Policy in 2012. A pre-tested satisfaction survey questionnaire with questions on facility evaluation, experience with providers and receipt of medication was administered to 1110 systematically randomly sampled adult patients attending antiretroviral, hypertension, diabetes and tuberculosis services. Of 1110 respondents, 1096 responded to the patient satisfaction survey signifying a 98.8% response rate. Over 60% of respondents were women in both provinces. Over 90% of patients were satisfied with PHC services in both provinces. Factors associated with satisfaction in GP and FS were time spent waiting for consultation, nurses listened, being given information on condition and being treated politely. Having privacy respected came out as a significant factor in FS. High levels of satisfaction with PHC services were experienced by study participants in both provinces. Satisfied patients adhere to treatment plans and have better health-seeking behaviour, which translates to improved clinical outcomes. Therefore, nurses should continue listening, respecting and treating their patients with politeness, and also implement efficient work schedules to reduce patient waiting times.

  7. Sero-prevalence of Taenia spp. infections in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng provinces, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tsotetsi-Khambule, A M; Njiro, S; Katsande, T C; Thekisoe, O M M; Harrison, L J S

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine sero-prevalence of bovine and porcine cysticercosis in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng Provinces, Republic of South Africa. Blood samples were collected for a period of twelve months from live cattle (n=1315; 1159) and pigs (n=436; 240) and the serum extracted and stored before analysis by a monoclonal antibody based (HP10) antigen detection ELISA. Results revealed a generally high sero-prevalence and wide distribution throughout the two provinces with Free State having a higher sero-prevalence in both cattle and pigs (23% and 34%) than Gauteng province (15% and 14%). Consumption of infected meat that is either not inspected/missed at meat inspection; poor livestock management practices and limited sanitation in rural communities might have contributed to the occurrence of Taenia spp. infections in the two provinces. It is therefore, recommended that cysticercosis status of animals be established before slaughter. This would assist in ensuring that infected animals are not slaughtered for human consumption or zoonosis preventive measures are taken. Furthermore, public awareness programs on life cycles of T. saginata, T. solium and T. hydatigena and the use of more sensitive diagnostic tools are recommended as part of effective control strategies against taeniid infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stratigraphy of the pedogenic manganese nodules in the Carletonville area, North West Province of South Africa: A case study of the General Nice Manganese Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pharoe, Benedict Kinshasa; Liu, Kuiwu

    2018-07-01

    The lithostratigraphy of pedogenic manganese (Mn) nodules in the Carletonville area is similar to the Klipkuil, Ryedale, Wes Wits, and Houtkoppies deposits in the West Rand region of the Gauteng and North West Provinces and to a lesser extent the Bronkhorstfontein manganese deposit in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The lithostratigraphy of the ore deposit at the General Nice Manganese Mine consists of a basal manganese wad, preserved in a typical karst setting on top of the underlying Malmani stromatolitic dolomites and Tertiary fluvial and secondary mineral deposits consisting of manganese nodules of variable size in a finer-grained soil matrix. At the top of the deposit is a Mn-depleted Quaternary sand cover. The Tertiary alluvial succession hosting Mn nodules was informally subdivided into A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H zones on the basis of geochemical analyses (XRD, XRF and SEM) of bulk zone samples and the manganese nodule size and concentration.

  9. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  10. Development and evaluation of clear-water pier and contraction scour envelope curves in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Provinces of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation collected clear-water pier- and contraction-scour data at 116 bridges in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Physiographic Provinces of South Carolina. Pier-scour depths collected in both provinces ranged from 0 to 8.0 feet. Contraction-scour depths collected in the Coastal Plain ranged from 0 to 3.9 feet. Using hydraulic data estimated with a one-dimensional flow model, predicted clear-water scour depths were computed with scour equations from the Federal Highway Administration Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 and compared with measured scour. This comparison indicated that predicted clear-water scour depths, in general, exceeded measured scour depths and at times were excessive. Predicted clear-water contraction scour, however, was underpredicted approximately 30 percent of the time by as much as 7.1 feet. The investigation focused on clear-water pier scour, comparing trends in the laboratory and field data. This comparison indicated that the range of dimensionless variables (relative depth, flow intensity, relative grain size) used in laboratory investigations of pier scour, were similar to the range for field data in South Carolina, further indicating that laboratory relations may have some applicability to field conditions in South Carolina. Variables determined to be important in developing pier scour in laboratory studies were investigated to understand their influence on the South Carolina field data, and many of these variables appeared to be insignificant under field conditions in South Carolina. The strongest explanatory variables were pier width and approach velocity. Envelope curves developed from the field data are useful tools for evaluating reasonable ranges of clear-water pier and contraction scour in South Carolina. A modified version of the Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 pier-scour equation also was developed as a tool for evaluating clearwater pier

  11. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study.

    PubMed

    Qekwana, Daniel Nenene; Oguttu, James Wabwire; Venter, Dries; Odoi, Agricola

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles) is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses) were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates. The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95). Significantly (p< 0.05) lower rates were reported during summer (0.55%) than other seasons. Some geographic areas reported significantly (p<0.05) higher rates than others. The identification rates in high throughput abattoirs was significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 9.4; 95% CI: 4.7-19.1) than in low throughput abattoirs. Similarly, the identification rates among animals from feedlots were significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.7-3.5) than those from non-feedlot sources. No significant (p>0.05) association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services. Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified) need to be collected to help better estimate

  12. Household food security and HIV status in rural and urban communities in the Free State province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pienaar, Michélle; van Rooyen, Francois C.; Walsh, Corinna M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Higher socioeconomic status impacts profoundly on quality of life. Life-event stressors, such as loss of employment, marital separation/divorce, death of a spouse and food insecurity, have been found to accelerate disease progression among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to determine significant independent sociodemographic and food security factors associated with HIV status in people from rural and urban communities in the Assuring Health for All study, which was undertaken in rural Trompsburg, Philippolis and Springfontein and urban Mangaung, in the Free State Province of South Africa. Sociodemographic and food security factors associated with HIV status were determined in 886 households. Logistic regression with forward selection (p < 0.05) was used to select significant independent factors associated with HIV status. Variables with a p-value of <0.15 were considered for inclusion in the model. Adults 25–64 years of age were eligible to participate. Of the 567 rural participants, 97 (17.1%) were HIV-infected, and 172 (40.6%) of the 424 urban participants. A relatively high percentage of respondents had never attended school, while very few participants in all areas had a tertiary education. The unemployment rate of HIV-infected adults was higher than that of HIV-uninfected adults. A high percentage of respondents in all areas reported running out of money to buy food, with this tendency occurring significantly more among urban HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected respondents. In all areas, a high percentage of HIV-infected respondents relied on a limited number of foods to feed their children, with significantly more HIV-infected urban respondents compared to their uninfected counterparts reporting this. Most participants in all areas had to cut the size of meals, or ate less because there was not enough food in the house or not enough money to buy food. During periods of food shortage, more than 50% of

  13. Household food security and HIV status in rural and urban communities in the Free State province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Michélle; van Rooyen, Francois C; Walsh, Corinna M

    2017-12-01

    Higher socioeconomic status impacts profoundly on quality of life. Life-event stressors, such as loss of employment, marital separation/divorce, death of a spouse and food insecurity, have been found to accelerate disease progression among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to determine significant independent sociodemographic and food security factors associated with HIV status in people from rural and urban communities in the Assuring Health for All study, which was undertaken in rural Trompsburg, Philippolis and Springfontein and urban Mangaung, in the Free State Province of South Africa. Sociodemographic and food security factors associated with HIV status were determined in 886 households. Logistic regression with forward selection (p < 0.05) was used to select significant independent factors associated with HIV status. Variables with a p-value of <0.15 were considered for inclusion in the model. Adults 25-64 years of age were eligible to participate. Of the 567 rural participants, 97 (17.1%) were HIV-infected, and 172 (40.6%) of the 424 urban participants. A relatively high percentage of respondents had never attended school, while very few participants in all areas had a tertiary education. The unemployment rate of HIV-infected adults was higher than that of HIV-uninfected adults. A high percentage of respondents in all areas reported running out of money to buy food, with this tendency occurring significantly more among urban HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected respondents. In all areas, a high percentage of HIV-infected respondents relied on a limited number of foods to feed their children, with significantly more HIV-infected urban respondents compared to their uninfected counterparts reporting this. Most participants in all areas had to cut the size of meals, or ate less because there was not enough food in the house or not enough money to buy food. During periods of food shortage, more than 50% of

  14. Clear-Water Abutment and Contraction Scour in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Provinces of South Carolina, 1996-99

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, collected observations of clear-water abutment and contraction scour at 146 bridges in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of South Carolina. Scour depths ran...

  15. The petrology and petrogenesis of the Swaldale region, Motzfeldt Center, South Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reekie, Callum; Finch, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Motzfeldt is one of several high-level alkaline plutonic centers that collectively define the mid-Proterozoic Gardar Province of South Greenland. Despite pyrochlore-hosted Ta-enrichment (± Nb-Zr-REE), the petrology, geochemistry and petrogenesis across the center remain to be fully constrained. We present petrological and geochemical data for the Swaldale region, an arcuate band of nepheline syenite and associated intrusives on Motzfeldt's NW margin. Work for this present study was undertaken in collaboration with the license holder, Regency Mines plc. Swaldale comprises two geochemically distinct magmatic members. The largest, the Motzfeldt Sø Formation (MSF; EuN/Eu*N = 0.35), is a suite of diverse syenite variants that show significant petrological and geochemical heterogeneity. These rocks have a relatively restricted SiO2 range (57.4-62.9 wt.%) with concurrent variation in (Na+K)/Al (0.75-0.95), Mg/(Mg+Fe) (2.18-19.82) and ΣREE (595.0-3095.9 ppm), emphasizing their evolved but not peralkaline nature. Fractionation is mirrored by pyroxene geochemistry with evolution from aegirine-augite, aegirine-hedenbergite, to aegirine. Accessory pyrochlore, titanite, and zircon are rare; however, anomalous facies of zircon-rich (~2 wt.%) syenite are observed. Intercumulus fluorite is a common accessory within MSF rocks. Hydrothermal alteration, marked by hematized alkali-feldspar, is pervasive and ubiquitous. Further peraluminous syenite of the Geologfjeld Formation ((Na+K)/Al = 0.74; EuN/Eu*N = 1.60) marks the truncated remnant of an early syenite stock to the north of the MSF. These rocks contain salite, which, in addition to a lower ΣREE and higher Mg/(Mg+Fe) (18.01), demonstrates the less-fractionated nature of this stock in comparison with the MSF. Sheeted intrusions of peralkaline syenite ((Na+K)/Al = 1.1; Ta = 32.4 ppm) truncate the MSF across central Swaldale. On a mineralogical basis, it is hypothesized that such intrusions reflect outward sheeting of the

  16. Prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors in African children at one and three years residing in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mamabolo, Ramoteme L; Alberts, Marianne

    2014-09-23

    The present study evaluated the prevalence of anaemia and its determinants in one- and three-year-old children from the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A prospective cohort study conducted in rural villages in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. At birth, a cohort of 219 children was followed until they were one and three years of age. Data collected included the children's anthropometric measurements, blood for biochemical analysis (full blood count, ferritin, folate and vitamin B12) and socio-demographic status. At one year, anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dL) was present in 52% of the children, decreasing to 22% by the third year. Iron deficiency (ferritin < 12 µg/mL) was common in these children (39% and 33% at one year and three years, respectively) particularly in the presence of anaemia. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies (< 5 ng/mL and < 145 pg/mL, respectively) were common at one year, with the children accumulating enough vitamin B12 by three years; however, folate deficiency levels remained fairly constant between the two time points. There was a high prevalence of anaemia in the study participants at one year and three years of age. Factors that increased the risk of anaemia at three years were: a mother with only a primary school education, anaemia at one year, male gender, overweight, and combined overweight and stunting. Protective factors against anaemia were having a younger mother who served as the main caregiver.

  17. Serum uric acid is associated with dietary and lifestyle factors in elderly women in suburban Guangzhou in Guangdong province of south China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Z; Zhu, C; Qian, X; Zhu, J; Wu, Z; Chen, L

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of hyperuricemia and lifestyle risk factors for hyperuricemia in elderly women. Cross-sectional study. The suburban area of Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China. The study included 856 Chinese women aged 60 to 102 years who received their annual health examinations in the suburban area of Guangzhou, south China in 2002. Information on anthropometric measurements and lifestyle factors were obtained via a questionnaire processed by the attending physicians or nurses. Blood biochemistry was performed after subjects fasted for 8-14 h. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between hyperuricemia, meat intake quintiles, physical activity quintiles, and alcohol intake quintiles. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in the studied population was 12.01%. Alcohol, meat and seafood consumption; being overweight or obese; hypertension; and abnormal triglyceride levels were strongly associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia. Physical activity was inversely related to the prevalence of hyperuricemia. The odds ratios for hyperuricemia for quintiles of physical activity were 1.00, 0.74, 0.72, 0.63, and 0.55 (P<0.01). Our data suggest that the prevalence of hyperuricemia is high in elderly women in suburban Guangzhou in Guangdong province of South China. Obesity, meat and seafood intake and alcohol consumption are associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia, whereas daily physical activity is inversely related to the prevalence of hyperuricemia.

  18. A retrospective study of anthrax on the Ghaap Plateau, Northern Cape province of South Africa, with special reference to the 2007-2008 outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Hassim, Ayesha; Dekker, Edgar H; Byaruhanga, Charles; Reardon, Tommy; Van Heerden, Henriette

    2017-09-28

    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive, endospore-forming and soil-borne bacterium Bacillus anthracis. When in spore form, the organism can survive in dormancy in the environment for decades. It is a controlled disease of livestock and wild ungulates in South Africa. In South Africa, the two enzootic regions are the Kruger National Park and the Ghaap Plateau in the Northern Cape province. Farms on the Plateau span thousands of hectares comprising of wildlife - livestock mixed use farming. In 2007-2008, anthrax outbreaks in the province led to government officials intervening to aid farmers with control measures aimed at preventing further losses. Because of the ability of the organism to persist in the environment for prolonged periods, an environmental risk or isolation survey was carried out in 2012 to determine the efficacy of control measures employed during the 2007-2008, anthrax outbreaks. No B. anthracis could be isolated from the old carcass sites, even when bone fragments from the carcasses were still clearly evident. This is an indication that the control measures and protocols were apparently successful in stemming the continuity of spore deposits at previously positive carcass sites.

  19. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  20. Risk factors for visual impairment and blindness amongst black adult diabetics receiving treatment at Government healthcare facilities in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mabaso, Raymond G; Oduntan, Olalekan A

    2014-11-21

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common cause of visual impairment (VI) and blindness. DR may signifiantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness. To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years. The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre) in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa. This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profie, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist) were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined. Participants (N = 225) included 161 women and 64 men aged 40-90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years); 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8%) and DR (7.1%) were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity. Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population.

  1. Decline in syphilis seroprevalence among females of reproductive age in Northern Cape Province, South Africa, 2003-2012: utility of laboratory-based information.

    PubMed

    Ballah, Ngormbu J; Kuonza, Lazarus R; De Gita, Gloria; Musekiwa, Alfred; Williams, Seymour; Takuva, Simbarashe

    2017-05-01

    Strengthening current surveillance systems for syphilis is important to track and monitor disease burden. We used routinely collected laboratory information to generate surveillance estimates for syphilis trends among women of reproductive age (12-49 years) in the Northern Cape Province, a high syphilis burden region (2003 [8.6%] to 2011 [3.8%]) in South Africa. We extracted records meeting inclusion criteria from the National Health Laboratory Service electronic database for the period 2003-2012. A total of 286,024 women were included in the analysis. Syphilis seropositivity decreased between 2003 (5.7%) and 2012 (1.8%); p trend = 0.001, which was largely consistent with findings reported in the annual national syphilis and HIV survey from 2003 (8.6%) to 2011 (3.8%). Annually for the period from 2003 to 2012 there was an approximate 14% reduction in the prevalence ratio of syphilis seroprevalence (PR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.85-0.87, p < 0.001). Three of five districts had significant decreases in syphilis seropositivity over this period. There were also declines in prevalence ratios for syphilis seropositivity for the various age groups for the period. This study shows that the national laboratory database in South Africa can be used as a complimentary surveillance tool to describe and understand trends in syphilis seroprevalence in South Africa.

  2. Decline in syphilis seroprevalence among females of reproductive age in Northern Cape Province, South Africa, 2003–2012: utility of laboratory-based information

    PubMed Central

    Ballah, Ngormbu J; Kuonza, Lazarus R; De Gita, Gloria; Musekiwa, Alfred; Williams, Seymour; Takuva, Simbarashe

    2017-01-01

    Strengthening current surveillance systems for syphilis is important to track and monitor disease burden. We used routinely collected laboratory information to generate surveillance estimates for syphilis trends among women of reproductive age (12–49 years) in the Northern Cape Province, a high syphilis burden region (2003 [8.6%] to 2011 [3.8%]) in South Africa. We extracted records meeting inclusion criteria from the National Health Laboratory Service electronic database for the period 2003–2012. A total of 286,024 women were included in the analysis. Syphilis seropositivity decreased between 2003 (5.7%) and 2012 (1.8%); p trend = 0.001, which was largely consistent with findings reported in the annual national syphilis and HIV survey from 2003 (8.6%) to 2011 (3.8%). Annually for the period from 2003 to 2012 there was an approximate 14% reduction in the prevalence ratio of syphilis seroprevalence (PR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.85–0.87, p <0.001). Three of five districts had significant decreases in syphilis seropositivity over this period. There were also declines in prevalence ratios for syphilis seropositivity for the various age groups for the period. This study shows that the national laboratory database in South Africa can be used as a complimentary surveillance tool to describe and understand trends in syphilis seroprevalence in South Africa. PMID:26924504

  3. A rapid assessment of a community health worker pilot programme to improve the management of hypertension and diabetes in Emfuleni sub-district of Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ndou, Tshipfuralo; van Zyl, Greer; Hlahane, Salamina; Goudge, Jane

    2013-01-24

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) and infectious chronic illnesses are recognised as significant contributing factors to the burden of disease globally, specifically in South Africa, yet clinical management is often poor. The involvement of community health workers (CHWs) in TB and HIV care in South Africa, and other low- and middle-income settings, suggests that they could make an important contribution in the management of NCDs. Using a rapid assessment, this study examines the outcomes of a pilot CHW programme to improve the management of hypertension and diabetes in Gauteng province, South Africa. A record review compared outcomes of patients receiving home visits (n56) with a control group (n168) attending the clinic, matched, as far as possible, on age, gender, and condition. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with CHWs, patients, district, clinic, and NGO staff were used to obtain descriptions of the functioning of the programme and patient experiences. Despite the greater age and co-morbidity among those in the pilot programme, the findings suggest that control of hypertension was improved by CHW home visits in comparison to usual clinic care. However, too few doctor visits, insufficient monitoring of patient outcomes by clinic staff, and a poor procurement process for supplies required by the CHWs hampered the programme's activities. The role of CHWs in the management of hypertension should be given greater consideration, with larger studies being conducted to provide more robust evidence. Adequate training, supervision, and operational support will be required to ensure success of any CHW programme.

  4. Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Wyk, Ilana C; Boomker, Joop

    2011-11-10

    Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), three gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host-parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths.

  5. Defining and Negotiating the Social Value of Research in Public Health Facilities: Perceptions of Stakeholders in a Research-Active Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lutge, Elizabeth; Slack, Catherine; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2017-02-01

    This article reports on qualitative research conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, among researchers and gate-keepers of health facilities in the province. Results suggest disparate but not irreconcilable perceptions of the social value of research in provincial health facilities. This study found that researchers tended to emphasize the contribution of research to the generation of knowledge and to the health of future patients while gate-keepers of health facilities tended to emphasize its contribution to the healthcare system and to current patients. Furthermore, relations between research stakeholders were perceived to be somewhat fragile, making it difficult for stakeholders to achieve consensus about the social value of research, as well as on ways to maximize value. Interventions to negotiate a shared perspective on the social value of research would appear to be warranted, and the findings of this study suggest some focus areas for such intervention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Alcohol use, sexual relationship power, and unprotected sex among patrons in bars and taverns in rural areas of North West province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nkosi, Sebenzile; Rich, Eileen P; Morojele, Neo K

    2014-11-01

    We examined the relative importance of alcohol consumption and sexual relationship power (SRP) in predicting unprotected sex among 406 bar patrons in North West province, South Africa. We assessed participants' demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, SRP, and number of unprotected sexual episodes in the past 6 months. In correlational analyses, alcohol consumption was significantly associated with frequency of unprotected sex for both males and females. SRP was significantly associated with frequency of unprotected sex for males and marginally associated for females. In multivariate regression analyses, alcohol consumption was significantly associated with frequency of unprotected sex for both males and females. SRP's association was marginally significant for females and not significant for males. Alcohol consumption is more strongly associated with unprotected sex than is SRP among bar patrons. Combination HIV prevention approaches to curb problem drinking and increase condom accessibility, and regular and effective use are needed in tavern settings. SRP needs further examination among tavern populations.

  7. DEFINING AND NEGOTIATING THE SOCIAL VALUE OF RESEARCH IN PUBLIC HEALTH FACILITIES: PERCEPTIONS OF STAKEHOLDERS IN A RESEARCH-ACTIVE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Lutge, Elizabeth; Slack, Catherine; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on qualitative research conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, among researchers and gate-keepers of health facilities in the province. Results suggest disparate but not irreconcilable perceptions of the social value of research in provincial health facilities. This study found that researchers tended to emphasise the contribution of research to the generation of knowledge and to the health of future patients while gate-keepers of health facilities tended to emphasise its contribution to the healthcare system and to current patients. Furthermore, relations between research stakeholders were perceived to be somewhat fragile, making it difficult for stakeholders to achieve consensus about the social value of research, as well as on ways to maximise value. Interventions to negotiate a shared perspective on the social value of research would appear to be warranted, and the findings of this study suggest some focus areas for such intervention. PMID:28060430

  8. ERTS-1 imagery as an aid to the understanding of the regional setting of base metal deposits in the North West Cape Province, South Africa. [mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viljoen, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A number of base metal finds have recently focussed attention on the North Western Cape Province of South Africa as an area of great potential mineral wealth. From the point of view of competitive mineral exploration it was essential that an insight into the regional geological controls of the base metal mineralization of the area be obtained as rapidly as possible. Conventional methods of producing a suitable regional geological map were considered to be too time-consuming and ERTS-1 imagery was consequently examined. This imagery has made a significant contribution in the compilation of a suitable map on which to base further mineral exploration programmes. The time involved in the compilation of maps of this nature was found to be only a fraction of the time necessary for the production of similar maps using other methods. ERTS imagery is therefore considered to be valuable in producing accurate regional maps in areas where little or no geological data are available, or in areas of poor access. Furthermore, these images have great potential for rapidly defining the regional extent of metallogenic provinces.

  9. Realist evaluation of the antiretroviral treatment adherence club programme in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of Western Cape Province, South Africa: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; Van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; Van Wyk, Brian

    2016-04-04

    Suboptimal retention in care and poor treatment adherence are key challenges to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Community-based approaches to HIV service delivery are recommended to improve patient retention in care and ART adherence. The implementation of the adherence clubs in the Western Cape province of South Africa was with variable success in terms of implementation and outcomes. The need for operational guidelines for its implementation has been identified. Therefore, understanding the contexts and mechanisms for successful implementation of the adherence clubs is crucial to inform the roll-out to the rest of South Africa. The protocol outlines an evaluation of adherence club intervention in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of the Western Cape Province, using the realist approach. In the first phase, an exploratory study design will be used. Document review and key informant interviews will be used to elicit the programme theory. In phase two, a multiple case study design will be used to describe the adherence clubs in five contrastive sites. Semistructured interviews will be conducted with purposively selected programme implementers and members of the clubs to assess the context and mechanisms of the adherence clubs. For the programme's primary outcomes, a longitudinal retrospective cohort analysis will be conducted using routine patient data. Data analysis will involve classifying emerging themes using the context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configuration, and refining the primary CMO configurations to conjectured CMO configurations. Finally, we will compare the conjectured CMO configurations from the cases with the initial programme theory. The final CMOs obtained will be translated into middle range theories. The study will be conducted according to the principles of the declaration of Helsinki (1964). Ethics clearance was obtained from the University of the Western Cape. Dissemination will be done through

  10. Realist evaluation of the antiretroviral treatment adherence club programme in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of Western Cape Province, South Africa: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; Van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; Van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Suboptimal retention in care and poor treatment adherence are key challenges to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Community-based approaches to HIV service delivery are recommended to improve patient retention in care and ART adherence. The implementation of the adherence clubs in the Western Cape province of South Africa was with variable success in terms of implementation and outcomes. The need for operational guidelines for its implementation has been identified. Therefore, understanding the contexts and mechanisms for successful implementation of the adherence clubs is crucial to inform the roll-out to the rest of South Africa. The protocol outlines an evaluation of adherence club intervention in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of the Western Cape Province, using the realist approach. Methods and analysis In the first phase, an exploratory study design will be used. Document review and key informant interviews will be used to elicit the programme theory. In phase two, a multiple case study design will be used to describe the adherence clubs in five contrastive sites. Semistructured interviews will be conducted with purposively selected programme implementers and members of the clubs to assess the context and mechanisms of the adherence clubs. For the programme's primary outcomes, a longitudinal retrospective cohort analysis will be conducted using routine patient data. Data analysis will involve classifying emerging themes using the context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configuration, and refining the primary CMO configurations to conjectured CMO configurations. Finally, we will compare the conjectured CMO configurations from the cases with the initial programme theory. The final CMOs obtained will be translated into middle range theories. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted according to the principles of the declaration of Helsinki (1964). Ethics clearance was obtained from the

  11. Petrogenesis of Late Jurassic granodiorites from Gutian, Fujian Province, South China: Implications for multiple magma sources and origin of porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Lu, An-Huai; Lai, Jian-Qing; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Yang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    .%) and trace element (ppm) concentrations of Gutian intrusions in Fujian Province, South China. Supplemental Table S5. Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the studied rocks from the Gutian porphyry deposit in Fujian Province, South China. Supplemental Table S6. Pb isotopic compositions of the studied rocks from the Gutian porphyry deposit in South China. Supplemental Table S7. Re-Os isotopic compositions of molybdenite from the Gutian porphyry deposit in South China.

  12. The challenges of reshaping disease specific and care oriented community based services towards comprehensive goals: a situation appraisal in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Helen; Schaay, Nikki; Dudley, Lilian; Goliath, Charlyn; Qukula, Tobeka

    2015-09-30

    Similar to other countries in the region, South Africa is currently reorienting a loosely structured and highly diverse community care system that evolved around HIV and TB, into a formalized, comprehensive and integrated primary health care outreach programme, based on community health workers (CHWs). While the difficulties of establishing national CHW programmes are well described, the reshaping of disease specific and care oriented community services, based outside the formal health system, poses particular challenges. This paper is an in-depth case study of the challenges of implementing reforms to community based services (CBS) in one province of South Africa. A multi-method situation appraisal of CBS in the Western Cape Province was conducted over eight months in close collaboration with provincial stakeholders. The appraisal mapped the roles and service delivery, human resource, financing and governance arrangements of an extensive non-governmental organisation (NGO) contracted and CHW based service delivery infrastructure that emerged over 15-20 years in this province. It also gathered the perspectives of a wide range of actors - including communities, users, NGOs, PHC providers and managers - on the current state and future visions of CBS. While there was wide support for new approaches to CBS, there are a number of challenges to achieving this. Although largely government funded, the community based delivery platform remains marginal to the formal public primary health care (PHC) and district health systems. CHW roles evolved from a system of home based care and are limited in scope. There is a high turnover of cadres, and support systems (supervision, monitoring, financing, training), coordination between CHWs, NGOs and PHC facilities, and sub-district capacity for planning and management of CBS are all poorly developed. Reorienting community based services that have their origins in care responses to HIV and TB presents an inter-related set of resource

  13. Assessment of trace elements in terminal tap water of Hunan Province, South China, and the potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Li, Mansha; Du, Yong; Chen, Lv; Liu, Lulu; Duan, Yanying

    2018-05-02

    A total of 116 terminal tap water (TTW) samples from Xiangjiang, Zijiang, Yuanjiang, and Lishui river basins of Hunan province were collected and concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Zn, Fe, Al, and Cu were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that 10% of the water samples exceeded the limit level of Cd established by World Health Organization (WHO) of 0.003 mg L -1 . Three percent of the samples had Fe level and 1% had As level above the WHO limits of 0.3 and 0.01 mg L -1 , respectively. Multivariate statistic approach (cluster analysis and principal component analysis) results revealed that anthropogenic activities and pipeline corrosion were major sources of TTW contamination in Hunan province. The individual and total hazard quotient values estimated by deterministic and probabilistic approaches were both less than 1. However, the mean cancer risk values of Cd were 2.2 × 10 -4 and 1.4 × 10 -4 for Xiangjiang and Yuanjiang river basin, respectively, both greater than 10 -4 . The 95th percentile value of cancer risk for Cr was slightly greater than 10 -4 in Xiangjiang river basins. Long-term exposure to Cd and Cr through tap water consumption poses moderate carcinogenic health risks to the local residents.

  14. An evaluation of serological tests in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in naturally infected cattle in KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chisi, Songelwayo L; Marageni, Yoanda; Naidoo, Prebashni; Zulu, Gloria; Akol, George W; Van Heerden, Henriette

    2017-02-28

    The diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) of the Rose Bengal test (RBT), the complement fixation test (CFT), the serum agglutination test (SAT), the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and the indirect ELISA (iELISA) were determined in naturally infected cattle in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa with known infectious status from culture (gold standard). Natural brucellosis infection status of animals was determined by culturing and identification of Brucella abortus biovar 1 from abomasal fluid, milk, hygroma fluid, lymph nodes or uterine discharges samples. The diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the tests mentioned above was determined using samples from known negative herds. There was no statistically significant difference between the tests in their ability to diagnose brucellosis. The RBT and iELISA had the highest DSe of 95.8%, whereas RBT and CFT had the highest DSp of 100%. In South African laboratories, the RBT and CFT serological tests are used, because of the cost efficacy of CFT when compared to the less labour intensive but more expensive iELISA.

  15. Occurrence of naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac residues in wastewater and river water of KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Madikizela, Lawrence Mzukisi; Chimuka, Luke

    2017-07-01

    The present paper reports a detailed study that is based on the monitoring of naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac in Mbokodweni River and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located around the city of Durban in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Target compounds were extracted from water samples using a multi-template molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction prior to separation and quantification on a high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with photo diode array detector. The analytical method yielded the detection limits of 0.15, 1.00, and 0.63 μg/L for naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac, respectively. Solid-phase extraction method was evaluated for its performance using deionized water samples that were spiked with 5 and 50 μg/L of target compounds. Recoveries were greater than 80% for all target compounds with RSD values in the range of 4.1 to 10%. Target compounds were detected in most wastewater and river water samples with ibuprofen being the most frequently detected pharmaceutical. Maximum concentrations detected in river water for naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac were 6.84, 19.2, and 9.69 μg/L, respectively. The concentrations of target compounds found in effluent and river water samples compared well with some studies. The analytical method employed in this work is fast, selective, sensitive, and affordable; therefore, it can be used routinely to evaluate the occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals in South African water resources.

  16. The Provision of School Library Resources in a Changing Environment: A Case Study from Gauteng Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlamini, Busi; Brown, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Before 1994 education in South Africa was divided along racial lines. There were separate departments of education for whites, coloureds (people of mixed decent), Indians (people of East Indian decent), and blacks (black Africans). Education for white children was much better funded than any of the others. The quality of the education that white…

  17. Trends and periodicity of daily temperature and precipitation extremes during 1960-2013 in Hunan Province, central south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ajiao; He, Xinguang; Guan, Huade; Cai, Yi

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the trends and periodicity in climate extremes are examined in Hunan Province over the period 1960-2013 on the basis of 27 extreme climate indices calculated from daily temperature and precipitation records at 89 meteorological stations. The results show that in the whole province, temperature extremes exhibit a warming trend with more than 50% stations being statistically significant for 7 out of 16 temperature indices, and the nighttime temperature increases faster than the daytime temperature at the annual scale. The changes in most extreme temperature indices show strongly coherent spatial patterns. Moreover, the change rates of almost all temperature indices in north Hunan are greater than those of other regions. However, the statistically significant changes in indices of extreme precipitation are observed at fewer stations than in extreme temperature indices, forming less spatially coherent patterns. Positive trends in indices of extreme precipitation show that the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation events are generally increasing in both annual and seasonal scales, whereas the significant downward trend in consecutive wet days indicates that the precipitation becomes more even over the study period. Analysis of changes in probability distributions of extreme indices for 1960-1986 and 1987-2013 also demonstrates a remarkable shift toward warmer condition and increasing tendency in the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation during the past decades. The variations in extreme climate indices exhibit inconstant frequencies in the wavelet power spectrum. Among the 16 temperature indices, 2 of them show significant 1-year periodic oscillation and 7 of them exhibit significant 4-year cycle during some certain periods. However, significant periodic oscillations can be found in all of the precipitation indices. Wet-day precipitation and three absolute precipitation indices show significant 1-year cycle and other seven provide

  18. Risk factors for visual impairment and blindness amongst black adult diabetics receiving treatment at Government healthcare facilities in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common cause of visual impairment (VI) and blindness. DR may significantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness. Aim To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years. Setting The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre) in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa. Methods This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profile, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist) were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined. Results Participants (N = 225) included 161 women and 64 men aged 40–90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years); 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8%) and DR (7.1%) were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity. Conclusion Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population. PMID:26245418

  19. The costs and cost effectiveness of providing first-trimester, medical and surgical safe abortion services in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Fetters, Tamara; Sinanovic, Edina; Devjee, Jaymala; Moodley, Jack; Blanchard, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Despite a liberal abortion law, access to safe abortion services in South Africa is challenging for many women. Medication abortion was introduced in 2013, but its reach remains limited. We aimed to estimate the costs and cost effectiveness of providing first-trimester medication abortion and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) services to inform planning for first-trimester service provision in South Africa and similar settings. We obtained data on service provision and outcomes from an operations research study where medication abortion was introduced alongside existing MVA services in public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal province. Clinical data were collected through interviews with first-trimester abortion clients and summaries completed by nurses performing the procedures. In parallel, we performed micro-costing at three of the study hospitals. Using a model built in Excel, we estimated the average cost per medical and surgical procedure and determined the cost per complete abortion performed. Results are presented in 2015 US dollars. A total of 1,129 women were eligible for a first trimester abortion at the three study sites. The majority (886, 78.5%) were eligible to choose their abortion procedure; 94.1% (n = 834) chose medication abortion. The total average cost per medication abortion was $63.91 (52.32-75.51). The total average cost per MVA was higher at $69.60 (52.62-86.57); though the cost ranges for the two procedures overlapped. Given average costs, the cost per complete medication abortion was lower than the cost per complete MVA despite three (0.4%) medication abortion women being hospitalized and two (0.3%) having ongoing pregnancies at study exit. Personnel costs were the largest component of the total average cost of both abortion methods. This analysis supports the scale-up of medication abortion alongside existing MVA services in South Africa. Women can be offered a choice of methods, including medication abortion with MVA as a back-up, without

  20. An exploratory study of factors that affect the performance and usage of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moonasar, Devanand; Goga, Ameena Ebrahim; Frean, John; Kruger, Philip; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2007-06-02

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are relatively simple to perform and provide results quickly for making treatment decisions. However, the accuracy and application of RDT results depends on several factors such as quality of the RDT, storage, transport and end user performance. A cross sectional survey to explore factors that affect the performance and use of RDTs was conducted in the primary care facilities in South Africa. This study was conducted in three malaria risk sub-districts of the Limpopo Province, in South Africa. Twenty nurses were randomly selected from 17 primary health care facilities, three nurses from hospitals serving the study area and 10 other key informants, representing the managers of the malaria control programmes, routine and research laboratories, were interviewed, using semi-structured questionnaires. There was a high degree of efficiency in ordering and distribution of RDTs, however only 13/20 (65%) of the health facilities had appropriate air-conditioning and monitoring of room temperatures. Sixty percent (12/20) of the nurses did not receive any external training on conducting and interpreting RDT. Fifty percent of nurses (10/20) reported RDT stock-outs. Only 3/20 nurses mentioned that they periodically checked quality of RDT. Fifteen percent of nurses reported giving antimalarial drugs even if the RDT was negative. Storage, quality assurance, end user training and use of RDT results for clinical decision making in primary care facilities in South Africa need to be improved. Further studies of the factors influencing the quality control of RDTs, their performance of RDTs and the ways to improve their use of RDTs are needed.

