Kasprowicz, A; Białecka, A
The study was aimed at multidirectional studies on bacteria isolated from smears from vagina and cervix uteri in 226 patients with inflammatory states of their reproductive organs. Most frequently isolated aerobic bacteria were Gram-negative--27%, mainly E. coli, and Enterococcus faecalis--in 18% of cases. Anaerobic bacteria were isolated in 81% of cases: Gardnerella vaginalis was isolated in 28% and Lactobacillus in 53% of cases. Other anaerobic bacteria were: Peptococcus asaccharolyticus (15.5%), Streptococcus sp. (15.9%), and Bacteroides melaninogenicus (14.1%). Gardnerella vaginalis was most frequently found in chronic cases of vaginosis (41.7%). All strains of G. vaginalis were susceptible to cefotaxime, while 15-40% of them were resistant to gentamycin, tetracycline and metronidazole.
Yan, X; Yan, Z; Yan, X; Luan, F; Wang, C
145 strains Gardnerella vaginalis isolated in foxes were isolated from 13 main farms raising foxes in six provinces (regions), China, after antigenicity and immunogenicity of the strains were measured, 1-3 appropriate strains were selected from each farm raising foxes for serotype studies. Cross agglutinin absorption test confirmed that selected 26 strains Gardnerella vaginalis were divided into three serotypes and then the representing strains were used to produce typing serum. Among remaining 119 strain, 108 strains were typable with the typing sera, and 11 strains can't be set. Among three serotypes, serotype I made up 79.1% of the strains. It was shown that serotype I was the principal serotype of Gardnerella vaginalis of fox in China. The test also confirmed that 5 strains of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from racoon dog, 4 strain Gardnerella vaginalis from mink and 2 strains Gardnerella vaginalis from canine also belonged to serotype I. Supersonic antigben was produced with three serotypes, representative strains. By agar immuno-diffusion test, it confirmed that the antigens of three serotypes formed a obvious blending precipitating line with the homologous or heterologous serotype antiserum. It indicated common antigen existed among all serotypes. The agar immuno-diffusion test results revealed that the precipitating line of the homologous serotype completely blended. It is our opinion that the method of serotyping is reliable.
Marín, Elvira; Haesaert, Annelies; Padilla, Laura; Adán, Jaume; Hernáez, María L; Monteoliva, Lucía; Gil, Concha
Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the main etiologic agents of bacterial vaginosis (BV). This infection is responsible for a wide range of public health costs and is associated with several adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Improving our understanding of G. vaginalis protein cell surface will assist in BV diagnosis. This study represents the first proteomic approach that has analyzed the exposed proteins on G. vaginalis cell surface using a shaving approach. The 261 G. vaginalis proteins identified using this approach were analyzed with bioinformatic tools to detect characteristic motifs from surface-exposed proteins, such as signal peptides (36 proteins), lipobox domains (17 proteins), LPXTG motifs (5 proteins) and transmembrane alpha-helices (66 proteins). One third of the identified proteins were found to have at least one typical motif of surface-exposed proteins. Furthermore, the subcellular location was examined using two predictors (PSORT and Gpos-mPLoc). These bioinformatic tools classified 17% of the identified proteins as surface-associated proteins. Interestingly, we identified 13 members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, which were mainly involved in the translocation of various substrates across membranes. To validate the location of the G. vaginalis surface-exposed proteins, an immunofluorescence assay with antibodies against Escherichia coli GroEL was performed to reveal the extracellular location of the moonlighting GroEL. In addition, monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against G. vaginalis Cna protein were produced and used to validate the location of Cna on the surface of the G. vaginalis . These high affinity anti-Cna mAb represent a useful tool for the study of this pathogenic microorganism and the BV.
Marín, Elvira; Haesaert, Annelies; Padilla, Laura; Adán, Jaume; Hernáez, María L.; Monteoliva, Lucía; Gil, Concha
Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the main etiologic agents of bacterial vaginosis (BV). This infection is responsible for a wide range of public health costs and is associated with several adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Improving our understanding of G. vaginalis protein cell surface will assist in BV diagnosis. This study represents the first proteomic approach that has analyzed the exposed proteins on G. vaginalis cell surface using a shaving approach. The 261 G. vaginalis proteins identified using this approach were analyzed with bioinformatic tools to detect characteristic motifs from surface-exposed proteins, such as signal peptides (36 proteins), lipobox domains (17 proteins), LPXTG motifs (5 proteins) and transmembrane alpha-helices (66 proteins). One third of the identified proteins were found to have at least one typical motif of surface-exposed proteins. Furthermore, the subcellular location was examined using two predictors (PSORT and Gpos-mPLoc). These bioinformatic tools classified 17% of the identified proteins as surface-associated proteins. Interestingly, we identified 13 members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, which were mainly involved in the translocation of various substrates across membranes. To validate the location of the G. vaginalis surface-exposed proteins, an immunofluorescence assay with antibodies against Escherichia coli GroEL was performed to reveal the extracellular location of the moonlighting GroEL. In addition, monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against G. vaginalis Cna protein were produced and used to validate the location of Cna on the surface of the G. vaginalis. These high affinity anti-Cna mAb represent a useful tool for the study of this pathogenic microorganism and the BV. PMID:29867878
Altrichter, T; Heizmann, W R
G. vaginalis is an important pathogen in the aetiology of bacterial vaginosis. Therefore, we investigated the influence of transport systems in isolation, a scoring system for Gram stains, and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. The comparison between a simple (Transwab) and a sophisticated (Port-A-Cul) system showed no differences with regard to for instance Enterococcus faecalis or Escherichia coli; however, isolation of G. vaginalis, a fastidious microorganism, was significantly higher (alpha < 0.0001) in Port-A-Cul. There was a strong correlation (97.5%) using the scoring system indicating bacterial vaginosis and isolation of G. vaginalis. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of metronidazole for 60 strains of G. vaginalis were higher than 32 mg/l, some strains showing heteroresistance. This phenomenon may be an explanation for treatment failures. Clindamycin and erythromycin were much more active, with MIC's between 0.016 and 0.19 mg/l, in-vitro development of resistance being slower for clindamycin than for erythromycin. (I) for isolation of G. vaginalis, a sophisticated transport system is mandatory; (II) a scoring system for Gram staining is helpful in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis; (III) in patients with metronidazole treatment failures, clindamycin should be used.
O'Dowd, T.C.; West, R.R.
In a study of 162 women with vaginal symptoms the clinical features of increased discharge, yellow discharge, 'high cheese' odour and pH greater than 5 were statistically strongly associated with the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis, confirmed by microbiological culture. The sensitivities and specificities of these clinical tests, although not as high as those of previously described sideroom tests using the amine test and microscopy for 'clue cells' nevertheless allow the clinician to predict G. vaginalis reliably and initiate treatment at first consultation. PMID:3499508
Tabaqchali, S; Wilks, M; Thin, R N
In a study of Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in non-specific vaginitis (NSV) and other genital disease 89 patients attending a genital medicine clinic had vaginal samples examined for conventional pathogens and for quantitative analysis of G vaginalis and aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora. The overall incidence of G vaginalis was 20%; G vaginalis (mean concentration 7.0 log10/g of secretion) occurred predominantly in patients with NSV (57%) but also in sexual contacts of non-specific urethritis (NSU) (37.5%) and in patients with other conditions (11.8%). G vaginalis is therefore a relatively common isolate in patients with vaginal discharge. The concentration of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria ranged from 4.9-11.0 log10/g of secretion with an anaerobe-to-aerobe ratio of 10:1. Anaerobic bacteria, particularly anaerobic Gram-positive cocci (mean concentrations 7.7 log10/g), were present in patients with NSV and in association with G vaginalis, but they also occurred in other clinical groups and with other pathogens, particularly Trichomonas vaginalis. Anaerobic bacteria may therefore play an important role in the pathogenesis of vaginal infections. PMID:6600955
Gergova, Raina T; Strateva, Tanya V; Mitov, Ivan G
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of BV in Bulgarian pregnant and nonpregnant women from several age ranges and to compare three different laboratory methods for Gardnerella vaginalis detection in patents suffering from BV. Between September 2011 and June 2012, 809 women of 16-40 years of age separated in two major groups: nonpregnant - 469 (355 with and 114 without symptoms) and pregnant - 340 (213 and 127 respectively) were enrolled for the study. The women underwent three different laboratory tests simultaneously: scoring of Gram staining of vaginal smear, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for G. vaginalis. The microscopic method detected high frequency of BV in symptomatic (57%) whereas only a minority of asymptomatic subjects (14%) were detected. G. vaginalis-associated BV was diagnosed in approximately equal proportions when evaluated with PCR and microscopic method for both pregnant and nonpregnant women. The comparative analysis of microscopic evaluation, culture and PCR assays demonstrated greater concurrence (about 90%) between Gram staining and PCR detection for BV, than both methods compared to culture. The combination of microscopy and PCR turned out to be very reliable and repeatable for detecting G. vaginalis-associated BV. This is the first comparative investigation on the epidemiology of G. vaginalis-associated BV in Bulgaria. The established highest frequency in the young Bulgarian women (21-30 years) is alarming and should be considered in prophylaxis and reproductive programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Köksalan, H; Esen, N; Cağatay, M; Tülek, N; Mert, A
In this study specimens taken from 93 patients who admitted to outpatient clinics of SSK Ankara Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital with vaginal discharge were examined for G. vaginalis, T. vaginalis, C. albicans and N. gonorrhoeae. We evaluated the smell, pH, direct microscopic examinations, stained preparations and specific culture results of the discharges which were taken from posterior fornix. We isolated G. vaginalis from 13 patients (13.9%), T. vaginalis from 5 patients (5.3%) and C. albicans from 19 patients (20.4%). N. gonorrhoeae could not be isolated from any of the specimens. In our control study, we isolated G. vaginalis in three out of 50 patients (6%) without vaginal discharge. We observed T. vaginalis in specimens of 3 control patients. C. albicans and N. gonorrhoeae could not be isolated in this study in this study.
Ratnam, S; Fitzgerald, B L
To evaluate the usefulness of quantitative cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis in the laboratory determination of nonspecific vaginitis, the actual and relative numbers of G. vaginalis in genital cultures of a general patient population were assessed semiquantitatively, and the laboratory results were then correlated with the clinical findings. Of the 1,585 women studied, 417 (26.3%) yielded G. vaginalis in culture. Of these, only 113 (27.1%) were found to have symptoms and signs consistent with nonspecific vaginitis. G. vaginalis was obtained in pure or predominant growth from 87 of 100 consecutive cases with nonspecific vaginitis and 32 of 100 consecutive cases without the symptoms or signs of vaginitis (P less than 0.001). Hence, the positive predictive value of isolation of G. vaginalis in pure and predominant growths was determined to be 73% (87 of 119). Conversely, G. vaginalis was isolated in mixed or light growth significantly more often from asymptomatic women than from symptomatic patients, i.e., 68 versus 13 cases. Therefore, the negative predictive value of isolation of G. vaginalis in mixed and light growths was found to be 84% (68 of 81). Quantitation of the relative amount of G. vaginalis growth had higher predictive values as compared with the assessment of G. vaginalis growth alone. We conclude that quantitative culture of G. vaginalis is essential to obtain maximum reliability of culture results in the laboratory determination of nonspecific vaginitis. Although quantitated cultures of G. vaginalis have high predictive values, laboratory results must be interpreted in conjunction with the clinical findings. PMID:6604735
Joo, Hyun-Min; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Myoung, Kil-Sun; Ahn, Young-Tae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Huh, Chul-Sung; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun
Hydrogen peroxide-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from women's vaginas and their anti-inflammatory effects against Gardnerella vaginalis-induced vaginosis were examined in β-estradiol-immunosuppressed mice. Oral and intravaginal treatment with five LABs significantly decreased viable G. vaginalis numbers in vaginal cavities and myeloperoxidase activity in mouse vaginal tissues. Of the LABs examined, Lactobacillus johnsonii HY7042 (LJ) most potently inhibited G. vaginalis-induced vaginosis. This LAB also inhibited the expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS, and the activation of NF-κB in vaginal tissues, but increased IL-10 expression. Orally administered LJ (0.2×10(8) CFU/mouse) also inhibited the expression of TNF-α by 91.7% in β-estradiol-immunosuppressed mice intraperitoneally injected with LPS. However, it increased IL-10 expression by 63.3% in these mice. Furthermore, LJ inhibited the expressions of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, and the activation of NF-κB in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. LJ also killed G. vaginalis attached with and without HeLa cells. These findings suggest that LJ inhibits bacterial vaginosis by inhibiting the expressions of COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α by regulating NF-κB activation and by killing G. vaginalis, and that LJ could ameliorate bacterial vaginosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Machado, Daniela; Gaspar, Carlos; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Cerca, Nuno
To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Thymbra capitata essential oil and its main compound, carvacrol, against Gardnerella vaginalis grown planktonically and as biofilms, and its effect of vaginal lactobacilli. Minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal lethal concentration determination and flow cytometry analysis were used to assess the antibacterial effect against planktonic cells. Antibiofilm activity was measured through quantification of biomass and visualization of biofilm structure by confocal laser scanning microscopy. T. capitata essential oil and carvacrol exhibited a potent antibacterial activity against G. vaginalis cells. Antibiofilm activity was more evident with the essential oil than carvacrol. Furthermore, vaginal lactobacilli were significantly more tolerant to the essential oil. T. capitata essential oil stands up as a promising therapeutic agent against G. vaginalis biofilm-related infections.
Abdelmaksoud, Abdallah A; Girerd, Philippe H; Garcia, Erin M; Brooks, J Paul; Leftwich, Lauren M; Sheth, Nihar U; Bradley, Steven P; Serrano, Myrna G; Fettweis, Jennifer M; Huang, Bernice; Strauss, Jerome F; Buck, Gregory A; Jefferson, Kimberly K
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the leading dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiome. The pathways leading towards the development of BV are not well understood. Gardnerella vaginalis is frequently associated with BV. G. vaginalis produces the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC), vaginolysin, which can lyse a variety of human cells and is thought to play a role in pathogenesis. Because membrane cholesterol is required for vaginolysin to function, and because HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) affect not only serum levels of cholesterol but membrane levels as well, we hypothesized that statins might affect the vaginal microbiome. To investigate the relationship between use of the statins and the vaginal microbiome, we analyzed 16S rRNA gene taxonomic surveys performed on vaginal samples from 133 women who participated in the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project and who were taking statins at the time of sampling, 152 women who reported high cholesterol levels but were not taking statins, and 316 women who did not report high cholesterol. To examine the effect of statins on the cytolytic effect of vaginolysin, the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) produced by Gardnerella vaginalis, we assessed the effect of simvastatin pretreatment of VK2E6/E7 vaginal epithelial cells on vaginolysin-mediated cytotoxicity. The mean proportion of G. vaginalis among women taking statins was significantly lower relative to women not using statins. Women using statins had higher mean proportions of Lactobacillus crispatus relative to women with normal cholesterol levels, and higher levels of Lactobacillus jensenii relative to women with high cholesterol but not taking statins. In vitro, vaginal epithelial cells pretreated with simvastatin were relatively resistant to vaginolysin and this effect was inhibited by cholesterol. In this cross-sectional study, statin use was associated with reduced proportions of G. vaginalis and greater proportions of beneficial lactobacilli within the vaginal
Totten, P A; Amsel, R; Hale, J; Piot, P; Holmes, K K
New selective and differential human blood bilayer agar media with Tween 80 (HBT medium) or without Tween 80 (HB medium), developed for the isolation of Gardnerella (Haemophilus) vaginalis, permitted significantly higher G. vaginalis isolation rates than have been obtained for other media used for this purpose. HB medium consists of a basal layer of Columbia agar base containing colistin and naladixic acid with added amphotericin B and an overlayer of the same composition plus 5% human blood. HBT agar also contains Proteose Peptone No. 3 (Difco Laboratories) and Tween 80 in the basal layer and the overlayer. Both Tween 80 and the bilayer composition enhanced G. vaginalis production of human blood hemolysis, permitting detection of this organism even in the presence of heavy growth of other vaginal flora. The use of HB or HBT medium thus permitted the demonstration that G. vaginalis was present in vaginal fluid from a large percentage (up to 68%) of normal women. However, the concentration of G. vaginalis was found by semiquantitative analysis to be significantly higher in vaginal fluid from women with nonspecific vaginitis than in fluid from normal women. Images PMID:6764766
Byun, Seung Won; Park, Yeon Joon; Hur, Soo Young
The aim of this study was to compare Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test results for Korean women to those obtained for Gardnerella vaginalis through Nugent score, Candida albicans based on vaginal culture and Trichomonas vaginalis based on wet smear diagnostic standards. Study participants included 195 women with symptomatic or asymptomatic vulvovaginitis under hospital obstetric or gynecologic care. A definite diagnosis was made based on Nugent score for Gardnerella, vaginal culture for Candida and wet prep for Trichomonas vaginalis. Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test results were then compared to diagnostic standard results. Of the 195 participants, 152 were symptomatic, while 43 were asymptomatic. Final diagnosis revealed 68 (37.87%) cases of Gardnerella, 29 (14.87%) cases of Candida, one (0.51%) case of Trichomonas, and 10 (5.10%) cases of mixed infections. The detection rates achieved by each detection method (Affirm assay vs diagnostic standard) for Gardnerella and Candida were not significantly different (33.33% vs 34.8% for Gardnerella, 13.33% vs 14.87% for Candida, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of the Affirm test for Gardnerella compared to the diagnostic standard were 75.0% and 88.98%, respectively. For Candida, the sensitivity and specificity of the Affirm test compared to the diagnostic standard were 82.76% and 98.80%, respectively. The number of Trichomonas cases was too small (1 case) to be statistically analyzed. The Affirm test is a quick tool that can help physicians diagnose and treat patients with infectious vaginitis at the point of care. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; Serrano-García, María Luisa; Fernández-Parra, Jorge; Sorlózano-Puerto, Antonio; Navarro-Marí, José María; Stensvold, C Rune; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Jose
Purulent or exudative genitourinary infections are a frequent cause of consultation in primary and specialized healthcare. The objectives of this study were: to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and co-infections with Candida spp. and Gardnerella vaginalis in vaginal secretion; and to use multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to analyse the genetic diversity of T. vaginalis strains. The samples were submitted for analysis (n=5230) to a third-level hospital in Granada (Southern Spain) between 2011 and 2014; eight T. vaginalis strains isolated during 2015 were randomly selected for MLST analysis. Culture and nucleic acid hybridization techniques were used to detect microorganisms in the samples. The prevalence of T. vaginalis was 2.4 % between 2011 and 2014, being higher during the first few months of both 2011 and 2012. Among samples positive for T. vaginalis, co-infection with G. vaginalis was detected in 29 samples and co-infection with Candida spp. in 6, while co-infection with all three pathogens was observed in 3 samples. The only statistically significant between-year difference in co-infection rates was observed for T. vaginalis with G. vaginalis due to an elevated rate in 2011. MLST analysis results demonstrated a high genetic variability among strains circulating in our setting. These findings emphasize the need for the routine application of diagnostic procedures to avoid the spread of this sexually transmitted infection.
Klomp, Johanna M; Verbruggen, Banut-Sabine M; Korporaal, Hans; Boon, Mathilde E; de Jong, Pauline; Kramer, Gerco C; van Haaften, Maarten; Heintz, A Peter M
Our objective was to determine the morphotype of the adherent bacteria in liquid-based cytology (LBC) in smears with healthy and disturbed vaginal flora. And to use PCR technology on the same fixed cell sample to establish DNA patterns of the 16S RNA genes of the bacteria in the sample. Thirty samples were randomly selected from a large group of cervical cell samples suspended in a commercial coagulant fixative "(BoonFix)." PCR was used to amplify DNA of five bacterial species: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Mycoplasma hominis. The LBC slides were then analyzed by light microscopy to estimate bacterial adhesion. DNA of lactobacilli was detected in all cell samples. Seventeen smears showed colonization with Gardnerella vaginalis (range 2.6 x 10(2)-3.0 x 10(5) bacteria/mul BoonFix sample). Two cases were identified as dysbacteriotic with high DNA values for Gardnerella vaginalis and low values for Lactobacillus crispatus. The sample with the highest concentration for Gardnerella vaginalis showed an unequivocal Gardnerella infection. This study indicates that the adherence pattern of a disturbed flora in liquid-based cervical samples can be identified unequivocally, and that these samples are suitable for quantitative PCR analysis. This cultivation independent method reveals a strong inverse relationship between Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus crispatus in dysbacteriosis and unequivocal Gardnerella infection.
Pessoa, Wallace Felipe Blohem; Melgaço, Ana Clara Correia; Ramos, Louise Pereira; Rezende, Rachel Passos
Study of the probiotic potential of microorganisms isolated from fermented foods has been increasing, especially studies related to lactobacilli. In intestinal models, lactobacilli have demonstrated beneficial properties, such as anti-inflammatory activity and increased antibody production, but the molecular mechanisms involving probiotic and antagonistic action as well as their effect on human vaginal cells have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional and antagonistic properties of three strains of lactobacilli isolated from cocoa fermentation (Lactobacillus fermentum 5.2, L. plantarum 6.2, and L. plantarum 7.1) against Gardnerella vaginalis. Our results show that the lactobacilli have potential use as probiotics, since they have high hydrophobicity and autoaggregation properties and effectively adhere to vaginal cells. Metabolites secreted into the culture medium and whole cells of the strains under study are capable of interfering with the growth of G. vaginalis to different degrees. The elucidation of the antagonistic mechanisms as well as their effect on human cells may be useful in the development of a product containing such microorganisms or products secreted by them. PMID:29226130
Klomp, Johanna M; Boon, Mathilde E; Van Haaften, Maarten; Heintz, A Peter M
Cervical inflammation has been proposed as a cofactor in the development of cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of cervical (pre)neoplastic changes in asymptomatic women with a cytologically diagnosed Gardnerella vaginalis infection. Data were collected from 800,498 Dutch asymptomatic women, participating in the Dutch national screening program. Prevalences of (pre)neoplasia were calculated for G vaginalis smears using a healthy flora as reference. The prevalence of G vaginalis infection was 0.6 per thousand. The odds ratio for (pre)neoplasia was significantly higher in smears with G vaginalis infection compared with smears of women with a healthy vaginal flora (odds ratio, 10.3; 95% confidence interval, 6.6-16.1). Cytologically diagnosed G vaginalis smears show a strong covariation with the presence of cervical (pre)neoplasia. Future research should therefore focus on the exact causal relation between cytologic G vaginalis infection and the presence of (pre)neoplastic changes of the cervix.
Marquez-Davila, G; Martinez-Barreda, C E
Although still controversial, an etiologic role of Gardnerella vaginalis is imputed in vaginitis. Besides isolation of the organism by culture, two alternative diagnostic procedures have been claimed to be useful: the investigation of "clue cells" in clinical specimens and the amine volatilization test or fishy odor perception in genital secretions. Herein we report on the findings of the simultaneous use of G. vaginalis isolation, the clue cell test and amine volatilization perception in specimens from 1,263 consecutive female patients referred to our clinic. Our results show that the simultaneous use of both alternative tests is very useful as a screening procedure. A negative result of both tests predicts a negative culture result in 99% of the cases. However, a positive result of either or both should be considered as an indication to proceed to culture and not as diagnostic of infection. PMID:3878365
Engberts, M K; Boon, M E; van Haaften, M; Heintz, A P M
In a prospective cohort study, 10 symptomatic women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis were taught how to prepare vaginal smears of their own vaginal fluids on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. The 40 smears were stained with the PAS-method and examined by three different cytopathologists for presence of Candida. Thereafter, the smears were restained with Giemsa-stain to determine presence of lactobacilli, Gardnerella vaginalis ("clue cells") and neutrophils. All three cytopathologists unequivocally established Candida blastospores and (pseudo)hyphae in 27 out of the 40 PAS-stained vaginal smears, whereas in the remaining 13 smears Candida was not found. All 10 patients had Candida in their smears during the second half of their menstrual cycle.Self sampled smears prove to be reliable for establishing the presence of Candida in symptomatic patients with candidiasis. Candida is associated with a lactobacillus-predominated vaginal flora, but with the absence of Gardnerella vaginalis. Further studies may be directed towards the interaction between the various members of the vaginal flora. This study should open molecular methodology for determining the possible interactions of lactobacilli and Candida. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Sierra, Luz-Jeannette; Brown, Amy G; Barilá, Guillermo O; Anton, Lauren; Barnum, Carrie E; Shetye, Snehal S; Soslowsky, Louis J; Elovitz, Michal A
The role of the cervicovaginal (CV) microbiome in regulating cervical function during pregnancy is poorly understood. Gardnerella vaginalis (G. vaginalis) is the most common bacteria associated with the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). While BV has been associated with preterm birth (PTB), clinical trials targeting BV do not decrease PTB rates. It remains unknown if G. vaginalis is capable of triggering molecular, biomechanical and cellular events that could lead to PTB. The objective of this study was to determine if cervicovaginal colonization with G. vaginalis, in pregnant mice, induced cervical remodeling and modified cervical function. CD-1 timed-pregnant mice received a 5X108 CFU/mL intravaginal inoculation of G. vaginalis or control on embryonic day 12 (E12) and E13. On E15, the mice were sacrificed and cervicovaginal fluid (CVF), amniotic fluid (AF), cervix, uterus, placentas and fetal membranes (FM) were collected. Genomic DNA was isolated from the CVF, placenta, uterus and FM and QPCR was performed to confirm colonization. IL-6 was measured in the CVF and AF and soluble e-cadherin (seCAD) was assessed in the CVF by ELISA. RNA was extracted from the cervices to evaluate IL-10, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, Tff-1, SPINK-5, HAS-1 and LOX expression via QPCR. Mucicarmine and trichrome staining was used to assess cervical mucin and collagen. Biomechanical properties of the cervix were studied using quasi-static tensile load-to-failure biomechanical tests. G. vaginalis successfully colonized the CV space. This colonization induced immune responses (increased IL-6 levels in CVF and AF, increased mRNA expression of cervical cytokines), altered the epithelial barrier (increased seCAD in the CVF), induced cervical remodeling (increased mucin production, altered collagen) and altered cervical biomechanical properties (a decrease in biomechanical modulus and an increase in maximum strain). The ability of G. vaginalis to induce these molecular, immune, cellular and
Brown, Amy G.; Barilá, Guillermo O.; Anton, Lauren; Barnum, Carrie E.; Shetye, Snehal S.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Elovitz, Michal A.
The role of the cervicovaginal (CV) microbiome in regulating cervical function during pregnancy is poorly understood. Gardnerella vaginalis (G. vaginalis) is the most common bacteria associated with the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). While BV has been associated with preterm birth (PTB), clinical trials targeting BV do not decrease PTB rates. It remains unknown if G. vaginalis is capable of triggering molecular, biomechanical and cellular events that could lead to PTB. The objective of this study was to determine if cervicovaginal colonization with G. vaginalis, in pregnant mice, induced cervical remodeling and modified cervical function. CD-1 timed-pregnant mice received a 5X108 CFU/mL intravaginal inoculation of G. vaginalis or control on embryonic day 12 (E12) and E13. On E15, the mice were sacrificed and cervicovaginal fluid (CVF), amniotic fluid (AF), cervix, uterus, placentas and fetal membranes (FM) were collected. Genomic DNA was isolated from the CVF, placenta, uterus and FM and QPCR was performed to confirm colonization. IL-6 was measured in the CVF and AF and soluble e-cadherin (seCAD) was assessed in the CVF by ELISA. RNA was extracted from the cervices to evaluate IL-10, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, Tff-1, SPINK-5, HAS-1 and LOX expression via QPCR. Mucicarmine and trichrome staining was used to assess cervical mucin and collagen. Biomechanical properties of the cervix were studied using quasi-static tensile load-to-failure biomechanical tests. G. vaginalis successfully colonized the CV space. This colonization induced immune responses (increased IL-6 levels in CVF and AF, increased mRNA expression of cervical cytokines), altered the epithelial barrier (increased seCAD in the CVF), induced cervical remodeling (increased mucin production, altered collagen) and altered cervical biomechanical properties (a decrease in biomechanical modulus and an increase in maximum strain). The ability of G. vaginalis to induce these molecular, immune, cellular and
Spiegel, C A; Davick, P; Totten, P A; Chen, K C; Eschenbach, D A; Amsel, R; Holmes, K K
G. vaginalis was originally described as the etiologic agent of bacterial vaginosis (nonspecific vaginitis) because it was recovered only from women with signs and symptoms of "bacterial vaginitis" and not from normal controls. Recent data have shown that G. vaginalis is present in normal women but at concentrations lower than the limit of sensitivity of the media formerly used. Detection of low concentrations of G. vaginalis in normal controls has been made possible by development of a selective and differential medium (HBT). Anaerobically performed studies of the vaginal flora have indicated that while lactobacilli predominate in the normal vagina with or without G. vaginalis, anaerobic bacteria including Bacteroides spp., Peptococcus spp., Eubacterium spp. and curved rods as well as G. vaginalis predominate in bacterial vaginosis. Anaerobic bacteria and G. vaginalis are decreased after appropriate therapy. After treatment with metronidazole, lactobacilli again predominate. Lactobacilli are less prevalent after treatment with ampicillin or amoxicillin. These data suggest that as in infections at other mucous membrane sites, bacterial vaginosis is a mixed infection involving a finite number of facultative and anaerobic species. The data also suggest an important role for facultative lactobacilli.
Garland, Suzanne M.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Hocking, Jane S.; Law, Matthew G.; Plummer, Erica L.; Fethers, Katherine A.; Chow, Eric P. F.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.
Objectives To examine the influence of sexual activity on the composition and consistency of the vaginal microbiota over time, and distribution of Gardnerella vaginalis clades in young women. Methods Fifty-two participants from a university cohort were selected. Vaginal swabs were self-collected every 3-months for up to 12 months with 184 specimens analysed. The vaginal microbiota was characterised using Roche 454 V3/4 region 16S rRNA sequencing, and G.vaginalis clade typing by qPCR. Results A Lactobacillus crispatus dominated vaginal microbiota was associated with Caucasian ethnicity (adjusted relative risk ratio[ARRR] = 7.28, 95%CI:1.37,38.57,p = 0.020). An L.iners (ARRR = 17.51, 95%CI:2.18,140.33,p = 0.007) or G.vaginalis (ARRR = 14.03, 95%CI:1.22,160.69, p = 0.034) dominated microbiota was associated with engaging in penile-vaginal sex. Microbiota dominated by L.crispatus, L.iners or other lactobacilli exhibited greater longitudinal consistency of the bacterial communities present compared to ones dominated by heterogeneous non-lactobacilli (p<0.030); sexual activity did not influence consistency. Women who developed BV were more likely to have clade GV4 compared to those reporting no sex/practiced non-coital activities (OR = 11.82, 95%CI:1.87,74.82,p = 0.009). Specimens were more likely to contain multiple G.vaginalis clades rather than a single clade if women engaged in penile-vaginal sex (RRR = 9.55, 95%CI:1.33,68.38,p = 0.025) or were diagnosed with BV (RRR = 31.5, 95%CI:1.69,586.87,p = 0.021). Conclusions Sexual activity and ethnicity influenced the composition of the vaginal microbiota of these young, relatively sexually inexperienced women. Women had consistent vaginal microbiota over time if lactobacilli were the dominant spp. present. Penile-vaginal sex did not alter the consistency of microbial communities but increased G.vaginalis clade diversity in young women with and without BV, suggesting sexual transmission of commensal and potentially
Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Twin, Jimmy; Garland, Suzanne M; Fairley, Christopher K; Hocking, Jane S; Law, Matthew G; Plummer, Erica L; Fethers, Katherine A; Chow, Eric P F; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Bradshaw, Catriona S
To examine the influence of sexual activity on the composition and consistency of the vaginal microbiota over time, and distribution of Gardnerella vaginalis clades in young women. Fifty-two participants from a university cohort were selected. Vaginal swabs were self-collected every 3-months for up to 12 months with 184 specimens analysed. The vaginal microbiota was characterised using Roche 454 V3/4 region 16S rRNA sequencing, and G.vaginalis clade typing by qPCR. A Lactobacillus crispatus dominated vaginal microbiota was associated with Caucasian ethnicity (adjusted relative risk ratio[ARRR] = 7.28, 95%CI:1.37,38.57,p = 0.020). An L.iners (ARRR = 17.51, 95%CI:2.18,140.33,p = 0.007) or G.vaginalis (ARRR = 14.03, 95%CI:1.22,160.69, p = 0.034) dominated microbiota was associated with engaging in penile-vaginal sex. Microbiota dominated by L.crispatus, L.iners or other lactobacilli exhibited greater longitudinal consistency of the bacterial communities present compared to ones dominated by heterogeneous non-lactobacilli (p<0.030); sexual activity did not influence consistency. Women who developed BV were more likely to have clade GV4 compared to those reporting no sex/practiced non-coital activities (OR = 11.82, 95%CI:1.87,74.82,p = 0.009). Specimens were more likely to contain multiple G.vaginalis clades rather than a single clade if women engaged in penile-vaginal sex (RRR = 9.55, 95%CI:1.33,68.38,p = 0.025) or were diagnosed with BV (RRR = 31.5, 95%CI:1.69,586.87,p = 0.021). Sexual activity and ethnicity influenced the composition of the vaginal microbiota of these young, relatively sexually inexperienced women. Women had consistent vaginal microbiota over time if lactobacilli were the dominant spp. present. Penile-vaginal sex did not alter the consistency of microbial communities but increased G.vaginalis clade diversity in young women with and without BV, suggesting sexual transmission of commensal and potentially pathogenic clades.
Hukić, Mirsada; Seljmo, Dzenita; Ramovic, Amra; Ibrišimović, Monia Avdić; Dogan, Serkan; Hukic, Jasna; Bojic, Elma Feric
Two basic questions about lysozyme activities on the selected microorganisms were investigated, namely whether lysozyme inhibits biofilm production and which concentrations of the enzyme have the ability to change the natural biofilm producing capacity of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin sensitive and resistant), Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Gardnerella vaginalis. The effect of lysozyme on biofilm formation capacities of 16 strains of selected microorganisms was investigated, whereby four testing replicates have been performed in vitro using the Test Tube method, and the potential of lysozyme to change biofilm forming capacities depending on its concentration, species, and strains of microorganisms is demonstrated. A lysozyme concentration of 30 μg/ml indicated to have the highest inhibiting effect on all tested microorganisms. Furthermore, G. vaginalis was the most sensitive of them all, as its biofilm formation was inhibited in the presence of as low as 2.5 μg/ml of lysozyme. At enzyme concentrations of 7.5-50 μg/ml (with the exception of 30 μg/ml) the biofilm forming capacities of P. aeruginosa were enhanced. Depending on the strain of P. aeruginosa, the total biofilm quantity was either reduced or unaffected at lysozyme concentrations of 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 30 μg/ml. In contrast, lysozyme concentrations below 15 or 20 μg/ml did not affect or increase the volume of biofilm formation, while higher concentrations (15, 20, 25 μg/ml) reduced biofilm formation by 50% (3/6) and 30 μg/ml of biofilm reduced biofilm forming capacity of S. aureus by 100% (6/6). The results of this study are a strong foundation for further research on lysozyme as a modulator of the biofilm forming capacity of different species with the potential to aid in the development of new drugs for the treatment of oral and vaginal infections.
Gupta, B K; Kumar, R; Sofat, R; Khurana, S; Deepinder
Two Hundred Forty patients who had Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) and manifested of nonspecific vaginitis were investigated for the presence of G. vaginalis. Pure growth of this organism was obtained in 14(5.8%) cases while 116(48.3%) cases showed this organism in association with other organisms e.g. Esch. coli (11.7%), Klebsiella (9.2%), Candida (9.2%), Strept. faecalis (7.3%), Proteus species (5.8%) and Staph. albus (5%).
Jang, Se-Eun; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Choi, Su-Young; Kim, Hyunji; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun
Oral administration of a probiotic mixture (PM; Respecta ® ) consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (L1), Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 (L2), and lactoferrin RCXTM results in colonization of these probiotics in the vagina of healthy women. Therefore, we examined whether vaginal colonization of the PM ingredients L1 and L2 could attenuate bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV was induced in mice via β-estradiol-3-benzoate-induced immunosuppression and intravaginal inoculation with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV). Inflammatory markers were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry. Oral or intravaginal administration of PM resulted in colonization of L1 and L2 in the vagina. Oral or intravaginal administration of L1, L2, or PM significantly inhibited GV-induced epithelial cell disruption, myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB activation, and IL-1β and TNF-α expression ( p < 0.05). Administration of these probiotics also inhibited IL-17 and RORγt expression but increased IL-10 and Foxp3 expression. Of these probiotics, L2 most effectively attenuated GV-induced BV, followed by L1 and PM. Oral administration was more effective against GV-induced BV than intravaginal administration. L1 and L2 also significantly inhibited the adherence of GV to HeLa cells (a human cervical cancer cell line) and GV growth in vitro. In addition, L1 and L2 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages and the differentiation of splenocytes into Th17 cells in vitro, but increased their differentiation into Treg cells. Our study suggests that L1, L2, and PM attenuated GV-induced vaginosis by regulating both vaginal and systemic innate and adaptive immune responses rather than direct competition or killing of GV in the vagina.
Jang, Se-Eun; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Choi, Su-Young; Kim, Hyunji; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun
Oral administration of a probiotic mixture (PM; Respecta®) consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (L1), Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 (L2), and lactoferrin RCXTM results in colonization of these probiotics in the vagina of healthy women. Therefore, we examined whether vaginal colonization of the PM ingredients L1 and L2 could attenuate bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV was induced in mice via β-estradiol-3-benzoate-induced immunosuppression and intravaginal inoculation with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV). Inflammatory markers were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry. Oral or intravaginal administration of PM resulted in colonization of L1 and L2 in the vagina. Oral or intravaginal administration of L1, L2, or PM significantly inhibited GV-induced epithelial cell disruption, myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB activation, and IL-1β and TNF-α expression (p < 0.05). Administration of these probiotics also inhibited IL-17 and RORγt expression but increased IL-10 and Foxp3 expression. Of these probiotics, L2 most effectively attenuated GV-induced BV, followed by L1 and PM. Oral administration was more effective against GV-induced BV than intravaginal administration. L1 and L2 also significantly inhibited the adherence of GV to HeLa cells (a human cervical cancer cell line) and GV growth in vitro. In addition, L1 and L2 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages and the differentiation of splenocytes into Th17 cells in vitro, but increased their differentiation into Treg cells. Our study suggests that L1, L2, and PM attenuated GV-induced vaginosis by regulating both vaginal and systemic innate and adaptive immune responses rather than direct competition or killing of GV in the vagina. PMID:28545241
Skarin, A; Sylwan, J
On a solid agar medium the growth-inhibitory effect of 9 Lactobacillus strains cultured from vaginal content was tested on bacteria cultured from vaginal content of women with bacterial vaginosis: Mobiluncus, Gardnerella vaginalis, Bacteroides and anaerobic cocci. Inhibition zones were observed in the growth of all of the strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis around all lactobacilli. The inhibitory effect of the lactobacilli was further tested on various anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic species, both type strains and fresh extragenitally cultured strains. Four Bacteroides fragilis strains as well as 2 out of 4 Staphylococcus aureus strains were clearly inhibited by the lactobacilli. The inhibition zones were generally wider at pH 5.5 than at 6.0. For all inhibited strains, (the S. aureus excepted) a low pH on the agar around the lactobacilli correlated to wider growth-inhibition zones.
Klein, Sabrina; Nurjadi, Dennis; Horner, Susanne; Heeg, Klaus; Zimmermann, Stefan; Burckhardt, Irene
While total laboratory automation (TLA) is well established in laboratory medicine, only a few microbiological laboratories are using TLA systems. Especially in terms of speed and accuracy, working with TLA is expected to be superior to conventional microbiology. We compared in total 35,564 microbiological urine cultures with and without incubation and processing with BD Kiestra TLA for a 6-month period each retrospectively. Sixteen thousand three hundred thirty-eight urine samples were analyzed in the pre-TLA period and 19,226 with TLA. Sixty-two percent (n = 10,101/16338) of the cultures processed without TLA and 68% (n = 13,102/19226) of the cultures processed with TLA showed growth. There were significantly more samples with two or more species per sample and with low numbers of colony forming units (CFU) after incubation with TLA. Regarding the type of bacteria, there were comparable amounts of Enterobacteriaceae in the samples, slightly less non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, but significantly more Gram-positive cocci, and Gram-positive rods. Especially Alloscardivia omnicolens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Actinomyces spp., and Actinotignum schaalii were significantly more abundant in the samples incubated and processed with TLA. The time to report was significantly lower in the TLA processed samples by 1.5 h. We provide the first report in Europe of a large number of urine samples processed with TLA. TLA showed enhanced growth of non-classical and rarely cultured bacteria from urine samples. Our findings suggest that previously underestimated bacteria may be relevant pathogens for urinary tract infections. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Bretelle, Florence; Fenollar, Florence; Baumstarck, Karine; Fortanier, Cécile; Cocallemen, Jean François; Serazin, Valérie; Raoult, Didier; Auquier, Pascal; Loubière, Sandrine
International recommendations in favor of screening for vaginal infection in pregnancy are based on heterogeneous criteria. In most developed countries, the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is only recommended for women with high-risk of preterm birth. The Nugent score is currently used, but molecular quantification tools have recently been reported with a high sensitivity and specificity. Their value for reducing preterm birth rates and related complications remains unexplored. This trial was designed to assess the cost-effectiveness of a systematic screen-and-treat program based on a point-of-care technique for rapid molecular diagnosis, immediately followed by an appropriate antibiotic treatment, to detect the presence of abnormal vaginal flora (specifically, Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis) before 20 weeks of gestation in pregnant women in France. We hypothesized that this program would translate into significant reductions in both the rate of preterm births and the medical costs associated with preterm birth. A multicenter, open-label randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted in which 20 French obstetrics and gynecology centers will recruit eligible pregnant women at less than 20 weeks gestation with singleton pregnancy and with a low-risk factor for preterm birth. Interventions will include a) an experimental group that will receive a systematic rapid screen-and-treat program from a point-of-care analysis using a molecular quantification method and b) a control group that will receive usual care management. Randomization will be in a 1:1 allocation ratio. The primary endpoint that will be assessed over a period of 12 months will be the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) expressed as cost per avoided preterm birth before 37 weeks. Secondary endpoints will include ICER per avoided preterm birth before 24, 28 and 32 weeks, obstetrical outcomes, neonatal outcomes, rates of treatment failure and recurrence episodes for positive women
Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection occurring in women of reproductive age. It is widely accepted that the microbial switch from normal microflora to BV is characterized by a decrease in vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus species together with an increase of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobes. Our goal was to develop and optimize a novel Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) Fluorescence in situ Hybridization assay (PNA FISH) for the detection of Lactobacillus spp. and G. vaginalis in mixed samples. Results Therefore, we evaluated and validated two specific PNA probes by using 36 representative Lactobacillus strains, 22 representative G. vaginalis strains and 27 other taxonomically related or pathogenic bacterial strains commonly found in vaginal samples. The probes were also tested at different concentrations of G. vaginalis and Lactobacillus species in vitro, in the presence of a HeLa cell line. Specificity and sensitivity of the PNA probes were found to be 98.0% (95% confidence interval (CI), from 87.8 to 99.9%) and 100% (95% CI, from 88.0 to 100.0%), for Lactobacillus spp.; and 100% (95% CI, from 92.8 to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, from 81.5 to 100.0%) for G. vaginalis. Moreover, the probes were evaluated in mixed samples mimicking women with BV or normal vaginal microflora, demonstrating efficiency and applicability of our PNA FISH. Conclusions This quick method accurately detects Lactobacillus spp. and G. vaginalis species in mixed samples, thus enabling efficient evaluation of the two bacterial groups, most frequently encountered in the vagina. PMID:23586331
Brotman, Rebecca M.; Bradford, L. Latey; Conrad, Melissa; Gajer, Pawel; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.; Carlton, Jane M.; Abdo, Zaid; Ravel, Jacques
Objectives Some vaginal bacterial communities are thought to prevent infection by sexually transmitted organisms. Prior work demonstrated that the vaginal microbiota of reproductive-age women cluster into five types of bacterial communities; 4 dominated by Lactobacillus species (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii), and one (termed community state type (CST) IV) lacking significant numbers of lactobacilli and characterized by higher proportions of Atopobium, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Mobiluncus, and other taxa. We sought to evaluate the relationship between vaginal bacterial composition and Trichomonas vaginalis. Methods Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained cross-sectionally from 394 women equally representing four ethnic/racial groups. T. vaginalis screening was performed using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA and β-tubulin genes. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. A panel of eleven microsatellite markers was used to genotype T. vaginalis. The association between vaginal microbiota and T. vaginalis was evaluated by exact logistic regression. Results T. vaginalis was detected in 2.8% of participants (11/394). Of the eleven T. vaginalis-positive cases, eight (72%) were categorized as CST-IV, two (18%) as communities dominated by L. iners and one (9%) as L. crispatus-dominated (p-value:0.05). CST-IV microbiota were associated with an 8-fold increased odds of detecting T. vaginalis compared to women in the L. crispatus-dominated state (OR:8.26, 95% CI:1.07–372.65). Seven of the 11 T. vaginalis isolates were assigned to two genotypes. Conclusion T. vaginalis was associated with vaginal microbiota consisting of low proportions of lactobacilli and high proportions of Mycoplasma, Parvimonas, Sneathia, and other anaerobes. PMID:23007708
Klomp, Johanna M; Ouwerkerk-Noordam, Elisabeth; Boon, Mathilde E; van Haaften, Maarten; Heintz, A Peter M
To evaluate cytologic diagnoses of dysbacteriosis and Gardnerella infection and to obtain insight into the diagnostic problems of Gardnerella. One hundred randomly selected samples of each of 3 diagnostic series were rescreened by 2 pathologists, resulting in 2 rescreening diagnoses and a consensus diagnosis. A smear was considered unequivocal when the original O code and the O code of the consensus diagnoses were equal and discordant when the flora diagnoses of the 2 pathologists differed. Discordance was highest in the dysbacteriotic series (20%) and lowest in the healthy group (4%). Unequivocal diagnoses were established in 65% of the dysbacteriotic smears, 80% of the Gardnerella smears and 93% of the healthy smears. Misclassification of Gardnerella occurred in the presence of clusters of bacteria mixed with spermatozoa. Blue mountain cells in Gardnerella infection can be identified unequivocally in cervical smears. Because of the clinical importance of treating Gardnerella, such advantageous spin-offs of cervical screening should be exploited.
Liu, Jun; Feng, Meng; Wang, Xiaolan; Fu, Yongfeng; Ma, Cailing; Cheng, Xunjia
Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects humans worldwide. This study determined the sequence of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene of T. vaginalis infecting both females and males in Xinjiang, China. Samples from 73 females and 28 males were collected and confirmed for infection with T. vaginalis, a total of 110 sequences were identified when the T. vaginalis 18S ribosomal RNA gene was sequenced. These sequences were used to prepare a phylogenetic network. The rooted network comprised three large clades and several independent branches. Most of the Xinjiang sequences were in one group. Preliminary results suggest that Xinjiang T. vaginalis isolates might be genetically unique, as indicated by the sequence of their 18S ribosomal RNA gene. Low migration rate of local people in this province may contribute to a genetic conservativeness of T. vaginalis. The unique genetic feature of our isolates may suggest a different clinical presentation of trichomoniasis, including metronidazole susceptibility, T. vaginalis virus or Mycoplasma co-infection characteristics. The transmission and evolution of Xinjiang T. vaginalis is of interest and should be studied further. More attention should be given to T. vaginalis infection in both females and males in Xinjiang.
Meade, John C; Carlton, Jane M
Recent advances in genetic characterisation of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates show that the extensive clinical variability in trichomoniasis and its disease sequelae are matched by significant genetic diversity in the organism itself, suggesting a connection between the genetic identity of isolates and their clinical manifestations. Indeed, a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in T vaginalis isolates has been observed using multiple genotyping techniques. A unique two-type population structure that is both local and global in distribution has been identified, and there is evidence of recombination within each group, although sexual recombination between the groups appears to be constrained. There is conflicting evidence in these studies for correlations between T vaginalis genetic identity and clinical presentation, metronidazole susceptibility, and the presence of T vaginalis virus, underscoring the need for adoption of a common standard for genotyping the parasite. Moving forward, microsatellite genotyping and multilocus sequence typing are the most robust techniques for future investigations of T vaginalis genotype-phenotype associations.