  1. An exploratory study of factors that affect the performance and usage of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Moonasar, Devanand; Goga, Ameena Ebrahim; Frean, John; Kruger, Philip; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are relatively simple to perform and provide results quickly for making treatment decisions. However, the accuracy and application of RDT results depends on several factors such as quality of the RDT, storage, transport and end user performance. A cross sectional survey to explore factors that affect the performance and use of RDTs was conducted in the primary care facilities in South Africa. Methods This study was conducted in three malaria risk sub-districts of the Limpopo Province, in South Africa. Twenty nurses were randomly selected from 17 primary health care facilities, three nurses from hospitals serving the study area and 10 other key informants, representing the managers of the malaria control programmes, routine and research laboratories, were interviewed, using semi-structured questionnaires. Results There was a high degree of efficiency in ordering and distribution of RDTs, however only 13/20 (65%) of the health facilities had appropriate air-conditioning and monitoring of room temperatures. Sixty percent (12/20) of the nurses did not receive any external training on conducting and interpreting RDT. Fifty percent of nurses (10/20) reported RDT stock-outs. Only 3/20 nurses mentioned that they periodically checked quality of RDT. Fifteen percent of nurses reported giving antimalarial drugs even if the RDT was negative. Conclusion Storage, quality assurance, end user training and use of RDT results for clinical decision making in primary care facilities in South Africa need to be improved. Further studies of the factors influencing the quality control of RDTs, their performance of RDTs and the ways to improve their use of RDTs are needed. PMID:17543127

  2. Relation of MAGSAT and Gravity Anomalies to the Main Tectonic Provinces of South America. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic anomalies of the South American continent are generally more positive and variable than the oceanic anomalies. There is better correlation between the magnetic anomalies and the major tectonic elements of the continents than between the anomalies and the main tectonic elements of the adjacent oceanic areas. Oceanic areas generally show no direct correlation to the magnetic anomalies. Precambrian continental shields are mainly more magnetic than continental basins and orogenic belts. Shields differ markedly from major aulacogens which are generally characterized by negative magnetic anomalies and positive gravity anomalies. The Andean orogenic belt shows rather poor correlation with the magnetic anomalies. The magnetic data exhibit instead prominent east-west trends, which although consistent with some tectonic features, may be related to processing noise derived from data reduction procedures to correct for external magnetic field effects. The pattern over the Andes is sufficiently distinct from the generally north trending magnetic anomalies occurring in the adjacent Pacific Ocean to separate effectively the leading edge of the South American Plate from the Nazea Plate. Eastern South America is characterized by magnetic anomalies which commonly extend across the continental margin into the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Nested PCR detection and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in cattle from Peri-urban localities in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mtshali, Phillip Senzo; Tsotetsi, Ana Mbokeleng; Thekisoe, Matlhahane Molifi Oriel; Mtshali, Moses Sibusiso

    2014-01-01

    Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are tick-borne hemoparasites causing babesiosis in cattle worldwide. This study was aimed at providing information about the occurrence and geographical distribution of B. bovis and B. bigemina species in cattle from Gauteng province, South Africa. A total of 268 blood samples collected from apparently healthy animals in 14 different peri-urban localities were tested using previously established nested PCR assays for the detection of B. bovis and B. bigemina species-specific genes encoding rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) and SpeI-AvaI restriction fragment, respectively. Nested PCR assays revealed that the overall prevalence was 35.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]=± 5.73) and 76.1% (95% CI=± 5.11) for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. PCR results were corroborated by sequencing amplicons of randomly selected samples. The neighbor-joining trees were constructed to study the phylogenetic relationship between B. bovis and B. bigemina sequences of randomly selected isolates. Analysis of phylogram inferred with B. bovis RAP-1 sequences indicated a close relationship between our isolates and GenBank strains. On the other hand, a tree constructed with B. bigemina gp45 sequences revealed a high degree of polymorphism among the B. bigemina isolates investigated in this study. Taken together, the results presented in this work indicate the high incidence of Babesia parasites in cattle from previously uncharacterised peri-urban areas of the Gauteng province. These findings suggest that effective preventative and control measures are essential to curtail the spread of Babesia infections among cattle populations in Gauteng.

  4. Spatio-temporal patterns and movement analysis of pigs from smallholder farms and implications for African swine fever spread, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Folorunso O; Mokoele, Japhta M; Spencer, B Tom; Van Leengoed, Leo A M L; Bevis, Yvette; Booysen, Ingrid

    2015-11-27

    Infectious and zoonotic disease outbreaks have been linked to increasing volumes of legal and illegal trade. Spatio-temporal and trade network analyses have been used to evaluate the risks associated with these challenges elsewhere, but few details are available for the pig sector in South Africa. Regarding pig diseases, Limpopo province is important as the greater part of the province falls within the African swine fever control area. Emerging small-scale pig farmers in Limpopo perceived pig production as an important means of improving their livelihood and an alternative investment. They engage in trading and marketing their products with a potential risk to animal health, because the preferred markets often facilitate potential longdistance spread and disease dispersal over broad geographic areas. In this study, we explored the interconnectedness of smallholder pig farmers in Limpopo, determined the weaknesses and critical control points, and projected interventions that policy makers can implement to reduce the risks to pig health. The geo-coordinates of surveyed farms were used to draw maps, links and networks. Predictive risks to pigs were determined through the analyses of trade networks, and the relationship to previous outbreaks of African swine fever was postulated. Auction points were identified as high-risk areas for the spread of animal diseases. Veterinary authorities should prioritise focused surveillance and diagnostic efforts in Limpopo. Early disease detection and prompt eradication should be targeted and messages promoting enhanced biosecurity to smallholder farmers are advocated. The system may also benefit from the restructuring of marketing and auction networks. Since geographic factors and networks can rapidly facilitate pig disease dispersal over large areas, a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding the complexities that exist around the animal disease epidemiology becomes mandatory.

  5. Mafic subvolcanic intrusions and their petrologic relation with the volcanism in the south hinge Torres Syncline, Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmento, Carla Cecília Treib; Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Lima, Evandro Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The hypabyssal intrusions investigated in this study are located in the east-central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in the south hinge of the Torres Syncline. The intrusions comprise twenty-four dikes and ten sills, intruding in ponded pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, rubbly and acidic lava flows of the south sub-Province of the Paraná Igneous Province and the sedimentary rocks of the Botucatu, Pirambóia, Santa Maria and Rio do Rasto Formations, on the edge of the Paraná Basin. The intrusive dikes in the flows have preferred NNW-SSE direction and the intrusive dikes in the sedimentary rocks have preferred NE-SW direction. Regarding the morphology, the dikes were separated into two different groups: symmetrical and asymmetrical. The small variation in facies is characterized by fine to aphanitic equigranular rocks. The rocks were divided into two types: Silica Supersaturated Tholeiite (SST) - dikes and sills consisting of plagioclase and clinopyroxene as essential minerals, with some olivine and felsic mesostasis, predominant intergranular texture and subordinate subophitic texture; and Silica Saturated Olivine Tholeiite (SSOT) - dikes consisting mainly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, and predominant ophitic texture. The major and trace element geochemistry allows classifying these hypabyssal bodies as basalts (SSOT), basaltic andesites and trachyandesites (TSS) of tholeiitic affinity. The mineral chemistry data and the REE behavior, combined with the LILE and HFSE patterns, similar to the flows and low-Ti basic intrusions of southern Brazil and northwestern Namibia allow suggesting that these dikes and sills were part of a feeder system of the magmatism in the Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province. The preferred direction of the intrusive dikes in the sedimentary rocks of the Paraná Basin coincides with tectonic-magmatic lineaments related to extensional processes and faulting systems that served as vents for dike swarms parallel to the Brazilian

  6. Perceived treatment efficacy of the last experienced illness episode in a community sample in the northern Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, K

    2000-03-01

    This study determined the perceived efficacy of various health care providers for the last illness episode patients had suffered. 104 African/Black participants (50 male and 54 female), chosen by quota sampling from the general public (urban population of Mankweng), Northern Province, were interviewed. The research design was a one-shot case study. Medical treatment (68%) was the major choice of treatment for minor, major and chronic medical condition as well as psychological/mental disorders. The second most important treatment choice was the herbalist (19%) for minor and chronic conditions as well as traditional illness, followed by the diviner (9%) prophet or faith healer (4%) and psychologist (2%). Combined traditional or faith healing was utilized by 32% of the sample and combined western treatment by 68%. Regarding the self-rated treatment efficacy for the last illness episode western treatment was generally perceived as more effective than traditional or faith healing. However, traditional or faith healing was considered almost as long lasting as western therapy.

  7. Relating vegetation condition to grazing management systems in the central Keiskamma catchment, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakembo, Vincent; Ndou, Naledzani

    2017-04-01

    An investigation of the temporal changes in vegetation condition across the communal villages of the central Keiskamma catchment, Eastern Cape Province, in relation to local grazing management systems was conducted. Landsat TM images of 1984 and 1999, in conjunction with SPOT imagery of 2011 were used to assess the spatial trends in vegetation. Information regarding the functionality of local grazing management structures was obtained through structured interviews. Vegetation condition was related to grazing management systems using the logistic regression in Idrisi Selva remote sensing software. Analysis of vegetation condition trends revealed a consistent deterioration of vegetation condition in villages with weak grazing management systems. A statistically significant correlation between vegetation condition and grazing management systems was identified. High levels of vegetation degradation were associated with villages that did not adhere to sound grazing management practices. The introduction of another layer governance in the form of elected municipal committees weakened traditional village management structures. Strengthening traditional management committees should be the point of departure for vegetation restoration.

  8. Market survey on traditional medicine of the third month fair in Dali Prefecture in Yunnan Province, South West China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dequan; Duan, Lizhen; Zhou, Nong

    2014-01-01

    The Third Month Fair in Dali is a historical festival and fair. The market of traditional medicine (TM) is one of the main parts in the fair, which has important influence on local and peripheral people. In this study, approaches of ethnobotany, pharmacognosy, and participatory rural appraisal were used in market survey. Twenty-six druggists were selected randomly as informants and their TMs were recorded. As a result, 427 TMs were recorded including 362 plant medicines, 33 animal medicines, 13 mineral medicines and 19 unidentified medicines. Xinyi, Shanza and Gancao were the most popular medicines due to their popular usages, whereas Sanqi, Tianma and Renshen were relatively fewer in this investigation probably owing to high price and limited output. The plant medicines were from medicinal plants of 117 families belonged to Angiosperm, Gymnospermae, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Lichenes and Fungi. Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Fabaceae provided the maximum numbers of TMs successively. Moreover, these TMs were mainly from the cultivated especially familiar TMs, which reflected significant progress in utilization and conservation of medicinal resource in China. Medicinal market in the Third Month Fair is the most important traditional bazaar in Yunnan province. This study systematically surveyed TMs in the fair for the first time, analyzing and revealing resource compositions and current market situations. These newly gathered data provided precious information for development of medicine cultivation, resource protection and market management as well as further pharmacognostical, pharmacological and clinical researches.

  9. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with thalassemia in South East of iran, sistan and baluchistan province.

    PubMed

    Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Sepehri, Zahra; Heidari, Zahra; Shirzaee, Eghbal; Kiani, Zohre

    2014-08-01

    There are different and controversial reports about zinc deficiency in patients with major thalassemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status in patients with major thalassemia in Sistan and Baluchistan province, southeastern Iran. The study was performed in Ali Asghar Hospital, a specialized governmental hospital located in Zahedan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 369 patients with a history of major thalassemia for more than 5 years entered the study using convenience sampling method. Thirty-six subjects were excluded from the study based on our exclusion criteria. Zinc level was measured in all patients after 12 hours fasting using atomic absorption spectrometry method in 2012. Of 369 cases, 333 patients were eligible and evaluated. The mean age was 15.63 ± 7.4 years. One hundred ninety two cases were male and others were female (141 cases). About 27% (90) of the cases were 5-10 years-old, 24% (80) were 10-15 years-old and 49% were older than 15 years old. Iron chelator in 65.46% was Desferrioxamine, in 28.2% was Deferasirox and in 19.5% was combination of Desferrioxamine and Deferiprone. All cases had zinc deficiency, and 98.5% had severe zinc deficiency. Others (1.5%) had mild deficiency. Our study on 333 patients with major thalassemia documented severe zinc deficiency in all cases. We had no cases with normal or increased zinc levels. It was different with other reports in the world.

  10. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care.

  11. The Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency in Patients With Thalassemia in South East of Iran, Sistan and Baluchistan Province

    PubMed Central

    Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Sepehri, Zahra; Heidari, Zahra; Shirzaee, Eghbal; Kiani, Zohre

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are different and controversial reports about zinc deficiency in patients with major thalassemia. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status in patients with major thalassemia in Sistan and Baluchistan province, southeastern Iran. Patients and Methods: The study was performed in Ali Asghar Hospital, a specialized governmental hospital located in Zahedan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 369 patients with a history of major thalassemia for more than 5 years entered the study using convenience sampling method. Thirty-six subjects were excluded from the study based on our exclusion criteria. Zinc level was measured in all patients after 12 hours fasting using atomic absorption spectrometry method in 2012. Results: Of 369 cases, 333 patients were eligible and evaluated. The mean age was 15.63 ± 7.4 years. One hundred ninety two cases were male and others were female (141 cases). About 27% (90) of the cases were 5-10 years-old, 24% (80) were 10-15 years-old and 49% were older than 15 years old. Iron chelator in 65.46% was Desferrioxamine, in 28.2% was Deferasirox and in 19.5% was combination of Desferrioxamine and Deferiprone. All cases had zinc deficiency, and 98.5% had severe zinc deficiency. Others (1.5%) had mild deficiency. Conclusions: Our study on 333 patients with major thalassemia documented severe zinc deficiency in all cases. We had no cases with normal or increased zinc levels. It was different with other reports in the world. PMID:25389495

  12. Cultural practices, gender inequality and inconsistent condom use increase vulnerability to HIV infection: narratives from married and cohabiting women in rural communities in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Madiba, Sphiwe; Ngwenya, Nomsa

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa bear the brunt of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and older married women and those in cohabiting relationships are regarded as the largest HIV risk group. Although preventing HIV infection in married or stable relationships is an international HIV prevention priority, little is known about the influence of sociocultural contexts on safe-sex practice by women, particularly older women in rural communities in South Africa. This study aimed to examine how older women in a rural patriarchal society negotiate safer sex within marital and long-term cohabitation relationships, and their perceptions and experiences of barriers that influence condom use. Focus group discussions were conducted with married and cohabiting women aged 40-60 years recruited from primary health facilities in a rural district in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data. We found that although women reported negotiating safe sex in their relationships, they dreaded the possible consequences of suggesting condom use with their partners. Many factors made negotiating safe sex complex for these women: living in a patriarchal society where women play no part in sexual decision making, the fear of possible consequences of insisting on condom use, women's inferior social position in marital relationships, cultural practices such as bride price, and gender inequality were the main barriers to practising safer sex. Older married and cohabiting women dreaded negotiating safer sex in this patriarchal society where women's subordination is legitimized. The findings suggest that the women were at high risk of HIV infection because of their inability to negotiate condom use, or to reject forced sex and non-consensual sex. There is a need for interventions targeting older married and cohabiting couples and key stakeholders within communities to create awareness about cultural practices and beliefs that undermine

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vegetables sold in the Amathole District, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Abong'o, B O; Momba, M N B; Mwambakana, J N

    2008-04-01

    Fresh vegetables have been implicated in outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in most parts of the world. Microbiological quality of vegetables used as recipes for salads is very crucial. Residents of the Amathole District in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa consume salads frequently, although the microbial quality of recipe vegetables is questionable. The present study investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from selected vegetables sold within the Amathole District. One hundred eighty samples of the vegetables were analyzed. Strains of E. coli O157:H7 were isolated by enrichment culture and by immunomagnetic separation and identified by conventional and molecular techniques. In three settlements in this district, the mean counts of presumptive E. coli O157 for the vegetables ranged between 9 x 10(3) and 1.6 x 10(6) CFU/g for Fort Beaufort, 1.6 x 10(3) and 1.6 x 10(5) CFU/g for Mdantsane, and 1.3 x 10(3) and 4.1 x 10(4) CFU/g for Alice. Four (10.3%) of 39 vegetable samples were confirmed to carry E. coli O157:H7. Four representative E. coli O157:H7 isolates from these vegetables were susceptible to at least one of the eight antimicrobial agents tested against them. Even though the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was low and those isolated were susceptible to most of the antimicrobials, there remains a need for E. coli O157:H7 surveillance in vegetables used in salad recipes in urban and rural areas of South Africa.

  14. Substance abuse treatment engagement, completion and short-term outcomes in the Western Cape province, South Africa: Findings from the Service Quality Measures Initiative.

    PubMed

    Myers, Bronwyn; Williams, Petal Petersen; Govender, Rajen; Manderscheid, Ron; Koch, J Randy

    2018-04-01

    Optimizing the effectiveness of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is critical in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) with limited opportunities for SUD treatment. This is the first study to identify targets for interventions to improve the quality of SUD treatment in a LMIC. We explored correlates of three indicators of treatment quality (treatment engagement, completion and abstinence at treatment exit) using data from a SUD performance measurement system implemented in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The sample included data from 1094 adult treatment episodes representing 53% of the treatment episodes in 2016. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, we modeled socio-demographic, substance use and program correlates of treatment engagement, completion, and abstinence at treatment exit. Overall, 59% of patients completed treatment (48% of patients from outpatient services). Treatment completion was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence at treatment exit. Patients were more likely to complete treatment if they engaged in treatment, were older, and had more severe drug problems (characterized by daily drug use and heroin problems) and attended programs of shorter duration. Residential treatment was associated with greater likelihood of treatment engagement, completion, and abstinence at treatment exit. Improving rates of outpatient treatment completion will enhance the effectiveness of South Africa's SUD treatment system. Interventions that promote engagement in treatment, particularly among younger patients; reduce program length through referral to step-down continuing care; and ensure better matching of drug problem to treatment level and type could improve rates of treatment completion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Western Cape Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) study: Measuring primary care organisation and performance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa (2013)

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Abdul-Rauf; le Grange, Cynthia; Bhagwan, Susheela; Manga, Nayna; Hellenberg, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background Major health sector reform and the need for baseline measures of performance to determine impact. Aim Baseline audit of primary healthcare (PHC) performance. Setting Cape Town and Cape Winelands (rural) PHC facilities (PCFs) in Western Cape Province, South Africa. Method The South African cross-culturally validated ZA PCAT to audit PHC performance on 11 subdomains associated with improved health and reduced costs. Adult PCF users systematically sampled. All full-time doctors and nurse practitioners in PCFs sampled and all PCF managers in sub-districts sampled invited into the study. Results Data from 1432 users, 100 clinicians and 64 managers from 13 PCFs in 10 sub-districts analysed (figures show stakeholder percentages scoring subdomain performance ‘acceptable to good’). 11.5% users scored access ‘acceptable to good’; community orientation and comprehensive services provided 20.8% and 39.9%, respectively. Total PHC score for users 50.2%; for managers and practitioners 82.8% and 88.0%, respectively. Among practitioners access was lowest (33.3%); PHC team (98.0%) and comprehensive services available (100.0%) highest. Among managers, access (13.5%) and family centredness (45.6%) are lowest; PHC team (85.9%) and comprehensive services available (90.6%) highest. Managers scored access, family centredness and cultural competence significantly lower than practitioners. Users scored comprehensive services available, comprehensive services provided and community orientation significantly lower than practitioners and managers. Conclusion Gaps between users’ experience and providers’ assessments of PHC performance are identified. Features that need strengthening and alignment with best practice, provincial and national, and health policies are highlighted with implications for practitioner and manager training, health policy, and research. PMID:27247157

  16. Cultural practices, gender inequality and inconsistent condom use increase vulnerability to HIV infection: narratives from married and cohabiting women in rural communities in Mpumalanga province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Madiba, Sphiwe; Ngwenya, Nomsa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women in sub-Saharan Africa bear the brunt of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and older married women and those in cohabiting relationships are regarded as the largest HIV risk group. Although preventing HIV infection in married or stable relationships is an international HIV prevention priority, little is known about the influence of sociocultural contexts on safe-sex practice by women, particularly older women in rural communities in South Africa. Objectives: This study aimed to examine how older women in a rural patriarchal society negotiate safer sex within marital and long-term cohabitation relationships, and their perceptions and experiences of barriers that influence condom use. Methods: Focus group discussions were conducted with married and cohabiting women aged 40–60 years recruited from primary health facilities in a rural district in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data. Results: We found that although women reported negotiating safe sex in their relationships, they dreaded the possible consequences of suggesting condom use with their partners. Many factors made negotiating safe sex complex for these women: living in a patriarchal society where women play no part in sexual decision making, the fear of possible consequences of insisting on condom use, women’s inferior social position in marital relationships, cultural practices such as bride price, and gender inequality were the main barriers to practising safer sex. Conclusions: Older married and cohabiting women dreaded negotiating safer sex in this patriarchal society where women’s subordination is legitimized. The findings suggest that the women were at high risk of HIV infection because of their inability to negotiate condom use, or to reject forced sex and non-consensual sex. There is a need for interventions targeting older married and cohabiting couples and key stakeholders within communities to

  17. Tick communities at the expanding wildlife/cattle interface in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: implications for Corridor disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, E R; Parker, D M

    2010-12-01

    Corridor disease, transmitted by the brown ear tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus), is one of Africa's most pathogenic tick-borne diseases for cattle. With a focus on this species, we investigated the community parameters (richness, diversity and abundance) of ticks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and how this may be linked to the increasing wildlife/cattle interface in the region. There were significantly more ticks of a greater diversity and richness at sites positioned at the wildlife/cattle interface ('treatment sites') compared to sites where wildlife was absent (controls). Significantly, R. appendiculatus was only found at the treatment sites. Therefore, it is believed that the wildlife/cattle interface may be playing a crucial role in increasing the occurrence, abundance and distribution of R. appendiculatus in the Eastern Cape. The implications of a Corridor disease outbreak in the region are discussed.

  18. Deviation Value for Conventional X-ray in Hospitals in South Sulawesi Province from 2014 to 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachtiar, Ilham; Abdullah, Bualkar; Tahir, Dahlan

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the conventional X-ray machine parameters tested in the region of South Sulawesi from 2014 to 2016. The objective of this research is to know deviation of every parameter of conventional X-ray machine. The testing parameters were analyzed by using quantitative methods with participatory observational approach. Data collection was performed by testing the output of conventional X-ray plane using non-invasive x-ray multimeter. The test parameters include tube voltage (kV) accuracy, radiation output linearity, reproducibility and radiation beam value (HVL) quality. The results of the analysis show four conventional X-ray test parameters have varying deviation spans, where the tube voltage (kV) accuracy has an average value of 4.12%, the average radiation output linearity is 4.47% of the average reproducibility of 0.62% and the averaged of the radiation beam (HVL) is 3.00 mm.

  19. Heuweltjies (earth mounds) in the Clanwilliam district, Cape Province, South Africa: 4000-year-old termite nests.

    PubMed

    Moore, J M; Picker, M D

    1991-05-01

    Examination of eroded and intact earth mounds in the Clanwilliam district, South Africa, indicates that they are well-established active termitaria of the harvester termite Microhodotermes viator. Unoccupied lower portions of the mounds contain ubiquitous trace-fossil evidence of earlier inhabitation by the same species. Previous studies indicating that fossorial molerats played a major role in the formation of the mounds are not supported by the observations presented here. Calcretization of the basal parts of the earth mounds has been caused by groundwater interaction with the more alkaline mound soil. 14 C dating of this calcrete indicates that the earth mounds have been in existence for at least 4000 years, an order of magnitude greater than any previously recorded longevity for termitarium inhabitation.

  20. Indoor and outdoor PM10 levels at schools located near mine dumps in Gauteng and North West Provinces, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nkosi, Vusumuzi; Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2017-01-06

    Few studies in South Africa have investigated the exposure of asthmatic learners to indoor and outdoor air pollution at schools. This study compared outdoor PM 10 and SO 2 exposure levels in exposed (1-2 km from gold mine dumps) and unexposed schools (5 km or more from gold mine dumps). It also examined exposure of asthmatic children to indoor respirable dust at exposed and unexposed schools. The study was conducted between 1 and 31 October 2012 in five schools from exposed and five from unexposed communities. Outdoor PM 10 and SO 2 levels were measured for 8-h at each school. Ten asthmatic learners were randomly selected from each school for 8-h personal respirable dust sampling during school hours. The level of outdoor PM 10 for exposed was 16.42 vs. 11.47 mg.m -3 for the unexposed communities (p < 0.001). The outdoor SO 2 for exposed was 0.02 ppb vs. 0.01 ppb for unexposed communities (p < 0.001). Indoor respirable dust in the classroom differed significantly between exposed (0.17 mg.m -3 ) vs. unexposed (0.01 mg.m -3 ) children with asthma at each school (p < 0.001). The significant differences between exposed and unexposed schools could reveal a serious potential health hazard for school children, although they were within the South African Air Quality Standards' set by the Department of Environmental Affairs. The indoor respirable dust levels in exposed schools could have an impact on children with asthma, as they were significantly higher than the unexposed schools, although there are no published standards for environmental exposure for children with asthma.

  1. Lithospheric control on basaltic magma compositions within a long-lived monogenetic magmatic province: the Cainozoic basalts of eastern Victoria, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. C.; Nicholls, I. A.; Maas, R.

    2012-12-01

    Basaltic volcanism, ranging in age from Late Jurassic to Holocene and extending across southern Victoria in south-eastern Australia was initiated ~ 95 Ma ago during the earliest stages of rifting associated with opening of the Tasman Sea and Southern Ocean. Volcanic activity has continued sporadically since that time with the only major hiatus being between 18 and 7 Ma (Price et al, 2003). Basaltic rocks with ages in the range 18-90 Ma occur in small lava fields scattered across eastern and south-eastern Victoria and have also been recovered from bore holes in the west of the state. These have in the past been referred to as the "Older Volcanics" to differentiate them from more volumetrically extensive and younger (< 5 Ma) lava fields to the west. Older Volcanics vary in composition from SiO2-undersaturated basanites, basalts and hawaiites through transitional basalts to hypersthene normative tholeiites. Strontium, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions lie between DM and EM 2 in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic space. They are isotopically similar to Samoan OIB but different from intra-plate rocks of the New Zealand-Antarctic diffuse alkaline magmatic province (DAMP). Trace element compositions are generally characterised by enrichment of Cs, Ba, Rb, Th, U, Nb, K and light REE over heavy REE, Ti, Zr and Y but there is subtle diversity within and between particular lava fields. (La/Yb)n and K/Nb ratios show significant variation and some basalts are relatively enriched in Sr, P and Pb. Potassium and Rb show distinctive relative depletions in some samples and this could be indicating low degree melting with residual phlogopite. When Sr isotope data for Older Volcanics are projected onto an east-west profile they outline distinctive discontinuities that can be related to surface and subsurface structural features within the basement. This has previously been identified in the "Newer Volcanics" (< 5 Ma) province of western Victoria (Price et al., 1997, 2003). Both Proterozoic and

  2. How front-line healthcare workers respond to stock-outs of essential medicines in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hodes, R; Price, I; Bungane, N; Toska, E; Cluver, L

    2017-08-25

    Shortages of essential medicines are a daily occurrence in many of South Africa (SA)'s public health facilities. This study focuses on the responses of healthcare workers to stock-outs, investigating how actors at the 'front line' of public health delivery understand, experience and respond to shortages of essential medicines and equipment in their facilities. Findings are based on focus groups, observations and interviews with healthcare workers and patients at healthcare facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of SA, conducted as part of the Mzantsi Wakho study. The research revealed a discrepancy between 'informal' definitions of stock-outs and their reporting through formal stock-out management channels. Front-line healthcare workers had designed their own systems for classifying the severity of stock-outs, based on the product in question, and on their potential to access stocks from other facilities. Beyond formal systems of procurement and supply, healthcare workers had established vast networks of alternative communication and action, often using personal resources to procure medical supplies. Stock-outs were only reported when informal methods of stock-sharing did not secure top-up supplies. These findings have implications for understanding the frequency and severity of stock-outs, and for taking action to prevent and manage stock-outs effectively.

  3. Professional nurses' attitudes towards providing termination of pregnancy services in a tertiary hospital in the north west province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mokgethi, N E; Ehlers, V J; van der Merwe, M M

    2006-03-01

    The Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act (no 92 of 1996) was implemented during 1997. This study attempted to investigate professional nurses' attitudes towards rendering termination of pregnancy (TOP) services at a tertiary hospital in the North West Province of South Africa. A quantitative descriptive research design was used to study professional nurses' attitudes towards providing TOP services. The research results, obtained from questionnaires completed by professional nurses, indicated that most professional nurses' attitudes included that women should be at least 16 years of age to access these services; women should not be able to access repeated TOPs; nurses would prefer to administer pills rather than to use vacuum aspirations; nurses should work in TOP services by choice only. TOP centers should have better equipment, more resources and more staff members. Nurses working in TOP services would appreciate receiving more support from their families, friends, managers and communities. Some professional nurses experienced guilt, depression, anxiety and religious conflicts as a result of providing TOP services. Despite the legalisation of TOPs, these services remained stigmatised. Professional nurses did not want to work in these services and also did not want to be associated with them.

  4. Compliance with the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant women in Mafikeng local municipality, North West province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mbhenyane, Xikombiso; Cherane, Matodzi

    2017-09-01

    Anaemia due to iron deficiency is recognized as one of the major nutritional deficiencies in women and children in developing countries. Daily iron supplementation for pregnant women is recommended in many countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the factors that contribute to compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant woman in Mafikeng local municipality, North West Province, South Africa. A mixed method of descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional design was used. Ten clinics were used as a sample frame where 57 pregnant women and 10 health workers were purposefully and conveniently selected. Quantitative techniques were used to collect data on attendance, consumption and nutrition knowledge using the self-reported questionnaire by pregnant women, and structured interview for health workers. Qualitative design was used to conduct in - depth focus-group discussions to gather information on compliance to the consumption of supplements by pregnant women. The findings of the study revealed good antenatal clinic attendance, availability of supplements and 93% compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements. High compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant women was reported, and this should be reinforced.

  5. Description of Basiria birjandiensis n. sp (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) from South Khorasan province with a checklist of the family Tylenchidae Örley 1880 from Iran.

    PubMed

    Alvani, Somaye; Mahdikhani-Moghadam, Esmat; Rouhani, Hamid; Mohammadi, Abbas; Karssen, Gerrit

    2016-03-03

    In order to identify plant-parasitic nematodes (family Tylenchidae Örley 1880) associated with Ziziphus zizyphus in Iran, 360 soil and root samples were collected from South Khorasan province during 2012-2014. Herein, a new species of Basiria and several known members of the family Tylenchidae are reported. B. birjandiensis n. sp. is characterized by short body length (584-748 µm [660.6±72.3]), lip region with flat apex, stylet 11-12 µm (11.3±0.5), excretory pore position varying from isthmus level to the middle of the basal bulb (78-91 µm from the anterior end of the body), post-vulval uterine sac 8-14 µm (10.7±1.9) long, filiform tail (151-181 µm, c= 3.7-4.2, c´= 14.3-17.2) and body annuli 0.5-1 µm (0.6±0.1) wide. A checklist of Tylenchidae species from Iran is also presented.

  6. Behaviour planning and problem solving deficiencies in children with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from the Balobedu culture, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pila-Nemutandani, Refilwe Gloria; Meyer, Anneke

    2016-07-01

    To compare planning behaviour (frontal lobe functioning) in children with and without symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 90 children (45 with symptoms of ADHD and 45 matched controls without ADHD symptoms) of both genders, who were medication naïve, from the Balobedu culture (Limpopo province, South Africa), aged 7-13 years, participated in the study. The performance of the two groups was compared on a test of planning and problem solving, the Tower of London (ToL) task. The results were analysed as a function of gender and ADHD subtype. The Finger Tapping test (testing fine motor skills) was used as a control test to verify that the expected differences were not due to poor motor skills. The children with ADHD symptoms scored significantly lower than the non-ADHD comparison group which indicated deficiency in frontal lobe functioning (p = 0.00). The difference in performance was not due to poor motor control (p = 0.70). Children with ADHD symptoms show deficits in behavioural planning which indicates impairment of functions of the frontal areas supplied by the mesocortical dopamine branch. More so than others, the ADHD Inattentive and Combined subtypes showed poor performance in the Tower of London task, indicating poor organisational and planning skills in these groups. The results also did show that the difference was not due to problems with motor control and that the ToL task is a culture-fair instrument for testing planning behaviour.

  7. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8–10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based. PMID:27315574

  8. Community support and disclosure of HIV serostatus to family members by public-sector antiretroviral treatment patients in the Free State Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Edwin; van Loon, Francis; van Rensburg, Dingie; Meulemans, Herman

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the support of close relatives is fundamental in coping with HIV/AIDS and in accessing the emotional and material support necessary for sustained adherence to treatment. Because disclosure to family members is imperative to ensure their support, identifying tools or resources that can minimize the possible risks and maximize the potential benefits of disclosure should be useful in improving the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS. Where health systems require strengthening, engaging the community in HIV/AIDS care could potentially create an environment that encourages disclosure to family members. This study investigated the impact of community support initiatives (community health workers and treatment support groups), patient characteristics (age, gender, and education), and time since first diagnosis on the disclosure of serostatus to family members by a sample of 268 public-sector antiretroviral treatment patients in a province of South Africa between August 2004 and July 2007. Whereas gender, age, and education only weakly influenced disclosure, there was a strong and stable positive association between community support and disclosure to family members. The immediate and long-term impact of community support on the disclosure by seropositive patients to family members indicates that initiatives such as community health workers and HIV support groups run by people living with HIV/AIDS should be strengthened, especially for those patients who cannot disclose their status to immediate family and close friends.

  9. Health behaviour change of people living with HIV after a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in North-West Province in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chidrawi, H Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All over the world, health behaviour is considered a complex, far reaching and powerful phenomenon. People's lives are influenced by their own or others' health behaviour on a daily basis. Whether it has to do with smoking, drinking, pollution, global warming or HIV management, it touches lives and it challenges personal and community responses. Health behaviour, and health behaviour change, probably holds the key to many a person's immediate or prolonged life or death outcomes. The same can be said about communities, culture groups and nations. This SANPAD-funded study focused on research questions relating to health behaviour change for people living with HIV (PLWH) in the North-West Province in South Africa. It investigated whether a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention caused health behaviour change in PLWH. An quantitative single system research design with one pre- and four repetitive post-tests utilizing purposive sampling was used to test change-over-time in the health behaviour of 18 PLWH. The results of the study indicated statistical and/or practical significant change-over-time. The intervention not only addressed the health behaviour of PLWH, but also their HIV stigma experiences, HIV signs and symptoms and their quality of life in the context of being HIV positive. The recommendations include popularization of the comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention and extending it to include a second intervention to strengthen health behaviour and quality of life for PLWH in the community at large.

  10. Health behaviour change of people living with HIV after a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in North-West Province in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chidrawi, H. Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All over the world, health behaviour is considered a complex, far reaching and powerful phenomenon. People's lives are influenced by their own or others' health behaviour on a daily basis. Whether it has to do with smoking, drinking, pollution, global warming or HIV management, it touches lives and it challenges personal and community responses. Health behaviour, and health behaviour change, probably holds the key to many a person's immediate or prolonged life or death outcomes. The same can be said about communities, culture groups and nations. This SANPAD-funded study focused on research questions relating to health behaviour change for people living with HIV (PLWH) in the North-West Province in South Africa. It investigated whether a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention caused health behaviour change in PLWH. An quantitative single system research design with one pre- and four repetitive post-tests utilizing purposive sampling was used to test change-over-time in the health behaviour of 18 PLWH. The results of the study indicated statistical and/or practical significant change-over-time. The intervention not only addressed the health behaviour of PLWH, but also their HIV stigma experiences, HIV signs and symptoms and their quality of life in the context of being HIV positive. The recommendations include popularization of the comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention and extending it to include a second intervention to strengthen health behaviour and quality of life for PLWH in the community at large. PMID:25495580

  11. "She made up a choice for me": 22 HIV-positive women's experiences of involuntary sterilization in two South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Strode, Ann; Mthembu, Sethembiso; Essack, Zaynab

    2012-12-01

    Since 1998 South African law has provided that adults should have access to sterilization but only with their informed consent. However, the right to sterilization and other sexual and reproductive rights have not been fully realized as women struggle to access limited services, and there are allegations of discrimination and sterilization abuses. This qualitative study explores the experiences of 22 HIV-positive women in two provinces who reported being sterilized between 1996 and 2010 without their informed consent (n=18) or without their knowledge (n=4). Key issues reported by participants included failure to respect their autonomy, lack of information given about what sterilization entailed, and subtle or overt pressure to sign the consent form. Although the legal framework was intended to ensure informed decision-making regarding sterilization, these protections appear to have failed the HIV-positive women in this study. The findings suggest that some health professionals may consider a signature on a consent form as sufficient regardless of how it was obtained. Furthermore the women's perceptions that they were singled out as needing to be sterilized simply because they were HIV-positive warrants further investigation. More research is required on the nature of the problem and on other stakeholders' perceptions. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effusive silicic volcanism in the Paraná Magmatic Province, South Brazil: Physico-chemical conditions of storage and eruption and considerations on the rheological behavior during emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, L. A.; Giordano, D.; Janasi, V. A.; Guimarães, L. F.

    2018-04-01

    Expressive occurrences of effusive deposits were identified in silicic units from the Paraná Magmatic Province outcropping in a key area in south Brazil where three units with different compositions occur (Caxias do Sul dacites, CSd, Barros Cassal andesites to dacites, BCs, and Santa Maria rhyolites, SMr). Textural and chemical characteristics of phenocrysts, microphenocrysts and microlites suggest that crystallization started in a shallow magma chamber and continued during ascent to the surface. These magmas had an unique character (e.g., very high temperatures 1000 °C and low H2O contents 1-2 wt%), and formed several types of deposits that are clearly indicative of locally fed lava flows and had physical properties consistent with this mode of eruption (e.g., viscosities as low as 104.2 Pa·s at ca. 1000 °C for the CSd). The very low estimated H2O contents are a consequence of their petrogenesis (i.e., fractionation from tholeiitic basalts plus assimilation of crustal melts from water-poor granitic sources), and was probably a key factor influencing the non-explosive nature of these deposits. The comparatively higher viscosity calculated for the Santa Maria rhyolite (> 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than CSd) would make it a better candidate to generate expressive pyroclastic deposits, but this might be offset by its remarkably low H2O contents (≤ 1 wt%) and low discharge ratios.

  13. Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa--a participatory rural appraisal study.

    PubMed

    Getchell, J K; Vatta, A F; Motswatswe, P W; Krecek, R C; Moerane, R; Pell, A N; Tucker, T W; Leshomo, S

    2002-12-01

    A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives: to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creation, and health services. Lack of pasture for grazing livestock was also cited as being important. Other most frequently mentioned livestock problems included 'gall sickness' (a vaguely defined condition not necessarily referring to anaplasmosis), parasites (both external and internal), chicken diseases and ingestion of plastic bags discarded in the environment. When livestock owners were questioned during individual interviews, most were able to identify the presence of parasites in either the live or dead animal. However, it seems likely that this is limited to the identification of tapeworms. It was found that most livestock owners use a combination of treatments, ranging from traditional to folklore to commercial. There were some difficulties in using the participatory methods since it was the first time that the facilitators and the communities had been exposed to them. Many communities had difficulty in dealing with the concept of finding solutions within the community, which is such an integral part of participatory methods.

  14. [Relationships between vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunan Province, South-central China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Zou, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Man-Yuan; Hu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Fang-Ping; Song, Guang-Tao; Lin, Zhong-Gui

    2013-01-01

    By using space series to replace time series, this paper studied the relationships between the vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on the slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunnan Province South-central China. There existed obvious differences in the soil physical and chemical properties at different restoration stages. From grassplot, grass-shrub, shrub to shrub-arbor, the soil organic matter, total and available N, and moisture contents increased markedly, soil bulk density had an obvious decrease, soil total and available P contents changed little, and soil pH decreased gradually, but no significant differences were observed among different restoration stages. At different restoration stages, the biomass of plant community had effects on the quantity and composition of soil microbes. The quantities of soil bacteria and fungi had significant positive correlations with the aboveground biomass of plant community, but the quantity of soil actinomycetes had less correlation with plant community's aboveground biomass. At different restoration stages, the activities of soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, cellulase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase decreased with increasing soil layer, and had significant positive correlations with plant community's richness and aboveground biomass.

  15. Caregivers’ Knowledge and Use of Fermented Foods for Infant and Young Children Feeding in a Rural Community of Odi, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chelule, Paul K; Mokgatle, Mathildah M; Zungu, Lindiwe I; Chaponda, Armelia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fermented foods have positive health effects in adults and children if consumed regularly. However, lack of knowledge and perceptions to­wards fermented foods may limit their usage. This study aimed to assess the caregivers’ awareness and usage of fermented foods for feeding children in peri-urban/rural communities of Gauteng Province. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in June, 2012, in a peri-urban/rural community to assess the awareness and use of fermented foods by child caregivers attending a local antenatal clinic through focus group discussions. Results: Thirty three caregivers participated in the study; however 29 indicated their demographic profiles. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis included knowledge on fermented foods, perceived benefits of fermentation, varied views about fermentation and feeding practices. Fermented foods that caregivers, their families and community members consume include ting, fat cakes, dumplings, sorghum beer and mageu. Findings also showed that children consumed fermented foods in form of soft ting porridge; and yoghurt, marketed as Activia and Danone commercial brands. Also, caregivers were not comfortable feeding their children with fermented foods, indicating their limited knowledge on the nutri­tional value of these foods. Conclusion: It is critical to promote caregivers’ knowledge and use of fermented foods for feeding infants and young children in South African rural communities. PMID:25097837

  16. Caregivers' knowledge and use of fermented foods for infant and young children feeding in a rural community of odi, gauteng province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chelule, Paul K; Mokgatle, Mathildah M; Zungu, Lindiwe I; Chaponda, Armelia

    2014-01-01

    Fermented foods have positive health effects in adults and children if consumed regularly. However, lack of knowledge and perceptions to-wards fermented foods may limit their usage. This study aimed to assess the caregivers' awareness and usage of fermented foods for feeding children in peri-urban/rural communities of Gauteng Province. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in June, 2012, in a peri-urban/rural community to assess the awareness and use of fermented foods by child caregivers attending a local antenatal clinic through focus group discussions. Thirty three caregivers participated in the study; however 29 indicated their demographic profiles. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis included knowledge on fermented foods, perceived benefits of fermentation, varied views about fermentation and feeding practices. Fermented foods that caregivers, their families and community members consume include ting, fat cakes, dumplings, sorghum beer and mageu. Findings also showed that children consumed fermented foods in form of soft ting porridge; and yoghurt, marketed as Activia and Danone commercial brands. Also, caregivers were not comfortable feeding their children with fermented foods, indicating their limited knowledge on the nutri-tional value of these foods. It is critical to promote caregivers' knowledge and use of fermented foods for feeding infants and young children in South African rural communities.

  17. Factors influencing teen mothers' enrollment and participation in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Varga, Christine; Brookes, Heather

    2008-06-01

    In this article, we examine barriers to HIV testing uptake and participation in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services among adolescent mothers aged 15 to 19 years in rural and urban Limpopo Province, South Africa. We used the narrative research method involving key informants constructing typical case studies of adolescent experiences with HIV testing and entry into PMTCT. Case studies formed the basis of a community-based questionnaire and focus group discussions with adolescent mothers. Client-counselor dynamics during pretest counseling were pivotal in determining uptake and participation, and counselor profile strongly influenced the nature of the interaction. Other factors found to influence adherence to PMTCT recommendations included HIV and early premarital pregnancy stigma, fear of a positive test result, and concerns over confidentiality and poor treatment by health care providers. Adolescents described elaborate strategies to avoid HIV disclosure to labor and delivery staff, despite knowing this would mean no antiretroviral therapy for their newborn infants. Theoretical, methodological, and programmatic implications of study findings are also discussed.

  18. Concentration of novel brominated flame retardants and HBCD in leachates and sediments from selected municipal solid waste landfill sites in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olukunle, O I; Okonkwo, O J

    2015-09-01

    In this study leachate and sediment samples were collected from six municipal solid waste landfill sites across Gauteng Province in South Africa to determine the levels of 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5 tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Soxhlet as well as liquid-liquid extraction were employed for sediment and leachates respectively followed by GC-EIMS analysis. Concentrations of novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) ranged from below detection (

  19. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    PubMed

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based.

  20. Site formation processes at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa): resolving stratigraphic and depositional complexities with micromorphology.

    PubMed

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Goldberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Site PP13B is a cave located on the steep cliffs of Pinnacle Point near Mossel Bay in Western Cape Province, South Africa. The depositional sequence of the cave, predating Marine Isotopic Stage 11 (MIS 11) and continuing to present, is in the form of isolated sediment exposures with different depositional facies and vertical and lateral variations. Micromorphological analysis demonstrated that a suite of natural sedimentation processes operated during the development of the sequence ranging from water action to aeolian activity, and from speleothem formations to plant colonization and root encrustation. At the same time, anthropogenic sediments that are mainly in the form of burnt remains from combustion features (e.g., wood ash, charcoal, and burnt bone) were accumulating. Several erosional episodes have resulted in a complicated stratigraphy, as discerned from different depositional and post-depositional features. The cave is associated with a fluctuating coastal environment, frequent changes in sea level and climate controlled patterns of sedimentation, and the presence or absence of humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. "Students want HIV testing in schools" a formative evaluation of the acceptability of HIV testing and counselling at schools in Gauteng and North West provinces in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Madiba, Sphiwe; Mokgatle, Mathilda

    2015-04-17

    The proposal by the South African Health Ministry to implement HIV testing and counselling (HTC) at schools in 2011 generated debates about the appropriateness of such testing. However, the debate has been between the Ministries of Education and Health, with little considerations of the students. The main aim of the study was to assess the students' opinions and uptake of HIV testing and counselling in general, and the acceptability of the provision of HIV testing and counselling in schools. The study also determined the association between socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, and HIV testing behaviour of the students. A survey was conducted among grade 10-12 high school students in North West and Gauteng provinces, South Africa. Seventeen high schools (nine rural and eight urban) were randomly selected for the administration of a researcher-assisted, self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 2970 students aged 14-27 years participated in the study; 1632 (55%) were girls, 1810 (61%) ever had sex, and 1271 (49.8%) had more than one sex partner. The mean age of first sexual activity was 15.6. Half (n = 1494, 50.1%) had been tested for HIV. Having multiple sexual partners, age, and gender were significantly associated with increased odds of having had a HIV test. Fear, being un-informed about HTC, and low HIV risk perceptions were the reasons for not getting tested. The acceptability of HTC at school was high (n = 2282, 76.9%) and 2129 (71.8%) were willing to be tested at school. Appropriateness, privacy, and secrecy were the main arguments for and against HTC at school. One-third (n = 860, 29%) had intentions to disclose their HIV status to students versus 1258 (42.5%) for teachers. Stigma, discrimination and secrecy were the primary reasons students did not intend to disclose. A high acceptability of HTC and willingness to be tested at school suggest that HIV prevention programs tailored to youth have a high potential of success

  2. Accessing medical and surgical first-trimester abortion services: women's experiences and costs from an operations research study in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Fetters, Tamara; Sinanovic, Edina; Blanchard, Kelly

    2017-08-01

    To explore women's experiences accessing services and estimate costs incurred for first-trimester abortion at four public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Subanalysis from a prospective cohort study (2009-2011) of women aged 18-49years accessing abortion services through 12weeks' gestation. Trained study personnel conducted structured interviews with women about their reason for having an abortion, experiences accessing services and costs incurred. Women who were 9weeks' gestation or less were eligible to choose medication abortion or manual vacuum aspiration (MVA); women 10-12weeks' gestation all had MVA. We enrolled 1167 women; 923 (79.1%) were eligible to choose their procedure. The median age was 25years; most were black African, single and unemployed. Many women reported concerns about the affordability of raising a(nother) child (58.9%) or not being ready for (more) children (43.4%) as their reason for having an abortion. In total, women incurred a median cost of US$9.99 (interquartile range 6.46-14.85) for their procedure which usually required two facility visits. Many had to pay for transportation, a pregnancy test, sanitary pads or pain medication. Despite the availability of government assistance for children through South Africa's "child grant," the affordability of raising a child was a major concern for women. Although theoretically available free of charge in the public sector, women experienced challenges accessing abortion services and incurred costs which may have been burdensome given average local earnings. These potential barriers could be addressed by reducing the number of required visits and improving availability of pregnancy tests and supplies in public facilities. Many women cited concerns about the affordability of having a(nother) child when requesting an abortion. Although public services are technically free or low-cost in South Africa, women incurred costs for first-trimester abortions. Women's costs could be

  3. The costs and cost effectiveness of providing first-trimester, medical and surgical safe abortion services in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Devjee, Jaymala; Moodley, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite a liberal abortion law, access to safe abortion services in South Africa is challenging for many women. Medication abortion was introduced in 2013, but its reach remains limited. We aimed to estimate the costs and cost effectiveness of providing first-trimester medication abortion and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) services to inform planning for first-trimester service provision in South Africa and similar settings. Methods We obtained data on service provision and outcomes from an operations research study where medication abortion was introduced alongside existing MVA services in public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal province. Clinical data were collected through interviews with first-trimester abortion clients and summaries completed by nurses performing the procedures. In parallel, we performed micro-costing at three of the study hospitals. Using a model built in Excel, we estimated the average cost per medical and surgical procedure and determined the cost per complete abortion performed. Results are presented in 2015 US dollars. Results A total of 1,129 women were eligible for a first trimester abortion at the three study sites. The majority (886, 78.5%) were eligible to choose their abortion procedure; 94.1% (n = 834) chose medication abortion. The total average cost per medication abortion was $63.91 (52.32–75.51). The total average cost per MVA was higher at $69.60 (52.62–86.57); though the cost ranges for the two procedures overlapped. Given average costs, the cost per complete medication abortion was lower than the cost per complete MVA despite three (0.4%) medication abortion women being hospitalized and two (0.3%) having ongoing pregnancies at study exit. Personnel costs were the largest component of the total average cost of both abortion methods. Conclusion This analysis supports the scale-up of medication abortion alongside existing MVA services in South Africa. Women can be offered a choice of methods, including medication

  4. Implementing community participation through legislative reform: a study of the policy framework for community participation in the Western Cape province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Amidst an evolving post-apartheid policy framework for health, policymakers have sought to institutionalize community participation in Primary Health Care, recognizing participation as integral to realizing South Africa’s constitutional commitment to the right to health. With evolving South African legislation supporting community involvement in the health system, early policy developments focused on Community Health Committees (HCs) as the principal institutions of community participation. Formally recognized in the National Health Act of 2003, the National Health Act deferred to provincial governments in establishing the specific roles and functions of HCs. As a result, stakeholders developed a Draft Policy Framework for Community Participation in Health (Draft Policy) to formalize participatory institutions in the Western Cape province. Methods With the Draft Policy as a frame of analysis, the researchers conducted documentary policy analysis and semi-structured interviews on the evolution of South African community participation policy. Moving beyond the specific and unique circumstances of the Western Cape, this study analyzes generalizable themes for rights-based community participation in the health system. Results Framing institutions for the establishment, appointment, and functioning of community participation, the Draft Policy proposed a formal network of communication – from local HCs to the health system. However, this participation structure has struggled to establish itself and function effectively as a result of limitations in community representation, administrative support, capacity building, and policy commitment. Without legislative support for community participation, the enactment of superseding legislation is likely to bring an end to HC structures in the Western Cape. Conclusions Attempts to realize community participation have not adequately addressed the underlying factors crucial to promoting effective participation, with

  5. Woody vegetation cover monitoring with multi-temporal Landsat data and Random Forests: the case of the Northwest Province (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symeonakis, Elias; Higginbottom, Thomas; Petroulaki, Kyriaki

    2016-04-01

    Land degradation and desertification (LDD) are serious global threats to humans and the environment. Globally, 10-20% of drylands and 24% of the world's productive lands are potentially degraded, which affects 1.5 billion people and reduces GDP by €3.4 billion. In Africa, LDD processes affect up to a third of savannahs, leading to a decline in the ecosystem services provided to some of the continent's poorest and most vulnerable communities. Indirectly, LDD can be monitored using relevant indicators. The encroachment of woody plants into grasslands, and the subsequent conversion of savannahs and open woodlands into shrublands, has attracted a lot of attention over the last decades and has been identified as an indicator of LDD. According to some assessments, bush encroachment has rendered 1.1 million ha of South African savanna unusable, threatens another 27 million ha (~17% of the country), and has reduced the grazing capacity throughout the region by up to 50%. Mapping woody cover encroachment over large areas can only be effectively achieved using remote sensing data and techniques. The longest continuously operating Earth-observation program, the Landsat series, is now freely-available as an atmospherically corrected, cloud masked surface reflectance product. The availability and length of the Landsat archive is thus an unparalleled Earth-observation resource, particularly for long-term change detection and monitoring. Here, we map and monitor woody vegetation cover in the Northwest Province of South Africa, a mosaic of 12 Landsat scenes that expands over more than 100,000km2. We employ a multi-temporal approach with dry-season TM, ETM+ and OLI data from 15 epochs between 1989 to 2015. We use 0.5m-pixel colour aerial photography to collect >15,000 samples for training and validating a Random Forest model to map woody cover, grasses, crops, urban and bare areas. High classification accuracies are achieved, especially so for the two cover types indirectly

  6. Better antiretroviral therapy outcomes at primary healthcare facilities: an evaluation of three tiers of ART services in four South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Fatti, Geoffrey; Grimwood, Ashraf; Bock, Peter

    2010-09-21

    There are conflicting reports of antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectiveness comparisons between primary healthcare (PHC) facilities and hospitals in low-income settings. This comparison has not been evaluated on a broad scale in South Africa. A retrospective cohort study was conducted including ART-naïve adults from 59 facilities in four provinces in South Africa, enrolled between 2004 and 2007. Kaplan-Meier estimates, competing-risks Cox regression, generalised estimating equation population-averaged models and logistic regression were used to compare death, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and virological suppression (VS) between PHC, district and regional hospitals. 29 203 adults from 47 PHC facilities, nine district hospitals and three regional hospitals were included. Patients at PHC facilities had more advanced WHO stage disease when starting ART. Retention in care was 80.1% (95% CI: 79.3%-80.8%), 71.5% (95% CI: 69.1%-73.8%) and 68.7% (95% CI: 67.0%-69.7%) at PHC, district and regional hospitals respectively, after 24 months of treatment (P<0.0001). In adjusted regression analyses, LTFU was independently increased at regional hospitals (aHR 2.19; 95% CI: 1.94-2.47) and mortality was independently elevated at district hospitals (aHR 1.60; 95% CI: 1.30-1.99) compared to PHC facilities after 12 months of ART. District and regional hospital patients had independently reduced probabilities of VS, aOR 0.76 (95% CI: 0.59-0.97) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.56-0.75) respectively compared to PHC facilities over 24 months of treatment. ART outcomes were superior at PHC facilities, despite PHC patients having more advanced clinical stage disease when starting ART, suggesting that ART can be adequately provided at this level and supporting the South African government's call for rapid up-scaling of ART at the primary level of care. Further prospective research is required to determine the degree to which outcome differences are attributable to either facility level characteristics or

  7. Basic health, women's health, and mental health among internally displaced persons in Nyala Province, South Darfur, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kim, Glen; Torbay, Rabih; Lawry, Lynn

    2007-02-01

    We assessed basic health, women's health, and mental health among Sudanese internally displaced persons in South Darfur. In January 2005, we surveyed 6 registered internally displaced persons camps in Nyala District. Using systematic random sampling, we surveyed 1293 households, interviewing 1 adult female per household (N=1274); respondents' households totaled 8643 members. We inquired about respondents' mental health, opinions on women's rights, and the health status of household members. A majority of respondents had access to rations, shelter, and water. Sixty-eight percent (861 of 1266) used no birth control, and 53% (614 of 1147) reported at least 1 unattended birth. Thirty percent (374 of 1238) shared spousal decisions on timing and spacing of children, and 49% (503 of 1027) reported the right to refuse sex. Eighty-four percent (1043 of 1240) were circumcised. The prevalence of major depression was 31% (390 of 1253). Women also expressed limited rights regarding marriage, movement, and access to health care. Eighty-eight percent (991 of 1121) supported equal educational opportunities for women. Humanitarian aid has relieved a significant burden of this displaced population's basic needs. However, mental and women's health needs remain largely unmet. The findings indicate a limitation of sexual and reproductive rights that may negatively affect health.

  8. Basic Health, Women’s Health, and Mental Health Among Internally Displaced Persons in Nyala Province, South Darfur, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Glen; Torbay, Rabih; Lawry, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed basic health, women’s health, and mental health among Sudanese internally displaced persons in South Darfur. Methods. In January 2005, we surveyed 6 registered internally displaced persons camps in Nyala District. Using systematic random sampling, we surveyed 1293 households, interviewing 1 adult female per household (N=1274); respondents’ households totaled 8643 members. We inquired about respondents’ mental health, opinions on women’s rights, and the health status of household members. Results. A majority of respondents had access to rations, shelter, and water. Sixty-eight percent (861 of 1266) used no birth control, and 53% (614 of 1147) reported at least 1 unattended birth. Thirty percent (374 of 1238) shared spousal decisions on timing and spacing of children, and 49% (503 of 1027) reported the right to refuse sex. Eighty-four percent (1043 of 1240) were circumcised. The prevalence of major depression was 31% (390 of 1253). Women also expressed limited rights regarding marriage, movement, and access to health care. Eighty-eight percent (991 of 1121) supported equal educational opportunities for women. Conclusions. Humanitarian aid has relieved a significant burden of this displaced population’s basic needs. However, mental and women’s health needs remain largely unmet. The findings indicate a limitation of sexual and reproductive rights that may negatively affect health. PMID:17138925

  9. Assessing SPO techniques to constrain magma flow: Examples from sills of the Karoo Igneous Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, Lauren; Watkeys, Michael K.

    2015-08-01

    Shape ellipsoids that define the petrofabrics of plagioclase in Jurassic Karoo dolerite sills in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa are rigorously constrained using the long axis lengths of plagioclase crystals and ellipse incompatibility. This has been undertaken in order to determine the most effective technique to determine petrofabrics when using the SPO-2003 programme (Launeau and Robin, 2005). The technique of segmenting an image for analysis is scrutinised and as a process is found redundant. A grain size threshold is defined to assist with the varying grain sizes observed within and between sills. Where grains exceed the 0.2 mm size threshold, images should be acquired at a high magnification (i.e., 10 × magnification). Petrofabrics are determined using the foliation and the lineation of the ellipsoid as defined by the maximum and minimum principal axes (respectively) of the resultant ellipsoid. Samples with strongly prolate fabrics are isolated allowing further constraint on the petrofabric to be made. Once the efficacy of the petrofabric determination process has been determined, the resultant foliations (and lineations) then elucidate the most accurate petrofabric attainable. The most accurate petrofabrics will be determined by using the correct magnification when the images are obtained and to run the analyses without segmenting the image. The fabrics of the upper and lower contacts of the Karoo dolerite sills are analysed in detail using these techniques and the fabrics are used as a proxy for magma flow.

  10. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation among pregnant women living with HIV in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Violeta J; Cook, Ryan R; Peltzer, Karl; Jones, Deborah L

    2017-05-01

    Pregnant women living with HIV (WLHIV) in South Africa (SA) report higher rates of suicidal ideation than those who are HIV uninfected, and antenatal suicidal ideation has been previously associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Few studies have attempted to identify correlates and psychosocial predictors of suicidal ideation in this population. In this study, we sought to estimate the prevalence of and identify risk factors for suicidal ideation among pregnant WLHIV in rural SA (N = 673). Thirty-nine percent of women endorsed suicidal ideation (95% CI: 35.2% to 42.3%) and in multivariable logistic regression analysis, suicidal ideation was associated with intimate partner violence and stigma, which interacted to multiplicatively increase the odds of suicidal thoughts. Given the high rates of reported suicidal ideation identified in this sample, and the potential harm to mothers and neonates, suicide risk assessment and management protocols for pregnant WLHIV should be considered for inclusion in the standard of care in rural SA.

  11. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Fingerprints of Water and Sediment Samples of Buffalo River Estuary in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Okoh, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon status of the Buffalo River Estuary in East London, South Africa, was evaluated from January to May, 2016. Surface water and sediment samples were collected from five points in the estuary and extracted using standard methods. The extracts were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) varied from 7.65 to 477 μg/L in the water and 12.59 to 1,100 mg/kg in the sediments, with mean values of 146.50 ± 27.96 μg/L and 209.81 ± 63.82 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of TPH in the sediments correlated significantly with organic carbon (OC) in both seasons. TPH and OC levels were slightly lower in summer than in autumn in the two environmental matrices, and the average amount of TPH in the water samples collected from all the sampling stations was generally lower than the EU standard limit of 300 μg/L. However, the levels in the sediments exceeded the EGASPIN target value (50 mg/kg) for mineral oil but were below the intervention value (5,000 mg/kg), indicating a serious impact of industrial growth and urbanization on the area, although the n-alkane ratios and indexes used for source tracking revealed excessive flow from both natural and anthropogenic sources. PMID:28638675

  12. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to investigate habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, D.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Griffin, R.; Estes, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    As the global urban population rapidly increases, many wild species lose habitat to human development. The Western Cape of South Africa contains one of Earth's 35 biodiversity hotspots, with remarkably high levels of species richness and endemism. Understanding the relationship between anthropogenic changes and key species in this region is crucial for conservation of its threatened ecosystems. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect that climate change and urbanization each have on habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture. This research utilized NASA satellite data and crowdsourced species sightings to model past, current, and future habitat suitability for this key species in the Western Cape. Data used from NASA Earth Observations included: Landsat 8- derived Land Cover, Modis Land Surface Temperature, Digital Elevation Models from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, and precipitation data which integrated in-situ stations with Infrared data. Species observations were sourced from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility online database. A geospatial modelling framework was used to generate maps of present, past and future suitable habitats for analysis and comparison. Changes in precipitation and temperature may be a factor in the extreme loss of habitat since 1995, and predict even more drastic loss in the future. This research provides insights on anthropogenic effects on a species' range which may be used to inform discussions of conservation as an element of environmentally sustainable development.

  13. OF BELGOROD PROVINCE].

    PubMed

    Prisniy, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    The article provides a list of 30 species of the family Tabanidae, recorded in Belgorod Province. Forest and forest-steppe species dominate (60 %), being found at edges of oak forests, deciduous and mixed forests, and in mesophytic meadows. These species are distributed over the entire area of the region. The fraction of taiga-forest species in the region is small (10 %). These species are found in western and northern areas where large forests and sphagnum bogs are present. The fraction of steppe species constitutes 13.3 %, these species are found mainly in eastern and south-eastern parts of the Province, where areas of steppe and cretaceous outcrops are found. Desert species (6.7 %) and a single Mediterranean coastal species were also recorded in the region. Mass emergence of horseflies in Belgorod Province begins in June and lasts until mid-August.

  14. Efficiency indices and indicators of poor performance among emerging small-scale pig farmers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mokoele, Japhta M; Spencer, B Tom; van Leengoed, Leo A M G; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2014-11-12

    Limpopo is a very important area for pig production in terms of animal populations and contributions to transboundary animal disease spread. Emerging small-scale pig farmers (ESSPF) are being encouraged to establish operations and spread in South Africa; however, for these farmers to perform optimally, they need to understand the basics of animal agriculture and contribute to enhancing biosecurity and efficient production systems. In the present study, the limitations to efficient production amongst ESSPF were evaluated and some improvements were suggested. It was found that the ESSPF are dominated by males and include a large percentage of older persons. A total of 26.54% of these farmers have post-matriculation qualifications. Undefined and indigenous breeds still dominate their animal genetics. The animal health technicians are the preferred channels by which farmers report diseases to the authorities (52.47%) and only one out of five (20.37%) will preferably report a disease situation direct to a veterinarian. These farmers do not vaccinate their stock, and knowledge of biosecurity is poor. Antimicrobials, especially tetracyclines, are abused. Animals that are slaughtered within the community or sold at local sale points, pension pay stations and auction markets are likely candidates for disease spread. It is recommended that the younger generations are retained and incentivised in animal agriculture. Improved training on management, health, biosecurity and better market access must be provided for the ESSPF, whilst efforts should made to consolidate these farmers into small cooperatives. The current government agricultural support system will need to be reworked to benefit the resource-poor farmers. Collaborative efforts in disease reporting and management among veterinarians, animal health technicians and extension officers will become necessary. Finally, the creation of a progressive quality grading system for ESSPF should be planned by the industry and this

  15. An ethnobotanical survey of mosquito repellent plants in uMkhanyakude district, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mavundza, E J; Maharaj, R; Finnie, J F; Kabera, G; Van Staden, J

    2011-10-11

    The aim of the study was to document plants traditionally used to repel mosquitoes in the uMkhanyakude district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The specific objectives of the study were to: (1) identify plant species and their parts being used; (2) determine the condition of plant material used and the method of application. Data was collected from 60 respondents in five villages in the district using standardised and pre-tested questionnaires. Thirteen plant species are used in the study area to repel mosquitoes. These species belong to 11 genera from 9 families. Meliaceae and Anacardiaceae were the most represented families with two species each. The most frequently recorded species were Lippia javanica (91.67%), followed by Aloe ferox (11.67%), Sclerocarya birrea (5%), Melia azedarach (3%), Balanite maughamii (3%) and Mangifera indica (3%). Leaves were the most (38%) common plant part used. The majority (82%) of the plant parts were used in a dry state. Burning of plant materials to make smoke was the most (92%) common method of application. Nine plant species, namely: A. ferox, Calausena anista, Croton menyharthii, S. birrea, B. maughamii, Olax dissitiflora, Trichilia emetic, M. indica, and Atalaya alata are documented for the first time as mosquito repellents. This documentation provides the basis for further studies in developing new, effective, safe and affordable plant-derived mosquito repellents especially for Africa where malaria is highly prevalent. The study also plays a part in documenting and conserving traditional knowledge of mosquito repellent plants for future use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Report on the first government-funded opioid substitution programme for heroin users in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Michie, Graeme; Hoosain, Shuaib; Macharia, Muiruri; Weich, Lize

    2017-05-24

    Although pharmacological opioid substitution treatment (OST) is a well-established treatment modality for heroin addiction, it is a relatively recent introduction in low- and middle-income countries. To report on a pilot OST programme initiated in 2013 that was the only public-funded programme in South Africa (SA) at the time. Participants were offered standard care only (n=68) or, for the OST group (n=67), standard care plus Suboxone (Reckitt Benckiser), a synthetic partial opioid agonist, in a 12-week clinician-monitored programme. Clinical records of 135 participants in the rehabilitation programme at Sultan Bahu Rehabilitation Centre in Mitchell's Plain, Cape Town, SA, from 1 January to 31 December 2014 were reviewed. Data collected included demographics and duration in treatment (retention) as well as number of urine samples provided, positive tests or self-reported use events and dates of first positive/negative tests. Significantly more participants in the OST group (65.7%) than controls (44.1%) completed the treatment (p=0.019). Among the non-completers, retention was higher in the OST group than in the standard care group (48.2 v. 30.1 days; p=0.001). The groups did not differ in respect of number of missed appointments and time to first positive test. However, the proportion of participants testing positive was higher in the OST group (80.6%) than in the standard care group (61.8%), although the former were tested nearly three times (18.3 v. 6.6 times) more. Consequently, the positive rate (proportion of positive tests) was substantially lower in the OST group (16.8%) than in the standard care group (23.3%). The results demonstrate modest success of this pilot OST programme in terms of completion and retention and should argue for a move to increase availability of and accessibility to OSTs for the management of opioid use disorder.

  17. 1H-NMR and UPLC-MS metabolomics: Functional tools for exploring chemotypic variation in Sceletium tortuosum from two provinces in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A; Combrinck, Sandra; Sandasi, Maxleene; Chen, Weiyang; Viljoen, Alvaro M

    2018-05-17

    Sceletium tortuosum (Aizoaceae) is widely recognised for the treatment of stress, anxiety and depression, as well as for obsessive compulsive disorders. A comprehensive intraspecies chemotypic variation study, using samples harvested from two distinct regions of South Africa, was done using both proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) spectroscopy of methanol extracts (N = 145) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) of acid/base extracts (N = 289). Chemometric analysis of the 1 H-NMR data indicated two main clusters that were region-specific (Northern Cape and Western Cape provinces). Two dimensional (2D) NMR was used to identify analytes that contributed to the clustering as revealed by the S-plot. The sceletium alkaloids, pinitol and two alkylamines, herein reported for the first time from S. tortuosum, were identified as markers that distinguished the two groups. Relative quantification of the marker analytes conducted by qNMR indicated that samples from the Northern Cape generally contained higher concentrations of all the markers than samples from the Western Cape. Quantitative analysis of the four mesembrine alkaloids using a validated UPLC-photo diode array (PDA) detection method confirmed the results of qNMR with regard to the total alkaloid concentrations. Samples from the Northern Cape Province were found to contain, on average, very high total alkaloids, ranging from 4938.0 to 9376.8 mg/kg dry w. Regarding the Western Cape samples, the total yields of the four mesembrine alkaloids were substantially lower (averages 16.4-4143.2 mg/kg). Hierarchical cluster analysis of the UPLC-MS data, based on the alkaloid chemistry, revealed three branches, with one branch comprising samples primarily from the Northern Cape that seemed somewhat chemically conserved, while the other two branches represented mainly samples from the Western Cape. The construction of an orthogonal projections to latent structures

  18. Geochronological, geochemical and geothermal constraints on petrogenesis of the Indosinian peraluminous granites in the South China Block: A case study in the Hunan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuejun; Fan, Weiming; Sun, Min; Liang, Xinquan; Zhang, Yanhua; Peng, Touping

    2007-07-01

    The Indosinian granites in the South China Block (SCB) have important tectonic significance for the evolution of East Asia. Samples collected from Hunan Province can be geochemically classified into two groups. Group 1 is strongly peraluminous (A/CNK > 1.1), similar to S-type granites, and Group 2 has A/CNK = 1.0-1.1, with an affinity to I-type granites. Group 1 has lower FeOt, Al 2O 3, MgO, CaO, TiO 2 and ɛNd( t) values but higher K 2O + Na 2O, Rb/Sr, Rb/Ba and 87Sr/ 86Sr( t) than those of Group 2. Samples of both groups have similar LREE enriched pattern, with (Eu/Eu *) = 0.19-0.69, and strongly negative Ba, Sr, Nb, P and Ti anomalies. Geothermobarometry study indicates that the precursor magmas were emplaced at high-level depth with relatively low temperature (734-827 °C). Geochemical data suggest that Group 1 was originated from a source dominated by pelitic composition and Group 2 was from a mixing source of pelitic and basaltic rocks with insignificant addition of newly mantle-derived magma. Eight granitic samples in Hunan Province are dated at the cluster of 243-235 and 218-210 Ma by zircon U-Pb geochronology. Together with recent zircon U-Pb ages for other areas in the SCB, two age-clusters, including 243-228 Ma just after peak-metamorphism (˜ 246-252 Ma) and 220-206 Ma shortly after magma underplating event (˜224 Ma), are observed. It is proposed that in-situ radiogenic heating from the over-thickened crust induced dehydrated reaction of muscovite and epidote/zoisite to form the early Indosinian granites in response to the isostatic readjustments of tectonically thickened crust. Conductive heating from the underplating magma in the postcollisional setting triggered the formation of late Indosinian granites. Such a consideration is supported by the results from FLAC numerical simulation.

  19. Unravelling the sulphur isotope systematics of an alkaline magmatic province: implications for REE mineralization and exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, W.; Finch, A.; Boyce, A.; Friis, H.; Borst, A. M.; Horsburgh, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    Some of the world's best alkaline rare earth element (REE) deposits are formed in magmatic systems that are sealed (i.e., those that are autometasomatised and maintain reducing conditions). Conversely, in open systems where oxidizing fluids infiltrate, it is commonly assumed that REE are redistributed over a wider (less concentrated) zone. Sulphur isotope fractionation is sensitive to variations in temperature and redox, and, although sulphide minerals are relatively abundant in alkaline systems, there have been few attempts to test these hypotheses and develop a sulphur isotope proxy for alkaline metasomatism and formation of associated REE deposits. The Gardar Rift Province in southern Greenland was volcanically active in two periods between 1300 and 1100 Ma and is an ideal natural laboratory to explore sulphur isotope systematics because a near-complete alkaline magmatic lineage is exposed. We present new δ34S from across the province with a particular focus on three alkaline systems (Ilímaussaq, Motzfeldt and Ivigtût) that also host major REE deposits. Primitive mafic rocks from regional Gardar dykes and lavas have a restricted range of δ34S between 0 and 3 ‰ and fractional crystallization imparts no observable change in δ34S. In a few cases high-δ34S rocks (>15 ‰) occur when intrusive units have assimilated local sedimentary crust (δ34S = 25 ‰). Most δ34S variation takes place in the roof zones of alkaline intrusions during late-magmatic and hydrothermal stages, and we identify clear differences between the complexes. At Ilímaussaq, where the magmatic series is exceptionally reduced (below QFM buffer), roof zone δ34S remains narrow (0-3 ‰). At Motzfeldt, a more open oxidizing roof zone (MH buffer), δ34S ranges from -12 ‰ in late-stage fluorite veins to +12 ‰ where local crust has been assimilated. Ivigtût is intermediate between these end-members varying between -5 to +5 ‰. The δ34S variations primarily relate to temperature and

  20. Geology of Nicholson's point granite, Natal Metamorphic Province, South Africa: the chemistry of charnockitic alteration and origin of the granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, G. H.; Allen, A. R.; Cornell, D. H.; Harris, C.