Conrad, Melissa D; Kissinger, Patricia; Schmidt, Norine; Martin, David H; Carlton, Jane M
Objectives Recently developed genotyping tools allow better understanding of Trichomonas vaginalis population genetics and epidemiology. These tools have yet to be applied to T vaginalis collected from HIV+ populations, where understanding the interaction between the pathogens is of great importance due to the correlation between T vaginalis infection and HIV transmission. The objectives of the study were twofold: first, to compare the genetic diversity and population structure of T vaginalis collected from HIV+ women with parasites from reference populations; second, to use the genetic markers to perform a case study demonstrating the usefulness of these techniques in investigating the mechanisms of repeat infections. Methods Repository T vaginalis samples from a previously described treatment trial were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. Estimates of genetic diversity and population structure were determined using standard techniques and compared with previously reported estimates of global populations. Genotyping data were used in conjunction with behavioural data to evaluate mechanisms of repeat infections. Results T vaginalis from HIV+ women maintain many of the population genetic characteristics of parasites from global reference populations. Although there is evidence of reduced diversity and bias towards type 1 parasites in the HIV+ population, the populations share a two-type population structure and parasite haplotypes. Genotyping/behavioural data suggest that 36% (12/33) of repeat infections in HIV+ women can be attributed to treatment failure. Conclusions T vaginalis infecting HIV+ women is not genetically distinct from T vaginalis infecting reference populations. Information from genotyping can be valuable for understanding mechanisms of repeat infections. PMID:23694936
Conrad, Melissa D; Kissinger, Patricia; Schmidt, Norine; Martin, David H; Carlton, Jane M
Recently developed genotyping tools allow better understanding of Trichomonas vaginalis population genetics and epidemiology. These tools have yet to be applied to T vaginalis collected from HIV+ populations, where understanding the interaction between the pathogens is of great importance due to the correlation between T vaginalis infection and HIV transmission. The objectives of the study were twofold: first, to compare the genetic diversity and population structure of T vaginalis collected from HIV+ women with parasites from reference populations; second, to use the genetic markers to perform a case study demonstrating the usefulness of these techniques in investigating the mechanisms of repeat infections. Repository T vaginalis samples from a previously described treatment trial were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. Estimates of genetic diversity and population structure were determined using standard techniques and compared with previously reported estimates of global populations. Genotyping data were used in conjunction with behavioural data to evaluate mechanisms of repeat infections. T vaginalis from HIV+ women maintain many of the population genetic characteristics of parasites from global reference populations. Although there is evidence of reduced diversity and bias towards type 1 parasites in the HIV+ population, the populations share a two-type population structure and parasite haplotypes. Genotyping/behavioural data suggest that 36% (12/33) of repeat infections in HIV+ women can be attributed to treatment failure. T vaginalis infecting HIV+ women is not genetically distinct from T vaginalis infecting reference populations. Information from genotyping can be valuable for understanding mechanisms of repeat infections.
van der Veer, C; Himschoot, M; Bruisten, S M
Objectives In this cross-sectional epidemiological study we aimed to identify molecular profiles for Trichomonas vaginalis and to determine how these molecular profiles were related to patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Setting Molecular typing methods previously identified two genetically distinct subpopulations for T. vaginalis; however, few molecular epidemiological studies have been performed. We now increased the sensitivity of a previously described multilocus sequence typing (MLST) tool for T. vaginalis by using nested PCR. This enabled the typing of direct patient samples. Participants From January to December 2014, we collected all T. vaginalis positive samples as detected by routine laboratory testing. Samples from patients either came from general practitioners offices or from the sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic in Amsterdam. Epidemiological data for the STI clinic patients were retrieved from electronic patient files. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the success rate of genotyping direct T. vaginalis positive samples. The secondary outcome was the relation between T. vaginalis genotypes and risk factors for STI. Results All 7 MLST loci were successfully typed for 71/87 clinical samples. The 71 typed samples came from 69 patients, the majority of whom were women (n=62; 90%) and half (n=34; 49%) were STI clinic patients. Samples segregated into a two population structure for T. vaginalis representing genotypes I and II. Genotype I was most common (n=40; 59.7%). STI clinic patients infected with genotype II reported more sexual partners in the preceding 6 months than patients infected with genotype I (p=0.028). No other associations for gender, age, ethnicity, urogenital discharge or co-occurring STIs with T. vaginalis genotype were found. Conclusions MLST with nested PCR is a sensitive typing method that allows typing of direct (uncultured) patient material. Genotype II is possibly more prevalent
van der Veer, C; Himschoot, M; Bruisten, S M
In this cross-sectional epidemiological study we aimed to identify molecular profiles for Trichomonas vaginalis and to determine how these molecular profiles were related to patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Molecular typing methods previously identified two genetically distinct subpopulations for T. vaginalis; however, few molecular epidemiological studies have been performed. We now increased the sensitivity of a previously described multilocus sequence typing (MLST) tool for T. vaginalis by using nested PCR. This enabled the typing of direct patient samples. From January to December 2014, we collected all T. vaginalis positive samples as detected by routine laboratory testing. Samples from patients either came from general practitioners offices or from the sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic in Amsterdam. Epidemiological data for the STI clinic patients were retrieved from electronic patient files. The primary outcome was the success rate of genotyping direct T. vaginalis positive samples. The secondary outcome was the relation between T. vaginalis genotypes and risk factors for STI. All 7 MLST loci were successfully typed for 71/87 clinical samples. The 71 typed samples came from 69 patients, the majority of whom were women (n=62; 90%) and half (n=34; 49%) were STI clinic patients. Samples segregated into a two population structure for T. vaginalis representing genotypes I and II. Genotype I was most common (n=40; 59.7%). STI clinic patients infected with genotype II reported more sexual partners in the preceding 6 months than patients infected with genotype I (p=0.028). No other associations for gender, age, ethnicity, urogenital discharge or co-occurring STIs with T. vaginalis genotype were found. MLST with nested PCR is a sensitive typing method that allows typing of direct (uncultured) patient material. Genotype II is possibly more prevalent in high-risk sexual networks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For
de Waaij, Dewi J
Objectives Trichomonas vaginalis is thought to be the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors and protozoan load of T. vaginalis infection in South African women. Methods A cross-sectional study of 604 women was conducted at 25 primary healthcare facilities in rural South Africa (Mopani district). T. vaginalis DNA was detected in vaginal and rectal swabs. In univariate and multivariate analyses, the T. vaginalis infection was investigated in relation to demographic characteristics, medical history and behavioural factors. The T. vaginalis load was determined as the logarithm of DNA copies per microlitre sample solution. Results Collected vaginal and rectal swabs were tested for T. vaginalis DNA. Prevalence of vaginal T. vaginalis was 20% (95% CI 17.0% to 23.4%) and rectal 1.2% (95% CI 0.6% to 2.4%). Most women (66%) with a vaginal infection were asymptomatic. Factors associated with T. vaginalis infection were a relationship status of single (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5 to 4.0; p<0.001) and HIV positive infection (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.6; p=0.041). Women with vaginal T. vaginalis infection were more likely to have concurrent Chlamydia trachomatis rectal infection than those without vaginal infection (12%vs3%; p<0.001; OR 4.1). A higher median T. vaginalis load was observed among women with observed vaginal discharge compared with those without vaginal discharge (p=0.025). Conclusions Vaginal trichomoniasis is highly prevalent in rural South Africa, especially among single women and those with HIV infection, and often presents without symptoms. PMID:28993385
de Waaij, Dewi J; Dubbink, Jan Henk; Ouburg, Sander; Peters, Remco P H; Morré, Servaas A
Trichomonas vaginalis is thought to be the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors and protozoan load of T. vaginalis infection in South African women. A cross-sectional study of 604 women was conducted at 25 primary healthcare facilities in rural South Africa (Mopani district). T. vaginalis DNA was detected in vaginal and rectal swabs. In univariate and multivariate analyses, the T. vaginalis infection was investigated in relation to demographic characteristics, medical history and behavioural factors. The T. vaginalis load was determined as the logarithm of DNA copies per microlitre sample solution. Collected vaginal and rectal swabs were tested for T. vaginalis DNA. Prevalence of vaginal T. vaginalis was 20% (95% CI 17.0% to 23.4%) and rectal 1.2% (95% CI 0.6% to 2.4%). Most women (66%) with a vaginal infection were asymptomatic. Factors associated with T. vaginalis infection were a relationship status of single (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5 to 4.0; p<0.001) and HIV positive infection (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.6; p=0.041). Women with vaginal T. vaginalis infection were more likely to have concurrent Chlamydia trachomatis rectal infection than those without vaginal infection (12%vs3%; p<0.001; OR 4.1). A higher median T. vaginalis load was observed among women with observed vaginal discharge compared with those without vaginal discharge (p=0.025). Vaginal trichomoniasis is highly prevalent in rural South Africa, especially among single women and those with HIV infection, and often presents without symptoms. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Bochner, Aaron F; Baeten, Jared M; Rustagi, Alison S; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R; Mugo, Nelly R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kapiga, Saidi; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Celum, Connie; Barnabas, Ruanne V
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent curable STI worldwide and has been associated with adverse health outcomes and increased HIV-1 transmission risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among couples to assess how characteristics of both individuals in sexual partnerships are associated with the prevalence of male and female T. vaginalis infection. African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples were concurrently tested for trichomoniasis at enrolment into two clinical trials. T. vaginalis testing was by nucleic acid amplification or culture methods. Using Poisson regression with robust standard errors, we identified characteristics associated with trichomoniasis. Among 7531 couples tested for trichomoniasis, 981 (13%) couples contained at least one infected partner. The prevalence was 11% (n=857) among women and 4% (n=319) among men, and most infected individuals did not experience signs or symptoms of T. vaginalis . Exploring concordance of T. vaginalis status within sexual partnerships, we observed that 61% (195/319) of T. vaginalis -positive men and 23% (195/857) of T. vaginalis -positive women had a concurrently infected partner. In multivariable analysis, having a T. vaginalis -positive partner was the strongest predictor of infection for women (relative risk (RR) 4.70, 95% CI 4.10 to 5.38) and men (RR 10.09, 95% CI 7.92 to 12.85). For women, having outside sex partners, gonorrhoea, and intermediate or high Nugent scores for bacterial vaginosis were associated with increased risk of trichomoniasis, whereas age 45 years and above, being married, having children and injectable contraceptive use were associated with reduced trichomoniasis risk. Additionally, women whose male partners were circumcised, had more education or earned income had lower risk of trichomoniasis. We found that within African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples, the prevalence of trichomoniasis was high among partners of T. vaginalis -infected individuals, suggesting
Jehee, Ivo; van der Veer, Charlotte; Himschoot, Michelle; Hermans, Mirjam; Bruisten, Sylvia
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted parasitical infection worldwide. T. vaginalis can carry a virus: Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV). To date, four TVV species have been described. Few studies have investigated TVV prevalence and its clinical importance. We have developed a nested reverse-transcriptase PCR, with novel, type specific primers to directly detect TVV RNA in T. vaginalis positive clinical samples. A total of 119T. vaginalis positive clinical samples were collected in Amsterdam and "s-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands, from 2012 to 2016. For all samples T. vaginalis was genotyped using multi-locus sequence typing. The T. vaginalis positive samples segregated into a two-genotype population: type I (n=64) and type II (n=55). All were tested for TVV with the new TVV PCR. We detected 3 of the 4 TVV species. Sequencing of the amplified products showed high homology with published TVV genomes (82-100%). Half of the T. vaginalis clinical samples (n=60, 50.4%) were infected with one or more TVV species, with a preponderance for TVV infections in T. vaginalis type I (n=44, 73.3%). Clinical data was available for a subset of samples (n=34) and we observed an association between testing positive for (any) TVV and reporting urogenital symptoms (p=0.023). The nested RT-PCR allowed for direct detection of TVV in T. vaginalis positive clinical samples. This may be helpful in studies and clinical settings, since T. vaginalis disease and/or treatment outcome may be influenced by the protozoa"s virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nievas, Yesica R; Coceres, Veronica M; Midlej, Victor; de Souza, Wanderley; Benchimol, Marlene; Pereira-Neves, Antonio; Vashisht, Ajay A; Wohlschlegel, James A; Johnson, Patricia J; de Miguel, Natalia
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract, where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Despite the serious consequences associated with trichomoniasis disease, little is known about parasite or host factors involved in attachment of the parasite-to-host epithelial cells. Here, we report the identification of microvesicle-like structures (MVs) released by T. vaginalis. MVs are considered universal transport vehicles for intercellular communication as they can incorporate peptides, proteins, lipids, miRNA, and mRNA, all of which can be transferred to target cells through receptor-ligand interactions, fusion with the cell membrane, and delivery of a functional cargo to the cytoplasm of the target cell. In the present study, we demonstrated that T. vaginalis release MVs from the plasma and the flagellar membranes of the parasite. We performed proteomic profiling of these structures demonstrating that they possess physical characteristics similar to mammalian extracellular vesicles and might be selectively charged with specific protein content. In addition, we demonstrated that viable T. vaginalis parasites release large vesicles (LVs), membrane structures larger than 1 µm that are able to interact with other parasites and with the host cell. Finally, we show that both populations of vesicles present on the surface of T vaginalis are induced in the presence of host cells, consistent with a role in modulating cell interactions.
Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Su; Park, Soon-Jung; Min, Duk-Young; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook
Most men infected with Trichomonas vaginalis are asymptomatic and can remain undiagnosed and untreated. This has been hypothesized to result in chronic persistent prostatic infection. Adhesion of the protozoan organisms to mucosal cells is considered a first and prerequisite step for T. vaginalis infection. Adhesion of T. vaginalis to prostate epithelial cells has not yet been observed; however, there are several reports about inflammation of prostate epithelial cells induced by T. vaginalis . The aim of this study was to investigate whether adhesion and cytotoxicity of T. vaginalis are involved in inflammation of prostate epithelial cells. When RWPE-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis (1:0.4 or 1:4), adhesion of T. vaginalis continuously increased for 24 hr or 3 hr, respectively. The cytotoxicity of prostate epithelial cells infected with T. vaginalis (RWPE-1: T. vaginalis =1:0.4) increased at 9 hr; at an infection ratio of 1:4, cytotoxicity increased after 3 hr. When the RWPE-1 to T. vaginalis ratio was 1:0.4 or 1:4, production of IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, and CXCL8 also increased. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was verified by measuring decreased E-cadherin and increased vimentin expression at 24 hr and 48 hr. Taken together, the results indicate that T. vaginalis adhered to prostate epithelial cells, causing cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and EMT. Our findings suggest for the first time that T. vaginalis may induce inflammation via adhesion to normal prostate epithelial cells.
Korosh, Travis; Jordan, Kelsey D; Wu, Ja-Shin; Yarlett, Nigel; Upmacis, Rita K
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite and, while it is often asymptomatic in males, the parasite is associated with disease in both sexes. Metronidazole is an effective treatment for trichomoniasis, but resistant strains have evolved and, thus, it has become necessary to investigate other possible therapies. In this study, we examined the effects of native and oxidized forms of the sodium salts of eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and arachidonic acids on T. vaginalis activity. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the most toxic with 190 and 380 μM causing approximately 90% cell death in Casu2 and ATCC 50142 strains, respectively. In contrast, oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid was the least toxic, requiring > 3 mM to inhibit activity, while low levels (10 μM) were associated with increased parasite density. Mass spectrometric analysis of oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid revealed C20 products containing one to six additional oxygen atoms and various degrees of bond saturation. These results indicate that eicosapentaenoic acid has different effects on T. vaginalis survival, depending on whether it is present in the native or oxidized form. A better understanding of lipid metabolism in T. vaginalis may facilitate the design of synthetic fatty acids that are effective for the treatment of metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.
Zubáčová, Zuzana; Hostomská, Jitka
The parabasalid protist Trichomonas vaginalis is a widespread parasite that affects humans, frequently causing vaginitis in infected women. Trichomonad mitosis is marked by the persistence of the nuclear membrane and the presence of an asymmetric extranuclear spindle with no obvious direct connection to the chromosomes. No centromeric markers have been described in T. vaginalis, which has prevented a detailed analysis of mitotic events in this organism. In other eukaryotes, nucleosomes of centromeric chromatin contain the histone H3 variant CenH3. The principal aim of this work was to identify a CenH3 homolog in T. vaginalis. We performed a screen of the T. vaginalis genome to retrieve sequences of canonical and variant H3 histones. Three variant histone H3 proteins were identified, and the subcellular localization of their epitope-tagged variants was determined. The localization of the variant TVAG_185390 could not be distinguished from that of the canonical H3 histone. The sequence of the variant TVAG_087830 closely resembled that of histone H3. The tagged protein colocalized with sites of active transcription, indicating that the variant TVAG_087830 represented H3.3 in T. vaginalis. The third H3 variant (TVAG_224460) was localized to 6 or 12 distinct spots at the periphery of the nucleus, corresponding to the number of chromosomes in G1 phase and G2 phase, respectively. We propose that this variant represents the centromeric marker CenH3 and thus can be employed as a tool to study mitosis in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, we suggest that the peripheral distribution of CenH3 within the nucleus results from the association of centromeres with the nuclear envelope throughout the cell cycle. PMID:22408228
Wagner, Emily C.; Schellenberg, John J.; Links, Matthew G.; van Schalkwyk, Julie; Reid, Gregor; Hemmingsen, Sean M.; Hill, Janet E.; Money, Deborah
The vaginal microbiota is important in women’s reproductive and overall health. However, the relationships between the structure, function and dynamics of this complex microbial community and health outcomes remain elusive. The objective of this study was to determine the phylogenetic range and abundance of prokaryotes in the vaginal microbiota of healthy, non-pregnant, ethnically diverse, reproductive-aged Canadian women. Socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical data were collected and vaginal swabs were analyzed from 310 women. Detailed profiles of their vaginal microbiomes were generated by pyrosequencing of the chaperonin-60 universal target. Six community state types (CST) were delineated by hierarchical clustering, including three Lactobacillus-dominated CST (L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii), two Gardnerella-dominated (subgroups A and C) and an “intermediate” CST which included a small number of women with microbiomes dominated by seven other species or with no dominant species but minority populations of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Peptoniphilus, E. coli and various Proteobacteria in co-dominant communities. The striking correspondence between Nugent score and deep sequencing CST continues to reinforce the basic premise provided by the simpler Gram stain method, while additional analyses reveal detailed cpn60-based phylogeny and estimated abundance in microbial communities from vaginal samples. Ethnicity was the only demographic or clinical characteristic predicting CST, with differences in Asian and White women (p = 0.05). In conclusion, this study confirms previous work describing four cpn60-based subgroups of Gardnerella, revealing previously undescribed CST. The data describe the range of bacterial communities seen in Canadian women presenting with no specific vaginal health concerns, and provides an important baseline for future investigations of clinically important cohorts. PMID:26266808
Albert, Arianne Y K; Chaban, Bonnie; Wagner, Emily C; Schellenberg, John J; Links, Matthew G; van Schalkwyk, Julie; Reid, Gregor; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Hill, Janet E; Money, Deborah
The vaginal microbiota is important in women's reproductive and overall health. However, the relationships between the structure, function and dynamics of this complex microbial community and health outcomes remain elusive. The objective of this study was to determine the phylogenetic range and abundance of prokaryotes in the vaginal microbiota of healthy, non-pregnant, ethnically diverse, reproductive-aged Canadian women. Socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical data were collected and vaginal swabs were analyzed from 310 women. Detailed profiles of their vaginal microbiomes were generated by pyrosequencing of the chaperonin-60 universal target. Six community state types (CST) were delineated by hierarchical clustering, including three Lactobacillus-dominated CST (L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii), two Gardnerella-dominated (subgroups A and C) and an "intermediate" CST which included a small number of women with microbiomes dominated by seven other species or with no dominant species but minority populations of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Peptoniphilus, E. coli and various Proteobacteria in co-dominant communities. The striking correspondence between Nugent score and deep sequencing CST continues to reinforce the basic premise provided by the simpler Gram stain method, while additional analyses reveal detailed cpn60-based phylogeny and estimated abundance in microbial communities from vaginal samples. Ethnicity was the only demographic or clinical characteristic predicting CST, with differences in Asian and White women (p = 0.05). In conclusion, this study confirms previous work describing four cpn60-based subgroups of Gardnerella, revealing previously undescribed CST. The data describe the range of bacterial communities seen in Canadian women presenting with no specific vaginal health concerns, and provides an important baseline for future investigations of clinically important cohorts.
Petrin, Dino; Delgaty, Kiera; Bhatt, Renuka; Garber, Gary
Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasitic protozoan, is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD) of worldwide importance. Trichomoniasis is the most common nonviral STD, and it is associated with many perinatal complications, male and female genitourinary tract infections, and an increased incidence of HIV transmission. Diagnosis is difficult, since the symptoms of trichomoniasis mimic those of other STDs and detection methods lack precision. Although current treatment protocols involving nitroimidazoles are curative, metronidazole resistance is on the rise, outlining the need for research into alternative antibiotics. Vaccine development has been limited by a lack of understanding of the role of the host immune response to T. vaginalis infection. The lack of a good animal model has made it difficult to conduct standardized studies in drug and vaccine development and pathogenesis. Current work on pathogenesis has focused on the host-parasite relationship, in particular the initial events required to establish infection. These studies have illustrated that the pathogenesis of T. vaginalis is indeed very complex and involves adhesion, hemolysis, and soluble factors such as cysteine proteinases and cell-detaching factor. T. vaginalis interaction with the members of the resident vaginal flora, an advanced immune evasion strategy, and certain stress responses enable the organism to survive in its changing environment. Clearly, further research and collaboration will help elucidate these pathogenic mechanisms, and with better knowledge will come improved disease control. PMID:9564565
Hirt, Robert P; Sherrard, Jackie
To integrate a selection of the most recent data on Trichomonas vaginalis origins, molecular cell biology and T. vaginalis interactions with the urogenital tract microbiota with trichomoniasis symptoms and clinical management. Transcriptomics and proteomics datasets are accumulating, facilitating the identification and prioritization of key target genes to study T. vaginalis pathobiology. Proteins involved in host sensing and cytoskeletal plasticity during T. vaginalis amoeboid transformation were identified. T. vaginalis was shown to secrete exosomes and a macrophage migration inhibitory factor-like protein that both influence host-parasite interactions. T. vaginalis co-infections with Mycoplasma species and viruses were shown to modulate the inflammatory responses, whereas T. vaginalis interactions with various Lactobacillus species inhibit parasite interactions with human cells. T. vaginalis infections were also shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis. A broader range of health sequelae is also becoming apparent. Diagnostics for both women and men based on the molecular approaches are being refined, in particular for men. New developments in the molecular and cellular basis of T. vaginalis pathobiology combined with data on the urogenital tract microbiota and immunology have enriched our knowledge on human-microbe interactions that will contribute to increasing our capacity to prevent and treat T. vaginalis and other sexually transmitted infections.
Afzan, M Yusuf; Sivanandam, S; Kumar, G Suresh
Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan parasite commonly found in the human genitourinary tract, is transmitted primarily by sexual intercourse. Diagnosis is usually by in vitro culture method and staining with Giemsa stain. There are laboratories that use Gram stain as well. We compared the use of modified Field's (MF), Giemsa, and Gram stains on 2 axenic and xenic isolates of T. vaginalis, respectively. Three smears from every sediment of spun cultures of all 4 isolates were stained, respectively, with each of the stains. We showed that MF staining, apart from being a rapid stain (20 s), confers sharper staining contrast, which differentiates the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the organism when compared to Giemsa and Gram staining especially on parasites from spiked urine samples. The alternative staining procedure offers in a diagnostic setting a rapid stain that can easily visualize the parasite with sharp contrasting characteristics between organelles especially the nucleus and cytoplasm. Vacuoles are more clearly visible in parasites stained with MF than when stained with Giemsa. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Dos Santos, Odelta; Meirelles, Lúcia Collares; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana
Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan that parasitizes the human urogenital tract causing trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease. The parasite has unique genomic characteristics such as a large genome size and expanded gene families. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) is an enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing nucleoside tri- and diphosphates and has already been biochemically characterized in T. vaginalis. Considering the important role of this enzyme in the production of extracellular adenosine for parasite uptake, we evaluated the gene expression of five putative NTPDases in T. vaginalis. We showed that all five putative TvNTPDase genes (TvNTPDase1-5) were expressed by both fresh clinical and long-term grown isolates. The amino acid alignment predicted the presence of the five crucial apyrase conserved regions, transmembrane domains, signal peptides, phosphorylation and catalytic sites. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis showed that TvNTPDase sequences make up a clade with NTPDases intracellularly located. Biochemical NTPDase activity (ATP and ADP hydrolysis) is responsive to the serum-restrictive conditions and the gene expression of TvNTPDases was mostly increased, mainly TvNTPDase2 and TvNTPDase4, although there was not a clear pattern of expression among them. In summary, the present report demonstrates the gene expression patterns of predicted NTPDases in T. vaginalis. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Davis, Alissa; Dasgupta, Anindita; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; El-Bassel, Nabila
The United States has a large community supervision population, a growing number of whom are women. Trichomonas vaginalis infection is strongly associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission, particularly among women, but there is a paucity of research on HIV and T. vaginalis co-infection among women under community supervision. This article examines the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection and T. vaginalis and HIV coinfection at baseline among women under community supervision in New York City. It also examines the 12-month outcomes of women treated for T. vaginalis. Women received biological tests for HIV and T. vaginalis at baseline and 12 months follow-up. Of the 333 women tested for sexually transmitted infections, 77 women (23.1%) tested positive for T. vaginalis at baseline and 44 (13.3%) were HIV positive. Human immunodeficiency virus-positive women had significantly higher rates of T. vaginalis infection than HIV-negative women (36.4% vs 21.3%, P ≤ 0.05). Sixteen women (4.8%) were coinfected with T. vaginalis and HIV. Of the 77 women who were positive for T. vaginalis infection at baseline, 58 (75.3%) received treatment by a health care provider. Of those who received treatment, 17 (29.3%) tested positive for T. vaginalis at the 12-month follow-up. Given the high prevalence of T. vaginalis among this sample of women, particularly among HIV-positive women, and high levels of reinfection or persistent infection, screening for T. vaginalis among women under community supervision may have a substantial impact on reducing HIV acquisition and transmission among this high-risk population.
Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook
Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in vaginal discharges of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. In this study, we examined superoxide anion (O2 (.-)) production by neutrophils activated by T. vaginalis. Human neutrophils produced superoxide anions when stimulated with either a lysate of T. vaginalis, its membrane component (MC), or excretory-secretory product (ESP). To assess the role of trichomonad protease in production of superoxide anions by neutrophils, T. vaginalis lysate, ESP, and MC were each pretreated with a protease inhibitor cocktail before incubation with neutrophils. Superoxide anion production was significantly decreased by this treatment. Trichomonad growth was inhibited by preincubation with supernatants of neutrophils incubated for 3 hr with T. vaginalis lysate. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production by neutrophils was stimulated by live trichomonads. These results indicate that the production of superoxide anions and MPO by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis may be a part of defense mechanisms of neutrophils in trichomoniasis.
Mirasol-Meléndez, Elibeth; Brieba, Luis G; Díaz-Quezada, Corina; López-Hidalgo, Marisol; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Ávila-González, Leticia; Arroyo-Verástegui, Rossana; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia G
Trichomonas vaginalis is the protist parasite that causes the most common, non-viral sexually transmitted infection called trichomonosis. Enolase is a moonlighting protein that apart from its canonical function as a glycolytic enzyme, serves as a plasminogen receptor on the cell surface of T. vaginalis and, in consequence, it has been stablished as a virulence factor in this parasite. In the Trichomonas vaginalis sequence database there are nine genes annotated as enolase. In this work, we analyzed these genes as well as their products. We found that seven out of nine genes might indeed perform enolase activity, whereas two genes might have been equivocally identified, or they might be pseudogenes. Furthermore, a combination of qRT-PCR and proteomic approaches was used to assess, for the first time, the expression of these genes in the highly virulent mexican isolate of T. vaginalis CNCD-147 at different iron concentrations. We could find peptides corresponding to enolases encoded by genes TVAG_464170, TVAG_043500 and TVAG_329460. Moreover, we identified two distinctive characteristics within enolases from Trichomonas vaginalis. One of them corresponds to three key substitutions within one of the loops of the active site, compared to host enolase. The other, is a unique N-terminal motif, composed of 15 to 18 residues, on all the potentially active enolases, whose function still has to be stablished. Both differential features merit further studies as potential drug and vaccine targets as well as diagnosis markers. These findings offer new possibilities to fight trichomonosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bouchemal, Kawthar; Bories, Christian; Loiseau, Philippe M
The last estimated annual incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis worldwide exceeds that of chlamydia and gonorrhea combined. This critical review updates the state of the art on advances in T. vaginalis diagnostics and strategies for treatment and prevention of trichomoniasis. In particular, new data on treatment outcomes for topical administration of formulations are reviewed and discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Pinto, Valdir M.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.
Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15–24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7–10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR = 4.70 (95% CI: 1.63–13.56, p = 0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR = 5.15 (95% CI: 1.15–23.25, p = 0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil. PMID:25181400
Miranda, Angelica E; Pinto, Valdir M; Gaydos, Charlotte A
Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15-24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7-10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR=4.70 (95% CI: 1.63-13.56, p=0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR=5.15 (95% CI: 1.15-23.25, p=0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Since long possible cyst formation by Trichomonas vaginalis has been discussed. According to our observations the round forms of Trichomonas ... vaginalis in relation to its biogenic surroundings. Here the biochemico-physiological relationship between Trichomonas and the fundamental biogenic...generally appear as degenerative manifestations of the cell, especially in older cultures. We tried to study analytically the biology of Trichomonas
Jespers, Vicky; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Cools, Piet; Verhelst, Rita; Verstraelen, Hans; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Mwaura, Mary; Ndayisaba, Gilles F; Mandaliya, Kishor; Menten, Joris; Hardy, Liselotte; Crucitti, Tania
Women in sub-Saharan Africa are vulnerable to acquiring HIV infection and reproductive tract infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disruption of the vaginal microbiota, has been shown to be strongly associated with HIV infection. Risk factors related to potentially protective or harmful microbiota species are not known. We present cross-sectional quantitative polymerase chain reaction data of the Lactobacillus genus, five Lactobacillus species, and three BV-related bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, and Prevotella bivia) together with Escherichia coli and Candida albicans in 426 African women across different groups at risk for HIV. We selected a reference group of adult HIV-negative women at average risk for HIV acquisition and compared species variations in subgroups of adolescents, HIV-negative pregnant women, women engaging in traditional vaginal practices, sex workers and a group of HIV-positive women on combination antiretroviral therapy. We explored the associations between presence and quantity of the bacteria with BV by Nugent score, in relation to several factors of known or theoretical importance. The presence of species across Kenyan, South African and Rwandan women was remarkably similar and few differences were seen between the two groups of reference women in Kenya and South Africa. The Rwandan sex workers and HIV-positive women had the highest G. vaginalis presence (p = 0.006). Pregnant women had a higher Lactobacillus genus mean log (7.01 genome equivalents (geq)/ml) compared to the reference women (6.08 geq/ml). L. vaginalis (43%) was second to L. iners (81.9%) highly present in women with a normal Nugent score. Recent sexual exposure negatively affected the presence of L. crispatus (<0.001), L. vaginalis (p = 0.001), and Lactobacillus genus (p < 0.001). Having more than one sexual partner in the last three months was associated with an increased prevalence of G. vaginalis (p = 0.044) and L. iners (p = 0
Soper, David E.; Nolte, Frederick S.
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) causing vaginitis. Microscopy has poor sensitivity but is used for diagnosis of trichomoniasis in resource-poor settings. We aimed to provide a more reliable diagnosis of trichomoniasis by investigating an association with leukorrhea. Women presenting for evaluation of vaginal discharge, STI exposure, or preventative gynecologic examination were evaluated for Trichomonas infection. Vaginal pH was determined and microscopy was performed by the provider, who recorded the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) per epithelial cell and the presence of clue cells, yeast, and/or motile trichomonads. Leukorrhea was defined as greater than one PMNL per epithelial cell. Culture and a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were used to detect T. vaginalis. Patients were evaluated for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using NAATs and bacterial vaginosis using Gram stains. Two hundred ninety-four women were enrolled, and 16% were found to have Trichomonas (46/294). Trichomonas infection was more common in parous non-Hispanic, black women, who reported low rates of contraceptive use (33% versus 17%; P = 0.02) and a STI history (85% versus 55%; P = 0.002). These women were more likely to report vaginal discharge (76% versus 59%; P = 0.02) and have an elevated vaginal pH (87% versus 48%; P < 0.001) and gonorrhea infection (15% versus 4%; P = 0.002). Leukorrhea was associated with a 4-fold-increased risk of Trichomonas infection. Leukorrhea on microscopy was associated with Trichomonas vaginitis. Patients with leukorrhea should be evaluated with more-sensitive tests for T. vaginalis, preferably NAATs, if microscopy is negative. PMID:23678058
Mercer, Frances; Ng, Shek Hang; Brown, Taylor M.; Boatman, Grace; Johnson, Patricia J.
T. vaginalis, a human-infective parasite, causes the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide and contributes to adverse inflammatory disorders. The immune response to T. vaginalis is poorly understood. Neutrophils (polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs]) are the major immune cell present at the T. vaginalis–host interface and are thought to clear T. vaginalis. However, the mechanism of PMN clearance of T. vaginalis has not been characterized. We demonstrate that human PMNs rapidly kill T. vaginalis in a dose-dependent, contact-dependent, and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)-independent manner. In contrast to phagocytosis, we observed that PMN killing of T. vaginalis involves taking “bites” of T. vaginalis prior to parasite death, using trogocytosis to achieve pathogen killing. Both trogocytosis and parasite killing are dependent on the presence of PMN serine proteases and human serum factors. Our analyses provide the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of a mammalian phagocyte using trogocytosis for pathogen clearance and reveal a novel mechanism used by PMNs to kill a large, highly motile target. PMID:29408891
Lopes dos Santos Santiago, Guido; Tency, Inge; Verstraelen, Hans; Verhelst, Rita; Trog, Marijke; Temmerman, Marleen; Vancoillie, Leen; Decat, Ellen; Cools, Piet; Vaneechoutte, Mario
Background To obtain more detailed understanding of the causes of disturbance of the vaginal microflora (VMF), a longitudinal study was carried out for 17 women during two menstrual cycles. Methods Vaginal swabs were obtained daily from 17 non-pregnant, menarchal volunteers. For each woman, Gram stains were scored, the quantitative changes of 5 key vaginal species, i.e. Atopobium vaginae, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. iners, (sialidase positive) Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia were quantified with qPCR and hydrogen-peroxide production was assessed on TMB+ agar. Results Women could be divided in 9 subjects with predominantly normal VMF (grades Ia, Ib and Iab, group N) and 8 with predominantly disturbed VMF (grades I-like, II, III and IV, group D). VMF was variable between women, but overall stable for most of the women. Menses were the strongest disturbing factor of the VMF. L. crispatus was present at log7–9 cells/ml in grade Ia, Iab and II VMF, but concentrations declined 100-fold during menses. L. crispatus below log7 cells/ml corresponded with poor H2O2-production. L. iners was present at log 10 cells/ml in grade Ib, II and III VMF. Sialidase negative G. vaginalis strains (average log5 cells/ml) were detected in grade I, I-like and IV VMF. In grade II VMF, predominantly a mixture of both sialidase negative and positive G. vaginalis strains (average log9 cells/ml) were present, and predominantly sialidase positive strains in grade III VMF. The presence of A. vaginae (average log9 cells/ml) coincided with grade II and III VMF. P. bivia (log4–8 cells/ml) was mostly present in grade III vaginal microflora. L. iners, G. vaginalis, A. vaginae and P. bivia all increased around menses for group N women, and as such L. iners was considered a member of disturbed VMF. Conclusions This qPCR-based study confirms largely the results of previous culture-based, microscopy-based and pyrosequencing-based studies. PMID:23028904
Edwards, Thomas; Burke, Patricia; Smalley, Helen; Hobbs, Glyn
Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Trichomoniasis is a widespread, global health concern and occurring at an increasing rate. Infections of the female genital tract can cause a range of symptoms, including vaginitis and cervicitis, while infections in males are generally asymptomatic. The relatively mild symptoms, and lack of evidence for any serious sequelae, have historically led to this disease being under diagnosed, and under researched. However, growing evidence that T. vaginalis infection is associated with other disease states with high morbidity in both men and women has increased the efforts to diagnose and treat patients harboring this parasite. The pathology of trichomoniasis results from damage to the host epithelia, caused by a variety of processes during infection and recent work has highlighted the complex interactions between the parasite and host, commensal microbiome and accompanying symbionts. The commercial release of a number of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) has added to the available diagnostic options. Immunoassay based Point of Care testing is currently available, and a recent initial evaluation of a NAAT Point of Care system has given promising results, which would enable testing and treatment in a single visit.
A case report of a pregnant woman with recalcitrant Trichomonas vaginalis is described. This case was managed with suppressive treatment with metronidazole during pregnancy and cleared with paromomycin vaginal treatment after delivery. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cudmore, Sarah L.; Delgaty, Kiera L.; Hayward-McClelland, Shannon F.; Petrin, Dino P.; Garber, Gary E.
Infections with the sexually transmitted protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis are usually treated with metronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole drug derived from the antibiotic azomycin. Metronidazole treatment is generally efficient in eliminating T. vaginalis infection and has a low risk of serious side effects. However, studies have shown that at least 5% of clinical cases of trichomoniasis are caused by parasites resistant to the drug. The lack of approved alternative therapies for T. vaginalis treatment means that higher and sometimes toxic doses of metronidazole are the only option for patients with resistant disease. Clearly, studies of the treatment and prevention of refractory trichomoniasis are essential. This review describes the mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis and provides a summary of trichomonicidal and vaccine candidate drugs. PMID:15489348
Arbabi, Mohsen; Delavari, Mahdi; Fakhrieh Kashan, Zohre; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hooshyar, Hossein
Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted protozoan diseases in the worldwide. Metronidazole is the choice drug for trichomoniasis treatment, however, metronidazole resistant Trichomonas vaginalis ( T.vaginalis ) has been reported. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and Zingiber officinale (Ginger ) is widely used ingredient in the traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of the ginger ethanol extract on the growth of T.vaginalis trophozoites in vitro. In this experimental study, 970 women who were attend in Kashan health centers were examined for T. vaginalis . Of them, 23 samples were infected with T.vaginalis . Three T. vaginalis isolates were cultured in a TYI-S-33 medium. The effect of ginger ethanol extracts and its toxicity in different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml) on mouse macrophages were measured in triplicate exam by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The effect of ginger on apoptosis induction was determined by Flow cytometry. The IC 50 of ginger and metronidazole were 93.8 and 0.0326 µg/ml, respectively. 12, 24 and 48 hr after adding different concentrations of extract on mouse macrophages, fatality rates in maximum dose (800 µg/ml) were 0.19, 0.26 and 0.31 respectively. Flow cytometry results showed the apoptosis rate following treatment with different concentrations of the extract after 48 hr were 17, 28.5, 42.1, 58.8, 76.3 and 100% respectively, while in the control group was 2.9%. Ginger ethanol extract induces programmed death in T. vaginalis . It is recommended that due to the known teratogenic effect of metronidazole, ginger can be considered as an alternative drug for metronidazole.
Lord, Emily; Newnham, Tana; Dorrell, Lucy; Jesuthasan, Gerald; Clarke, Lorraine; Jeffery, Katie; Sherrard, Jackie
Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) rates in women are increasing and many are asymptomatic. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are becoming the 'gold standard' for diagnosis. We aimed to establish our asymptomatic TV rates by testing all women attending Oxfordshire's Sexual Health service, regardless of symptoms, using the BD ProbeTec™ TV Q x NAATs (BDQ x ). During BDQ x 's verification process, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated using results of 220 endocervical samples from symptomatic women, compared with culture. BDQ x was subsequently implemented and prospectively evaluated over 6 months in female attendees. Wet mount microscopy was also performed in symptomatics. Demographic and clinical characteristics of those diagnosed were analysed. From 220 samples tested by BDQ x and culture: 5 were positive on both and one solely using BDQ x , giving a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.53%, respectively. In the prospective cohort, of 5775 BDQ x tests, 33 (0.57%) were positive. 11/33 (33%) patients were asymptomatic. All patients diagnosed had risk factors: age >25 years (85%), residence in a deprived area (79%) and black ethnicity (21%). Despite BDQ x being highly sensitive and specific, with our low TV prevalence universal screening may not be justified. Targeted screening using local demographic data merits further investigation.
Masha, Simon C; Cools, Piet; Crucitti, Tania; Sanders, Eduard J; Vaneechoutte, Mario
The protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted pathogen. Although T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among women in Kenya, there is lack of data regarding genetic diversity of isolates currently in circulation in Kenya. Typing was performed on 22 clinical isolates of T. vaginalis collected from women attending the antenatal care clinic at Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya, in 2015. Genotyping followed a previously proposed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) scheme, which involved in silico cleavage of the amplified actin gene by HindII, MseI and RsaI restriction enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis of all the sequences was performed to confirm the results obtained by RFLP-analysis and to assess the diversity within the RFLP genotypes. Additionally, we determined carriage of the four different types of Trichomonas vaginalis viruses (TVVs) by polymerase chain reaction. In silico RFLP-analysis revealed five actin genotypes; 50.0% of the isolates were of actin genotype E, 27.3% of actin genotype N, 13.6% of actin genotype G and 4.5% of actin genotypes I and P. Phylogenetic analysis was in agreement with the RFLP-analysis, with the different actin genotypes clustering together. Prevalence of TVVs was 43.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: 23.2-65.5). TVV1 was the most prevalent, present in 39.1% of the strains and 90% of the T. vaginalis isolates which harbored TVVs had more than one type of TVV. None of the isolates of actin genotype E harbored any TVV. The presence of five actin genotypes in our study suggests notable diversity among T. vaginalis isolates occurring among pregnant women in Kilifi, Kenya. Isolates of the most prevalent actin genotype E lacked TVVs. We found no association between T. vaginalis genotype, carriage of TVVs and symptoms. Further studies with higher number of strains should be conducted in order to corroborate these results.
Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana
Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.
Seo, Min-Young; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Sato, Akira; Kurosaki, Yuji; Chang, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Hye-Sook
Metronidazole is well known for medicine against Trichomonas vaginalis infection, but it has side effects though it is effective, and especially because reports of metronidazole-tolerant species are increasing, the development of new medicine is being required. Here, we noticed the killing effects of endoperoxide compounds, N-89 and N-251 as new antimalarial drug candidates, on T. vaginalis and searched the possibility of development of new medicine. We added each of metronidazole, artemisinin, and two of new endoperoxides (N-89 and N-251) to metronidazole-resistant and -sensitive species and compared its anti-trichomonal efficacy. For metronidazole, IC 50 value, 50% of killing concentration for T. vaginalis, was very low for metronidazole-sensitive isolates (11.7 to 22.8μM), but was high for metronidazole-resistant ones (182.9 to 730.4μM). The IC 50 values of N-89 and N-251 were 41.0 to 60.0μM, and 82.0 to 300.0μM for metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant isolates, respectively. In conclusion, we found the endoperoxides, N-89 and N-251, have anti-trichomonal effect against metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis as well as metronidazole-sensitive ones. These results indicate that the anti-trichomonal effects for our endoperoxides are equivalent or better in metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis in comparison to metronidazole. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hobbs, Marcia M.; Seña, Arlene C.; Sobel, Jack D.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Krieger, John N.; McClelland, R. Scott; Workowski, Kimberly A.
Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection in the United States and worldwide. Most TV infections are asymptomatic, and the accurate diagnosis of this infection has been limited by lack of sufficiently sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, particularly for men. To provide updates for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, a PubMed search was conducted of all TV literature published from 9 January 2004 through 24 September 2008. Approximately 175 pertinent abstracts and articles were reviewed and discussed with national experts. This article describes advances in TV diagnostics which have led to an improved understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen, as well as potential biologic and epidemiological interactions between TV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). New data on treatment outcomes, metronidazole-resistant TV, management of nitroimidazole-allergic patients, frequency of recurrent TV infection following treatment, and screening considerations for TV in certain populations are also presented. PMID:22080269
Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Won-Myung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul
This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease.
Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Yang, Jung-Bo; Zhou, Wei; Cha, Guang-Ho; Zhou, Yu; Ryu, Jae-Sook
Trichomonas vaginalis secretes a number of proteases which are suspected to be the cause of pathogenesis; however, little is understood how they manipulate host cells. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription. We detected various types of metalloproteinases including GP63 protein from T. vaginalis trophozoites, and T. vaginalis GP63 metalloproteinase was confirmed by sequencing and western blot. When SiHa cells were stimulated with live T. vaginalis, T. vaginalis excretory-secretory products (ESP) or T. vaginalis lysate, live T. vaginalis and T. vaginalis ESP induced the mTOR cleavage in both time- and parasite load-dependent manner, but T. vaginalis lysate did not. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with a metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1,10-phenanthroline, completely disappeared the mTOR cleavage in SiHa cells. Collectively, T. vaginalis metallopeptidase induces host cell mTOR cleavage, which may be related to survival of the parasite. PMID:25548410
Tan, Wei Keith; Tan, Mae-Yen; Tan, Hui Meng; Pathmanathan, Rajadurai; Tan, Wei Phin
A 39-year-old man presented with painless scrotal swelling for 2 months. He denied any asbestos exposure but worked with wall and ceiling plaster. Physical exam revealed a large right scrotum which transilluminated. Scrotal ultrasonography revealed a large right hydrocele and a polypoidal mass along the anterior wall of the scrotum. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and computed tomography of the chest showed no metastases. He underwent a right inguinal scrotal exploration and wide excision of tunica vaginalis and a partial epididymectomy. Pathology revealed well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis. The patient had an uneventful recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States as Determined by the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay
Chapin, K.; Smith, J. S.; Aslanzadeh, J.; Snook, J.; Hill, C. S.; Gaydos, C. A.
Our aim was to determine Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence using the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis assay (ATV; Gen-Probe) and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfections in U.S. women undergoing screening for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae. Discarded urogenital samples from 7,593 women (18 to 89 years old) undergoing C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae screening using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe) in various clinical settings were tested with ATV. Overall, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae prevalences were 8.7%, 6.7%, and 1.7%, respectively. T. vaginalis was more prevalent than C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae in all age groups except the 18- to 19-year-old group. The highest T. vaginalis prevalence was in women ≥40 years old (>11%), while the highest C. trachomatis prevalence (9.2%) and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence (2.2%) were in women <30 years old. Coinfection prevalences were 1.3% for C. trachomatis/T. vaginalis, 0.61% for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae and N. gonorrhoeae/T. vaginalis, and 0.24% for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae/T. vaginalis and highest in women <30 years old. T. vaginalis prevalence differed by race/ethnicity, with the highest prevalence in black women (20.2%). T. vaginalis prevalence ranged from 5.4% in family planning clinics to 22.3% in jails. Multivariate analysis determined that ages of ≥40 years, black race, and patient locations were significantly associated with T. vaginalis infection. T. vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in women of >40 years, while C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence is lowest in that age group. Higher T. vaginalis prevalence in women of >40 years is probably attributed to the reason for testing, i.e., symptomatic status versus routine screening in younger women. Coinfections were relatively low. High T. vaginalis prevalence in all age groups suggests that women screened for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae, whether asymptomatic or
Mielczarek, Ewelina; Blaszkowska, Joanna
Trichomonas vaginalis, which colonizes the genitourinary tract of men and women, is a sexually transmitted parasite causing symptomatic or asymptomatic trichomoniasis. The host-parasite relationship is very complex, and clinical symptoms cannot likely be attributed to a single pathogenic effect. Among the many factors responsible for interactions between T. vaginalis and host tissues, contact-dependent and contact-independent mechanisms are important in pathogenicity, as is the immune response. This review focuses on the potential virulence properties of T. vaginalis and its role in female and male infertility. It highlights the association between T. vaginalis infection and serious adverse health consequences experienced by women, including infertility, preterm birth and low-birth-weight infants. Long-term clinical observations and results of in vitro experimental studies indicate that in men, trichomoniasis has been also associated with infertility through inflammatory damage to the genitourinary tract or interference with sperm function. These results contribute significantly to improving our knowledge of the role of parasitic virulence factors in the development of infection and its role in human infertility.
Brittingham, Andrew; Wilson, Wayne A
The treatment options for trichomoniasis are largely limited to nitroimidazole compounds (metronidazole and tinidazole). Few alternatives exist in cases of recalcitrant infections or in cases of nitroimidazole hypersensitivity. Recently, the intravaginal administration of boric acid has been advocated as an alternative treatment of trichomoniasis. However, no in vitro studies are available that directly assess the sensitivity of Trichomonas vaginalis to boric acid. We examined the sensitivity of common laboratory strains and recent clinical isolates of T. vaginalis to boric acid. The effect of increasing concentrations of boric acid on parasite growth and viability was determined, and a minimal lethal concentration was reported. The effect of pH on boric acid toxicity was assessed and compared with that of lactic and acetic acid. Boric acid is microbicidal to T. vaginalis, and its antitrichomonal activity is independent of environmental acidification. Unlike acetic acid and lactic acid, boric acid exposure results in growth suppression and lethality over a wide range of pH (5-7) and under conditions that are normally permissible for growth in vitro. The microbicidal effect of boric acid on T. vaginalis, coupled with its previous clinical use in treating vaginal candidiasis, supports the continued inclusion of boric acid in the therapeutic arsenal for treating trichomoniasis.
Nievas, Yesica R; Vashisht, Ajay A; Corvi, Maria M; Metz, Sebastian; Johnson, Patricia J; Wohlschlegel, James A; de Miguel, Natalia
The flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. As an obligate extracellular pathogen, adherence to epithelial cells is critical for parasite survival within the human host and a better understanding of this process is a prerequisite for the development of therapies to combat infection. In this sense, recent work has shown S-acylation as a key modification that regulates pathogenesis in different protozoan parasites. However, there are no reports indicating whether this post-translational modification is a mechanism operating in T. vaginalis. In order to study the extent and function of S-acylation in T. vaginalis biology, we undertook a proteomic study to profile the full scope of S-acylated proteins in this parasite and reported the identification of 363 proteins involved in a variety of biological processes such as protein transport, pathogenesis related and signaling, among others. Importantly, treatment of parasites with the palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate causes a significant decrease in parasite: parasite aggregation as well as adherence to host cells suggesting that palmitoylation could be modifying proteins that are key regulators of Trichomonas vaginalis pathogenesis. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Brown, D M; Upcroft, J A; Dodd, H N; Chen, N; Upcroft, P
We have induced high levels of resistance to metronidazole (1 mM or 170 microg ml(-1)) in two different strains of Trichomonas vaginalis (BRIS/92/STDL/F1623 and BRIS/92/STDL/B7708) and have used one strain to identify two alternative T. vaginalis 2-keto acid oxidoreductases (KOR) both of which are distinct from the already characterised pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). Unlike the characterised PFOR which is severely down-regulated in metronidazole-resistant parasites, both of the alternative KORs are fully active in metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis. The first, KORI, localized in all membrane fractions but predominantly in the hydrogenosome fraction, is soluble in Triton X-100 and the second, KOR2, is extractable in 1 M acetate from membrane fractions of metronidazole-resistant parasites. PFOR and both KORI and KOR2 use a broad range of 2-keto acids as substrates (pyruvate, alpha-ketobutyrate, alpha-ketomalonate), including the deaminated forms of aromatic amino acids (indolepyruvate and phenylpyruvate). However, unlike PFOR neither KORI or KOR2 was able to use oz-ketoglutarate. Deaminated forms of branched chain amino acids (alpha-ketoisovalerate) were not substrates for T. vaginalis KORs. Since KOR I and KOR2 do not apparently donate electrons to ferredoxin, and are not down-regulated in metronidazole-resistant parasites, we propose that KORI and KOR2 provide metronidazole-resistant parasites with an alternative energy production pathway(s) which circumvents metronidazole activation.
dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana
Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis. PMID:26393928
Pachano, Tomas; Nievas, Yesica R; Lizarraga, Ayelen; Johnson, Patricia J; Strobl-Mazzulla, Pablo H; de Miguel, Natalia
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Different T. vaginalis strains vary greatly in their adherence and cytolytic capacities. These phenotypic differences might be attributed to differentially expressed genes as a consequence of extra-genetic variation, such as epigenetic modifications. In this study, we explored the role of histone acetylation in regulating gene transcription and pathogenesis in T. vaginalis. Here, we show that histone 3 lysine acetylation (H3KAc) is enriched in nucleosomes positioned around the transcription start site of active genes (BAP1 and BAP2) in a highly adherent parasite strain; compared with the low acetylation abundance in contrast to that observed in a less-adherent strain that expresses these genes at low levels. Additionally, exposition of less-adherent strain with a specific histone deacetylases inhibitor, trichostatin A, upregulated the transcription of BAP1 and BAP2 genes in concomitance with an increase in H3KAc abundance and chromatin accessibility around their transcription start sites. Moreover, we demonstrated that the binding of initiator binding protein, the transcription factor responsible for the initiation of transcription of ~75% of known T. vaginalis genes, depends on the histone acetylation state around the metazoan-like initiator to which initiator binding protein binds. Finally, we found that trichostatin A treatment increased parasite aggregation and adherence to host cells. Our data demonstrated for the first time that H3KAc is a permissive histone modification that functions to mediate both transcription and pathogenesis of the parasite T. vaginalis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana
Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis.
Huneeus, Andrea; Schilling, Andrea; Fernandez, Mario I
To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis infection in sexually active Chilean adolescents and young adults. A comparative analysis was performed between genders to identify demographic, clinical, and sexual behavior characteristics to predict the occurrence of C trachomatis. Analytical observational study. Santiago, Chile. Two hundred eighty-six sexually active volunteers aged 24 years or younger (171 female and 115 male); 82.9% (237/286) of them were classified as having high socioeconomic status. Confidential survey and self-collected samples (urine for men and vaginal swabs for women). Prevalence, demographic characteristics, symptoms, and sexual behavior characteristics. The prevalence rate of C trachomatis was 8.7% (10/115) in men and 8.8% (15/171) in women (P = .58). N gonorrhoeae was detected in 1 subject, whereas no T vaginalis cases were detected. In multivariate analysis, having some college education was protective (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.89), whereas having a higher number of sexual partners was a risk factor (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3) for C trachomatis infection. The latter was also predicted by postcoital bleeding (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.30-16.23) in the female model. C trachomatis infection rates were similar between both genders. Protective characteristics for the occurrence of this infection were having some college education, lower number of sexual partners, and if female, the absence of postcoital bleeding. This study highlights the importance of C trachomatis screening among the Chilean affluent population younger than 25 years. However, further studies are needed in a more diverse and representative sample to recommend universal screening in Chilean adolescents and young adults. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Experiment ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. IV. Mitteilung: Vitamine, die das Wachstum von Trichomonas Vaginalis Beguenstigen (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. IV. Communication: Vitamins Favouring the Growth of Trichomonas Vaginalis),
A number of vitamins have been investigated for their influence upon Trichomonas vaginalis . At a concentration of 0.20 mg ml vitamin A has...stimulating action upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . Vitamin D2 has been shown to favour Trichomonas multiplication in all experimental series...Vitamin D3 generally favours the Trichomonas vaginalis population. Addition of vitamin E resulted in enhanced multiplication of Trichomonas and longer
Gaydos, C. A.; Davis, T.; Marrazzo, J.; Furgerson, D.; Taylor, S. N.; Smith, B.; Bachmann, L. H.; Ackerman, R.; Spurrell, T.; Ferris, D.; Burnham, C.-A. D.; Reno, H.; Lebed, J.; Eisenberg, D.; Kerndt, P.; Philip, S.; Jordan, J.; Quigley, N.
ABSTRACT Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted disease (STD). It has been associated with preterm birth and the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Recently, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have been FDA cleared in the United States for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in specimens from both women and men. This study reports the results of a multicenter study recently conducted using the Xpert TV (T. vaginalis) assay to test specimens from both men and women. On-demand results were available in as little as 40 min for positive specimens. A total of 1,867 women and 4,791 men were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. In women, the performance of the Xpert TV assay was compared to the patient infected status (PIS) derived from the results of InPouch TV broth culture and Aptima NAAT for T. vaginalis. The diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of the Xpert TV assay for the combined female specimens (urine samples, self-collected vaginal swabs, and endocervical swabs) ranged from 99.5 to 100% and 99.4 to 99.9%, respectively. For male urine samples, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 97.2% and 99.9%, respectively, compared to PIS results derived from the results of broth culture for T. vaginalis and bidirectional gene sequencing of amplicons. Excellent performance characteristics were seen using both female and male specimens. The ease of using the Xpert TV assay should result in opportunities for enhanced screening for T. vaginalis in both men and women and, hopefully, improved control of this infection. PMID:29167292
Schwebke, Jane R; Gaydos, C A; Davis, T; Marrazzo, J; Furgerson, D; Taylor, S N; Smith, B; Bachmann, L H; Ackerman, R; Spurrell, T; Ferris, D; Burnham, C A; Reno, H; Lebed, J; Eisenberg, D; Kerndt, P; Philip, S; Jordan, J; Quigley, N
Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted disease (STD). It has been associated with preterm birth and the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Recently, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have been FDA cleared in the United States for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in specimens from both women and men. This study reports the results of a multicenter study recently conducted using the Xpert TV ( T. vaginalis ) assay to test specimens from both men and women. On-demand results were available in as little as 40 min for positive specimens. A total of 1,867 women and 4,791 men were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. In women, the performance of the Xpert TV assay was compared to the patient infected status (PIS) derived from the results of InPouch TV broth culture and Aptima NAAT for T. vaginalis The diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of the Xpert TV assay for the combined female specimens (urine samples, self-collected vaginal swabs, and endocervical swabs) ranged from 99.5 to 100% and 99.4 to 99.9%, respectively. For male urine samples, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 97.2% and 99.9%, respectively, compared to PIS results derived from the results of broth culture for T. vaginalis and bidirectional gene sequencing of amplicons. Excellent performance characteristics were seen using both female and male specimens. The ease of using the Xpert TV assay should result in opportunities for enhanced screening for T. vaginalis in both men and women and, hopefully, improved control of this infection. Copyright © 2018 Schwebke et al.
Forbes, Georgina L; Drayton, Rachel; Forbes, Gavin D
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted protozoan infection resulting in vulvo-vaginitis and altered vaginal discharge in symptomatic women. Trichomoniasis has been implicated in causing adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight and pre-term labour. Metronidazole is the recommended first-line treatment for trichomonal infection. Other nitroimidazoles, such as tinidazole, are used as alternative regimens with similar activity but at a greater expense. Treatment failure usually represents patient non-compliance or re-infection, although metronidazole resistance has previously been documented. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for T. vaginalis is currently not available in the UK. Patients with disease unresponsive to first-line treatments pose a major challenge, as therapeutic options are limited. We present the case of a patient with presumed resistant infection during pregnancy, and the additional treatment issues that this presented. © The Author(s) 2015.
Meingassner, J G; Havelec, L; Mieth, H
Ninety-four strains of Trichomonas vaginalis isolated from unselected patients in Vienna during the period from November 1975 to November 1975 were subjected to sensitivity tests against metronidazole in vitro and in vivo. Nearly 90% of the isolates examined showed in vitro growth inhibition at concentrations of 0.4 to 1.6 microgram metronidazole/ml and only about 10% at concentrations of less than 0.4 microgram/ml. All isolates showed some inhibition of growth after incubation for 48 hours with 3.2 microgram metroidazole/ml. Tests on treatment carried out on experimentally infected mice revealed that all strains of T. vaginalis examined were sensitive to metronidazole (MDE: less than 3 x 35 mg/kg peroral). PMID:305807
Martinotti, M G; Martinetto, P; Savoia, D
The in vitro adherence to WISH cells of a pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis strain was studied with a method utilizing thymidine-labeled protozoa. A marked dose-related adherence was observed. Glutaraldehyde fixed trichomonads were not adherent. The presence of fetal calf serum during the assay did not influence attachment. Concanavalin A inhibited adherence of protozoa. Complete or partial inhibition of adherence was achieved by preincubating WISH cells with Lactobacillus fermentum or Streptococcus agalactiae. Finally, pretreatment of cells with alpha-estradiol, beta-estradiol, progesterone and estrone influenced attachment of protozoa, whereas estriol was ineffective. These results suggest that adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis is dependent on different factors, whose manipulation may have clinical relevance in preventing recurrence of trichomonad vaginitis.