    1996-10-01

    In the Port Edward area of southern Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, charnockitic aureoles up to ˜4 m in width are developed adjacent to contacts with Port Edward enderbite and pegmatites intruded into the normally garnetiferous Nicholson's Point granite. Other mineralogical differences between the aureoles and the granite include increased myrmekite and significantly less biotite in the former and the replacement of pyrite by pyrrhotite in the charnockitic rocks. No significant differences in major element chemistry between the garnet-biotite Nicholson's Point granite and charnockitic Nicholson's Point granite are seen, except possibly for higher CaO and TiO 2 in the charnockite. Higher Rb, Th, Nb and Y contents in the garnet-biotite granite suggest that these elements have been locally depleted from garnet-biotite granite during char nockitisation. This depletion is considered to be related to the reduction in biotite. Strontium and Ba contents are significantly higher in the charnockite. Generally higher S contents in the charnockite suggest S metasomatism, with S possibly being added from the enderbite. No differences in δ18O isotope data are seen between the garnetiferous and hypersthene bearing granite. In the charnockite the LREEs are weakly depleted whereas the HREEs show greater depletion compared to the garnetiferous granite. The depletions in REEs are thought to be related to the breakdown of garnet. Europium is marginally enriched or unchanged in the charnockite relative to the garnetiferous granite. Two-pyroxene thermometry on the Port Edward enderbite suggests that it was intruded at temperatures of ˜1000-1100°C. The replacement of pyrite by pyrrhotite is also consistent with a thermal auroele. Consequently the charnockitic zones developed around the intrusions of Port Edward enderbite may result from the thermally driven dehydration of biotite. The aureoles developed adjacent to pegmatites are not considered to have resulted from heat but probably

  1. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the

  2. The Association Between Gender Inequalities and Women's Utilization of Maternal Health Services: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Eight South Central Coast Provinces, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bui, Ha Thi Thu; Le, Thi Minh; Van Pham, Tac; Doan, Duong Thi Thuy; Nguyen, Duy Anh; Nguyen, Canh Chuong; Duong, Duc Minh

    Gender inequalities influence the utilization of maternal health services in Vietnam, but little research has been published. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the association between gender inequalities and women's utilization of maternal health services in Vietnam. The study was conducted in 8 provinces in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam during August 2013 to May 2014. A total of 907 women who delivered a year prior to the date of interview participated in the study. A multiple logistic regression model was used to examine the association between gender inequalities (including sociodemographic determinants of health) and utilization of 4 or more antenatal care (ANC4+) services, institutional delivery, and ever used contraceptive methods. The utilization rate of maternal health services was varied, from 53.9% for ANC4+ to 87.7% for ever used a contraceptive method and 97% for institutional delivery. Ethnicity was identified as the most influential variable out of all sociodemographic determinants of health. Regarding gender inequalities, couple communication was the only variable having significant association with women's utilization of maternal health services. Women's equal role within context of their daily life and relations with their husbands (discussing maternal care with husband and having equal income to husband) supported their use of maternal health services. Therefore, there should be concerted efforts from all relevant stakeholders including the health system to focus on disadvantaged women in planning and delivery of maternal health services, especially to ethnic minority women. Male involvement strategy should be implemented to promote maternal health care, especially during the prenatal and postpartum period. To provide more culturally sensitive and right-based approaches in delivery of maternal health services to disadvantaged women in Vietnam, interventions are recommended that promote male involvement, that is, to engage men in

  3. Endoscopy services in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, are insufficient for the burden of disease: Is patient care compromised?

    PubMed

    Loots, E; Clarke, D L; Newton, K; Mulder, C J

    2017-10-31

    Endoscopy services are central to the diagnosis and management of many gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. To evaluate the adequacy of endoscopy services in the public sector hospitals of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province, South Africa, in 2016. A cross-sectional study was performed using a questionnaire completed by the clinical heads of endoscopy units in the public hospitals in KZN. The heads of 11 of the 12 endoscopy units responded. Two units were in tertiary-level hospitals and nine in regional hospitals. A total of 22 353 endoscopic procedures were performed annually, averaging 2 032 cases per annum per centre; they were performed by 89 endoscopists, of whom 72 (80.1%) were general surgeons. There were 0.06 registered gastroenterologists (GEs) per 100 000 population. Each endoscopist performed an average of 263 endoscopies per annum. There were 1.18 endoscopy rooms available per unit, and two units had on-site fluoroscopy available. The average waiting period for an upper endoscopy was 27 (range 7 - 60) days, for colonoscopy 29 (range 7 - 90) days and for duodenoscopy/endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography 13 (range 4 - 20) days. This included patients with alarm symptoms for GI cancers. Equipment breakages interrupted most services, except for one hospital that had a service contract. Unit heads cited lack of equipment, trained staff and maintenance contracts as major shortcomings. Endoscopy units in KZN are not adequately equipped to deal with the endoscopy workload and services are plagued by frequent disruptions, which impact negatively on service delivery. There is a need to train more GEs. Patient care is compromised in these public hospitals.

  4. Exploring gender perceptions of risk of HIV infection and related behaviour among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed ‘gender’ differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities. Despite the fact that numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influence HIV/AIDS protective behaviours, little gender specificity is included in HIV prevention among the elderly. In order to close this gap, this study explored gender-related perceptions of risk of HIV infection among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to conduct three focus group interviews with 22 women and 10 men who were above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that both genders blame each other for the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Male participants displayed the tendency to have multiple partners, whereas females accepted that males are promiscuous. Mixed perceptions about disclosure of HIV status were found. Condom use was a challenge, as men did not know how to introduce it with their wives, and some female participants indicated that men are resistant to using condoms. The elderly men also believed that women will have sex in exchange for money. It is concluded that there is a need for substantial behaviour change among both elderly males and females, which should address gender power relations. More in-depth and extensive research in this area is recommended. PMID:27687151

  5. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  6. Linking mortuary data improves vital statistics on cause of death of children under five years in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Pam; Bradshaw, Debbie; Neethling, Ian; Martin, Lorna J; Dempers, Johan; Morden, Erna; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Coetzee, David

    2016-01-01

    Reducing child mortality requires good information on its causes. Whilst South African vital registration data have improved, the quality of cause-of-death data remains inadequate. To improve this, data from death certificates were linked with information from forensic mortuaries in Western Cape Province. A local mortality surveillance system was established in 2007 by the Western Cape Health Department to improve data quality. Cause-of-death data were captured from copies of death notification forms collected at Department of Home Affairs Offices. Using unique identifiers, additional forensic mortuary data were linked with mortality surveillance system records. Causes of death were coded to the ICD-10 classification. Causes of death in children under five were compared with those from vital registration data for 2011. Cause-of-death data were markedly improved with additional data from forensic mortuaries. The proportion of ill-defined causes was halved (25-12%), and leading cause rankings changed. Lower respiratory tract infections moved above prematurity to rank first, accounting for 20.8% of deaths and peaking in infants aged 1-3 months. Only 11% of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections occurred in hospital, resulting in 86% being certified in forensic mortuaries. Road traffic deaths increased from 1.1-3.1% (27-75) and homicides from 3 to 28. The quality and usefulness of cause-of-death information for children in the WC was enhanced by linking mortuary and vital registration data. Given the death profile, interventions are required to prevent and manage LRTI, diarrhoea and injuries and to reduce neonatal deaths. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Speleology and magnetobiostratigraphic chronology of the GD 2 locality of the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave deposits, North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Herries, Andy I R; Adams, Justin W; Kuykendall, Kevin L; Shaw, John

    2006-12-01

    Speleological, paleomagnetic, mineral magnetic, and biochronological analyses have been undertaken at the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave, North West Province, South Africa. Two fossiliferous but stratigraphically separate sequences, GD2 and GD1/3, which were once part of a large cavern system, have been identified. Although some comparative paleomagnetic samples were taken from the GD 1, 3, and 4 localities that are currently under investigation, the research presented here focuses on the fossil-rich, in situ deposits at locality GD 2, excavated by E.S. Vrba in 1979. The GD 2 deposits are dominated by normal-polarity calcified clastic deposits that are sandwiched between clastic-free flowstone speleothems. The lower flowstone has a sharp contact with the red siltstone deposits and is of reversed polarity. The capping flowstone shows a change from normal to reversed polarity, thereby preserving a polarity reversal. While the paleomagnetic work indicates that the GD 2 fossil material was deposited during a normal-polarity period, the shortness of the sequence made matching of the magnetostratigraphy to the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) impossible without the aid of biochronology. While lacking multiple time-sensitive taxa, the recovery of specimens attributable to Stage III Metridiochoerus andrewsi is consistent with a deposition date between 1.9 and 1.5 Ma. A comparison of the magnetostratigraphy with the GPTS therefore suggests that the fauna-bearing siltstone of GD 2 date to the Olduvai normal-polarity event, which occurred between 1.95 and 1.78 Ma, and that the reversal from normal to reversed polarity identified in the capping flowstone dates to 1.78 Ma. The main faunal layers therefore date to slightly older than 1.78 Ma. Deposits from the GD 1 locality are dominated by reversed directions of magnetization, which show that this deposit is not of the same age as the faunal layers from the GD 2 locality.

  8. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda

    2016-08-31

    A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities.

  9. [Fractal features of soil aggregate structure in slope farmland with different de-farming patterns in South Sichuan Province of China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Yan; Hu, Ting-Xing; Gong, Wei; Gong, Yuan-Bo; Luo, Cheng-De

    2010-06-01

    By using fractal model, this paper studied the fractal dimension of soil aggregate structure (D) in the slope farmland (CK), its 5-year de-farmed Neosinocalamus affinis plantation (NAP), Bambusa pervariabilis x Dendrocalamopsis oldhami plantation (BDP), Alnus crenastogyne + Neosinocalamus affinis plantation (ANP), and abandoned farmland (AFL) in south Sichuan Province of China, and analyzed the relationships between the D and soil physical and chemical properties. In the de-farmed plantations and abandoned farmland, the contents of > 0.25 mm soil aggregates and water-stable aggregates were increased significantly, compared with those in the slope farmland. The D was 1.377-2.826, being in the order of NAP < BDP < ANP < AFL < CK, and decreased with the increasing contents of > 0.25 mm soil aggregates and water-stable aggregates. Comparing with CK, de-farming increased the soil natural water content, capillary porosity, and contents of soil organic matter, total N, alkali-hydrolysable N, total P, and total K, and decreased soil bulk density, non-capillary porosity, and aeration porosity. There were close relationships between the fractal dimension of soil aggregate structure and the soil physical and chemical properties. All the results suggested that the de-farming of slope farmland was beneficial to the increase of the contents of > 0.25 mm soil aggregates and water-stable aggregates, and the enhancement of soil structure stability. The D could be used as an ideal index to evaluate soil fertility, and planting Neosinocalamus affinis on the de-farming slope farmland was a good measure for the improvement of soil fertility in the research area.

  10. The accuracy of HIV rapid testing in integrated bio-behavioral surveys of men who have sex with men across 5 Provinces in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kufa, Tendesayi; Lane, Tim; Manyuchi, Albert; Singh, Beverley; Isdahl, Zachary; Osmand, Thomas; Grasso, Mike; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James; Chipeta, Zawadi; Puren, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We describe the accuracy of serial rapid HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in South Africa and discuss the implications for HIV testing and prevention. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted at five stand-alone facilities from five provinces. Demographic, behavioral, and clinical data were collected. Dried blood spots were obtained for HIV-related testing. Participants were offered rapid HIV testing using 2 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in series. In the laboratory, reference HIV testing was conducted using a third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a fourth-generation EIA as confirmatory. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false-positive, and false-negative rates were determined. Between August 2015 and July 2016, 2503 participants were enrolled. Of these, 2343 were tested by RDT on site with a further 2137 (91.2%) having definitive results on both RDT and EIA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false-positive rates, and false-negative rates were 92.6% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 89.6–94.8], 99.4% (95% CI 98.9–99.7), 97.4% (95% CI 95.2–98.6), 98.3% (95% CI 97.6–98.8), 0.6% (95% CI 0.3–1.1), and 7.4% (95% CI 5.2–10.4), respectively. False negatives were similar to true positives with respect to virological profiles. Overall accuracy of the RDT algorithm was high, but sensitivity was lower than expected. Post-HIV test counseling should include discussions of possible false-negative results and the need for retesting among HIV negatives. PMID:28700474

  11. Exploring gender perceptions of risk of HIV infection and related behaviour among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa, Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious

    2016-12-01

    The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed 'gender' differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities. Despite the fact that numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influence HIV/AIDS protective behaviours, little gender specificity is included in HIV prevention among the elderly. In order to close this gap, this study explored gender-related perceptions of risk of HIV infection among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to conduct three focus group interviews with 22 women and 10 men who were above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that both genders blame each other for the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Male participants displayed the tendency to have multiple partners, whereas females accepted that males are promiscuous. Mixed perceptions about disclosure of HIV status were found. Condom use was a challenge, as men did not know how to introduce it with their wives, and some female participants indicated that men are resistant to using condoms. The elderly men also believed that women will have sex in exchange for money. It is concluded that there is a need for substantial behaviour change among both elderly males and females, which should address gender power relations. More in-depth and extensive research in this area is recommended.

  12. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Davids, Denver; Gibson, Diana; Johnson, Quinton

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use. Twelve (12) key respondents were subsequently selected, using a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were interviewed in-depth concerning their plant practices and assisted with plant collection. Twenty-four plant (24) species belonging to 15 families were identified for the management of High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The most frequently reported families were Asteraceae (20.8%), Lamiaceae (16.67%), Crassulaceae (8.33%) and Aizoaceae (8.33%). The remaining (45.54%) were evenly split over eleven families- Fabaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Capparaceae, Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Asphodelaceae and Thymelaeaceae. The most commonly used plant species overall was Lessertia frutescens (96.55%). The most frequently used plant parts included leaves (57.63%) roots/bulbs (15.25%) and stems (11.86%), mostly prepared as infusions or decoctions for oral administration. Medicinal plants are widely used by High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sufferers. They employ diverse plant species to manage both conditions. In addition, some sufferers often use prescribed allopathic medication, as well as medicinal plants, but at different intervals. Despite high usage the plants identified are not currently threatened (Red Data list status: least concern). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genotypic characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from different sources in the North-West Province, South Africa, using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Ateba, Collins Njie; Mbewe, Moses

    2014-05-30

    In many developing countries, proper hygiene is not strictly implemented when animals are slaughtered and meat products become contaminated. Contaminated meat may contain Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 that could cause diseases in humans if these food products are consumed undercooked. In the present study, a total of 94 confirmed E. coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing to generate genetic fingerprints. The ERIC fragments were resolved by electrophoresis on 2% (w/v) agarose gels. The presence, absence and intensity of band data were obtained, exported to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 2003) and used to generate a data matrix. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and complete linkage algorithms were used to analyze the percentage of similarity and matrix data. Relationships between the various profiles and/or lanes were expressed as dendrograms. Data from groups of related lanes were compiled and reported on cluster tables. ERIC fragments ranged from one to 15 per isolate, and their sizes varied from 0.25 to 0.771 kb. A large proportion of the isolates produced an ERIC banding pattern with three duplets ranging in sizes from 0.408 to 0.628 kb. Eight major clusters (I-VIII) were identified. Overall, the remarkable similarities (72% to 91%) between the ERIC profiles for the isolate from animal species and their corresponding food products indicated some form of contamination, which may not exclude those at the level of the abattoirs. These results reveal that ERIC PCR analysis can be reliable in comparing the genetic profiles of E. coli O157:H7 from different sources in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  14. The costs of accessing abortion in South Africa: women's costs associated with second-trimester abortion services in Western Cape Province.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Constant, Deborah; Harries, Jane; Blanchard, Kelly; Sinanovic, Edina; Grossman, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    To assess women's costs of accessing second-trimester labor induction and dilation and evacuation (D&E) services at four public hospitals in Western Cape Province, South Africa. From April to August 2010, in interviews immediately after completion of their abortion, we asked women about specific direct and indirect costs incurred. We collected information on recurring costs (i.e., per visit) and one-time expenditures and calculated total costs. In total, 194 patients participated (136 D&E; 58 induction). Their median age was 26; 37.6% reported being employed or doing paid work. Most (73.2%) women visited two different facilities, including the study facility, while seeking the procedure. Induction women reported a median of three required visits [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0-3.0] to the study facility, while D&E women reported two required visits [IQR 1.0-2.0]. Twenty-seven percent of women missed work due to the procedure, and few (4.6%) paid for childcare. At each visit, almost all women (180, 92.8%) paid for transportation costs and reported additional one-time costs (177, 91.2%) such as sanitary supplies or doctor's fees. The total median cost incurred per woman was $21.23 [IQR 11.94-44.68]. Roughly half (49.0%) received help with these costs. Although technically offered freely or low cost in the public sector, women accessing second-trimester abortion lost income and incurred costs for transport, fees, supplies and childcare. Their total costs could be reduced by minimizing the number of required visits to facilities and freely offering supplies such as sanitary pads and pregnancy tests. Limited access to second-trimester, safe abortion services in South Africa may result in some women incurring unnecessary costs. Women make multiple visits in attempting to obtain an abortion, often because of facility or health systems requirements, and incur costs for lost income, child care, transport, fees and supplies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation and verification of lawful water use in South Africa: An overview of the process in the KwaZulu-Natal Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapangaziwiri, E.; Mwenge Kahinda, J.; Dzikiti, S.; Ramoelo, A.; Cho, M.; Mathieu, R.; Naidoo, M.; Seetal, A.; Pienaar, H.

    2018-06-01

    South Africa is a water-stressed country which has, over the years, strived to adopt a rational, just and equitable way to manage this limited resource. The National Water Act (Act No.36 of 1998) (NWA) provides the legal framework to achieve this objective. Since 2003, the government embarked on a national process to: validate (confirm the quantum of), and; verify (establish the lawfulness of) water uses that exceed domestic requirements. The objective of the process is to determine how much water is allocated for: (1) existing lawful use in accordance with specific requirements of the NWA, and; (2) current water uses. The process identified users with or without registered use entitlements, whether claims for registered uses were correct, under-estimated, over-estimated or false; and confirmed the lawfulness of each water use in accordance with water legislation that pre-dated the NWA. The process included identifying land and non-land based water uses (industrial, mining and bulk potable water supplies, irrigation, crop types and impoundments) using remote sensing (RS) techniques for both a qualifying (defined as two years before the enactment of the NWA) and the current periods. Using this as a basis, volumetric crop irrigation requirements were then estimated using the South African Procedure for estimating irrigation WATer requirements (SAPWAT), while the Gush curves were used to quantify Stream Flow Reduction Activities (SFRAs) for commercially afforested areas. The boundaries of farm reservoirs were delineated from RS and the volumes calculated using a regression approach. Estimates of the irrigation water requirements, SFRAs and reservoir volumes formed the basis for interaction between the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) and water users to confirm their uses; and subsequently, to update the DWS Water Authorisation and Registration Management System (WARMS), a database of water users. While WARMS initially indicated a total of approximately 16 000

  16. Characterization of the village goat production systems in the rural communities of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and North West Provinces of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar Farai; Muchadeyi, Farai Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Expansion of goat improvement programs requires exploration of the factors that influence the production system and breeding initiatives. Characterization of goat breeds or populations is crucial in providing information on prevalent goat types and their attributes and may suffice as a guideline on conservation, development, and selection for improved productivity. This study investigated the existing village goat production system and phenotypic diversity of the different village populations from four South African provinces. The study further investigated the use of phenotypic attributes to classify goats to breeds or populations. Data was collected from 142 households in 26 villages of the Eastern Cape (n = 2 villages), KwaZulu-Natal (n = 6 villages), Limpopo (n = 13 villages), and North West (n = 5 villages) provinces through a survey. Individual interviews and focus group discussions revealed that the mean goat herd size per household was least in Limpopo at 13.2 ± 12.40 and highest in Eastern Cape (34.18 ± 28.36). Flocks had more (p < 0.05) adults than kids, and the distribution of breeding animals was biased towards does and less bucks. Goats were kept mainly for meat, for selling, and for ritual ceremonies. The goat production system was mainly scavenging. Goat health was a major challenge across households and villages. Qualitative traits such coat, horn, ears, and wattle characteristics were recorded for populations of village goats (n = 319) and a feral Tankwa breed (n = 50). The dominant coat pattern was plain (74.53%) with black as the most common coat color (31.98%). Across breeds, a majority (88.08%) of the goats had horns, and 7.59% had wattles while 56.64% had beard. Adult goats (<3 years; n = 398) were further analyzed for five quantitative traits of chest girth, height, length, and pin bone and there were significant (p < 0.05) breed differences in all. A stepwise discriminatory procedure was used to

  17. The targeting of nutritionally at-risk children attending a primary health care facility in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, S E; Hendricks, M K; Hattingh, S P; Benadé, A J S; Laubscher, J A; Dhansay, M A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the practices of primary health care (PHC) nurses in targeting nutritionally at-risk infants and children for intervention at a PHC facility in a peri-urban area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Nutritional risk status of infants and children <6 years of age was based on criteria specified in standardised nutrition case management guidelines developed for PHC facilities in the province. Children were identified as being nutritionally at-risk if their weight was below the 3rd centile, their birth weight was less than 2500 g, and their growth curve showed flattening or dropping off for at least two consecutive monthly visits. The study assessed the practices of nurses in identifying children who were nutritionally at-risk and the entry of these children into the food supplementation programme (formerly the Protein-Energy Malnutrition Scheme) of the health facility. Structured interviews were conducted with nurses to determine their knowledge of the case management guidelines; interviews were also conducted with caregivers to determine their sociodemographic status. One hundred and thirty-four children were enrolled in the study. The mean age of their caregivers was 29.5 (standard deviation 7.5) years and only 47 (38%) were married. Of the caregivers, 77% were unemployed, 46% had poor household food security and 40% were financially dependent on non-family members. Significantly more children were nutritionally at-risk if the caregiver was unemployed (54%) compared with employed (32%) (P=0.04) and when there was household food insecurity (63%) compared with household food security (37%) (P<0.004). Significantly more children were found not to be nutritionally at-risk if the caregiver was financially self-supporting or supported by their partners (61%) compared with those who were financially dependent on non-family members (35%) (P=0.003). The weight results of the nurses and the researcher differed significantly (P

  18. Genito-anal injury patterns and associated factors in rape survivors in an urban province of South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jina, Ruxana; Jewkes, Rachel; Vetten, Lisa; Christofides, Nicola; Sigsworth, Romi; Loots, Lizle

    2015-03-27

    The prevalence of genito-anal injuries in rape survivors varies significantly and the factors associated with the absence of injuries are not well understood. This plays a major role in the conviction of cases as the absence of injury is equated with a lack of assault. In such cases, health care providers face major challenges in presenting and defending their findings. The aim of this paper is to describe the absence of genito-anal injuries by site in a group of rape survivors and to identify factors associated with the absence of these injuries. In a cross-sectional study rape cases reported to the police in one province in South Africa were randomly sampled using a two stage sampling procedure. Data were obtained on the survivor, the circumstances of the rape and the findings of the medicolegal examination. Descriptive statistics were conducted for the prevalence of genito-anal injuries by site and logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with the absence of genito-anal injuries for all survivors and those reported to be virgins. In the sample of 1472 women injuries ranged from 1% to 36%. No significant injuries were reported for 749 (51%) survivors. In the multivariable model there was a significantly lower odds of having no injuries in survivors who were virgins, those raped by multiple perpetrators and those examined by a doctor with additional qualifications. In the model for survivors who were virgins, those with disabilities had a greater odds of having no injuries while those between the ages of 8 and 17 years had a lower odds of having no injuries compared to survivors below four years of age. This study found that being a virgin, multiple perpetration rape and the examiner's qualifications were significantly associated with the absence of genito-anal injuries. Health providers should thus be aware that in all other respects there was no difference in survivors who had injuries and those who did not. It is important to

  19. Improving access to medicines through centralised dispensing in the public sector: a case study of the Chronic Dispensing Unit in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Magadzire, Bvudzai Priscilla; Marchal, Bruno; Ward, Kim

    2015-11-17

    The Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU) is an out-sourced, public sector centralised dispensing service that has been operational in the Western Cape Province in South Africa since 2005. The CDU dispenses medicines for stable patients with chronic conditions. The aim is to reduce pharmacists' workload, reduce patient waiting times and decongest healthcare facilities. Our objectives are to describe the intervention's scope, illustrate its interface with the health system and describe its processes and outcomes. Secondly, to quantify the magnitude of missed appointments by enrolled patients and to describe the implications thereof in order to inform a subsequent in-depth empirical study on the underlying causes. We adopted a case study design in order to elicit the programme theory underlying the CDU strategy. We consulted 15 senior and middle managers from the provincial Department of Health who were working closely with the intervention and the contractor using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. In addition, relevant literature, and policy and programme documents were reviewed and analysed. We found that the CDU scope has significantly expanded over the last 10 years owing to technological advancements. As such, in early 2015, the CDU produced nearly 300,000 parcels monthly. Medicines supply, patient enrollment processes, healthcare professionals' compliance to legislation and policies, mechanisms for medicines distribution, management of non-collected medicines (emanating from patients' missed appointments) and the array of actors involved are all central to the CDU's functioning. Missed appointments by patients are a problem, affecting an estimated 8%-12% of patients each month. However, the causes have not been investigated thoroughly. Implications of missed appointments include a cost to government for services rendered by the contractor, potential losses due to expired medicines, additional workload for the contractor and healthcare facility staff

  20. Implementation of the HealthKick intervention in primary schools in low-income settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: a process evaluation.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Anniza; Steyn, Nelia P; Draper, Catherine E; Hill, Jillian; Dalais, Lucinda; Fourie, Jean; Lombard, Carl; Barkhuizen, Gerhard; Lambert, Estelle V

    2015-08-22

    The HealthKick intervention, introduced at eight primary schools in low-income settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, aimed to promote healthy lifestyles among learners, their families and school staff. Eight schools from similar settings without any active intervention served as controls. The Action Planning Process (APP) guided school staff through a process that enabled them to assess areas for action; identify specific priorities; and set their own goals regarding nutrition and physical activity at their schools. Educators were introduced to the APP and trained to undertake this at their schools by holding workshops. Four action areas were covered, which included the school nutrition environment; physical activity and sport environment; staff health; and chronic disease and diabetes awareness. Intervention schools also received a toolkit comprising an educator's manual containing planning guides, printed resource materials and a container with physical activity equipment. To facilitate the APP, a champion was identified at each school to drive the APP and liaise with the project team. Over the three-years a record was kept of activities planned and those accomplished. At the end of the intervention, focus group discussions were held with school staff at each school to capture perceptions about the APP and intervention activities. Overall uptake of events offered by the research team was 65.6% in 2009, 75% in 2010 and 62.5% in 2011. Over the three-year intervention, the school food and nutrition environment action area scored the highest, with 55.5% of planned actions being undertaken. In the chronic disease and diabetes awareness area 54.2% actions were completed, while in the school physical activity and sport environment and staff health activity areas 25.9 and 20% were completed respectively. According to educators, the low level of implementation of APP activities was because of a lack of parental involvement, time and available resources

  1. Community-based directly observed treatment for TB patients to improve HIV services: a cross-sectional study in a South African province.

    PubMed

    Howell, Embry M; Kigozi, N Gladys; Heunis, J Christo

    2018-04-07

    There is uncertainty about how directly observed treatment (DOT) support for tuberculosis (TB) can be delivered most effectively and how DOT support can simultaneously be used to strengthen human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control among TB patients. This study describes how DOT support by community health workers (CHWs) was used in four municipalities in the Free State province - a high TB/HIV burden, poorly-resourced setting - to provide HIV outreach, referrals, and health education for TB patients. The study was part of a larger cross-sectional study of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) among 1101 randomly-selected TB patients registered at 40 primary health care (PHC) facilities (clinics and community health centres) across small town/rural and large town/urban settings. Univariate analysis of percentages, chi-square tests and t-tests for difference in means were used to describe differences between the types of TB treatment support and patient characteristics, as well as the types of - and patient satisfaction with - HIV information and referrals received from various types of treatment supporters including home-based DOT supporters, clinic-based DOT supporters or support from family/friends/employers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of not having receiving home-based DOT and of never having received HIV counselling. The independent variables include poverty-related health and socio-economic risk factors for poor outcomes. Statistical significance is shown using a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 p-value. Despite the fact that DOT support for all TB patients was the goal of South African health policy at the time (2012), most TB patients were not receiving formal DOT support. Only 155 (14.1%) were receiving home-based DOT, while 114 (10.4%) received clinic-based DOT. TB patients receiving home-based DOT reported higher rates of HIV counselling than other patients. Public health providers should train DOT

  2. Mineralogy and trace element geochemistry of the Co- and Cu-bearing sulfides from the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district in Hainan Province of South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhilin; Xu, Deru; Zhang, Zhaochong; Zou, Fenghui; Wang, Li; Yu, Liangliang; Hu, Mingyue

    2015-12-01

    Hosted within the metamorphosed, neritic siliciclastic rocks and sedimentary carbonates of the Proterozoic Shilu Group, the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district in Hainan Province of South China comprises the upper Fe- and the lower Co-Cu ore layers. Combined with the field observation, the mineralogical and geochemical studies of sulfides using electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS analyses recognized three types of Co-Cu ores. Type I is represented by massive ores and mainly comprises the first generation of pyrite (PyI) which occurred either as recrystallized, subhedral to euhedral microcrystal aggregates (PyIa) or as elongated, fine-grained euhedral grains (PyIb) with an orientated alignment parallel to S1 foliation. Type II is banded, disseminated and brecciated ores, and composed of the second generation of pyrite (PyII) which displays internal rhythmic growth zoning, the first generations of chalcopyrite (CcpI) and pyrrhotite (PoI), and associated Co-(Ni)-(As)-sulfide minerals. Type III occurring as veins or veinlets mainly consists of the third generation of pyrite (PyIII) and the second generations of chalcopyrite (CcpII) and pyrrhotite (PoII), of which PyIII appears as subhedral to euhedrall grains or as rims of composite pyrite. The moderate Co and As, and high Ni contents as well as the low Co/Ni ratios (∼2-5) in PyI indicate a sedimentary-metamorphic origin for Type I ores. The higher Co, Ni and As concentrations in PyIb relative to PyIa likely was related to an inhomogeneous deformation-metamorphism. The highest Co (av. 51,195 ppm) in PyII and Ni (av. 3374 ppm) in PoI most likely were linked to the preferred incorporation of Co into pyrite and Ni into pyrrhotite. Combined with the high Ag concentrations in CcpI (av. 266 ppm) and PyII (av. 13.32 ppm), the high Co/Ni ratios in PyII (av. 1241) suggest the derivation of Type II ores from a Co-Cu-Ni-Ag-rich hydrothermal fluid. Further, up to 9 wt.% Co concentrations in PyII show a temperature condition of

  3. Two Late Cretaceous A-type granites related to the Yingwuling W-Sn polymetallic mineralization in Guangdong province, South China: Implications for petrogenesis, geodynamic setting, and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Mao, Jingwen; Zhao, Haijie; Zhao, Caisheng; Yu, Xiaofei

    2017-03-01

    Major and trace elements, whole rock Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating, zircon trace elements and Hf isotope data are reported for a suite of A-type granites from Yingwuling pluton in western Guangdong province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages obtained by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) show that biotite granite and alkali feldspar granite were emplaced in 81.3 ± 0.6 Ma and 80.6 ± 0.5 Ma, respectively. Both of the two suites have the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of A-type granite. These granitic rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and have pronounced contents of total alkalis (Na2O + K2O = 7.80-8.84%), Fe2O3T/MgO and Ga/Al ratios. They exhibit low MgO, CaO and TiO2 contents, enrichment in some LILEs and HFSEs (except for Zr, Eu and Y), depletion in Ba, Sr, P and Ti. They show A2 subtype affinity and were probably formed a temperature of 800 °C. The Yingwuling biotite granite has relatively high (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70655 to 0.70928, low εNd(t) values of - 5.8 to - 4.2 and zircon εHf(t) values (- 5.70-1.37). Whole-rock Nd isotopic and zircon Hf isotopic two-stages model ages mostly vary from 1057 to 1506 Ma. The alkali feldspar granite display bulk rock εNd(t) values and (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios in the range of - 6.6 to - 6.1 and 0.70640 to 0.71077, respectively, and zircon εHf(t) values from - 5.44 to 0.54, with Mesoproterozoic T2DM for both Nd and Hf isotopes. Geochemical and isotopic data indicate the Yingwuling A-type granitic magmas were drived from mantle-crust interaction. Zircon grains of Yingwuling granites have relatively low Eu/Eu* and Ce4 +/Ce3 + ratios, indicating low oxygen fugacity. The visible tetrad effect in the Yingwuling granites indicates that it experienced strong fractionation and is close relationship to the W-Sn mineralization. Our new data together with previous published data indicate that Late Mesozoic A-type granitiods or alkaline intrusive rocks in South

  4. An assessment of the physicochemical properties and toxicity potential of carwash effluents from professional carwash outlets in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tekere, Memory; Sibanda, Timothy; Maphangwa, Khumbudzo Walter

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of the quality of carwash effluents has received scant attention as a potential source of public and environmental health hazard in South Africa as demonstrated by the lack of literature in this subject. The physicochemical quality and potential ramifications of carwash effluents on receiving waterbodies were investigated in this study. Grab effluent samples were collected from six carwash outlets in Gauteng Province of South Africa and analysed for selected physicochemical qualities including biological oxygen demand (BOD), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline range organics (TPH-GRO), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total solids (TS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), nutrients (nitrates, nitrites and phosphates), anionic surfactants and heavy metals (zinc [Zn], copper [Cu], lead [Pb] and chromium [Cr]). Further, the toxicity potential of the effluent samples was assessed using organisms from four trophic levels ranging from Selenastrum capricornutum (primary producer), Daphnia magna (primary consumer), Poecilia reticulata (secondary-tertiary consumer) and Vibrio fischeri (decomposer). High pollutant levels were observed in all effluents with BOD ranging from 27 ± 2.1 to 650 ± 4.9 mg/l, TDS from 362 ± 8.5 to 686 ± 8.5 mg/l, GRO-TPH from 0.01 ± 0.0 to 7.6 ± 0.2 mg/l, DO from 0.0 to 0.1 mg/l, Zn from 0.79 ± 0.08 to 20 ± 2.12 mg/l, Cu from 0.77 ± 0.03 to 13 ± 0.71 mg/l and oil and grease from 12 ± 2.8 to 43 ± 2.1 mg/l. Ammonium concentrations ranged from 0.4 ± 0.1 to 75 ± 6.4 mg/l; turbidity from 109 ± 0.7 to 4000 ± 29.7 mg/l, anionic surfactants from 1.4 ± 0.1 to 5.8 ± 0.3 mg/l and TPH from <0.01 to 7.6 mg/l. Toxicity assessment assays resulted in 100 % mortality for fish and Daphnia after 96 and 24 h, respectively, and significant bioluminescence and growth reduction in V. fischeri and algae after 15

  5. The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Petrova, Alevtina

    2010-05-01

    The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ. T.Litvinova -All-Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) A. Petrova - St. Petersburg, SPbF IZMIRAN, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg For allocation of specific features known gold ore objects (Olimpiadninskoje, Suchoi Log, etc.) is executed the morphological analysis of the magnetic field received on materials of aeromagnetic data and satellite measurements at heights of 100 and 400 km. On the ground data on a map of magnetic anomalies of Russia of scale 1:2 500000 of 50 km on the extended structures crossing known gold ore deposits and promising ore units have been constructed geomagnetic and densitys sections up to depth. On geomagnetic and densitys sections to known large gold ore to deposits are dated deep synvertical the permeable zones described by a synlenticular -layered structure. Extended horizons of not magnetic formations are located on depths about 10, 12, 15-18, 30 and 40 km. On deep densitys sections reference sites ¬ the Suchoi Log, Olimpiadninskoje and Vodorazdelnoje ¬ is characterized by zones of inversion of density. Areas of the loosened breeds are dated to synvertical to deep zones of hydrothermal and fluid study of breeds inside which the loosened lenses in intervals of depths from 2 up to 5 km are formed, 8-13 km, 18-20 and 25-30 km of 35-40 km within the limits of the bottom bark. The analysis of a magnetic field has shown, that gold mineralization in researched region is dated for zones of long-living regional explosive infringements, to permeable terrigenous to thicknesses of depressions, to adjournment depression structures in units of crossing of tectonofluid zones of diagonal orientation. Terrigenous adjournment depression structures are shown on a geomagnetic section as the powerful deflections filled with low-magnetic thicknesses. These deflections are dated to

  6. Spinifex-textured komatiites in the south border of the Carajas ridge, Selva Greenstone belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siepierski, Lincoln; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca

    2016-03-01

    Spinifex-textured komatiites in the Selva greenstone belt are the first unequivocal examples of komatiites in the Transition Subdomain of the Carajás Mineral Province. Outcrops of spinifex-textured komatiites, located ∼1.5 km to the south of the Carajás ridge, were discovered during regional exploration for Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposits by VALE. They are associated with a 3.8 km long unit consisting of variable types of ultramafic rocks (talc schist, serpentinite and spinifex-textured komatiite). This ultramafic unit follows the steep dipping NW-SE trending Selva greenstone belt composed mainly by quartz-chlorite schists (interpreted as metasediments) and chlorite-actinolite schists (interpreted as metabasalts). Greenschist facies metamorphic parageneses characterize all rock types in the Selva greenstone belt. The komatiitic rocks in the Selva belt comprise a sequence of flows consisting of an upper spinifex-textured layer and a lower olivine cumulate layer. Although the spinifex and cumulus textures are well preserved in the field, the primary mineralogy of the komatiites has been completely replaced by greenschist facies metamorphic minerals. Platy olivine spinifex texture, consisting of an array of roughly parallel olivine plates, and random spinifex texture, consisting of randomly oriented olivine plates, are the most common primary volcanic textures in komatiites in the Selva greenstone belt. Platy and random spinifex texture is defined by former plates of olivine replaced by serpentine with minor actinolite, chlorite and magnetite, alternating with former matrix replaced by abundant actinolite and minor chlorite, talc, serpentine, and magnetite. The domains between olivine plates in both platy and random spinifex-textured rocks contain irregular arrays of fine-grained parallel crystals, representing primary fine-grained "quench" clinopyroxene crystals replaced by actinolite. Spinifex-textured komatiites have MgO contents bracket between 22.8 and 26.9 wt

  7. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  8. Assessing different airborne EM systems for delivering information on aquifer geometry and character: A case study from the Musgrave Province South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, T. J.; Ley-Cooper, A. Y.

    2012-12-01

    When developing their pre-competitive data bases in support of the minerals industry, State and Federal Government agencies in Australia are now looking at the conjunctive use of airborne geophysics. This is particularly so for AEM data sets, which are now being acquired to promote exploration. This reflects a recognition that in the arid regions of Australia development of a given mineral deposit will, in part, be determined by the availability of water to support mining and mineral processing. An emerging trend, linked to the availability of new data processing procedures, sees AEM data now being actively employed for a combination of applications linked to minerals exploration including geological mapping, aquifer characterization and groundwater assessment. New surveys are being commissioned with attention being given as to whether AEM systems are capable of resolving the complexity of aquifer systems. In addition to new surveys, historical AEM data sets acquired to target potential mineralization are being re-processed for groundwater related applications. As part of the South Australian Goyder FLOWS project, regional and local scale AEM data sets are being examined to develop hydrogeological conceptual models in the remote Musgrave Province in the States north. The work has required the re-processing of historical data, including those acquired by TEMPEST, HoisTEM and VTEM. More recently, the project also acquired co-incident data from several new AEM systems, including the new SkyTEM508 (a helicopter TDEM system) and the SPECTREM2000 (a fixed wing TDEM system). Their acquisition aims to inform State agencies about options for acquiring further pre-competitive AEM data to support mineral exploration whilst also addressing groundwater resource requirements for the region. In this paper we examine the results from a comparative study of these systems for defining the variability of aquifers that are expected to provide the main source of groundwater for any

  9. Effect of agro-ecological zone, season of birth and sex on pre-weaning performance of Nguni calves in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mpofu, T J; Ginindza, M M; Siwendu, N A; Nephawe, K A; Mtileni, B J

    2017-01-01

    . It was concluded that acceptable levels of growth are achievable from Nguni cattle under the different agro-ecological zones of Limpopo province, South Africa.

  10. Strategic planning for saving the lives of mothers, newborns and children and preventing stillbirths in KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa: modelling using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    PubMed

    McGee, Shelley-Ann; Chola, Lumbwe; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Mubaiwa, Victoria; Moran, Neil; McKerrow, Neil; Kamugisha, Leonard; Hofman, Karen

    2016-01-19

    KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa has the largest population of children under the age of five and experiences the highest number of child births per annum in the country. Its population has also been ravaged by the dual epidemics of HIV and TB and it has struggled to meet targets for maternal and child mortality. In South Africa's federal system, provinces have decision-making power on the prioritization and allocation of resources within their jurisdiction. As part of strategic planning for 2015-2019, KwaZulu-Natal provincial authorities requested an assessment of current mortality levels in the province and identification and costing of priority interventions for saving additional maternal, newborn and child lives, as well as preventing stillbirths in the province. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to determine the set of interventions, which could save the most additional maternal and child lives and prevent stillbirths from 2015-2019, and the costs of these. The impact of family planning was assessed using two scenarios by increasing baseline coverage of modern contraception by 0.5 percentage points or 1 percentage point per annum. A total of 7,043 additional child and 297 additional maternal lives could be saved, and 2,000 stillbirths could be prevented over five years. Seventeen interventions account for 75% of additional lives saved. Increasing family planning contributes to a further reduction of up to 137 maternal and 3,168 child deaths. The set of priority interventions scaled up to achievable levels, with no increase in contraception would require an additional US$91 million over five years or US$1.72 per capita population per year. By increasing contraceptive prevalence by one percentage point per year, overall costs to scale up to achievable coverage package, decrease by US$24 million over five years. Focused attention on a set of key interventions could have a significant impact on averting stillbirths and maternal and neonatal mortality in

  11. Province, Indonesia

    PubMed

    Endarti, Dwi; Satibi, Satibi; Kristina, Susi Ari; Farida, Muhaya Almira; Rahmawanti, Yuni; Andriani, Tika

    2018-04-27

    Objective: To determine knowledge, perception, and acceptance related to cervical cancer, HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer among Indonesian women, particularly in Yogyakarta province. Methods: A convenience sample of 392 women consists of 192 young women, 100 mothers of girls aged 12 – 15 years, and 100 adult women in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia was participated in this study. A self-administered paper-based questionnaire was used to determine demographics characteristics of respondents, as well as their knowledge – perception – acceptance related to cervical cancer, HPV vaccination, and screening for cervical cancer. Data collection were conducted during December 2013 to March 2014. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze description of demographics characteristics, knowledge, perception, and acceptance; while crosstab analysis using Chi-Square was used to analyze the relationship between demographics characteristics versus knowledge, perception, and acceptance. Results: This study found that knowledge and perception regarding cervical cancer, HPV vaccination, and screening for cervical cancer among women in Indonesia, particularly in Yogyakarta Province were still insufficient, however the acceptance was good. Among female young women, 64% had good knowledge, 62% had positive perception of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, and 92% tended to accept HPV vaccination. Among mothers of girls aged 12 – 15 years, 44% had good knowledge, 46% had positive perception of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, and 91% tended to accept HPV vaccination for their daughters. Among adult women, 68% had good knowledge, 57% had positive perception of cervical cancer and screening for cervical cancer, and 90% tended to accept cervical cancer screening. In general, demographics characteristics of having experience and exposure to information had significant relationship with knowledge, perception, and acceptance of HPV vaccination and screening for

  12. Investigation of the relationship between drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components and landform classes using fuzzy AHP (case study: south of Firozabad, west of Fars province, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokarram, Marzieh; Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to study the relationship between drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components and landform classes in the south of Firozabad, west of Fars province, Iran. For determination of drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components, parameters of calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), magnesium (Mg), thorium (TH), sodium (Na), electrical conductivity (EC), sulfate (SO4), and total dissolved solids (TDS) were used. It was found that 8.29 % of the study area has low water quality; 64.01 %, moderate; 23.33 %, high; and 4.38 %, very high. Areas with suitable drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components are located in parts of the south-eastern and south-western parts of the study area. The relationship between landform class and drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components shows that drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components is high in the stream, valleys, upland drainages, and local ridge classes, and low in the plain small and midslope classes. In fact we can predict water quality using extraction of landform classes from a digital elevation model (DEM) by the Topographic Position Index (TPI) method, so that streams, valleys, upland drainages, and local ridge classes have more water quality than the other classes. In the study we determined that without measurement of water sample characteristics, we can determine water quality by landform classes.

  13. Nematodes from Swainson's spurfowl Pternistis swainsonii and an Orange River francolin Scleroptila levaillantoides in Free State Province, South Africa, with a description of Tetrameres swainsonii n. sp. (Nematoda: Tetrameridae).

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Davies, O R; Jansen, R; Crowe, T M; Boomker, J

    2008-12-01

    Five Swainson's spurfowl collected in Free State Province, South Africa, were examined for helminth parasites, and the nematodes Acuaria gruveli, Cyrnea parroti, Gongylonema congolense, Subulura dentigera, Subulura suctoria and a new Tetrameres species were recovered. Their respective prevalence was 100, 20, 80, 20, 20 and 20%. These nematodes are all new parasite records for Swainson's spurfowl, and Acuaria gruveli constitutes a new geographical record as well. A single specimen of Cyrnea eurycerca was found in an Orange River francolin, representing a new host and geographical record for this parasite. The new species, for which the name Tetrameres swainsonii is proposed, can be differentiated from its congeners by a combination of the following characters of males: two rows of body spines, a single spicule which is 1152-1392 microm long, and eight pairs of caudal spines arranged in two ventral and two lateral rows of four spines each. The single female has the globular shape typical of the genus.

  14. Did in-place rotation of South America during the Early Cretaceous create both the early South Atlantic rift/salt basin and the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province? Peter Szatmari1 and Edison J. Milani1 1Petrobras Research Center (CENPES) Geological Research & Development (PDGEO), Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatmari, P.; Milani, E.

    2012-12-01

    Large igneous provinces with continental flood basalts, some related to rifting, have been traditionally attributed to mantle plume heads rising from the lower mantle. The early Cretaceous South Atlantic rift, an archetype of plate tectonics, and the Paraná-Etendeka continental flood basalts on land outside the rift, formed as South America rotated clockwise about a pole in its northeastern tip (Rabinowitz & LaBrecque, 1979), away from Africa and toward the subduction zone on its Pacific margin. This rotation opened the early South Atlantic southward while it kept the Equatorial Atlantic gateway to the Central Atlantic and the Tethys closed by compression. Rifting started in the late Jurassic in the extreme south, near the subduction zone at the continent's southern tip. It rapidly propagated NNE, mainly along inherited late Proterozoic (mostly Ediacaran) fold belts, and reached what has later become the eastern end of the Equatorial margin still in latest Jurassic time. Massive mostly basaltic volcanism peaked about 20 Ma later in Hauterivian time (136 to 130 Ma), forming dike swarms which, in the south, are accompanied by flood basalts of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province. The massive rise of mostly tholeiitic magma resulted from hotspot-like high temperatures prevailing beneath the cold and thick Gondwana lithosphere that had remained unbroken since Proterozoic times for about 400 Ma. Early basalt dike swarms trending E-W and SE-NW were transversal to the rift. They are two-three hundred kilometers long and 1000-2000 km apart, penetrating far into the continent's unrifted lithosphere and cutting through all inherited Proterozoic structures that controlled rifting. The successive basalt dike swarms (and their individual dikes) increase in thickness to the southwest, away from the continent's pole of rotation, as does the width of the rift. The E-W-trending Ceará-Mirim dike swarm occurs in the extreme northeast of the continent. Further southwest the

  15. The Potential Financial Costs of Climate Change on Health of Urban and Rural Citizens: A Case Study of Vibrio cholerae Infections at Bukavu Town, South Kivu Province, Eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Munyuli, Mb Théodore; Kavuvu, J-M Mbaka; Mulinganya, Guy; Bwinja, G Mulinganya

    2013-01-01

    Cholera epidemics have a recorded history in eastern Congo dating to 1971. A study was conducted to find out the linkage between climate variability/change and cholera outbreak and to assess the related economic cost in the management of cholera in Congo. This study integrates historical data (20 years) on temperature and rainfall with the burden of disease from cholera in South-Kivu province, eastern Congo. Analyses of precipitation and temperatures characteristics in South-Kivu provinces showed that cholera epidemics are closely associated with climatic factors variability. Peaks in Cholera new cases were in synchrony with peaks in rainfalls. Cholera infection cases declined significantly (P<0.05) with the rise in the average temperature. The monthly number of new Cholera cases oscillated between 5 and 450. For every rise of the average temperature by 0.35 °C to 0.75 °C degree Celsius, and for every change in the rainfall variability by 10-19%, it is likely cholera infection risks will increase by 17 to 25%. The medical cost of treatment of Cholera case infection was found to be of US$50 to 250 per capita. The total costs of Cholera attributable to climate change were found to fall in the range of 4 to 8% of the per capita in annual income in Bukavu town. It is likely that high rainfall favor multiplication of the bacteria and contamination of water sources by the bacteria (Vibrio cholerae). The consumption of polluted water, promiscuity, population density and lack of hygiene are determinants favoring spread and infection of the bacteria among human beings living in over-crowded environments.

  16. The impact of gold mining on the Witwatersrand on the rivers and karst system of Gauteng and North West Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    The Witwatersrand has been subjected to geological exploration, mining activities, parallel industrial development and associated settlement patterns over the past century. The gold mines brought with them not only development, employment and wealth, but also the most devastating war in the history of South Africa, civil unrest, economical inequality, social uprooting, pollution, negative health impacts and ecological destruction. One of the most consistent and pressing problems caused by mining has been its impact on the water bodies in and adjacent to the Witwatersrand. The dewatering and rewatering of the karstic aquifer overlying and adjacent to the Witwatersrand Supergroup and the pollution caused by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) are some of the most serious consequences of gold mining in South Africa and will affect the lives of many South Africans.

  17. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants: a survey of plants used in the ethnoveterinary control of gastro-intestinal parasites of goats in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maphosa, Viola; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2010-06-01

    Conventional drugs have become expensive and therefore unaffordable to resource-limited farmers, causing farmers to seek low cost alternatives, such as use of medicinal plants. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to document information on medicinal plants used by farmers in the control of internal parasites in goats in the Eastern Cape Province. Structured questionnaires and general conversation were used to collect the information from farmers and herbalists. The survey revealed 28 plant species from 20 families that are commonly used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites in goats. The plant family Asphodelaceae was frequent in usage, comprising 21.4% of the plants, and the Aloe was the most utilized species (50%). Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (45.9%), and decoctions constituted the majority of medicinal preparations (70%). Medicinal plants are generally used in combination with other plants, and/or non-plant substances, but a few plants are used on their own. These medicinal plant remedies are administered orally, mainly by use of bottles and this is done twice in summer at intervals of one month, only once in winter and when need arises thereafter. Some of the mentioned plants have been reported in literature to possess anthelmintic properties, while others possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, purgative, anti-edema to immuno-regulation. If their safety and efficacy could be confirmed, these plants could form an alternative cost effective strategy in managing helminthiasis in the province.

  18. The Relationship between Levels of Education of Entrepreneurs and Their Business Success: A Study of the Province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ricardo M.; Brijlal, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    The small, medium and micro enterprise (SMME) sector has been widely recognized as an engine of economic growth in South Africa. The implementation of the National Small Business Strategy (NSBS) in 1995 established important objectives for the sector to address such problems as lack of access to markets and procurement, lack of access to finance…

  19. Bilingual Literacy or Substantive Bilingualism? L1 and L2 Reading and Writing Performance among Grade 7 Learners in Three Township Schools Gauteng Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyike, T. V.

    2013-01-01

    Language diversity in South Africa continues to problematise educational provision and the realisation of equitable educational opportunities for all learners in various ways. This article presents the findings of ongoing research which explores the effect of language in education policy on the L1 and L2 proficiency of Grade 7 learners in township…

  20. Development and Evaluation of Live-Bed Pier- and Contraction-Scour Envelope Curves in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Provinces of South Carolina

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, used ground-penetrating radar to collect measurements of live-bed pier scour and contraction scour at 78 bridges in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain Physio...

  1. The Teaching of Religious Education in White State Schools in South Africa from 1948 to 1994, with Special Reference to the Province of Natal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Robert William

    2013-01-01

    There have been persistent allegations that the South African political authorities misused religious education (RE) during the years that Christian National Education (CNE) philosophy held sway, in order to achieve political ends. In this article, an attempt is made to locate and evaluate evidence that will demonstrate whether or not the…

  2. The Impact of Computer and Mathematics Software Usage on Performance of School Leavers in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Garth Spencer; Hardman, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this study the impact of computer immersion on performance of school leavers Senior Certificate mathematics scores was investigated across 31 schools in the EMDC East education district of Cape Town, South Africa by comparing performance between two groups: a control and an experimental group. The experimental group (14 high schools) had access…

  3. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  4. Disclosure of physical, emotional and sexual child abuse, help-seeking and access to abuse response services in two South African Provinces.

    PubMed

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie; Loening-Voysey, Heidi; Bray, Rachel; Doubt, Jenny; Casale, Marisa; Sherr, Lorraine

    2017-03-01

    Physical, emotional and sexual child abuse are major problems in South Africa. This study investigates whether children know about post-abuse services, if they disclose and seek services, and what the outcomes of help-seeking behaviour are. It examines factors associated with request and receipt of services. Confidential self-report questionnaires were completed by adolescents aged 10-17 (n = 3515) in South Africa. Prevalence of frequent (>weekly) physical abuse was 7.4%, frequent emotional abuse 12.4%, and lifetime contact sexual abuse 9.0%. 98.6% could name one suitable confidante or formal service for abuse disclosure, but only 20.0% of abuse victims disclosed. Of those, 72% received help. Most common confidantes were caregivers and teachers. Of all abuse victims, 85.6% did not receive help due to non-disclosure or inactivity of services, and 14.4% received help: 4.9% from formal health or social services and 7.1% through community vigilante action. Emotional abuse, sexual abuse and female gender were associated with higher odds of help-seeking. While children in South Africa showed high knowledge of available services, access to and receipt of formal services among abused children was low. Notably fewer children received help from formal services than through community vigilante action. Urgent action is needed to improve service access for child abuse victims.

  5. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  6. Paleomagnetism and Magnetostratigraphy of Upper Permian to Lower Triassic (?) Beaufort Group Strata at Bethulie, Karoo Basin, Free State Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, J. W.; Gastaldo, R. A.; Neveling, J.; Makubalo, S.

    2017-12-01

    A multifaceted approach to understand the timing of interpreted environmental changes during the Late Permian to possibly Early Triassic (?) time in the Beaufort Group strata of the Karoo Basin includes work to establish robust magnetic polarity records for sections previously interpreted to encompass end-Permian extinction events. Demonstrating the preservation of an early-acquired remanence (RM) in Karoo strata is required for a robust magnetostratigraphy. Yet, this is challenging due to thermochemical effects related to the Early Jurassic (ca. 183 Ma) Karoo Large Igneous Province (LIP), and the NE to SW increase in burial diagenesis attending Cape Fold Belt tectonism. Documentation of a primary RM in these strata, which appears to be preserved in some areas, requires careful laboratory- and field-based assessment. We report data from 53 sites collected at the well-studied Bethulie section, Free State Province, in which several <2 m wide Karoo LIP dikes crop out. We obtained 7-10+ independent samples per individual horizon to assess ChRM uniformity. Strata well-removed from dikes yield both normal and reverse polarity ChRM. It is always the case that the first-removed RM is a NNW seeking, moderate to steep negative-inclination ChRM (normal polarity); NRM intensities are typically 1 to 5 mA/m. Sites BT15 and BT21, which are located in strata lying some 4 m below the often-cited "event bed" interval inferred to be the terrestrial expression of the Permian/Triassic boundary, is dominated by a well-defined reverse RM with a normal overprint RM unblocked below 400oC, implying elevated temperatures (i.e., 100 to 250oC+) for ca. 1 Ma (+/-). Contact tests are positive but complicated. Host strata collected in distances equal to or less than 1-2 dike widths from the intrusions have been thermally remagnetized and demonstrate high NRM intensities (> 50 mA/m). Collectively, we interpret these data to indicate that any ChRM, with the exception of those from host strata in

  7. The Development and Piloting of Parallel Scales Measuring External and Internal HIV and Tuberculosis Stigma Among Healthcare Workers in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Edwin; Rau, Asta; Engelbrecht, Michelle; Uebel, Kerry; Siegel, Jacob; Masquillier, Caroline; Kigozi, Gladys; Sommerland, Nina; Yassi, Annalee

    2016-05-15

    The dual burden of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is severely impacting the South African healthcare workforce. However, the use of on-site occupational health services is hampered by stigma among the healthcare workforce. The success of stigma-reduction interventions is difficult to evaluate because of a dearth of appropriate scientific tools to measure stigma in this specific professional setting. The current pilot study aimed to develop and test a range of scales measuring different aspects of stigma-internal and external stigma toward tuberculosis as well as HIV-in a South African healthcare setting. The study employed data of a sample of 200 staff members of a large hospital in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Confirmatory factor analysis produced 7 scales, displaying internal construct validity: (1) colleagues' external HIV stigma, (2) colleagues' actions against external HIV stigma, (3) respondent's external HIV stigma, (4) respondent's internal HIV stigma, (5) colleagues' external tuberculosis stigma, (6) respondent's external tuberculosis stigma, and (7) respondent's internal tuberculosis stigma. Subsequent analyses (reliability analysis, structural equation modeling) demonstrated that the scales displayed good psychometric properties in terms of reliability and external construct validity. The study outcomes support the use of the developed scales as a valid and reliable means to measure levels of tuberculosis- and HIV-related stigma among the healthcare workforce in a resource-limited context. Future studies should build on these findings to fine-tune the instruments and apply them to larger study populations across a range of different resource-limited healthcare settings with high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The Development and Piloting of Parallel Scales Measuring External and Internal HIV and Tuberculosis Stigma Among Healthcare Workers in the Free State Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Edwin; Rau, Asta; Engelbrecht, Michelle; Uebel, Kerry; Siegel, Jacob; Masquillier, Caroline; Kigozi, Gladys; Sommerland, Nina; Yassi, Annalee

    2016-01-01

    Background The dual burden of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is severely impacting the South African healthcare workforce. However, the use of on-site occupational health services is hampered by stigma among the healthcare workforce. The success of stigma-reduction interventions is difficult to evaluate because of a dearth of appropriate scientific tools to measure stigma in this specific professional setting. Methods The current pilot study aimed to develop and test a range of scales measuring different aspects of stigma—internal and external stigma toward tuberculosis as well as HIV—in a South African healthcare setting. The study employed data of a sample of 200 staff members of a large hospital in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Results Confirmatory factor analysis produced 7 scales, displaying internal construct validity: (1) colleagues’ external HIV stigma, (2) colleagues’ actions against external HIV stigma, (3) respondent’s external HIV stigma, (4) respondent’s internal HIV stigma, (5) colleagues’ external tuberculosis stigma, (6) respondent’s external tuberculosis stigma, and (7) respondent’s internal tuberculosis stigma. Subsequent analyses (reliability analysis, structural equation modeling) demonstrated that the scales displayed good psychometric properties in terms of reliability and external construct validity. Conclusions The study outcomes support the use of the developed scales as a valid and reliable means to measure levels of tuberculosis- and HIV-related stigma among the healthcare workforce in a resource-limited context. Future studies should build on these findings to fine-tune the instruments and apply them to larger study populations across a range of different resource-limited healthcare settings with high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence. PMID:27118854

  9. Effusive silicic volcanism in the Paraná Magmatic Province, South Brazil: Evidence for locally-fed lava flows and domes from detailed field work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polo, L. A.; Janasi, V. A.; Giordano, D.; Lima, E. F.; Cañon-Tapia, E.; Roverato, M.

    2018-04-01

    Lava flows and dome complexes of silicic composition were identified in the Lower Cretaceous Paraná Magmatic Province (PMP) at Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. Detailed mapping and image analysis reveals significant volumes of effusive deposits aligned according to main lineaments, likely representing the fissural systems that fed the three Palmas-type silicic units. Different structures indicative of effusive emplacement (lava domes, lobated flows, sheet flows and autobreccias) are very common in the study area, and are probably also more abundant than previously thought in whole PMP silicic magmatism. In fact, effusive deposits seem predominant in the three distinct silicic units identified in the area, since no remnants of pyroclastic components have been identified. The vitreous dacites that make up the upper flows of the basaltic andesite to dacite Barros Cassal sequence are clearly effusive, as indicated by their occurrence as thin sheet flows. The much thicker early Caxias do Sul dacites occur mostly as lava flow lobes and pancake-like, of low to moderate viscosity, and lava domes. The younger, high SiO2 Santa Maria rhyolite unit shows unequivocal examples of effusive deposits at its lower portion, as lobated flows formed by vesicle-rich obsidian. In spite of higher viscosities relative to the previous units ( 106 Pa·s), it is probable that the very low H2O contents 1 wt% of these rhyolite melts, associated with high discharge rates, resulted in an effusive nature in most to this unit.

  10. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVI. Oestrid fly larvae of sheep, goats, springbok and black wildebeest in the Eastern Cape Province.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G

    2005-12-01

    Merino sheep in Thornveld, Dorper sheep and Angora goats in inland Valley Bushveld, Angora goats and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau, and springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, and black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou, in Karroid Mountainveld, all in the Eastern Cape Province, were examined for the larvae of nasal bot flies. The sheep and goats were infested with the larvae of Oestrus ovis, and Dorper sheep and Boer goats harboured more larvae than Angora goats on the same farms. Most infestation was present from November to May in Merino sheep in Thornveld, from February to June in Dorper sheep in inland Valley Bushveld, and from May to September in Angora and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau. These patterns of seasonality appeared to be regulated by the severity of the summer temperatures at the various localities. The springbok were infested with the larvae of Rhinoestrus antidorcitis, most of which seemed to mature from June to August. All larval sages of Oestrus variolosus and Gedoelstia hässleri were present in the black wildebeest, and large numbers of 1st instar larvae of G. hässleri appeared to accumulate on the dura of the wildebeest from June to August.

  11. Diagnostic hearing testing of infants aged 0-36 months in 3 South African provinces - Comparison of audiology records to HPCSA guidelines.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Selvarani; Störbeck, Claudine

    2016-12-01

    Within the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) pathway, which includes the processes of screening, diagnosis and intervention for paediatric hearing loss, paediatric diagnostic audiology involves a battery of specific tests and procedures. International studies have highlighted a golden standard for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss as based on the Joint Committee of Infant Hearing (2007) diagnostic guidelines, closely resembling the HPCSA diagnostic guidelines. There are limited South African studies on the processes and protocols followed in diagnostic paediatric audiology. This study aims to provide a comparison for how the tests used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa (within both the public and private healthcare sectors) compare to the HPCSA recommended diagnostic guidelines. A retrospective record review of paediatric clients with hearing loss (recruited through nonprobability convenience sampling) was conducted. This study is part of a longitudinal study of 711 deaf or hard of hearing children referred to the HI HOPES early intervention programme from September 2006 to December 2011. Diagnostic data from audiology reports of 117 children between 0 and 36 months were coded and analysed. Large variation was found in the tests included in the diagnostic audiology reports. For 22 children (19%) a comprehensive test battery was used. Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) recommended guidelines for diagnostic testing were not followed in any of the records analysed. Components of the HPCSA recommended test battery most frequently omitted was bone conduction testing. For both electrophysiology and behavioural testing, there was limited frequency specificity information. This exclusion of information is evidence of deficiencies in data recording and management, as well as having an effect on accuracy of classification of degree and type of hearing loss. There are gaps in age-appropriate assessment protocols, which

  12. Trend of hepatocellular carcinoma incidence after Bayesian correction for misclassified data in Iranian provinces.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Nastaran; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Ashtari, Sara; Fazeli, Zeinab; Vahedi, Mohsen; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2017-05-28

    To study the trend of hepatocellular carcinoma incidence after correcting the misclassification in registering cancer incidence across Iranian provinces in cancer registry data. Incidence data of hepatocellular carcinoma were extracted from Iranian annual of national cancer registration reports 2004 to 2008. A Bayesian method was implemented to estimate the rate of misclassification in registering cancer incidence in neighboring province. A beta prior is considered for misclassification parameter. Each time two neighboring provinces were selected to be entered in the Bayesian model based on their expected coverage of cancer cases which is reported by medical university of the province. It is assumed that some cancer cases from a province that has an expected coverage of cancer cases lower than 100% are registered in their neighboring facilitate province with more than 100% expected coverage. There is an increase in the rate of hepatocellular carcinoma in Iran. Among total of 30 provinces of Iran, 21 provinces were selected to be entered to the Bayesian model for correcting the existed misclassification. Provinces with more medical facilities of Iran are Tehran (capital of the country), Razavi Khorasan in north-east of Iran, East Azerbaijan in north-west of the country, Isfahan in central part and near to Tehran, Khozestan and Fars in south and Mazandaran in north of the Iran, had an expected coverage more than their expectation. Those provinces had significantly higher rates of hepatocellular carcinoma than their neighboring provinces. In years 2004 to 2008, it was estimated to be on average 34% misclassification between North Khorasan province and Razavi Khorasan, 43% between South Khorasan province and Razavi Khorasan, 47% between Sistan and balochestan province and Razavi Khorasan, 23% between West Azerbaijan province and East Azerbaijan province, 25% between Ardebil province and East Azerbaijan province, 41% between Hormozgan province and Fars province, 22

  13. The impacts of the Öræfajökull eruption in AD 1362 and climate change on cultural landscape dynamics in the province of Öræfi south of Vatnajökull glacier, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurmundsson, F.; Gísladóttir, G.; Erlendsson, E.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental changes can be attributed to both natural processes and human influences. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of volcanism and climate change on the development of land quality and cultural landscapes in the province of Öræfi in the Austur-Skaftafellssýsla district, south of Vatnajökull glacier, over the last 1100 years. Few areas in Iceland are as vulnerable to climate changes and volcanic eruptions as the region south of Vatnajökull glacier. The region has been repeatedly affected by tephra fallout from explosive eruptions, most notably the Öræfajökull eruption in AD 1362. This research employs historical written sources to investigate changes in the cultural and natural landscape. Historical and palaeoenvironmental data will be accumulated and stored in a database designed for the research, allowing data to be analyzed and presented on maps. Preliminary results show that from the onset of the settlement in the late 9th century until AD 1362 Öræfi was a wealthy, densely populated farming society, with many large farm estates and large number of livestock (cattle and sheep) sustained by the natural vegetation. The farm estates were 40 by the mid 14th century and the churches were four. The first records of land ownership show that the Church had accumulated the most valuable holdings in Öræfi shortly before the Öræfajökull volcanic eruption in AD 1362. Out of the 40 farm estates 12 belonged to the Church and on a national scale the churches in Öræfi were richer in livestock, sacramentals and missals compared to churches in other parts of Iceland. The Öræfajökull volcanic eruption in AD 1362 had devastating long term impact on the settlement and terrestrial ecosystem in Öræfi. The area was abandoned following the eruption and in the early 15th century only eight out of the 40 farm estates prior to the eruption were settled. The values of the estates shrunk dramatically as did the arable land. The number of churches

  14. Built-Up Area and Land Cover Extraction Using High Resolution Pleiades Satellite Imagery for Midrand, in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fundisi, E.; Musakwa, W.

    2017-09-01

    Urban areas, particularly in developing countries face immense challenges such as climate change, poverty, lack of resources poor land use management systems, and week environmental management practices. Mitigating against these challenges is often hampered by lack of data on urban expansion, urban footprint and land cover. To support the recently adopted new urban agenda 2030 there is need for the provision of information to support decision making in the urban areas. Earth observation has been identified as a tool to foster sustainable urban planning and smarter cities as recognized by the new urban agenda, because it is a solution to unavailability of data. Accordingly, this study uses high resolution EO data Pleiades satellite imagery to map and document land cover for the rapidly expanding area of Midrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. An unsupervised land cover classification of the Pleiades satellite imagery was carried out using ENVI software, whereas NDVI was derived using ArcGIS software. The land cover had an accuracy of 85% that is highly adequate to document the land cover in Midrand. The results are useful because it provides a highly accurate land cover and NDVI datasets at localised spatial scale that can be used to support land use management strategies within Midrand and the City of Johannesburg South Africa.

  15. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLV. Helminths of dairy calves on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures in the Eastern Cape Province.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G; Evans, Ursula; Purnell, R E

    2004-12-01

    Successive pairs of approximately 4-month-old Friesland bull calves, raised under worm-free conditions, were exposed to helminth infection for 14 days on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures at 28-day to monthly intervals, on a coastal farm in a non-seasonal rainfall region of the Eastern Cape Province. With the exception of one pair of calves exposed for 28 days, this procedure was repeated for 28 consecutive months from December 1982 to March 1985. The day after removal from the pastures one calf of each pair was slaughtered and processed for helminth recovery and the other 21 days later. Both members of the last four pairs of calves were killed 21 days after removal from the pastures. Sixteen nematode species were recovered from the calves, and infection with Ostertagia ostertagi was the most intense and prevalent, followed by Cooperia oncophora. The calves acquired the greatest number of nematodes from the pastures from June to October of the first year and from June to August of the second year of the survey. Few worms were recovered from the tracer calves examined from November or December to March or April in each year of the survey. The seasonal patterns of infection with Cooperia spp., Haemonchus placei, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum spp., O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei were all similar and were negatively correlated to atmospheric temperature and evaporation. Slight to moderate arrest in the development of fourth stage larvae occurred from July to September in Cooperia spp., April to July in H. placei, and August to October in O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus spp. during the first year of the survey. Too few worms were present in the second year to determine a seasonal pattern of arrest. Species survival during the hot and windy summer months appeared to be achieved via a combination of arrested larval development and an ageing residual population of adult worms in the host, and a small extant population of infective larvae on the pastures.

  16. Tuberculosis cure rates and the ETR.Net: investigating the quality of reporting treatment outcomes from primary healthcare facilities in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, A W; Mbambo, D; Machaba, M; Oliphant, C E M; Claassens, M M

    2017-03-10

    Tuberculosis control programs rely on accurate collection of routine surveillance data to inform program decisions including resource allocation and specific interventions. The electronic TB register (ETR.Net) is dependent on accurate data transcription from both paperbased clinical records and registers at the facilities to report treatment outcome data. The study describes the quality of reporting of TB treatment outcomes from facilities in the Ehlanzeni District, Mpumalanga Province. A descriptive crossectional study of primary healthcare facilities in the district for the period 1 January - 31 December 2010 was performed. New smear positive TB cure rate data was obtained from the ETR.Net followed by verification of paperbased clinical records, both TB folders and the TB register, of 20% of all new smear positive cases across the district for correct reporting to the ETR.Net. Facilities were grouped according to high (>70%) and low cure rates (≤ 70%) as well as high (> 20%) and low (≤ 20%) error proportions in reporting. Kappa statistic was used to determine agreement between paperbased record, TB register and ETR.Net. Of the100 facilities (951 patient clinical records), 51(51%) had high cure rates and high error proportions, 14(14%) had a high cure rate and low error proportion whereas 30(30%) had low cure rates and high error proportions and five (5%) had a low cure rate with low error proportion. Fair agreement was observed (Kappa = 0.33) overall and between registers. Of the 473 patient clinical records which indicated cured, 383(81%) was correctly captured onto the ETR.Net, whereas 51(10.8%) was incorrectly captured and 39(8.2%) was not captured at all. Over reporting of treatment success of 12% occurred on the ETR.Net. The high error proportion in reporting onto the ETR.Net could result in a false sense of improvement in the TB control programme in the Ehlanzeni district.

  17. Towards Developing an Initial Programme Theory: Programme Designers and Managers Assumptions on the Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Club Programme in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Metropolitan Area of Western Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C.; van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background The antiretroviral adherence club intervention was rolled out in primary health care facilities in the Western Cape province of South Africa to relieve clinic congestion, and improve retention in care, and treatment adherence in the face of growing patient loads. We adopted the realist evaluation approach to evaluate what aspects of antiretroviral club intervention works, for what sections of the patient population, and under which community and health systems contexts, to inform guidelines for scaling up of the intervention. In this article, we report on a step towards the development of a programme theory—the assumptions of programme designers and health service managers with regard to how and why the adherence club intervention is expected to achieve its goals and perceptions on how it has done so (or not). Methods We adopted an exploratory qualitative research design. We conducted a document review of 12 documents on the design and implementation of the adherence club intervention, and key informant interviews with 12 purposively selected programme designers and managers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes attributed to the programme actors, context, mechanisms, and outcomes. Using the context-mechanism-outcome configurational tool, we provided an explanatory focus of how the adherence club intervention is roll-out and works guided by the realist perspective. Results We classified the assumptions of the adherence club designers and managers into the rollout, implementation, and utilisation of the adherence club programme, constructed around the providers, management/operational staff, and patients, respectively. Two rival theories were identified at the patient-perspective level. We used these perspectives to develop an initial programme theory of the adherence club intervention, which will be tested in a later phase. Conclusion The perspectives of the programme designers and managers provided an important step towards developing

  18. An assessment of the HIV/TB knowledge and skills of home-based carers working in the North West province in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Justin G; Letsoalo, Mabjala R; Chirowodza, Admire C

    2017-04-19

    Home-based carers (HBCs) play a critical role in ensuring the success of the primary health care re-engineering strategy in South Africa. Their role includes ensuring improved access to and delivery of primary health care at the household level, and better co-ordination and improved linkages between community and health facilities for HIV/TB services. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, skills, challenges and training needs of HBCs involved in HIV/TB care in one sub-district in the North-West province of South Africa. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study in which 157 HBCs were interviewed to assess their knowledge and skills regarding HIV and TB. Data were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using SPSS statistical software and thematic analysis respectively. One hundred and forty-four (92%) of the interviewees were female and 13 (8%) were male. The median age of the participants was 35 years (interquartile range (IQR): 22-27). The median score for knowledge of both HIV and TB questions was 66% (IQR: 57-75). In general, HIV knowledge scores were higher than TB knowledge scores (73% versus 66%). A significant association was found between knowledge scores and formal training (p < 0.05), and knowledge scores and highest educational levels (p < 0.05). Irrespective of knowledge, HBCs reported providing a variety of services to support HIV/TB services in the communities in which they worked. HBCs also reported facing various challenges in their jobs related to stigma and the social contexts in which they work. The study showed that the overall knowledge of HBCs was limited, given the skills required and the services they provide. Given the increasing role of HBCs in various health initiatives, targeted interventions are required to support and improve their competencies and service provision.