Sears, S D; O'Hare, J
We determined the susceptibilities of five strains of Trichomonas vaginalis, one of which was metronidazole resistant, to 50 antimicrobial agents. For the metronidazole-susceptible strains, the most active agents were metronidazole, tinidazole, mebendazole, furazolidone, and anisomycin. Against the resistant strain mebendazole, furazolidone, and anisomycin were the most active. Antifungal agents, beta-lactams, macrolides, aminoglycosides, and folic acid antagonists were ineffective against all strains. PMID:3258142
Küng, Erik; Pietrzak, Jacek; Klaus, Christoph; Walochnik, Julia
Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease. It is associated with a wide spectrum of complications, including infertility and increased susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A rising number of reports of Trichomonas vaginalis strains resistant to metronidazole has driven the search for new compounds. In the present study, the in vitro effects of the common antiseptic octenidine dihydrochloride against T. vaginalis were tested on metronidazole-resistant and -susceptible strains. Assays were performed under microaerophilic conditions in three different media containing varying concentrations of protein. It was shown that octenidine dihydrochloride is highly effective against T. vaginalis, with no difference between metronidazole-resistant and -susceptible strains. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values ranged from 5.7 to 21.37μg/mL after 5min, from 6.48 to 10.82μg/mL after 15min and from 0.68 to 2.11μg/mL after 30min of treatment depending on the protein concentration of the test medium. Octenidine dihydrochloride, already approved in some countries for the treatment of bacterial and fungal vaginal infections, appears to be a promising alternative treatment for trichomoniasis, particularly in mixed vaginal infections or in cases caused by metronidazole-resistant strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Smutná, Tamara; Gonçalves, Vera L.; Saraiva, Lígia M.; Tachezy, Jan; Teixeira, Miguel; Hrdý, Ivan
Trichomonas vaginalis is one of a few eukaryotes that have been found to encode several homologues of flavodiiron proteins (FDPs). Widespread among anaerobic prokaryotes, these proteins are believed to function as oxygen and/or nitric oxide reductases to provide protection against oxidative/nitrosative stresses and host immune responses. One of the T. vaginalis FDP homologues is equipped with a hydrogenosomal targeting sequence and is expressed in the hydrogenosomes, oxygen-sensitive organelles that participate in carbohydrate metabolism and assemble iron-sulfur clusters. The bacterial homologues characterized thus far have been dimers or tetramers; the trichomonad protein is a dimer of identical 45-kDa subunits, each noncovalently binding one flavin mononucleotide. The protein reduces dioxygen to water but is unable to utilize nitric oxide as a substrate, similarly to its closest homologue from another human parasite Giardia intestinalis and related archaebacterial proteins. T. vaginalis FDP is able to accept electrons derived from pyruvate or NADH via ferredoxin and is proposed to play a role in the protection of hydrogenosomes against oxygen. PMID:19011120
Queza, Macario Ireneo P; Rivera, Windell L
Trichomonas vaginalis is a pathogenic protozoon which causes the sexually transmitted infection, trichomoniasis. The absence or non-specificity of symptoms often leads to misdiagnosis of the infection. In this study, 969 samples consisting of vaginal swabs and urine were collected and screened from social hygiene clinics across the Philippines. Of the 969 samples, 216 were used for the comparative analysis of diagnostic tools such as wet mount microscopy, culture, and PCR utilizing universal trichomonad primers, TFR1/2 and species-specific primers, TVK3/7 and TV1/2. PCR demonstrated higher sensitivity of 100% compared to 77% of the wet mount. PCR primer set TVK3/7 and culture had the same and the best expected average performance [receiver-operating characteristic (ROC): 0.98]. Prevalence of infection in the sample population was 6.8%. PMID:23683368
Khanaliha, Khadijeh; Masoumi-Asl, Hossein; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Tabatabaei, Azardokht; Naghdalipoor, Mehri
The Totiviridae family includes a number of viruses that can infect protozoan parasites such as Leishmania and Giardia and fungi like Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis are also infected with one or more double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. In this study, the frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV1) was evaluated in Iranian isolates of T. vaginalis in Tehran, Iran. One thousand five hundred vaginal samples were collected from patients attending obstetrics and gynaecology hospitals associated with Iran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran from October 2015 to September 2016. Trichomonas vaginalis isolates were cultured in Diamond's modified medium. Nucleic acids were extracted using a DNA/RNA extraction kit and RT-PCR was performed. Among 1500 collected vaginal samples, 8 (0.53%) cases of T. vaginalis infection were found. Half (4/8) of the T. vaginalis positive cases were infected with TVV1. Phylogenetic mapping indicated that the Iranian isolates were most closely related to TVV1-OC5, TVV1-UR1. Iranian isolates of T. vaginalis were infected with TVV1. The frequency of viral infection (TVV1) in T. vaginalis isolates found in this study is higher than previously reported in Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Glehn, Mateus De Paula von; Sá, Lana Cristina Evangelista Ferreira; Silva, Hian Delfino Ferreira da; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues
Trichomonas vaginalis is considered the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection, and its occurrence exceeds that of gonococcal and chlamydia infections. This parasite has been identified as responsible for the increased risk of transmission of HIV and has also been associated with prostate and cervical cancer. Many carriers of T. vaginalis are asymptomatic and, when experiencing a health problem, they most often have nonspecific symptoms. The aim of this research was to estimate the presence of T. vaginalis and the associated factors in women of childbearing age at a primary health care clinic in the Federal District of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with consecutive sampling of an outpatient population of women of childbearing age (excluding minors and pregnant women). The women answered a questionnaire and were examined. After vaginal pH measurement and whiff testing, a vaginal secretion sample was obtained for inoculation in TYM, a specific T. vaginalis culture medium. The presence of T. vaginalis was identified in 16% of the sample. Fewer lifetime sexual partners and consistent condom use were identified as factors of protection against the infection. Complaints of dyspareunia were proportionally higher among women with positive cultures for T. vaginalis. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection was high in the sample studied. The infection was positively associated with the number of lifetime sexual partners, and consistent condom use was a protective factor. Vaginal complaints were more common among women with T. vaginalis, but only dyspareunia had significant association.
Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis.
Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Augostini, Peter; Asbel, Lenore E; Bernstein, Kyle T; Kerani, Roxanne P; Mettenbrink, Christie J; Pathela, Preeti; Schwebke, Jane R; Secor, W Evan; Workowski, Kimberly A; Davis, Darlene; Braxton, Jim; Weinstock, Hillard S
Nitroimidazoles (metronidazole and tinidazole) are the only recommended drugs for treating Trichomonas vaginalis infection, and previous samples that assessed resistance of such isolates have been limited in geographic scope. We assessed the prevalence of in vitro aerobic metronidazole and tinidazole resistance among T. vaginalis isolates from multiple geographic sites in the United States. Swab specimens were obtained from women who underwent routine pelvic examinations at sexually transmitted disease clinics in 6 US cities. Cultured T. vaginalis isolates were tested for nitroimidazole resistance (aerobic minimum lethal concentration [MLC] >50 µg/mL). Of 538 T. vaginalis isolates, 23 (4.3%) exhibited low-level in vitro metronidazole resistance (minimum lethal concentrations 50-100 µg/mL). No isolates exhibited moderate- to high-level metronidazole resistance or tinidazole resistance. Results highlight the possibility that reliance on a single class of antimicrobial drugs for treating T. vaginalis infections may heighten vulnerability to emergence of resistance. Thus, novel treatment options are needed.
Muzny, Christina A; Burkholder, Greer A; Fry, Karen R; Austin, Erika L; Schwebke, Jane R
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection. T. vaginalis nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) recently became available at the University of Alabama at Birmingham human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic. The objective of this study was to determine the uptake of T. vaginalis NAAT testing among clinic providers during the first year of test availability in addition to T. vaginalis prevalence and predictors based on NAAT results. This was a retrospective review of HIV+ women and men ages ≥16 years at the University of Alabama at Birmingham HIV Clinic, including those receiving a T. vaginalis NAAT on a genitourinary specimen. Between August 2014 and August 2015, 3163 HIV+ patients were seen (768 women, 2395 men), of whom 861 (27.3%) received a T. vaginalis NAAT; 402 women (52.3%) and 459 men (19.2%). Among those with T. vaginalis NAAT results, 70 (17.4%) of 402 women and 12 (2.6%) of 459 men (9 men who have sex with women, 1 man who has sex with men, 2 unknown) tested positive. In adjusted analyses for women, age ≤40 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-6.96), current cocaine use (OR, 4.86; 95% CI, 1.57-15.06), and CD4 < 200 cells/mm (OR, 6.09; 95% CI, 1.68-22.11) were significantly associated with increased odds of a positive T. vaginalis NAAT. For those with a positive T. vaginalis NAAT, treatment was prescribed for 65 (92.9%) of 70 women and 10 (83.3%) of 12 men. Initial uptake of T. vaginalis NAAT testing was modest at this HIV clinic yet identified a high prevalence among women tested. Emphasis on the need for testing in HIV+ women is necessary.
de Waaij, Dewi J; Ouburg, Sander; Dubbink, Jan Henk; Peters, Remco P H; Morré, Servaas A
This is an evaluation study of the Presto(plus) Assay for T. vaginalis by comparing to the TIB MOLBIOL LightMix Kit Trichomonas vaginalis Assay using 615 dry collected vaginal and rectal swabs. Discordant samples were analyzed by the Qiagen® Microbial DNA qPCR for TV Assay. Both assays showed comparable performances (McNemar p>0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brugerolle, G; Bricheux, G; Coffe, G
Anti-centrin monoclonal antibodies 20H5 and 11B2 produced against Clamydomononas centrin decorated the group of basal bodies as well as very closely attached structures in all trichomonads studied and in the devescovinids Foaina and Devescovina. Moreover, these antibodies decorated the undulating membrane in Trichomonas vaginalis, Trichomitus batrachorum, and Tritrichomonas foetus, and the cresta in Foaina. Centrin was not demonstrated in the dividing spindle and paradesmosis. Immunogold labeling, both in pre- and post-embedding, confirmed that centrin is associated with the basal body cylinder and is a component of the nine anchoring arms between the terminal plate of flagellar bases and the plasma-membrane. Centrin is also associated with the hook-shaped fibers attached to basal bodies (F1, F3), the X-fiber, and along sigmoid fibers (F2) at the pelta-axostyle junction, which is the microtubule organizing center for pelta-axostyle microtubules. There was no labeling on the striated costa and parabasal fibers nor on microtubular pelta-axostyle, but the fibrous structure inside the undulating membrane was labeled in T. vaginalis. Two proteins of 22-20 kDa corresponding to the centrin molecular mass were recognized by immunoblotting using these antibodies in the three trichomonad species examined. By screening a T. vaginalis cDNA library with 20H5 antibody, two genes encoding identical protein sequences were found. The sequence comprises the 4 typical EF-hand Ca++-binding domains present in every known centrin. Trichomonad centrin is closer to the green algal cluster (70% identity) than to the yeast Cdc31 cluster (55% identity) or the Alveolata cluster (46% identity).
Lustig, Gila; Ryan, Christopher M.; Secor, W. Evan
Trichomonas vaginalis is an extracellular protozoan parasite that binds to the epithelium of the human urogenital tract during infection. In this study, we examined the propensities of 26 T. vaginalis strains to bind to and lyse prostate (BPH-1) and ectocervical (Ect1) epithelium and to lyse red blood cells (RBCs). We found that only three of the strains had a statistically significant preference for either BPH-1 (MSA1103) or Ect1 (LA1 and MSA1123). Overall, we observed that levels of adherence are highly variable among strains, with a 12-fold range of adherence on Ect1 cells and a 45-fold range on BPH-1 cells. Cytolysis levels displayed even greater variability, from no detectable cytolysis to 80% or 90% cytolysis of Ect1 and BPH-1, respectively. Levels of adherence and cytolysis correlate for weakly adherent/cytolytic strains, and a threshold of attachment was found to be necessary to trigger cytolysis; however, this threshold can be reached without inducing cytolysis. Furthermore, cytolysis was completely blocked when we prevented attachment of the parasites to host cells while allowing soluble factors complete access. We demonstrate that hemolysis was a rare trait, with only 4 of the 26 strains capable of lysing >20% RBCs with a 1:30 parasite/RBC ratio. Hemolysis also did not correlate with adherence to or cytolysis of either male (BPH-1)- or female (Ect1)-derived epithelial cell lines. Our results reveal that despite a broad range of pathogenic properties among different T. vaginalis strains, all strains show strict contact-dependent cytolysis. PMID:23429535
Brugerolle, G; Bricheux, G; Coffe, G
Three monoclonal antibodies specific for malic enzyme and for the alpha- and beta-subunits, respectively, of the succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase of Trichomonas vaginalis were used to immunolocalize these proteins in the cell. All antibodies labeled the hydrogenosome matrix as determined both by immunofluorescence and by immunogold staining. There was no labeling on the cell surface or in any other cell compartment. These results support the idea that these proteins are restricted to a hydrogenosomal function and do not play a role as adhesins at the plasma membrane surface.
Lee, Jong Jin; Moon, Hong Sang; Lee, Tchun Yong; Hwang, Hwan Sik; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook
The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of PCR for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among male patients with chronic recurrent prostatitis and urethritis. Between June 2001 and December 2003, a total of 33 patients visited the Department of Urology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital and were examined for T. vaginalis infection by PCR and culture in TYM medium. For the PCR, we used primers based on a repetitive sequence cloned from T. vaginalis (TV-E650). Voided bladder urine (VB1 and VB3) was sampled from 33 men with symptoms of lower urinary tract infection (urethral charge, residual urine sensation, and frequency). Culture failed to detect any T. vaginalis infection whereas PCR identified 7 cases of trichomoniasis (21.2%). Five of the 7 cases had been diagnosed with prostatitis and 2 with urethritis. PCR for the 5 prostatitis cases yielded a positive 330 bp band from bothVB1 and VB3, whereas positive results were only obtained from VB1 for the 2 urethritis patients. We showed that the PCR method could detect T. vaginalis when there was only 1 T. vaginalis cell per PCR mixture. Our results strongly support the usefulness of PCR on urine samples for detecting T. vaginalis in chronic prostatitis and urethritis patients.
Momeni, Zohreh; Sadraei, Javid; Kazemi, Bahram; Dalimi, Abdolhossein
Trichomonas vaginalis is a human urogenital pathogen that causes trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral, parasitic sexually transmitted infection in the world. At present, little is known regarding the degree of strain variability of T. vaginalis. A classification method for T. vaginalis strains would be a useful tool in the study of the epidemiology, drug resistance, pathogenesis and transmission of T. vaginalis. Eight different types of actin genes have been identified by PCR-RFLP in T. vaginalis; the purpose of this study is to determine the genotypes of this parasite in Karaj city, Iran. Forty-five clinical T. vaginalis isolates from vaginal secretions and urine sediment were collected from Karaj city from 2012 through 2014. DNA was extracted and the actin gene was amplified by nested-PCR; all samples were positive. To determine the genetic differences, sequencing on seven samples was conducted. Then, all PCR products were digested with HindII, MseI, and RsaI restriction enzymes. Of 45 isolates, 23 samples (51.1%) were of actin genotype G, 11 samples (24.4%) of genotype E, six samples (13.3%) of genotype H, three samples (6.6%) of genotype I, and two samples (4.4%) were mixed genotypes of G and E. Genetic diversity of T. vaginalis isolates is notable. The actin genotype G may be the dominant genotype in Karaj city, Iran. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Im, S J; Han, I H; Kim, J H; Gu, N Y; Seo, M Y; Chung, Y H; Ryu, J S
While Trichomonas vaginalis, a cause of sexually transmitted infection, is known as a surface-dwelling protozoa, trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissue from benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis by immunoperoxidase assay or PCR. However, the immune response of prostate stromal cells infected with T. vaginalis has not been investigated. Our objective was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce an inflammatory response in prostate stromal cells. Incubation of a human prostate stromal myofibroblast cells (WPMY-1) with live T. vaginalis T016 increased expression of the inflammatory chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2. In addition, TLR4, ROS, MAPK and NF-κB expression increased, while inhibitors of TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB reduced CXCL8 and CCL2 production. Medium conditioned by incubation of WPMY-1 cells with T. vaginalis stimulated the migration of human neutrophils and monocytes (THP-1 cells). We conclude that T. vaginalis increases CXCL8 and CCL2 production by human prostate stromal cells by activating TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB, and this in turn attracts neutrophils and monocytes and leads to an inflammatory response. This study is the first attempt to demonstrate an inflammatory reaction in prostate stromal cells caused by T. vaginalis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Serwin, Agnieszka Beata; Bulhak-Koziol, Violetta; Sokolowska, Marianna; Golparian, Daniel; Unemo, Magnus
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common curable sexually transmitted pathogen globally. However, in the European Union (EU), trichomoniasis appears to be a rare condition. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of T. vaginalis among females attending an STI centre in Bialystok, Poland, using the highly sensitive and specific APTIMA T. vaginalis assay. Consecutive females, referred by gynaecologists mainly because of abnormal vaginal discharge, were diagnosed using wet mount microscopy, culture and APTIMA T. vaginalis assay. Among 272 women studied, 82% were pre- and 18% postmenopausal. The average age was 36.0 ± 13.9 (range: 18-86) years. Abnormal discharge (alone or accompanied by itch or vulvovaginal burning) was the most frequent complain in both groups (66.2% and 48.0%). Erythema and discharge were the most frequent abnormal signs (58.6% and 56.0%). Not a single T. vaginalis-positive sample was detected using wet mount microscopy, culture or APTIMA T. vaginalis assay. Despite using the highly sensitive APTIMA T. vaginalis assay for detection, the pathogen could not be identified in females in the studied setting, similar to results from other EU settings. The need for general screening using NAAT for this pathogen while diagnosing vulvovaginal symptoms in females in Poland appears to be low. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nathan, B; Appiah, J; Saunders, P; Heron, D; Nichols, T; Brum, R; Alexander, S; Baraitser, P; Ison, C
In the UK, despite its low sensitivity, wet mount microscopy is often the only method of detecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection. A study was conducted in symptomatic women to compare the performance of five methods for detecting T. vaginalis: an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Aptima T. vaginalis kit; OSOM ®Trichomonas Rapid Test; culture and microscopy. Symptomatic women underwent routine testing; microscopy and further swabs were taken for molecular testing, OSOM and culture. A true positive was defined as a sample that was positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Two hundred and forty-six women were recruited: 24 patients were positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Of these 24 patients, 21 patients were detected by real-time PCR (sensitivity 88%); 22 patients were detected by the Aptima T. vaginalis kit (sensitivity 92%); 22 patients were detected by OSOM (sensitivity 92%); nine were detected by wet mount microscopy (sensitivity 38%); and 21 were detected by culture (sensitivity 88%). Two patients were positive by just one method and were not considered true positives. All the other detection methods had a sensitivity to detect T. vaginalis that was significantly greater than wet mount microscopy, highlighting the number of cases that are routinely missed even in symptomatic women if microscopy is the only diagnostic method available. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Hawksworth, Joseph; Levy, Max; Smale, Chloe; Cheung, Dean; Whittle, Alice; Longhurst, Denise; Muir, Peter; Gibson, Wendy
The protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, an extremely common, but non-life-threatening, sexually-transmitted disease throughout the world. Recent population genetics studies of T. vaginalis have detected high genetic diversity and revealed a two-type population structure, associated with phenotypic differences in sensitivity to metronidazole, the drug commonly used for treatment, and presence of T. vaginalis virus. There is currently a lack of data on UK isolates; most isolates examined to date are from the US. Here we used a recently described system for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of T. vaginalis to study diversity of clinical isolates from Bristol, UK. We used MLST to characterise 23 clinical isolates of T. vaginalis collected from female patients during 2013. Seven housekeeping genes were PCR-amplified for each isolate and sequenced. The concatenated sequences were then compared with data from other MLST-characterised isolates available from http://tvaginalis.mlst.net/ to analyse the population structure and construct phylogenetic trees. Among the 23 isolates from the Bristol population of T. vaginalis, we found 23 polymorphic nucleotide sites, 25 different alleles and 19 sequence types (genotypes). Most isolates had a unique genotype, in agreement with the high levels of heterogeneity observed elsewhere in the world. A two-type population structure was evident from population genetic analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction split the isolates into two major clades. Tests for recombination in the Bristol population of T. vaginalis gave conflicting results, suggesting overall a clonal pattern of reproduction. We conclude that the Bristol population of T. vaginalis parasites conforms to the two-type population structure found in most other regions of the world. We found the MLST scheme to be an efficient genotyping method. The online MLST database provides a useful repository and resource that will prove
Peterson, K M; Alderete, J F
Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis and fluorography and fluorography technology revealed that pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was able to acquire numerous loosely associated plasma proteins during incubation in normal human plasma. These proteins were readily removed by repeated washing of the parasite in phosphate-buffered saline. Plasma proteins avidly bound to the surface of T. vaginalis were also detected using a highly sensitive and specific agglutination assay with protein A-bearing Staphylococcus aureus pretreated with monospecific antiserum directed against individual human serum proteins. These avidly associated plasma proteins could not be removed by repeated washing in phosphate-buffered saline or by treatment of washed, live organisms with surface-modifying reagents such as trypsin and periodate. A combined radioimmunoprecipitation-gel electrophoresis-fluorography methodology indicated that parasite biosynthesis of hostlike macromolecules was not responsible for the observed agglutination and reinforced the idea of trichosomal acquisition of plasma components. Finally, incubation of trichomonads with plasma in various buffers at different pH values did not alter the agglutination patterns. These and other data suggest that specific membrane sites trichomonal binding of host proteins. The biological significance of our results is discussed.
Quintas-Granados, Laura Itzel; Carvajal Gamez, Bertha Isabel; Villalpando, Jose Luis; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana; Azuara-Liceaga, Elisa; Álvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth
The Trichomonas vaginalis genome analysis suggested the presence of a putative deoxyhypusine synthase (TvDHS) that catalyzes the posttranslational modification of eIF-5A. Herein, we expressed and purified the recombinant TvDHS (rTvDHS) protein (43 kDa) and the recombinant TveIF-5A (rTveIF-5A) precursor protein (46 kDa). A 41 kDa band of the native TvDHS was recognized by western blot analysis in T. vaginalis total protein extract by a mouse polyclonal anti-rTvDHS antibody. The enzymatic activity of rTvDHS was determined by in vitro rTveIF-5A precursor modification. The modification reaction was performed by using ((3)H)-spermidine, and the biochemical analysis showed that rTvDHS exhibited Km value of 0.6 μM. The rTvDHS activity was inhibited by the spermidine analog, N″-guanyl-1,7-diamino-heptane (GC7). Native gel electrophoresis analysis showed two bands corresponding to an rTvDHS-rTveIF-5A complex and an intermediate form of rTveIF-5A. The two forms were subsequently separated by ion exchange chromatography to identify the hypusine residue by MS/MS analysis. Moreover, mutations in TvDHS showed that the putative HE motif present in this enzyme is involved in the hydroxylation of TveIF-5A. We observed that only hypusine-containing TveIF-5A was bound to an RNA hairpin ERE structure from the cox-2 gene, which contains the AAAUGUCACAC consensus sequence. Interestingly, 2DE-WB assays, using parasites that were grown in DAB-culture conditions and transferred to exogenous putrescine, showed the new isoform of TveIF-5A. In summary, our results indicate that T. vaginalis contains an active TvDHS capable of modifying the precursor TveIF-5A protein, which subsequently exhibits RNA binding activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metabolites und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. III. Mitteilung: Experimente mit Essentiellen Fettsaeuren (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. III. Communication: Experiments with Essential Fatty Acids),
The relationship between the double and trifold unsaturated fatty acids and Trichomonas vaginalis was tested. The experiments aimed at testing the...influence of vitamin F, linolic and linoleic acid upon multiplication of Trichomonas vaginalis . Vitamin F exerts trichomonacidal effect upon... Trichomonas vaginalis cultures. Linolic acid alone does not yet show great differences at concentrations of 0,01 to 0.05 mg/ml, as compared to the controls. At
Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. VI. (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. VI. Communication: Effect of Vitamins and Vitamin-Like Substances),
A number of substances (folic acid, axerophtol, tokopherol and others) stimulate the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis and, therefore, are very well...group of vitamins (thiamine, lactoflavin, pyridoxine and others) are without recognizeable effect upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . The third...inhibiting effect upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . Further investigations with these substances within a combined inhibition system seem to be important. (Modified author abstract)
Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Nogal-Ruiz, Juan José; Pérez-Serrano, Jorge; Gómez-Barrio, Alicia; Escario, J Antonio; Alderete, J F
Trichomonas vaginalis is known to evade complement-mediated lysis. Because the genome of T. vaginalis does not possess DNA sequence with homology to human protectin (CD59), a complement lysis restricting factor, we tested the hypothesis that host CD59 acquisition by T. vaginalis organisms mediates resistance to complement killing. This hypothesis was based on the fact that trichomonads are known to associate with host proteins. No CD59 was detected on the surface of T. vaginalis grown in serum-based medium using as probe anti-CD59 monoclonal antibody (MAb). We, therefore, infected mice intraperitoneally with live T. vaginalis, and trichomonads harvested from ascites were tested for binding of CD59. Immunofluorescence showed that parasites had surface CD59. Furthermore, as mouse erythrocytes (RBCs) possess membrane-associated CD59, and trichomonads use RBCs as a nutrient source, organisms were co-cultured with murine RBCs for one week. Parasites were shown to have detectable surface CD59. Importantly, live T. vaginalis with bound CD59 were compared with batch-grown parasites without surface-associated CD59 for sensitivity to complement in human serum. Trichomonads without surface-bound CD59 had a higher level of killing by complement than did parasites with surface CD59. These data show that host CD59 acquired onto the surface by live T. vaginalis may be an alternative mechanism for complement evasion. We describe a novel strategy by T. vaginalis consistent with host protein procurement by this parasite to evade the lytic action of complement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. V. Mitteilung: Beziehungen der Vitamin-B-Kemplexe zu Trichomonas Vaginalis (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. V. Communication: Relationship between Vitamin-B-Complexes and Trichomonas Vaginalis),
vitamin B1 clear evidence of any influence upon Trichomonas growth could not be obtained. Choline favours the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . In...0.20 mg/ml onward liponic acid had inhibiting effect upon Trichomonas . Carnitine chloride favoured the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . (Modified author abstract)...The present study was concerned with the relationship between the vitamins of the B-complex and Trichomonas . From the results obtained in studies on
Fang, Yi-Kai; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Po-Jung; Lin, Rose; Chao, Mei; Tang, Petrus
Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease in the world. This infection affects millions of individuals worldwide annually. Although direct sexual contact is the most common mode of transmission, increasing evidence indicates that T. vaginalis can survive in the external environment and can be transmitted by contaminated utensils. We found that the growth of T. vaginalis under cold conditions is greatly inhibited, but recovers after placing these stressed cells at the normal cultivation temperature of 37 °C. However, the mechanisms by which T. vaginalis regulates this adaptive process are unclear. An expressed sequence tag (EST) database generated from a complementary DNA library of T. vaginalis messenger RNAs expressed under cold-culture conditions (4 °C, TvC) was compared with a previously published normal-cultured EST library (37 °C, TvE) to assess the cold-stress responses of T. vaginalis. A total of 9780 clones were sequenced from the TvC library and were mapped to 2934 genes in the T. vaginalis genome. A total of 1254 genes were expressed in both the TvE and TvC libraries, and 1680 genes were only found in the TvC library. A functional analysis showed that cold temperature has effects on many cellular mechanisms, including increased H2O2 tolerance, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, induction of iron-sulfur cluster assembly, and reduced energy metabolism and enzyme expression. The current study is the first large-scale transcriptomic analysis in cold-stressed T. vaginalis and the results enhance our understanding of this important protist. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul
Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted disease. Its association with several health problems, including preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical cancer, and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, emphasizes the importance of improved access to early and accurate detection of T. vaginalis. In this study, a rapid and efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based method for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed and validated, using vaginal swab specimens from subjects suspected to have trichomoniasis. The LAMP assay targeting the actin gene was highly sensitive with detection limits of 1 trichomonad and 1 pg of T. vaginalis DNA per reaction, and specifically amplified the target gene only from T. vaginalis. Validation of this assay showed that it had the highest sensitivity and better agreement with PCR (used as the gold standard) compared to microscopy and multiplex PCR. This study showed that the LAMP assay, targeting the actin gene, could be used to diagnose early infections of T. vaginalis. Thus, we have provided an alternative molecular diagnostic tool and a point-of-care test that may help to prevent trichomoniasis transmission and associated complications.
Dos Santos, Odelta; Rigo, Graziela Vargas; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana
The parasitism by Trichomonas vaginalis is complex and in part is mediated by cytoadherence accomplished via five surface proteins named adhesins and a glycoconjugate called lipophosphoglycan (TvLPG). In this study, we evaluated the ability of T. vaginalis isolates to adhere to cells, plastic (polystyrene microplates), intrauterine device (IUD), and vaginal ring. Of 32 T. vaginalis isolates, 4 (12.5%) were strong adherent. The T. vaginalis isolates TV-LACM6 and TV-LACM14 (strong polystyrene-adherent) were also able to adhere to IUD and vaginal ring. Following chemical treatments, results demonstrated that the T. vaginalis components, lipophosphoglycan, cytoskeletal proteins, and surface molecules, were involved in both adherence to polystyrene and cytoadherence. The gene expression level from four adhesion proteins was highest in trophozoites adhered to cells than trophozoites adhered to the abiotic surface (polystyrene microplate). Our data indicate the major involvement of TvLPG in adherence to polystyrene, and that adhesins are important for cytoadherence. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first report showing the T. vaginalis adherence to contraceptive devices, reaffirming its importance as pathogen among women in reproductive age.
Helms, Donna J; Mosure, Debra J; Secor, W Evan; Workowski, Kimberly A
Standard treatment for Trichomonas vaginalis is metronidazole or tinidazole. Hypersensitivity to these drugs has been documented but is poorly understood. Desensitization is an option described in limited reports of women with hypersensitivity to nitroimidazoles. The purpose of this analysis is to improve documentation of management for trichomonas infections among women with metronidazole hypersensitivity. Clinicians who consulted Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concerning patients with suspected hypersensitivity to metronidazole were provided with treatment options and asked to report outcomes. From September 2003-September 2006, complete information was obtained for 59 women. The most common reactions were urticaria (47%) and facial edema (11%). Fifteen of these women (25.4%) were treated with metronidazole desensitization and all had eradication of their infection. Seventeen women (28.8%) were treated with alternative intravaginal drugs, which were less successful; 5 of 17 infections (29.4%) were eradicated. Metronidazole desensitization was effective in the management of women with nitroimidazole hypersensitivity.
Zhao, Jian-Ling; Gao, Xing-Zheng; Qu, Ming
To study the killing effect of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) on Trichomonas vaginalis. The vaginal secretion from a patient with vaginitis was incubated in the liver infusion liquid medium to get T. vaginalis. One ml serum was collected from the patient and heated for 30 min at 56 degrees C to inactivate complement in serum, and was absorbed three times with the parasites at 0 degree C to make the serum free of antibodies. PMNs were separated from the patient's blood and purified with density gradient centrifugation and polymer accelerating sedimentation. NBT and safranin O were used to stain the sample. The interaction between PMNs and the parasites was observed under microscope. 300 trichomonads and 3x10(4) PMNs were incubated for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 minutes under the conditions of aerobic or anaerobic, with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) or without SOD and CAT, and with complement or without complement. They were then inoculated in solid medium for another five days under the anaerobic condition, and surviving organisms were enumerated. PMNs were observed to surround and kill a single trichomonad. In the petri-dish containing PMNs, the surviving rate of the parasites in anaerobic condition was 85%, only 3% in aerobic condition (P<0.01). SOD and CAT reduced the killing effect of PMNs, with a surviving rate of 98% and 94% respectively after 60 min incubation. Without SOD and CAT, the surviving rate is only 2% (P<0.05). PMNs in the serum without antibodies killed all the parasites, while the complement-inactivated serum fail to kill them. The trichomonacidal activity of PMNs relies on the presence of oxygen and complement in the serum of patient.
Martin, David H; Zozaya, Marcela; Lillis, Rebecca A; Myers, Leann; Nsuami, M Jacques; Ferris, Michael J
The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection is highest in women with intermediate Nugent scores. We hypothesized that the vaginal microbiota in T. vaginalis-infected women differs from that in T. vaginalis-uninfected women. Vaginal samples from 30 T. vaginalis-infected women were matched by Nugent score to those from 30 T. vaginalis-uninfected women. Equal numbers of women with Nugent scores categorized as normal, intermediate, and bacterial vaginosis were included. The vaginal microbiota was assessed using 454 pyrosequencing analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of an unknown organism was obtained by universal bacterial polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and sequencing. Principal coordinates analysis of the pyrosequencing data showed divergence of the vaginal microbiota in T. vaginalis-infected and T. vaginalis-uninfected patients among women with normal and those with intermediate Nugent scores but not among women with bacterial vaginosis. Cluster analysis revealed 2 unique groups of T. vaginalis-infected women. One had high abundance of Mycoplasma hominis and other had high abundance of an unknown Mycoplasma species. Women in the former group had clinical evidence of enhanced vaginal inflammation. T. vaginalis may alter the vaginal microbiota in a manner that is favorable to its survival and/or transmissibility. An unknown Mycoplasma species plays a role in some of these transformations. In other cases, these changes may result in a heightened host inflammatory response.
Cheng, Wei-Hung; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Po-Jung; Hsu, Jo-Hsuan; Fang, Yi-Kai; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Tang, Petrus
Iron plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of highly prevalent human trichomoniasis. T. vaginalis resides in the vaginal region, where the iron concentration is constantly changing. Hence, T. vaginalis must adapt to variations in iron availability to establish and maintain an infection. The free radical signaling molecules reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have been proven to participate in iron deficiency in eukaryotes. However, little is known about the roles of these molecules in iron-deficient T. vaginalis. T. vaginalis cultured in iron-rich and -deficient conditions were collected for all experiments in this study. Next generation RNA sequencing was conducted to investigate the impact of iron on transcriptome of T. vaginalis. The cell viabilities were monitored after the trophozoites treated with the inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (L-NG-monomethyl arginine, L-NMMA) and proteasome (MG132). Hydrogenosomal membrane potential was measured using JC-1 staining. We demonstrated that NO rather than ROS accumulates in iron-deficient T. vaginalis. The level of NO was blocked by MG132 and L-NMMA, indicating that NO production is through a proteasome and arginine dependent pathway. We found that the inhibition of proteasome activity shortened the survival of iron-deficient cells compared with untreated iron-deficient cells. Surprisingly, the addition of arginine restored both NO level and the survival of proteasome-inhibited cells, suggesting that proteasome-derived NO is crucial for cell survival under iron-limited conditions. Additionally, NO maintains the hydrogenosomal membrane potential, a determinant for cell survival, emphasizing the cytoprotective effect of NO on iron-deficient T. vaginalis. Collectively, we determined that NO produced by the proteasome prolonged the survival of iron-deficient T. vaginalis via maintenance of the hydrogenosomal functions. The findings in this
Calderaro, Adriana; Piergianni, Maddalena; Montecchini, Sara; Buttrini, Mirko; Piccolo, Giovanna; Rossi, Sabina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Medici, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora
Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan causing trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted human infection, with around 276.4 million new cases estimated by World Health Organization. Culture is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection. Recently, immunochromatographic assays as well as PCR assays for the detection of T. vaginalis antigen or DNA, respectively, have been also available. Although the well-known genome sequence of T. vaginalis has made possible the application of proteomic studies, few data are available about the overall proteomic expression profiling of T. vaginalis. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential application of MALDI-TOF MS as a new tool for the identification of T. vaginalis. Twenty-one isolates were analysed by MALDI-TOF MS after the creation of a Main Spectrum Profile (MSP) from a T. vaginalis reference strain (G3) and its subsequent supplementation in the Bruker Daltonics database, not including any profile of protozoa. This was achieved after the development of a new identification method created by modifying the range setting (6-10 kDa) for the MALDI-TOF MS analysis in order to exclude the overlapping of peaks derived from the culture media used in this study. Two MSP reference spectra were created in 2 different range: 3-15 kDa (standard range setting) and 6-10 kDa (new range setting). Both MSP spectra were deposited in the MALDI BioTyper database for further identification of additional T. vaginalis strains. All the 21 strains analysed in this study were correctly identified by using the new identification method. In this study it was demonstrated that changes in the MALDI-TOF MS standard parameters usually used to identify bacteria and fungi allowed the identification of the protozoan T. vaginalis. This study shows the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS in the reliable identification of microorganism grown on complex liquid media such as the protozoan T. vaginalis, on the basis of the
Franklin, T L; Monif, G R
To identify how frequently trichomoniasis and characteristics of bacterial vaginosis (BV) occur concomitantly in wet mount preparations from pregnant women. Diagnosis of trichomoniasis was predicted on visualization of the organism. Diagnosis of BV required a positive volatile (whiff) test, presence of "clue cells" and one of two minor criteria: (1) absence of lactobacilli, or (2) a pH > 4.5. Pregnant women from January 1995 to July 1997 at our clinic had wet mount/KOH preparations performed as standard prenatal care. Corresponding medical charts were analyzed for symptoms, race, BV, sexually transmitted diseases, urinary tract infections and other infections. Of 191 pregnant women identified, 69 had trichomoniasis. Seventy-nine percent of the 69 were African American. Fifteen percent of pregnant women (17) had concomitant trichomoniasis and BV. Irrespective of race, 35-38% of pregnant women with trichomoniasis had another sexually transmitted disease or a urinary tract infection diagnosed in that pregnancy. BV, or bacteria excess syndrome, is a frequent coinfection in pregnant women harboring Trichomonas vaginalis.
Helms, Donna J; Mosure, Debra J; Metcalf, Carol A; Douglas, John M; Malotte, C Kevin; Paul, Sindy M; Peterman, Thomas A
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection in the United States and may be associated with adverse birth outcomes and may also increase susceptibility to or transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the epidemiology of T. vaginalis in Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics and characterize the risk factors associated with prevalent and incident T. vaginalis within the same population. We analyzed data from visits occurring during February 1999-December 2001 from 3 sexually transmitted disease clinics in Newark, NJ; Long Beach, CA; and Denver, CO. Data were analyzed from 1462 women aged 15 to 39 years who were tested by culture at their initial visit for T. vaginalis, and for 1269 women with at least 1 follow-up visit. Risk factors for prevalent infections at baseline and incident infections among treated or previously uninfected women were assessed. At baseline, 13.0% of the women had a prevalent infection; risk factors included the following: older age (> or =20 years), black race, having less than 12 years of education, and having a concurrent chlamydial infection. At follow-up, 4.6% of women had an incident infection; risk factors included the following: older age (35-39 years), black race, having a concurrent chlamydial infection, having had multiple sexual partners in the 3 months before incident infection, and having had T. vaginalis at the visit before their incident infection. T. vaginalis incidence is high in women. Risk factors for prevalent and incident infection are similar. T. vaginalis was associated with older age in women, unlike other sexually transmitted infections.
Polat, Zubeyde Akin; Cetin, Ali; Savage, Poul B
Trichomonosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is a curable sexually transmitted disease that is most commonly encountered worldwide. Increasing importance of trichomoniasis and emerging of resistance against metronidazole lead to search for alternative drugs with different mode of activity. The purpose of this study was to determine in vitro activity of ceragenins (CSA-13, CSA-44, CSA-13, and CSA-138) against the metronidazole-susceptible (ATCC 30001) and metronidazole-resistant (ATCC 50138) strains of T. vaginalis. The effective concentrations were evaluated using two strains of T. vaginalis with different metronidazole susceptibilities (ATCC 30001 and ATCC 50138) in the presence of dilution series of ceragenins in 24-well microtitre assays. Overall, all the ceragenins killed the metronidazole-susceptible (ATCC 30001) and metronidazole-resistant (ATCC 50138) strains of T. vaginalis (p>0.05). With regard to the their effects against the studied strains of T. vaginalis, in order of effectiveness, overall, the ceragenins ordered as CSA-13 (the most effective), CSA-131 and CSA-138 (effective similarly), and CSA-44 (the least effective) (p<0.05). All of the ceragenins reduced the trophozoite numbers of both of studied strains of T. vaginalis with a time- and dose- dependent manner (p<0.05). Although all of the study ceragenins, CSA-13, CSA-44, CSA-13, and CSA-138, killed the studied strains of T. vaginalis. CSA-13 is the leading ceragenin as the most effective anti-trichomonas compound, followed by CSA-131 and CSA-138. They have a potential to have a place in the armemantarium of gynecologic and urologic practice for the management of sexually transmitted diseases.
Background Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan, is the agent responsible for trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. A reported 200 million cases are documented each year with far more cases going unreported. However, T. vaginalis is disproportionality under studied, especially considering its basic metabolism. It has been reported that T. vaginalis does not grow on sucrose. Nevertheless, the T. vaginalis genome contains some 11 putative sucrose transporters and a putative β-fructofuranosidase (invertase). Thus, the machinery for both uptake and cleavage of sucrose appears to be present. Results We amplified the β-fructofuranosidase from T. vaginalis cDNA and cloned it into an Escherichia coli expression system. The expressed, purified protein was found to behave similarly to other known β-fructofuranosidases. The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH close to 5.0, with activity falling off rapidly at increased or decreased pH. It had a similar Km and Vmax to previously characterized enzymes using sucrose as a substrate, was also active towards raffinose, but had no detectable activity towards inulin. Conclusions T. vaginalis has the coding capacity to produce an active β-fructofuranosidase capable of hydrolyzing di- and trisaccharides containing a terminal, non-reducing fructose residue. Since we cloned this enzyme from cDNA, we know that the gene in question is transcribed. Furthermore, we could detect β-fructofuranosidase activity in T. vaginalis cell lysates. Therefore, the inability of the organism to utilize sucrose as a carbon source cannot be explained by an inability to degrade sucrose. PMID:24972630
Dirkx, Michael; Boyer, Michael P; Pradhan, Prajakta; Brittingham, Andrew; Wilson, Wayne A
Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan, is the agent responsible for trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. A reported 200 million cases are documented each year with far more cases going unreported. However, T. vaginalis is disproportionality under studied, especially considering its basic metabolism. It has been reported that T. vaginalis does not grow on sucrose. Nevertheless, the T. vaginalis genome contains some 11 putative sucrose transporters and a putative β-fructofuranosidase (invertase). Thus, the machinery for both uptake and cleavage of sucrose appears to be present. We amplified the β-fructofuranosidase from T. vaginalis cDNA and cloned it into an Escherichia coli expression system. The expressed, purified protein was found to behave similarly to other known β-fructofuranosidases. The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH close to 5.0, with activity falling off rapidly at increased or decreased pH. It had a similar K(m) and V(max) to previously characterized enzymes using sucrose as a substrate, was also active towards raffinose, but had no detectable activity towards inulin. T. vaginalis has the coding capacity to produce an active β-fructofuranosidase capable of hydrolyzing di- and trisaccharides containing a terminal, non-reducing fructose residue. Since we cloned this enzyme from cDNA, we know that the gene in question is transcribed. Furthermore, we could detect β-fructofuranosidase activity in T. vaginalis cell lysates. Therefore, the inability of the organism to utilize sucrose as a carbon source cannot be explained by an inability to degrade sucrose.
Shaio, M F; Lin, P R; Lee, C S; Hou, S C; Tang, P; Yang, K D
We have investigated the effects of a novel neutrophil-activating factor released by Trichomonas vaginalis (TV-NAF) on neutrophil chemotaxis. TV-NAF was present in the supernatant from 10(7) T. vaginalis (STV) cultured in 1 ml of serum-free Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) at 37 degrees C for 30 min. With a multichamber chemotactic assay, we found that there were 112 +/- 15 migrated neutrophils (mean +/- standard deviation, n = 7) for STV and 11 +/- 4 for HBSS per high-power field (x 400). STV was also able to induce neutrophil actin assembly (increased 1.5-fold), enhance expression of complement receptor type 3 (increased 5-fold), and promote intracellular calcium mobilization (increased 2.5-fold). There was no chemotactic activity in the preparation of STV from killed trichomonads. The fact that heating up to 100 degrees C or deproteinization by treatment with proteinase K at 65 degrees C for 1 h did not abolish its chemotactic activity suggests that the TV-NAF involved was not a protein. The chemotactic activity of TV-NAF was associated with the fraction containing small molecules of less than 3,000 Da. Therefore, the possibility that eicosanoid production by trichomonads is responsible for neutrophil activation was investigated. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4; 500 pg/ml) but not thromboxane B2 (< 20 pg/ml) or prostaglandin E2 (< 8 pg/ml) was found in the STV by radioimmunoassay. Production of LTB4 by trichomonads was time dependent and increased twofold when arachidonic acid (100 microM) was added but was not decreased when eicosanoid inhibitors were present. Evidence for the presence of LTB4 in STV was further provided by the fact that rabbit anti-LTB4 antiserum could abolish the chemotactic activity of STV. These studies suggest that the spontaneous release of TV-NAF, which is most likely LTB4, may activate neutrophils, presumably through a different arachidonate metabolic pathway than that in mammalian cells. PMID:1398962
Elwakil, Hala Salah; Tawfik, Rania Ayman; Alam-Eldin, Yosra Hussein; Nassar, Doaa Ashraf
Metronidazole is administered in an inactive form then activated to its cytotoxic form within the hydrogenosome of trichomonads. Two hydrogenosomal proteins, pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and ferredoxin, play a critical role in the reductive activation of metronidazole. The expression of these proteins and other hydrogenosomal proteins are likewise positively regulated by iron. In the present study, the effect of iron on minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of metronidazole on in vitro cultured Trichomonas vaginalis(T. vaginalis) isolates was investigated. Interestingly, Addition of Ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS) to T. vaginalis culture led to decrease in the MLC of metronidazole. On using aerobic assay, MLC of metronidazole on untreated T. vaginalis of both isolates was 12.5 μg/ml that decreased to 0.38 μg/ml on FAS treated trichomonads. Also anaerobic assay revealed that MLC on untreated parasites was 3.12 μg/ml that decreased to 0.097 μg/ml and 0.19 μg/ml for isolate 1 and isolate 2 respectively after iron addition. It was concluded that, addition of iron to in vitro cultured T. vaginalis decreases metronidazole MLC that was detected by both aerobic and anaerobic assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bitencourt, Fernanda Gobbi; de Brum Vieira, Patrícia; Meirelles, Lucia Collares; Rigo, Graziela Vargas; da Silva, Elenilson Figueiredo; Gnoatto, Simone Cristina Baggio; Tasca, Tiana
Trichomonas vaginalis is an extracellular parasite that binds to the epithelium of the human urogenital tract and causes the sexually transmitted infection, trichomoniasis. In view of increased resistance to drugs belonging to the 5-nitroimidazole class, new treatment alternatives are urgently needed. In this study, eight semisynthetized triterpene derivatives were evaluated for in vitro anti-T. vaginalis activity. Ursolic acid and its derivative, 3-oxime-urs-12-en-28-oic-ursolic acid (9), presented the best anti-T. vaginalis activity when compared to other derivatives, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 25 μM. Moreover, 9 was active against several T. vaginalis fresh clinical isolates. Hemolysis assay demonstrated that 9 presented a low hemolytic effect. Importantly, 25 μM 9 was not cytotoxic against the Vero cell lineage. Finally, we demonstrated that compound 9 acts synergistically with metronidazole against a T. vaginalis metronidazole-resistant isolate. This report reveals the high potential of the triterpenoid derivative 9 as trichomonicidal agent.
Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li
Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies.
Nobre, Lígia S; Meloni, Dionigia; Teixeira, Miguel; Viscogliosi, Eric; Saraiva, Lígia M
Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative parasite of one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases is, so far, the only protozoan encoding two putative Repair of Iron Centres (RIC) proteins. Homologs of these proteins have been shown to protect bacteria from the chemical stress imposed by mammalian immunity. In this work, the biochemical and functional characterisation of the T. vaginalis RICs revealed that the two proteins have different properties. Expression of ric1 is induced by nitrosative stress but not by hydrogen peroxide, while ric2 transcription remained unaltered under similar conditions. T. vaginalis RIC1 contains a di-iron centre, but RIC2 apparently does not. Only RIC1 resembles bacterial RICs on spectroscopic profiling and repairing ability of oxidatively-damaged iron-sulfur clusters. Unexpectedly, RIC2 was found to bind DNA plasmid and T. vaginalis genomic DNA, a function proposed to be related with its leucine zipper domain. The two proteins also differ in their cellular localization: RIC1 is expressed in the cytoplasm only, and RIC2 occurs both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Therefore, we concluded that the two RIC paralogs have different roles in T. vaginalis, with RIC2 showing an unprecedented DNA binding ability when compared with all other until now studied RICs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Amador, Erick; López-Pacheco, Karla; Morales, Nataly; Coria, Roberto; López-Villaseñor, Imelda
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have important roles in regulating key checkpoints between stages of the cell cycle. Their activity is tightly regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including through binding with cyclin proteins and the Cdc2/Cdc28 kinase subunit (CKS), and their phosphorylation at specific amino acids. Studies of the components involved in cell cycle control in parasitic protozoa are limited. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis in humans and is therefore important in public health; however, some of the basic biological processes used by this organism have not been defined. Here, we characterized proteins potentially involved in cell cycle regulation in T. vaginalis. Three genes encoding protein kinases were identified in the T. vaginalis genome, and the corresponding recombinant proteins (TvCRK1, TvCRK2, TvCRK5) were studied. These proteins displayed similar sequence features to CDKs. Two genes encoding CKSs were also identified, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were found to interact with TvCRK1 and TvCRK2 by a yeast two-hybrid system. One putative cyclin B protein from T. vaginalis was found to bind to and activate the kinase activities of TvCRK1 and TvCRK5, but not TvCRK2. This work is the first characterization of proteins involved in cell cycle control in T. vaginalis.
Menezes, Camila Braz; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Meirelles, Lucia Collares; Tasca, Tiana
Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. The cytoadherence and cytotoxicity upon the vaginal epithelial cells are crucial for the infection. Extracellular nucleotides are released during cell damage and, along with their nucleosides, can activate purinoceptors. The opposing effects of nucleotides versus nucleosides are regulated by ectonucleotidases. Herein we evaluated the hemolysis and cytolysis induced by T. vaginalis, as well as the extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis along with the effects mediated by nucleotides and nucleosides on cytotoxicity. In addition, the gene expression of purinoceptors in host cells was determined. The hemolysis and cytolysis exerted by all T. vaginalis isolates presented positive Pearson correlation. All T. vaginalis isolates were able to hydrolyze nucleotides, showing higher NTPDase than ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. The most cytotoxic isolate, TV-LACM6, hydrolyzes ATP, GTP with more efficiency than AMP and GMP. The vaginal epithelial cell line (HMVII) expressed the genes for all subtypes of P1, P2X and P2Y receptors. Finally, when nucleotides and nucleosides were tested, the cytotoxic effect elicited by TV-LACM6 was increased with nucleotides. In contrast, the cytotoxicity was reversed by adenosine in presence of EHNA, but not by guanosine, contributing to the understanding of the purinergic signaling role on T. vaginalis cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Menezes, Camila Braz; Rigo, Graziela Vargas; Bridi, Henrique; Trentin, Danielle da Silva; Macedo, Alexandre José; von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Tasca, Tiana
Trichomonas vaginalis causes trichomoniasis, a neglected sexually transmitted disease. Due to severe health consequences and treatment failure, new therapeutic alternatives are crucial. Phloroglucinols from southern Brazilian Hypericum species demonstrated anti-T. vaginalis and anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities. The modulation of biochemical pathways involved in the control of inflammatory response by ectonucleotidases, NTPDase, and ecto-5'-nucleotidase represents new targets for combating protozoa. This study investigated the activity of phloroglucinol derivatives of Hypericum species from southern Brazil against T. vaginalis as well as its ability on modulating parasite ectonucleotidases and, consequently, immune parameters through ATP and adenosine effects. Phloroglucinol derivatives screening revealed activity for isoaustrobrasilol B (IC 50 38 μm) with no hemolytic activity. Although the most active compound induced cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell lineage, the in vivo model evidenced absence of toxicity. Isoaustrobrasilol B significantly inhibited NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities, and the immune modulation attributed to extracellular nucleotide accumulation was evaluated. The production of ROS and IL-6 by T. vaginalis-stimulated neutrophils was not affected by the treatment. Conversely, IL-8 levels were significantly enhanced. The associative mechanism of trophozoites death and ectonucleotidases modulation by isoaustrobrasilol B may increase the susceptibility of T. vaginalis to host innate immune cell like neutrophils consequently, contributing to parasite clearance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T; Fadipe, Olamide; Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa T
Trichomoniasis poses a public health threat to pregnant women and neonatal health. This study evaluated Trichomonas vaginalis and other common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) status in pregnant women, and risk factors associated with them. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive and a total of 198 pregnant women were recruited for T. vaginalis screening by microscopic examination. Questionnaires were also administered to 108 pregnant women to access information related to socio-demography and other factors associated with STI transmission. The overall prevalence of T. vaginalis was 18.7%. While prevalence of T. vaginalis was neither age nor parity dependent (p > 0.05), women in their first trimester showed significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis compared to women in their second and third trimesters (p < 0.05). The frequency of STIs was lowest (18.2%) and highest (71.4%) in age groups ≥ 39 and 15-20 years, respectively. Low levels of education, multiple sexual partners, lack of knowledge on partners' STI history, and having sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs were risk factors of for STIs (p < 0.05). We found a high prevalence of T. vaginalis in pregnant women, with those at an early gestational age at greater risk. The improved education of women on safe sex and the need to know partners' STI status are advocated. © The Author(s) 2015.
Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Bonan, Carla Denise; Tasca, Tiana
Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite from the human urogenital tract that causes trichomonosis, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease. The neutrophil infiltration has been considered to be primarily responsible for cytological changes observed at infection site, and the chemoattractants can play an important role in this leukocytic recruitment. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most widespread mediator compounds, and it is implicated in modulation of immunological mechanisms. Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides are signaling molecules involved in several processes, including immune responses and control of leukocyte trafficking. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase members, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine deaminase (ectoADA) have been characterized in T. vaginalis. Herein, we investigated the effects of purinergic system on NO production by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis. The trophozoites were able to induce a high NO synthesis by neutrophils through iNOS pathway. The extracellular nucleotides ATP, ADP, and ATPγS (a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog) showed no significant change in NO secretion. In contrast, adenosine and its degradation product, inosine, promoted a low production of the compound. The immunosuppressive effect of adenosine upon NO release by neutrophils occurred due to adenosine A(2A) receptor activation. The ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity displayed by T. vaginalis was shown to be important in adenosine generation, indicating the efficiency of purinergic cascade. Our data suggest the influence of purinergic signaling, specifically adenosinergic system, on NO production by neutrophils in T. vaginalis infection, contributing to the immunological aspects of disease.
Rocha, Tábitha Dahmer; de Brum Vieira, Patrícia; Gnoatto, Simone Cristina Baggio; Tasca, Tiana; Gosmann, Grace
Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan that causes trichomonosis, the most prevalent non-viral STD worldwide. The pathogen has been associated with serious health consequences including predisposition to cervical cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes and infertility. It also acts as a co-factor in HIV transmission and acquisition. The 5-nitroimidazole drugs are used in the treatment, however, treatment noncompliance is observed, and a growing number of T. vaginalis isolates resistant to the drugs have been related. Saponins are natural products possessing many biological activities such as antiprotozoan activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-T. vaginalis activity of saponins from Quillaja, Passiflora, and Ilex species. Saponins from Passiflora alata and Quillaja saponaria presented the best anti-T. vaginalis activity (MIC = 0.025%). In addition, all samples induced erythrocyte lysis and LDH release. As far as we know, this is the first report demonstrating the potential anti-T. vaginalis activity of these saponins.
Leitsch, David; Janssen, Brian D.; Kolarich, Daniel; Johnson, Patricia J.; Duchêne, Michael
Summary The enzyme flavin reductase 1 (FR1) from Trichomonas vaginalis, formerly known as NADPH oxidase, was isolated and identified. Flavin reductase is part of the antioxidative defense in T. vaginalis and indirectly reduces molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide via free flavins. Importantly, a reduced or absent flavin reductase activity has been reported in metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis, resulting in elevated intracellular oxygen levels and futile cycling of metronidazole. Interestingly, FR1 has no close homologue in any other sequenced genome, but seven full-length and three truncated isoforms exist in the T. vaginalis genome. However, out of these, only FR1 has an affinity for flavins, i.e. FMN, FAD, and riboflavin, which is high enough to be of physiological relevance. Although there are no relevant changes in the gene sequence or any alterations of the predicted FR1-mRNA structure in any of the strains studied, FR1 is not expressed in highly metronidazole-resistant strains. Transfection of a metronidazole-resistant clinical isolate (B7268), which does not express any detectable amounts of FR, with a plasmid bearing a functional FR1 gene nearly completely restored metronidazole sensitivity. Our results indicate that FR1 has a significant role in the emergence of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis. PMID:24256032
Pépin, J.; Sobéla, F.; Deslandes, S.; Alary, M.; Wegner, K.; Khonde, N.; Kintin, F.; Kamuragiye, A.; Sylla, M.; Zerbo, P. J.; Baganizi, E.; Koné, A.; Kane, F.; Mâsse, B.; Viens, P.; Frost, E.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the etiological role of pathogens other than Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral discharge in West African men. METHODS: Urethral swabs were obtained from 659 male patients presenting with urethral discharge in 72 primary health care facilities in seven West African countries, and in 339 controls presenting for complaints unrelated to the genitourinary tract. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect the presence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. FINDINGS: N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and M. genitalium--but not U. urealyticum--were found more frequently in men with urethral discharge than in asymptomatic controls, being present in 61.9%, 13.8%, 13.4% and 10.0%, respectively, of cases of urethral discharge. Multiple infections were common. Among patients with gonococcal infection, T. vaginalis was as frequent a coinfection as C. trachomatis. M. genitalium, T. vaginalis, and C. trachomatis caused a similar clinical syndrome to that associated with gonococcal infection, but with a less severe urethral discharge. CONCLUSIONS: M. genitalium and T. vaginalis are important etiological agents of urethral discharge in West Africa. The frequent occurrence of multiple infections with any combination of four pathogens strongly supports the syndromic approach. The optimal use of metronidazole in flowcharts for the syndromic management of urethral discharge needs to be explored in therapeutic trials. PMID:11242818
Silva Fonseca, Thaisa Helena; Alacoque, Marina; Silva Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus; Soares, Betânia Maria; Leite, Henrique Vitor; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gomes, Maria Aparecida; Busatti, Haendel
The emergence of nitroimidazole resistant isolates has been an aggravating factor in the treatment of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. This highlights the importance of new technologies that are safe, effective, and have minor side effects or resistance. Hence, we evaluated the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy on the inactivation of Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro. We used methylene blue as a photosensitizing substance, and a light-emitting diode (LED) for irradiation of metronidazole sensitive and resistant strains. Our results showed that only the presence of light did not interfere with parasite growth; however, methylene blue isolated or associated with light inhibited 31.78% ± 7.18 and 80.21% ± 7.11 of the sensitive strain, respectively, and 31.17% ± 4.23 and 91.13% ± 2.31 of the resistant strain, respectively. The high trichomonicidal activity of the photodynamic therapy, associated with low cost and ease of application, signalize its great therapeutic potential not only when conventional treatment fails, but also routinely in women with trichomoniasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shui, Irene M; Kolb, Suzanne; Hanson, Christi; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Rider, Jennifer R; Stanford, Janet L
The epidemiologic evidence for an association of Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) with overall prostate cancer is mixed, but some studies suggest Tv may increase risk of more aggressive disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether Tv serostatus is associated with advanced or fatal prostate cancer. A total of 146 men with advanced (metastatic or fatal) prostate cancer and 181 age-matched controls were selected from two prior population-based, case-control studies. Tv serostatus was determined with the same laboratory methods used in previous epidemiologic studies. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression to compare Tv serostatus in prostate cancer cases and controls adjusted for potential confounders. The seroprevalence of Tv in controls was 23%. Tv serostatus was not associated with an increased risk of metastatic or fatal prostate cancer (ORs < 1). Our study does not support an increased risk of advanced or fatal prostate cancer in men seropositive for Tv. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hrdý, Ivan; Cammack, Richard; Stopka, Pavel; Kulda, Jaroslav; Tachezy, Jan
Metronidazole and related 5-nitroimidazoles are the only available drugs in the treatment of human urogenital trichomoniasis caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. The drugs are activated to cytotoxic anion radicals by their reduction within the hydrogenosomes. It has been established that electrons required for metronidazole activation are released from pyruvate by the activity of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and transferred to the drug by a low-redox-potential carrier, ferredoxin. Here we describe a novel pathway involved in the drug activation within the hydrogenosome. The source of electrons is malate, another major hydrogenosomal substrate, which is oxidatively decarboxylated to pyruvate and CO2 by NAD-dependent malic enzyme. The electrons released during this reaction are transferred from NADH to ferredoxin by NADH dehydrogenase homologous to the catalytic module of mitochondrial complex I, which uses ferredoxin as electron acceptor. Trichomonads acquire high-level metronidazole resistance only after both pyruvate- and malate-dependent pathways of metronidazole activation are eliminated from the hydrogenosomes. PMID:16304169
da Luz Becker, Débora; dos Santos, Odelta; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana
Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in world, with 276.4 million new cases each year. T. vaginalis can be naturally infected with Mycoplasma hominis and Trichomonasvirus species. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of T. vaginalis infected with four distinct T. vaginalis viruses (TVVs) and M. hominis among isolates from patients in Porto Alegre city, South Brazil. An additional goal of this study was to investigate whether there is association between metronidazole resistance and the presence of M. hominis during TVV infection. The RNA expression level of the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) gene was also evaluated among metronidazole-resistant and metronidazole-sensitive T. vaginalis isolates. A total of 530 urine samples were evaluated, and 5.7% samples were positive for T. vaginalis infection. Among them, 4.51% were isolated from female patients and 1.12% were from male patients. Remarkably, the prevalence rates of M. hominis and TVV-positive T. vaginalis isolates were 56.7% and 90%, respectively. Most of the T. vaginalis isolates were metronidazole-sensitive (86.7%), and only four isolates (13.3%) were resistant. There is no statistically significant association between infection by M. hominis and infection by TVVs. Our results refute the hypothesis that the presence of the M. hominis and TVVs is enough to confer metronidazole resistance to T. vaginalis isolates. Additionally, the role of PFOR RNA expression levels in metronidazole resistance as the main mechanism of resistance to metronidazole could not be established. This study is the first report of the T. vaginalis infection by M. hominis and TVVs in a large collection of isolates from South Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bricheux, G; Brugerolle, G
The parasitic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is known to contain the ubiquitous and highly conserved protein actin. A genomic library and a cDNA library have been screened to identify and clone the actin gene(s) of T. vaginalis. The nucleotide sequence of one gene and its flanking regions have been determined. The open reading frame encodes a protein of 376 amino acids. The sequence is not interrupted by any introns and the promoter could be represented by a 10 bp motif close to a consensus motif also found upstream of most sequenced T. vaginalis genes. The five different clones isolated from the cDNA library have similar sequences and encode three actin proteins differing only by one or two amino acids. A phylogenetic analysis of 31 actin sequences by distance matrix and parsimony methods, using centractin as outgroup, gives congruent trees with Parabasala branching above Diplomonadida.
Hernández, Hilda M.; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent, Jorge
Human trichomonosis, infection with Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. The host-parasite interaction and pathophysiological processes of trichomonosis remain incompletely understood. This review focuses on the advancements reached in the area of the pathogenesis of T. vaginalis, especially in the role of the cysteine proteinases. It highlights various approaches made in this field and lists a group of trichomonad cysteine proteinases involved in diverse processes such as invasion of the mucous layer, cytoadherence, cytotoxicity, cytoskeleton disruption of red blood cells, hemolysis, and evasion of the host immune response. A better understanding of the biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of this parasite could be used in the identification of new chemotherapeutic targets. An additional advantage could be the development of a vaccine in order to reduce transmission of T. vaginalis. PMID:25348828
Bricheux, G; Coffe, G; Bayle, D; Brugerolle, G
On adhesion to host cells the flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis switches to an amoeboid form rich in actin microfilaments. We have undertaken the identification of actin-associated proteins that regulate actin dynamics. A monoclonal antibody 4C12 raised against a cytoskeletal fraction of T. vaginalis labeled a protein doublet at circa 50 kDa. These two bands were recognized by the antibody against Dictyostelium discoideum coronin. During cell extraction and actin polymerization, T. vaginalis coronin cosedimented with F-actin. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the protein doublet was separated into two sets of isoforms covering two Ip zones around 6 and 7. By screening a T. vaginalis library with 4C12, two clones Cor 1 and Cor 2 were isolated. This gene duplicity is a particularity among unicellular organisms examined. The complete sequence of the gene Cor 1 encodes a 435-residue protein with a calculated molecular mass of 48 kDa and Ip of 5.58. The incomplete sequence Cor 2 was very similar but with a more basic calculated Ip than Cor 1 on the same region. T. vaginalis coronin had 50% similarity with the coronin family, possessing the five WD-repeats and a leucine zipper in its C-terminal part. Double immunofluorescence labeling showed that coronin mainly colocalized with actin at the periphery of the adherent amoeboid cells. However, coronin labeling displayed patches within a reticular array. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the coronin labeling in the actin-rich microfilamentous fringe beneath the plasma membrane, with accumulation in phagocytic zones and pseudopodial extensions. In T. vaginalis, one of the first emerging lineage of eukaryotes, coronin seems to play an important role in actin dynamics and may be a downstream target of a signaling mechanism for the cytoskeleton reorganization.
Ioannidis, Anastasios; Papaioannou, Panagiota; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Magana, Maria; Ioannidou, Vasiliki; Tzanetou, Konstantina; Burriel, Angeliki R.; Tsironi, Maria; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos
Objectives: The symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis is the first described association between two obligate human parasites. Trichomonas is the niche and the vector for the transmission of M. hominis infection. This clinically significant symbiosis may affect T. vaginalis virulence and susceptibility to treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate the intracellularly present Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species in T. vaginalis strains isolated from the vaginal discharge of infected women as well as to trace the diversity pattern among the species detected in the isolated strains. Methods: Hundred pure T. vaginalis cultures were isolated from ~7,500 patient specimens presented with clinical purulent vaginitis. PCR and sequencing for Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma spp. were performed in DNA extracted from the pure cultures. In addition, vaginal discharge samples were cultured for the presence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum. Phylogenetic analysis assisted the identification of interspecies relationships between the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma isolates. Results: Fifty four percentage of T. vaginalis isolates were harboring Mycoplasma spp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three distinct clusters, two with already characterized M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp. (37% of total Mycoplasma spp.), whereas one group formed a distinct cluster matched with the newly identified species Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii (59.3%) and one or more unknown Mycoplasma spp. (3.7%). Conclusions: T. vaginalis strains associated with vaginal infection might host intracellular mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas. Intracellular Mollicutes that remain undetected in the extracellular environment when conventional diagnostic methods are implemented may comprise either novel species, such as Candidatus M. giredii, or unknown species with yet unexplored clinical significance. PMID:28702014
Ton Nu, Phuong Anh; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Nguyen, Vu Quoc Huy; Fiori, Pier Luigi
Persistence of antibodies against pathogens after antimicrobial treatment is a marker of therapy failure or evolution to a chronic infection. The kinetics of antibody production decrease following antigen elimination is highly variable, and predicting the duration of soluble immunity in infectious diseases is often impossible. This hampers the development and use of immunoassays for diagnostic and seroepidemiological purposes. In the case of Trichomonas vaginalis infection, the kinetics of antibody levels decrease following therapy has never been studied. We thus investigated the clearance of circulating anti-T. vaginalis IgGs after pharmacological treatment in patients affected by trichomoniasis. 18 female patients affected by acute trichomoniasis were enrolled in this study. After metronidazole therapy administration, subjects were followed up monthly up to 5 months, and serum levels of anti-T. vaginalis IgGs were measured by ELISA. We showed that a successful therapy is characterised by a relatively fast decline of specific antibodies, until turning into negative by ELISA in 1-3 months. In a few patients we observed that the persistence of anti-T. vaginalis antibodies was associated with an evolution to chronic infection, which may be due to treatment failure or to reinfection by untreated sexual partners. Our results describe the direct correlation between the decline of a specific humoral anti-T. vaginalis response and an effective antimicrobial therapy. These findings may facilitate the follow-up approach to circumvent limitations in developing new diagnostic tools and techniques routinely used in microbiology laboratories to assess the presence of T. vaginalis in clinical samples. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Riestra, Angelica M.; Gandhi, Shiv; Sweredoski, Michael J.; Moradian, Annie; Hess, Sonja; Urban, Sinisa; Johnson, Patricia J.
Trichomonas vaginalis is an extracellular eukaryotic parasite that causes the most common, non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Although disease burden is high, molecular mechanisms underlying T. vaginalis pathogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we identify a family of putative T. vaginalis rhomboid proteases and demonstrate catalytic activity for two, TvROM1 and TvROM3, using a heterologous cell cleavage assay. The two T. vaginalis intramembrane serine proteases display different subcellular localization and substrate specificities. TvROM1 is a cell surface membrane protein and cleaves atypical model rhomboid protease substrates, whereas TvROM3 appears to localize to the Golgi apparatus and recognizes a typical model substrate. To identify TvROM substrates, we interrogated the T. vaginalis surface proteome using both quantitative proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Of the nine candidates identified, TVAG_166850 and TVAG_280090 were shown to be cleaved by TvROM1. Comparison of amino acid residues surrounding the predicted cleavage sites of TvROM1 substrates revealed a preference for small amino acids in the predicted transmembrane domain. Over-expression of TvROM1 increased attachment to and cytolysis of host ectocervical cells. Similarly, mutations that block the cleavage of a TvROM1 substrate lead to its accumulation on the cell surface and increased parasite adherence to host cells. Together, these data indicate a role for TvROM1 and its substrate(s) in modulating attachment to and lysis of host cells, which are key processes in T. vaginalis pathogenesis. PMID:26684303
Boeke, A J; Dekker, J H; Peerbooms, P G
OBJECTIVE--To determine the agreement of culture results of Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis from the cervix versus posterior fornix in women with vaginal symptoms. DESIGN--Same patient comparison of culture results from two sample sites. SETTING--Twenty one general practices in Amsterdam and the east of the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--Six hundred and eighty two women aged 15 to 55 years with vaginal symptoms, seen between 1 October 1987 and 31 May 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--For each site (cervix and posterior fornix) the proportion of detected C albicans and T vaginalis. The sensitivity of the cervical swab related to the vaginal one. The percentage of concordance for both microorganisms. RESULTS--In 248 (34%) women C albicans was diagnosed and in 38 (6%) T vaginalis. In 99% of the proven C albicans cases, the yeast was found in the vagina. In 94% C albicans was isolated from the cervix. Sensitivity of the cervical swab was 94%. In 98% of the patients a concordant observation was made regarding detection of yeast. In 97% of the proven T vaginalis cases the protozoon was found in the vagina. In 91% T vaginalis was detected from the cervical swab. Sensitivity of the cervical swab was 92%. The culture results were concordant in 99%. CONCLUSION--The yield from the vaginal source was slightly better than that from the cervix for culture of both microorganisms. For screening purposes, specimen-collection for culture of N gonorrhoeae, C albicans and T vaginalis can be combined in one swab taken from the cervix. PMID:8444481
Lövgren, T; Salmela, I
Strains of fresh clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans have been tested in vitro for their sensitivity to eight drugs used in the therapy of monilial and trichomonal vaginitis. Three of the chemotherapeutic agents, chlorchinaldol, clotrimazole and broxyquinoline were effective against both organisms. Tinidazole and metronidazole were active against T. vaginalis. The strains of C. albicans were also sensitive to trichomycin, natamycin and nystatin. Tinidazole was the most effective trichomonacide, clotrimazole and chlorchinaldol were most effective against C. albicans, while chlorchinaldol had the best in vitro effect against both organisms. The ranges of the MICs are compared to values previously reported.
Pintye, Jillian; Drake, Alison L; Unger, Jennifer A; Matemo, Daniel; Kinuthia, John; McClelland, R Scott; John-Stewart, Grace
Trichomonas vaginalis is the world's most common curable STI and has implications for reproductive health in women. We determined incidence and correlates of T. vaginalis in an HIV-uninfected peripartum cohort. Women participating in a prospective study of peripartum HIV acquisition in Western Kenya were enrolled during pregnancy and followed until 9 months post partum. T. vaginalis was assessed every 1-3 months using wet mount microscopy. Correlates of incident T. vaginalis were determined using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 1271 women enrolled, median age was 22 years (IQR 19-27) and gestational age was 22 weeks (IQR 18-26); most (78%) were married and had uncircumcised male partners (69%). Prevalent T. vaginalis was detected in 81 women (6%) at enrolment. Among women without T. vaginalis at enrolment, 112 had T. vaginalis detected during 1079 person-years of follow-up (10.4 per 100 person-years). After adjustment for socio-economic factors, male partner circumcision status, pregnancy status and other STIs, T. vaginalis incidence was higher during pregnancy than post partum (22.3 vs 7.7 per 100 person-years, adjusted HR (aHR) 3.68, 95% CI 1.90 to 7.15, p<0.001). Women with circumcised male partners had a 58% lower risk of incident T. vaginalis compared with women with uncircumcised partners (aHR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.76, p=0.004). Employed women had lower risk of incident T. vaginalis than unemployed women (aHR 0.49, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.79, p=0.003); recent STI was associated with increased T. vaginalis risk (aHR 2.97, 95% CI 1.49 to 5.94, p=0.002). T. vaginalis was relatively common in this peripartum cohort. Male circumcision may confer benefits in preventing T. vaginalis . Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Jenniskens, Marieke L M; Veerbeek, Jan H W; Deurloo, Koen L; van Hannen, Erik J; Thijsen, Steven F T
Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are common sexual transmitted infections (STI). However, most STI screening programmes do not include routinely detection of these pathogens. Consequently, epidemiological data about MG and TV in the general population is lacking. The current study aims to give insight into the prevalence of both infections, thereby guiding decisions whether testing for these pathogens should be included routinely. Between February 2013 and August 2015, all samples sent to the laboratory of Diakonessenhuis Utrecht for STI testing (i.e. testing for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)) were additionally examined for the presence of MG and TV by means of a laboratory-developed RT-PCR. Samples were collected by our hospital or by regional general practitioners. A total of 5628 PCR's were evaluated. In 7.5%, one or more STI were detected. CT was found in 5% and MG was positive in 1.9%. NG was detected in 0.5% and TV was detected in 0.6% of the samples. CT was found more often in primary care than in hospital setting (9.7% vs. 3.0%, p < .05). The same was shown for NG (1.1% vs. 0.2%, p < .05). More men than women were positive for CT (11.2% vs. 3.8%, p < .05) and NG (1.4% vs. 0.3%, p < .05). MG is more prevalent than NG and TV in a regional Dutch population. Furthermore, TV is equally common as NG. Based on our prevalence data, including MG and TV in STI testing protocols should be considered in the future.
Seo, Jun-Hyeok; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Lee, Yu-Ran; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Yoo, Eun Sang; Lee, Won Kee; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul
Trichomonas vaginalis, a causative agent of trichomoniasis, may trigger symptomatic or asymptomatic nongonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis in men. Despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests, including PCR, few prospective studies present data on male T. vaginalis infection in South Korea. In the present study, the prevalence of T. vaginalis and associated clinical conditions were evaluated in 201 male patients from a primary care urology clinic in South Korea. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in our cohort was 4% (8/201) by PCR. T. vaginalis infection was common in men older than 40 years (median age, 52 years). Among the 8 Trichomonas-positive patients, 87.5% (7/8) had prostatic diseases, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 25.0% (2/8) and 12.5% (1/8) were coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. Our results suggest that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in men attending primary care urology clinics in South Korea, especially in those older than 40 years, in whom it may explain the presence of prostatic disease. The possibility of T. vaginalis infection should be routinely considered in older male patients with prostatic diseases in South Korea.
Quan, Juan-Hua; Kang, Byung-Hun; Yang, Jung-Bo; Rhee, Yun-Ee; Noh, Heung-Tae; Choi, In-Wook; Cha, Guang-Ho; Yuk, Jae-Min
Trichomonas vaginalis induces apoptosis in host cells through various mechanisms; however, little is known about the relationship between apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and NF-κB signaling pathways in the cervical mucosal epithelium. Here, we evaluated apoptotic events, ROS production, and NF-κB activity in T. vaginalis-treated cervical mucosal epithelial SiHa cells, with or without specific inhibitors, using fluorescence microscopy, DNA fragmentation assays, subcellular fractionation, western blotting, and luciferase reporter assay. SiHa cells treated with live T. vaginalis at a multiplicity of infection of 5 (MOI 5) for 4 h produced intracellular and mitochondrial ROS in a parasite-load-dependent manner. Incubation with T. vaginalis caused DNA fragmentation, cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. T. vaginalis-treated SiHa cells showed transient early NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, which dramatically dropped at 4 h after treatment. Suppression of NF-κB activity was dependent on parasite burden. However, treatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-C-cysteine (NAC), reversed the effect of T. vaginalis on apoptosis and NF-κB inactivation in SiHa cells. Taken together, T. vaginalis induces apoptosis in human cervical mucosal epithelial cells by parasite-dose-dependent ROS production through an NF-κB-regulated, mitochondria-mediated pathway. PMID:29410962
Muñoz-Ramírez, Azucena; López-Monteon, Aracely; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Méndez-Bolaina, Enrique; Guapillo-Vargas, Mario R B
Female sex workers (FSWs) have been considered a key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs); therefore, they are periodically screened as a requirement to obtain a work card. However, there is insufficient epidemiological data on STIs among FSWs in Mexico. The detection of Trichomonas vaginalis is limited to microscopic studies and the molecular screening of Human papillomavirus (HPV) is only done to women 35 years of age and older. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis and HPV infections in FSWs in the city of Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico. Samples from 105 FSWs were obtained by cervical swab and analyzed. The identification of T. vaginalis and HPV was performed by molecular methods. HPV DNA was identified in 5.71% of the samples with the presence of HPV16, HPV18, and HPV58. A percentage of 25.7% samples were positive for T. vaginalis for optical microscopy and 23.8% for PCR. The results of the study indicate the need to incorporate more sensitive methods for the timely diagnosis of STIs as well as comprehensive health promotion programs directed to the most vulnerable groups among FSWs. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; da Silva, Gloria Narjara Santos; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gnoatto, Simone Cristina Baggio; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Macedo, Alexandre José; Bastida, Jaume; Tasca, Tiana
Trichomonas vaginalis causes trichomoniasis; the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. The treatment is based at 5'-nitroimidazoles, however, failure are related to resistance of T. vaginalis to chemotherapy. Caatinga is a uniquely Brazilian region representing a biome with type desert vegetation and plants present diverse biological activity, however, with few studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity against T. vaginalis of different plants from Caatinga and identify the compounds responsible by the activity. A bioguided fractionation of Manilkara rufula was performed and four major compounds were identified: caproate of α-amyrin (1b), acetate of β-amyrin (2a), caproate of β-amyrin (2b), and acetate of lupeol (3a). In addition, six derivatives of α-amyrin (1), β-amyrin (2) and lupeol (3) were synthesized and tested against the parasite. Ursolic acid (5) reduced about 98% of parasite viability after 2h of incubation and drastic ultrastructural alterations were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, 5 presented high cytotoxicity to HMVII and HeLa cell line and low cytotoxicity against Vero line at 50 μM (MIC against the parasite). Metronidazole effect against T. vaginalis resistant isolate was improved when in association with 5. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Wei-Ting; Chang, Tsuey-Yu; Shin, Jyh-Wei
Background Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that occurs in the urogenital-vaginal tract and is the primary causative agent of trichomoniasis, a common sexually transmitted disease in humans. The aggregation of this protozoan tends to destroy epithelial cells and induce pathogenesis. Principal Findings This study cultured T. vaginalis and human cervical epithelial cells (Z172) under the same conditions in the experiments. Following co-culturing for ten hours, the protozoans became attached to Z172, such that the cells presented a round shape and underwent shrinkage. Time-lapse recording and flow cytometry on interacted Z172 revealed that 70% had been disrupted, 18% presented a necrosis-like morphology and 8% showed signs of apoptosis. Gene expression profiling revealed in the seven inflammatory Z172 genes as well as in T. vaginalis genes that code for adhesion proteins 65 and 65-1. Significance These results suggest that cytopathogenic effects progress while Z172 is in contact with T. vaginalis, and the resulting morphological changes can be categorized as disruption. PMID:25901354
Testardini, Pamela; Vaulet, María Lucía Gallo; Entrocassi, Andrea Carolina; Menghi, Claudia; Eliseht, Martha Cora; Gatta, Claudia; Losada, Mirta; Touzón, María Sol; Corominas, Ana; Vay, Carlos; Tatti, Silvio; Famiglietti, Angela; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodriguez; Perazzi, Beatriz
The aim of this study was to evaluate different methods for Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosis during pregnancy in order to prevent maternal and perinatal complications. A total of 386 vaginal exudates from pregnant women were analyzed. T. vaginalis was investigated by 3 types of microscopic examinations direct wet mount with physiologic saline solution, prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) staining, and wet mount with sodium-acetate-formalin (SAF)/methylene blue method. PCR for 18S rRNA gene as well as culture in liquid medium were performed. The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic examinations were evaluated considering the culture media positivity or the PCR techniques as gold standard. The frequency of T. vaginalis infection was 6.2% by culture and/or PCR, 5.2% by PCR, 4.7% by culture, 3.1% by SAF/methylene blue method and 2.8% by direct wet smear and prolonged MGG staining. The sensitivities were 83.3%, 75.0%, 50.0%, and 45.8% for PCR, culture, SAF/methylene blue method, and direct wet smear-prolonged MGG staining, respectively. The specificity was 100% for all the assessed methods. Microscopic examinations showed low sensitivity, mainly in asymptomatic pregnant patients. It is necessary to improve the detection of T. vaginalis using combined methods providing higher sensitivity, such as culture and PCR, mainly in asymptomatic pregnant patients, in order to prevent maternal and perinatal complications.
He, Ding; Pengtao, Gong; Ju, Yang; Jianhua, Li; He, Li; Guocai, Zhang; Xichen, Zhang
Protozoan viruses may influence the function and pathogenicity of the protozoa. Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that could contain a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, T. vaginalis virus (TVV). However, there are few reports on the properties of the virus. To further determine variations in protein expression of T. vaginalis , we detected 2 strains of T. vaginalis ; the virus-infected (V + ) and uninfected (V - ) isolates to examine differentially expressed proteins upon TVV infection. Using a stable isotope N-terminal labeling strategy (iTRAQ) on soluble fractions to analyze proteomes, we identified 293 proteins, of which 50 were altered in V + compared with V - isolates. The results showed that the expression of 29 proteins was increased, and 21 proteins decreased in V + isolates. These differentially expressed proteins can be classified into 4 categories: ribosomal proteins, metabolic enzymes, heat shock proteins, and putative uncharacterized proteins. Quantitative PCR was used to detect 4 metabolic processes proteins: glycogen phosphorylase, malate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, which were differentially expressed in V + and V - isolates. Our findings suggest that mRNA levels of these genes were consistent with protein expression levels. This study was the first which analyzed protein expression variations upon TVV infection. These observations will provide a basis for future studies concerning the possible roles of these proteins in host-parasite interactions.
Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros Tavares de; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Carli, Geraldo Atillio de; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana
Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB) and haemin (HM) enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron.
Freeman, Alexandra H; Katz, Kenneth A; Pandori, Mark W; Rauch, Leah M; Kohn, Robert P; Liska, Sally; Bernstein, Kyle T; Klausner, Jeffrey D
We describe the epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among San Francisco County Jail inmates using APTIMA TV analyte-specific reagents on remnant urine. We detected TV in 15/713 (2.1%) men and 95/297 (32.0%) women. Among women, increased age was significantly associated with TV. The benefits of TV screening should be determined.
Meysick, K C; Garber, G E
To study the role of vaginal flora and pH in the pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis, an intravaginal mouse model of infection was established. By employing this model, the vaginal flora and pH of mice could be monitored for changes caused by the parasite. As a baseline, the endemic vaginal flora of BALB/c mice was examined first and found to consist mainly of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species (32-76%). Lactobacilli and enteric bacilli were moderate (16-32%) in their frequency of isolation, and the prevalence of both anaerobic species and coagulase-negative staphylococci was low (4-16%). Vaginal pH was recorded at 6.5 +/- 0.3. Estrogenization, which was required for a sustained T. vaginalis infection, did not significantly alter vaginal flora; however, a slight rise in the number of bacterial species isolated per mouse and a drop in vaginal pH (6.2 +/- 0.5) were observed. Trichomonas vaginalis-infected mice did not appear to show significant changes in vaginal flora although vaginal pH was slightly increased. This mouse model could have applications in both immunologic and pathogenic studies of T. vaginalis and, with further modifications, aid in the study of protist-bacterial interactions.
Sena-Lopes, Ângela; das Neves, Raquel Nascimento; Bezerra, Francisco Silvestre Brilhante; de Oliveira Silva, Mara Thais; Nobre, Patrick C; Perin, Gelson; Alves, Diego; Savegnago, Lucielli; Begnini, Karine Rech; Seixas, Fabiana Kommling; Collares, Tiago; Borsuk, Sibele
The increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant infections has resulted in a search for alternative drugs for the treatment of trichomoniasis. In the present study, we report the preparation and in vitro activity of three 1,3-dioxolanes that contain tellurium (PTeDOX 01, PTeDOX 02, and PTeDOX 03) against Trichomonas vaginalis. Six concentrations of these compounds were analyzed for in vitro activity against ATCC 30236 isolate of T. vaginalis. PTeDOX 01 reported a cytotoxic effect against 100% of T. vaginalis trophozoites at a final concentration of 90μM with an IC 50 of 60μM. The kinetic growth curve of trophozoites indicated that PTeDOX 01 reduced the growth by 22% at a concentration of 90μM after an exposure of 12h, and induced complete parasite death at 24h. It induced cytotoxicity of 44% at 90μM concentration but and had no effect in lower concentrations in a culture of CHO-K1 cells. These results confirmed that PTeDOX 01 is an important drug for the treatment of T. vaginalis, and should be evaluated in other infectious agents as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Crowell, Andrea L.; Sanders-Lewis, Kolby A.; Secor, W. Evan
The in vitro activities of tinidazole and metronidazole against Trichomonas vaginalis isolates clinically resistant to metronidazole were compared. Minimal lethal concentrations (MLCs) of tinidazole were significantly lower than MLCs of metronidazole. Increased metronidazole resistance correlated with increased tinidazole resistance. These data support a role for tinidazole in the treatment of trichomoniasis. PMID:12654679
Ertabaklar, Hatice; Yaman Karadam, Senem; Malatyalı, Erdoğan; Ertuğ, Sema
Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated, urogenital anaerobic protozoon is reported as an important cause of vaginitis with a global distribution. Although metronidazole is the primary choice of drug for the treatment of trichomoniasis, the presence of resistant isolates from many different countries highlights the need of novel drugs for the treatment. Many studies from Turkey mostly dealing with the in vitro effects of compounds and natural products against T.vaginalis have been reported, however, only one study has been encountered searching the metronidazole resistance in a single T.vaginalis isolate. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro metronidazole resistance and minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) of the isolates from symptomatic cases. T.vaginalis strains isolated from vaginal discharge samples of symptomatic women that were sent to Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Research and Training Hospital Parasitology Laboratory, between 2009-2014 period, were included in the study. The strains were isolated by the inoculation of samples into trypticase-yeast-maltose medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. A total of 40 T.vaginalis isolates stored by cryopreservation were revived before the experiments. T.vaginalis trophozoites were incubated with different concentrations of metronidazole (200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.12, 1.56 μg/ml) and the viability of cells were examined in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions under phase contrast microscope. Additionally, non-motile isolates were further inoculated into fresh media and viability was checked. The wells containing motile trophozoites after 48 hours of incubation with 15 µg/ml and/or higher metronidazole concentration in anaerobic condition and 75 µg/ml and/or higher metronidazole concentration in aerobic conditions were determined as resistant isolates. Of the 40 T.vaginalis isolates three (7.5%) were resistant to metronidazole. MLC mean values of metronidazole
Kim, Sang-Su; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook
Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissues from prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Chronic prostatic inflammation is known as a risk factor for prostate enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, and acute urinary retention. Our aim was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce inflammatory responses in cells of a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line (BPH-1). When BPH-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis, the protein and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1β, and IL-6, were increased. The activities of TLR4, ROS, MAPK, JAK2/STAT3, and NF-κB were also increased, whereas inhibitors of ROS, MAPK, PI3K, NF-κB, and anti-TLR4 antibody decreased the production of the 4 cytokines although the extent of inhibition differed. However, a JAK2 inhibitor inhibited only IL-6 production. Culture supernatants of the BPH-1 cells that had been incubated with live T. vaginalis (trichomonad-conditioned medium, TCM) contained the 4 cytokines and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cells) and mast cells (HMC-1 cells). TCM conditioned by BPH-1 cells pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor showed decreased levels of cytokines and induced less migration. Therefore, it is suggested that these cytokines are involved in migration of inflammatory cells. These results suggest that T. vaginalis infection of BPH patients may cause inflammation, which may induce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
Okun, Nan; Gronau, Karen A; Hannah, Mary E
To determine whether antibiotic treatment for bacterial vaginosis or Trichomonas vaginalis during pregnancy decreases the risk of preterm birth and associated adverse outcomes. Pre-MEDLINE and MEDLINE (1966-2003), EMBASE (1980-2003), and the Cochrane Library were searched using the keywords "bacterial vaginosis", "Trichomonas", "Trichomonas vaginalis", "Trichomonas vaginitis", "Trichomonas infections", "pregnancy", "pregnant", "antibiotics", and "antibiotic prophylaxis". The search produced 1,888 titles, of which 1,256 abstracts were reviewed further. Of these, 1,217 were ineligible. Inclusion criteria were the following: randomized controlled trials in which antibiotics were compared with no antibiotic or placebo, for women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy with symptomatic or asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis or Trichomonas vaginalis, intact membranes, and not in labor. Exclusion criteria were as follows: published in a language other than English, dropout rate of more than 20% of women in either group, and lack of usable outcomes. Of the 39 papers reviewed in detail, 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. One of the authors reviewed titles obtained from the searches, and 2 reviewers independently reviewed the abstracts, excluded those that were ineligible, identified eligible papers, and abstracted the data. For women with bacterial vaginosis, antibiotics reduced the risk of persistent infection but did not reduce the risk of preterm birth or the incidence of associated adverse outcomes for the general population or for any subgroup analyzed. For women with Trichomonas vaginalis, metronidazole reduced the risk of persistent infection but increased the incidence of preterm birth. Contrary to the conclusions of 3 recent systematic reviews, we found no evidence to support the use of antibiotic treatment for bacterial vaginosis or Trichomonas vaginalis in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth or its associated morbidities in low- or high
Hopper, Melissa; Yun, Jeong-Fil; Zhou, Bianhua; Le, Christine; Kehoe, Katelin; Le, Ryan; Hill, Ryan; Jongeward, Gregg; Debnath, Anjan; Zhang, Liangfang; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Eckmann, Lars; Land, Kirkwood M; Wrischnik, Lisa A
Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common, non-viral, sexually transmitted infection in the world, but only two closely related nitro drugs are approved for its treatment. New antimicrobials against trichomoniasis remain an urgent need. Several organic gold compounds were tested for activity against T. vaginalis thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in cell-free systems as well as for activity against different trichomonads in vitro and in a murine infection model. The organic gold(I) compounds auranofin and chloro(diethylphenylphosphine)gold(I) inhibited TrxR in a concentration-dependent manner in assays with recombinant purified reductase and in cytoplasmic extracts of T. vaginalis transfected with a haemagglutinin epitope-tagged form of the reductase. Auranofin potently suppressed the growth of three independent clinical T. vaginalis isolates as well as several strains of another trichomonad (Tritrichomonas foetus) in a 24 h-assay, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.7-2.5 µM and minimum lethal concentrations of 2-6 µM. The drug also compromised the ability of the parasite to overcome oxidant stress, supporting the notion that auranofin acts, in part, by inactivating TrxR-dependent antioxidant defences. Chloro(diethylphenylphosphine)gold(I) was 10-fold less effective against T. vaginalis in vitro than auranofin. Oral administration of auranofin for 4 days cleared the parasites in a murine model of vaginal T. foetus infection without displaying any apparent adverse effects. The approved human drug auranofin may be a promising agent as an alternative treatment of trichomoniasis in cases when standard nitro drug therapies have failed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Twu, Olivia; Dessí, Daniele; Vu, Anh; Mercer, Frances; Stevens, Grant C; de Miguel, Natalia; Rappelli, Paola; Cocco, Anna Rita; Clubb, Robert T; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Johnson, Patricia J
The human-infective parasite Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Infections in men may result in colonization of the prostate and are correlated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. We have found that T. vaginalis secretes a protein, T. vaginalis macrophage migration inhibitory factor (TvMIF), that is 47% similar to human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (HuMIF), a proinflammatory cytokine. Because HuMIF is reported to be elevated in prostate cancer and inflammation plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cancers, we have explored a role for TvMIF in prostate cancer. Here, we show that TvMIF has tautomerase activity, inhibits macrophage migration, and is proinflammatory. We also demonstrate that TvMIF binds the human CD74 MIF receptor with high affinity, comparable to that of HuMIF, which triggers activation of ERK, Akt, and Bcl-2-associated death promoter phosphorylation at a physiologically relevant concentration (1 ng/mL, 80 pM). TvMIF increases the in vitro growth and invasion through Matrigel of benign and prostate cancer cells. Sera from patients infected with T. vaginalis are reactive to TvMIF, especially in males. The presence of anti-TvMIF antibodies indicates that TvMIF is released by the parasite and elicits host immune responses during infection. Together, these data indicate that chronic T. vaginalis infections may result in TvMIF-driven inflammation and cell proliferation, thus triggering pathways that contribute to the promotion and progression of prostate cancer.
Kim, Sang-Su; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook
Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissues from prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Chronic prostatic inflammation is known as a risk factor for prostate enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, and acute urinary retention. Our aim was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce inflammatory responses in cells of a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line (BPH-1). When BPH-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis, the protein and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1β, and IL-6, were increased. The activities of TLR4, ROS, MAPK, JAK2/STAT3, and NF-κB were also increased, whereas inhibitors of ROS, MAPK, PI3K, NF-κB, and anti-TLR4 antibody decreased the production of the 4 cytokines although the extent of inhibition differed. However, a JAK2 inhibitor inhibited only IL-6 production. Culture supernatants of the BPH-1 cells that had been incubated with live T. vaginalis (trichomonad-conditioned medium, TCM) contained the 4 cytokines and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cells) and mast cells (HMC-1 cells). TCM conditioned by BPH-1 cells pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor showed decreased levels of cytokines and induced less migration. Therefore, it is suggested that these cytokines are involved in migration of inflammatory cells. These results suggest that T. vaginalis infection of BPH patients may cause inflammation, which may induce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). PMID:27180569
Ravaee, Roya; Ebadi, Parimah; Hatam, Gholamreza; Vafafar, Arghavan; Ghahramani Seno, Mohammad Mahdi
The flagellated protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) causes trichomoniasis, a reproductive tract infection, in humans. Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In addition to direct consequences such as infertility and abortion, there are indications that trichomoniasis favours development of prostate cancer and it has also been associated with increased risk of spreading human immunodeficiency virus and papillomavirus infections. Reports from around the world show that the rate of drug resistance in T. vaginalis is increasing, and therefore new therapeutic approaches have to be developed. Studying molecular biology of T. vaginalis will be quite helpful in identifying new drugable targets. RNAi is a powerful technique which allows biologist to specifically target gene products (i.e. mRNA) helping them in unravelling gene functions and biology of systems. However, due to lack of some parts of the required intrinsic RNAi machinery, the RNAi system is not functional in all orders of life. Here, by using synthetic siRNAs targeting two genes, i.e. α-actinin and cystein protease 12 (cp12), we demonstrate T. vaginalis cells are amenable to RNAi experiments conducted by extrinsic siRNAs. Electroporation of siRNAs targeting α-actinin or cp12 into T. vaginalis cells resulted in, respectively, 48-67% and 33-72% downregulation of the cognate transcripts compared to the T. vaginalis cells received siRNAs targeting GL2 luciferase as a control. This finding is helpful in that it demonstrates the potential of using extrinsically induced RNAi in studies on molecular biology of T. vaginalis such as those aiming at identifying new drug targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Makarova, Natalia; Henning, Tara; Taylor, Andrew; Dinh, Chuong; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Aubert, Rachael; Hanson, Debra; Phillips, Christi; Papp, John; Mitchell, James; McNicholl, Janet; Garcia-Lerma, Gerardo J; Heneine, Walid; Kersh, Ellen; Dobard, Charles
Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis, two prevalent sexually transmitted infections, are known to increase HIV risk in women and could potentially diminish preexposure prophylaxis efficacy, particularly for topical interventions that rely on local protection. We investigated in macaques whether coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis reduces protection by vaginal tenofovir (TFV) gel. Vaginal TFV gel dosing previously shown to provide 100 or 74% protection when applied either 30 min or 3 days before simian HIV(SHIV) challenge was assessed in pigtailed macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis and challenged twice weekly with SHIV162p3 for up to 10 weeks (two menstrual cycles). Three groups of six macaques received either placebo or 1% TFV gel 30 min or 3 days before each SHIV challenge. We additionally assessed TFV and TFV diphosphate concentrations in plasma and vaginal tissues in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected (n = 4) and uninfected (n = 4) macaques. Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfections were maintained during the SHIV challenge period. All macaques that received placebo gel were SHIV infected after a median of seven challenges (one menstrual cycle). In contrast, no infections were observed in macaques treated with TFV gel 30 min before SHIV challenge (P < 0.001). Efficacy was reduced to 60% when TFV gel was applied 3 days before SHIV challenge (P = 0.07). Plasma TFV and TFV diphosphate concentrations in tissues and vaginal lymphocytes were significantly higher in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected compared with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis uninfected macaques. Our findings in this model suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfection may have little or no impact on the efficacy of highly effective topical TFV modalities and highlight a significant modulation of TFV pharmacokinetics.
de Jong, A S; Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; van Alphen, Ptw; Hilt, N; van Herk, Cmc; Pont, Sbeh; Melchers, Wjg; van de Bovenkamp, Jhb
Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis are common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In the Netherlands, testing for M. genitalium and T. vaginalis is not recommended for first-line STI screening. Recent reports about the increasing antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium raise concern about the adequacy of current empirical treatment regimens. It is necessary to have insight in the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis in order to evaluate current first-line STI screening and treatment protocols. During a five-month period, samples sent to two large medical microbiology diagnostic centres in the Netherlands for STI screening (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) were retrospectively tested for the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis using the Diagenode S-DiaMGTV kit. A total of 1569 samples from 1188 unique patients (55.4% female) were tested. M. genitalium was the second most prevalent STI detected (4.5% of the patients), after C. trachomatis (8.3%). T. vaginalis was detected in 1.4% of the patients, comparable to the prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae (1.3%). Dual infections were only detected in a small number of patients (1.0%). Incorporation of M. genitalium into routine STI screening should be considered, because of its relatively high prevalence, the consequences of its detection for antibiotic treatment and because of the availability of easy-to-use molecular diagnostic tests. For T. vaginalis, routine screening may be considered, depending on local prevalence and (sub)population. © The Author(s) 2015.
Margarita, Valentina; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Pintus, Gianfranco; Hirt, Robert P.; Fiori, Pier L.
The symbiosis between the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis and the opportunistic bacterium Mycoplasma hominis is the only one currently described involving two obligate human mucosal symbionts with pathogenic capabilities that can cause independent diseases in the same anatomical site: the lower urogenital tract. Although several aspects of this intriguing microbial partnership have been investigated, many questions on the influence of this symbiosis on the parasite pathobiology still remain unanswered. Here, we examined with in vitro cultures how M. hominis could influence the pathobiology of T. vaginalis by investigating the influence of M. hominis on parasite replication rate, haemolytic activity and ATP production. By comparing isogenic mycoplasma-free T. vaginalis and parasites stably associated with M. hominis we could demonstrate that the latter show a higher replication rate, increased haemolytic activity and are able to produce larger amounts of ATP. In addition, we demonstrated in a T. vaginalis-macrophage co-culture system that M. hominis could modulate an aspect of the innate immuno-response to T. vaginalis infections by influencing the production of nitric oxide (NO) by human macrophages, with the parasite-bacteria symbiosis outcompeting the human cells for the key substrate arginine. These results support a model in which the symbiosis between T. vaginalis and M. hominis influences host-microbes interactions to the benefit of both microbial partners during infections and to the detriment of their host. PMID:27379081
Quan, Juan-Hua; Kang, Byung-Hun; Cha, Guang-Ho; Zhou, Wei; Koh, Young-Bok; Yang, Jung-Bo; Yoo, Heon-Jong; Lee, Min-A; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Noh, Heung-Tae; Kwon, Jaeyul; Lee, Young-Ha
To elucidate the roles of metalloproteinases and the Bcl-2 family of proteins in Trichovaginalis. vaginalis-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells (SiHa cells) and vaginal epithelial cells (MS74 cells), SiHa cells and MS74 cells were incubated with live T. vaginalis, T. vaginalis excretory and secretory products (ESP), and T. vaginalis lysates, either with or without the specific metalloproteinase inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-PT), and examined apoptotic events and Bcl-2 signaling. The live T. vaginalis and the T. vaginalis ESP induced the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and the cleavage of PARP. Additionally, the live T. vaginalis, but not the T. vaginalis lysate, induced the cleavage of the proapoptotic Bim protein. The live T. vaginalis and the T. vaginalis ESP, but not the T. vaginalis lysate, induced the dose-dependent cleavage of the antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 proteins and decreased the association levels of Bcl-xL/Bim and Mcl-1/Bim complexes. We performed gelatin zymography and casein-hydrolysis assays on the live T. vaginalis and the T. vaginalis ESP to identify the apoptosis-inducing factor. Both the live T. vaginalis and the ESP contained high levels of metalloproteinases, of which activities were significantly inhibited by 1,10-PT treatment. Furthermore, the 1,10-PT blocked the cleavage of Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, PARP, caspase-3, and caspase-9, as well as the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and it significantly increased the association levels of the Bcl-xL/Bim and Mcl-1/Bim protein complexes, returning them to normal levels. Our results demonstrate that T. vaginalis induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in SiHa cells through the dissociation of Bcl-xL/Bim and Mcl-1/Bim complexes and that the apoptosis is blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitor 1,10-PT. These results expand our understanding of the role of metalloproteinases in T. vaginalis-induced apoptosis and the signaling
Zhou, Wei; Koh, Young-Bok; Yang, Jung-Bo; Yoo, Heon-Jong; Lee, Min-A; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Noh, Heung-Tae; Kwon, Jaeyul; Lee, Young-Ha
To elucidate the roles of metalloproteinases and the Bcl-2 family of proteins in Trichovaginalis. vaginalis-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells (SiHa cells) and vaginal epithelial cells (MS74 cells), SiHa cells and MS74 cells were incubated with live T. vaginalis, T. vaginalis excretory and secretory products (ESP), and T. vaginalis lysates, either with or without the specific metalloproteinase inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-PT), and examined apoptotic events and Bcl-2 signaling. The live T. vaginalis and the T. vaginalis ESP induced the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and the cleavage of PARP. Additionally, the live T. vaginalis, but not the T. vaginalis lysate, induced the cleavage of the proapoptotic Bim protein. The live T. vaginalis and the T. vaginalis ESP, but not the T. vaginalis lysate, induced the dose-dependent cleavage of the antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 proteins and decreased the association levels of Bcl-xL/Bim and Mcl-1/Bim complexes. We performed gelatin zymography and casein-hydrolysis assays on the live T. vaginalis and the T. vaginalis ESP to identify the apoptosis-inducing factor. Both the live T. vaginalis and the ESP contained high levels of metalloproteinases, of which activities were significantly inhibited by 1,10-PT treatment. Furthermore, the 1,10-PT blocked the cleavage of Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, PARP, caspase-3, and caspase-9, as well as the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and it significantly increased the association levels of the Bcl-xL/Bim and Mcl-1/Bim protein complexes, returning them to normal levels. Our results demonstrate that T. vaginalis induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in SiHa cells through the dissociation of Bcl-xL/Bim and Mcl-1/Bim complexes and that the apoptosis is blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitor 1,10-PT. These results expand our understanding of the role of metalloproteinases in T. vaginalis-induced apoptosis and the signaling
Dai, Min; Peng, Cheng; Peng, Fu; Xie, Chengbin; Wang, Pinjia; Sun, Fenghui
Trichomonosis, caused by the flagellate protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) and 5-nitroimidazole drugs are used for the treatment. However, a growing number of T. vaginalis isolates are resistant to these drugs, which make it becomes an urgent issue. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-T. vaginalis activity of the essential oil from A. tsao-ko used in traditional Chinese medicine and as a spice and its main component, geraniol. The anti-T. vaginalis activities of A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol were evaluated by the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in vitro. The morphological changes of T. vaginalis were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, sub-MLC concentration treatment with sub-MLC A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol was also performed. This study shows that MLC/IC50 of A. tsao-ko essential oil was 44.97 µg/ml/22.49 µg/ml for T. vaginalis isolate Tv1, and 89.93 µg/ml/44.97 µg/ml for T. vaginalis isolate Tv2. Those of geraniol were 342.96 µg/ml/171.48 µg/ml, respectively. After A. tsao-ko essential oil or geraniol treatment, obvious similar morphological changes of T. vaginalis were observed by TEM: the nuclear membrane was damaged, nuclei were dissolved, and the chromatin was accumulated; in the cytoplasm, numerous vacuoles appeared, rough endoplasmic reticulum dilated, the number of ribosomes were reduced, organelles disintegrated, the cell membrane was partially damaged, with cytoplasmic leakage, and cell disintegration was observed. The action time did not increase the effect of A. tsao-ko essential oil or geraniol against T. vaginalis, as no significant difference was observed after sub-MLC concentration treatment for 1, 3, and 5 h with A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol. The study describes the first report on the activity and morphological changes of A. tsao-ko essential oil and
Viscogliosi, E; Delgado-Viscogliosi, P; Gerbod, D; Dauchez, M; Gratepanche, S; Alix, A J; Dive, D
A superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene of the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis was cloned, sequenced, expressed in Escherichia coli, and its gene product characterized. It is an iron-containing dimeric protein with a monomeric mass of 22,067 Da. Southern blots analyses suggested the presence of seven iron-containing (FeSOD) gene copies. Hydrophobic cluster analysis revealed some peculiarities in the 2D structure of the FeSOD from T. vaginalis and a strong structural conservation between prokaryotic and eukaryotic FeSODs. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the SOD sequences confirmed the dichotomy between FeSODs and manganese-containing SODs. FeSODs of protists appeared to group together with homologous proteobacterial enzymes suggesting a possible origin of eukaryotic FeSODs through an endosymbiotic event.
Madlala, T S; Rencken, R K; Bornman, M S; Reif, S; Joubert, H F; Van der Merwe, C A
To establish the differences, if any, between the biochemical composition of idiopathic hydrocele fluid and the fluid normally present in the tunica vaginalis. Aspiration and sclerotherapy of 37 idiopathic hydroceles from patients who presented to this urology clinic were performed. The biochemical content of the fluid was compared with that of the tunica vaginalis fluid from a small group of controls (n = 8), taken from patients undergoing orchidectomy for carcinoma of the prostate. Differences in several measurements were recorded; in particular, there were significantly higher concentrations of calcium, albumin, total protein and creatine-kinase in the hydrocele group. The levels of potassium, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in the hydrocele group. Whether these differences have a role in the causation of an idiopathic hydrocele is, at this stage, speculative. A similar study on a larger scale would probably be more conclusive.
Goodhew, E Brook; Secor, W Evan
Metronidazole and tinidazole are effective treatments for most patients with trichomoniasis but not for individuals who are infected with very resistant strains of Trichomonas vaginalis or persons with hypersensitivity to the 5-nitroimidazole drugs. Thus, there is a need for additional oral therapies to treat trichomoniasis. We screened the US Drug Collection Library against metronidazole-susceptible and resistant strains of T vaginalis. Activity was measured by incubating parasites and drugs for 48 h in the presence of tritiated thymidine. Growth inhibition was determined by the reduction of incorporated radioactivity by compounds at 20 μM in comparison to media control. Drugs that showed good initial activity were further tested to calculate IC50 values. Drugs with the most promise were tested together with metronidazole to see if there was any combinatorial effect. Of the 1040 drugs in the library, 83 (8%) reduced growth of a metronidazole-susceptible T vaginalis strain by at least 20%. Of these, IC50 values were calculated for 27 compounds and 8 drugs were evaluated in combination with metronidazole. Disulfiram and nithiamide were non-5-nitroimidazole drugs that showed the best activity against parasites when used alone. Albendazole and coenzyme B12 were the most promising compounds to boost the efficacy of metronidazole. No one drug was as effective as any of the 5-nitroimidazole compounds. However, disulfiram and nithiamide may be useful to treat individuals with hypersensitivity to 5-nitroimidazole drugs and albendazole and coenzyme B12 may be helpful in combination with metronidazole or tinidazole for treatment of persons with highly resistant T vaginalis infections.