  19. Towards Developing an Initial Programme Theory: Programme Designers and Managers Assumptions on the Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Club Programme in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Metropolitan Area of Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The antiretroviral adherence club intervention was rolled out in primary health care facilities in the Western Cape province of South Africa to relieve clinic congestion, and improve retention in care, and treatment adherence in the face of growing patient loads. We adopted the realist evaluation approach to evaluate what aspects of antiretroviral club intervention works, for what sections of the patient population, and under which community and health systems contexts, to inform guidelines for scaling up of the intervention. In this article, we report on a step towards the development of a programme theory-the assumptions of programme designers and health service managers with regard to how and why the adherence club intervention is expected to achieve its goals and perceptions on how it has done so (or not). We adopted an exploratory qualitative research design. We conducted a document review of 12 documents on the design and implementation of the adherence club intervention, and key informant interviews with 12 purposively selected programme designers and managers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes attributed to the programme actors, context, mechanisms, and outcomes. Using the context-mechanism-outcome configurational tool, we provided an explanatory focus of how the adherence club intervention is roll-out and works guided by the realist perspective. We classified the assumptions of the adherence club designers and managers into the rollout, implementation, and utilisation of the adherence club programme, constructed around the providers, management/operational staff, and patients, respectively. Two rival theories were identified at the patient-perspective level. We used these perspectives to develop an initial programme theory of the adherence club intervention, which will be tested in a later phase. The perspectives of the programme designers and managers provided an important step towards developing an initial programme theory, which will

  20. Two novel mutations of pfdhps K540T and I588F, affecting sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant response in uncomplicated falciparum malaria at Banjar district, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in pfdhfr and pfdhps genes have been shown to associate with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. However, pfdhfr, pfdhps genotypes and the correlations to SP treatment outcome in Indonesia has not yet been well analysed. Methods After obtaining informed consent, 61 uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients were recruited in Banjar district, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, from October 2009 to August 2010. They were treated by a single oral dose of SP and its effects on clinical and parasitological status were followed until day 28 after treatment. Occasionally, a thick smear blood film for microscopy observation and blood spot on a filter paper for pfdhfr and pfdhps genotype analysis were collected. Results Pfdhfr and pfdhps genotypes from 24 P. falciparum-infected patients consisting of adequate clinical parasitological response (ACPR) (n = 6; 25.0%) and early treatment failure (ETF) (n = 10; 41.7%) or late parasitological failure (LPF) (n = 8; 33.3%) were obtained by sequencing. Two novel mutations of pfdhps gene, K540T and I588F, were determined in ten and five isolates, respectively. These mutations were present in the pfdhfr/pfdhps combined haplotypes of ANRNI/SGTGA (n = 6), ANRNL/SGTGA (n = 4), and ANRNI/SGEAA(588F) (n = 5), (mutation codons are bold typed); these haplotypes were mostly belonging to parasitological failure (ETF or LPF). The parasites acquiring five mutations in pfdhfr/pfdhps haplotypes and four mutations with additional I588F did not respond adequately to SP treatment. Conclusion Many of Plasmodium falciparum infected patients in Banjar district, South Kalimantan, Indonesia did not respond adequately to SP treatment and these low ineffectiveness of SP in this area was associated with two novel mutations of pfdhps, K540T and I588F. PMID:25187019

  1. Two novel mutations of pfdhps K540T and I588F, affecting sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant response in uncomplicated falciparum malaria at Banjar district, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Basuki, Sukmawati; Fitriah; Riyanto, Sugeng; Budiono; Dachlan, Yoes P; Uemura, Haruki

    2014-04-04

    Mutations in pfdhfr and pfdhps genes have been shown to associate with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. However, pfdhfr, pfdhps genotypes and the correlations to SP treatment outcome in Indonesia has not yet been well analysed. After obtaining informed consent, 61 uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients were recruited in Banjar district, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, from October 2009 to August 2010. They were treated by a single oral dose of SP and its effects on clinical and parasitological status were followed until day 28 after treatment. Occasionally, a thick smear blood film for microscopy observation and blood spot on a filter paper for pfdhfr and pfdhps genotype analysis were collected. Pfdhfr and pfdhps genotypes from 24 P. falciparum-infected patients consisting of adequate clinical parasitological response (ACPR) (n = 6; 25.0%) and early treatment failure (ETF) (n = 10; 41.7%) or late parasitological failure (LPF) (n = 8; 33.3%) were obtained by sequencing. Two novel mutations of pfdhps gene, K540T and I588F, were determined in ten and five isolates, respectively. These mutations were present in the pfdhfr/pfdhps combined haplotypes of ANRNI/SGTGA (n = 6), ANRNL/SGTGA (n = 4), and ANRNI/SGEAA(588F) (n = 5), (mutation codons are bold typed); these haplotypes were mostly belonging to parasitological failure (ETF or LPF). The parasites acquiring five mutations in pfdhfr/pfdhps haplotypes and four mutations with additional I588F did not respond adequately to SP treatment. Many of Plasmodium falciparum infected patients in Banjar district, South Kalimantan, Indonesia did not respond adequately to SP treatment and these low ineffectiveness of SP in this area was associated with two novel mutations of pfdhps, K540T and I588F.

  2. Polyphenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Vernonia mespilifolia Less. Used in Folk Medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2018-01-01

    Vernonia mespilifolia Less. is a shrub of the Asteraceae family used in the South African traditional medicine system for the management of weight loss, hypertension, and heartwater disease. There is a need for scientific evaluation to validate its ethnomedicinal usage. In vitro assays were conducted to evaluate the polyphenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of different solvent extracts (acetone, aqueous, and ethanol) of the whole plant of Vernonia mespilifolia spectrophotometric and agar dilution techniques, respectively. The result revealed varying amounts of polyphenolics in the different solvent extracts corresponding to the antioxidant activities. Also, only the acetone and ethanol extracts inhibited the growth of the selected bacteria and fungi. These findings reveal that the extracts have strong bioactive compounds and hence support its ethnomedicinal application. PMID:29756461

  3. Exploring the Usefulness of MISR-HR Products to Estimate Maize Crop Extent and Using Field Evidence to Evaluate the Results in South Africa's Free State Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, M. M.; Knox, N. M.; Hunt, L. A.; Kleyn, L.

    2014-12-01

    The MISR instrument on NASA's Terra platform has been operating for almost 15 years. Standard products are generated at a spatial resolution of 1.1 km or coarser, but a recently developed method to re-analyze the Level-1B2 data allows the retrieval of biogeophysical products at the native spatial resolution of the instrument (275 m). This development opens new opportunities to better address issues such as the management of agricultural production and food security. South African maize production is of great economic and social importance, not only nationally, but on the global market too, being one of the top ten maize producing countries. Seasonal maize production statistics are currently based on a combination of field measurements and estimates derived from manually digitizing high resolution imagery from the SPOT satellite. The field measurements are collected using the Producer Independent Crop Estimate System (PICES) developed by Crop Estimates Committee of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. There is a strong desire to improve the quality of these statistics, to generate those earlier, and to automate the process to encompass larger areas. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the MISR-HR spectral and directional products, combined with the finer spatial resolution and the relatively frequent coverage afforded by that instrument, to address these needs. The study area is based in the Free State, South Africa, one of the primary maize growing areas in the country, and took place during the 2012-2013 summer growing season. The significance of the outcomes will be evaluated in the context of the 14+ years of available MISR data.

  4. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates from a public tertiary teaching hospital in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mnge, P; Okeleye, B I; Vasaikar, S D; Apalata, T

    2017-05-15

    Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections, and over the past decade there has been an increased isolation of drug resistant Candida species. This study aimed to identify the species distribution of Candida isolates and to determine their unique antifungal susceptibility and resistance patterns. During a cross-sectional study, 209 Candida isolates (recovered from 206 clinical samples) were collected and their species distribution was determined using ChromAgar Candida. The Vitek-2 system (Biomerieux, South Africa) was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and flucytosine. Four species of Candida were isolated, of which C. albicans was the most frequent, isolated in 45.4% (95/209) of the isolates, followed by C. glabrata: 31.1% (65/209). The MICs of the different antifungal drugs varied amongst the species of Candida. From the 130 isolates tested for MICs, 90.77% (112/130) were susceptible to all antifungal drugs and 6.9% (9/130) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. C. dubliniensis (n=2) isolates were susceptible to all the above mentioned antifungal drugs. There was no significant difference in species distribution amongst clinical specimens and between patients' genders (P>0.05). An increase in MIC values for fluconazole and flucytosine towards the resistance range was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surveillance of Candida species distribution and antifungal susceptibility at a public tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

  5. Assessment of some potential harmful trace elements (PHTEs) in the borehole water of Greater Giyani, Limpopo Province, South Africa: possible implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Munyangane, Portia; Mouri, Hassina; Kramers, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The present investigation was conducted in order to evaluate the occurrence and distribution patterns of some potentially harmful trace elements in the borehole water of the Greater Giyani area, Limpopo, South Africa, and their possible implications on human health. Twenty-nine borehole water samples were collected in the dry season (July/August 2012) and another 27 samples from the same localities in the wet season (March 2013) from the study area. The samples were analysed for trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Se, and Pb were 11.3, 0.3, 33.1, 7.1, and 6.0 µg/L in the dry season and 11.0, 0.3, 28.3, 4.2, and 6.6 µg/L in the wet season, respectively. There was evidence of seasonal fluctuations in concentrations of all analysed elements except for As, though Cd and Pb displayed low concentrations (<0.2 and <6.0 µg/L, respectively) in almost all sampled boreholes. Se and Cr concentrations slightly exceed the South African National Standard permissible limits for safe drinking water in few boreholes. A total of four boreholes exceeded the water quality guideline for As with two of these boreholes containing five times more As than the prescribed limit. The spatial distribution patterns of elevated As closely correlate with the underlying geology. The findings of this investigation have important implications for human health of the communities drinking from the affected boreholes.

  6. Efficacy of SISTA South Africa on sexual behavior, HIV stigma and relationship control among isiXhosa women in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wingood, Gina M.; Reddy, Priscilla; Lang, Delia L.; Saleh-Onoya, Dorina; Braxton, Nikia; Sifunda, Sibusiso; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic has a devastating impact among South-African women. The current study evaluated the efficacy of SISTA South Africa, a culturally congruent HIV intervention for isiXhosa women in South Africa that was adapted from SISTA, an HIV intervention for African American women. Methods A randomized controlled trial recruited 342 isiXhosa women 18 – 35 years of age. Participants were randomized to the general health comparison or the SISTA South Africa intervention. Xhosa speaking peer health educators tailored the SISTA South Africa curriculum, while maintaining the core elements of the original SiSTA intervention. Participants completed assessments at baseline and 6 months follow-up. Results Relative to participants in the comparison, participants in the HIV intervention reduced the frequency of unprotected vaginal intercourse acts (adjusted mean difference = 1.06; p = .02), were more likely to report not desiring dry sex (AOR = .229; 95% CI = .10, .47; p = .0001) and, were more likely to perceive that their main sexual partner did not desire dry sex (AOR = .24; 95% CI = .11, .52; p = .0001). Additionally, women randomized to the intervention also reported an increase in HIV knowledge, greater relationship control and had more accepting attitudes towards HIV stigma. The HIV intervention did not reduce STI incidence. Conclusions This trial demonstrates that an HIV intervention which is adapted to enhance its gender and cultural relevance for rural isiXhosa women can reduce self-reported sexual risk behaviors and enhance mediators of HIV among this vulnerable population. PMID:23673889

  7. Raman signatures of the modern pigment (Zn,Cd)S1-xSex and glass matrix of a red bead from Magoro Hill, an archaeological site in Limpopo Province, South Africa, recalibrate the settlement chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinsloo, Linda C.; Boeyens, Jan C. A.; van der Ryst, Maria M.; Webb, Geoffrey

    2012-09-01

    Two glass trade beads, one red and one yellow, retrieved from a secure archaeological context on Magoro Hill, an erstwhile Venda stronghold in South Africa's Limpopo Province, were analyzed with Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy identified the pigment coloring the yellow bead as lead tin yellow Type II and the glass as a typical soda-lime-silica glass. Both pigments and glass type were in use over a long time span and therefore the bead cannot be used as a temporal marker. The pigment coloring the red bead, on the other hand, was identified as nano-(Zn,Cd)S1-xSex mixed crystals, a pigment that was only widely used in the early 20th century. This date casts doubt on local oral tradition that associates the brick-built structure from which the beads were recovered with Manzinzinzi, a Venda chief who, according to contemporary documentary accounts, had already passed away in the 1880s. The more recent date for the red bead resolves the apparent discord between the oral and written records, suggesting that the building was probably erected and/or occupied by one of Manzinzinzi's successors.

  8. Parents Support Implementation of HIV Testing and Counseling at School: Cross-Sectional Study with Parents of Adolescent Attending High School in Gauteng and North West Provinces, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mokgatle, Mathildah

    2016-01-01

    Background. A formative assessment of the implementation of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) at school showed high acceptability and willingness to test among learners. However, the success of the proposed HTC depends on the support and acceptability of key stakeholders, including the parents. The aim of the study was to assess the opinions and acceptability of the implementation of HTC at school among parents of adolescents in high school. Methods. This was a cross-sectional household survey conducted with parents of adolescents attending high schools in educational districts in North West and Gauteng provinces, South Africa. Results. A total of 804 parents participated, and 548 (68.3%) were biological mothers, 85 (10.6%) were fathers, and the remaining were other relatives including grandmothers. Almost all (n = 742, 92.9%) parents were in support of implementation and provision of HTC at school, 701 (87.7%) would allow their children to be tested at school, 365 (46%) felt that parental consent was not needed to test at school, and 39.4% preferred to receive the HIV test results with their children. Conclusion. Parents accept the roll-out of an HTC program at school and have a role to play in supporting children who test positive for HIV. PMID:27807481

  9. Little anthelmintic drenching required for lambs finished over winter and spring on annually re-established irrigated pasture on the Highveld of Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, J A; Meyer, J; van Rensburg, L J

    2003-03-01

    As part of a trial to test the profitability of finishing weaner lambs over winter and spring on the Highveld of Gauteng province, an investigation was carried out over 4 consecutive years as to whether or not worm control was necessary while the lambs were on irrigated, improved pastures. Pastures that had not been grazed by sheep or other livestock for at least 5 years were planted to annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflora) that was ploughed under and replanted annually. Weaner lambs were randomly divided into either 2 (A and B) or 3 (A, B and C) groups and finished from April/May to November/December on a separate pasture per group. While Group A lambs were dewormed before being placed on pasture, those in Groups B and C were not. Faecal egg counts were performed at irregular intervals, and when the lambs were sold at the conclusion of each year's trial, the gastrointestinal tracts of 4-5 lambs per trial group were processed for worm recovery. Haemonchus contortus was the dominant worm species, while Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Ostertagia circumcincta and Trichuris spp. were encountered sporadically. From the results obtained it seems unlikely that there is appreciable 'carry-over' of the various worm species from year to year on pastures that are ploughed and replanted annually; thus it is improbable that there will be a build-up of anthelmintic-resistant worms. While on pasture, no drenching was required for the Group A lambs (dewormed before placing on the pasture), nor in 2 of the 4 years in Groups B or B+C that were not drenched and were lightly infected at the start. In the remaining 2 years Groups B or B+C were drenched once only during the course of each trial. Thus, under the conditions as in this study, little worm control is necessary, provided faecal worm egg counts are done to gauge the levels of infection before the lambs are placed on pasture, and to guard against the possibility of an increase in worm burdens thereafter in some years. Also

  10. Vector-control personnel’s knowledge, perceptions and practices towards insecticides used for indoor residual spraying in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contradictory arguments regarding the benefits and harm of insecticides, especially DDT, have caused concerns in different societal circles, threatening to undermine the achievements of the indoor residual spraying (IRS) programme in South Africa. These concerns were exacerbated by the screening of a documentary on South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) Television with anti-DDT sentiments. Consequently, Limpopo Malaria Control Programme (LMCP) Management advocated for an investigation to determine the potential effect of such campaigns on vector-control personnel’s knowledge and perceived effects of insecticides on human health, with a view to improving the educational materials designed for use in training vector-control personnel. Methods The study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey using a structured field-piloted questionnaire, administered to 233 randomly selected vector-control personnel. Ethical clearance was granted by the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Approval for the study was granted by the Department of Health, Limpopo. Participation in the study was voluntary and all respondents signed informed consent. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the collected data. Results Most respondents (96.6%) had a positive perception of IRS as a method to control malaria. Despite their positive perception, 93.6% viewed IRS insecticides to be potentially harmful to the users. DDT was perceived to cause long-term reproductive and respiratory effects, whereas alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin were largely associated with skin irritation/itchiness and skin burn. Study participants were more worried about DDT’s potential effects on their reproductive system, including poor sexual performance, decline in libido, miscarriage and bearing children with genetic defects. However, none reported personal experience of bearing a child with genetic defects or miscarriage. Most anti-insecticide messages, especially relating to DDT, emanated from

  11. High Acceptability of HIV Self-Testing among Technical Vocational Education and Training College Students in Gauteng and North West Province: What Are the Implications for the Scale Up in South Africa?

    PubMed

    Mokgatle, Mathildah Mpata; Madiba, Sphiwe

    2017-01-01

    Although HIV self-testing (HIVST) is globally accepted as an important complement to existing HIV testing approaches, South Africa has lagged behind in its adoption. As a result, data on the acceptability and uptake of HIVST testing is limited. The study investigated the acceptability of HIVST among students in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) colleges in two provinces in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data among 3,662 students recruited from 13 TVET colleges. The mean age of the students was 21.9 years. The majority (80.9%) were sexually active; while 66.1% reported that they had one sexual partner, and 33.9% had two or more sexual partners in the past year, and66.5% used condoms during the last sexual act. Three-quarters tested for HIV in the past year but less than half knew about HIVST prior to the survey. The acceptability of HIVST was high; about three-quarters showed a willingness to purchase a self-test kit and a majority would self-test with partners. Acceptability of HIVST was associated with being sexually active (OR = 1.73, p = 0.02, confidence interval (CI): 1.08-2.75), having ever been tested for HIV (OR = 1.74, p = 0.001, CI: 1.26-2.38), and having multiple sexual partners (OR = 0.61, p = 0.01, CI: 0.42-0.88). Three-quarters would confirm test results at a local health facility. In terms of counselling, telephone hotlines were acceptable to only 39.9%, and less than half felt that test-kit leaflets would provide sufficient information to self-test. The high acceptability of HIVST among the students calls for extensive planning and preparation for the scaling up of HIVST in South Africa. In addition, campaigns similar to those conducted to promote HIV counselling and testing (HCT) should be considered to educate communities about HIVST.

  12. High Acceptability of HIV Self-Testing among Technical Vocational Education and Training College Students in Gauteng and North West Province: What Are the Implications for the Scale Up in South Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Mokgatle, Mathildah Mpata; Madiba, Sphiwe

    2017-01-01

    Background Although HIV self-testing (HIVST) is globally accepted as an important complement to existing HIV testing approaches, South Africa has lagged behind in its adoption. As a result, data on the acceptability and uptake of HIVST testing is limited. The study investigated the acceptability of HIVST among students in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) colleges in two provinces in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data among 3,662 students recruited from 13 TVET colleges. Results The mean age of the students was 21.9 years. The majority (80.9%) were sexually active; while 66.1% reported that they had one sexual partner, and 33.9% had two or more sexual partners in the past year, and66.5% used condoms during the last sexual act. Three-quarters tested for HIV in the past year but less than half knew about HIVST prior to the survey. The acceptability of HIVST was high; about three-quarters showed a willingness to purchase a self-test kit and a majority would self-test with partners. Acceptability of HIVST was associated with being sexually active (OR = 1.73, p = 0.02, confidence interval (CI): 1.08–2.75), having ever been tested for HIV (OR = 1.74, p = 0.001, CI: 1.26–2.38), and having multiple sexual partners (OR = 0.61, p = 0.01, CI: 0.42–0.88). Three-quarters would confirm test results at a local health facility. In terms of counselling, telephone hotlines were acceptable to only 39.9%, and less than half felt that test-kit leaflets would provide sufficient information to self-test. Interpretations The high acceptability of HIVST among the students calls for extensive planning and preparation for the scaling up of HIVST in South Africa. In addition, campaigns similar to those conducted to promote HIV counselling and testing (HCT) should be considered to educate communities about HIVST. PMID:28141858

  13. Microstructural observation and chemical dating on monazite from the Shilu Group, Hainan Province of South China: Implications for origin and evolution of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Deru; Kusiak, Monika A.; Wang, Zhilin; Chen, Huayong; Bakun-Czubarow, Nonna; Wu, Chuanjun; Konečný, Patrik; Hollings, Peter

    2015-02-01

    New monazite chemical U-Th-total-Pb (CHIME) ages, combined with microstructural observations, mineral compositions, and whole-rock geochemistry, indicate that the large-scale, banded iron formation (BIF)-type Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district in Hainan Province, South China is a multistage product of sedimentation, metamorphism, and hydrothermal-metasomatic alteration associated with multiple orogenies. Two types of monazite, i.e. "polygenetic" and "metamorphic", were identified. The "polygenetic monazite" comprises a magmatic and/or metamorphic core surrounded by a metamorphic rim, and shows complex zoning. Breakdown corona structure, with a core of monazite surrounded by a mantle of fluorapatite, allanite, and/or epidote as concentric growth rings, is commonly observed. This type of monazite yielded three main CHIME-age peaks at ca. 980 Ma, ca. 880 Ma and ca. 450 Ma. The ages which range up to ca. 880 Ma for detrital cores, record a pre-deformational magmatic and/or metamorphic event(s), and is considered to be the depositional time-interval of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs in a marine, back-arc foreland basin likely due to the Grenvillian or South China Sibao orogeny. After deposition, the Shilu district was subjected to an orogenic event, which is recorded by the syndeformational metamorphic monazite with ca. 560-450 Ma population. Probably this event not only caused amphibolite facies metamorphism and associated regional foliation S1 but also enriched the original BIFs, and most likely corresponds to the "Pan-African" and/or the South China Caledonian orogeny. The post-deformational "metamorphic" monazite occurs mostly as inclusions in garnet and shows ca. 260 Ma age. It likely represents the Late Permian post-magmatic hydrothermal and related retrograde event(s) initiated by the Indosinian orogeny due to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys. The breakdown of monazite to secondary coronal mineral phases as well as the Fe-remobilization and associated skarnization

  14. Spatial and Alignment Analyses for a Field of Small Volcanic Vents South of Pavonis Mons and Implications for the Tharsis Province, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Glaze, Lori S.; Greeley, Ronald; Hauber, Ernst; Baloga, Stephen; Sakimoto, Susan E. H.; Williams, David A.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    A field of small volcanic vents south of Pavonis Mons was mapped with each vent assigned a two-dimensional data point. Nearest neighbor and two-point azimuth analyses were applied to the resulting location data. Nearest neighbor results show that vents within this field are spatially random in a Poisson sense, suggesting that the vents formed independently of each other without sharing a centralized magma source at shallow depth. Two-point azimuth results show that the vents display north-trending alignment relationships between one another. This trend corresponds to the trends of faults and fractures of the Noachian-aged Claritas Fossae, which might extend into our study area buried beneath more recently emplaced lava flows. However, individual elongate vent summit structures do not consistently display the same trend. The development of the volcanic field appears to display tectonic control from buried Noachian-aged structural patterns on small, ascending magma bodies while the surface orientations of the linear vents might reflect different, younger tectonic patterns. These results suggest a complex interaction between magma ascension through the crust, and multiple, older, buried Tharsis-related tectonic structures.

  15. Application of crude and recombinant ELISAs and immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of animal trypanosomosis in the Umkhanyakude district of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, Thu-Thuy; MOTSIRI, Mono Sophie; TAIOE, Moeti Oriel; MTSHALI, Moses Sibusiso; GOTO, Yasuyuki; KAWAZU, Shin-Ichiro; THEKISOE, Oriel Matlhahane Molifi; INOUE, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    A total of 231 serum samples were collected from sheep (n=9), goats (n=99) and cattle (n=123) in northeastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Trypanosome infection was detected using Trypanosoma brucei brucei crude antigen (TbbCA) and T. congolense crude antigen (TcoCA) ELISA assays. Recombinant antigen (T. evansi GM6 which consisted of 4 repeat domains, TeGM6-4r) ELISA and immunochromatographic test (ICT) were also used. Crude antigen ELISA, TeGM6-4r-ELISA and ICT detected 27.3%, 29% and 19.9% of trypanosome seropositive samples, respectively. Trypanosome infection prevalence in cattle and goats was 35.8–46.3% and 0–9.1%, respectively. Out of 9 sheep serum samples, 2–4 sera (22.2–44.4%) were positive. The detection performance of crude and recombinant antigen ELISAs was relatively similar (K=0.6–0.7); both are recommended for reference diagnosis and large scale epidemiological surveys. There is potential application for ICT in on-site diagnosis, but its sensitivity should be improved. PMID:25342634

  16. Foodborne Pathogens Recovered from Ready-to-Eat Foods from Roadside Cafeterias and Retail Outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Public Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Nyenje, Mirriam E.; Odjadjare, Collins E.; Tanih, Nicoline F.; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24). Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%), Enterobacter spp. (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (12%), Klebsiella oxytoca (8%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.2%) and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%). Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections. PMID:23066386

  17. The stratigraphy of the Middle Stone Age sediments at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Marean, Curtis W; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Fisher, Erich; Goldberg, Paul; Herries, Andy; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Nilssen, Peter J; Thompson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (PP13B) has provided the earliest archaeological evidence for the exploitation of marine shellfish, along with very early evidence for use and modification of pigments and the production of bladelets, all dated to approximately 164 ka (Marean et al., 2007). This makes PP13B a key site in studies of the origins of modern humans, one of a handful of sites in Africa dating to Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6), and the only site on the coast of South Africa with human occupation confidently dated to MIS 6. Along with this MIS 6 occupation there are rich archaeological sediments dated to MIS 5, and together these sediments are differentially preserved in three different areas of the cave. The sediments represent a complex palimpsest of geogenic, biogenic, and anthropogenic input and alteration that are described and interpreted through the use of a variety of macrostratigraphic, micromorphologic, and geochemical techniques. Three independent dating techniques allow us to constrain the age range of these sediments and together provide the stratigraphic context for the analyses of the material that follow in this special issue. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resistance of Strains Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Among Salmonella from Duck Carcasses at Slaughterhouses in Three Major Provinces of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Kyoung; Choi, Dasom; Chon, Jung Whan; Seo, Kun Ho

    2016-03-01

    The current study was carried out to estimate Salmonella spp. contamination of duck carcasses and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles and serotype distribution of the isolates. Salmonella spp. was detected in 21.7% (26/120) of fresh raw duck carcasses sampled at different slaughterhouses in South Korea. Eight Salmonella serovars were identified; the most prevalent serovar was S. Typhimurium (34.6%), followed by S. Virchow (30.8%). All isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and five remarkable isolates were resistant to more than 10 antibiotics, including third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Additional phenotypic and genetic characterization demonstrated that these isolates harbored resistance genes to broad-spectrum β-lactams, blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-2 genes, among the most prevalent β-lactamase enzymes worldwide. Based on molecular subtyping performed using the DiversiLab™ automated repetitive-sequence-based PCR system, isolates were classified into cluster A and cluster B. Among β-lactamase-producing Salmonellas, the isolate showing >98% similarity in their repetitive-sequence-based PCR banding pattern seemed to have acquired the resistance gene (blaCMY-2) and thus a distinct multiresistance profile. Given that antibiotic-resistant genes might be transferred by plasmid-mediated conjugation, periodic microbiological assessment within slaughterhouses is recommended for pathogens not to be transmitted through cross-contamination during slaughtering and dressing.

  19. The 131-134 Ma A-type granites from northern Zhejiang Province, South China: Implications for partial melting of the Neoproterozoic lower crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qinghai; Yu, Kaizhang; Liu, Yongsheng; Hu, Zhaochu; Zong, Keqing

    2017-12-01

    Although Mesozoic granites are widely distributed in the Gan-Hang Belt in Southeast China, their petrogenesis and geodynamic settings are still matters of dispute. Here, the major and trace elements, Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopes of three late Mesozoic granite plutons from Machebu, Shenzhongwu and Daixi in northern Zhejiang Province were analyzed to investigate their petrogenesis. These granite plutons are featured by an A2-type granite geochemical signature (e.g., high SiO2 (71 to 78 wt.%), total alkalis (Na2O + K2O = 7.57 to 9.12 wt.%), rare earth elements (total REE = 174 to 519 ppm) and HFSE contents, with mostly high FeOT/(FeOT + MgO) (0.82 to 0.93) and Ga/Al ratios (2.49 to 5.07) and low Ce4 +/Ce3 + ratios in zircons (1 to 90)), suggesting they were formed in an extensional tectonic setting. Combining whole rock Zr contents, mineral assemblages and the An content of plagioclase, it was suggested that these granites could have formed at a high temperature (> 850 °C) with a low H2O content ( 2.5 wt.%). Assuming the granite with the lowest SiO2 and high CaO contents as the "primary granite melt", the melting pressure was estimated to be 2.5 kbar based on model calculations using MELTs. Taking into account the effect of plagioclase fractional crystallization during the granite emplacement into shallow crustal levels, the initial melting pressure could be > 2.5 kbar at the stable field of plagioclase. This agrees well with the very low and variable Sr and Eu contents of these granite plutons. Zircon U-Pb dating yields a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 130.9 ± 1.0 Ma for the Machebu granite, 134.4 ± 2.1 Ma for the Shenzhongwu granite and 131.9 ± 1.2 Ma for the Daixi granite. The εHf(t) values of the zircons in these plutons gradually increase from southwest to northeast, i.e., from - 14.5 - 3.5 for the Machebu granite to - 1.5 - 0.2 for the Shenzhongwu granite and from 5.1 8.6 for the Daixi granite, suggesting the origin of

  20. Incidence of human adenoviruses and Hepatitis A virus in the final effluent of selected wastewater treatment plants in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Osuolale, Olayinka; Okoh, Anthony

    2015-06-24

    Municipal effluent constitutes a large reservoir of human enteric viruses and bacteria. Contemporary monitoring practices rely on indicator bacteria, and do not test for viruses. Different viruses, including Norwalk-like viruses, Hepatitis A virus (HAV), adenoviruses, and rotaviruses, are important agents of illnesses in humans. The burden of disease caused by adenoviruses manifests as pneumonia, bronchiolitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, and tonsillitis, whereas HAV infection can manifest as acute inflammatory diseases of the liver, fever, anorexia, malaise, nausea, and abdominal discomfort, followed by jaundice and dark urine. The public health implications of these viruses depend upon the physiological status of the wastewater microbial community. The occurrence of human adenovirus (HAdV) and HAV was determined in the final effluents of five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, over 12 months (September 2012-August 2013). The viruses were detected with real-time PCR, and conventional PCR was used for serotyping. Adenovirus was detected in effluent samples from all five WWTPs and in 64 % of the total samples, whereas HAV was not detected in any effluent sample. At WWPT-A, samples were collected from the final effluent tank (adenoviral concentrations ranged from 1.05 × 10(1) to 1.10 × 10(4) genome/L, with a 41.7 % detection rate) and the discharge point (adenoviral concentrations ranged between 1.2 × 10(1) and 2.8 × 10(4) genome/L, with a 54.5 % detection rate). At WWPT-B, HAdV was detected in 91.7 % of samples, with viral concentrations of 7.92 × 10(1)-2.37 × 10(5) genome/L. The HAdV concentrations at WWPT-C were 5.32 × 10(1)-2.20 × 10(5) genome/L, and the detection rate was 75 %. The adenoviral concentrations at WWPT-D were 1.23 × 10(3)-1.05 × 10(4) genome/L, and the detection rate was 66.7 %. At WWPT-E, the viral concentrations were 1.08 × 10(1)-5.16 × 10

  1. Occurrence of Virulence Genes Associated with Human Pathogenic Vibrios Isolated from Two Commercial Dusky Kob (Argyrosmus japonicus) Farms and Kareiga Estuary in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fri, Justine; Ndip, Roland Ndip; Njom, Henry Akum; Clarke, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Seafood-borne Vibrio infections, often linked to contaminated seafood and water, are of increasing global public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of human pathogenic vibrios and their associated virulence genes isolated from fish and water samples from 2 commercial dusky kob farms and Kareiga estuary, South Africa. Methods: A total of 200 samples including dusky kob fish (n = 120) and seawater (n = 80) were subjected to Vibrio screening on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS). Presumptive isolates were confirmed and delineated to V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. fluvialis by PCR. Various pathogenic gene markers were screened: V. parahaemolyticus (trh and tdh), V. vulnificus (vcgE and vcgC) and V. fluvialis (stn, vfh, hupO, vfpA). Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the vvhA gene of V. vulnificus strains was performed to determine the associated biotypes. Results: Total Vibrio prevalence was 59.4% (606/1020) of which V. fluvialis was the most predominant 193 (31.85%), followed by Vibrio vulnificus 74 (12.21%) and V. parahaemolyticus 33 (5.45%). No V. cholerae strain was detected. One of the V. parahaemolyticus strains possessed the trh gene 7 (9.46%) while most (91.9%; 68/74) V. vulnificus isolates were of the E-type genotype. V. fluvialis virulence genes detected were stn (13.5%), hupO (10.4%) and vfpA (1.0%). 12.16% (9/74) of V. vulnificus strains exhibited a biotype 3 RFLP pattern. Conclusions: This is the first report of potentially pathogenic vibrios from healthy marine fish in the study area, and therefore a public health concern. PMID:28946684

  2. An investigation into the level of empowerment of rural women in the Zululand district of KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bhengu, B R

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcome of the empowerment of rural women in relation to gender issues, power, and communication within the Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal in SouthAfrica after implementation of a four-year Primary Health Care project in partnership with the Provincial Department of Health, and two Schools of Nursing at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and McMaster University in Canada. This project is based on substantial evidence which reveals that rural women are being neglected to the extent that these women have missed out on opportunities for development. The reasons for this disempowerment of women, particularly rural women, are thought to be due to the feminisation of poverty, as well as female submission, educational deprivation, privacy of domestic violence, exploitation, domination by men and cultural oppression (patriarchy). A qualitative research approach was used. Focus group discussion was utilised as the data collection technique, and this was also applied during the collection of baseline data. An interview guide covered issues of concern in the communities and households, including what the women would, or had done about these, how they engaged in decision-making in their families, how they handled situations when there was a difference of opinion, and their awareness of, and ability to claim their rights, including control of their lives. The data was collected from six clinics, from groups of six to ten women in the predominantly rural Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal. The project has revealed improvement in the women's realisation of their rights, albeit limited, in communication, self-confidence, and reliance, including partnerships between Primary Health Care Nurses and women's groups. The formation of women's groups facilitated community development and participation in their own health, socio-economic and emotional development. The project suggests that such groups be encouraged and allowed to network for

  3. Pre/post evaluation of a pilot prevention with positives training program for healthcare providers in North West Province, Republic of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Christopher G; de Kadt, Julia; Pillay, Erushka; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Naidoo, Evasen; Grignon, Jessica; Weaver, Marcia R

    2017-05-02

    Prevention interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS are an important component of HIV programs. We report the results of a pilot evaluation of a four-hour, clinic-based training for healthcare providers in South Africa on HIV prevention assessments and messages. This pre/post pilot evaluation examined whether the training was associated with providers delivering more prevention messages. Seventy providers were trained at four public primary care clinics with a high volume of HIV patients. Pre- and post-training patient exit surveys were conducted using Audio-Computer Assisted Structured Interviews. Seven provider appropriate messaging outcomes and one summary provider outcome were compared pre- and post-training using Poisson regression. Four hundred fifty-nine patients pre-training and 405 post-training with known HIV status were interviewed, including 175 and 176 HIV positive patients respectively. Among HIV positive patients, delivery of all appropriate messages by providers declined post-training. The summary outcome decreased from 56 to 50%; adjusted rate ratio 0.92 (95% CI = 0.87-0.97). Sensitivity analyses adjusting for training coverage and time since training detected fewer declines. Among HIV negative patients the summary score was stable at 32% pre- and post-training; adjusted rate ratio 1.05 (95% CI = 0.98-1.12). Surprisingly, this training was associated with a decrease in prevention messages delivered to HIV positive patients by providers. Limited training coverage and delays between training and post-training survey may partially account for this apparent decrease. A more targeted approach to prevention messages may be more effective.