Korosh, Travis; Bujans, Emmanuel; Morada, Mary; Karaalioglu, Canan; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Mayence, Annie; Huang, Tien L; Yarlett, Nigel
A bisoxyphenylene-bisbenzimidazole series with increasing aliphatic chain length (CH 2 to C 10 H 20 ) containing a meta- (m) or para (p)-benzimidazole linkage to the phenylene ring was tested for ability to inhibit the growth of metronidazole-susceptible (C1) and metronidazole-refractory (085) Trichomonas vaginalis isolates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Compound 3m, 2,2'-[α,ω-propanediylbis(oxy-1,3-phenylene)]bis-1H-benzimidazole, displayed a 5.5-fold lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) toward T. vaginalis isolate 085 than metronidazole under aerobic growth conditions, (26 μm compared to 145 μm). A dose of 25 mg/kg per day for four days of compound 3m cured a subcutaneous mouse model infection using T. vaginalis isolates 286 (metronidazole susceptible) and 085 (metronidazole refractory). Compound 3m was weakly reduced by pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, but unlike metronidazole was not dependent upon added ferredoxin. It is concluded from structure-activity relationships that there was no obvious trend based on the length of the central aliphatic chain, or the steric position of the bisbenzimidazole enabling prediction of biological activity. The compounds generally fulfill Lipinski's rile of five, indicating their potential as drug leads. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites. PMID:6088662
Mehriardestani, Mozhgan; Aliahmadi, Atousa; Toliat, Tayebeh; Rahimi, Roja
Trichomonas vaginalis is a major of non-viral sexually-transmitted infection and an important cause of serious obstetrical and gynecological complications. Treatment options for trichomoniasis are limited to nitroimidazole compounds. The increasing resistance and allergic reactions to nitroimidazole and recurrent trichomoniasis make it essential to identify and develop new drugs against trichomoniasis. Medicinal plants are an important source for discovery of new medications. This review discusses the anti-trichomonas effects of medicinal plants and their chemical constituents to find better options against this pathogenic protozoon. Electronic databases were searched to collect all data from the year 2000 through September 2015 for in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies on the effect of medicinal plants on T. vaginalis. A total of 95 in vitro and clinical studies were identified. Only four human studies were found in this review. The Asteracea, Lamiaceae and Myrtaceae families contained the greatest number of plants with anti-trichomonas activity. Persea americana, Ocimum basilicum and Verbascum thapsus were the most efficacious against T. vaginalis. Plant metabolites containing alkaloids, isoflavonoid glucosides, essential oils, lipids, saponins and sesquiterpene lactones were found to possess anti-trichomonas properties. Assessing the structure-activity of highly-potent anti-trichomonas phytochemicals is suggested for finding natural, semisynthetic and synthetic anti-trichomonas compounds. Further clinical studies are necessary for confirmation of natural anti-trichomonas substances and completion of their safety profiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Roh, Jaesook; Lim, Young-Su; Seo, Min-Young; Choi, Yuri; Ryu, Jae-Sook
Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitro fertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitro using mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro. PMID:25578937
Reyes, John Carlo B; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Rivera, Windell L
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the 2-kbp repeated DNA species-specific sequence was developed for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were evaluated using pooled genital swab and urine specimens, respectively, spiked with T. vaginalis trophozoites. Genital secretion and urine did not inhibit the detection of the parasite. The sensitivity of the LAMP was 10-1000 times higher than the PCR performed. The detection limit of LAMP was 1 trichomonad for both spiked genital swab and urine specimens. Also, LAMP did not exhibit cross-reactivity with closely-related trichomonads, Trichomonas tenax and Pentatrichomonas hominis, and other enteric and urogenital microorganisms, Entamoeba histolytica, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of a LAMP assay for the detection of T. vaginalis and has prospective application for rapid diagnosis and control of trichomoniasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alderete, J F; Newton, E; Dennis, C; Neale, K A
A recent report demonstrated the immunogenic character of the cysteine proteinases of Trichomonas vaginalis. It was of interest, therefore, to examine for the presence of serum anti-proteinase antibody among patients with trichomoniasis. An immunoprecipitation assay was used involving protein A-bearing Staphylococcus aureus first coated with the IgG fraction of goat anti-human Ig and then mixed with individual sera of patients to bind human antibody. These antibody-coated bacteria were then added to detergent extracts of T vaginalis. Bound immune complexes on S aureus were washed and solubilised for electrophoretic analysis on acrylamide copolymerised with gelatin for detection of proteinase activity. Sera from patients (50/50), but none from sera of normal, uninfected women, possessed IgG to numerous trichomonad cysteine proteinases. The presence of this serum anti-proteinase antibody disappeared after drug treatment and cure of patients of the T vaginalis infection. The commonality of the anti-proteinase antibody in the sera of patients with trichomoniasis provided evidence for the expression of the same repertoire of parasite proteinases during infection. These observations have important implications for the in vivo relevance of the proteinases and indicate that strategies to use a specific serum antibody response for diagnosis of this infection may be possible.
Arda, Ersan; Cetin, Gizem; Kuyumcuoğlu, Uğur; Usta, Ufuk
Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis (MMTVT) is an extremely rare tumour, usually mimicking benign pathologies of the scrotum. Our case is an 84-year-old male patient who appealed with a painless, left-sided scrotal swelling longer than 2 months. Although the level of tumour markers was normal, ultrasonographic examination results forced us to perform an inguinal scrotal exploration. Multiple small papillary tumours, both on tunica vaginalis and tunica albuginea, were detected intraoperatively. Due to these findings, radical orchiectomy was performed. A pathological evaluation showed malignant mesothelioma (MM) of the tunica vaginalis testis. Exposure to asbestos is a well-known risk factor. Furthermore, a history of trauma, herniorrhaphy and chronic hydroceles is blamed as a possible risk factor. Scrotal ultrasonography is the mainstay of primary diagnosis and, therefore, it should not be overlooked when dealing with benign scrotal cysts or hydroceles, which are very common pathologies at these decades, too. Radical inguinal orchiectomy is the primary treatment choice for localised MMTVT disease, whereas in signs of lymph node metastasis, inguinal lymph node dissection is required. Radical resection should be completed with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for an advanced or recurrent disease. This case, which is very rarely reported in the literature and detected during inguinal exploration, along with the pathological works that supported the diagnosis, was presented with this report. PMID:29375946
El-Gayar, Eman K; Mokhtar, Amira B; Hassan, Wael A
Trichomoniasis is a common human sexually transmitted infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. The parasite can be infected with double-stranded RNA viruses (TVV). This viral infection may have important implications on trichomonal virulence and disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis virus among isolates obtained from infected (symptomatic and asymptomatic) women in Ismailia City, Egypt, and to correlate the virus-infected isolates with the clinical manifestations of patients. In addition, the pathogenicity of TVV infected isolates on mice was also evaluated. T. vaginalis isolates were obtained from symptomatic and asymptomatic female patients followed by axenic cultivation in Diamond's TYM medium. The presence of T. vaginalis virus was determined from total extraction of nucleic acids (DNA-RNA) followed by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Representative samples were inoculated intraperitoneally in female albino/BALB mice to assess the pathogenicity of different isolates. A total of 110 women were examined; 40 (36.3 %) samples were positive for T. vaginalis infection. Of these 40 isolates, 8 (20 %) were infected by TVV. Five isolates contained TVV-2 virus species, and the remaining three isolates were infected withTVV-4 variant. A significant association was found between the presence of TVV and particular clinical manifestations of trichomoniasis. Experimental mice infection showed varying degrees of pathogenicity. This is the first report on T. vaginalis infection by TVV in Egypt. The strong association detected between TVV and particular clinical features of trichomoniasis and also the degree of pathogenicity in experimentally infected mice may indicate a possible clinical significance of TVV infection of T. vaginalis isolates.
Riley, Elise D; Cohen, Jennifer; Dilworth, Samantha E; Grimes, Barbara; Marquez, Carina; Chin-Hong, Peter; Philip, Susan S
The social context of poverty is consistently linked to Trichomonas vaginalis infection, yet few studies regarding T. vaginalis have been conducted exclusively among low-income individuals. We identified social determinants of health associated with prevalent T. vaginalis infection among homeless and unstably housed adult women. Between April and October of 2010, we conducted cross-sectional T. vaginalis screening and behavioural interviews in an existing cohort of San Francisco homeless and unstably housed women. Data were analysed using multivariable logistical regression. Among 245 study participants, the median age was 47 years and 72% were of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. T. vaginalis prevalence was 12%, compared to 3% in the general population, and 33% of infected individuals reported no gynaecological symptoms. In adjusted analysis, the odds of T. vaginalis infection were lower among persons older than 47 years, the population median (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.38), and higher among those reporting recent short-term homeless shelter stays (OR=5.36, 95% CI 1.57 to 18.26). Race and income did not reach levels of significance. Sensitivity analyses indicated that testing all women who report recent unprotected sex would identify more infections than testing those who report gynaecological symptoms (20/30 vs 10/30; p=0.01). The prevalence of T. vaginalis is high among homeless and unstably housed adult women, over one-third of infected individuals have no gynaecological symptoms, and correlates of infection differ from those reported in the general population. Targeted screening and treatment among impoverished women reporting recent unprotected sex, particularly young impoverished women and all women experiencing short-term homelessness, may reduce complications related to this treatable infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Nateghi Rostami, Mahmoud; Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Habibi, Azam; Nazari, Razieh; Dolati, Masoumeh
Trichomonas vaginalis ( T.vaginalis ) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae ( N.gonorrhoeae ) are two most common non-viral sexually transmitted infections in the world. No data are available regarding the epidemiology of genital infections in women of Qom, central Iran. Epidemiological investigation of sexually transmitted infections in genital specimens of women referred to the referral gynecology hospital in Qom, central Iran. Genital swab specimens were collected from women volunteers and used for identification of bacterial and protozoal infections by conventional microbial diagnostics, porA pseudo gene LightCycler ® real-time PCR (for N.gonorrhoeae ) and ITS-PCR (for T.vaginalis ). Of 420 volunteers, 277 (65.9%) had genital signs/symptoms, including 38.3% malodorous discharge, 37.9% dyspareunia, and 54.8% abdominal pain. Totally, 2 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae were identified. Five specimens (1.2%) in Thayer-Martin culture and 17 (4.1%) in real-time PCR were identified as N.gonorrhoeae . Fifty-four specimens (12.9%) in wet mount, 64 (15.2%) in Dorset's culture, and 81 (19.3%) in ITS-PCR showed positive results for T.vaginalis . Five mixed infections of T.vaginalis + N.gonorrhoeae were found. The risk of T.vaginalis infection was increased in women with low-birth-weight (p = 0.00; OR=43.29), history of abortion (p = 0.00; OR=91.84), and premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (p = 0.00; OR=21.75). The probability of finding nuclear leukocytes (p = 0.00; OR=43.34) in vaginal smear was higher in T.vaginalis infection. The significant prevalence of trichomoniasis and gonorrhea emphasizes the need for accurate diagnosis and effective surveillance to prevent serious reproductive complications in women.
Nateghi Rostami, Mahmoud; Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Habibi, Azam; Nazari, Razieh; Dolati, Masoumeh
Background: Trichomonas vaginalis (T.vaginalis) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N.gonorrhoeae) are two most common non-viral sexually transmitted infections in the world. No data are available regarding the epidemiology of genital infections in women of Qom, central Iran. Objective: Epidemiological investigation of sexually transmitted infections in genital specimens of women referred to the referral gynecology hospital in Qom, central Iran. Materials and Methods: Genital swab specimens were collected from women volunteers and used for identification of bacterial and protozoal infections by conventional microbial diagnostics, porA pseudo gene LightCycler® real-time PCR (for N.gonorrhoeae) and ITS-PCR (for T.vaginalis). Results: Of 420 volunteers, 277 (65.9%) had genital signs/symptoms, including 38.3% malodorous discharge, 37.9% dyspareunia, and 54.8% abdominal pain. Totally, 2 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae were identified. Five specimens (1.2%) in Thayer-Martin culture and 17 (4.1%) in real-time PCR were identified as N.gonorrhoeae. Fifty-four specimens (12.9%) in wet mount, 64 (15.2%) in Dorset’s culture, and 81 (19.3%) in ITS-PCR showed positive results for T.vaginalis. Five mixed infections of T.vaginalis+ N.gonorrhoeae were found. The risk of T.vaginalis infection was increased in women with low-birth-weight (p=0.00; OR=43.29), history of abortion (p=0.00; OR=91.84), and premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (p=0.00; OR=21.75). The probability of finding nuclear leukocytes (p=0.00; OR=43.34) in vaginal smear was higher in T.vaginalis infection. Conclusion: The significant prevalence of trichomoniasis and gonorrhea emphasizes the need for accurate diagnosis and effective surveillance to prevent serious reproductive complications in women. PMID:29177239
Alderete, J F; Newton, E; Dennis, C; Neale, K A
Patients with trichomoniasis have serum antibody to numerous T. vaginalis cysteine proteinases, indicating that the proteinases are expressed in vivo. It was important, therefore, to examine for the presence of soluble trichomonad proteinases and/or antibody to the proteinases in the vagina of infected women. Vaginal washes (VWs) from 20 women were examined for the presence of proteinases by electrophoresis using acrylamide co-polymerised with gelatin as the indicator system. Antibody to proteinases in VWs was detected by an immunoprecipitation assay involving protein A-bearing Staphylococcus aureus first coated with anti-human immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, which was then added to VWs. For VWs having soluble proteinases, the bacteria were used to determine whether immune complexes between antibody and proteinases were present. VWs without soluble proteinases were incubated with the anti-human IgG treated bacteria before adding to detergent extracts of T. vaginalis. Individual isolates from the patients examined in this study were also analysed by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis for their proteinase content. Finally, VWs were from patients without any history of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) as well as from individuals having numerous other STDs, including yeast, group B streptococcus, chlamydia, and syphilis. Approximately one-third of patients had soluble proteinases in the VWs; the remaining two-thirds (70%) of patients and normal women had no detectable proteinases in VWs. Half of the patients without soluble proteinases had IgG which, when bound to S. aureus, immunoprecipitated many proteinases from a detergent extract of T. vaginalis. All soluble proteinases and those precipitated from trichomonal extracts were inhibited by inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. Finally, patients having trichomoniasis in addition to numerous other STD agents, including yeast, group B streptococcus, chlamydia, and syphilis did not have soluble proteinases
Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E.; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S.; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana
Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis. PMID:26703754
Safi Oz, Zehra; Doğan Gun, Banu; Gun, Mustafa Ozkan; Ozdamar, Sukru Oguz
The aim of this study was to explore the cytomorphometric and morphological effects of Trichomonas vaginalis in exfoliated epithelial cells. Ninety-six Pap-stained cervical smears were divided into a study group and two control groups as follows: T. vaginalis cases, a first control group with inflammation, and a second control group without inflammation. Micronucleated, binucleated, karyorrhectic, karyolytic, and karyopyknotic cells and cells with perinuclear halos per 1,000 epithelial cells were counted. Nuclear and cellular areas were evaluated in 70 clearly defined cells in each smear using image analysis. The frequencies of morphological parameters in the T. vaginalis cases were higher than the values of the two control groups, and the difference among groups was found to be significant (p < 0.05). The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of epithelial cells were diminished in patients with trichomoniasis. The mean nucleus/cytoplasm ratio in T. vaginalis patients was higher than the value in the control groups, and the difference between the study group and control group 1 was significant. However, there was no statistically significant increase between the study group and control group 2. T. vaginalis exhibited significant changes in the cellular size and nuclear structure of the cells. The rising frequency of micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities, and changing nucleus/cytoplasm ratio may reflect genotoxic damage in trichomoniasis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Schwebke, Jane; Merriweather, Anthony; Massingale, Sharon; Scisney, Mary; Hill, Craig; Getman, Damon
Men and women attending family planning and sexually transmitted disease clinics for sexually transmitted infection screening in 2012 to 2013 were tested for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using a sensitive nucleic acid amplification test. T. vaginalis prevalence in urogenital samples was 11.3% in 77,740 women and 6.1% in 12,604 men, and increased with age in both sexes.
Alarcón, Gonzalo; Barraza, Gabriela; Vera, Andrea; Wozniak, Aniela; García, Patricia
Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. are microorganisms responsible for genitourinary and pregnancy pathologies. Nucleic acid amplification methods have shown several advantages, but have not been widely studied for the detection of these microorganisms. To implement a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the microorganisms and to compare its results versus the methods currently used at our laboratory. 91 available samples were processed by PCR, culture (M. hominis y Ureaplasma spp.) and wet mount (T vaginalis). Results were compared and statistically analyzed by kappa agreement test. 85, 80 and 87 samples resulted in agreement for the detection of M. hominis, Ureaplasma spp. y T. vaginalis, respectively. For M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp., agreement was substantial, whereas for T. vaginalis it was moderate, however, for the latter, PCR detected more cases than wet mount. We recommend the implementation of PCR for detection of T. vaginalis whereas culture kit is still a useful method for the other microorganisms.
Ng, Andrea; Ross, Jonathan D C
Persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis has been reported to affect up to 10-20% of men attending sexual health clinics. An audit was undertaken to review the management of persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis in men presenting at Whittall Street Clinic, Birmingham, UK. Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection was with the newly-introduced nucleic acid amplification test. A total of 43 (8%) of 533 men treated for urethritis re-attended within three months with persistent or recurrent symptoms. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was identified in 13/40 (33%), T. vaginalis in 1/27 (4%) and Mycoplasma genitalium in 6/12 (50%). These findings suggest that the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection remains low in our clinic population and may not contribute significantly to persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis. © The Author(s) 2015.
Pereyre, S; Laurier Nadalié, C; Bébéar, C
Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis are common causes of sexually transmitted infections, but limited prevalence data are available in France. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis infections and to assess prevalence by gender, age, sample collection sites and clinical symptoms. A multicentre collection of specimens was intended to obtain a nationwide overview of the epidemiology. Between September 2014 and January 2015, a total of 2652 consecutive urogenital specimens submitted to the microbiology diagnostic departments of 16 French university hospitals for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection were collected. M. genitalium and T. vaginalis prevalence were evaluated using a commercial real-time PCR kit. Clinical data from patients were anonymously collected. T. vaginalis and M. genitalium prevalence were 1.7% (95% confidence interval 1.3-2.4) and 3.4% (95% confidence interval 2.8-4.2), respectively, and did not differ between gender or age groups, except M. genitalium prevalence between men and women in the 35- to 44-year age group (5.9 vs. 1.5%; p 0.03). M. genitalium prevalence was significantly higher in patients receiving care in sexually transmitted infection clinics, abortion centres, family planning clinics and prisons than in gynaecologic, obstetric and reproduction centres (4.0 vs. 1.7%, p 0.009). Among M. genitalium- and T. vaginalis-positive patients, 70.9 and 61.5% were asymptomatic, respectively. The low T. vaginalis prevalence does not justify systematic screening for this organism in France. Conversely, selective screening for M. genitalium may be warranted in care settings that receive presumably high-risk sexual behaviour patients, regardless of symptoms. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conrad, Melissa D.; Gorman, Andrew W.; Schillinger, Julia A.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Arroyo, Rossana; Malla, Nancy; Dubey, Mohan Lal; Gonzalez, Jorge; Blank, Susan; Secor, William E.; Carlton, Jane M.
Background Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we utilize a panel of T. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2) differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor the T. vaginalis virus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages. Conclusions/Significance Our study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of global T. vaginalis genetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understanding T. vaginalis pathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease. PMID:22479659
Conrad, Melissa D; Gorman, Andrew W; Schillinger, Julia A; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Arroyo, Rossana; Malla, Nancy; Dubey, Mohan Lal; Gonzalez, Jorge; Blank, Susan; Secor, William E; Carlton, Jane M
Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes. Here we utilize a panel of T. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2) differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor the T. vaginalis virus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages. Our study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of global T. vaginalis genetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understanding T. vaginalis pathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease.
Field, Nigel; Clifton, Soazig; Alexander, Sarah; Ison, Catherine A; Khanom, Rumena; Saunders, Pamela; Hughes, Gwenda; Heath, Laura; Beddows, Simon; Mercer, Catherine H; Tanton, Clare; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam
Variable use of new molecular assays, asymptomatic infections and a lack of population data mean that the population burden of Trichomonas vaginalis is uncertain. We investigated the age-specific prevalence of T. vaginalis within the sexually active British general population to inform testing strategies. Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyle (Natsal-3) is a probability sample survey of 15 162 individuals aged 16-74 years, undertaken during 2010-2012. Urine from 4386 participants aged 16-44 years reporting ≥1 lifetime sexual partner was tested for T. vaginalis using in-house real-time PCR. Urinary T. vaginalis was detected in seven women and no men providing urine samples, giving a weighted prevalence estimate of 0.3% (95% CI 0.1% to 0.5%) in sexually experienced women aged 16-44 years. Of the seven women with T. vaginalis detected, four were of black or mixed ethnicity (prevalence 2.7% (0.9% to 7.7%) in this group) and five reported recent partners of black or mixed ethnicity. Six of the women reported symptoms, and five reported sexual health clinic attendance in the past 5 years (prevalence in those reporting clinic attendance: 1.0% (0.4% to 2.3%)). The prevalence of a self-reported history of T. vaginalis (past 5 years) was 0.1% (0.0% to 0.2%) in women and 0.0% (0.0% to 0.2%) in men aged 16-44 years. Our British population prevalence estimates indicate that T. vaginalis is a rare infection. These data support policies that restrict asymptomatic screening for T. vaginalis and suggest deployment of molecular tests should be focused within clinical settings and guided by symptoms and local demography. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Menezes, Camila Braz; Durgante, Juliano; de Oliveira, Rafael Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Victor Hugo Jacks Mendes; Rodrigues, Luiz Frederico; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Dos Santos, Odelta; Tasca, Tiana
Trichomonas vaginalis is the aethiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. The purinergic signaling pathway is mediated by extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides that are involved in many biological effects as neurotransmission, immunomodulation and inflammation. Extracellular nucleotides can be hydrolyzed by a family of enzymes known as ectonucleotidases including the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) family which hydrolyses nucleosides triphosphate and diphosphate as preferential substrates and ecto-5'-nucleotidase which catalyzes the conversion of monophosphates into nucleosides. In T. vaginalis the E-NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities upon adenine nucleotides have already been characterized in intact trophozoites but little is known concerning guanine nucleotides and nucleoside. These enzymes may exert a crucial role on nucleoside generation, providing the purine sources for the synthesis de novo of these essential nutrients, sustaining parasite growth and survival. In this study, we investigated the hydrolysis profile of guanine-related nucleotides and nucleoside in intact trophozoites from long-term-grown and fresh clinical isolates of T. vaginalis. Knowing that guanine nucleotides are also substrates for T. vaginalis ectoenzymes, we evaluated the profile of nucleotides consumption and guanosine uptake in trophozoites submitted to a serum limitation condition. Results show that guanine nucleotides (GTP, GDP, GMP) were substrates for T. vaginalis ectonucleotidases, with expected kinetic parameters for this enzyme family. Different T. vaginalis isolates (two from the ATCC and nine fresh clinical isolates) presented a heterogeneous hydrolysis profile. The serum culture condition increased E-NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities with high consumption of extracellular GTP generating enhanced GDP, GMP and guanosine levels as demonstrated by HPLC, with final
Abdel-Magied, Aida A; El-Kholya, El-Said I; Abou El-Khair, Salwa M; Abdelmegeed, Eman S; Hamoudaa, Marwa M; Mohamed, Sara A; El-Tantawy, Nora Labeeb
Trichomoniasis is the most common curable sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Resistance to metronidazole in treating trichomoniasis is a problematic health issue. We aimed to determine the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of metronidazole for Trichomonas vaginalis isolates detected in Mansoura, Egypt and studied the genotypic profile of these isolates. Vaginal swab specimens were obtained from 320 symptomatic and 100 asymptomatic females, for whom clinical examination, vaginal discharge wet mount, Giemsa stain, and culture in modified Diamond's media were performed. Metronidazole susceptibility testing by an aerobic tube assay was performed. Both sensitive and resistant isolates were examined by PCR amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Trichomonas vaginalis was identified in 49/420 (11.7%) using either culture or PCR, while wet mount and Giemsa stain detected the parasite in 8.1 and 7.6% of participants, respectively. After 48 h incubation, most isolates were sensitive to metronidazole with a minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of 1 μg/ml. Mild resistance was observed in two isolates with MLCs of 64 μg\\ml and mild to moderate resistance was observed in an additional two isolates with MLCs of 128 μg/ml. The four isolates that demonstrated low to moderate metronidazole resistance displayed a unique genotype band pattern by RFLP compared to the other 45 samples that were metronidazole sensitive. Our results highlight the presence of in vitro metronidazole tolerance in a few T. vaginalis isolates in Mansoura, Egypt that may lead to the development of drug resistance as well as the possibility of an identifying RFLP pattern in the isolates.
Bradic, Martina; Warring, Sally D; Tooley, Grace E; Scheid, Paul; Secor, William E; Land, Kirkwood M; Huang, Po-Jung; Chen, Ting-Wen; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tang, Petrus; Sullivan, Steven A; Carlton, Jane M
Trichomonas vaginalis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted parasite, causes ∼283 million trichomoniasis infections annually and is associated with pregnancy complications and increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition. The antimicrobial drug metronidazole is used for treatment, but in a fraction of clinical cases, the parasites can become resistant to this drug. We undertook sequencing of multiple clinical isolates and lab derived lines to identify genetic markers and mechanisms of metronidazole resistance. Reduced representation genome sequencing of ∼100 T. vaginalis clinical isolates identified 3,923 SNP markers and presence of a bipartite population structure. Linkage disequilibrium was found to decay rapidly, suggesting genome-wide recombination and the feasibility of genetic association studies in the parasite. We identified 72 SNPs associated with metronidazole resistance, and a comparison of SNPs within several lab-derived resistant lines revealed an overlap with the clinically resistant isolates. We identified SNPs in genes for which no function has yet been assigned, as well as in functionally-characterized genes relevant to drug resistance (e.g., pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase). Transcription profiles of resistant strains showed common changes in genes involved in drug activation (e.g., flavin reductase), accumulation (e.g., multidrug resistance pump), and detoxification (e.g., nitroreductase). Finally, we identified convergent genetic changes in lab-derived resistant lines of Tritrichomonas foetus, a distantly related species that causes venereal disease in cattle. Shared genetic changes within and between T. vaginalis and Tr. foetus parasites suggest conservation of the pathways through which adaptation has occurred. These findings extend our knowledge of drug resistance in the parasite, providing a panel of markers that can be used as a diagnostic tool. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for
Bradic, Martina; Warring, Sally D.; Tooley, Grace E.; Scheid, Paul; Secor, William E.; Land, Kirkwood M.; Huang, Po-Jung; Chen, Ting-Wen; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tang, Petrus; Sullivan, Steven A.
Abstract Trichomonas vaginalis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted parasite, causes ∼283 million trichomoniasis infections annually and is associated with pregnancy complications and increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition. The antimicrobial drug metronidazole is used for treatment, but in a fraction of clinical cases, the parasites can become resistant to this drug. We undertook sequencing of multiple clinical isolates and lab derived lines to identify genetic markers and mechanisms of metronidazole resistance. Reduced representation genome sequencing of ∼100 T. vaginalis clinical isolates identified 3,923 SNP markers and presence of a bipartite population structure. Linkage disequilibrium was found to decay rapidly, suggesting genome-wide recombination and the feasibility of genetic association studies in the parasite. We identified 72 SNPs associated with metronidazole resistance, and a comparison of SNPs within several lab-derived resistant lines revealed an overlap with the clinically resistant isolates. We identified SNPs in genes for which no function has yet been assigned, as well as in functionally-characterized genes relevant to drug resistance (e.g., pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase). Transcription profiles of resistant strains showed common changes in genes involved in drug activation (e.g., flavin reductase), accumulation (e.g., multidrug resistance pump), and detoxification (e.g., nitroreductase). Finally, we identified convergent genetic changes in lab-derived resistant lines of Tritrichomonas foetus, a distantly related species that causes venereal disease in cattle. Shared genetic changes within and between T. vaginalis and Tr. foetus parasites suggest conservation of the pathways through which adaptation has occurred. These findings extend our knowledge of drug resistance in the parasite, providing a panel of markers that can be used as a diagnostic tool. PMID:28633446
Azzam-W, Maha; Cermeño-Vivas, Julman R; Orellán-García, Yida; Penna, Salvador J
Vulvovaginitis accounts for 20 to 30% of gynecological diseases and it is observed in women from 20 to 30 years of age. It has a higher frequency in women using oral contraceptives and during the third trimester of pregnancy. The aim of this research was to assess the prevalence of Candida spp and Trichomonas vaginalis in patients with the diagnosis of vulvovaginitis from the Gynecology Service in Hospital Universitario "Ruiz y Páez" in Ciudad Bolívar and Hospital "Raúl Leoni" in San Félix (Bolívar State, Venezuela). Two hundred women with symptoms of vulvovaginitis were examined, and samples were taken from the uterocervical cul-de-sac. Each patient was asked to fill a questionnaire. The following studies were made in each sample: a) fresh wet mount examination, b) orange acridine and Giemsa stains for Trichomonas and c) culture for the identification of yeasts. The latter were identified by means of the germinal tube assay, resistance to actidione and the presence of clamidospores in rice-cream agar and sugar utilization test, using the commercial kit ID32C (BioMérieux). Only in 57 women of 200 patients with vulvovaginitis the causative agent was demonstrated; Candida spp was present in 84.2% (n = 48) and Trichomonas vaginalis in 14% (n = 8). A single case of Zygosaccharomyces spp (1.8%) was detected. The age group mainly affected was that of 25-35 years old, the 38.6% of the studied population. Candida species detected were: C. albicans in 87% of cases (n = 42), C. glabrata, in 10.42% (n = 5), and C. guillermondii, in 2.08 (n = 1). Vaginal flux, vulvar pruritus and leucorrhoea were observed in significant number of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The use of antibiotics was considered predisposing factor for Trichomonas vaginalis infection. The relationship between age and the etiological agent was not statistically significant. Due to the low specificity of clinical manifestations of infections caused by Candida spp and Trichomonas vaginalis, we
Li, Ling; Li, Xin; Gong, Pengtao; Zhang, Xichen; Yang, Zhengtao; Yang, Ju; Li, Jianhua
Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis infection, is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in female and male globally. However, the mechanisms by innate immunity against T. vaginalis infection have not been fully elucidated. Toll-like receptor2 (TLR2) has been shown to be involved in pathogen recognition, innate immunity activation, and inflammatory response to the pathogens. Nonetheless, the function of TLR2 against T. vaginalis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of TLR2 in mouse macrophages against T. vaginalis . RT-qPCR analysis revealed that T. vaginalis stimulation increased the gene expression of TLR2 in wild-type (WT) mouse macrophages. T. vaginalis also induced the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in WT mouse macrophages, and the expression of these cytokines significantly decreased in TLR 2-/- mouse macrophages and in WT mouse macrophages pretreated with MAPK inhibitors SB203580 (p38) and PD98059 (ERK). Western blot analysis demonstrated that T. vaginalis stimulation induced the activation of p38, ERK, and p65 NF-κB signal pathways in WT mouse macrophages, and the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and p65 NF-κB significantly decreased in TLR2 -/- mouse macrophages. Taken together, our data suggested that T. vaginalis may regulates proinflammatory cytokines production by activation of p38, ERK, and NF-κB p65 signal pathways via TLR2 in mouse macrophages. TLR2 might be involved in the defense and elimination of T. vaginalis infection.
Li, Ling; Li, Xin; Gong, Pengtao; Zhang, Xichen; Yang, Zhengtao; Yang, Ju; Li, Jianhua
Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis infection, is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in female and male globally. However, the mechanisms by innate immunity against T. vaginalis infection have not been fully elucidated. Toll-like receptor2 (TLR2) has been shown to be involved in pathogen recognition, innate immunity activation, and inflammatory response to the pathogens. Nonetheless, the function of TLR2 against T. vaginalis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of TLR2 in mouse macrophages against T. vaginalis. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that T. vaginalis stimulation increased the gene expression of TLR2 in wild-type (WT) mouse macrophages. T. vaginalis also induced the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in WT mouse macrophages, and the expression of these cytokines significantly decreased in TLR2-/- mouse macrophages and in WT mouse macrophages pretreated with MAPK inhibitors SB203580 (p38) and PD98059 (ERK). Western blot analysis demonstrated that T. vaginalis stimulation induced the activation of p38, ERK, and p65 NF-κB signal pathways in WT mouse macrophages, and the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and p65 NF-κB significantly decreased in TLR2-/- mouse macrophages. Taken together, our data suggested that T. vaginalis may regulates proinflammatory cytokines production by activation of p38, ERK, and NF-κB p65 signal pathways via TLR2 in mouse macrophages. TLR2 might be involved in the defense and elimination of T. vaginalis infection. PMID:29692771
Bosserman, Elizabeth A; Helms, Donna J; Mosure, Debra J; Secor, W Evan; Workowski, Kimberly A
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the causes of treatment failure in women after standard nitroimidazole therapy for Trichomonas vaginalis infections. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides drug susceptibility testing and guidance for treatment failures but the efficacy of the alternate recommendations has not been assessed. T. vaginalis isolates from women who had failed at least 2 courses of standard therapy for trichomoniasis were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for susceptibility testing. Alternative treatment recommendations were provided based on in vitro drug susceptibility results and clinical outcomes were collected. Drug susceptibility results were available for 175 women tested between January 2002 and January 2008. In vitro, 115 of the 175 isolates demonstrated metronidazole resistance. For all isolates resistant to metronidazole, in vitro resistance to tinidazole was similar or lower. Clinical treatment outcomes were available for 72 women. Of the women receiving an alternative recommended nitroimidazole regimen, 30 (83%) of 36 were cured compared with 8 (57%) of 14 women who received a lower dose than recommended. Clinical and microbiologic success was attained in 59 (82%) of 72 women whose follow-up information was available, with some women requiring multiple treatment courses. Clinical and microbiologic cure rates were higher for women who were treated in accordance with the recommendation provided after in vitro testing compared with those who received a lower dose or a different drug. Susceptibility testing leading to tailored treatment may have a beneficial role for management of women with persistent trichomoniasis.
Bricheux, G; Coffe, G; Pradel, N; Brugerolle, G
As part of our ongoing project of identification of actin-binding proteins implicated in the cell transition (flagellate to amoeboid/adherent) of Trichomonas vaginalis, we have characterized an alpha-actinin-related protein in this parasite. The protein (P100) has a molecular mass of 100 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.5. A monoclonal antibody raised against this protein co-localizes with the actin network. P100 gene transcripts are co-expressed with actin throughout the cell cycle. Analysis of the deduced protein sequence reveals three domains: an N-terminal actin-binding region; a central region rich in alpha-helix; and a C-terminal domain with Ca(2+)-binding capacity. Whereas the N- and C-terminal regions are well-conserved as compared to other alpha-actinins, we observe in the central region an atypical distribution of residues in five repeats. The sequence of the repeats does not show any homology with the rod domain of the other alpha-actinins, except for the first repeat which shows some similarity. The four other repeats of T. vaginalis P100 appear to result from a duplication event which is not detectable in the other sequences.
Delgado-Viscogliosi, P; Brugerolle, G; Viscogliosi, E
Using several specific monoclonal antibodies, we investigated the occurrence and distribution of different post-translationally modified tubulin during interphase and division of the primitive flagellated protist Trichomonas vaginalis. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence experiments revealed that interphasic microtubular structures of T. vaginalis contained acetylated and glutamylated but non-tyrosinated and non-glycylated [Brugerolle and Adoutte, 1988: Bio Systems 21: 255-268] tubulin. Immunofluorescence studies performed on dividing cells showed that the extranuclear mitotic spindle (or paradesmosis) was acetylated and glutamylated, which contrast with the ephemeral nature of this structure. Newly formed short axostyles also contained acetylated and glutamylated tubulin suggesting that both post-translational modifications might take place very early after assembly of microtubular structures. Our results indicate that acetylation and glutamylation of tubulin appeared early in the history of eukaryotes and could reflect the occurrence of post-translational modifications of tubulin in the primitive eukaryotic cells. These cells probably had a highly ordered cross-linked microtubular cytoskeleton in which microtubules showed a low level of subunit exchange dynamics.
de Brum Vieira, Patrícia; Feijó Silva, Nícolas Luiz; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Bastida, Jaume; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana
Tritrichomonas foetus infects the bovine urogenital tract, causing bovine trichomoniasis. Significant economic losses may occur due to infertility and abortion among cattle. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis; the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Human and bovine trichomoniasis present treatment restrictions and efforts to identify new alternatives are essential. The present study evaluated the anti-trichomonads activities of seven fractions from northwest endemic plant Manilkara rufula. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were identified from these fractions by LC-DAD-MS/MS and MALDI-MS/MS. Altogether, the results demonstrated for the first time the structural description of tannins from leaves of M. rufula and the relation of these compounds with anti-T. vaginalis and anti-T. foetus activities. Overall, this report reveals the potential of M. rufula fractions against both parasites and shows new alternatives to treat the infection caused by trichomonads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
TASCA, T.; BONAN, C. D.; DE CARLI, G. A.; SARKIS, J.J.F.; ALDERETE, J. F.
SUMMARY Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that causes trichomonosis, a sexually-transmitted disease, with serious sequelae to women and men. As the host-parasite relationship is complex, it is important to investigate biochemical aspects of the parasite that contribute to our understanding of trichomonal biology and pathogenesis. Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (NTPDase 1), which hydrolyses extracellular ATP and ADP, and ecto-5′-nucleotidase, which hyrolyses AMP, have been characterized in laboratory isolates of T. vaginalis. Here we show that the extracellular ATP:ADP hydrolysis ratio varies among fresh clinical isolates, which presented higher ATPase and ADPase activities than long-term-grown isolates. Growth of parasites in iron-replete and iron-depleted medium resulted in different, albeit minor, patterns in extracellular ATP and ADP hydrolysis among isolates. Importantly, some isolates had low or absent ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity, regardless of environmental conditions tested. For isolates with ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity, high- and low-iron trichomonads had increased and decreased levels of activity, respectively, compared to organisms grown in normal TYM-serum medium. This suggests a regulation in expression of either the enzyme amounts and/or activity under the control of iron. Finally, we found no correlation between the presence or absence of dsRNA virus infection among trichomonad isolates and NTPDase and ecto-5′-nucleotidase activities. PMID:16038398
Meites, Elissa; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Hobbs, Marcia M; Kissinger, Patricia; Nyirjesy, Paul; Schwebke, Jane R; Secor, W Evan; Sobel, Jack D; Workowski, Kimberly A
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection, affecting an estimated 3.7 million women and men in the United States. Health disparities are prominent in the epidemiology of this infection, which affects 11% of women aged ≥40 years and a disproportionately high percentage of black women. Particularly high prevalences have been identified among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients and incarcerated individuals. This article reviews and updates scientific evidence in key topic areas used for the development of the 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current evidence is presented regarding conditions associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. Nucleic acid amplification tests and point-of-care tests are newly available diagnostic methods that can be conducted on a variety of specimens, potentially allowing highly sensitive testing and screening of both women and men at risk for infection. Usually, trichomoniasis can be cured with single-dose therapy of an appropriate nitroimidazole antibiotic, but women who are also infected with HIV should receive therapy for 7 days. Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Meites, Elissa; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Hobbs, Marcia M.; Kissinger, Patricia; Nyirjesy, Paul; Schwebke, Jane R.; Secor, W. Evan; Sobel, Jack D.; Workowski, Kimberly A.
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection, affecting an estimated 3.7 million women and men in the United States. Health disparities are prominent in the epidemiology of this infection, which affects 11% of women aged ≥40 years and a disproportionately high percentage of black women. Particularly high prevalences have been identified among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients and incarcerated individuals. This article reviews and updates scientific evidence in key topic areas used for the development of the 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current evidence is presented regarding conditions associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. Nucleic acid amplification tests and point-of-care tests are newly available diagnostic methods that can be conducted on a variety of specimens, potentially allowing highly sensitive testing and screening of both women and men at risk for infection. Usually, trichomoniasis can be cured with single-dose therapy of an appropriate nitroimidazole antibiotic, but women who are also infected with HIV should receive therapy for 7 days. Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern. PMID:26602621
Müller, M; Gorrell, T E
Three Trichomonas vaginalis isolates with low in vivo susceptibilities to metronidazole (95% curative dose, greater than 3 X 100 mg kg-1 in subcutaneous infections in mice) were compared with strain ATCC 30001 and with four isolates exhibiting high in vivo susceptibilities (95% curative dose, less than 3 X 15 mg kg-1). Activity of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, anaerobic fermentation, and anaerobic intracellular accumulation of [14C]metronidazole label showed no significant isolate-dependent differences which could be correlated with drug susceptibility. The results suggest that processes providing electrons for metronidazole activation are not defective in the resistant strains. Aerobiosis, known to inhibit the antimicrobial action of metronidazole, inhibited accumulation of label more strongly in resistant isolates than in susceptible ones. No differences were detected, however, between resistant and susceptible isolates in respiration, aerobic fermentation, and the specific activity of NADH and NADPH oxidases, the main terminal oxidases of T. vaginalis. These findings suggest that the production of electrons is not diminished under aerobic conditions. The inhibitory effect of aerobic conditions on metronidazole activation, possibly due to competition for the electrons, is markedly enhanced in the resistant isolates compared to the susceptible ones. The mechanism of this effect, however, remains unknown. PMID:6607028
Hassani, Solmaz; Asghari, Gholamreza; Yousefi, Hossseinali; Kazemian, Afsaneh; Rafieiean, Mahmood; Darani, Hossein Yousofi
Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is considered one of the main causes of vulvovaginitis in women. Metronidazole with vast side effects is now the drug of choice for treatment of this infection. In an attempt to find an alternative drug, the effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on this parasite was shown in previous studies. In this investigation, the effect of different extracts of this plant on T. vaginalis in culture medium has been investigated. Materials and Methods: Five different extracts including total extract, diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water fractions were prepared. The extracts were dried using vacuum rotary evaporator and then they were used for in vitro anti-trichomonas experiments. Results: Crude extract of E. camaldulensis showed 80% growth inhibition (GI) in a concentration of 12.5 mg/ml during 24 h. Diethyl ether extract in a concentration of 25 mg/ml showed 100% GI during 24 h. With ethyl acetate extract, 100% GI was detected with the minimum concentration of 12.5 mg/ml in the first 24 h. Finally, water extract in a concentration of 50 mg/ml showed 80% and 100% GI after 48 and 72 h, respectively. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate fraction is the extract which showed the highest percentage of GI (100%) with the least concentration (12.5 mg/ml) after 24 and 48 h. PMID:24516847
Background Eukaryotic cells possess a complex network of RNA machineries which function in RNA-processing and cellular regulation which includes transcription, translation, silencing, editing and epigenetic control. Studies of model organisms have shown that many ncRNAs of the RNA-infrastructure are highly conserved, but little is known from non-model protists. In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results We have identified the previously 'missing' Giardia RNase MRP RNA, which is a key ribozyme involved in pre-rRNA processing. We have also uncovered 18 new H/ACA box snoRNAs, expanding our knowledge of the H/ACA family of snoRNAs. Conclusions Results indicate that Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, like their distant multicellular relatives, contain a rich infrastructure of RNA-based processing. From here we can investigate the evolution of RNA processing networks in eukaryotes. PMID:22053856
Marous, Miguelle; Huang, Wen-Yi; Rabkin, Charles S; Hayes, Richard B; Alderete, John F; Rosner, Bernard; Grubb, Robert L; Winter, Anke C; Sutcliffe, Siobhan
Results from previous sero-epidemiologic studies of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and prostate cancer (PCa) support a positive association between this sexually transmitted infection and aggressive PCa. However, findings from previous studies are not entirely consistent, and only one has investigated the possible relation between T. vaginalis seropositivity and PCa in African-American men who are at highest risk of both infection and PCa. Therefore, we examined this possible relation in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, including separate analyses for aggressive PCa and African-American men. We included a sample of participants from a previous nested case-control study of PCa, as well as all additional Caucasian, aggressive, and African-American cases diagnosed since the previous study (total n = 438 Gleason 7 Caucasian cases, 487 more advanced Caucasian cases (≥Gleason 8 or stage III/IV), 201 African-American cases, and 1216 controls). We tested baseline sera for T. vaginalis antibodies. No associations were observed for risk of Gleason 7 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.37) or more advanced (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.58-1.38) PCa in Caucasian men, or for risk of any PCa (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.67-1.68) in African-American men. Our findings do not support an association between T. vaginalis infection and PCa.
Adao, Davin Edric V; Rivera, Windell L
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect the sexually-transmitted parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swabs. The presence of T. vaginalis was detected from 121 female sex workers attending a social hygiene clinic in Balibago, Angeles City, Pampanga, Philippines using culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the developed LAMP assay. The high analytical sensitivity of LAMP detected a higher prevalence of T. vaginalis (42.06%) compared to culture (8.26%) and PCR (7.44%). Additionally, this assay did not cross-react with DNAs of other trichomonads that can infect humans such as Trichomonas tenax and Pentatrichomonas hominis as well as the pathogens, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. The LAMP assay developed had a limit of detection (0.036 ng/μl) lower than that of PCR using the primers TvK3 and TvK7 (0.36 ng/μl). Prevalence of T. vaginalis in female sex workers in this area of the Philippines may be higher than previously estimated. Discordant results of PCR and LAMP may be due to different reactions to different kinds of inhibitors in the vaginal swabs.
Background Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted parasite. Although the protist is presumed to reproduce asexually, 60% of its haploid genome contains transposable elements (TEs), known contributors to genome variability. The availability of a draft genome sequence and our collection of >200 global isolates of T. vaginalis facilitate the study and analysis of TE population dynamics and their contribution to genomic variability in this protist. Results We present here a pilot study of a subset of class II Tc1/mariner TEs that belong to the T. vaginalis Tvmar1 family. We report the genetic structure of 19 Tvmar1 loci, their ability to encode a full-length transposase protein, and their insertion frequencies in 94 global isolates from seven regions of the world. While most of the Tvmar1 elements studied exhibited low insertion frequencies, two of the 19 loci (locus 1 and locus 9) show high insertion frequencies of 1.00 and 0.96, respectively. The genetic structuring of the global populations identified by principal component analysis (PCA) of the Tvmar1 loci is in general agreement with published data based on genotyping, showing that Tvmar1 polymorphisms are a robust indicator of T. vaginalis genetic history. Analysis of expression of 22 genes flanking 13 Tvmar1 loci indicated significantly altered expression of six of the genes next to five Tvmar1 insertions, suggesting that the insertions have functional implications for T. vaginalis gene expression. Conclusions Our study is the first in T. vaginalis to describe Tvmar1 population dynamics and its contribution to genetic variability of the parasite. We show that a majority of our studied Tvmar1 insertion loci exist at very low frequencies in the global population, and insertions are variable between geographical isolates. In addition, we observe that low frequency insertion is related to reduced or abolished expression of flanking genes. While low insertion frequencies might be
Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Ramón-Luing, Lucero de los Ángeles; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Ortega-López, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana
The causal agent of trichomoniasis is a parasitic protist, Trichomonas vaginalis, which is rich in proteolytic activity, primarily carried out by cysteine proteases (CPs). Some CPs are known virulence factors. T. vaginalis also possesses three genes encoding endogenous cystatin-like CP inhibitors. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize one of these CP inhibitors. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), a cystatin-like peptidase inhibitor dubbed Trichocystatin-2 (TC-2) was identified in the T. vaginalis active degradome in association with TvCP39, a 39kDa CP involved in cytotoxicity. To characterize the TC-2 inhibitor, we cloned and expressed the tvicp-2 gene, purified the recombinant protein (TC-2r), and produced a specific polyclonal antibody (α-TC-2r). This antibody recognized a 10kDa protein band by western blotting. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and cell fractionation assays using the α-TC-2r antibody showed that TC-2 was localized in the cytoplasm and lysosomes and that it colocalized with TvCP39. TC-2r showed inhibitory activity against papain, cathepsin-L, and TvCP39 in trichomonad extracts and live parasites but not legumain-like CPs. Live trichomonads treated with TC-2r showed reduced trichomonal cytotoxicity to HeLa cell monolayers in a TC-2r-concentration-dependent manner. In this study, we identified and characterized an endogenous cystatin-like inhibitor in T. vaginalis, TC-2, which is associated with TvCP39 and appears to regulate the cellular damage caused by T. vaginalis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Aaqil, Hamida; Rizvi, Syed Mohd Danish; Shakil, Shazi; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Gupta, Pragya; Saxena, Soumya; Tiwari, Rohit Kr; Kumar, Ajai
In the present study, we have identified ten compounds, namely dodecanol acid, myristic acid, neophytadiene, palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, elaidic acid, 3-7-dimethyl acid, stearic acid and methyl eicos acid, of the methanolic extract of Apamarga Kshara by GC-MS analysis. Apamarga Kshara has been reported to be active against cervical erosion. Major causal organism for cervical erosion is Trichomonas vaginalis. However, there is a paucity of information about the mechanism of action and inhibitory effect of the biologically active natural compounds presented in A. Kshara against this organism (T. vaginalis). Therefore, present investigation was conducted to observe possible interactions of these compounds on T. vaginalis carbamate kinase using molecular docking software 'AutoDock 4.2.' Identification of the amino acid residues crucial for the interaction between T. vaginalis carbamate kinase and these natural compounds is of due scientific interest. The study will aid in efficacious and safe clinical use of the above-mentioned compounds.
Phukan, Niha; Brooks, Anna E S; Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto
Trichomoniasis, a prevalent sexually transmitted infection, is commonly symptomatic in women. The causative agent is Trichomonas vaginalis , an extracellular protozoan parasite. The host-protective mechanisms and molecules of vaginal lactobacilli that could counteract with this pathogen are largely unknown. This study examines the inhibition promoted by Lactobacillus gasseri against the adhesion of T. vaginalis to host cells, a critical virulence aspect of this pathogen. We observed that the vaginal L. gasseri ATCC 9857 is highly inhibitory by various contact-dependent mechanisms and surface proteins are largely responsible for this inhibitory phenotype. We found that the aggregation-promoting factor APF-2 from these bacteria significantly contributes towards inhibiting the adhesion of T. vaginalis to human vaginal ectocervical cells. Understanding the molecules and mechanisms used by lactobacilli to protect the host against T. vaginalis might help in the development of novel and specific therapeutic strategies that take advantage of the natural microbiota. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.
Kirsch, A J; Chang, D T; Miller, M I; Connor, J P; Hensle, T W; Shabsigh, R
Congenital penile curvature may result from corporeal disproportion in nearly 40% of cases, while in adults scarring of the corporeal bodies or periurethral fibrosis accounts for the majority of cases. Some surgeons advocate lengthening the fibrosed corporeal bodies by excising tunica albuginea and grafting such defects to straighten the penis. Tunica vaginalis, dermis, dorsal vein and lyophilized dura have been used for this purpose. Traditionally, these graft biomaterials have been sutured to the tunica albuginea. We assessed the feasibility, short-term safety and efficacy of diode laser tissue welding using albumin based solder and indocyanine green dye to perform patch graft corporoplasty in the dog. Ten animals were subjected to bilateral transverse excision of 1 x 2 cm. sections of tunica albuginea. Corporoplasty was performed using grafts composed of saphenous vein (5) or tunica vaginalis (5). Microsurgical repair with 7-zero polydioxanone suture (10) was compared to contralateral laser welded repair (10) by recording operative time, initial and short-term bursting pressures (mean plus or minus standard deviation) and histological analysis. Operative time on the laser side (9.8 +/- 2.3 minutes) was significantly shorter (p < 0.05) than on the suture side (17.1 +/- 5.1 minutes). Leak pressures, initially (laser 105.7 +/- 23.8 mm. Hg versus suture 35.3 +/- 8.0 mm. Hg), at 3 to 5 days (greater than 333.3 +/- 62.4 mm. Hg versus 136.6 +/- 39.4 mm. Hg) and at 7 to 10 days (greater than 397.8 +/- 39.8 mm. Hg versus 191.5 +/- 46.4 mm. Hg) were higher (p < 0.05) in the laser side compared to controls. Graft failure (necrosis) occurred in 3 repairs (2 laser on day 4 and 1 suture on day 10). Viable tissue with minimal differences in foreign body reaction between groups was observed in the remaining grafts. We conclude that laser welded patch graft corporoplasty using tunica vaginalis or vein is easy to perform, and provides excellent initial and short-term leak
Tang, Zi-Hao; Liu, Ke-Yue; Mei, Jun; Gao, Xing-Zheng
To observe the effect of a mixture of dihydroartemisinin and metronidazole on ultrastructure of Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites in vitro for exploring trichomonacidal mechanism of the drug mixture. The trophozoites were cultivated with liver extract solution medium that contained 2.5 x 10(6) parasites/ml. There were dihydroartemisinin 0.5 mg/ml and metronidazole 0.002 mg/ml in the experimental tubes of the drug mixture group. Groups of control (without drug), dihydroartemisinin (1 mg/ml) and metronidazole (5 mg/ml) were established and performed in the same experimental conditions. The parasites were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopes after having treated with the drugs at 37 degrees for 3.5-5 h. Under scanning electron microscope, the cell membrane of T. vaginalis treated only with dihydroartemisinin for 35 h was damaged, part of pellicle peeled off. Although the surface of the trophozoites treated only with metronidazole for 5 h showed many small bubbles and hollows, the cell membrane looked integral. However, surface of the parasite exposed to the drug mixture for 3.5-4.2 h showed deep folds and cracks, the cell membrane was damaged and even peeled off. When the cell ruptured, the nucleus, axostyle, pelta and hydrogenosomes were exposed, and the cytoplasm spilled out. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the membrane system of the trophozoites treated only with dihydroartemisinin for 3.5 h was damaged considerably. The cytoplasm of damaged parasite spilled out. The cytoplasm of the parasite treated only with metronidazole for 3.5-5 h was damaged seriously. Vacuoles and crevices were visible in the cytoplasm. The cell membrane and the content of the parasites treated with the drug mixture for 3.5-4.5 h were damaged seriously. There were some vacuoles and crevices, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, injured and deformed hydrogenosomes in the cytoplasm. The cell organelles mostly disappeared. Crevices also existed in the nucleus. The
Smith, Jeffrey D; Garber, Gary E
Complications related to the diagnosis and treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis infection, as well as the association between T. vaginalis infection and increased transmission of and susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus, highlight the need for alternative interventions. We tested a human-safe, aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted whole-cell T. vaginalis vaccine for efficacy in a BALB/c mouse model of vaginal infection. A whole-cell T. vaginalis vaccine was administered subcutaneously to BALB/c mice, using a prime-boost vaccination schedule. CD4(+) T-cell infiltration in the murine vaginal tissue and local and systemic levels of immunoglobulins were measured at time points up to 4 weeks following infection. Vaccination reduced the incidence and increased the clearance of T. vaginalis infection and induced both systemic and local humoral immune responses. CD4(+) T cells were detected in vaginal tissues following intravaginal infection with T. vaginalis but were not seen in uninfected mice. The presence of CD4(+) T cells following T. vaginalis infection can potentially increase susceptibility to and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. The vaccine induces local and systemic immune responses and confers significantly greater protection against vaginal infection than seen in unvaccinated mice (P < .005). These data support the potential for a human vaccine against T. vaginalis infection that could also influence the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bricheux, Geneviève; Coffe, Gérard; Brugerolle, Guy
The human parasite Trichomonas vaginalis has specific structural bodies, atractophores, associated at one end to the kinetosomes and at the other to the spindle during division. A monoclonal antibody specific for a component of this structure was obtained. It recognizes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 477 kDa. Sequence analysis of this protein shows that P477 belongs to the family of large coiled-coil proteins, sharing a highly versatile protein folding motif adaptable to many biological functions. P477-might act as an anchor to localize cellular activities and components to the golgi centrosomal region. It may represent a new class of structural proteins, since similar proteins were found in many protozoans.
Seña, Arlene C; Bachmann, Laura H; Hobbs, Marcia M
Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is a common sexually transmitted infection that can cause vaginitis, cervicitis and urethritis. Persistent and recurrent TV infections are frequent in women, potentially due to the lack of routine screening recommendations for this pathogen, the chronic nature of some infections, and drug resistance. Metronidazole and tinidazole are two oral drugs that are effective against trichomoniasis. There are few alternative treatment options for persons with a metronidazole allergy or treatment failure. Most TV isolates from women with treatment failures that have been analyzed for susceptibility testing in the United States have exhibited low-level metronidazole resistance, supporting the initial use of tinidazole for patients who fail metronidazole therapy. Several non-nitroimidazole drugs and other agents have demonstrated acceptable in vitro activity or cure rates in case reports for metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis; however, clinical trials are imperative to evaluate their efficacy as alternative therapeutic regimens for this highly prevalent infection.
Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Zamudio-Prieto, Olga; Ortega-López, Jaime
We focus on the iron response of Trichomonas vaginalis to gene family products such as the cysteine proteinases (CPs) involved in virulence properties. In particular, we examined the effect of iron on the gene expression regulation and function of cathepsin L-like and asparaginyl endopeptidase-like CPs as virulence factors. We addressed some important aspects about CPs genomic organization and we offer possible explanations to the fact that only few members of this large gene family are expressed at the RNA and protein levels and the way to control their proteolytic activity. We also summarized all known iron regulations of CPs at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels along with new insights into the possible epigenetic and miRNA processes. PMID:26090464
Shea, Tara A; Burburan, Paola J; Matubia, Vivian N; Ramcharan, Sandy S; Rosario, Irving; Parkin, David W; Stockman, Brian J
Trichomonas vaginalis continues to be a major health problem with drug-resistant strains increasing in prevalence. Novel antitrichomonal agents that are mechanistically distinct from current therapies are needed. The NIH Clinical Compound Collection was screened to find inhibitors of the uridine ribohydrolase enzyme required by the parasite to scavenge uracil for its growth. The proton-pump inhibitors omeprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole were identified as inhibitors of this enzyme, with IC50 values ranging from 0.3 to 14.5 μM. This suggests a molecular mechanism for the in vitro antitrichomonal activity of these proton-pump inhibitors, and may provide important insights toward structure-based drug design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smutná, Tamara; Pilarová, Katerina; Tarábek, Ján; Tachezy, Jan
Iron-sulfur flavoproteins (Isf) are flavin mononucleotide (FMN)- and FeS cluster-containing proteins commonly encountered in anaerobic prokaryotes. However, with the exception of Isf from Methanosarcina thermophila, which participates in oxidative stress management by removing oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, none of these proteins has been characterized in terms of function. Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted eukaryotic parasite of humans, was found to express several iron-sulfur flavoprotein (TvIsf) homologs in its hydrogenosomes. We show here that in addition to having oxygen-reducing activity, the recombinant TvIsf also functions as a detoxifying reductase of metronidazole and chloramphenicol, both of which are antibiotics effective against a variety of anaerobic microbes. TvIsf can utilize both NADH and reduced ferredoxin as electron donors. Given the prevalence of Isf in anaerobic prokaryotes, we propose that these proteins are central to a novel defense mechanism against xenobiotics. PMID:24663020
Background Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common non-viral human sexually transmitted pathogen and importantly, contributes to facilitating the spread of HIV. Yet very little is known about its surface and secreted proteins mediating interactions with, and permitting the invasion and colonisation of, the host mucosa. Initial annotations of T. vaginalis genome identified a plethora of candidate extracellular proteins. Results Data mining of the T. vaginalis genome identified 911 BspA-like entries (TvBspA) sharing TpLRR-like leucine-rich repeats, which represent the largest gene family encoding potential extracellular proteins for the pathogen. A broad range of microorganisms encoding BspA-like proteins was identified and these are mainly known to live on mucosal surfaces, among these T. vaginalis is endowed with the largest gene family. Over 190 TvBspA proteins with inferred transmembrane domains were characterised by a considerable structural diversity between their TpLRR and other types of repetitive sequences and two subfamilies possessed distinct classic sorting signal motifs for endocytosis. One TvBspA subfamily also shared a glycine-rich protein domain with proteins from Clostridium difficile pathogenic strains and C. difficile phages. Consistent with the hypothesis that TvBspA protein structural diversity implies diverse roles, we demonstrated for several TvBspA genes differential expression at the transcript level in different growth conditions. Identified variants of repetitive segments between several TvBspA paralogues and orthologues from two clinical isolates were also consistent with TpLRR and other repetitive sequences to be functionally important. For one TvBspA protein cell surface expression and antibody responses by both female and male T. vaginalis infected patients were also demonstrated. Conclusions The biased mucosal habitat for microbial species encoding BspA-like proteins, the characterisation of a vast structural diversity for the Tv
Xie, Yi-Ting; Gao, Jiang-Mei; Wu, Ya-Ping; Tang, Petrus; Hide, Geoff; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong
Human trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases with more than 200 million cases worldwide. It has caused a series of health problems to patients. For prevention and control of infectious diseases, vaccines are usually considered as one of the most cost-efficient tools. However, until now, work on the development of T. vaginalis vaccines is still mainly focused on the screening of potential immunogens. Alpha-actinin characterized by high immunogenicity in T. vaginalis was suggested as a promising candidate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective potency of recombinant α-actinin against T. vaginalis infection in a mouse intraperitoneal model. Two selected coding regions of α-actinin (ACT-F, 14-469 aa and ACT-T, 462-844 aa) amplified from cDNA were cloned into pET-32a (+) expression vector and transfected into BL21 cells. After induction with IPTG and purification with electroelution, the two recombinant fusion proteins were emulsified in Freund's adjuvant (FA) and used to immunize BALB/C mice. Following intraperitoneal inoculation with T. vaginalis, the survival rate of mice was monitored for the assessment of protective potency. After immunization, the antibody level in mouse serum was assessed by ELISA, splenocyte proliferation response was detected with CCK8 and cytokines in the supernatant of splenocytes were quantified with a cytometric bead-based assay. We successfully obtained purified ACT-F (70.33 kDa) and ACT-T (61.7kDa). Both recombinant proteins could provide significant protection against T. vaginalis challenge, especially ACT-T (with 100% protection within one month). Meanwhile, high levels of specific total IgG and subtypes (IgG1 > IgG2a) were detected in sera from the immunized mice. Our results also revealed a statistically significant increase in splenocyte proliferation and related cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17A and IL-10) production after repeated
Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. VIII. Mitteilung: Experiments mit Hormonen (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. VIII. Communication: Experiments with Hormones),
experiments were performed on 7 trichomonas vaginalis strains. The test cultures with serotonin, oestron, testosteron and methyltestosteron grew at...The present study has been concerned with the influence of some hormones upon trichomonas growth. The following substances were used for our...ml onward. Adrenalin and noradrenalin have generally inhibiting action (from 0.80 mg/ml onward) upon trichomonas growth. The antihormone 3.5-dijodtyrosin does rarely influence the growth of trichomonas . (Author)
Wilson, Wayne A; Pradhan, Prajakta; Madhan, Nayasha; Gist, Galen C; Brittingham, Andrew
Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasitic protist, is the causative agent of the common sexually-transmitted infection trichomoniasis. The organism has long been known to synthesize substantial glycogen as a storage polysaccharide, presumably mobilizing this compound during periods of carbohydrate limitation, such as might be encountered during transmission between hosts. However, little is known regarding the enzymes of glycogen metabolism in T. vaginalis. We had previously described the identification and characterization of two forms of glycogen phosphorylase in the organism. Here, we measure UDP-glucose-dependent glycogen synthase activity in cell-free extracts of T. vaginalis. We then demonstrate that the TVAG_258220 open reading frame encodes a glycosyltransferase that is presumably responsible for this synthetic activity. We show that expression of TVAG_258220 in a yeast strain lacking endogenous glycogen synthase activity is sufficient to restore glycogen accumulation. Furthermore, when TVAG_258220 is expressed in bacteria, the resulting recombinant protein has glycogen synthase activity in vitro, transferring glucose from either UDP-glucose or ADP-glucose to glycogen and using both substrates with similar affinity. This protein is also able to transfer glucose from UDP-glucose or ADP-glucose to maltose and longer oligomers of glucose but not to glucose itself. However, with these substrates, there is no evidence of processivity and sugar transfer is limited to between one and three glucose residues. Taken together with our earlier work on glycogen phosphorylase, we are now well positioned to define both how T. vaginalis synthesizes and utilizes glycogen, and how these processes are regulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.
Wynn, Adriane; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Gaolebale, Ponatshego; Moshashane, Neo; Sickboy, Ontiretse; Duque, Sofia; Williams, Elizabeth; Doherty, Klara; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Morroni, Chelsea
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) , Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are curable, mostly asymptomatic, STIs that cause adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Most countries do not test for those infections during antenatal care. We implemented a CT, NG and TV testing and treatment programme in an antenatal clinic in Gaborone, Botswana. We conducted a prospective study in the antenatal clinic at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. We offered pregnant women who were 18 years or older and less than 35 weeks of gestation, CT, NG and TV testing using self-collected vaginal swabs. Testing was conducted using a GeneXpert® CT/NG and TV system. Those who tested positive were given directly observed antibiotic therapy and asked to return for a test of cure. We determined the prevalence of infections, uptake of treatment and proportion cured. The relationships between positive STI test and participant characteristics were assessed. We enrolled 400 pregnant women. Fifty-four (13.5%) tested positive for CT, NG and/or TV: 31 (8%) for CT, 5 (1.3%) for NG and 21 (5%) for TV. Among those who tested positive, 74% (40) received same-day, in person results and treatment. Among those who received delayed results (6), 67% (4) were treated. Statistical comparisons showed that being unmarried and HIV infected were positively association CT, NG and/or TV infection. Self-reported STI symptoms were not associated with CT, NG and/or TV infection. The prevalence of CT, NG and/or TV was high, particularly among women with HIV infection. Among women with CT, NG and/or TV infection, those who received same-day results were more likely to be treated than those who received delayed results. More research is needed on the costs and benefits of integrating highly sensitive and specific STI testing into antenatal care in Southern Africa. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No
Tulunay, Ozden; Gögüş, Cagatay; Baltaci, Sümer; Bulut, Safak
Testicular and paratesticular neoplasms that resemble the common epithelial type of ovarian tumor are quite rare. Paratesticular clear cell carcinoma is very uncommon in the testis, with no reported cases of a tumor arising from the tunica vaginalis in the literature to our knowledge. The present case shows that it is highly malignant and metastatic. The differential diagnosis of the tumor was made after thorough clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical investigations, from the mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis, paratesticular serous papillary carcinoma, carcinoma of the rete testis, epididymal adenocarcioma, yolk sac tumor of the testis and metastatic carcinoma. The tumor showed Bcl-2 and Her-2/neu immunoreactivity, but was non-reactive for p53. This tumor, with a uterus-like structure as a paratesticular tumor-like mass, was composed of endometrial-type glands and stroma surrounded by bundles of smooth muscle, and is the third example of this kind of structure in English written literature. The patient, having normal external genitalia and fertility, represents the first reported case of paratesticular malignant differentiation of müllerian-type epithelium in the normal gonadal state. Müllerian-type epithelium located in the vicinity of the testis and/or endometriotic metaplasia of the mesothelium of the tunica vaginalis might be the possible origins for this uterus-like structure, and as a result, for this tumor.
Leitsch, David; Drinić, Mirjana; Kolarich, Daniel; Duchêne, Michael
The microaerophilic parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is a causative agent of painful vaginitis or urethritis, termed trichomoniasis, and can also cause preterm delivery or stillbirth. Treatment of trichomoniasis is almost exclusively based on the nitroimidazole drugs metronidazole and tinidazole. Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis does occur and is often associated with treatment failure. In most cases, metronidazole-resistant isolates remain susceptible to tinidazole, but cross resistance between the two closely related drugs can be a problem. In this study we measured activities of thioredoxin reductase and flavin reductase in four metronidazole-susceptible and five metronidazole-resistant isolates. These enzyme activities had been previously found to be downregulated in T. vaginalis with high-level metronidazole resistance induced in the laboratory. Further, we aimed at identifying factors causing metronidazole resistance and compared the protein expression profiles of all nine isolates by application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Thioredoxin reductase activity was nearly equal in all strains assayed but flavin reductase activity was clearly down-regulated, or even absent, in metronidazole-resistant strains. Since flavin reductase has been shown to reduce oxygen to hydrogen peroxide, its down-regulation could significantly contribute to the impairment of oxygen scavenging as reported by others for metronidazole-resistant strains. Analysis by 2DE revealed down-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1) in strains with reduced sensitivity to metronidazole, an enzyme that could be involved in detoxification of intracellular acetaldehyde. PMID:22449940
Alderete, J F
An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antibody to antigenic Trichomonas vaginalis macromolecules has been identified using whole cells or an aqueous protein extract as antigen. The test was developed under optimum conditions using serum samples from experimental animals. The sensitivity of the ELISA was equal to or greater than that obtained by radioimmunoprecipitation and electrophoresis-fluorography techniques. The ELISA was capable of assessing antibody responses during the development of lesions in animals inoculated subcutaneously and it reproducibly measured the individual classes immunoglobulins directed at T vaginalis. The colorimetric assay was also suitable for showing cross reactivity between trichomonal species as well as between different strains of T vaginalis. Conditions established for monitoring antibody to trichomanads in immunised rabbits or infected mice were equally effective for human materials, such as serum or vaginal washes. Serum from experimental animals or infected people showed high concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgM antibody to trichomonads. Only antibodies of the IgG and IgA class were detected in vaginal washes from women with acute trichomoniasis. No IgE antibody to trichomonads was found under a variety of conditions in serum samples from patients or experimental animals.
Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Saboia-Vahia, Leonardo; Margotti, Eliane Trindade; Fernandes, Nilma de Souza; Castro, Cássia Luana de Faria; Oliveira, Francisco Odencio; Peixoto, Juliana Figueiredo; Britto, Constança; Silva, Fernando Costa E; Cuervo, Patricia; Jesus, José Batista de
Trichomonas vaginalis is the aetiological agent of human trichomoniasis, which is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in humans. Iron is an important element for the survival of this parasite and the colonisation of the host urogenital tract. In this study, we investigated the effects of iron on parasite proliferation in the dynamics of pseudocyst formation and morphologically characterised iron depletion-induced pseudocysts. We performed structural and ultrastructural analyses using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that iron depletion (i) interrupts the proliferation of T. vaginalis, (ii) induces morphological changes in typical multiplicative trophozoites to spherical non-proliferative, non-motile pseudocysts, and (iii) induces the arrest of cell division at different stages of the cell cycle; (iv) iron is the fundamental element for the maintenance of typical trophozoite morphology; (v) pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are viable and reversible forms; and, finally, (vi) we demonstrated that pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are able to interact with human epithelial cells maintaining their spherical forms. Together, these data suggest that pseudocysts could be induced as a response to iron nutritional stress and could have a potential role in the transmission and infection of T. vaginalis.
Grama, Daliane Faria; Casarotti, Leonardo da Silva; Morato, Michelle Gonçalves Vilela de Andrade; Silva, Lidyane Suellen; Mendonça, Daniella Fernandes; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; Viana, João da Costa; Cury, Márcia Cristina
Studies have revealed high prevalence rates of Trichomonas vaginalis in men and women worldwide. In Brazil, where reporting is not mandatory, the true prevalence rate is unknown. This study determined the prevalence of the parasite in women attending public health units in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, identifying possible risk factors for infection, and also compared three diagnostic techniques for detecting the parasite. Samples of vaginal secretions collected from 742 women attending public health units were analyzed by direct wet mount examination, culture and smear test. Epidemiological questionnaires were administered. Of the total of 742 samples analyzed, 19 (2.6%) tested positive for T. vaginalis. The variables significantly associated with infection were: being of black ethnicity, smoking, having knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases and presenting clinical signs. The culture method was considered the gold standard test. Although there are programs to control other sexually transmitted diseases, there are none for trichomoniasis. The results of this study indicate the presence of T. vaginalis in the female population, and points to the need for more research in Brazil to gain a better understanding of the profile and epidemiology of the parasite.
Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Saboia-Vahia, Leonardo; Margotti, Eliane Trindade; Fernandes, Nilma de Souza; Castro, Cássia Luana de Faria; Oliveira, Francisco Odencio; Peixoto, Juliana Figueiredo; Britto, Constança; Silva, Fernando Costa e; Cuervo, Patricia; de Jesus, José Batista
BACKGROUND Trichomonas vaginalis is the aetiological agent of human trichomoniasis, which is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in humans. Iron is an important element for the survival of this parasite and the colonisation of the host urogenital tract. OBJECTIVES In this study, we investigated the effects of iron on parasite proliferation in the dynamics of pseudocyst formation and morphologically characterised iron depletion-induced pseudocysts. METHODS We performed structural and ultrastructural analyses using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. FINDINGS It was observed that iron depletion (i) interrupts the proliferation of T. vaginalis, (ii) induces morphological changes in typical multiplicative trophozoites to spherical non-proliferative, non-motile pseudocysts, and (iii) induces the arrest of cell division at different stages of the cell cycle; (iv) iron is the fundamental element for the maintenance of typical trophozoite morphology; (v) pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are viable and reversible forms; and, finally, (vi) we demonstrated that pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are able to interact with human epithelial cells maintaining their spherical forms. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Together, these data suggest that pseudocysts could be induced as a response to iron nutritional stress and could have a potential role in the transmission and infection of T. vaginalis. PMID:28953994
Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto; Chakrabarti, Kausik; Pearson, Michael; Benarroch, Delphine; Shuman, Stewart; Johnson, Patricia J.
The 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine caps of eukaryal snRNAs and snoRNA are formed by the enzyme Tgs1, which catalyzes sequential guanine-N2 methylations of m7G caps. Atypically, in the divergent unicellular eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis, spliceosomal snRNAs lack a guanosine cap and the recombinant T. vaginalis trimethylguanosine synthase (TvTgs) produces only m2,7G in vitro. Here, we show by direct metabolic labeling that endogenous T. vaginalis RNAs contain m7G, m2,7G, and m2,2,7G caps. Immunodepletion of TvTgs from cell extracts and TvTgs add-back experiments demonstrate that TvTgs produces m2,7G and m2,2,7G caps. Expression of TvTgs in yeast tgs1Δ cells leads to the formation of m2,7G and m2,2,7G caps and complementation of the lethality of a tgs1Δ mud2Δ strain. Whereas TvTgs is present in the nucleus and cytosol of T. vaginalis cells, TMG-containing RNAs are localized primarily in the nucleolus. Molecular cloning of anti-TMG affinity-purified T. vaginalis RNAs identified 16 box H/ACA snoRNAs, which are implicated in guiding RNA pseudouridylation. The ensemble of new T. vaginalis H/ACA snoRNAs allowed us to predict and partially validate an extensive map of pseudouridines in T. vaginalis rRNA. PMID:22847815
Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. I. Mitteilung Experimente mit dem Vitamin B2-Komplex (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas vaginalis. I. Communication: Experiments with the Vitamin-B2-Complex),
pathogenic protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis have been studied. Material and methods are described in the paper. The efficacy of the individual admixtures from the vitamin-B2-complex is subsequently discussed. (Author)
Ahmed, H; Youssef, M K; Salem, E A; Fawzi, A M; Desoky, E A E; Eliwa, A M; Sakr, A M N; Shahin, A M S
Laparoscopic hernia repairs have been proven to be efficient and safe for children, despite the slightly higher recurrence rate compared with the classic surgical repair. They have the advantage of easy and precise identification of the type of defect and its correction, both in ipsilateral and contralateral sides. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy, safety and outcome of the laparoscopically assisted piecemeal high ligation of a patent processus vaginalis (PPV) in children. A total of 40 children were enrolled into this prospective study; they were aged ≥ 6 months and had an inguinal hernia. The peritoneal cavity, including the contralateral side, was inspected for the possibility of bilateral hernias using a 3-mm 30° telescope. Another 3-mm port was introduced through the same infra-umbilical incision. The hernia was manually reduced or with the aid of a working infra-umbilical grasper. A prolene or vicryl 2/0 or 3/0 suture on a curved semicircle round-bodied taper-ended 25-30 mm needle was introduced through a very small inguinal skin-crease incision. It was passed through the abdominal wall layers to the peritoneum and was manipulated by the laparoscopic grasper to pick up the peritoneum in piecemeal all around the internal ring. The needle was then pushed to the outside near to the entrance site, thus forming a semicircle around the internal ring. The suture was then tied and the knot was subcutaneously buried. The primary outcome of the procedure was the incidence of intraoperative diagnosis and surgical repair of contralateral hernias in pre-operatively diagnosed unilateral cases. The secondary outcomes were defined as the incidence of complications and hernia recurrence. The exploratory laparoscopy found contralateral patent processus vaginalis (CPPV) with a detection rate of 28.1%. Chan et al., Esposito et al., Toufique et al. and Niyogi et al. reported similar figures for laparoscopic contralateral hernia detection rates of 28
Meri, Taru; Jokiranta, T. Sakari; Suhonen, Lauri; Meri, Seppo
Trichomonas vaginalis is a globally common sexually transmitted human parasite. Many strains of T. vaginalis from around the world have been described to be resistant to the current drug of choice, metronidazole. However, only a few cases of metronidazole resistance have been reported from Europe. The resistant strains cause prolonged infections which are difficult to treat. T. vaginalis infection also increases the risk for human immunodeficiency virus transmission. We present a practical method for determining the resistance of T. vaginalis to 5-nitroimidazoles. The suggested method was developed by determining the MICs and minimal lethal concentrations (MLCs) of metronidazole and ornidazole for T. vaginalis under various aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Using this assay we have found the first three metronidazole-resistant strains from Finland, although the origin of at least one of the strains seems to be Russia. Analysis of the patient-derived and previously characterized isolates showed that metronidazole-resistant strains were also resistant to ornidazole, and MLCs for all strains tested correlated well with the MICs. The suggested MICs of metronidazole for differentiation of sensitive and resistant isolates are >75 μg/ml in an aerobic 24-h assay and >15 μg/ml in an anaerobic 48-h assay. PMID:10655382
Calla-Choque, Jaeson Santos; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Ávila-González, Leticia; Arroyo, Rossana
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted flagellated protist parasite responsible for trichomoniasis. This parasite is dependent on high levels of iron, favoring its growth and multiplication. Iron also differentially regulates some trichomonad virulence properties by unknown mechanisms. However, there is evidence to support the existence of gene regulatory mechanisms at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels that are mediated by iron concentration in T. vaginalis. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify an RNA-binding protein in T. vaginalis that interacts with the tvcp4 RNA stem-loop structure, which may participate in a posttranscriptional iron regulatory mechanism mediated by RNA-protein interactions. We performed RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay (REMSA) and supershift, UV cross-linking, Northwestern blot, and western blot (WB) assays using cytoplasmic protein extracts from T. vaginalis with the tvcp4 RNA hairpin structure as a probe. We identified a 135-kDa protein isolated by the UV cross-linking assays as α-actinin 3 (TvACTN3) by MALDI-TOF-MS that was confirmed by LS-MS/MS and de novo sequencing. TvACTN3 is a cytoplasmic protein that specifically binds to hairpin RNA structures from trichomonads and humans when the parasites are grown under iron-depleted conditions. Thus, TvACTN3 could participate in the regulation of gene expression by iron in T. vaginalis through a parallel posttranscriptional mechanism similar to that of the IRE/IRP system.
Lee, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Juri; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Park, Soon-Jung
Trichomonas vaginalis is a pathogen that triggers severe immune responses in hosts. T. vaginalis α-actinin 2, Tvα-actinin 2, has been used to diagnose trichomoniasis. This study was undertaken to examine the role of Tvα-actinin 2 as an antigenic molecule to induce immune responses from humans. Western blot analysis using anti-Tvα-actinin 2 antibodies indicated its presence in the secreted proteins of T. vaginalis. ELISA was employed to measure cytokine production by vaginal epithelial cells, prostate cells, mouse dendritic cells (DCs), or T cells stimulated with T. vaginalis or Tvα-actinin 2 protein. Both T. vaginalis and rTvα-actinin 2 induced cytokine production from epithelial cell lines, including IL-10. Moreover, CD4+CD25- regulatory T cells (Treg cells) incubated with rTvα-actinin 2-treated DCs produced high levels of IL-10. These data indicate that Tvα-actinin 2 modulates immune responses via IL-10 production by Treg cells.
Yang, Jung-Bo; Quan, Juan-Hua; Kim, Ye-Eun; Rhee, Yun-Ee; Kang, Byung-Hyun; Choi, In-Wook; Cha, Guang-Ho; Yuk, Jae-Min; Lee, Young-Ha
Trichomonas vaginalis; induces proinflammation in cervicovaginal mucosal epithelium. To investigate the signaling pathways in TNF-α production in cervical mucosal epithelium after T. vaginalis infection, the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways were evaluated in T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells in the presence and absence of specific inhibitors. T. vaginalis increased TNF-α production in SiHa cells, in a parasite burden-dependent and incubation time-dependent manner. In T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells, AKT, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK were phosphorylated from 1 hr after infection; however, the phosphorylation patterns were different from each other. After pretreatment with inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways, TNF-α production was significantly decreased compared to the control; however, TNF-α reduction patterns were different depending on the type of PI3K/MAPK inhibitors. TNF-α production was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with wortmannin and PD98059, whereas it was increased by SP600125. These data suggested that PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways are important in regulation of TNF-α production in cervical mucosal epithelial SiHa cells. However, activation patterns of each pathway were different from the types of PI3K/MAPK pathways.
Calla-Choque, Jaeson Santos; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Ávila-González, Leticia; Arroyo, Rossana
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted flagellated protist parasite responsible for trichomoniasis. This parasite is dependent on high levels of iron, favoring its growth and multiplication. Iron also differentially regulates some trichomonad virulence properties by unknown mechanisms. However, there is evidence to support the existence of gene regulatory mechanisms at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels that are mediated by iron concentration in T. vaginalis. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify an RNA-binding protein in T. vaginalis that interacts with the tvcp4 RNA stem-loop structure, which may participate in a posttranscriptional iron regulatory mechanism mediated by RNA-protein interactions. We performed RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay (REMSA) and supershift, UV cross-linking, Northwestern blot, and western blot (WB) assays using cytoplasmic protein extracts from T. vaginalis with the tvcp4 RNA hairpin structure as a probe. We identified a 135-kDa protein isolated by the UV cross-linking assays as α-actinin 3 (TvACTN3) by MALDI-TOF-MS that was confirmed by LS-MS/MS and de novo sequencing. TvACTN3 is a cytoplasmic protein that specifically binds to hairpin RNA structures from trichomonads and humans when the parasites are grown under iron-depleted conditions. Thus, TvACTN3 could participate in the regulation of gene expression by iron in T. vaginalis through a parallel posttranscriptional mechanism similar to that of the IRE/IRP system. PMID:24719864
Franco, Bernardo; Hernández, Roberto; López-Villaseñor, Imelda
Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan of both medical and biological relevance. Transcriptional studies in this organism have focused mainly on type II pol promoters, whereas the elements necessary for transcription by polI or polIII have not been investigated. Here, with the aid of a transient transcription system, we characterised the rDNA intergenic region, defining both the promoter and the terminator sequences required for transcription. We defined the promoter as a compact region of approximately 180 bp. We also identified a potential upstream control element (UCE) that was located 80 bp upstream of the transcription start point (TSP). A transcription termination element was identified within a 34 bp region that was located immediately downstream of the 28S coding sequence. The function of this element depends upon polarity and the presence of both a stretch of uridine residues (U's) and a hairpin structure in the transcript. Our observations provide a strong basis for the study of DNA recognition by the polI transcriptional machinery in this early divergent organism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fowke, Jay H; Han, Xijing; Alderete, J F; Moses, Kelvin A; Signorello, Lisa B; Blot, William J
African Americans (AA) have a higher prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) infection and a higher prostate (PC) risk. Past studies suggest an association between Tv seropositivity and PC, and therefore we prospectively investigated this association among AA men. Incident PC cases were individually matched to controls in a nested case-control study within the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). Primary analysis included 296 PC cases and 497 race-matched controls. Levels of Tv antibody response were measured by ELISA in serum collected at baseline. Tv antibody response did not significantly differ between cases and controls overall or within AA participants (253 AA cases). There were no significant associations or trends between levels of Tv response and PC risk or the diagnosis of aggressive PC. We found no evidence of a prospective association between baseline Tv infection and PC risk in AA men. Tv infection in men may have substantial health implications in HIV transmission and reproductive outcomes, but may not impact future PC risk in AA men at high-risk for PC. Further efforts need to define past vs. present Tv infection and to separate pathophysiology from PC detection.
Chang, Po-Chih; Hsu, Yu-Chao; Hsieh, Ming-Li; Huang, Shih-Tsung; Huang, Hsin-Chieh; Chen, Yu
Trichomoniasis and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) shared similar risk factors, age distribution and overlapping symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) in women with recurrent UTIs, attending a urology clinic in a medical center, in order to inform screening and treatment policies. Women with recurrent UTIs, defined as the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency and urgency) and three positive urine cultures on voided urine specimens in the previous year, were enrolled prospectively from January 2013 to April 2014. Urine samples were collected for culture and tested for TV using immunochromatographic strip. Outpatient follow-up was arranged to diagnose any symptomatic UTI recurrence. Sixty-five women were recruited. Mean age was 57.4 ± 14.3 year-old and follow-up duration was 9.5 ± 4.0 months. The prevalence of TV was 16.9% (11/65). Eight women had UTI recurrence in the follow-up period. Recurrence rate did not differ in patients with and without concomitant TV infection. Given the high prevalence of TV, we suggest that testing for TV should be considered in women with recurrent UTIs. Further larger studies are needed to evaluate the potential benefit of treating TV in this group of patients. Copyright © 2016 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background Sapindus saponaria is used traditionally for curing ulcers, external wounds and inflammations. The spermicidal and anti-Trichomonas activity of S. saponaria and its effect on Lactobacillus acidophilus were evaluated. Methods Water-ethanol (WE) and butanolic (BE) extracts, as well as a purified sample of saponins (SP) from S. saponaria were tested for spermicidal and anti-Trichomonas activity and for their effect on L. acidophilus. Results WE, BE and SP immobilized spermatozoa at a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 2.5 (gram %) for extracts and 1.25 (gram %) for SP. The effective concentrations that caused 50% immobilization of spermatozoa (EC50) were 0.5 (gram %) for WE and SP, and 0.1 (gram %) for BE. The compounds were effective against Trichomonas vaginalis (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration = 0.156 mg/mL for WE and BE, and 0.078 mg/mL for SP against a clinical strain (CS); and 0.312, 0.156 and 0.078 mg/mL for WE, BE and SP, respectively, against an ATCC strain). In all concentrations tested, the growth of L. acidophilus was not reduced. Conclusion The in vitro study proved the spermicidal and anti-Trichomonas activity of S. saponaria. Complementary in vivo studies should be made for establish the use as a vaginal spermicide, particularly in Brazil and Latin America. PMID:23890053
Lopez-Marambio, Francisco A; Hutson, John M
Anatomy of the testis and tunica vaginalis (TV) is taught to pediatric surgeons from adult postmortem material. Textbooks describe the testis as 'behind' the TV, but at pediatric orchidopexy it appears to be inside the TV. We aimed to study whether testis and TV anatomy changes with age. After ethical approval, postmortem photographs and measurements of testis length, width, and mesenteric attachment length (mm) in 37 adults (22-92years), one infant (4/12), and one fetus (19/52) were compared with intraoperative orchidopexies (x6) after opening TV (n=4; 7/12-14years). Testis length, area and perimeter and ratios for mesentery attachment were plotted against age. The fetal and pediatric testes were intraperitoneal with a mesentery (mesorchium), but after 50years secondary adhesions between TV and testis obliterated the mesorchium, so in advanced age the testis appeared to be behind the TV. These results show that in childhood testes were 'intraperitoneal', but after 50years of age the TV progressively shrinks and adheres to the testis, making it appear to be behind the TV. This difference between anatomical texts and childhood anatomy suggests that pediatric surgery may need anatomy texts that specifically highlight age differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bagbanci, Sahin; Dadali, Mumtaz; Emir, Levent; Aydogmus, Yasin; Ozer, Elif
To enhance rat penises experimentally with rectus muscle fascia (RMF) and testicular tunica vaginalis grafts (TVG). Twelve Wistar albino rats were distributed into two equal Groups, A and B. There were six rats in each group. RMF and TVG were used to enhance rat penises in Groups A and B, respectively. Circumferences of the penises were measured preoperatively and at three different times after the operation. Two, two and eight rats were killed 10 days, 1 month and 2 months after the operation, respectively, for histopathological examinations. When we compared the measurements of preoperative and immediately postoperative circumferences, the mean increase was 23.4 ± 2.9 % in Group A and 19.9 ± 1.7 % in Group B. According to paired t test, the difference was significant (p < 0001), but the comparison between preoperative and postoperative first-month measurements was not found to be significant (p > 0.05). Histological examinations revealed an intensive inflammatory process at 10 days after the operation. Grafts were found to be totally absorbed in the first- and second-month examinations. In our study, implanted TVG and RMF could not survive because of insufficient vascularization and failure to maintain satisfactory surgical success. More studies are needed to increase the effectiveness of surgical techniques.
Canchihuaman, Fredy A; Carcamo, Cesar P; Garcia, Patricia J; Aral, Sevgi O; Whittington, William L H; Hawes, Stephen E; Hughes, James P; Holmes, King K
To determine how patterns of non-monogamy influence prevalences of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in individuals and their cohabitating sex partners. METHODS A 2002 survey in 24 Peruvian cities enrolled men and women aged 18-29 years from random household samples. The cohabiting sex partner of each enrolee was also enrolled until approximately 100 couples per city were recruited. Men provided urine and women vaginal swabs or urine for molecular testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis; both genders provided blood for serological testing. Among 2099 females and 2052 males providing specimens and behavioural data, 18.2% of males and 2.5% of females reported non-monogamy during the past year. C trachomatis was detected in 121 females (5.8%) and 80 males (4.1%) and T vaginalis in 87 females (4.2%) and 26 males (1.3%). Multivariate analyses showed that C trachomatis infection in females was significantly associated with her male partner's non-monogamy (OR 2.02, CI 1.32 to 3.08) but not significantly with her own non-monogamy; T vaginalis was associated with her own non-monogamy (OR 3.11, CI 1.25 to 7.73) and with her partner's non-monogamy (OR 2.07, CI 1.26 to 3.42). For males, both C trachomatis (OR 2.17, CI 1.29 to 3.69) and T vaginalis (OR 2.49, CI 1.06 to 5.87) were significantly associated only with his own non-monogamy. Among cohabiting couples, male non-monogamy was common and was associated with C trachomatis and T vaginalis infection in himself and in his female partner, whereas female non-monogamy was reported infrequently and was significantly associated only with her own T vaginalis infection. Patterns of non-monogamy may guide public health interventions.
Paulish-Miller, Teresa E.; Augostini, Peter; Schuyler, Jessica A.; Smith, William L.; Mordechai, Eli; Adelson, Martin E.; Gygax, Scott E.; Secor, William E.
Metronidazole resistance in the sexually transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is a problematic public health issue. We have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two nitroreductase genes (ntr4Tv and ntr6Tv) associated with resistance. These SNPs were associated with one of two distinct T. vaginalis populations identified by multilocus sequence typing, yet one SNP (ntr6Tv A238T), which results in a premature stop codon, was associated with resistance independent of population structure and may be of diagnostic value. PMID:24550324
Gu, Na-Yeong; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Im, Su-Jeong; Seo, Min-Young; Chung, Yong-Hoon; Ryu, Jae-Sook
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis in women, and urethritis and prostatitis in men. IL-1β is synthesized as immature pro-IL-1β, which is cleaved by activated caspase-1. Caspase-1 is, in turn, activated by a multi-protein complex known as an inflammasome. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory response of a prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) to T. vaginalis and, specifically, the capacity of T. vaginalis to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. RWPE-1 cells were stimulated by live T. vaginalis, and subsequent expression of pro-IL-1β, IL-1β, NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. IL-1β and caspase-1 production was also measured by ELISA. To evaluate the effects of NLRP3 and caspase-1 on IL-1β production, the activated RWPE-1 cells were transfected with small interfering RNAs to silence the NLRP3 and caspase-1 genes. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by spectrofluorometry. When RWPE-1 cells were stimulated with live T. vaginalis, the mRNA and protein expression of IL-1β, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 increased. Moreover, silencing of NLRP3 and caspase-1 attenuated T. vaginalis-induced IL-1β secretion. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI and high extracellular potassium ion suppressed the production of IL-1β, caspase-1, and the expression of NLRP3 and ASC proteins. The specific NF-κB inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, inhibited IL-1β production, and also inhibited the production of caspase-1, ASC and NLRP3 proteins. T. vaginalis induces the formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human prostate epithelial cells via ROS and potassium ion efflux, and this results in IL-1β production. This is the first evidence for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the inflammatory response by prostate epithelial cells infected with T. vaginalis. Prostate 76:885-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley
Background Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) has recently gained recognition as an important contributor to some eukaryote proteomes, but the mechanisms of acquisition and fixation in eukaryotic genomes are still uncertain. A previously defined norm for LGTs in microbial eukaryotes states that the majority are genes involved in metabolism, the LGTs are typically localized one by one, surrounded by vertically inherited genes on the chromosome, and phylogenetics shows that a broad collection of bacterial lineages have contributed to the transferome. Results A unique 34 kbp long fragment with 27 clustered genes (TvLF) of prokaryote origin was identified in the sequenced genome of the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Using a PCR based approach we confirmed the presence of the orthologous fragment in four additional T. vaginalis strains. Detailed sequence analyses unambiguously suggest that TvLF is the result of one single, recent LGT event. The proposed donor is a close relative to the firmicute bacterium Peptoniphilus harei. High nucleotide sequence similarity between T. vaginalis strains, as well as to P. harei, and the absence of homologs in other Trichomonas species, suggests that the transfer event took place after the radiation of the genus Trichomonas. Some genes have undergone pseudogenization and degradation, indicating that they may not be retained in the future. Functional annotations reveal that genes involved in informational processes are particularly prone to degradation. Conclusions We conclude that, although the majority of eukaryote LGTs are single gene occurrences, they may be acquired in clusters of several genes that are subsequently cleansed of evolutionarily less advantageous genes. PMID:24898731
Acikalin, Arbil; Zeren, Handan; Gonlusen, Gulfılız; Zorludemir, Suzan; Izol, Volkan
Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma is an uncommon tumor of the testes that usually presents as a hydrocele. Here, we present the case of one patient who did not have a history of asbestos exposure. The tumor was localized in the tunica vaginalis and was composed of three pedunculated masses macroscopically. Microscopically, branching papillary structures with focal coagulative necrosis were present. In addition to immunohistochemistry, simian virus 40 DNA was also tested by polymerase chain reaction. This report presents one case of this rare entity, its clinical and macroscopic features, and follow-up results. PMID:25013421
Zhao, J; Chen, Y; Lin, J; Jin, Y; Yang, H; Wang, F; Zhong, H; Zhu, J
The development of laparoscopy as a means of evaluation and treatment of inguinal hernia in children has raised the question of whether simultaneous closure of a contralateral patent processus vaginalis (CPPV) is justified. The present study aimed to determine the rate of metachronous inguinal hernia (MIH) in children with CPPV. Children with unilateral inguinal hernia from two hospitals underwent either open or laparoscopic repair, and were followed up for MIH. The presence of CPPV was evaluated during laparoscopy and, if detected, the CPPV was closed. The relationship between CPPV and subsequent MIH was studied. The study included children who had complete follow-up (90·0 per cent of those having open repair and 92·2 per cent of those undergoing laparoscopic repair). Of 2538 children who had open hernia repair, 62 (2·4 per cent) developed MIH (30 on the right side and 32 on the left; P = 0·015). Among 2855 children who underwent laparoscopic repair, a CPPV was identified and closed in 1469 (51·5 per cent). The rate of MIH after negative laparoscopic evaluation for CPPV was three of 2855 (0·1 per cent). There were no significant differences in the rate of CPPV between sexes and either the right or left side (P = 0·072 and P = 0·099 respectively). Ipsilateral recurrence was less frequent after laparoscopic repair: seven (0·2 per cent) versus 26 (1·0 per cent) for open repair (P < 0·001). Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair was associated with a lower recurrence rate than open repair. Routine repair of CPPV reduced the rate of subsequent MIH, but 21 CPPVs needed to be closed to prevent one MIH. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fichorova, Raina N.; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Fashemi, Titilayo; Foley, Evan; Ryan, Stanthia; Beatty, Noah; Dawood, Hassan; Hayes, Gary R.; St-Pierre, Guillaume; Sato, Sachiko; Singh, Bibhuti N.
Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection caused by the vaginotropic extracellular protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. The infection is recurrent, with no lasting immunity, often asymptomatic, and linked to pregnancy complications and risk of viral infection. The molecular mechanisms of immune evasion by the parasite are poorly understood. We demonstrate that galectin-1 and -3 are expressed by the human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells and act as pathogen-recognition receptors for the ceramide phosphoinositol glycan core (CPI-GC) of the dominant surface protozoan lipophosphoglycan (LPG). We used an in vitro model with siRNA galectin knockdown epithelial clones, recombinant galectins, clinical Trichomonas isolates, and mutant protozoan derivatives to dissect the function of galectin-1 and -3 in the context of Trichomonas infection. Galectin-1 suppressed chemokines that facilitate recruitment of phagocytes, which can eliminate extracellular protozoa (IL-8) or bridge innate to adaptive immunity (MIP-3α and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted)). Silencing galectin-1 increased and adding exogenous galectin-1 suppressed chemokine responses to Trichomonas or CPI-GC/LPG. In contrast, silencing galectin-3 reduced IL-8 response to LPG. Live Trichomonas depleted the extracellular levels of galectin-3. Clinical isolates and mutant Trichomonas CPI-GC that had reduced affinity to galectin-3 but maintained affinity to galectin-1 suppressed chemokine expression. Thus via CPI-GC binding, Trichomonas is capable of regulating galectin bioavailability and function to the benefit of its parasitic survival. These findings suggest novel approaches to control trichomoniasis and warrant further studies of galectin-binding diversity among clinical isolates as a possible source for symptom disparity in parasitic infections. PMID:26589797
Arreola, Rodrigo; Villalpando, José Luis; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Alvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth
Previously, metalloproteinase was isolated and identified from Trichomonas vaginalis, belonging to the aminopeptidase P-like metalloproteinase subfamily A/B, family M24 of clan MG, named TvMP50. The native and recombinant TvMP50 showed proteolytic activity, determined by gelatin zymogram, and a 50 kDa band, suggesting that TvMP50 is a monomeric active enzyme. This was an unexpected finding since other Xaa-Pro aminopeptidases/prolidases are active as a biological unit formed by dimers/tetramers. In this study, the evolutionary history of TvMP50 and the preliminary crystal structure of the recombinant enzyme determined at 3.4 Å resolution is reported. TvMP50 was shown to be a type of putative, eukaryotic, monomeric aminopeptidase P, and the crystallographic coordinates showed a monomer on a "pseudo-homodimer" array on the asymmetric unit that resembles the quaternary structure of the M24B dimeric family and suggests a homodimeric aminopeptidase P-like enzyme as a likely ancestor. Interestingly, TvMP50 had a modified N-terminal region compared with other Xaa-Pro aminopeptidases/prolidases with three-dimensional structures; however, the formation of the standard dimer is structurally unstable in aqueous solution, and a comparably reduced number of hydrogen bridges and lack of saline bridges were found between subunits A/B, which could explain why TvMP50 portrays monomeric functionality. Additionally, we found that the Parabasalia group contains two protein lineages with a "pita bread" fold; the ancestral monomeric group 1 was probably derived from an ancestral dimeric aminopeptidase P-type enzyme, and group 2 has a probable dimeric kind of ancestral eukaryotic prolidase lineage. The implications of such hypotheses are also presented.
Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I.; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J.
Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells. PMID:27529696
Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J
Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells.
Metabolomic profiling and stable isotope labelling of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus reveal major differences in amino acid metabolism including the production of 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid, cystathionine and S-methylcysteine.
Westrop, Gareth D; Wang, Lijie; Blackburn, Gavin J; Zhang, Tong; Zheng, Liang; Watson, David G; Coombs, Graham H
Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are pathogens that parasitise, respectively, human and bovine urogenital tracts causing disease. Using LC-MS, reference metabolomic profiles were obtained for both species and stable isotope labelling with D-[U-13C6] glucose was used to analyse central carbon metabolism. This facilitated a comparison of the metabolic pathways of T. vaginalis and T. foetus, extending earlier targeted biochemical studies. 43 metabolites, whose identities were confirmed by comparison of their retention times with authentic standards, occurred at more than 3-fold difference in peak intensity between T. vaginalis and T. foetus. 18 metabolites that were removed from or released into the medium during growth also showed more than 3-fold difference between the species. Major differences were observed in cysteine and methionine metabolism in which homocysteine, produced as a bi-product of trans-methylation, is catabolised by methionine γ-lyase in T. vaginalis but converted to cystathionine in T. foetus. Both species synthesise methylthioadenosine by an unusual mechanism, but it is not used as a substrate for methionine recycling. T. vaginalis also produces and exports high levels of S-methylcysteine, whereas only negligible levels were found in T. foetus which maintains significantly higher intracellular levels of cysteine. 13C-labeling confirmed that both cysteine and S-methylcysteine are synthesised by T. vaginalis; S-methylcysteine can be generated by recombinant T. vaginalis cysteine synthase using phosphoserine and methanethiol. T. foetus contained higher levels of ornithine and citrulline than T. vaginalis and exported increased levels of putrescine, suggesting greater flux through the arginine dihydrolase pathway. T. vaginalis produced and exported hydroxy acid derivatives of certain amino acids, particularly 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid derived from leucine, whereas negligible levels of these metabolites occurred in T. foetus.
Metabolomic profiling and stable isotope labelling of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus reveal major differences in amino acid metabolism including the production of 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid, cystathionine and S-methylcysteine
Wang, Lijie; Blackburn, Gavin J.; Zhang, Tong; Zheng, Liang; Watson, David G.; Coombs, Graham H.
Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are pathogens that parasitise, respectively, human and bovine urogenital tracts causing disease. Using LC-MS, reference metabolomic profiles were obtained for both species and stable isotope labelling with D-[U-13C6] glucose was used to analyse central carbon metabolism. This facilitated a comparison of the metabolic pathways of T. vaginalis and T. foetus, extending earlier targeted biochemical studies. 43 metabolites, whose identities were confirmed by comparison of their retention times with authentic standards, occurred at more than 3-fold difference in peak intensity between T. vaginalis and T. foetus. 18 metabolites that were removed from or released into the medium during growth also showed more than 3-fold difference between the species. Major differences were observed in cysteine and methionine metabolism in which homocysteine, produced as a bi-product of trans-methylation, is catabolised by methionine γ-lyase in T. vaginalis but converted to cystathionine in T. foetus. Both species synthesise methylthioadenosine by an unusual mechanism, but it is not used as a substrate for methionine recycling. T. vaginalis also produces and exports high levels of S-methylcysteine, whereas only negligible levels were found in T. foetus which maintains significantly higher intracellular levels of cysteine. 13C-labeling confirmed that both cysteine and S-methylcysteine are synthesised by T. vaginalis; S-methylcysteine can be generated by recombinant T. vaginalis cysteine synthase using phosphoserine and methanethiol. T. foetus contained higher levels of ornithine and citrulline than T. vaginalis and exported increased levels of putrescine, suggesting greater flux through the arginine dihydrolase pathway. T. vaginalis produced and exported hydroxy acid derivatives of certain amino acids, particularly 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid derived from leucine, whereas negligible levels of these metabolites occurred in T. foetus. PMID
Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Palacios-Corona, Rebeca; González-Salazar, Francisco; Cortes-Gutierrez, Elva I; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia G; Said-Fernández, Salvador
A direct hemolytic activity, dependent on phospholipase A (PLA) activity, was located in the particulate subcellular fraction (P30) of Trichomonas vaginalis. We identified soluble direct and indirect hemolytic activities in the spent medium and soluble fraction (S30) of T. vaginalis strain GT-13. Spent medium showed the highest specific indirect hemolytic activity (SIHA) at pH 6.0 (91 indirect hemolytic units [HU]/mg/hr). Spent medium and P30, but not S30, showed direct hemolytic activity. PLA activity was protein dose dependent and time dependent. The highest PLA activity was observed at pH 6.0. All trichomonad preparations showed phospholipase A1 (PLA A1) and phospholipase A2 (PLA A2) activities. Indirect and direct hemolytic activity and PLA A1 and PLA A2 diminished at pH 6.0 and 8.0 with increasing concentrations of Rosenthal's inhibitor. The greatest effect was observed with 80 microM at pH 6.0 on the SIHA of S30 (83% reduction) and the lowest at pH 8.0, also on the SIHA of S30 (26% reduction). In conclusion, T. vaginalis contains particulate and soluble acidic, and alkaline direct and indirect hemolytic activities, which are partially dependent on alkaline or acidic PLA A1 and PLA A2 enzymes. These could be responsible for the contact-dependent and -independent hemolytic and cytolytic activities of T. vaginalis.
Miranda-Ozuna, Jesús F. T.; Hernández-García, Mar S.; Brieba, Luis G.; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia G.; Ortega-López, Jaime; González-Robles, Arturo
Triosephosphate isomerase of Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM) is a 27-kDa cytoplasmic protein encoded by two genes, tvtim1 and tvtim2, that participates in glucose metabolism. TvTIM is also localized to the parasite surface. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify the novel functions of the surface-associated TvTIM in T. vaginalis and to assess the effect of glucose as an environmental factor that regulates its expression and localization. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the tvtim genes were differentially expressed in response to glucose concentration. tvtim1 was overexpressed under glucose-restricted (GR) conditions, whereas tvtim2 was overexpressed under glucose-rich, or high-glucose (HG), conditions. Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays also showed that glucose positively affected the amount and surface localization of TvTIM in T. vaginalis. Affinity ligand assays demonstrated that the recombinant TvTIM1 and TvTIM2 proteins bound to laminin (Lm) and fibronectin (Fn) but not to plasminogen. Moreover, higher levels of adherence to Lm and Fn were detected in parasites grown under HG conditions than in those grown under GR conditions. Furthermore, pretreatment of trichomonads with an anti-TvTIMr polyclonal antibody or pretreatment of Lm- or Fn-coated wells with both recombinant proteins (TvTIM1r and TvTIM2r) specifically reduced the binding of live parasites to Lm and Fn in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, T. vaginalis was exposed to different glucose concentrations during vaginal infection of women with trichomoniasis. Our data indicate that TvTIM is a surface-associated protein under HG conditions that mediates specific binding to Lm and Fn as a novel virulence factor of T. vaginalis. PMID:27481251
Miranda-Ozuna, Jesús F T; Hernández-García, Mar S; Brieba, Luis G; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia G; Ortega-López, Jaime; González-Robles, Arturo; Arroyo, Rossana
Triosephosphate isomerase of Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM) is a 27-kDa cytoplasmic protein encoded by two genes, tvtim1 and tvtim2, that participates in glucose metabolism. TvTIM is also localized to the parasite surface. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify the novel functions of the surface-associated TvTIM in T. vaginalis and to assess the effect of glucose as an environmental factor that regulates its expression and localization. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the tvtim genes were differentially expressed in response to glucose concentration. tvtim1 was overexpressed under glucose-restricted (GR) conditions, whereas tvtim2 was overexpressed under glucose-rich, or high-glucose (HG), conditions. Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays also showed that glucose positively affected the amount and surface localization of TvTIM in T. vaginalis Affinity ligand assays demonstrated that the recombinant TvTIM1 and TvTIM2 proteins bound to laminin (Lm) and fibronectin (Fn) but not to plasminogen. Moreover, higher levels of adherence to Lm and Fn were detected in parasites grown under HG conditions than in those grown under GR conditions. Furthermore, pretreatment of trichomonads with an anti-TvTIMr polyclonal antibody or pretreatment of Lm- or Fn-coated wells with both recombinant proteins (TvTIM1r and TvTIM2r) specifically reduced the binding of live parasites to Lm and Fn in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, T. vaginalis was exposed to different glucose concentrations during vaginal infection of women with trichomoniasis. Our data indicate that TvTIM is a surface-associated protein under HG conditions that mediates specific binding to Lm and Fn as a novel virulence factor of T. vaginalis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Rivers, C. A.; Lee, J. Y.; Sharples, N.; Ledeboer, N. A.