  4. Removal Efficiency of Faecal Indicator Organisms, Nutrients and Heavy Metals from a Peri-Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Edokpayi, Joshua N; Odiyo, John O; Msagati, Titus A M; Popoola, Elizabeth O

    2015-06-29

    Wastewater treatment facilities are known sources of fresh water pollution. This study was carried out from January to June 2014 to assess the reduction efficiency of some selected contaminants in the Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The pH and electrical conductivity of the effluent fell within the South African wastewater discharge guidelines. The WWTP showed the chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency required by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines of 75 mg/L for the months of April and June, although it was below this standard in March and May. Free chlorine concentration varied between 0.26-0.96 mg/L and exceeded the DWA guideline value of 0.25 mg/L. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-) N) in the influent and effluent varied between 0.499-2.31 mg/L and 7.545-19.413 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of NO3- N in the effluent complied with DWA effluent discharge standard of 15 mg/L, except in April and May. Phosphate concentrations in the influent and effluent were in the ranges of 0.552-42.646 mg/L and 1.572-32.554 mg/L, respectively. The WWTP showed reduction efficiencies of E. coli and Enterococci during some sampling periods but the level found in the effluent exceeded the recommended guideline value of 1000 cfu/100 mL for faecal indicator organisms in wastewater effluents. Consistent removal efficiencies were observed for Al (32-74%), Fe (7-32%) and Zn (24-94%) in most of the sampling months. In conclusion, the Thohoyandou WWTP is inefficient in treating wastewater to the acceptable quality before discharge.

  5. Removal Efficiency of Faecal Indicator Organisms, Nutrients and Heavy Metals from a Peri-Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Edokpayi, Joshua N.; Odiyo, John O.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Popoola, Elizabeth O.

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities are known sources of fresh water pollution. This study was carried out from January to June 2014 to assess the reduction efficiency of some selected contaminants in the Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The pH and electrical conductivity of the effluent fell within the South African wastewater discharge guidelines. The WWTP showed the chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency required by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines of 75 mg/L for the months of April and June, although it was below this standard in March and May. Free chlorine concentration varied between 0.26–0.96 mg/L and exceeded the DWA guideline value of 0.25 mg/L. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3− N) in the influent and effluent varied between 0.499–2.31 mg/L and 7.545–19.413 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of NO3− N in the effluent complied with DWA effluent discharge standard of 15 mg/L, except in April and May. Phosphate concentrations in the influent and effluent were in the ranges of 0.552–42.646 mg/L and 1.572–32.554 mg/L, respectively. The WWTP showed reduction efficiencies of E. coli and Enterococci during some sampling periods but the level found in the effluent exceeded the recommended guideline value of 1000 cfu/100 mL for faecal indicator organisms in wastewater effluents. Consistent removal efficiencies were observed for Al (32–74%), Fe (7–32%) and Zn (24–94%) in most of the sampling months. In conclusion, the Thohoyandou WWTP is inefficient in treating wastewater to the acceptable quality before discharge. PMID:26132481

  6. Middle Stone Age stratigraphy and excavations at Die Kelders Cave 1 (Western Cape Province, South Africa): the 1992, 1993, and 1995 field seasons.

    PubMed

    Marean, C W; Goldberg, P; Avery, G; Grine, F E; Klein, R G

    2000-01-01

    Die Kelders Cave 1, first excavated under the direction of Franz Schweitzer in 1969-1973, was re-excavated between 1992 and 1995 by a combined team from the South African Museum, SUNY at Stony Brook, and Stanford University. These renewed excavations enlarged the artefactual and faunal samples from the inadequately sampled and less intensively excavated lower Middle Stone Age (MSA) layers, increased our understanding of the complex site formation processes within the cave, enlarged the hominid sample from the MSA deposits, and generated ESR, TL, and OSL dates for the MSA layers. Importantly, these new excavations dramatically improved our comprehension of the vertical and lateral characteristics of the MSA stratigraphy. Surface plotting of the MSA layers has led to the identification of at least two major zones of subsidence that significantly warped the layers, draping some along the eroding surface contours of major blocks of fallen limestone roof rock. A third zone of subsidence is probably present in the older excavations. Dramatic roof falls of very large limestone blocks occurred at least twice-once in the middle of Layer 4/5 where the roof blocks were only slightly weathered after collapse, and at the top of Layer 6 where the blocks weathered heavily after collapse, producing a zone of decomposed rock around the blocks. Many of the sandy strata are cut by small and localized faults and slippages. All of the strata documented by Schweitzer's excavations are present throughout the exposed area to the west of his excavated area, where many of them thicken and become more complex. Layer 6, the thickest MSA layer, becomes less diagenetically altered and compressed to the west. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. “HealthKick”: Formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. Methods A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Results Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50%) and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24%) and underweight (16%). They cited lack of physical activity (33%) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24%) as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66%) and tobacco use (31%) were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%), and then sweets (96%), while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%), crisps (89%), and ice lollies (38%). Very few schools (8%) had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. Conclusion The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their educators. Evidently

  8. "HealthKick": formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Anniza; Steyn, Nelia P; Draper, Catherine E; Fourie, Jean M; Barkhuizen, Gerhard; Lombard, Carl J; Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Lambert, Estelle V

    2012-09-17

    This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50%) and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24%) and underweight (16%). They cited lack of physical activity (33%) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24%) as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66%) and tobacco use (31%) were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%), and then sweets (96%), while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%), crisps (89%), and ice lollies (38%). Very few schools (8%) had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their educators. Evidently, these show that school environments

  9. Geologic cross section C-C' through the Appalachian basin from Erie County, north-central Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge province, Bedford County, south-central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Crangle, Robert D.; Hope, Rebecca S.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Lentz, Erika E.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic cross section C-C' is the third in a series of cross sections constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to document and improve understanding of the geologic framework and petroleum systems of the Appalachian basin. Cross section C-C' provides a regional view of the structural and stratigraphic framework of the Appalachian basin from north-central Ohio to the Valley and Ridge province in south-central Pennsylvania, a distance of approximately 260 miles (mi). This cross section is a companion to cross sections E-E' and D-D' that are located about 50 to 125 mi and 25 to 50 mi, respectively, to the southwest. Cross section C-C' contains much information that is useful for evaluating energy resources in the Appalachian basin. Although specific petroleum systems are not identified on the cross section, many of their key elements (such as source rocks, reservoir rocks, seals, and traps) can be inferred from lithologic units, unconformities, and geologic structures shown on the cross section. Other aspects of petroleum systems (such as the timing of petroleum generation and preferred migration pathways) may be evaluated by burial history, thermal history, and fluid flow models based on what is shown on the cross section. Cross section C-C' also provides a general framework (stratigraphic units and general rock types) for the coal-bearing section, although the cross section lacks the detail to illustrate key elements of coal systems (such as paleoclimate, coal quality, and coal rank). In addition, cross section C-C' may be used as a reconnaissance tool to identify plausible geologic structures and strata for the subsurface storage of liquid waste or for the sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  10. The Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors amongst Adults in the Dikgale Health Demographic and Surveillance System (HDSS) Site, Limpopo Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Maimela, Eric; Modjadji, Sewela E. P.; Choma, Solomon S. R.; Dikotope, Sekgothe A.; Ntuli, Thembelihle S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors in a rural community in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Methods This survey was conducted using the WHO "STEPwise approach to the surveillance of non-communicable diseases" (STEPS) methodology. Participants were residents of the Dikgale HDSS site and standardised international protocols were used to measure behavioural risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable intake and, physical activity) and physical characteristics (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure–BP). Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and HDL-C were determined in 732 participants. Data were analysed using STATA 12 for Windows. Results The prevalence of current smokers amongst the participants was 13.7%, of which 81.3% were daily smokers. Alcohol was consumed by 16.3% of the participants. The majority of participants (88.6%) had low daily intake of fruit and vegetables and low physical activity (66.5%). The prevalence of hypertension amongst the participants was 38.2%. Overweight, obesity and high waist circumference were prevalent in females. The cardio-metabolic risk profile was not significantly different between men and women. People who were older than 40 years, overweight or obese and those who consumed alcohol were more likely to be hypertensive. Smoking was associated significantly with older age, males, never married and divorced people. Alcohol consumption was associated with older age, males, low educational status and low income. Conclusion High levels of risk factors for NCDs among adults in the Dikgale HDSS suggest an urgent need for health interventions to control these risk factors at the population level in order to reduce the prevalence of NCDs. PMID:26882033

  11. Jizzax Province, Uzbekistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-10

    This image captured by NASA Terra spacecraft is of the Jizzax Province in eastern Uzbekistan, one of the main agricultural regions of the country. Uzbekistan is the world sixth largest producer and second-largest exporter of cotton.

  12. Heilongjiang Province, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-07

    Acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, this image shows Heilongjiang, a province of China located in the northeastern part of the country. Farms are small and long skinny rectangles in shape, surrounding regularly spaced villages.

  13. Modification of Selected South Carolina Bridge-Scour Envelope Curves

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-01-01

    Historic scour was investigated at 231 bridges in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces of South Carolina by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation. These investigations led to ...

  14. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guild, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  15. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  16. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  17. Ceramic water filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles as a point-of-use water-treatment intervention for HIV-positive individuals in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a pilot study of technological performance and human health benefits.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Lydia Shawel; Smith, James A; Narkiewicz, Sophia; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka; Conaway, Mark; Singo, Alukhethi; Amidou, Samie; Mojapelo, Paul; Brant, Julia; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Waterborne pathogens present a significant threat to people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). This study presents a randomized, controlled trial that evaluates whether a household-level ceramic water filter (CWF) intervention can improve drinking water quality and decrease days of diarrhea in PLWH in rural South Africa. Seventy-four participants were randomized in an intervention group with CWFs and a control group without filters. Participants in the CWF arm received CWFs impregnated with silver nanoparticles and associated safe-storage containers. Water and stool samples were collected at baseline and 12 months. Diarrhea incidence was self-reported weekly for 12 months. The average diarrhea rate in the control group was 0.064 days/week compared to 0.015 days/week in the intervention group (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). Median reduction of total coliform bacteria was 100% at enrollment and final collection. CWFs are an acceptable technology that can significantly improve the quality of household water and decrease days of diarrhea for PLWH in rural South Africa.

  18. Alcohol Use, Working Conditions, Job Benefits, and the Legacy of the “Dop” System among Farm Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Hope Despite High Levels of Risky Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Gossage, J. Phillip; Snell, Cudore L.; Parry, Charles D. H.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Barnard, Ronel; de Vries, Marlene; Blankenship, Jason; Seedat, Soraya; Hasken, Julie M.; May, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes alcohol consumption in five Western Cape Province communities. Cross-sectional data from a community household sample (n = 591) describe the alcohol use patterns of adult males and females, and farm workers vs. others. Data reveal that men were more likely to be current drinkers than women, 75.1% vs. 65.8% (p = 0.033); farm laborers were more likely to be current drinkers than individuals in other occupations 83.1% vs. 66.8% (p = 0.004). Group, binge drinking on weekends was the norm; men were more likely to be binge drinkers in the past week than women 59.8% vs. 48.8% (p = 0.086); farm workers were more likely to binge than others 75.0% vs. 47.5% (p < 0.001). The legacy of “Dop” contributes to current risky drinking behaviors. Farm owners or managers were interviewed on 11 farms, they described working conditions on their farms and how the legacy of “Dop” is reflected in the current use of alcohol by their workers. “Dop” was given to farm workers in the past on six of the 11 farms, but was discontinued for different reasons. There is zero tolerance for coming to work intoxicated; farm owners encourage responsible use of alcohol and assist farm workers in getting help for alcohol problems when necessary. The farm owners report some positive initiatives, were ahead of the movement to provide meaningful wages, and provide other important amenities. Further research is needed to assess whether progressive practices on some farms will reduce harmful alcohol use. PMID:25050650

  19. Exploring the Sandy Province of Herschel Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-04

    This view from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the downwind stretches of a sand sheet in central part of the much larger Herschel Crater. This sandy province began kilometers upwind in a string of barchan sand dunes. As the north-to-south blowing wind weakened downwind, it could no longer fashion the sand into dunes but rather into amorphously-shaped sand sheets. While perhaps not awe-inspiringly beautiful, sand sheets can tell us about Mars' current and past environmental conditions as a piece of the puzzle for understanding habitability. Having dunes upwind of sheets is the opposite situation Earth has, where upwind sand sheets evolve downwind into sand dunes. This mystery is receiving ongoing research to to understand these sandy differences between Earth and Mars. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21933

  20. Crustal extension and transform faulting in the southern Basin Range Province. [California, Arizona, and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Childs, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Field reconnaissance and study of geologic literature guided by analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery have led to a hypothesis of tectonic control of Miocene volcanism, plutonism, and related mineralization in part of the Basin Range Province of southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The easterly trending right-lateral Las Vegas Shear Zone separates two volcanic provinces believed to represent areas of major east-west crustal extension. One volcanic province is aligned along the Colorado River south of the eastern termination of the Las Vegas Shear Zone; the second province is located north of the western termination of the shear zone in southern Nye County, Nevada. Geochronologic, geophysical, and structural evidence suggests that the Las Vegas Shear Zone may have formed in response to crustal extension in the two volcanic provinces in a manner similar to the formation of a ridge-ridge transform fault, as recognized in ocean floor tectonics.

  1. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  2. Preferences for ARV-based HIV prevention methods among men and women, adolescent girls and female sex workers in Gauteng Province, South Africa: a protocol for a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Quaife, Matthew; Eakle, Robyn; Cabrera, Maria; Vickerman, Peter; Tsepe, Motlalepule; Cianci, Fiona; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Terris-Prestholt, Fern

    2016-06-27

    For the past few decades, condoms have been the main method of HIV prevention. Recent advances in antiretroviral (ARV)-based prevention products have substantially changed the prevention landscape, yet little is known about how popular these products will be among potential users, or whether new methods might be used in conjunction with, or instead of, condoms. This study will use a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to (1) explore potential users' preferences regarding HIV prevention products, (2) quantify the importance of product attributes and (3) predict the uptake of products to inform estimates of their potential impact on the HIV epidemic in South Africa. We consider preferences for oral pre-exposure prophylaxis; a vaginal microbicide gel; a long-acting vaginal ring; a SILCS diaphragm used in concert with gel; and a long-acting ARV-based injectable. This study will gather data from 4 populations: 200 women, 200 men, 200 adolescent girls (aged 16-17 years) and 200 female sex workers. The DCE attributes and design will be developed through a literature review, supplemented by a thematic analysis of qualitative focus group discussions. Extensive piloting will be carried out in each population through semistructured interviews. The final survey will be conducted using computer tablets via a household sample (for women, men and adolescents) and respondent-driven sampling (for female sex workers), and DCE data analysed using a range of multinomial logit models. This study has been approved by the University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee and the Research Ethics Committee at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Findings will be presented to international conferences and peer-reviewed journals. Meetings will be held with opinion leaders in South Africa, while results will be disseminated to participants in Ekurhuleni through a public meeting or newsletter. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  3. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River–Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Peña Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces.Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500–2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely

  4. Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa. I. Winter survey versus summer survey comparison from Labeo capensis (Smith, 1841) and Labeo umbratus (Smith, 1841) hosts.

    PubMed

    Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2014-03-01

    Indigenous South African Labeo spp. show promise with regard to development of semi-intensive aquaculture, yet little research on their monogenean fauna has been conducted. Ecological aspects of monogenean fauna of the moggel Labeo umbratus (Smith 1841) and the Orange River mudfish Labeo capensis (Smith 1841), as recorded during both winter and summer sampling surveys, are reported here. Fish were collected using gill nets, euthanized and gills removed and examined to both quantify parasite numbers and distribution on the gills. Results obtained support the hypothesis that gill site preference is not due to active choice for a particular attachment site, but rather a result of water flow over gills during respiration in conjunction with fish behaviour and habitat use. Interaction between individual elements investigated (temperature effects, parasite population dynamics and host population dynamics) may be largely responsible for seasonal differences in infection statistics of monogenean parasites. Such interactions should be investigated in future large scale ecological studies, in combination with experimental studies, to further elucidate these effects.

  5. Use of Landsat series data to analyse the spatial and temporal variations of land degradation in a dispersive soil environment: A case of King Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Seutloali, Khoboso; Shoko, Cletah

    2017-08-01

    Land degradation as a result of inappropriate land use practices, such as overgrazing and cultivation on steep slopes, etc. is one of the major global environmental challenges. Specifically, land degradation threatens the productivity and sustainability of the natural environment, agriculture, and most importantly rural economies in most developing countries, particularly the sub-Saharan region. The main aim of this study was therefore, to assess the potential and strength of using the free or readily available Landsat series data in mapping degraded land areas at the King Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality in the Eastern Cape, South Africa (1984-2010). Data analysis was done using a robust non-parametric classification ensemble; Discriminant Analysis (DA). The results show that degraded areas vary over the years. For example, the results show that the year 1994 and 2004 incurred high degradation levels, when compared to the year 1984 and 2010. Moreover, the observed degradation significantly (α = 0.05) varies with soil type. The chromic acrisols have the highest levels of erosion (approx. 80% in 1984), when compared to humic-umbric acrisols (less than 10% for the entire period under study). It can also be observed that considerable part of degradation occurred in the northern part of the municipal district. Overall, the findings of this research underlines the importance and efficacy of multispectral Landsat series data-set in mapping and monitoring levels of land degradation in data-scarce catchments.

  6. Characterization of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures in the offshore Santa Maria Basin, south-central California: Chapter CC of Evolution of sedimentary basins/onshore oil and gas investigations - Santa Maria province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willingham, C. Richard; Rietman, Jan D.; Heck, Ronald G.; Lettis, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hosgri Fault Zone trends subparallel to the south-central California coast for 110 km from north of Point Estero to south of Purisima Point and forms the eastern margin of the present offshore Santa Maria Basin. Knowledge of the attributes of the Hosgri Fault Zone is important for petroleum development, seismic engineering, and environmental planning in the region. Because it lies offshore along its entire reach, our characterizations of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures are primarily based on the analysis of over 10,000 km of common-depth-point marine seismic reflection data collected from a 5,000-km2 area of the central and eastern parts of the offshore Santa Maria Basin. We describe and illustrate the along-strike and downdip geometry of the Hosgri Fault Zone over its entire length and provide examples of interpreted seismic reflection records and a map of the structural trends of the fault zone and adjacent structures in the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. The seismic data are integrated with offshore well and seafloor geologic data to describe the age and seismic appearance of offshore geologic units and marker horizons. We develop a basin-wide seismic velocity model for depth conversions and map three major unconformities along the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. Accompanying plates include maps that are also presented as figures in the report. Appendix A provides microfossil data from selected wells and appendix B includes uninterpreted copies of the annotated seismic record sections illustrated in the chapter. Features of the Hosgri Fault Zone documented in this investigation are suggestive of both lateral and reverse slip. Characteristics indicative of lateral slip include (1) the linear to curvilinear character of the mapped trace of the fault zone, (2) changes in structural trend along and across the fault zone that diminish in magnitude toward the ends of the fault zone, (3) localized compressional and extensional structures

  7. Cassini Observes the Active South Pole of Enceladus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porco, C. C.; Helfenstein P.; Thomas, P. C.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Wisdom, J.; West, R.; Neukum, G.; Denk, T.; Wagner, R.; Roatsch, T.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Cassini has identified a geologically active province a the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The shape of Enceladus suggests a possible intense heating epoch in the past by capture into a 1:4 secondary spin/orbit resonance.

  8. The effect of the Xpert MTB/RIF test on the time to MDR-TB treatment initiation in a rural setting: a cohort study in South Africa's Eastern Cape Province.

    PubMed

    Iruedo, Joshua; O'Mahony, Don; Mabunda, Sikhumbuzo; Wright, Graham; Cawe, Busisiwe

    2017-01-21

    There are significant delays in initiation of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR -TB) treatment. The Xpert MTB/RIF test has been shown to reduce the time to diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB predominantly in urban centres. This study describes the time to treatment of MDR-TB and the effect of Xpert MTB/RIF on time to treatment in a deprived rural area in South Africa. This was a retrospective cohort study analysing the medical records of patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in King Sabata Dalindyebo Sub-District between 2009 and 2014. Numerical data were reported using the Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon sum rank tests and categorical data compared using the two-sample test of proportions. Of the 342 patients with MDR-TB identified, 285 were eligible for analysis, of whom 145 (61.4%) were HIV positive. The median time from sputum collection to MDR-TB diagnosis was 27 days (IQR: 2-45) and differed significantly between diagnostic modalities: Xpert MTB/RIF, 1 day (IQR: 1-4; n = 114: p < 0.0001); Line Probe Assay 12 days (IQR: 8-21; n = 28; p < 0.0001); and culture/phenotypic drug sensitivity testing 45 days (IQR: 39-59; n = 143: p < 0.0001). The time from diagnosis to treatment initiation was 14 days (IQR: 8-27) and did not differ significantly between diagnostic modality. The median time from sputum collection to treatment initiation was 49 days (IQR: 20-69) but differed significantly between diagnostic modalities: Xpert MTB/RIF, 18 days (IQR: 11-27; n = 114; p < 0.0001); Line Probe Assay 29 days (IQR: 14.5-53; n = 28; p < 0.0001); and culture/phenotypic drug sensitivity, 64 days (IQR: 50-103; n = 143: P < 0.0001). Age, sex and HIV status did not influence the time intervals. Xpert MTB/RIF significantly reduced the time to MDR-TB treatment in a deprived rural setting as a result of a reduced time to diagnosis. However, the national target of five days was not achieved. Further research is needed to explore and

  9. Unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes with a focus on HIV co-infected cases: a cross-sectional retrospective record review in a high-burdened province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, M C; Kigozi, N G; Chikobvu, P; Botha, S; van Rensburg, H C J

    2017-07-10

    South Africa did not meet the MDG targets to reduce TB prevalence and mortality by 50% by 2015, and the TB cure rate remains below the WHO target of 85%. TB incidence in the country is largely fuelled by the HIV epidemic, and co-infected patients are more likely to have unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes. This paper analyses the demographic and clinical characteristics of new TB patients with unsuccessful treatment outcomes, as well as factors associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes for HIV co-infected patients. A cross-sectional retrospective record review of routinely collected data for new TB cases registered in the Free State provincial electronic TB database between 2009 and 2012. The outcome variable, unsuccessful treatment, was defined as cases ≥15 years that 'died', 'failed' or 'defaulted' as the recorded treatment outcome. The data were subjected to descriptive and logistic regression analyses. From 2009 to 2012 there were 66,940 new TB cases among persons ≥15 years (with a recorded TB treatment outcome), of these 61% were co-infected with HIV. Unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes were recorded for 24.5% of co-infected cases and 15.3% of HIV-negative cases. In 2009, co-infected cases were 2.35 times more at risk for an unsuccessful TB treatment outcome (OR: 2.35; CI: 2.06-2.69); this figure decreased to 1.8 times by 2012 (OR: 1.80; CI: 1.63-1.99). Among the co-infected cases, main risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcomes were: ≥ 65 years (AOR: 1.71; CI: 1.25-2.35); receiving treatment in healthcare facilities in District D (AOR: 1.15; CI 1.05-1.28); and taking CPT (and not ART) (AOR: 1.28; CI: 1.05-1.57). Females (AOR: 0.93; CI: 0.88-0.99) and cases with a CD4 count >350 (AOR: 0.40; CI: 0.36-0.44) were less likely to have an unsuccessful treatment outcome. The importance of TB-HIV/AIDS treatment integration is evident as co-infected patients on both ART and CPT, and those who have a higher CD4 count are less likely to have an

  10. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the Qibaoshan Cu-polymetallic deposit, northeastern Hunan Province: Implications for the metal source and metallogenic evolution of the intracontinental Qinhang Cu-polymetallic belt, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shunda; Mao, Jingwen; Zhao, Panlao; Yuan, Yabin

    2018-03-01

    The recently recognized Qinhang metallogenic belt (QHMB) is an economically important intracontinental Mesozoic porphyry-skarn Cu-polymetallic metallogenic belt in South China. However, the origin of the ore-bearing magma and the major factors controlling the different metal assemblages in the QHMB are still unclear. The Qibaoshan deposit is a large Cu-Au-Pb-Zn-Ag-Fe deposit located at the juncture between the northern and central parts of the QHMB. In this study, new zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopic data, molybdenite Re-Os ages, and whole-rock geochemical data are combined to constrain the timing of the mineralization and the origin and petrogenesis of the ore-bearing porphyry in the Qibaoshan deposit. The ages obtained from both zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os dating fall in the Late Jurassic (between 152.7 and 148.3 Ma), revealing that this deposit is significantly younger than previously estimated (227-184 Ma). The Qibaoshan ore-bearing quartz porphyry shows variable negative zircon εHf(t) values (-14.8 to -5.5), high δ18O values (8.4 to 10.8‰), and high Mg# values (69.1 to 73.0), indicating that it formed via the partial melting of ancient crust triggered by the injection of mantle-derived magma. Zircon Hf-O isotopic modeling of the mixing of two extreme endmembers indicates that the magmatic source comprised 70-80% reworked ancient crustal components and 20-30% depleted mantle components. Based on comparisons with other ore-bearing porphyries in the QHMB, a magmatic source dominated by crust-derived material and relatively low oxygen fugacities (ΔFMQ -1.8 to ΔFMQ +0.8) was responsible for the high (Pb + Zn)/Cu ratio in the Qibaoshan deposit, and the Pb, Zn and Ag were mainly derived from the reworked ancient crust. Although four analyses of inherited Neoproterozoic zircons ( 800 Ma) have variable positive εHf(t) values (0.72 to 11.21), indicating that Neoproterozoic juvenile crust was involved in the formation of the Qibaoshan ore-bearing quartz

  11. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoli, A.; Callegaro, S.; Davies, J.; Chiaradia, M.; Reisberg, L. C.; Merle, R.; Jourdan, F.; Bertrand, H.; Youbi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Basaltic lava flows, dykes, sills, and layered intrusion of the CAMP (Central Atlantic magmatic province) crop out in Europe, Africa, North and South America over > 10 million square km, making this one of Earth's largest igneous provinces. CAMP is characterized by 100-400 m thick preserved lava piles and by huge shallow intrusions (e.g., > 1.5 million cubic km sills). Magmatism occurred mainly between 201.6 and 201.1 Ma (according to U-Pb and Ar/Ar ages) during the end-Triassic extinction event and a few Ma before break-up of Pangea. Pulsed emplacement seems consistent with high-precision geochronology, but needs further confirmation. All over the province, basalts with quite similar composition reflect a common mantle source. These basalts have low Ti contents (TiO2 ca. 1.0-1.3 wt.%), moderately enriched Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions close to the EM-II mantle end-member, and 187Os/188Os close to 0.130. We attribute these characteristics to a dominant shallow asthenospheric mantle source that was enriched by subduction-related components. Assimilation of crustal rocks generally played a minor role and rarely exceed 5-10%. Instead, assimilation of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) was instead recognized in the high-Ti basalts (TiO2> 2.0 wt.%) that were emplaced in a restricted area around the Man and Amazonian cratons (Sierra Leone, Liberia, Brazil, Guyana). The SCLM-like signature of these basalts suggests assimilation of metasomatically enriched parts of the SCLM. Also early basalts emplaced north of the West African craton (Morocco, Mali) are contaminated by enriched SCLM components even if to a lesser degree, while later basalts from the same African regions have low 187Os/188Os (ca. 0.120) and probably tapped a more depleted cratonic SCLM. Calculated mantle potential temperatures are low (ca. 1450 °C) and geochemical data do not support a significant contribution from mantle-plume material. The only available He isotopic data are just slightly

  12. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Gautier, D.L.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Pittman, J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal program. Geologically, the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular-shaped cratonic block bounded by the northeast-southwest trending Ural Mountains and the northwest-southeast trending Timan Ridge. The northern boundary is shared with the South Barents Sea Province (fig.1). The Timan-Pechora Basin Province has a long history of oil and gas exploration and production. The first field was discovered in 1930 and, after 75 years of exploration, more than 230 fields have been discovered and more than 5,400 wells have been drilled. This has resulted in the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  13. Policy Appropriation in Teacher Retention and Attrition: The Case of North-West Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diko, Nolutho N.; Letseka, Moeketsi

    2009-01-01

    We report on the 2008 study by the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) on teacher retention and attrition in South African public schools, with a focus on North-West Province. Data from the study show that some teachers prefer to leave the teaching profession for promotion posts in non-teaching areas within the education sector, while others…

  14. Tourism, Transnationality and Ethnolinguistic Vitality: The Welsh in the Chubut Province, Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to develop the concept of ethnolinguistic vitality by adopting a qualitative approach to vitality rather than the statistical approach traditionally used. Ten small-size focus group style interviews were held with members of the Welsh-Argentinean community in the Chubut Province in the south of Argentina in order to explore…

  15. South African Learners' Conceptual Understanding about Image Formation by Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Merlin; Molepo, Jacob Maisha; Chirwa, Max

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore South African Grade 11 learners' conceptual understanding of "image formation by lenses". The participants for this study were 70 Grade 11 learners from a selected senior secondary school in Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The qualitative approach employed in the study made use of…

  16. New oil and gas province of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gramberg, I.S.; Shcola, A.I.

    1994-12-31

    Geological and geophysical researches and exploration works conducted in the Russian Arctic offshore during the last two decades indicate the presence of extensive sedimentary basins. The data coverage in this vast continental margin is uneven, and the reliability of hydrocarbon prediction varies significantly from one basin to the next. Nevertheless, the existence of a major frontier Barents-Northern Kara Oil and Gas Province (BNKP) is quite evident. The BNKP encompasses the Barents Sea and the Northern Kara Sea subbottom, the islands along the shelf edge, the Kola Peninsula shelf, the Arkhangelsk coastal territory, and a large part of the northernmost Komimore » Republic. The total area of BNKP is close to 1,500,000 sq. km, and the sediments in the deepest depocenter (South Barents Basin) reach 16--18 km. Vast areal extent, great thickness of sedimentary cover, favorable conditions for oil and gas generation and accumulation, presence of oil and gas fields in all major sequences suggest a very high hydrocarbon potential for the BNKP.« less

  17. Seismicity in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    The largest historical earthquake in South Carolina, and in the southeastern US, occurred in the Coastal Plain province, probably northwest of Charleston, in 1886. Locations for aftershocks associated with this earthquake, estimated using intensities based on newspaper accounts, defined a northwest trending zone about 250 km long that was at least 100 km wide in the Coastal Plain but widened to a northeast trending zone in the Piedmont. The subsequent historical and instrumentally recorded seismicity in South Carolina images the 1886 aftershock zone. Instrumentally recorded seismicity in the Coastal Plain province occurs in 3 seismic zones or clusters: Middleton Place-Summervile (MPSSZ), Adams Run (ARC), and Bowman (BSZ). Approximately 68% of the Coastal Plain earthquakes occur in the MPSSZ, a north trending zone about 22 km long and 12 km wide, lying about 20 km northwest of Charleston. The hypocenters of MPSSZ earthquakes range in depth from near the surface to almost 12 km. Thrust, strike-slip, and some normal faulting are indicated by the fault plane solutions for Coastal Plain earthquakes. The maximum horizontal compressive stress, inferred from the P-axes of the fault plane solutions, is oriented NE-SW in the shallow crust (<9 km deep) but appears to be diffusely E-W between 9 to 12 km deep. -from Author

  18. Telemedicine in South Africa: success or failure?

    PubMed

    Gulube, S M; Wynchank, S

    2001-01-01

    A national telemedicine system for South Africa was planned in 1998. In the first phase, starting in 1999, 28 pilot sites were established in six provinces. The initial applications were teleradiology, tele-ultrasound for antenatal services, telepathology and tele-ophthalmology. Telemedicine equipment was connected by ISDN at 256 kbit/s. From January to September 2000, 2663 radiographic studies were performed at the three Northwest Province teleradiology transmission sites, of which 264 studies (10%) were selected for specialist radiologist reporting by teleradiology. From June to August 2000, nine antenatal care tele-ultrasound consultations were performed in the Northern Cape Province and four transfers were avoided through the use of telemedicine. One area of concern is the relatively low usage of the telemedicine system, which raises questions about its cost-effectiveness. The experience of telemedicine in South Africa confirmed, as others have found, that common problems relate to the technical and organizational challenges of introducing telemedicine.

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-30

    of Agriculture, "Report by Presiden- tial Mission to Study Agricultural Development in Egypt," (Cairo: Cabinet, 1982). 34. Fahmi Bishay, "Toward...held for the coordination meetings in the provinces and then Mr Musa al- Reza , deputy for the JPRS-NEA-89-007 30 January 1989 66 SOUTH ASIA planning

  20. Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2002-01-01

    The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

  1. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  2. Analysis on the Change of Vegetation Coverage in Qinghai Province from 2000 TO 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Yan, Q.; Liu, Z.; Luo, C.

    2013-07-01

    Qinghai Province is one of the important provinces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Its unique alpine meadow ecosystem makes it become the most concentrated areas of biodiversity in high altitudes in the world. Researching the vegetation coverage and changes of Qinghai province can reflect effectively and timely processing of changes and problems of ecological quality in the region. This research will give a long time series monitoring of the vegetation coverage of Qinghai province based on maximum value composite (MVC) and S-G filtering algorithm using MODIS data of the year of 2000-2012, then analyze the change using coefficient of variability(CV) and trend line analysis. According to research, during the past 13 years, more than half of Qinghai Province's vegetation coverage is well, both the east and south have a high coverage, while the northwest is lower. The changing of vegetation coverage also has showed a steady and improving trend in 13 years. The largest area is slight improved area is about 29.08% of the total area, and the second largest area is significant improved area is about 21.09% of the total area. In this research can learn directly the vegetation coverage and changes of Qinghai province and provide reference and scientific basis for the protection and governance of ecological environment.

  3. Geology and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered petroleum resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province as part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. These two provinces are situated northeast of Scandinavia and the northwestern Russian Federation, on the Barents Sea Shelf between Novaya Zemlya to the east and the Barents Platform to the west. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined in the East Barents Basins Province for this study: the Kolguyev Terrace AU, the South Barents and Ludlov Saddle AU, and the North Barents Basin AU. A fourth AU, defined as the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch AU, coincides with the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province. These four AUs, all lying north of the Arctic Circle, were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources, resulting in total estimated mean volumes of ~7.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 318 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  4. When South meets South.

    PubMed

    Wulf, D

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the establishment of a new organization, Partners in Population and Development, which promotes collaboration between developing countries. The organization was an outcome of the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development. The basic aim is to share technical knowledge and experience between developing countries. In rural Ha Tay province in northern Vietnam, for example, a community mapping technique for tracking contraceptive use was implemented. The mapping technique was first developed in Indonesia and transferred to Vietnam via the Indonesian national family planning coordinating board. A Bangkok-based nongovernmental group was working in Ninh Binh province with income generation among rice workers as part of a reproductive health program. Partners in Population and Development includes high ranking government officials responsible for national family planning programs from Colombia, Egypt, Kenya, Indonesia, Mexico, Morocco, Thailand, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. In 1996, a permanent secretariat was established in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The secretariat includes a small staff consisting of an executive director and three deputies from developing countries. The secretariat will act as a clearinghouse and coordinating unit between countries and projects. The office will answer field requests for assistance and help identify potential sources of donor support. The office will operate on funding from the UN Population Fund, the World Bank, and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Partnership will diffuse the appearance that developed countries are "demographic imperialists" and offer sound financial political advice. Projects will emphasize appropriateness and sustainability. The aim is to build bridges between countries where there are barriers and to extend services beyond regional borders.

  5. South China Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  6. Echinococcus felidis in hippopotamus, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Roux, Francois; Nakao, Minoru; Sasaki, Mizuki; Lavikainen, Antti

    2017-08-30

    Hydatid cysts of Echinococcus felidis are described from the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) from Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Among six hippopotami investigated, hepatic hydatids were found in three. The identification was based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. In addition, the rostellar hook morphology was analysed. This is the first morphological description of the metacestode of E. felidis, and the first molecularly confirmed report of the intermediate host of E. felidis in South Africa. The definitive host of E. felidis in South Africa is the lion (Panthera leo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Factor affecting the whole beef prices in eight provinces in Sumatera, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, D.; Harahap, A. A.; Syaputra, M. A.; Mulianda, R.; Adha, T. J.; Harahap, A. S.; Rusdhi, A.; Ibarahim, M. S.; Siregar, A. R.; Purwadi, B.; Ginting, S. P.; Hasnudi; Henuk, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    A survey has been conducted to study the fluctuation of whole beef prices in eight provinces in Sumatera, namely Lampung. South Sumatera. Jambi. Bengkulu. West Sumatera. Riau. North Sumatera. and NAD with the average cattle weight were 486kg. 492kg. 448kg. 464kg. 500kg. 480kg. 500kg. and 480kg. respectively. Their average prices and total price in these cities were IDR4.1000 & IDR19.926.000; IDR41.500 & IDR20.418.000; IDR43.000 & 19.264.000; IDR42.500 & IDR19.720.000; IDR43.000 & IDR21.500.000; IDR43.000 & IDR20.640.000; IDR42.500 & IDR21.250.000; IDR44.000 & IDR21.120.000.respectively. People West Sumatera, Riau and North Sumatra provinces prefer the final results of processed by products of beef which caused the high price of processed by products from cattle. Whereas, in NAD province. the meat selling price is very high compared to other provinces, while the selling price of processed beef by-products is much cheaper than the people outside NAD province. The selling price of processed beef by-product can not help to reduce the selling price of meat. Average carcass in Sumatera ranged from 49.00% (North Sumatera) - 51.00% (Jambi). Among the eigth provinces, the price of beef in Aceh is more expensive than other provinces not only in Sumatera. but also other provinces in Indonesia.

  8. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of South America and the Caribbean, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 126 billion barrels of oil and 679 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in 31 geologic provinces of South America and the Caribbean.