The ESwab collection device was compared to the collection swab provided as part of the Affirm VPIII microbial identification test kit for testing vaginal specimens with the Affirm test system. There was excellent agreement between the two sampling devices for Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, and Trichomonas vaginalis. PMID:24523475
Zhong, Hongji; Wang, Furan
To conduct a meta-analysis of contralateral metachronous inguinal hernia (CMIH) that originated from negative laparoscopic evaluation for contralateral patent processus vaginalis (CPPV) in children who presented with a unilateral inguinal hernia and to determine the incidence of and factors associated with such a CMIH. A PubMed search was performed for all studies concerning laparoscopic repair or evaluation of inguinal hernia in children. The search strategy was as follows: (laparoscop* OR coelioscop* OR peritoneoscop* OR laparoendoscop* OR minilaparoscop*) AND ("inguinal hernia" OR "metachronous hernia") AND child*. Inclusion criteria included unilateral inguinal hernia in children, negative laparoscopic evaluation of CPPV, without history of contralateral inguinal surgery previously, and clearly reporting CMIH development or not. Editorials, letters, review articles, case reports, animal studies, and duplicate patient series were excluded. Twenty-three studies comprising 6091 children with negative CPPV fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis, of whom 80 (1.31%) subsequently presented with a CMIH. Subgroup analysis showed that CMIH incidence was lower through an umbilical approach than via an inguinal one (0.85% versus 1.78%, P=.009). As for the transinguinal approach, there was a CMIH incidence of 0.78% and 2.05%, respectively, for laparoscopy with a small angle (30° and 70°), whereas there was no CMIH development for that with a large angle (110°, 120°, and flexible). A high pneumoperitoneum pressure (>10 mm Hg, >12 mm Hg, and >14 mm Hg) was usually associated with a slightly higher CMIH incidence than a low one (≤10 mm Hg, ≤12 mm Hg, and ≤14 mm Hg), all without significant difference. CMIH incidence was slightly lower for using a broad CPPV definition than for using a narrow one (0.64% versus 1.35%, P=.183). CMIH following negative laparoscopic evaluation for CPPV was a rare but possible phenomenon
The prevalence and risk factors for Trichomonas vaginalis infection amongst human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women attending the antenatal clinics of a university teaching hospital in Lagos, South-Western, Nigeria.
Ijasan, Olaolopin; Okunade, Kehinde Sharafadeen; Oluwole, Ayodeji Ayotunde
Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Interactions between this infection and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labour, premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, low birth weight and post-abortal sepsis. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of T. vaginalis infection amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal care at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria. This was an analytical cross-sectional study in which 320 eligible participants which included 160 HIV-positive (case group) and 160 HIV-negative (control group) pregnant women were recruited at the antenatal clinic of LUTH. A structured pro forma was used to collect data from consenting participants after which high vaginal swabs were collected, processed and examined for T. vaginalis. The association between categorical variables was tested using the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test where applicable. All significances were reported at P < 0.05. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection amongst HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women were 10% and 8.1%, respectively (P = 0.559). Significant risk factors for T. vaginalis infection in the HIV-positive pregnant women were early coitarche (P < 0.005) and multiple lifetime sexual partners (P = 0.021). There was no relationship between the T. vaginalis infection and the immunological markers of HIV infection. While this study does not provide grounds for universal screening of pregnant women for T. vaginalis infection as a tool of reducing HIV acquisition, especially in pregnancy, campaign to create better sexual health awareness should be commenced as a way to contributing to the reduction in T. vaginalis infection during pregnancy and perinatal transmission of HIV.
Volodin, I A; Volodina, E V; Frey, R; Gogoleva, S S; Palko, I V; Rozhnov, V V
The alarm call acoustic structure and nonlinear vocal phenomena of the Indian sambar (Rusa unicolor) and northern Indian muntjac (Muntiacus vaginalis) have been analyzed in detail as well as their vocal behavior in response to mobbing humans under natural conditions of southern Vietnam. The alarm calls of sambars, tonal barks separated by large intervals, were produced by animals standing on the place and gazing at a potentially dangerous object. Muntjacs flee off in danger and produced a series of dull barks interrupted with short intervals from a distance. The alarm call frequencies were characterized for sambars and muntjacs. The results of our study have been compared with the published data on alarm calls of other Cervidae species.
Groom, Harriet C. T.; Warren, Anne Y.; Neal, David E.; Bishop, Kate N.
The prevalence of specific infections in UK prostate cancer patients was investigated. Serum from 84 patients and 62 controls was tested for neutralisation of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) Envelope. No reactivity was found in the patient samples. In addition, a further 100 prostate DNA samples were tested for XMRV, BK virus, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papilloma viruses by nucleic acid detection techniques. Despite demonstrating DNA integrity and assay sensitivity, we failed to detect the presence of any of these agents in DNA samples, bar one sample that was weakly positive for HPV16. Therefore we conclude that these infections are absent in this typical cohort of men with prostate cancer. PMID:22470540
Groom, Harriet C T; Warren, Anne Y; Neal, David E; Bishop, Kate N
The prevalence of specific infections in UK prostate cancer patients was investigated. Serum from 84 patients and 62 controls was tested for neutralisation of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) Envelope. No reactivity was found in the patient samples. In addition, a further 100 prostate DNA samples were tested for XMRV, BK virus, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papilloma viruses by nucleic acid detection techniques. Despite demonstrating DNA integrity and assay sensitivity, we failed to detect the presence of any of these agents in DNA samples, bar one sample that was weakly positive for HPV16. Therefore we conclude that these infections are absent in this typical cohort of men with prostate cancer.
Martin, David H.; Zozaya, Marcela; Lillis, Rebecca A.; Myers, Leann; Nsuami, M. Jacques; Ferris, Michael J.
Background. The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection is highest in women with intermediate Nugent scores. We hypothesized that the vaginal microbiota in T. vaginalis–infected women differs from that in T. vaginalis–uninfected women. Methods. Vaginal samples from 30 T. vaginalis–infected women were matched by Nugent score to those from 30 T. vaginalis–uninfected women. Equal numbers of women with Nugent scores categorized as normal, intermediate, and bacterial vaginosis were included. The vaginal microbiota was assessed using 454 pyrosequencing analysis of polymerase chain reaction–amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of an unknown organism was obtained by universal bacterial polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and sequencing. Results. Principal coordinates analysis of the pyrosequencing data showed divergence of the vaginal microbiota in T. vaginalis–infected and T. vaginalis–uninfected patients among women with normal and those with intermediate Nugent scores but not among women with bacterial vaginosis. Cluster analysis revealed 2 unique groups of T. vaginalis–infected women. One had high abundance of Mycoplasma hominis and other had high abundance of an unknown Mycoplasma species. Women in the former group had clinical evidence of enhanced vaginal inflammation. Conclusions. T. vaginalis may alter the vaginal microbiota in a manner that is favorable to its survival and/or transmissibility. An unknown Mycoplasma species plays a role in some of these transformations. In other cases, these changes may result in a heightened host inflammatory response. PMID:23482642
Dessì, Daniele; Delogu, Giuseppe; Emonte, Eleonora; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Rappelli, Paola
The existence of a symbiotic relationship between Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis, which is the first reported example of symbiosis between two obligate human pathogens, has been recently reported by our research group. In this work, we examined the cellular location of M. hominis in respect to T. vaginalis. By using gentamicin protection assays, double immunofluorescence, and confocal microscopy, we obtained strong evidence that M. hominis is located within protozoan cells. 5-Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays showed that intracellularly located mycoplasmas actively synthesize DNA. Our results demonstrate that M. hominis has the capability of entering trichomonad cells and of replicating inside the protozoon. These findings suggest that symbiosis might provide the bacteria, during human infection, with the capability to resist to environmental stresses, such as host defense mechanisms and pharmacological therapies. PMID:15664961
Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; dos Santos, Odelta; Duarte, Mariana; da Silva Trentin, Danielle; Giordani, Raquel Brandt; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Tasca, Tiana; Macedo, Alexandre José
Trichomonosis, caused by the flagellate protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Actually, the infection treatment is based on 5-nitroimidazole drugs. However, an emergent number of resistant isolates makes important the search for new therapeutic arsenal. In this sense, the investigation of plants and their metabolites is an interesting approach. In the present study, the anti-T. vaginalis activity of 44 aqueous extracts from 23 Caatinga plants used in folk medicine was evaluated. After screening 44 aqueous extracts from 23 distinct plants against two isolates from ATCC and four fresh clinical isolates, only the Polygala decumbens root extract was effective in reducing significantly the trophozoite viability. The MIC value against all isolates tested, including the metronidazole resistant, was 1.56 mg/mL. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extract was able to completely abolish the parasite density in the first hours of incubation, confirmed by microscopy. In summary, this study describes the first report on the activity of P. decumbens from Caatinga against T. vaginalis, being directly related to the popular knowledge and use.
Munson, Erik; Munson, Kimber L; Schell, Ronald F
Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging agent of sexually-transmitted infection and is responsible for clinically-significant genital tract disease in both females and males. Similar to scenarios recently experienced with the urogenital flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis, an evolving molecular diagnostic reference standard based on transcription-mediated amplification allows for accurate detection of the organism, plus additional insight into disease epidemiology. Areas covered. The basis for this article includes primary peer-reviewed literature plus compilations of data derived from routine clinical laboratory screening of females and males for agents of sexually-transmitted infection. Introductory laboratory and epidemiologic data related to T. vaginalis provides not only a foreshadowing to the dichotomies inherent to M. genitalium prevalence but also advocacy of a common non-invasive specimen source that could be used to screen females for both agents. This review also documents increased prevalence rates of M. genitalium in both females and males by way of transcription-mediated amplification. Expert commentary. Molecular detection of M. genitalium should be a consideration in the development of comprehensive sexually-transmitted infection screening programs for both females and males. Transcription-mediated amplification has additionally identified novel facets of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis epidemiology that warrant further investigation.
Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara
Bacterial and protozoal sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, may cause acute symptoms, chronic infections and severe long-term complications. The complications of these infections in women include pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Moreover, infection during pregnancy is associated with premature rupture of the membranes, low birth weight and miscarriage.In Italy, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis infections are not subject to mandatory reporting; while gonorrhoea is subject to mandatory reporting.To extend surveillance to STIs that are widespread yet often asymptomatic and to improve the knowledge on the epidemiology of these infections in Italy, in 2009 the "Centro Operativo AIDS of the Istituto Superiore di SanitÁ", in collaboration with the Association of Italian Clinical Microbiologists (AMCLI, Associazione Microbiologi Clinici Italiani), launched the sentinel STIs surveillance system based on a network of 13 clinical microbiology laboratories.The main objective of the surveillance was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoea infections among individuals attending microbiology laboratories in Italy.
Trichomonas vaginalis: metronidazole and other nitroimidazole drugs are reduced by the flavin enzyme thioredoxin reductase and disrupt the cellular redox system. Implications for nitroimidazole toxicity and resistance.
Leitsch, David; Kolarich, Daniel; Binder, Marina; Stadlmann, Johannes; Altmann, Friedrich; Duchêne, Michael
Infections with the microaerophilic parasite Trichomonas vaginalis are treated with the 5-nitroimidazole drug metronidazole, which is also in use against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis and microaerophilic/anaerobic bacteria. Here we report that in T. vaginalis the flavin enzyme thioredoxin reductase displays nitroreductase activity with nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, and with the nitrofuran drug furazolidone. Reactive metabolites of metronidazole and other nitroimidazoles form covalent adducts with several proteins that are known or assumed to be associated with thioredoxin-mediated redox regulation, including thioredoxin reductase itself, ribonucleotide reductase, thioredoxin peroxidase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. Disulphide reducing activity of thioredoxin reductase was greatly diminished in extracts of metronidazole-treated cells and intracellular non-protein thiol levels were sharply decreased. We generated a highly metronidazole-resistant cell line that displayed only minimal thioredoxin reductase activity, not due to diminished expression of the enzyme but due to the lack of its FAD cofactor. Reduction of free flavins, readily observed in metronidazole-susceptible cells, was also absent in the resistant cells. On the other hand, iron-depleted T. vaginalis cells, expressing only minimal amounts of PFOR and hydrogenosomal malate dehydrogenase, remained fully susceptible to metronidazole. Thus, taken together, our data suggest a flavin-based mechanism of metronidazole activation and thereby challenge the current model of hydrogenosomal activation of nitroimidazole drugs.
Ntorkou, Alexandra A; Tsili, Athina C; Giannakis, Dimitrios; Batistatou, Anna; Stavrou, Sotirios; Sofikitis, Nikolaos; Argyropoulou, Maria I
Cellular angiofibroma represents a rare mesenchymal tumor typically involving the inguinoscrotal area in middle-aged men. Although the origin of this benign tumor is unknown, it is histologically classified as an angiomyxoid tumor. Cellular angiofibroma is characterized by a diversity of pathological and imaging features. An accurate preoperative diagnosis is challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging examination of the scrotum has been reported as a valuable adjunct modality in the investigation of scrotal pathology. The technique by providing both structural and functional information is useful in the differentiation between extratesticular and intratesticular diseases and in the preoperative characterization of the histologic nature of various scrotal lesions. There are few reports in the English literature addressing the magnetic resonance imaging findings of cellular angiofibroma of the scrotum and no reports on functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Here we present the first case of a cellular angiofibroma arising from the tunica vaginalis of the testis and we discuss the value of a multiparametric magnetic resonance protocol, including diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetization transfer imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the preoperative diagnosis of this rare neoplasm. A 47-year Greek man presented with a painless left scrotal swelling, which had gradually enlarged during the last 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of his scrotum displayed a left paratesticular mass, in close proximity to the tunica vaginalis, with heterogeneous high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and no areas of restricted diffusion. The tumor was hypointense on magnetization transfer images, suggestive for the presence of macromolecules. On dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging the mass showed intense heterogeneous enhancement with a type II curve. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were strongly suggestive of a benign
Bristow, Claire C; Mathelier, Patricia; Ocheretina, Oksana; Benoit, Daphne; Pape, Jean W; Wynn, Adriane; Klausner, Jeffrey D
In Haiti, routine screening for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among pregnant women is not conducted; yet these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with adverse birth and newborn health outcomes. We aimed to assess the acceptability and feasibility of screening and the prevalence of STIs among pregnant women in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Pregnant women of at least 18 years of age who attend Haitian Study Group for Kaposi's sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO) clinics in Port-au-Prince, Haiti provided self-collected vaginal swab specimens. Laboratory testing was done with Xpert® CT/NG and Xpert® TV. The results of this study showed that of the 322 pregnant women who visited GHESKIO for their regular scheduled appointments, 300 (93.2%) consented for CT, NG, and TV testing. Of those, 107 women (35.7%) tested positive for at least one STI. There were 42 (14.7%) cases of CT, 8 (2.8%) NG, and 83 (29.0%) TV infections. Most infections were treated - 122 of 133 (91.7%). In summary, we found that it was highly acceptable and feasible to implement CT, NG, and TV screening among pregnant women in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. We found high prevalence of STIs among pregnant women, which suggest that STI screening in this population may be warranted.
Leon, Segundo R.; Konda, Kelika A.; Bernstein, Kyle T.; Pajuelo, Jose B.; Rosasco, Ana M.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Coates, Thomas J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.
Objective. The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among sexually active socially-marginalized women in three urban, coastal Peruvian cities was examined in order to quantify the prevalence of trichomonas infection and identify associated risk factors. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional, venue-based study of women from socially-marginalized populations in three coastal Peruvian cities. Results. Among the 319 women enrolled, the overall prevalence of trichomonal infection was 9.1% (95% CI, 5.9%–12.3%). The mean age was 26.3 years, and 35.5% reported having had unprotected intercourse with nonprimary partners and 19.8% reported two or more sex partners in the last three months. Trichomonal infection was associated with increased number of sex partners (PR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.6) and unprotected sex with nonprimary partner in the last three months (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.9). Conclusions. A moderately high prevalence of trichomonal infection was found among women in our study. Trichomonal infection was associated with unprotected sex and multiple sex partners. Efforts to control the continued spread of trichomonal infection are warranted. PMID:19584943
Leon, Segundo R; Konda, Kelika A; Bernstein, Kyle T; Pajuelo, Jose B; Rosasco, Ana M; Caceres, Carlos F; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeffrey D
The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among sexually active socially-marginalized women in three urban, coastal Peruvian cities was examined in order to quantify the prevalence of trichomonas infection and identify associated risk factors. We conducted a cross-sectional, venue-based study of women from socially-marginalized populations in three coastal Peruvian cities. Among the 319 women enrolled, the overall prevalence of trichomonal infection was 9.1% (95% CI, 5.9%-12.3%). The mean age was 26.3 years, and 35.5% reported having had unprotected intercourse with nonprimary partners and 19.8% reported two or more sex partners in the last three months. Trichomonal infection was associated with increased number of sex partners (PR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.6) and unprotected sex with nonprimary partner in the last three months (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9). A moderately high prevalence of trichomonal infection was found among women in our study. Trichomonal infection was associated with unprotected sex and multiple sex partners. Efforts to control the continued spread of trichomonal infection are warranted.
Carvajal-Gamez, Bertha Isabel; Quintas-Granados, Laura Itzel; Arroyo, Rossana; Vázquez-Carrillo, Laura Isabel; Ramón-Luing, Lucero De los Angeles; Carrillo-Tapia, Eduardo; Alvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth
Polyamines are involved in the regulation of some Trichomonas vaginalis virulence factors such as the transcript, proteolytic activity, and cytotoxicity of TvCP65, a cysteine proteinase (CP) involved in the trichomonal cytotoxicity. In this work, we reported the putrescine effect on TvCP39, other CP that also participate in the trichomonal cytotoxicity. Parasites treated with 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB) (an inhibitor of putrescine biosynthesis), diminished the amount and proteolytic activity of TvCP39 as compared with untreated parasites. Inhibition of putrescine biosynthesis also reduced ∼80% the tvcp39 mRNA levels according to RT-PCR and qRT-PCR assays. Additionally, actinomycin D-treatment showed that the tvcp39 mRNA half-life decreased in the absence of putrescine. However, this reduction was restored by exogenous putrescine addition, suggesting that putrescine is necessary for tvcp39 mRNA stability. TvCP39 was localized in the cytoplasm but, in DAB treated parasites transferred into exogenous putrescine culture media, TvCP39 was re-localized to the nucleus and nuclear periphery of trichomonads. Interestingly, the amount and proteolytic activity of TvCP39 was recovered as well as the tvcp39 mRNA levels were restored when putrescine exogenous was added to the DAB-treated parasites. In conclusion, our data show that putrescine regulate the TvCP39 expression, protein amount, proteolytic activity, and cellular localization. PMID:25251406
Marrone, John; Fairley, Christopher K; Saville, Marian; Bradshaw, Catriona; Bowden, Francis J; Horvath, Leonie B; Donovan, Basil; Chen, Marcus; Hocking, Jane S
To investigate the temporal associations between Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) diagnoses in women at a large urban sexual health clinic and a major Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening laboratory in Victoria, Australia with Pap smear screening rates and the introduction of nitroimidazole treatments. An ecological analysis of TV diagnosis rates at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre and the Victorian Cytology Service, Pap smear screening rates and nitroimidazole prescription data. Diagnoses of TV at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre peaked in the 1950s at 20% to 30% and then rapidly declined through the 1960s and 1970s to below 1% in 1990. A similar pattern was observed at the Victorian Cytology Service. Metronidazole prescribing and opportunistic Pap smear screening began in Victoria in the 1960s coinciding with declining TV. The availability of tinidazole in 1976 led to further declines in TV in the late 1970s. A national cervical screening program introduced in 1991 was temporally associated with further declines in TV. Our analyses suggest that the introduction of metronidazole was associated with a large reduction in TV among Victorian women in the 1960s. The subsequent availability of tinidazole and increased Pap smear screening may have contributed to the current low TV prevalence in Victoria.
Burgmeier, Christine; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Schier, Felix
The aim of this study was to analyze the gender-related differences of inguinal hernia (IH) and patent processus vaginalis (PPV) in term and preterm infants. Over a nine-year-period 411 infants underwent laparoscopic herniorrhaphy within the first six months of life. 246 term (191 male; 55 female) and 165 preterm (118 male; 47 female) infants were included in this retrospective study. Initial presentation of IH and intraoperative anatomical findings of PPV were reviewed. We found that term boys (58.6%) and girls (58.2%) predominantly presented with right-sided IH whereas preterm boys (36.4%) and girls (44.7%) mostly presented with bilateral IH. Female babies had a higher incidence of initial left-sided IH. Term and preterm girls with initial left-sided hernia were found to have highest incidence of PPV. Male term babies with initial left-sided IH were found to have the lowest incidence of PPV (25.0%). The highest incidence of PPV in male was found in preterm boys with either left- or right-sided IH. Incidence and laterality of IH and PPV differ between term and preterm girls and boys. In open hernia repair decision concerning contralateral groin exploration should consider term/preterm birth as well as gender. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Hong-Ming; Lee, Yu; Indra, Dharmu; Wei, Shu-Yi; Liu, Hsing-Wei; Chang, Lung-Chun; Chen, Chinpan; Ong, Shiou-Jeng
In Trichomonas vaginalis, a novel nuclear localization signal spanning the folded R2R3 DNA-binding domain of a Myb2 protein was previously identified. To study whether a similar signal is used for nuclear translocation by other Myb proteins, nuclear translocation of Myb3 was examined in this report. When overexpressed, hemagglutinin-tagged Myb3 was localized to nuclei of transfected cells, with a cellular distribution similar to that of endogenous Myb3. Fusion to a bacterial tetracycline repressor, R2R3, of Myb3 that spans amino acids (aa) 48 to 156 was insufficient for nuclear translocation of the fusion protein, unless its C terminus was extended to aa 167. The conserved isoleucine in helix 2 of R2R3, which is important for Myb2's structural integrity in maintaining DNA-binding activity and nuclear translocation, was also vital for the former activity of Myb3, but less crucial for the latter. Sequential nuclear influx and efflux of Myb3, which require further extension of the nuclear localization signal to aa 180, were immediately induced after iron repletion. Sequence elements that regulate nuclear translocation with cytoplasmic retention, nuclear influx, and nuclear efflux were identified within the C-terminal tail. These results suggest that the R2R3 DNA-binding domain also serves as a common module for the nuclear translocation of both Myb2 and Myb3, but there are intrinsic differences between the two nuclear localization signals. PMID:23042127
Molecular sensitivity threshold of wet mount and an immunochromatographic assay evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a low-risk population of childbearing women.
Leli, Christian; Castronari, Roberto; Levorato, Lucia; Luciano, Eugenio; Pistoni, Eleonora; Perito, Stefano; Bozza, Silvia; Mencacci, Antonella
Vaginal trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan. Diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection is mainly performed by wet mount microscopy, with a sensitivity ranging from 38% to 82%, compared to culture, still considered the gold standard. Commercial immunochromatographic tests for monoclonal-antibody-based detection have been introduced as alternative methods for diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection and have been reported in some studies to be more sensitive than wet mount. Real-time PCR methods have been recently developed, with optimal sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a molecular sensitivity threshold for both wet mount and imunochromatographic assays. To this aim, a total of 1487 low-risk childbearing women (median age 32 years, interquartile range 27-37) were included in the study, and underwent vaginal swab for T. vaginalis detection by means of a quantitative real-time PCR assay, wet mount and an immunochromatographic test. Upon comparing the results, prevalence values observed were 1.3% for real-time PCR, 0.5% for microscopic examination, and 0.8% for the immunochromatographic test. Compared to real-time PCR, wet mount sensitivity was 40% (95% confidence interval 19.1% to 63.9%) and specificity was 100% (95% CI 99.7% to 100%). The sensitivity and specificity of the immunochromatographic assay were 57.9% (95% CI 33.5% to 79.8%) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.6% to 100%), respectively. Evaluation of the wet mount results and those of immunochromatographic assay detection in relation to the number of T. vaginalis DNA copies detected in vaginal samples showed that the lower identification threshold for both wet mount (chi-square 6.1; P = 0.016) and the immunochromatographic assay (chi-square 10.7; P = 0.002) was ≥100 copies of T. vaginalis DNA/5 mcl of eluted DNA.
Hu, Zhengqiang; Zhou, Wei; Mu, Liyuan; Kuang, Linghan; Su, Min; Jiang, Yongmei
This study aimed to observe the morphological characteristic of vaginal discharge in patients with cytolytic vaginosis (CV) under the microscope and to identify it in patients with CV and in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). A total of 108 subjects including 21 healthy women, 33 patients with CV, and 54 patients with VVC were enrolled in the present morphological study. Vaginal discharge was collected and made into smear. The morphological characteristics of these vaginal smears with Gram staining were observed under the microscope. The smears were assessed for the quantity of lactobacilli, epithelial cell morphology, and the absence or presence of Candida species, Trichomonas vaginalis, and clue sells. First, the age, the level of education, and especially the status of pregnancy of patients with CV were significantly different from those of the patients with VVC. Second, the morphological characteristics of patients with CV consisted of overgrowth of lactobacilli, the presence of naked nuclei and fragments of the epithelial cells, a paucity of leukocytes, and the absence of Candida species and other pathogens. However, the morphological characteristic of patients with VVC consisted of the presence or absence of lactobacilli and the presence of normal epithelial cells, candidal spores, blastospores, hyphae, or other pathogens such as T. vaginalis and Gardnerella vaginalis. Both CV and VVC can be identified based on the quantity of lactobacilli, the morphology of the epithelial cells, and the absence or presence of Candida species and other pathogens, and the misdiagnosis of CV as VVC can be avoided.
Yentür Doni, Nebiye; Aksoy, Mustafa; Şimşek, Zeynep; Gürses, Gülcan; Hilali, Neşe Gül; Yıldız Zeyrek, Fadile; Özek, Behire; Yıldırımkaya, Gökhan
Since the Syrian civil war began in 2011, most of the Syrian refugees have immigrated to Turkey due to its open gate policy and the width of the border. By the end of 2015, it was estimated that there were 2.5 million Syrian refugees in Turkey. Many of the Syrian refugees live in Sanliurfa due to its location on the border with Syria. Trichomonas vaginalis, apart from viral agents is the most common parasite among sexually transmitted infection agents. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of T.vaginalis among female married Syrian refugees living outside of the camps in Sanliurfa city center, aged between 15-49 years with complaints of vaginitis. This multi-purpose survey was carried out between February and March of 2015, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and Harran University. This study was approved under the heading of "General Health Status of Female Syrian Refugees" by the Ethics Committee of Harran University Faculty of Medicine. A total of 460 Syrian refugees house were selected using the probability cluster sampling method, with a 95% confidence level and a 5% confidence interval with a design effect. Two women refused to participate in the study, and the response rate was 99.6%. Two Syrian nurses, one laboratory technician, and one interpreter who knew Kurdish and Arabic were hired for the field survey. A structured questionnaire written in Turkish was translated to Arabic and used to collect the sociodemographic data during face to face interviews. According to the questionnaire data, the women with the complaints of vaginal discharge, unusual vaginal bleeding and/or dyspareunia were invited to the Gynecology Department of Harran University Research and Training Hospital for a medical examination. During gynecological examination, swab samples obtained from posterior fornix were evaluated by direct microscopy and Giemsa staining methods for the presence of T.vaginalis trophozoites. Of 458 women who have
Population-based Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis Prevalence Using Discarded, Deidentified Urine Specimens Previously Collected for Drug Testing (Open Access Publisher’s Version)
123van Houdt R, et al. Sex Transm Infect 2018;94:117–123. doi:10.1136/sextrans-2017-053133 Epidemiology letter Population-based Neisseria...trichomonas vaginalis testing, Melinda Balansay-ames, chris Myers and gary Brice for Pcr- based sex determination testing, and Kimberly De Vera for...dx. doi. org/ 10. 1136/ sextrans- 2017- 053355) To cite Harbertson J, Jamerson M, graf PcF, et al. Sex Transm Infect 2018;94:123. received 28 July
Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Su; Han, Ik-Hwan; Sim, Seobo; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook
Chronic inflammation has a role in the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Mast cells have been detected in chronic inflammatory infiltrate of the prostate, and it is possible that the interaction between prostate epithelial cells and Trichomonas vaginalis influences the activity of mast cells in the prostate stroma. Activated mast cells might influence the biological functions of nearby tissues and cells. In this study, we investigated whether mast cells reacted with the culture supernatant of BPH epithelial cells infected with T. vaginalis may induce the proliferation of prostate stromal cells. To measure the proliferation of prostate stromal cells in response to chronic inflammation caused by the infection of BPH-1 cells with T. vaginalis, the CCK-8 assay and wound healing assay were used. ELISAs, quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to measure the production and expression of inflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor. BPH-1 cells incubated with live trichomonads produced increased levels of CCL2, IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL8, and induced the migration of mast cells and monocytes. When the culture supernatant of BPH-1 cells stimulated with trichomonads (TCM) was added to mast cells, they became activated, as confirmed by release of β-hexosaminidase and CXCL8. Prostate stromal cells incubated with the culture supernatant of mast cells activated with TCM (M-TCM) proliferated and expressed increased levels of CXCL8, CCL2, and the cytokine receptors CXCR1 and CCR2. Blocking the chemokine receptors reduced the proliferation of stromal cells and also decreased the production of CXCL8 and CCL2. Moreover, the expression of FGF2, cyclin D1, and Bcl-2 was increased in the proliferated stromal cells stimulated with M-TCM. Additionally, the M-TCM-treated stromal cells were more invasive than control cells. The inflammatory mediators released by BPH epithelial cells in response to infection by
Abdel-Magied, Aida A; Hammouda, Marwa M; Mosbah, Alaa; El-Henawy, Abeer A
Trichomonas vaginalis cases refractory to metronidazole (MTZ) treatment had been reported. This study aimed to the assessment of in vitro metronidazole resistance among Trichomonas positive cases with treatment failure by determination of metronidazole minimal lethal concentration (MLC), and to the evaluation of the in vitro efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ) as compared to metronidazole (MTZ) in both resistant and susceptible isolates. Drug testing was carried out by an aerobic tube assay where suspension of Trichomonas trophozoites was exposed for 24 and 48 h to serial dilution of metronidazole and nitazoxanide. In refractory isolates n = 30, median MLC conc. for MTZ was 100 μg/ml versus 50 μg/ml for NTZ (P < .0001). After 48 h median MLC conc. for MTZ was 25 μg/ml versus 12 μg/ml for NTZ (P < .0001). NTZ against resistant isolates was twice as active as MTZ at 24 h and increased to 2.5 times at 48 h while in susceptible isolates, NTZ was twice as active as MTZ at both 24 h and 48 h. MTZ was about 8 times more active in susceptible than in resistant isolates. So, high doses of metronidazole in resistant cases will likely increase side effects. The study proved the activity of NTZ against trichomoniasis especially in cases with MTZ resistance. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gatski, Megan; Mena, Leandro; Levison, Judy; Clark, Rebecca A.; Henderson, Harold; Schmidt, Norine; Rosenthal, Susan L.; Martin, David H.; Kissinger, Patricia
Background Repeat infections with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are common and may increase the risk of HIV transmission. Patient delivered partner treatment (PDPT) has been shown to reduce repeat infections of other sexually transmitted diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence to PDPT and possible causes of repeat TV infection among HIV-infected women. Methods A multicentered cohort study was conducted in 3 US cities. Women coinfected with HIV and TV were treated with metro-nidazole and given treatment to deliver to all reported sex partners. A test-of-cure visit was conducted 6 to 12 days post index treatment completion and behavioral data were collected. Results Of 252 women (mean age = 40 years, s.d. 9.1) enrolled, 92.5% were black, 26.2% had CD4 cell counts <200/mm3, 34.1% had plasma viral loads >10,000 copies, 58.3% were taking antiretrovial therapy, and 15.1% had multiple partners. Of the 183 women with partners at baseline, 75.4% provided PDPT to all partners and 61.7% reported they were sure all of their partners took the medication. Factors associated with not giving medications to all partner(s) were multiple sex partners, being single, and having at least one partner unaware of the index woman’s HIV status. At test-of-cure, 10.3% were TV-positive and 16.7% reported having sex since baseline. Of the 24 repeat infections, 21 (87.5%) reported adherence to medication and no sexual exposure. Conclusion HIV-infected women with TV reported high adherence to PDPT, and treatment failure was the most common probable cause of repeat infection. PMID:20502393
Reséndiz-Cardiel, Gerardo; Arroyo, Rossana; Ortega-López, Jaime
The legumain-like cysteine proteinase TvLEGU-1 from Trichomonas vaginalis plays a major role in trichomonal cytoadherence. However, its structure-function characterization has been limited by the lack of a reliable recombinant expression platform to produce this protein in its native folded conformation. TvLEGU-1 has been expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies and all efforts to refold it have failed. Here, we describe the expression of the synthetic codon-optimized tvlegu-1 (tvlegu-1-opt) gene in Pichia pastoris strain X-33 (Mut+) under the inducible AOX1 promoter. The active TvLEGU-1 recombinant protein (rTvLEGU-1) was secreted into the medium when tvlegu-1-opt was fused to the Aspergillus niger alpha-amylase signal peptide. The rTvLEGU-1 secretion was influenced by the gene copy number and induction temperature. Data indicate that increasing tvlegu-1-opt gene copy number was detrimental for heterologous expression of the enzymatically active TvLEGU-1. Indeed, expression of TvLEGU-1 had a greater impact on cell viability for those clones with 26 or 29 gene copy number, and cell lysis was observed when the induction was carried out at 30 °C. The enzyme activity in the medium was higher when the induction was carried out at 16 °C and in P. pastoris clones with lower gene copy number. The results presented here suggest that both copy number and induction temperature affect the rTvLEGU-1 expression in its native-like and active conformation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pintye, Jillian; Drake, Alison L.; Unger, Jennifer A.; Matemo, Daniel; Kinuthia, John; McClelland, R. Scott; John-Stewart, Grace
Objective Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the world’s most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) and has implications for reproductive health in women. We determined incidence and correlates of TV in an HIV-uninfected peripartum cohort. Methods Women participating in a prospective study of peripartum HIV acquisition in Western Kenya were enrolled during pregnancy and followed until 9 months postpartum. TV was assessed every 1–3 months using wet mount microscopy. Correlates of incident TV were determined using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among 1271 women enrolled, median age was 22 years (interquartile range [IQR] 19–27) and gestational age was 22 weeks (IQR 18–26); most (78%) were married and had uncircumcised male partners (69%). Prevalent TV was detected in 81 women (6%) at enrolment. Among women without TV at enrolment, 112 had TV detected during 1079 person-years of follow-up (10.4 per 100 person-years). After adjustment for socio-economic factors, male partner circumcision status, pregnancy status and other STIs, TV incidence was higher during pregnancy than postpartum (22.3 vs 7.7 per 100 person-years, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 3.68, 95% CI 1.90–7.15, p<0.001). Women with circumcised male partners had a 58% lower risk of incident TV compared to women with uncircumcised partners (aHR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23–0.76, p=0.004). Employed women had lower risk of incident TV than unemployed women (aHR 0.49, 95% CI 0.31–0.79, p=0.003); recent STI was associated with increased TV risk (aHR 2.97, 95% CI 1.49–5.94, p=0.002). Conclusion TV was relatively common in this peripartum cohort. Male circumcision may confer benefits in preventing TV. PMID:27519258
Germot, Agnès; Philippe, Hervé; Le Guyader, Hervé
Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based mainly on ribosomal RNA, show that three amitochondriate protist lineages, diplomonads, microsporidia, and trichomonads, emerge consistently at the base of the eukaryotic tree before groups having mitochondria. This suggests that these groups could have diverged before the mitochondrial endosymbiosis. Nevertheless, since all these organisms live in anaerobic environments, the absence of mitochondria might be due to secondary loss, as demonstrated for the later emerging eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica. We have now isolated from Trichomonas vaginalis a gene encoding a chaperone protein (HSP70) that in other lineages is addressed to the mitochondrial compartment. The phylogenetic reconstruction unambiguously located this HSP70 within a large set of mitochondrial sequences, itself a sister-group of α-purple bacteria. In addition, the T. vaginalis protein exhibits the GDAWV sequence signature, so far exclusively found in mitochondrial HSP70 and in proteobacterial dnaK. Thus mitochondrial endosymbiosis could have occurred earlier than previously assumed. The trichomonad double membrane-bounded organelles, the hydrogenosomes, could have evolved from mitochondria. PMID:8962101
Germot, A; Philippe, H; Le Guyader, H
Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based mainly on ribosomal RNA, show that three amitochondriate protist lineages, diplomonads, microsporidia, and trichomonads, emerge consistently at the base of the eukaryotic tree before groups having mitochondria. This suggests that these groups could have diverged before the mitochondrial endosymbiosis. Nevertheless, since all these organisms live in anaerobic environments, the absence of mitochondria might be due to secondary loss, as demonstrated for the later emerging eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica. We have now isolated from Trichomonas vaginalis a gene encoding a chaperone protein (HSP70) that in other lineages is addressed to the mitochondrial compartment. The phylogenetic reconstruction unambiguously located this HSP70 within a large set of mitochondrial sequences, itself a sister-group of alpha-purple bacteria. In addition, the T. vaginalis protein exhibits the GDAWV sequence signature, so far exclusively found in mitochondrial HSP70 and in proteobacterial dnaK. Thus mitochondrial endosymbiosis could have occurred earlier than previously assumed. The trichomonad double membrane-bounded organelles, the hydrogenosomes, could have evolved from mitochondria.
Liu, Hongjiao; Lei, Ming; Liang, Xiao; Jiang, Zhen; Guo, Xingjie
In this paper, a three-phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) method combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the determination of hypoxanthine (HX), xanthine (Xan) and adenine (A) and then for the first time successfully applied to the analysis of HX, Xan and A in Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC. medicinal materials. Different factors affecting the HF-LPME procedure were investigated and optimized. Under optimal extraction conditions (1-octanol as organic solvent, pH of the donor and acceptor phase 10.0 and 3.5, respectively, extraction time 40 min, stirring rate 800 rpm and salt addition 10%, w/v), HX, Xan and A could be determined within the test ranges with a good correlation coefficient (r(2) > 0.9992). The limit of detection for HX, Xan and A was 153, 173 and 97 ng/mL, respectively, and the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were no more than 9.8%. The content of HX, Xan and A in Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC. medicinal materials was 120.40, 18.37 and 62.75 µg/g, respectively. This procedure afforded a convenient, sensitive, accurate and inexpensive method with a high extraction efficiency for determination of HX, Xan and A. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bissessor, Liselle; Wilson, Janet; McAuliffe, Gary; Upton, Arlo
Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) prevalence varies among different communities and peoples. The availability of robust molecular platforms for the detection of TV has advanced diagnosis; however, molecular tests are more costly than phenotypic methodologies, and testing all urogenital samples is costly. We recently replaced culture methods with the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid amplification test on specific request and as reflex testing by the laboratory, and have audited this change. Data were collected from August 2015 (microbroth culture and microscopy) and August 2016 (Aptima TV assay) including referrer, testing volumes, results and test cost estimates. In August 2015, 10,299 vaginal swabs, and in August 2016, 2,189 specimens (urogenital swabs and urines), were tested. The positivity rate went from 0.9% to 5.3%, and overall more TV infections were detected in 2016. The number needed to test and cost for one positive TV result respectively was 111 and $902.55 in 2015, and 19 and $368.92 in 2016. Request volumes and positivity rates differed among referrers. The methodology change was associated with higher overall detection of TV, and reductions in the numbers needed to test/cost for one TV diagnosis. Our audit suggests that there is room for improvement with TV test requesting in our community.
Malli, Sophia; Bories, Christian; Ponchel, Gilles; Loiseau, Philippe M; Bouchemal, Kawthar
Metronidazole (MTZ) is a 5-nitroimidazole drug used for the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis parasitic infection. Aqueous formulations containing MTZ are restricted because apparent solubility in water of this drug is low. In this context, two methylated-β-cyclodextrins (CRYSMEB and RAMEB) were used as a tool to increase apparent solubility of MTZ in water. CRYSMEB was limited by its own solubility in water (15% w/w, 12.59 mM), while RAMEB at a concentration of 40% w/w (300.44 mM) allowed a maximal increase of apparent solubility of MTZ (3.426% w/w, 200.19 mM). From our knowledge, this corresponds to the highest enhancement of MTZ apparent aqueous solubility ever reported in the literature using methylated cyclodextrins. In vitro evaluations showed that anti-T. vaginalis activity of MTZ formulated with CRYSMEB and RAMEB was preserved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Debiasse, M. B.; Richards, V. P.; Shivji, M. S.
The genetic population structure of the common branching vase sponge, Callyspongia vaginalis, was determined along the entire length (465 km) of the Florida reef system from Palm Beach to the Dry Tortugas based on sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. Populations of C. vaginalis were highly structured (overall ΦST = 0.33), in some cases over distances as small as tens of kilometers. However, nonsignificant pairwise ΦST values were also found between a few relatively distant sampling sites suggesting that some long distance larval dispersal may occur via ocean currents or transport in sponge fragments along continuous, shallow coastlines. Indeed, sufficient gene flow appears to occur along the Florida reef tract to obscure a signal of isolation by distance, but not to homogenize COI haplotype frequencies. The strong genetic differentiation among most of the sampling locations suggests that recruitment in this species is largely local source-driven, pointing to the importance of further elucidating general connectivity patterns along the Florida reef tract to guide the spatial scale of management efforts.
Hammann, R; Kronibus, A; Lang, N; Werner, H
Vaginal washings of 22 patients with vaginitis, 11 with vaginosis, and 12 healthy subjects were investigated quantitatively and qualitatively for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts. Gardnerella vaginalis was recovered from 9 of the vaginitis patients, 7 of the vaginosis patients, and 4 of the asymptomatic subjects. Obligate anaerobes were found in 11 of the vaginitis patients, 4 of the vaginosis patients, and none of the control subjects. Bacteroides bivius was the anaerobe most frequently isolated from symptomatic subjects. Anaerobic vibrios were recovered twice from symptomatic subjects. The counts for Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobes when present were generally very high. The most frequent aerobes were beta-hemolytic streptococci (group B) and staphylococci.
Rumyantseva, Tatiana; Golparian, Daniel; Nilsson, Christian S; Johansson, Emma; Falk, My; Fredlund, Hans; Van Dam, Alje; Guschin, Alexander; Unemo, Magnus
In this study, we performed an evaluation of the new CE-marked multiplex real-time AmpliSens N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis/M.genitalium/T.vaginalis-MULTIPRIME-FRT PCR assay compared to APTIMA tests, i.e., APTIMA COMBO 2 assay, APTIMA Trichomonas vaginalis assay (FDA-approved), and two different APTIMA Mycoplasma genitalium assays (research use only; one of them only used for discrepancy analysis). Vaginal swabs (n = 209) and first-void urine (FVU) specimens from females (n = 498) and males (n = 554), consecutive attendees (n = 1261) at a dermatovenerological clinic in Sweden, were examined. The sensitivity of the AmpliSens PCR assay for detection of C. trachomatis (6.3% prevalence), M. genitalium (5.7% prevalence), N. gonorrhoeae (0.3% prevalence), and T. vaginalis (0.08% prevalence) was 97.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 91.2-99.6%), 81.9% (95% CI: 70.7-89.7%), 100% (95% CI: 40.2-100%) and 100% (95% CI: 16.5-100%), respectively. The specificity of the AmpliSens PCR assay was 100% (95% CI: 99.6-100%) for all agents. The analytical sensitivity and specificity for N. gonorrhoeae detection was excellent, i.e., 55 international gonococcal strains detected and 135 isolates of 13 non-gonococcal Neisseria species were negative. In conclusion, the multiplex real-time AmpliSens N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis/M.genitalium/T.vaginalis-MULTIPRIME-FRT PCR assay demonstrated high sensitivity and excellent specificity for the detection of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis, and excellent specificity but suboptimal sensitivity for M. genitalium detection. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Berney, C R
Indirect inguinal hernia related to the presence of a patent processus vaginalis (PPV) in adult is estimated to be around 15%. Most surgeons would favor a standard anterior hernioplasty to minimize the potential risk of damaging the spermatic cord structures that are always intimately fused to the congenital peritoneal sac. This also means overlooking the potential benefit of alternative posterior techniques such as endoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) repair that is known to offer faster recovery with reduced risk of developing chronic groin pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of TEP approach for repair of adult inguinoscrotal hernias associated with completely PPV and to compare those results with a corresponding group of male patients undergoing an identical procedure, but with no demonstrated PPV. This is a prospective study of consecutive male patients diagnosed with inguinal hernia during a 10-year period and eligible for endoscopic TEP repair. Every recognized completely PPV were systematically divided taking care not to damage the attached cord structures and the proximal end closed with a pre-tied Endoloop of PDS. In both groups, all meshes were secured with fibrin sealant only. Patients were reviewed in clinic 2 and 6 weeks after the operation. Further follow-up was scheduled if deemed necessary. The primary post-operative outcome parameter was spermatic cord injury; secondary outcome parameters included groin pain, surgical complications, and recurrence. Nine hundred and thirty-nine hernia repairs were prospectively recorded during this period. All procedures were carried out endoscopically. A total of 41 patients with a median age of 27 years presented with 43 inguinoscrotal hernias (two bilateral) related to the presence of a congenital completely PPV. 72% of them were right-sided. No injury to the cord structures was recorded and only one complication (2.4%) occurred at 1 week post-operatively that was unrelated to the PPV
Kippax, R A; Caradoc-Davies, G; Meech, R J
Thirty-six young females attending the Student Health Service with vaginitis were investigated by serial semiquantitative aerobic, anaerobic, fungal, mycoplasma and viral cultures over a 10 day period and results were correlated with signs and symptoms. Antifungal therapy (econazole pessaries and cream) resulted in clearance of candida from 13 out of 16 patients where there was no increase in the anaerobic flora. In the four subjects where candida was isolated along with Gardnerella vaginalis plus abnormal anaerobic flora, only one cleared with econazole, the remaining three clearing during therapy with metronidazole. In the nine subjects with Gardnerella vaginalis and abnormal anaerobic flora, metronidazole relieved symptoms despite failure to eradicate G. vaginalis in seven indicating the pathogenic role of the anaerobic flora rather then G. vaginalis. Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and gram negative enteric bacilli were not implicated as primary agents in causing vaginitis.
Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Model von Trichomonas Vaginalis. II. Mitteilung: Experimente mit der Vitamin K-Gruppe (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. II. Communication: Experiments with the Vitamin K-Group),
K4 essential reduction of multiplication of Trichomonas vaginalis was observed within a range of 0.25 and 0.35 mg/ml, from 0.40 mg/ml onward single...The aim of the investigation was to test the relationship between the individual K-vitamins K1, K3, K4 and K5 and Trichomonas analytically. The...show any remarkable differences between the control culture and the test series (Table 1) in Trichomonas multiplication. With vitamin K3 gradually
Oxberry, M E; Thompson, R C; Reynoldson, J A
The three closely related parasitic protozoa, Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Spironucleus muris, all have very different sensitivities to albendazole and metronidazole. Ultrastructural studies reveal that the cytoskeletal elements of the ventral disk in G. duodenalis are affected by albendazole, whereas the other two parasites, neither of which possess this structure, are not affected by albendazole to the same extent. This suggests that albendazole may be having its primary affect on G. duodenalis by binding to cytoskeletal proteins and ultimately causing death of the parasite. Death may be occurring as the parasite loses its ability to adhere to the intestinal villi and obtain nutrients. Metronidazole showed a different pattern of activity against the three parasites. The evidence obtained from these ultrastructural studies supports the current theory that metronidazole adversely affects protozoa by disrupting inner cell membranes.
Hsu, Hong-Ming; Lee, Yu; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Liu, Hsing-Wei; Chu, Chien-Hsin; Chou, Ya-Wen; Chen, Yet-Ran; Chen, Shu-Hui; Tai, Jung-Hsiang
Iron was previously shown to induce rapid nuclear translocation of a Myb3 transcription factor in the protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. In the present study, iron was found to induce a transient increase in cellular cAMP, followed by the nuclear influx of Myb3, whereas the latter was also induced by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. Iron-inducible cAMP production and nuclear influx of Myb3 were inhibited by suramin and SQ22536, respective inhibitors of the Gα subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins and adenylyl cyclases. In contrast, the nuclear influx of Myb3 induced by iron or 8-bromo-cAMP was delayed or inhibited, respectively, by H89, the inhibitor of protein kinase A. Using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry, Thr156 and Lys143 in Myb3 were found to be phosphorylated and ubiquitinated, respectively. These modifications were induced by iron and inhibited by H89, as shown by immunoprecipitation-coupled Western blotting. Iron-inducible ubiquitination and nuclear influx were aborted in T156A and K143R, but T156D was constitutively ubiquitinated and persistently localized to the nucleus. Myb3 was phosphorylated in vitro by the catalytic subunit of a T. vaginalis protein kinase A, TvPKAc. A transient interaction between TvPKAc and Myb3 and the phosphorylation of both proteins were induced in the parasite shortly after iron or 8-bromo-cAMP treatment. Together, these observations suggest that iron may induce production of cAMP and activation of TvPKAc, which then induces the phosphorylation of Myb3 and subsequent ubiquitination for accelerated nuclear influx. It is conceivable that iron probably exerts a much broader impact on the physiology of the parasite than previously thought to encounter environmental changes. PMID:25183012
Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; El-Benna, Jamel
ABSTRACT Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite that causes vaginitis in women and itself secretes lipid mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Mast cells are important effector cells of tissue inflammation during infection with parasites. Membrane-bridging SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complexes are critical for fusion during exocytosis. Although T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP) have been shown to induce exocytosis in mast cells, information regarding the signaling mechanisms between mast cell activation and TvSP is limited. In this study, we found that SNAP23-dependent surface trafficking of LTB4 receptor 1 (BLT1) is required for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2)-mediated exocytotic degranulation of mast cells induced by TvSP. First, stimulation with TvSP induced exocytotic degranulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HMC-1 cells. Next, TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytosis were strongly inhibited by transfection of BLT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). TvSP induced trafficking of BLT1 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. We also found that knockdown of SNAP23 abrogated TvSP-induced ROS generation, exocytosis, and surface trafficking of BLT1 in HMC-1 cells. By coimmunoprecipitation, there was a physical interaction between BLT1 and SNAP23 in TvSP-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SNAP23-dependent surface trafficking of BLT1 is essential for exocytosis in human mast cells induced by T. vaginalis-secreted LTB4. Our data collectively demonstrate a novel regulatory mechanism for SNAP23-dependent mast cell activation of T. vaginalis-secreted LTB4 involving surface trafficking of BLT1. These results can help to explain how the cross talk mechanism between parasite and host can govern deliberately tissue inflammatory responses. PMID:27795355
Min, Arim; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; El-Benna, Jamel; Shin, Myeong Heon
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite that causes vaginitis in women and itself secretes lipid mediator leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ). Mast cells are important effector cells of tissue inflammation during infection with parasites. Membrane-bridging SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complexes are critical for fusion during exocytosis. Although T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP) have been shown to induce exocytosis in mast cells, information regarding the signaling mechanisms between mast cell activation and TvSP is limited. In this study, we found that SNAP23-dependent surface trafficking of LTB 4 receptor 1 (BLT1) is required for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2)-mediated exocytotic degranulation of mast cells induced by TvSP. First, stimulation with TvSP induced exocytotic degranulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HMC-1 cells. Next, TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytosis were strongly inhibited by transfection of BLT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). TvSP induced trafficking of BLT1 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. We also found that knockdown of SNAP23 abrogated TvSP-induced ROS generation, exocytosis, and surface trafficking of BLT1 in HMC-1 cells. By coimmunoprecipitation, there was a physical interaction between BLT1 and SNAP23 in TvSP-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that SNAP23-dependent surface trafficking of BLT1 is essential for exocytosis in human mast cells induced by T. vaginalis-secreted LTB 4 Our data collectively demonstrate a novel regulatory mechanism for SNAP23-dependent mast cell activation of T. vaginalis-secreted LTB 4 involving surface trafficking of BLT1. These results can help to explain how the cross talk mechanism between parasite and host can govern deliberately tissue inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.
Min, Arim; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Shin, Myeong Heon
Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually-transmitted protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis. Although mast cell activation is important for provoking tissue inflammation during infection with parasites, information regarding the signaling mechanisms in mast cell activation and T. vaginalis infection is limited. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues that functions as a critical regulator of intracellular signaling, regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). We investigated if O-GlcNAcylation was associated with mast cell activation induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). Modified TvSP collected from live trichomonads treated with the 5-lipooxygenase inhibitor AA861 inhibited migration of mast cells. This result suggested that mast cell migration was caused by stimulation of T. vaginalis-secreted leukotrienes. Using the BLT1 antagonist U75302 or BLT1 siRNA, we found that migration of mast cells was evoked via LTB 4 receptor (BLT1). Furthermore, TvSP induced protein O-GlcNAcylation and OGT expression in HMC-1 cells, which was prevented by transfection with BLT1 siRNA. TvSP-induced migration, ROS generation, CD63 expression and IL-8 release were significantly suppressed by pretreatmemnt with OGT inhibitor ST045849 or OGT siRNA. These results suggested that BLT1-mediated OGlcNAcylation was important for mast cell activation during trichomoniasis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Performance of syndromic management for the detection and treatment of genital Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis among women attending antenatal, well woman and sexual health clinics in Papua New Guinea: a cross-sectional study
Vallely, Lisa M; Toliman, Pamela; Ryan, Claire; Rai, Glennis; Wapling, Johanna; Gabuzzi, Josephine; Allen, Joyce; Opa, Christine; Munnull, Gloria; Kaima, Petronia; Kombuk, Benny; Kumbia, Antonia; Kombati, Zure; Law, Greg; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Wand, Handan; Siba, Peter M; Mola, Glen D L; Kaldor, John M
Objective Papua New Guinea (PNG) has among the highest estimated prevalences of genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) of any country in the Asia-Pacific region. Diagnosis and treatment of these infections have relied on the WHO-endorsed syndromic management strategy that uses clinical presentation without laboratory confirmation to make treatment decisions. We evaluated the performance of this strategy in clinical settings in PNG. Design Women attending antenatal (ANC), well woman (WWC) and sexual health (SHC) clinics in four provinces were invited to participate, completed a face-to-face interview and clinical examination, and provided genital specimens for laboratory testing. We estimated the performance characteristics of syndromic diagnoses against combined laboratory diagnoses. Results 1764 women were enrolled (ANC=765; WWC=614; SHC=385). The prevalences of CT, NG and TV were highest among women attending ANC and SHC. Among antenatal women, syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infection had low sensitivity (9%–21%) and positive predictive value (PPV) (7%–37%), but high specificity (76%–89%) and moderate negative predictive value (NPV) (55%–86%) for the combined endpoint of laboratory-confirmed CT, NG or TV. Among women attending WWC and SHC, ‘vaginal discharge syndrome’ had moderate to high sensitivity (72%–78%) and NPV (62%–94%), but low specificity (26%–33%) and PPV (8%–38%). ‘Lower abdominal pain syndrome’ had low sensitivity (26%–41%) and PPV (8%–23%) but moderate specificity (66%–68%) and high NPV (74%–93%) among women attending WWC, and moderate-high sensitivity (67%–79%) and NPV (62%–86%) but low specificity (26%–28%) and PPV (14%–33%) among SHC attendees. Conclusion The performance of syndromic management for the detection and treatment of genital chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomonas was poor among women in different clinical settings in PNG. New
González Pedraza Avilés, A; Ortíz Zaragoza, M C; Irigoyen Coria, A
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was first reported in 1995 by Gardner and Dukes, who described the unique clinical signs and symptoms and the distinctive nature of the vaginal discharge associated with it. They also described a "new" causative organism, which they named "Haemophilus vaginalis", subsequently renamed Gardnerella vaginalis. BV is currently the most prevalent cause of infectious vaginitis among women attending for genitourinary diseases. BV has a complex microbiology. Lactobacillus populations, which are usually dominant in healthy women, are replaced by a polymicrobial group of organisms that includes G. vaginalis, anaerobic Gram-negative rods such as Prevotella species, Peptostreptococcus species, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and often Mobiluncus species. Anaerobic bacteria produce enzymes, aminopeptidases, that degrade protein and decarboxylases that convert amino acids and other compounds to amines. Those amines contribute to the signs and symptoms associated with the syndrome, raising the vaginal pH and producing a discharge odor. The excessive amounts of bacteria characteristic of the syndrome attach to epithelial cell surfaces, resulting in "clue cell". Nearly half the patients report no noticeable symptoms, but many develop a characteristic copious, malodorous discharge if untreated. Results from epidemiologic studies have associated BV with serious upper genital tract infections and adverse pregnancy outcome. In particular, the presence of BV in pregnant women increases the risk of preterm delivery, and evidence is now compelling that BV is a cause of preterm delivery. The interest in potential invasiveness of G. vaginalis has increased. However, virulence determinants have not been studied enough. The most important therapy includes clindamycin and metronidazole.