  10. South Pole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-02

    As spring progresses at the south pole, the surface reacts to the change of season. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a region of the south pole that is monitored throughout spring, summer, and fall at the south pole.

  11. Ground-water provinces of southern Rhodesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennis, Philip Eldon; Hindson, L.L.

    1964-01-01

    Ground-water development, utilization, and occurrence in nine ground-water provinces of Southern Rhodesia are summarized in this report. Water obtained from drilled wells for domestic and stock use has played an important part in the social and economic development of Southern Rhodesia from the beginnings of European settlement to the present. Most of the wells obtain water from fractures and weathered zones in crystalline rocks, before recently, there has been an interest in the possibility of obtaining water for irrigation from wells. Studies of the authors indicate that quantities of water sufficient for irrigation can be obtained from alluvial sediments in the S'abi Valley, from Kalahari sands in the western part of the country, are perhaps from aquifers in other areas. The ground-water provinces fall into two groups--those in the crystalline rocks and those in the noncrystalline rocks. Historically, the wells in crystalline rocks, especially the Gold belts province and the Intrusive granites province, have played a major role in supplying water for the needs of man. These provinces, together with two other less important crystalline rock provinces, form the broad arch which constitutes the central core of the country. The noncrystalline rocks overlie and flank the crystalline rocks to the southeast, northwest, and north. The noncrystalline rock provinces, especially the Alluvium-Kalahari province, contain the most productive or potentially productive ground-water reservoirs in Southern Rhodesia and offer promise of supplying water for irrigation and for other purposes.

  12. The ;Sardinian cold-water coral province; in the context of the Mediterranean coral ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Canese, S.; Cannas, R.; Cardone, F.; Cau, A.; Cau, A. B.; Follesa, M. C.; Marchese, F.; Montagna, P.; Tessarolo, C.

    2017-11-01

    A new cold-water coral (CWC) province has been identified in the Mediterranean Sea in the Capo Spartivento canyon system offshore the southern coast of Sardinia. The 'Sardinia cold-water coral province' is characterized in the Nora canyon by a spectacular coral growth dominated by the branching scleractinian Madrepora oculata at a depth of 380-460 m. The general biohermal frame is strengthened by the common occurrence of the solitary scleractinian Desmophyllum dianthus and the occasional presence of Lophelia pertusa. As documented by Remotely Operated Vehicle survey, this area is a hotspot of megafaunal diversity hosting among other also live specimens of the deep oyster Neopycnodonte zibrowii. The new coral province is located between the central Mediterranean CWC provinces (Bari Canyon, Santa Maria di Leuca, South Malta) and the western and northern ones (Melilla, Catalan-Provençal-Ligurian canyons). As for all the best developed CWC situations in the present Mediterranean Sea, the new Sardinian province is clearly influenced by Levantine Intermediate Water which appears to be a main driver for CWC distribution and viability in this basin.

  13. Construction and Analysis of Long-Term Surface Temperature Dataset in Fujian Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. E.; Wang, X. Q.; Su, H.

    2017-09-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter of land surface physical processes on global and regional scales, linking the heat fluxes and interactions between the ground and atmosphere. Based on MODIS 8-day LST products (MOD11A2) from the split-window algorithms, we constructed and obtained the monthly and annual LST dataset of Fujian Province from 2000 to 2015. Then, we analyzed the monthly and yearly time series LST data and further investigated the LST distribution and its evolution features. The average LST of Fujian Province reached the highest in July, while the lowest in January. The monthly and annual LST time series present a significantly periodic features (annual and interannual) from 2000 to 2015. The spatial distribution showed that the LST in North and West was lower than South and East in Fujian Province. With the rapid development and urbanization of the coastal area in Fujian Province, the LST in coastal urban region was significantly higher than that in mountainous rural region. The LST distributions might affected by the climate, topography and land cover types. The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of LST could provide good references for the agricultural layout and environment monitoring in Fujian Province.

  14. Hair arsenic levels and prevalence of arsenicosis in three Cambodian provinces.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Radzi, Rozhan Syariff Mohamed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Nur, Amrizal Muhammad; Ismail, Aniza; Baguma, David; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Phan, Kongkea; Wong, Ming Hung; Sao, Vibol; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    Natural, inorganic arsenic contamination of groundwater threatens the health of more than 100 million people worldwide, including residents of the densely populated river deltas of South and Southeast Asia. Contaminated groundwater from tube wells in Cambodia was discovered in 2001 leading to the detection of the first cases of arsenicosis in 2006. The most affected area was the Kandal Province. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of arsenicosis in Cambodia based on acceptable criteria, and to investigate the use of hair arsenic as a biomarker not only for arsenicosis-related signs but also for associated symptoms. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of 616 respondents from 3 purposely selected provinces within the Mekong River basin of Cambodia was conducted. The Kandal Province was chosen as a high arsenic-contaminated area, while the Kratie Province and Kampong Cham Province were chosen as moderate and low arsenic-contaminated areas, respectively. The most prevalent sign of arsenicosis was hypomelanosis with a prevalence of 14.5% among all respondents and 32.4% among respondents with a hair arsenic level of ≥1 μg/g. This was followed by hyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation and mee's lines. Results also suggest a 1.0 μg/g hair arsenic level to be a practical cut off point for an indication of an arsenic contaminated individual. This hair arsenic level, together with the presence of one or more of the classical signs of arsenicosis, seems to be a practical criteria for a confirmed diagnosis. Based on these criteria, the overall prevalence of arsenicosis for all provinces was found to be 16.1%, with Kandal Province recording the highest prevalence of 35.5%. This prevalence is comparatively high when compared to that of other affected countries. The association between arsenicosis and the use of Chinese traditional medicine also needs further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lyssavirus surveillance in bats of southern China's Guangxi Province.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhuan-Ling; Wang, Wen; Yin, Wei-Li; Tang, Hai-Bo; Pan, Yan; Liang, Xiang; Liu, Qi; Xiong, Yi; Minamoto, Nobuyuki; Luo, Ting Rong

    2013-04-01

    Although rabies virus is widely distributed in the world, and has been the subject of extensive investigations with the objective of its ultimate prevention, control, and management, there is much less knowledge of the characteristics, distribution, and infectivity of other lyssaviruses. Since bats are known animal vectors for all but one of the known lyssavirus genotypes, we have performed an extensive survey of bats in the Guangxi Province to provide information on lyssavirus distribution in southern China. The lyssavirus nucleoprotein gene was detected in brains of 2.86 % of 2,969 bats. Nucleotide sequence homologies among isolates were 86.9-99.6 %, but only 70.0-85.0 % for lyssaviruses in GenBank. These infected bats were detected from a wide area, essentially forming a band running from the south-west to the north-east of Guangxi, and it appears that infection by new lyssaviruses is widespread in this region.

  16. Wind speed and power characteristics of Kalasin province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polnumtiang, Supachai; Tangchaichit, Kiatfa

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a wind energy assessment of Kalasin province in the Upper North-Eastern region of Thailand. Four year wind data were recorded continuously from January 2012 to December 2015 at different heights of 60, 90 and 120 m above ground level (AGL). The mean wind speeds were found to be 3.14, 3.63 and 3.94 m/s at 60, 90 and 120 m AGL, respectively. The majority of wind directions for this region are distributed from the East to South directions. The highest wind power density was observed in the summer season, followed by winter and rainy seasons, in order. Four commercial wind turbines were selected to estimate energy yield output using the WAsP 10.0 software application; the results show that VESTAS with rated power of 2.0 MW was estimated to give 2,747 MWh/year with the highest capacity factor of 15.68%.

  17. Geology and tectonics of the Archean Superior Province, Canadian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Superior Province consists mainly of Late Archean rocks with Middle Archean gneisses in the south, and possibly in the north. The Late Archean supracrustal sequences are of island arc and interarc affinity and are cut by abundant plutonic rocks, including early arc-related intrusions, late synorogenic intrusions, and post-orogenic plutons that are possibly the product of crustal melting caused by thermal blanketing of newly-thickened continental crust combined with high mantle heat flux. The contemporaneity of magmatic and deformational events along the lengths of the belts is consistent with a subduction-dominated tectonic regime for assembly of the Kenoran Orogen. Successive addition of volcanic arcs accompanied and followed by voluminous plutonism resulted in crustal thickening and stabilization of the Superior craton prior to uplift of Kapuskasing granulites, emplacement of the Matachewan diabase dykes, and Early Proterozoic marginal rifting.

  18. Consanguineous marriages in the province of Antalya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alper, O M; Erengin, H; Manguoğlu, A E; Bilgen, T; Cetin, Z; Dedeoğlu, N; Lüleci, G

    2004-01-01

    To assess the trends in the frequency and the medical effects of consanguinity in the south coast of Turkish population using local and national data in the last 11 years. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Manavgat province, which is a major tourism center on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The authors studied consanguineous marriages in rural and urban population in the Mediterranean coast, Manavgat province, Turkey, via a 1500 random survey sample of married couples. There has been a significant increase in the incidence of consanguineous marriages in rural areas (40.7%) since 1989 in the southern population of Turkey. The results showed that the most frequent type of marriage was between the first cousins. It is found that there is no statistically significant difference between the consanguineous and non-consanguineous marriages in the different age groups. The results were discussed on the basis of educational status, reasons for having consanguineous marriages and the general medical effects as well as with the relation of congenital malformations. The custom of consanguineous unions in the Mediterranean population of Turkey is still extremely high, and preventive measures should be done to decrease its frequency and associated complications.

  19. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (p<0.001). Multilevel educational activities targeting a transformation of the perception of women by society, replacement of patriarchal models with more modern attitudes, and encouragement of individuality may represent effective strategies that may help reduce the number of customary homicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Women's rising status. Shandong province.

    PubMed

    Wang, X

    1994-03-01

    Improvements in the status of women are credited with the recent success of family planning promotion efforts in China's Xiji Village (Shanting District, Shandong Province). This small mountain village had a per capita annual income (US$27) below the national average ad a birth rate of 33/1000 population in 1984. When the District Family Planning Association targeted the village for programmatic intervention in 188, there was strong resistance to family planning. On the assumption that villagers would not accept family planning until they were convinced of its economic advantages, the Association combined poverty alleviation activities with contraceptives promotion. Small enterprises and workshops were set up, including processing mills to make noodles from beans and potato starch, and two-thirds of the village's unemployed women got jobs that paid an average of US$26/month at these mills. Income generating activities such as raising poultry or growing produce in backyard gardens were designed for women with too many children to work outside the home. In addition, the Women's Association at Feicheng City has selected more than 3500 economically active, family planning acceptors who serve as models to 15-16 women of childbearing age. As women experience the social, economic, and psychological advantages of income generation, they tend to voluntarily adopt family planning and to abandon their previous preference for sons.

  1. Hierarchical, quantitative biogeographic provinces for all North American turtles and their contribution to the biogeography of turtles and the continent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Sweat, Sarah C.; Hoagstrom, Christopher W.

    2017-01-01

    Our study represents the first attempt to describe biogeographic provinces for North American (México, United States, and Canada) turtles. We analyzed three nested data sets separately: (1) all turtles, (2) freshwater turtles, and (3) aquatic turtles. We georeferenced North American turtle distributions, then we created presence–absence matrices for each of the three data sets. We used watershed unit as biogeographic units. We conducted an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean clustering analysis on each Jaccard index distance matrix from our watershed species matrices to delineate biogeographic provinces. Provinces were then tested for significant differences in species compositions in a global model with the use of a one-way analysis of similarity. We conducted a best subset of environmental variables with maximum (rank) correlation with community dissimilarities that determined the best model of abiotic variables explaining province delineation (i.e., climate, topography, and stream channel). To identify which species contributed the most to province delineations, we conducted an indicator species analysis and a similarity-percentage analysis. There were 16 all-turtle provinces, 15 freshwater provinces, and 13 aquatic provinces. Species compositions delineating the provinces were explained by abiotic variables, including mean annual precipitation, mean precipitation seasonality, and diversity of streams. Province delineations correspond closely with geographical boundaries, many of which have Pleistocene origins. For example, rivers with a history of carrying glacial runoff (e.g., Arkansas, Mississippi) sometimes dissect upland provinces, especially for aquatic and semiaquatic turtles. Compared with freshwater fishes, turtles show greater sensitivity to decreased temperature with restriction of most taxa south of the last permafrost maximum. Turtles also exhibit higher sensitivity to climatic, geomorphic, and tectonic instability, with richness

  2. [Quality control assessments of feces examination for schistosomiasis in province-level laboratories of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Zhu, Ming-Dong; Yan, Xiao-Lan; Lin, Li-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Feng; Li, Li; Wen, Li-Yong

    2011-06-01

    To understand and evaluate the quality of feces examination for schistosomiasis in province-level laboratories of Zhejiang Province. With the single-blind method, the stool samples were detected by the stool hatching method and sediment detection method. In the 3 quality control assessments in 2006, 2008 and 2009, most laboratories finished the examinations on time. The accordance rates of detections were 88.9%, 100% and 93.9%, respectively. The province-level laboratories for schistosomiasis feces examination of Zhejiang Province is coming into standardization, and the techniques of schistosomiasis feces examination are optimized gradually.

  3. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-06

    TIMES OF OMAN 2 Mar] 26 QATAR Rise in Shipping Movements Recorded [GULF TIMES 24 Jan] 26 North Field Gas Project Progress Cited [GULF TIMES 23...the eastern province of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Qatar . Stage two will link areas in the South Gulf, Oman and the UAE [United Arab Emirates]. In...current to high-frequency and vice versa. While Bahrain, Qatar , Oman and Kuwait use the first system, Saudi Arabia uses the second. The main

  4. Evaluation of ecosystem service based on scenario simulation of land use in Yunnan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Liao, Xiaoli; Zhai, Tianlin

    2018-04-01

    differences. Under the BAU scenario, the construction land is mainly in the south of Lijiang City and the northeastern part of Kunming. Under the FP scenario, the new construction land is concentrated near the Lashi dam in northern Yunnan Province, and the high-quality arable land in the valley will be better protected. The research results can provide reference for the optimization of land use pattern in Yunnan Province, and provide scientific basis for land use management and planning. Based on the value of ecosystem services, we should implement the policy of strict protection of arable land, both to ensure food supply and promote the healthy development of ecological environment.

  5. Dual Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco among South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantao, Masego; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors associated with dual use of tobacco products in a population of black South African adolescents. Methods: Data were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed by a representative sample of grade 8 students from 21 randomly selected secondary state schools in the Limpopo Province, South Africa (n =…

  6. Causes of Financial Mismanagement in South African Public Schools: The Views of Role Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangongo, Paul; Mohlakwana, Mokgadi; Beckman, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the underlying causes of financial mismanagement in public schools and focuses on the perceptions of various role players in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The various Departments of Basic Education in South Africa allocate funds to schools each year, and expect school principals and school governing bodies to manage…

  7. Decentralisation and the Construction of Inclusion Education Policy in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Yusuf; Soudien, Crain

    2005-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the ways in which the policy of education decentralisation in post-apartheid South Africa results in both forms of inclusion and new forms of exclusion. Drawing on a two-year research project carried out in three provinces in South Africa, it shows how in the governance of schools, new forms of exclusion are being…

  8. An update on the status and management of the Sirex woodwasp in South Africa

    Treesearch

    Brett P. Hurley; Bernard Slippers; Michael J. Wingfield

    2011-01-01

    The woodwasp Sirex noctilio was first detected in South Africa in 1994. By 2009, it had spread to most of the pine-growing provinces in the country, and it continues to move northwards to the remaining pine areas and toward Zimbabwe. In the summer rainfall area of South Africa, S. noctilio has caused serious losses.

  9. Promoting the Implementation of Inclusive Education in Primary Schools in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Petra; Oswald, Marietjie; Forlin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The British "Index for Inclusion" was selected to be used in three primary schools in the Western Cape Province in South Africa in order to develop a South African model to assist in the development of inclusive schools. The "Index for Inclusion" process entails progression through a series of five developmental phases and this…

  10. Lessons Learnt from Teachers' Perspectives on Mobile Learning in South Africa with Cultural and Linguistic Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantjies, Mmaki; Joy, Mike

    2016-01-01

    South Africa's classrooms are characterised by a wide variety of cultural and linguistic differences, providing teachers with educational challenges, particularly in mathematics and science subjects. In response, various mobile learning systems have been developed and piloted in the North West and Gauteng Provinces of South Africa. A framework has…

  11. Status of insecticide resistance in high-risk malaria provinces in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Buhler, Cyril; Pignatelli, Patricia; Ranson, Hilary; Nahzat, Sami Mohammad; Naseem, Mohammad; Sabawoon, Muhammad Farooq; Siddiqi, Abdul Majeed; Vink, Martijn

    2016-02-18

    Insecticide resistance seriously threatens the efficacy of vector control interventions in malaria endemic countries. In Afghanistan, the status of insecticide resistance is largely unknown while distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets has intensified in recent years. The main objective of this study was thus to measure the level of resistance to four classes of insecticides in provinces with medium to high risk of malaria transmission. Adult female mosquitoes were reared from larvae successively collected in the provinces of Nangarhar, Kunar, Badakhshan, Ghazni and Laghman from August to October 2014. WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were performed with DDT (4 %), malathion (5 %), bendiocarb (0.1 %), permethrin (0.75 %) and deltamethrin (0.05 %). In addition, the presence of kdr mutations was investigated in deltamethrin resistant and susceptible Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes collected in the eastern provinces of Nangarhar and Kunar. Analyses of mortality rates revealed emerging resistance against all four classes of insecticides in the provinces located east and south of the Hindu Kush mountain range. Resistance is observed in both An. stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies, the two dominant malaria vectors in these provinces. Anopheles superpictus in the northern province of Badakhshan shows a different pattern of susceptibility with suspected resistance observed only for deltamethrin and bendiocarb. Genotype analysis of knock down resistance (kdr) mutations at the voltage-gated channel gene from An. stephensi mosquitoes shows the presence of the known resistant alleles L1014S and L1014F. However, a significant fraction of deltamethrin-resistant mosquitoes were homozygous for the 1014L wild type allele indicating that other mechanisms must be considered to account for the observed pyrethroid resistance. This study confirms the importance of monitoring insecticide resistance for the development of an integrated vector management in Afghanistan. The

  12. Composite Sunrise Butte pluton: Insights into Jurassic–Cretaceous collisional tectonics and magmatism in the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Schwartz, J.J.; Žák, Jiří; Verner, Krystof; Barnes, Calvin G.; Walton, Clay; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wright, James E.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    The composite Sunrise Butte pluton, in the central part of the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon, preserves a record of subduction-related magmatism, arc-arc collision, crustal thickening, and deep-crustal anatexis. The earliest phase of the pluton (Desolation Creek unit) was generated in a subduction zone environment, as the oceanic lithosphere between the Wallowa and Olds Ferry island arcs was consumed. Zircons from this unit yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 160.2 ± 2.1 Ma. A magmatic lull ensued during arc-arc collision, after which partial melting at the base of the thickened Wallowa arc crust produced siliceous magma that was emplaced into metasedimentary rocks and serpentinite of the overthrust forearc complex. This magma crystallized to form the bulk of the Sunrise Butte composite pluton (the Sunrise Butte unit; 145.8 ± 2.2 Ma). The heat necessary for crustal anatexis was supplied by coeval mantle-derived magma (the Onion Gulch unit; 147.9 ± 1.8 Ma).The lull in magmatic activity between 160 and 148 Ma encompasses the timing of arc-arc collision (159–154 Ma), and it is similar to those lulls observed in adjacent areas of the Blue Mountains Province related to the same shortening event. Previous researchers have proposed a tectonic link between the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath Mountains and northern Sierra Nevada Provinces farther to the south; however, timing of Late Jurassic deformation in the Blue Mountains Province predates the timing of the so-called Nevadan orogeny in the Klamath Mountains. In both the Blue Mountains Province and Klamath Mountains, the onset of deep-crustal partial melting initiated at ca. 148 Ma, suggesting a possible geodynamic link. One possibility is that the Late Jurassic shortening event recorded in the Blue Mountains Province may be a northerly extension of the Nevadan orogeny. Differences in the timing of these events in the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath–Sierra Nevada Provinces suggest that

  13. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  14. Application of MAGSAT to lithospheric modeling in South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, G. R.; Lidiak, E. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Progress continues on all aspects of the project. The prime emphasis is on the Rayleigh wave study and determination of both group and phase velocity dispersion is almost complete. Existing data sets were prepared for inversion. A paper on the relation of MAGSAT anomalies to the main tectonic provinces of South America was delivered at the annual meeting of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  15. Women Principals in South Africa: Gender, Mothering and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on qualitative data from a mixed-method study that analysed women's access to the principal role and their leadership experiences. The paper draws on a subset of interviews with 54 female head teachers in the Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa. Since a mothering style of leadership was self-reported by over half of…

  16. Assessment of rural ecosystem health and type classification in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingran; Huang, Jiu; Dong, Jihong

    2018-02-15

    Quantitative analysis of rural ecosystem health (REH) is required to comprehend the spatial differentiation of rural landscape and promote rural sustainable development under the pressure of urbanization and industrialization, especially those with dramatic changes in rural ecology of China and other developing countries. In this study, taking Jiangsu province as the case study, appropriate indicators were selected in the perspective of compound ecosystem and the rural ecosystem health index (REHI) was developed including four rural ecological subsystems of resource, environmental, social and economic. The comprehensive indicator assessment models and geographic information system (GIS) spatial methods were used to analyze the REH status and spatial differentiation of 57 counties in Jiangsu province. The REH scores of 57 rural counties were in a higher range of 0.686-0.882 and fluctuating increased from north to south, indicating that the rural ecosystem in Jiangsu province was at a relatively healthy level and counties in southern Jiangsu were healthier than those in central and northern regions. The spatial concentration of REH in Jiangsu was poor and the spatial distribution of four subsystems health levels were significantly different by spatial Gini coefficient analysis. The REH of 57 counties in Jiangsu province were classified into 13 types according to the identification of the health levels and quantity of four subsystems. Moreover, we analyzed the influencing factors of each type and proposed paths to promote the development and management of rural ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Geology and mineralization of the Wyoming Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausel, W.D.; Edwards, B.R.; Graff, P.J.; ,

    1991-01-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton which underlies portions of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, and much of Wyoming. The cratonic block consists of Archean age granite-gneiss with interspersed greenstone belts and related supracrustal terranes exposed in the cores of several Laramide uplifts. Resources found in the Province and in the adjacent accreted Proterozoic terrane include banded iron formation, Au, Pt, Pd, W, Sn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, and diamonds. The Province shows many similarities to the mineral-rich cratons of the Canadian shield, the Rhodesian and Transvaal cratons of southern Africa, and the Pilbara and Yilgarn blocks of Western Australia, where much of the world's precious and strategic metal and gemstone resources are located.

  18. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Claudine

    2015-01-01

    Background With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014) in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority and extends beyond the

  19. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile ( Pohlia longicollis (Hedw.) Lindb. and Rigodium toxarion var. robustum (Broth.) Zomlefer). Twelve species extend their known distribution ranges to the north, whereas 49 extend them to the south.

  20. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile (Pohlia longicollis (Hedw.) Lindb. and Rigodium toxarion var. robustum (Broth.) Zomlefer). Twelve species extend their known distribution ranges to the north, whereas 49 extend them to the south. PMID:27698577

  1. [Spatio-temporal characteristics of agricultural drought in Shaanxi Province, China based on integrated disaster risk index].

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Wang, Quan Jiu; Wu, Di; Zhou, Bei Bei

    2016-10-01

    With the change of climate, agricultural drought has directly threatened the food security. Based on the natural disaster risk theory, we analyzed the spatial and temporal characteristics of agricultural drought in Shanxi Province from 2009 to 2013. Four risk factors (hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and drought resistance ability) were selected with the consideration of influence factors of drought disasters. Subsequently, the index weight was determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the aggregative indicator of natural disaster risk was established. The results showed that during the study period, the agricultural drought risk slightly declined in the northern Shaanxi, but increased sharply in the southern Shaanxi, especially in Shangluo City. While for the central part of Shaanxi Province, it maintained good stability, which was the highest in Xianyang City and the lowest in Xi'an City. Generally, the agricultural drought risk in Shaanxi Province gradually increased from south to north.

  2. 13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  3. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Hope Basin Province, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-04

    The Hope Basin, an independent petroleum province that lies mostly offshore in the southern Chukchi Sea north of the Chukotka and Seward Peninsulas and south of Wrangel Island, the Herald Arch, and the Lisburne Peninsula, is the largest in a series of postorogenic (successor) basins in the East Siberian-Chukchi Sea region and the only one with exploratory-well control and extensive seismic coverage.In spite of the seismic coverage and well data, the petroleum potential of the Hope Basin Province is poorly known. The adequacy of hydrocarbon charge, in combination with uncertainties in source-rock potential and maturation, was the greatest risk in this assessment. A single assessment unit was defined and assessed, resulting in mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources that include ~3 million barrels of oil and 650 billion cubic feet of nonassociated gas.

  4. Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosa-Kazemi, SH; Vatandoost, H; Nikookar, H; Fathian, M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs. Methods: Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected by dipping technique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, February, and March 2007. Results: The collected species included: Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province), Culex arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caballus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata. Conclusion: Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most useful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention. PMID:22808369

  5. Culicinae (Diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes in chabahar county, sistan and baluchistan province, southeastern iran.

    PubMed

    Moosa-Kazemi, Sh; Vatandoost, H; Nikookar, H; Fathian, M

    2009-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs. THREE GENERA AND ELEVEN SPECIES OF THE SUBFAMILY CULICINAE (DIPTERA: Culicidae) were collected by dipping technique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, February, and March 2007. THE COLLECTED SPECIES INCLUDED: Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province), Culex arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caballus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata. Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most useful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention.

  6. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission.

  7. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

  8. Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

  9. Geographical Distribution Patterns of Iodine in Drinking-Water and Its Associations with Geological Factors in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran’s I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p < 0.001). Two clusters for high iodine in drinking-water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. PMID:24852390

  10. The legacy of war: an epidemiological study of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Tran Kim; Le, Viet; Husum, Hans

    2012-07-01

    The study examines the epidemiology of cluster weapon and land mine accidents in Quang Tri Province since the end of the Vietnam War. The province is located just south of the demarcation line and was the province most affected during the war. In 2009, a cross sectional household study was conducted in all nine districts of the province. During the study period of 1975-2009, 7,030 persons in the study area were exposed to unexploded ordnances (UXO) or land mine accidents, or 1.1% of the provincial population. There were 2,620 fatalities and 4,410 accident survivors. The study documents that the main problem is cluster weapons and other unexploded ordnances; only 4.3% of casualties were caused by land mines. The legacy of the war affects poor people the most; the accident rate was highest among villagers living in mountainous areas, ethnic minorities, and low-income families. The most common activities leading to the accidents were farming (38.6%), collecting scrap metal (11.2%), and herding of cattle (8.3%). The study documents that the people of the Quang Tri Province until this day have suffered heavily due to the legacy of war. Mine risk education programs should account for the epidemiological findings when future accident prevention programs are designed to target high-risk areas and activities.

  11. Geographical distribution patterns of iodine in drinking-water and its associations with geological factors in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-05-19

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran's I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p < 0.001). Two clusters for high iodine in drinking-water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors.

  12. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Elna J; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    Results of a survey and study of the Claviceps purpurea group of species in South Africa are being presented and five new species are described. Morphological descriptions are based on the anamorphs and four nuclear genetic loci. Claviceps fimbristylidis sp. nov. on Fimbristylis complanata was discovered wide-spread across five provinces of the country associated with water and represents the fourth Claviceps species recorded from the Cyperaceae. Claviceps monticola sp. nov. is described from Brachypodium flexum growing in mountain forests in Mpumalanga Province, as well as the northern Drakensberg southwards into the Eastern Cape Province. Claviceps pazoutovae sp. nov. is recorded from Stipa dregeana var. dregeana and Ehrharta erecta var. erecta, also associated with these mountain ranges. Claviceps macroura sp. nov. is recorded from Cenchrus macrourus from the Eastern Cape and Claviceps capensis sp. nov. from Ehrharta villosa var. villosa is recorded from the Western Cape Province. Claviceps cyperi, only recorded from South Africa is included in the study. Ergot alkaloid profiles of all species are provided and showed similarity to C. purpurea. Only C. cyperi and in lesser degree C. capensis, C. macroura, and C. pazoutovae produced ergot alkaloids in clinically significant amounts. Several reported species infect invasive grass species, native to South Africa, and thus represent potentially invasive species. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Response to Intervention (RTI) in the Province of Saskatchewan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp-Koo, Debra; Claypool, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is at a beginning stage in the Saskatchewan province as well as in other parts of Canada. One needs only to enter RTI and the names of any of the Canadian provinces into any widely used search engine to see the marked difference in the availability of information about RTI when the Canadian provinces and individual…

  14. Addressing the Local in Localization: A Case Study of Open Textbook Adoption by Three South African Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimes, Cynthia; Weiss, Shenandoah; Keep, Renae

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the adoption and use of open textbooks by three high school teachers in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The textbooks, collaboratively authored and distributed through the South African initiative, Siyavula, are available online and are openly licensed, allowing teachers to freely use, modify,…

  15. Evaluating an HIV and AIDS Community Training Partnership Program in Five Diamond Mining Communities in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispel, L. C.; Peltzer, K.; Nkomo, N.; Molomo, B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, De Beers Consolidated Diamond Mines in South Africa entered into a partnership, with the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communications to implement an HIV and AIDS Community Training Partnership Program (CTPP), initially in five diamond mining areas in three provinces of South Africa. The aim of CTPP was to improve HIV…

  16. Women's Experiences of Principalship in Two South African High Schools in Multiply Deprived Rural Areas: A Life History Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data collected from a wider, longitudinal life history study conducted in South Africa between 2010 and 2014. The study focussed specifically on the personal and professional pathways to principalship of a sample of women leaders of co-educational high schools in South Africa, in both rural and peri-urban provinces: a role…

  17. Extensive 200-million-year-Old continental flood basalts of the central atlantic magmatic province

    PubMed

    Marzoli; Renne; Piccirillo; Ernesto; Bellieni; De Min A

    1999-04-23

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is defined by tholeiitic basalts that crop out in once-contiguous parts of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America and is associated with the breakup of Pangea. 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic data indicate that CAMP magmatism extended over an area of 2.5 million square kilometers in north and central Brazil, and the total aerial extent of the magmatism exceeded 7 million square kilometers in a few million years, with peak activity at 200 million years ago. The magmatism coincided closely in time with a major mass extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

  18. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  19. [Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances precursors in human milk from 12 provinces of China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Yu, Xinping; Wang, Meng; Li, Jingguang; Wang, Yuxin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2015-06-01

    To explore the level of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) precursors in Chinese human milk samples. The human milk samples were collected during the performance of Stockholm convention on survey of human milk in China in 2007. Based on the geographical location and dietary habits, China was divided into the south area and north area which 6 provinces were chosen from each area and there were 12 provinces in all. In each province, one urban site and two rural sites were selected to collect 80-110 samples. Mothers were randomly selected in each site to collect their breast milk. There were 1 237 individual human milk samples in all. For each province, the individual samples from the urban areas and the rural areas were pooled separately resulting in 24 pooled human milk samples. 11 PFAS precursors were measured in pooled samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadruple mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The dietary exposure assessment of newborns was made. Three PFAS precursors were found above the detection limits, namely, 6:2 FTS, FHUEA, and 6:2 diPAP. Their concentration ranges were < Limit of determination (LOD) -47.46 pg/ml, < LOD -70.68 pg/ml and < LOD -35.08 pg/ml, respectively. The highest total PFAS precursor concentration 77.70 pg/ml was found in urban area samples from Shannxi Province. Rural area samples from Hubei had the lowest total PFAS precursor concentration, which was below the LOD. There were significant differences between rural and urban areas in many provinces, such as Shannxi (rural: 1.51 pg/ml; urban: 77.70 pg/ml), Shanghai (rural: 1.13 pg/ml; urban: 71.88 pg/ml), Jiangxi (rural: 65.39 pg/ml; urban: 0.55 pg/ml) and so on. The ranges estimated daily intake of 6:2 FTS, FHUEA and 6:2 diPAP of the samples from 12 provinces were 0.05-4.51, 1.13-6.72 and 1.15-3.34 ng · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹. The results suggested the human exposure of PFAS precursors in China and the potential health impact of postnatal exposure through

  20. Diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes in Binh Phuoc and Dak Nong Provinces of Vietnam and their relation to disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human malaria is still a burden in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in south-central Vietnam that border Cambodia. Several Anopheles species that transmit human malarial Plasmodium may also transmit Wuchereria bancrofti, the nematode that causes Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Anopheles species in the transmission of these two pathogens in the two highly malaria endemic provinces of Vietnam. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces in November and December of 2010 and 2011. Human landing catches, paired collections on human and buffalo, and resting captures were made with mouth aspirators. Collections were also made with light traps. Morphological and PCR-based methods were used to identify the species. Real-time PCR was used to detect Plasmodium species and W. bancrofti in individual mosquitoes. Results Twenty-four Anopheles species were identified among 797 captured mosquitoes. Anopheles dirus was found in both provinces and was the predominant species in Binh Phuoc Province; An. maculatus was the most prevalent species in Dak Nong Province. Anopheles minimus was collected only in Binh Phuoc Province. Some specimens of An. minimus and An. pampanai were misidentified based on morphology. Four specimens of An. scanloni were identified, and this is the first report of this species of the Dirus Complex in Vietnam. Two females, one An. dirus and one An. pampanai, collected in Binh Phuoc Province were infected with P. vivax, for an overall infection rate of 0.41% (2/486): 0.28% for An. dirus (1/361) and 20% for An. pampanai (1/5). No mosquitoes were found to be infected with P. falciparum, P. knowlesi or W. bancrofti in either province. Conclusion A diversity of Anopheles species occurs in Dak Nong and Binh Phuoc Provinces of Vietnam, several of which are considered to be actual and potential vectors of malarial protozoa and microfilariae. It is highly

  1. Rationalisation of nursing education in Limpopo province : nurse educators' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Makhuvha, T R; Davhana-Maselesele, M; Netshandama, V O

    2007-12-01

    Nursing education institutions are facing a challenge of realigning its functioning according to the changes that are taking place within the country. The intention of the government post apartheid was to correct the imbalances which were brought about by the apartheid government and the following regulations and policies influenced the change in nursing education, that is, Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), White Paper on Higher Education (WPHE), and the National Qualification Framework (NQF) (South Africa, 1995:6). In 1996 the government introduced the first democratic constitution of the Republic of South Africa (RSA) according toAct 108 of 1996. In the light of those increasing changes in nursing education, led by political change, the experiences of nurse educators is a critical issue facing nursing campuses. The purpose of this study was two-fold; namely: to explore and describe the experiences of nurse educators with regard to the rationalisation of nursing education and to use information obtained to describe guidelines for the effective rationalisation of a nursing college in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Qualitative interviews were conducted with nurse educators who worked in nursing colleges before and after 1994. Measures to ensure trustworthiness were applied and ethical issues were adhered to throughout the research process. Data was analysed following Tesch's method (Creswell 1994:154-155). The research established that nurse educators experienced dissatisfaction in several areas relating to the rationalization of nursing education. Support was also expected from bureaucracy at higher level. This study developed guidelines to policy makers and nurse educators to ensure effective rationalisation process.

  2. Seismic-reflection studies, offshore Santa Maria Province, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, K.J.; Childs, J.R.; Taylor, D.J.

    1991-02-01

    Well data and seismic-reflection records are being analyzed to provide a subsurface geologic framework for the US Geological Survey's Santa Maria Province project. This project, jointly sponsored by the Evolution of Sedimentary Basins and Onshore Oil and Gas Investigations Programs, in a basin-evolution and petroleum geology study focusing on the geologically complex and tectonically active south-central California margin. The area embraces several basins and basin fragments including the onshore Santa Maria, offshore Santa Maria, Pismo, Huasna, Sur, Santa Lucia, and western Santa Barbara-Ventura. These basins have many similarities, including generally synchronous formation at about the end of the Oligocene, developmentmore » on a complex assemblage of Mesozoic tectonostratigraphic terranes, and basin fill consisting of Neogene clastic marine and nonmarine deposits, minor volcanic rocks, and organic-rich biogenous deposits of the Monterey Formation. Despite these similarities, basin origins are controversial and paleogeographies uncertain. In 1990, the US Geological Survey collected approximately 130 line-mi of multichannel seismic reflection data in seven profiles off-shore California from Morro Bay south to the western Santa Barbara Channel. These are the first US Geological Survey seismic data collected in this area since the early 1980s exploratory drilling began in the offshore Santa Maria basin. Profiles were generally oriented perpendicular to structural grain and located to intersect as many well-sites and pre-existing seismic profiles as possible. Profile orientation and spacing were designed to provide the offshore extensions of onshore well-correlation profiles currently under construction. With synthetic seismograms the authors are integrating the stratigraphy of the wells with these seismic-reflection records.« less

  3. Investigation of Rickettsia, Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella in ticks from animals in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Halajian, Ali; Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Heyne, Heloise; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Oteo, José A

    2016-03-01

    Ticks are involved in the epidemiology of several human pathogens including spotted fever group (SFG)