Barberis, I L; Pájaro, M C; Godino, S; Pascual, L; Rodríguez, I; Agüero, M; Ordóñez, C
Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are acquired mainly through sexual intercourse, being one of the most frequent groups of infectious diseases worldwide and consequently an important public health problem. The aim of this paper was to determine the current state of STD and to compare different diagnostic methods in the population studied. A total of 1060 samples from vaginal flows, endocervical material and urethral discharge were studied during 3 years. Of the total samples, 583 were positive, 493 in women and 90 in men. Microorganisms found in women were: Gardnerella vaginalis (39.3%), Candida albicans (21.1%), Trichomonas vaginalis (17.3%), Candida trachomatis (11.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3.2%): Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urelyticum (6.5%) and Treponema pallidum (1.4%), the associations found were, Gardnerella vaginalis with Trichomonas vaginalis 5.5%; Gardnerella vaginalis with Candida albicans 4.9%; Trichomonas vaginalis with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (2.2%) and Gardnerella vaginalis with Chlamydia trachomatis (1.9%). In men, gonococcal urethritis (UG) represented 37.7% non UG 55.6% and Treponema pallidum 6.7%. These results indicate a decrease in sifilis and in UG when compared to previous studies showing that gonococcal cervicitis had also decreased. We found an important increase in the prevalence of urethritis and non gonococcal cervicitis in agreement with world statistics which consider these diseases as the most common venereal ones. It is necessary to increase the search for Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women due to vertical transmission. It should be noted that, in spite of certain fluctuations, the incidence of the STD in our area is still unacceptably high.
Chatterjee, Aparajita; Ratner, Daniel M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Johnson, Patricia J.; O’Keefe, Barry R.; Secor, W. Evan; Anderson, Deborah J.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John
Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans), like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin) and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas. PMID:26252012
Tam, Yuk Him; Wong, Yuen Shan; Chan, Kin Wai; Pang, Kristine Kit Yi; Tsui, Siu Yan; Mou, Jennifer Wai Cheung; Sihoe, Jennifer Dart Yin; Lee, Kim Hung
Transumbilical or transinguinal laparoscopic evaluation for contralateral patent processus vaginalis (CPPV) is commonly performed during laparoscopic or open hernia repair in children but may occasionally give false-negative findings. A retrospective study was conducted to compare 2 cohorts of children who underwent laparoscopic repair for clinically demonstrated unilateral inguinal hernia and evaluation for CPPV by transumbilical laparoscopy during the study periods of 2004 to 2007 (cohort 1) and 2008 to 2011 (cohort 2). Cohort 1 was a known historical cohort with CPPV being evaluated by laparoscopic inspection alone, whereas additional maneuvers were adopted in cohort 2. There were 395 and 564 patients in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. There was no difference between the 2 cohorts in age of patients, sex distribution, laterality of clinically demonstrated inguinal hernia, and follow-up period at the time of data collection. More CPPV were diagnosed in cohort 2 than cohort 1(36.2% vs 25.8%; P < .01). 4 children (1.4%) developed metachronous inguinal hernia following negative laparoscopic evaluation for CPPV in cohort 1 compared with none from cohort 2 at a similar median follow-up period (P < .05). The additional maneuvers appear to be superior to laparoscopic inspection alone to evaluate CPPV during laparoscopic hernia repair in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kissinger, Patricia; Mena, Leandro; Levison, Judy; Clark, Rebecca A.; Gatski, Megan; Henderson, Harold; Schmidt, Norine; Rosenthal, Susan; Myers, Leann; Martin, David H.
Objective To determine if the metronidazole (MTZ) 2 gm single dose (recommended) is as effective as the 7 day 500 mg BID dose (alternative) for treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV+ women. Methods Phase IV randomized clinical trial; HIV+ women with culture confirmed TV were randomized to treatment arm: MTZ 2 gm single dose or MTZ 500 mg BID 7 day dose. All women were given 2 gm MTZ doses to deliver to their sex partners. Women were re-cultured for TV at a test-of-cure (TOC) visit occurring 6-12 days after treatment completion. TV-negative women at TOC were again re-cultured at a 3 month visit. Repeat TV infection rates were compared between arms. Results 270 HIV+/TV+ women were enrolled (mean age = 40 years, ± 9.4; 92.2% African-American). Treatment arms were similar with respect to age, race, CD4 count, viral load, ART status, site, and loss-to-follow up. Women in the 7 day arm had: lower repeat TV infection rates at TOC [8.5% (11/130) versus 16.8% (21/125) (R.R. 0.50, 95% CI=0.25, 1.00; P<0.05)], and at 3 months [11.0% (8/73) versus 24.1% (19/79) (R.R. 0.46, 95% CI=0.21, 0.98; P=0.03)] compared to the single dose arm. Conclusions The 7 day MTZ dose was more effective than the single dose for the treatment of TV among HIV+ women. PMID:21423852
Prospective Evaluation Of Cervico-Vaginal Self And Cervical Physician-Collection For The Detection Of Chlamydia Trachomatis, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas Vaginalis, And Mycoplasma Genitalium Infections.
Lockhart, Alexandre; Psioda, Matt; Ting, Jie; Campbell, Sara; Mugo, Nelly; Kwatampora, Jessie; Chitwa, Michael; Kimani, Joshua; Gakure, Anne; Smith, Jennifer S
To examine the agreement between sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening using self-collected specimens and physician-collected specimens, and to investigate the acceptability of self-collection for screening in an 18-month study of female sex-workers (FSW) in a high-risk, low-resource setting. A total of 350 FSW in Nairobi, Kenya participated in a prospective study from 2009-2011. Women self-collected a cervico-vaginal specimen. Next, a physician conducted a pelvic examination to obtain a cervical specimen. Physician- and self-collected specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) using Aptima nucleic acid amplification assays (Hologic). Specimens were collected at three-month intervals over 18-months follow-up. Kappa statistics measured agreement of positivity between self- and physician-collection. Baseline STI prevalence was 2.9% for GC, 5.2% for CT, 9.2% for TV, and 20.1% for MG in self-collected samples, and 2.3%, 3.7%, 7.2%, and 12.9% respectively in physician-collected samples. Kappa agreement was consistently strong (range 0.66-1.00) for all STIs over the 18-month study period, except MG which had moderate agreement (range: 0.50-0.75). Most participants found self-collection easy (94%) and comfortable (89%) at baseline, with responses becoming modestly more favorable over time. Self-collected specimens screening results showed strong agreement to clinical-collected specimens, except MG which was consistently detected more commonly in self- than physician-collected specimens. Acceptability of the self-collection procedure was high at baseline and increased modestly over time. In high-risk, low-resource settings, STI screening with self-collected specimens provides a reliable and acceptable alternative to screening with physician-collected specimens.
Chu, Chien-Hsin; Chang, Lung-Chun; Hsu, Hong-Ming; Wei, Shu-Yi; Liu, Hsing-Wei; Lee, Yu; Kuo, Chung-Chi; Indra, Dharmu; Chen, Chinpan; Ong, Shiou-Jeng; Tai, Jung-Hsiang
Nuclear proteins usually contain specific peptide sequences, referred to as nuclear localization signals (NLSs), for nuclear import. These signals remain unexplored in the protozoan pathogen, Trichomonas vaginalis. The nuclear import of a Myb2 transcription factor was studied here using immunodetection of a hemagglutinin-tagged Myb2 overexpressed in the parasite. The tagged Myb2 was localized to the nucleus as punctate signals. With mutations of its polybasic sequences, 48KKQK51 and 61KR62, Myb2 was localized to the nucleus, but the signal was diffusive. When fused to a C-terminal non-nuclear protein, the Myb2 sequence spanning amino acid (aa) residues 48 to 143, which is embedded within the R2R3 DNA-binding domain (aa 40 to 156), was essential and sufficient for efficient nuclear import of a bacterial tetracycline repressor (TetR), and yet the transport efficiency was reduced with an additional fusion of a firefly luciferase to TetR, while classical NLSs from the simian virus 40 T-antigen had no function in this assay system. Myb2 nuclear import and DNA-binding activity were substantially perturbed with mutation of a conserved isoleucine (I74) in helix 2 to proline that altered secondary structure and ternary folding of the R2R3 domain. Disruption of DNA-binding activity alone by point mutation of a lysine residue, K51, preceding the structural domain had little effect on Myb2 nuclear localization, suggesting that nuclear translocation of Myb2, which requires an ordered structural domain, is independent of its DNA binding activity. These findings provide useful information for testing whether myriad Mybs in the parasite use a common module to regulate nuclear import. PMID:22021237
Styková, E; Nemcová, R; Valocký, I; Novotný, F; Guba, P
In the present study, we examined the adherence of indigenous vaginal bacteria, probiotic strains, and metritis pathogens to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tracts of heifers and cows and compared their adherence with the bacterial adherence to mucus collected from the stomach and large intestine of pigs. Most of the vaginal strains adhered to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tract and strongly adhered to gastric mucus, with the exception of Lactobacillus buchneri 24S8. Only Lactobacillus mucosae 29S8, Enterococcus faecium E21, and E. faecium EAC adhered to colonic mucus. Probiotic strains adhered strongly to mucus collected from the reproductive tract and gastric mucus but did not adhere to colonic mucus. Pathogenic strains were adherent to vaginal, uterine horn, and gastric mucus, except Escherichia coli O8:K88ab:H9 (65), Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Gardnerella vaginalis, which adhered to uterine cervix mucus. Only Kocuria kristinae and G. vaginalis adhered to uterine body mucus; E. coli O149:K88ac (EC) adhered to colonic mucus. The strains did not exhibit host specificity but rather strain specificity. The ability to adhere to mucus was a characteristic unique to each strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding in vitro adherence of GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) lactobacilli isolated from different sources to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tract.
Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Ortega-López, Jaime; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Avila-González, Leticia; Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Miranda-Ozuna, Jesús F T; González-Robles, Arturo; Hernández-García, Mar Saraí; Sánchez-Ayala, Lizbeth; Arroyo, Rossana
Trichomonas vaginalis genome encodes ∼440 proteases, six of which are aspartic proteases (APs). However, only one belongs to a clan AA (EC 126.96.36.199), family A1 (pepsin A), cathepsin D-like protease. This AP is encoded by an 1113-bp gene (tv-catd), which translates into a 370-aa residues zymogen of 40.7-kDa and a theoretical pI of 4.6, generating a ∼35 kDa active enzyme after maturation (Tv-CatD). The goal of this study was to identify and analyze the effect of glucose on the expression of Tv-CatD at the transcript and protein levels, subcellular localization, and proteolytic activity. The qRT-PCR assays showed a ∼2-fold increase in tv-catd mRNA under high-glucose (HG) conditions compared to glucose-restriction (GR) conditions. We amplified, cloned, and expressed the tv-catd gene, and purified the recombinant precursor enzyme (Tv-CatDr) to generate a polyclonal antibody (anti-Tv-CatDr). Western blot (WB) and immunolocalization assays showed that glucose increases the amount of Tv-CatD in different subcellular localizations and in in vitro secretions. Additionally, Tv-CatD proteolytic activity was detected in protease-resistant extracts (PREs) using a synthetic fluorogenic peptide specific for cathepsin D/E APs at different pHs and in the presence of AP inhibitors. In a two-dimensional (2-DE) WB analysis of a PRE from parasites grown under GR and HG conditions, an anti-Tv-CatDr antibody detected a 35-kDa protein spot at pI 5.0 identified as the mature Tv-CatD form by mass spectrometry that showed proteolytic activity in 2-DE zymograms copolymerized with hemoglobin under both glucose conditions. Thus, Tv-CatD could be involved in trichomonal hemolysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abdallah, Iddrisu; Armstrong-Mensah, Elizabeth; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Jones, Cheryl
Demographic and risky sexual behaviours may increase the risk for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection and, thus, enhance HIV transmission to uninfected partners. We assessed the demographic and behavioural risk factors associated with TV among South African HIV-positive men with genital ulcer disease. We conducted a cross-sectional study with data from a randomised controlled trial conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The data were obtained from three primary healthcare clinics in South Africa. At baseline (n=387), participants reported on demographics, sexual behaviour, history of sexually transmitted infections and clinical ulcers. The outcome TV was measured using real-time multiplex PCR assays and a Rotor-gene 3000 platform from the first and past urine samples of all participants. Logistic regression model estimated ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for demographics, sexual risk behaviours and ulcer conditions. An estimated 11.4% of TV was detected among the men. The odds of TV infection were significantly associated with high blister counts (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 28, p=0.01), ulcer pain (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7, p=0.003), number of days with ulcers (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.8, p=0.006), sought treatment before coming into clinics (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.7, p=0.005) and being unqualified worker (OR 2.5, 95% CI 0.9 to 6.7 p=0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed that increased days with ulcers (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.5, p=0.002) and ulcer pain intensity (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.007 to 1.1, p=0.05) remained significantly associated with decreased odds of TV infection. Men from the Sotho ethnic group were eight times more likely to have TV infection (OR 8.6, 95% CI 1.3 to 55.7, p<0.02) than men from the other ethnic groups. HIV-positive men with severe ulceration should be screened and treated for TV to minimise HIV transmission to uninfected partners. © Article author(s) (or their employer
Darr, Ralph F., Jr.
This paper focuses primarily on the more prominent teacher characteristics research published in the latter half of the 1980s. Literature on the characteristics of elementary, secondary, and college-level teachers is reviewed. Demographic data suggest that today's public school teachers are older and more experienced, and have more years of…
g. Material. 5.1.7 Wheel Geometry. a. Camber angle. b. Caster angle. c. Pivot angle. d. Static toe-in. e. Turning angles...the vehicle characteristics to be obtained during testing of wheeled and tracked vehicles and their components. Physical characterization of test...frontal area Characteristic data sheet Power train Suspention Wheel geometry Vehicle clearance angles Armament Gun control systems 16. SECURITY
Roeters, Anne M E; Boon, Mathilde E; van Haaften, Maarten; Vernooij, F; Bontekoe, Tj Romke; Heintz, A Peter M
The Dutch cytological coding system, KOPAC, enables to code for eight inflammatory events, that is koilocytosis (related to human papillomavirus (HPV)), Trichomonas, dysbacteriosis [related to bacterial vaginosis (BV)], Candida, Gardnerella, Actinomyces, Chlamydia, and non-specific inflammation (leucocytosis). This study presents an analysis of 1,008,879 smears. Of each smear, the age of the woman and the reason for smear taking (screening or indication) was available. The cytoscores (per mille) for these codes were calculated. For the screening smears, the cytoscores were for koilocytosis (HPV) 2.6, for Trichomonas vaginalis 1.9, for dysbacteriosis 31.4, for Candida albicans 9.8, for Gardnerella vaginalis 0.7, for Actinomyces 6.9, for Chlamydia 0.8, and for non-specific inflammatory changes 66.4. For the calculation of the Odds Ratio (OR), normal smears were used as a reference. The cytoscores for Chlamydia and Gardnerella covaried with high grade SIL (HSIL), with an OR of 7 and 12, respectively. In addition, the OR for Trichomonas vaginalis, for dysbacteriosis, and for leucocytosis proved to be significantly high in the indication smears. This study provides an oversight of HSIL and the full range of cervical infections as detected by cytology, proving that this infectious byproduct of screening can be very valuable.
Jahic, Mahira; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Nurkic, Jasmina; Jahic, Elmir; Nurkic, Midhat
ABSTRACT Aim of the work: Examine clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infection for the purpose of better diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. Materials and methods: Prospective research has been conducted at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department for Microbiology and Pathology at Polyclinic for laboratory diagnostic and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department at Health Center Sapna. Examination included 100 examinees with the signs of vaginitis. Examination consisted of: anamnesis, clinical, gynecological and microbiological examination of vaginal smear. Results: The average age of the examinees was 32,62±2,6. Examining vaginal smears of the examinees with signs of vaginitis in 96% (N-96) different microorganisms have been isolated, while in 4% (N-4) findings were normal. AV has been found in 51% (N-51) of the examinees, Candida albicans in 17% (N-17), BV in 15% (N-15), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13% (N-13). In 21% (N-21) AV was diagnosed alone while associated with other agents in 30% (N-30). Most common causes of AV are E. coli (N-55) and E. faecalis (N-52). AV and Candida albicanis have been found in (13/30, 43%), Trichomonas vaginalis in (9/30, 30%) and BV (8/30, 26%). Vaginal secretion is in 70,05% (N-36) yellow coloured, red vagina wall is recorded in 31,13% (N-16) and pruritus in 72,54% (N-37). Increased pH value of vagina found in 94,10% (N-48). The average pH value of vaginal environment was 5,15±0,54 and in associated presence of AV and VVC, TV and BV was 5,29±0,56 which is higher value considering presence of AV alone but that is not statistically significant difference (p>0,05). Amino-odor test was positive in 29,94% (N-15) of associated infections. Lactobacilli are absent, while leukocytes are increased in 100% (N-51) of the examinees with AV. Conclusion: AV is vaginal infection similar to other vaginal infections. It is important to be careful while diagnosing because the treatment of AV differentiates from
Jahic, Mahira; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Nurkic, Jasmina; Jahic, Elmir; Nurkic, Midhat
Examine clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infection for the purpose of better diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. Prospective research has been conducted at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department for Microbiology and Pathology at Polyclinic for laboratory diagnostic and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department at Health Center Sapna. Examination included 100 examinees with the signs of vaginitis. anamnesis, clinical, gynecological and microbiological examination of vaginal smear. The average age of the examinees was 32,62±2,6. Examining vaginal smears of the examinees with signs of vaginitis in 96% (N-96) different microorganisms have been isolated, while in 4% (N-4) findings were normal. AV has been found in 51% (N-51) of the examinees, Candida albicans in 17% (N-17), BV in 15% (N-15), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13% (N-13). In 21% (N-21) AV was diagnosed alone while associated with other agents in 30% (N-30). Most common causes of AV are E. coli (N-55) and E. faecalis (N-52). AV and Candida albicanis have been found in (13/30, 43%), Trichomonas vaginalis in (9/30, 30%) and BV (8/30, 26%). Vaginal secretion is in 70,05% (N-36) yellow coloured, red vagina wall is recorded in 31,13% (N-16) and pruritus in 72,54% (N-37). Increased pH value of vagina found in 94,10% (N-48). The average pH value of vaginal environment was 5,15±0,54 and in associated presence of AV and VVC, TV and BV was 5,29±0,56 which is higher value considering presence of AV alone but that is not statistically significant difference (p>0,05). Amino-odor test was positive in 29,94% (N-15) of associated infections. Lactobacilli are absent, while leukocytes are increased in 100% (N-51) of the examinees with AV. AV is vaginal infection similar to other vaginal infections. It is important to be careful while diagnosing because the treatment of AV differentiates from treatment of other vaginitis.
High-resolution microbiome profiling uncovers Fusobacterium nucleatum, Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii, and Lactobacillus vaginalis associated to oral and oropharyngeal cancer in saliva from HPV positive and HPV negative patients treated with surgery and chemo-radiation
Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; White, James Robert; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Rodríguez-Hilario, Arnold; Navarro, Kelvin; González, Herminio; Michailidi, Christina; Jedlicka, Anne; Canapp, Sierra; Bondy, Jessica; Dziedzic, Amanda; Mora-Lagos, Barbara; Rivera-Alvarez, Gustavo; Ili-Gangas, Carmen; Brebi-Mieville, Priscilla; Westra, William; Koch, Wayne; Kang, Hyunseok; Marchionni, Luigi; Kim, Young; Sidransky, David
Microbiome studies show altered microbiota in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), both in terms of taxonomic composition and metabolic capacity. These studies utilized a traditional bioinformatics methodology, which allows for accurate taxonomic assignment down to the genus level, but cannot accurately resolve species level membership. We applied Resphera Insight, a high-resolution methodology for 16S rRNA taxonomic assignment that is able to provide species-level context in its assignments of 16S rRNA next generation sequencing (NGS) data. Resphera Insight applied to saliva samples from HNSCC patients and healthy controls led to the discovery that a subset of HNSCC saliva samples is significantly enriched with commensal species from the vaginal flora, including Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii (710x higher in saliva) and Lactobacillus vaginalis (52x higher in saliva). These species were not observed in normal saliva from Johns Hopkins patients, nor in 16S rRNA NGS saliva samples from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP). Interestingly, both species were only observed in saliva from Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) positive and HPV negative oropharyngeal cancer patients. We confirmed the representation of both species in HMP data obtained from mid-vagina (n=128) and vaginal introitus (n=121) samples. Resphera Insight also led to the discovery that Fusobacterium nucleatum, an oral cavity flora commensal bacterium linked to colon cancer, is enriched (600x higher) in saliva from a subset of HNSCC patients with advanced tumors stages. Together, these high-resolution analyses on 583 samples suggest a possible role for bacterial species in the therapeutic outcome of HPV positive and HPV negative HNSCC patients. PMID:29340028
Das, Padmalaya; Swain, Tapoja; Mohanty, Jyoti Ranjan; Sinha, Shalini; Padhi, Bijay; Torondel, Belen; Cumming, Oliver; Panda, Bijaya; Nayak, Arati; Panigrahi, Pinaki
A close association between Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection and bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been reported. Some other studies have found association is stronger with intermediate Nugent score than BV. Most studies have used wet mount microscopy, a relatively insensitive method, to detect TV infection. We wanted to study the association of TV infection with BV and with intermediate Nugent score. We undertook a cross-sectional hospital-based study of 1110 non-pregnant women from Odisha state, India, aged between 18 and 45 years, collecting vaginal swabs for diagnosis of BV by Nugent score (NS) criteria and TV by PCR analysis. TV infection was found in 13.3% of women with intermediate Nugent score (NS 4-6) and 13.6% with BV (NS 7-10). Before adjustment, TV infection was associated with BV, intermediate Nugent, vaginal pH ≥ 4.5, and age group between 26 and 35 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that TV infection was more likely to have raised vaginal pH, either BV or intermediate Nugent. Proportion of TV cases increased sequentially with the increase in Nugent score up to NS 6, after which a decline was observed. Vaginal pH was higher in the TV-infected group than the uninfected group in women with intermediate Nugent, but no difference was noticed in women with BV. TV infection was equally prevalent in women with intermediate Nugent as well as BV. In the intermediate Nugent group women, TV infection was found only when vaginal pH was raised, indicating a crucial role of vaginal pH in determining TV infection.
Preoperative ultrasonographic evaluation of the contralateral patent processus vaginalis at the level of the internal inguinal ring is useful for predicting contralateral inguinal hernias in children: a prospective analysis.
Kaneda, H; Furuya, T; Sugito, K; Goto, S; Kawashima, H; Inoue, M; Hosoda, T; Masuko, T; Ohashi, K; Ikeda, T; Koshinaga, T; Hoshino, M; Goto, H
The current study aimed to verify the usefulness of preoperative ultrasonographic evaluation of contralateral patent processus vaginalis (PPV) at the level of the internal inguinal ring. This was a prospective study of patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair at two institutions during 2010-2011. The sex, age at initial operation, birth weight, initial operation side, and the preoperative diameter of the contralateral PPV as determined using ultrasonography (US) were recorded. We analyzed the incidence of contralateral inguinal hernia, risk factors, and the usefulness of the preoperative major diameter of the contralateral PPV. The follow-up period was 36 months. All 105 patients who underwent unilateral hernia repair completed 36 months of follow-up, during which 11 patients (10.5 %) developed a contralateral hernia. The following covariates were not associated with contralateral hernia development: sex (p = 0.350), age (p = 0.185), birth weight (p = 0.939), and initial operation side (p = 0.350). The preoperative major diameter of the contralateral PPV determined using US was significantly wider among patients with a contralateral hernia than those without a contralateral hernia (p = 0.001). When the 105 patients were divided into two groups according to cut-off values of the preoperative major diameter of the contralateral PPV (wide group, >2.0 mm; narrow group, ≤2.0 mm), a significant association was observed between the preoperative major diameter of the contralateral PPV and patient outcomes (p = 0.001). We used US and confirmed the usefulness of a preoperative evaluation of the major diameter of the contralateral PPV at the level of the internal inguinal ring in pediatric patients with unilateral inguinal hernias.
High-resolution microbiome profiling uncovers Fusobacterium nucleatum, Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii, and Lactobacillus vaginalis associated to oral and oropharyngeal cancer in saliva from HPV positive and HPV negative patients treated with surgery and chemo-radiation.
Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; White, James Robert; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Rodríguez-Hilario, Arnold; Navarro, Kelvin; González, Herminio; Michailidi, Christina; Jedlicka, Anne; Canapp, Sierra; Bondy, Jessica; Dziedzic, Amanda; Mora-Lagos, Barbara; Rivera-Alvarez, Gustavo; Ili-Gangas, Carmen; Brebi-Mieville, Priscilla; Westra, William; Koch, Wayne; Kang, Hyunseok; Marchionni, Luigi; Kim, Young; Sidransky, David
Microbiome studies show altered microbiota in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), both in terms of taxonomic composition and metabolic capacity. These studies utilized a traditional bioinformatics methodology, which allows for accurate taxonomic assignment down to the genus level, but cannot accurately resolve species level membership. We applied Resphera Insight, a high-resolution methodology for 16S rRNA taxonomic assignment that is able to provide species-level context in its assignments of 16S rRNA next generation sequencing (NGS) data. Resphera Insight applied to saliva samples from HNSCC patients and healthy controls led to the discovery that a subset of HNSCC saliva samples is significantly enriched with commensal species from the vaginal flora, including Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii (710x higher in saliva) and Lactobacillus vaginalis (52x higher in saliva). These species were not observed in normal saliva from Johns Hopkins patients, nor in 16S rRNA NGS saliva samples from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP). Interestingly, both species were only observed in saliva from Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) positive and HPV negative oropharyngeal cancer patients. We confirmed the representation of both species in HMP data obtained from mid-vagina (n=128) and vaginal introitus (n=121) samples. Resphera Insight also led to the discovery that Fusobacterium nucleatum , an oral cavity flora commensal bacterium linked to colon cancer, is enriched (600x higher) in saliva from a subset of HNSCC patients with advanced tumors stages. Together, these high-resolution analyses on 583 samples suggest a possible role for bacterial species in the therapeutic outcome of HPV positive and HPV negative HNSCC patients.
Al Kassaa, Imad; Hamze, Monzer; Hober, Didier; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Drider, Djamel
The aim of this work was to study the diversity of vaginal lactobacilli in Lebanese women and to evaluate the antagonism, hydrophobicity, and safety characteristics of these strains. This study was performed on samples from 135 women who visited a gynecology clinic in the north of Lebanon, between September 2012 and January 2013. From these samples, 53 different isolates of vaginal lactobacilli were collected from vaginal swabs and identified using biochemical and molecular methods. The use of genotypic Rep-PCR fingerprinting allowed for the organization of these isolates into 23 different groups. Seven of the isolated lactobacilli were antagonistic against the following vaginal pathogens: Gardnerella vaginalis CIP7074T, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC33862, Escherichia coli CIP103982, and Candida albicans ATCC10231. The antagonistic lactobacilli strains were then identified using 16S rDNA sequence. The data of this study show that the antagonistic lactobacilli were non-hemolytic, sensitive to most antibiotic tests, free of plasmid DNA, and exhibited interesting hydrophobicity and autoaggregation properties positioning them as potential candidates for probiotic design.
Styková, Eva; Nemcová, Radomíra; Gancarčíková, Soňa; Valocký, Igor; Lauková, Andrea
Kocuria spp. are widely distributed in nature. They are Gram-positive, coagulase-negative, coccoid bacteria belonging to the family Micrococcaceae, suborder Micrococcineae, order Actinomycetales, class Actinobacteria. In general, limited knowledge exists concerning the properties associated with the representants of the genus Kocuria, Kocuria kristinae as well. Following our previous results, K. kristinae Kk2014 Biocenol(™) (CCM 8628) was isolated from vagina of a healthy cow. Its taxonomical allottation was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) identification system and phenotypic characteristics. Kk2014 strain showed strong adherence capability to the vaginal mucus, produced organic acids which can play a role in prevention of unsuitable contamination, and showed in vitro antagonistic/antimicrobial activity against strains Arcanobacterium pyogenes CCM 5753, Fusobacterium necrophorum CCM 5982, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus CCM 7316, and Gardnerella vaginalis CCM 6221. Antimicrobial activity ranged from 100 to 200 AU/mL, up to 32 mm in size, respectively.
Gogate, A; Brabin, L; Nicholas, S; Gogate, S; Gaonkar, T; Naidu, A; Divekar, A; Karande, A; Hart, C A
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are an important cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) but have often not been detected in microbiological studies of Indian women admitted to hospital gynaecology wards or private clinics. In this cross sectional study, women living in the inner city of Mumbai (Bombay) were investigated for socioeconomic, clinical, and microbiological risk factors for PID. Microbiological tests and laparoscopic examination were carried out on 2736 women aged < or = 35 years who came to a health facility with suspected acute salpingitis or infertility or for laparoscopic sterilisation. 86 women with a clinical diagnosis of PID were not referred for laparoscopy although their characteristics are described. Associations between various risk factors and PID status were investigated and logistic regression performed on all factors that remained significant. Of women with a laparoscopically confirmed evaluation, 26 women had acute and 48 chronic pelvic infection. Independent risk factors for PID were later age at menarche (> or = 14 years), a history of stillbirth and no previous pregnancy, history of tuberculosis, STD, dilatation and curettage or previous laparoscopy, and presence of Gardnerella vaginalis. It is concluded that STD related risk factors applied to only a small proportion of PID cases and that other determinants of PID are important, including obstetric complications, invasive surgical procedures such as laparoscopy, and tuberculosis.
Sarier, Mehmet; Sepin Ozen, Nevgun; Guler, Hicran; Duman, Ibrahim; Yüksel, Yücel; Tekin, Sabri; Yavuz, Asuman Havva; Yucetin, Levent; Erdogan Yilmaz, Mine
Sexually transmitted diseases, which may be asymptomatic, have the potential to cause serious health problems in renal transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in sexually active asymptomatic renal transplant patients by using real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays. This prospective controlled study was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017 in our hospital. Our study group included 80 consecutive, sexually active asymptomatic patients (40 men and 40 women) who had undergone renal transplant in our hospital and who presented to our outpatient clinic for routine follow-up. We also included a control group of 80 consecutive, sexually active nontransplant patients (40 men and 40 women). All patient samples were tested for Gardnerella vaginalis and obligate anaerobes (Prevotella bivia, Porphyromonas species), Candida species, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma species, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, and Cytomegalovirus by real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The prevalences of infection with Gardnerella vaginalis and obligate anaerobes (P = .043), Ureaplasma species (P = .02), and Cytomegalovirus (P = .016) were found to be significantly higher in the study group versus the control group. However, there was no difference between the 2 groups regarding the prevalence of Mycoplasma infection (P = .70). Sexually transmitted diseases may occur more frequently in sexually active asymptomatic renal transplant recipients than in nontransplanted individuals. Real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis may be a suitable method for determining these pathogens.
Ison, C A; Easmon, C S; Dawson, S G; Southerton, G; Harris, J W
In the vaginal washings of 100 women with symptomatic non-specific vaginitis a succinate/lactate ratio of greater than or equal to 0.4 had a diagnostic sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 83% for this condition. The predictive value of a positive test was 94%, but that of a negative test was only 55%. A strong association between the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobes, a vaginal pH of above 4.5, and amines was found not only in non-specific vaginitis, but also in trichomonal and gonococcal infection. A variety of primary changes may encourage the multiplication of both gardnerellae and anaerobes and their presence in non-specific vaginitis may be a secondary rather than a primary event. PMID:6606653
This presentation serves as an initial summary of our wetland field work's watershed characteristics hydrologic characteristics, water quality measurements, and denitrification assays. We present our measurement results in the context of wetland type (Estuarine, Freshwater Mars...
Tosheva-Daskalova, Konstantsa; Strateva, Tanya Vasileva; Mitov, Ivan Gergov; Gergova, Raina Tzvetanova
Background/aim: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the prevalence of problematic pathogens and the clinical status of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Materials and methods: Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, and Mobiluncus spp. were detected using a multiplex PCR assay, and their role in the infection of Bulgarian women with clinically heterogeneous BV was evaluated. Results: The predominant BV-associated pathogen identified was G. vaginalis with an incidence of 98.39%, followed by A. vaginae (68.05%) and Mobiluncus spp. at 17.01%. The coexistence of A. vaginae and G. vaginalis was more common in women with discharge (in 72.04%) and in patients with chronic recurrent BV than among asymptomatic or newly diagnosed BV cases (P < 0.05). Mobiluncus spp. was detected mostly in coinfections, in association with Trichomonas vaginalis. The coinfections were predominantly related to recurrent BV and with complications (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This is the first study about the correlation between problematic pathogens and clinically heterogeneous BV in Bulgarian women. High frequency of infection with key BV-related pathogens was observed in childbearing women. The incidence was shown to often correlate with coexistent T. vaginalis, with severity of infection, and with complicated and recurrent BV after unsuccessful treatments. Screening should be considered in reproductive health programs.
Demba, Edward; Morison, Linda; van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Awasana, Akum A; Gooding, Euphemia; Bailey, Robin; Mayaud, Philippe; West, Beryl
Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV in Africa. We conducted a study aimed at determining the prevalence of BV and patterns of BV-associated vaginal micro-flora among women with vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS) in The Gambia, West Africa. Methods We enrolled 227 women with VDS from a large genito-urinary medicine clinic in Fajara, The Gambia. BV was diagnosed by the Nugent's score and Amsel's clinical criteria. Vaginal swabs were collected for T vaginalis and vaginal flora microscopy, and for Lactobacillus spp, aerobic organisms, Candida spp and BV-associated bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobic bacteria, and Mycoplasma spp) cultures; and cervical swabs were collected for N gonorrhoeae culture and C trachomatis PCR. Sera were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. Sexual health history including details on sexual hygiene were obtained by standardised questionnaire. Results BV prevalence was 47.6% by Nugent's score and 30.8% by Amsel's clinical criteria. Lactobacillus spp were isolated in 37.8% of women, and 70% of the isolates were hydrogen-peroxide (H202)-producing strains. Prevalence of BV-associated bacteria were: G vaginalis 44.4%; Bacteroides 16.7%; Prevotella 15.2%; Peptostretococcus 1.5%; Mobiluncus 0%; other anaerobes 3.1%; and Mycoplasma hominis 21.4%. BV was positively associated with isolation of G vaginalis (odds-ratio [OR] 19.42, 95%CI 7.91 – 47.6) and anaerobes (P = 0.001 [OR] could not be calculated), but not with M hominis. BV was negatively associated with presence of Lactobacillus (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.03 – 0.15), and H2O2-producing lactobacilli (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.05 – 0.28). Presence of H2O2-producing lactobacilli was associated with significantly lower prevalence of G vaginalis, anaerobes and C trachomatis. HIV prevalence was 12.8%. Overall, there was
McClelland, David C.
Comparison of characteristics of 12 average and 12 superior small business people in three developing nations (India, Malawi, and Ecuador) found proactive qualities such as initiative and assertiveness, achievement orientation, and commitment to others characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Other expected qualities (self-confidence,…
I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial-value problem. Progress in characteristic evolution is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D-axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black-hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black-hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to extend such simulations to null infinity where the waveform from the binary inspiral and merger can be unambiguously computed. This has now been accomplished by Cauchy-characteristic extraction, where data for the characteristic evolution is supplied by Cauchy data on an extraction worldtube inside the artificial outer boundary. The ultimate application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this outer boundary by constructing a global solution via Cauchy-characteristic matching. Progress in this direction is discussed.
Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W
A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.
Mason, P R; Gwanzura, L; Latif, A S; Marowa, E
One hundred women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Harare were examined for presenting features and genital infections. The most common presenting symptoms were of discharge, lower abdominal pain and dysuria, and on examination signs of discharge, inflammation, haemorrhage or ulcers/erosions were noticeable in all women. Fourteen women had genital warts. Pathogens were detected in 95% of patients. Gonococcal infection occurred in 19 women, with 60% of the strains isolated being penicillinase producing. Yeasts were detected in specimens from 25 women while chlamydial infection appeared to be rare, evidence of infection being detected in only eight women. Sera from 44 women were positive by the RPR test and sera from 33 women were positive by TPHA. Gardnerella vaginalis was isolated from 48 women, Group B streptococci from 37 women, and Trichomonas vaginalis from 32 women.
McCormack, W M; Evrard, J R; Laughlin, C F; Rosner, B; Alpert, S; Crockett, V A; McComb, D; Zinner, S H
We studied 500 unselected young women who consulted a gynecologist in a student health service. Most participants were symptom-free and had normal physical examinations. Few sexually transmitted infections were encountered. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was recovered from two and Trichomonas vaginalis was obtained from 14 of 500 women. Chlamydia trachomatis was recovered from 20 (4.6%) of 439 participants. Genital warts, genital herpes, and molluscum contagiosum, respectively, were noted in seven, four, and one of the 500 participants. There was no cases of syphilis, scabies, or pediculosis pubis. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum, respectively, were recovered from 17.6 and 56.8% of the subjects. Prevalent vaginal bacteria included lactobacilli, streptococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and diphtheroids. Gardnerella vaginalis was isolated from the vaginal specimens of about one third of the participants.
O'Farrell, N; Hoosen, A A; Kharsany, A B; van den Ende, J
One hundred and ninety three consecutive pregnant women attending peripheral antenatal clinics attached to Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, Kwa-Zulu, were examined for evidence of sexually transmitted pathogens. The following incidences were found: Trichomonas vaginalis 49.2% (95), Candida spp 38.3% (74), Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4% (22), Gardnerella vaginalis 6.2% (12), Neisseria gonorrhoeae 5.7% (11), positive syphilis serology results 11.9% (23), hepatitis B surface antigen 4.1% (eight). No woman had antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Dyskaryotic smears were found in 20 (10.4%). Human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected cytologically in 11 (5.7%). The range of sexually transmitted pathogens found in this rural community was similar to that found in urban groups studied in South Africa. PMID:2807289
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
The Summary Travel Characteristics publication series contains summary tables of travel statistics for census regions and divisions, States, and metropolitan areas. The tables in this report provide an overview of the findings of the American Travel ...
The document investigates three essential characteristics of takeoff; rotation point, liftoff : point, and takeoff angle. In this memorandum distributions of the data are provided and : analyzed. Trends in the data can be used to find the ideal locat...
Contributions to the Method of Characteristics in Three Dimensions, which previously received incomplete recognition, are reviewed. They mostly follow from a fundamental paper by Rusanov which led to several developments in Russia, described by Chushkin.
The space shuttle onboard navigation systems characteristics are described. A standard source of equations and numerical data for use in error analyses and mission simulations related to space shuttle development is reported. The sensor characteristics described are used for shuttle onboard navigation performance assessment. The use of complete models in the studies depend on the analyses to be performed, the capabilities of the computer programs, and the availability of computer resources.
This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.
Poduval, Bala; Schmelz, J. T.
We present the multiwavelength characteristic of microflare detected in the SDO/AIA and IRIS images using the Automated Microevent-finding Code (AMC). We have catalogued independent events with information such as location on the disk, size, lifetime and peak flux, and obtained their frequency distribution. We mapped these events to other wavelengths, using their location information, to study their associated features, and infer the temperature characteristics and evolution. Moreover, we obtained their magnetic topologies by mapping the microflare locations on to the HMI photospheric magnetic field synoptic maps. Further, we analyzed the filtered brightness profiles and light curves for each event to classify them. Finally, we carried out a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis to study their temperature characteristics.
Fitzpatrick, Faith A.
This chapter describes commonly used geomorphological characteristics that are useful for analyzing watershed-scale hydrology and sediment dynamics. It includes calculations and measurements for stream network features and areal basin characteristics that cover a range of spatial and temporal scales and dimensions of watersheds. Construction and application of longitudinal profiles are described in terms of understanding the three-dimensional development of stream networks. A brief discussion of outstanding problems and directions for future work, particularly as they relate to water-resources management, is provided. Notations with preferred units are given.
Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Schwartz, Katie; Brown, Elizabeth R; Govender, Vaneshree; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Kiweewa, Flavia Matovu; Nair, Gonasagrie; Mhlanga, Felix; Siva, Samantha; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Jeenarain, Nitesha; Gaffoor, Zakir; Martinson, Francis; Makanani, Bonus; Naidoo, Sarita; Pather, Arendevi; Phillip, Jessica; Husnik, Marla J; van der Straten, Ariane; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Baeten, Jared
Women in sub-Saharan Africa are a priority population for evaluation of new biomedical HIV-1 prevention strategies. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis is a promising prevention approach; however, clinical trials among young women using daily or coitally-dependent products have found low adherence. Antiretroviral-containing vaginal microbicide rings, which release medication over a month or longer, may reduce these adherence challenges. ASPIRE (A Study to Prevent Infection with a Ring for Extended Use) is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing the safety and effectiveness of a vaginal ring containing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor dapivirine for prevention of HIV-1 infection. We describe the baseline characteristics of African women enrolled in the ASPIRE trial. Between August 2012 and June 2014, 5516 women were screened and 2629 HIV-1 seronegative women between 18-45 years of age were enrolled from 15 research sites in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. The median age was 26 years (IQR 22-31) and the majority (59%) were unmarried. Nearly 100% of participants reported having a primary sex partner in the prior three months but 43% did not know the HIV-1 status of their primary partner; 17% reported additional concurrent partners. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported having disclosed to primary partners about planned vaginal ring use in the trial. Sexually transmitted infections were prevalent: 12% had Chlamydia trachomatis, 7% Trichomonas vaginalis, 4% Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and 1% syphilis. African HIV-1 seronegative women at risk of HIV -1 infection were successfully enrolled into a phase III trial of dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV-1 prevention.
Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Schwartz, Katie; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Govender, Vaneshree; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Kiweewa, Flavia Matovu; Nair, Gonasagrie; Mhlanga, Felix; Siva, Samantha; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Jeenarain, Nitesha; Gaffoor, Zakir; Martinson, Francis; Makanani, Bonus; Naidoo, Sarita; Pather, Arendevi; Phillip, Jessica; Husnik, Marla J.; van der Straten, Ariane; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Baeten, Jared
Introduction Women in sub-Saharan Africa are a priority population for evaluation of new biomedical HIV-1 prevention strategies. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis is a promising prevention approach; however, clinical trials among young women using daily or coitally-dependent products have found low adherence. Antiretroviral-containing vaginal microbicide rings, which release medication over a month or longer, may reduce these adherence challenges. Methods ASPIRE (A Study to Prevent Infection with a Ring for Extended Use) is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing the safety and effectiveness of a vaginal ring containing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor dapivirine for prevention of HIV-1 infection. We describe the baseline characteristics of African women enrolled in the ASPIRE trial. Results Between August 2012 and June 2014, 5516 women were screened and 2629 HIV-1 seronegative women between 18–45 years of age were enrolled from 15 research sites in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. The median age was 26 years (IQR 22–31) and the majority (59%) were unmarried. Nearly 100% of participants reported having a primary sex partner in the prior three months but 43% did not know the HIV-1 status of their primary partner; 17% reported additional concurrent partners. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported having disclosed to primary partners about planned vaginal ring use in the trial. Sexually transmitted infections were prevalent: 12% had Chlamydia trachomatis, 7% Trichomonas vaginalis, 4% Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and 1% syphilis. Conclusions African HIV-1 seronegative women at risk of HIV -1 infection were successfully enrolled into a phase III trial of dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV-1 prevention. PMID:26061040
Tice, Percival S; Dickinson, H C
Report presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation of the performance of different types of carburetors as effecting the maintenance under all conditions of correct ratio between the weights of fuel and air. It also gives a description of the Bureau of Standards carburetor test plant, test equipment and measuring instruments used to determine the metering characteristics of carburetors.
McClanahan, P; Edwards, M R; Wise, R
To determine whether a profile can be developed to indicate which clients are the best candidates for Norplant by describing the characteristics of clients who use this contraceptive for 5 years and those who have it removed early. A descriptive study of data collected from a convenience sample. SELLING: A state-supported university hospital's obstetric and gynecology outpatient clinic serving primarily indigent clients in the southern United States. Women (N = 256), primarily with low incomes, being seen for removal of Norplant contraceptive capsules. Of these, 166 women had completed the recommended 5 years. Characteristics of the clients who retained the contraceptive for the recommended 5 years and characteristics of clients who came for early removal. Clients who retained the contraceptive for 5 years differed from those who did not on only three characteristics: race, age, and parity. No significant differences were found in education or marital status. No clear profile of successful Norplant users emerged. Instead, thorough counseling of each individual is essential to the client's completion of 5 years with Norplant. Advantages and disadvantages must be explained and the client's tolerance of possible side effects must be assessed, thereby helping the client to make an informed choice.
van der Molen, Henk T.; Schmidt, Henk G.; Kruisman, Gerard
The objective of the current study was to investigate the personality characteristics of a group of engineers with a variety of years of experience. It was executed to remedy shortcomings of the literature concerning this issue and to produce suggestions for a postgraduate training programme for engineers. A total of 103 engineers were tested with…
Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex
It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls…
Kurakawa, Takashi; Ogata, Kiyohito; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Kado, Yukiko; Takahashi, Takuya; Kida, Yumi; Ito, Masahiro; Okada, Nobuhiko; Nomoto, Koji
Ten specific primer sets, for Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus crispatus, Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, Chlamydia trachomatis/muridarum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and Bifidobacterium angulatum, were developed for quantitative analysis of vaginal microbiota. rRNA-targeted reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of the vaginal samples from 12 healthy Japanese volunteers using the new primer sets together with 25 existing primer sets revealed the diversity of their vaginal microbiota: Lactobacilli such as L. crispatus, L. gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus iners, and Lactobacillus vaginalis, as the major populations at 10(7) cells/ml vaginal fluid, were followed by facultative anaerobes such as Streptococcus and strict anaerobes at lower population levels of 10(4) cells/ml or less. Certain bacterial vaginosis (BV)-related bacteria, such as G. vaginalis, A. vaginae, M. curtisii, and Prevotella, were also detected in some subjects. Especially in one subject, both G. vaginalis and A. vaginae were detected at high population levels of 10(8.8) and 10(8.9) cells/ml vaginal fluid, suggesting that she is an asymptomatic BV patient. These results suggest that the RT-qPCR system is effective for accurate analysis of major vaginal commensals and diagnosis of several vaginal infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Arnold, Kelly; Romas, Laura; Westmacott, Garrett; McCorrister, Stuart; McKinnon, Lyle R.; Cohen, Craig R.; Mackelprang, Romel; Lingappa, Jairam; Lauffenburger, Doug A.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Burgener, Adam D.
The mechanism(s) by which bacterial communities impact susceptibility to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and maintain female genital tract (FGT) health are poorly understood. Evaluation of FGT bacteria has predominantly been limited to studies of species abundance, but not bacterial function. We therefore sought to examine the relationship of bacterial community composition and function with mucosal epithelial barrier health in the context of bacterial vaginosis (BV) using metaproteomic, metagenomic, and in vitro approaches. We found highly diverse bacterial communities dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis associated with host epithelial barrier disruption and enhanced immune activation, and low diversity communities dominated by Lactobacillus species that associated with lower Nugent scores, reduced pH, and expression of host mucosal proteins important for maintaining epithelial integrity. Importantly, proteomic signatures of disrupted epithelial integrity associated with G. vaginalis-dominated communities in the absence of clinical BV diagnosis. Because traditional clinical assessments did not capture this, it likely represents a larger underrepresented phenomenon in populations with high prevalence of G. vaginalis. We finally demonstrated that soluble products derived from G. vaginalis inhibited wound healing, while those derived from L. iners did not, providing insight into functional mechanisms by which FGT bacterial communities affect epithelial barrier integrity. PMID:27656899
Rezeberga, Dace; Lazdane, Gunta; Kroica, Juta; Sokolova, Ludmila; Donders, Gilbert G G
To investigate the correlation of reproductive tract infections (RTI) and endogenous vaginal flora at first antenatal consultation with placental histological inflammation. In a follow-up study, 154 low risk women with no miscarriage risk factors were examined for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis (GDS) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). At delivery, outcome data were collected and the histology of the placenta was studied. Some 85 (56.3%) of all pregnant women had RTI or endogenous vaginal flora. Placental histological inflammation correlated with genital tract colonisation with G. vaginalis (p =0.013), BV (p =0.031), S. aureus (p =0.04) and aerobic vaginitis (p =0.017). BV and BV-related G. vaginalis correlated with the presence of parietal and placental chorioamnionitis in 53.8 and 43.5% of cases. Genital tract colonisation with GDS and other aerobic flora in combination with inflammatory vaginitis correlated with the presence of funisitis in 33.3 and 40.0% of cases. Mycoplasmas increased the risk for intrauterine infection only when present in combination with other RTIs (p =0.023). Histological placental inflammation is associated with both BV and genital tract colonisation with aerobic bacteria, while funisitis is associated with colonisation of aerobic bacteria at first prenatal visit before the 17th gestational week.
Pathogens often inhabit the body asymptomatically, emerging to cause disease in response to unknown triggers. In the bladder, latent intracellular Escherichia coli reservoirs are regarded as likely origins of recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI), a problem affecting millions of women worldwide. However, clinically plausible triggers that activate these reservoirs are unknown. Clinical studies suggest that the composition of a woman’s vaginal microbiota influences her susceptibility to rUTI, but the mechanisms behind these associations are unclear. Several lines of evidence suggest that the urinary tract is routinely exposed to vaginal bacteria, including Gardnerella vaginalis, a dominant member of the vaginal microbiota in some women. Using a mouse model, we show that bladder exposure to G. vaginalis triggers E. coli egress from latent bladder reservoirs and enhances the potential for life-threatening outcomes of the resulting E. coli rUTI. Transient G. vaginalis exposures were sufficient to cause bladder epithelial apoptosis and exfoliation and interleukin-1-receptor-mediated kidney injury, which persisted after G. vaginalis clearance from the urinary tract. These results support a broader view of UTI pathogenesis in which disease can be driven by short-lived but powerful urinary tract exposures to vaginal bacteria that are themselves not “uropathogenic” in the classic sense. This “covert pathogenesis” paradigm may apply to other latent infections, (e.g., tuberculosis), or for diseases currently defined as noninfectious because routine culture fails to detect microbes of recognized significance. PMID:28358889
Ozturk, Cihadiye E; Ozdemir, Ismail; Yavuz, Tevfik; Kaya, Demet; Behcet, Mustafa
To investigate the distribution of microbiologic agents causing cervicovaginitis. We conducted the study between October 2002 and December 2004 in Abant Izzet Baysal University, Duzce School of Medicine Hospital, Turkey. The samples were obtained from the posterior vaginal fornix and cervix by swabs in 828 patients. Direct microscopic examination, culture and enzyme immune assay (EIA) methods were performed in all patients for diagnosis of microbiologic agents. Gardnerella vaginalis (G. vaginalis) were diagnosed in 254 (30.7%) patients, Candida albicans (C. albicans) in 152 (18.4%), Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) in 36 (4.3%), Candida species in 52 (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in 62 (7.5%), Streptococcus group B in 28 (3.4%), Escherichia coli (E. coli) in 42 (5.1%), Klebsiella species in 24 (2.9%), and Streptococcus group D in 8 (1%) patients in culture. Less frequent enterobacteria in 30 (3.6%) were: Pseudomonas species, Proteus species Enterobacter species, Hafnia alvei and Nonfermenter species. Neisseria gonorrheae (N. gonorrheae) was detected in one patient (0.1%) in culture. The Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) antigen was detected by EIA methods in 130 (15.7%) patients and Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) was observed in 8 (1%) patients by direct microscopic examination. Performing the etiologic diagnosis of cervicovaginitis is necessary in order to take appropriate therapeutic and preventive measures. Therefore, we recommend G. vaginalis, C. albicans and C. trachomatis should be investigated in patients having a diagnosis of cervicovaginitis in our population, since these were detected in a considerable number of cases. Additionally, C. glabrata and T. vaginalis should be kept in mind as possible pathogens.
Shafer, M A; Sweet, R L; Ohm-Smith, M J; Shalwitz, J; Beck, A; Schachter, J
The prevalence of selected microorganisms in the lower genital tract in postmenarchal adolescent girls was assessed, including vaginal Gardnerella vaginalis, group B streptococcus, lactobacillus, Mycoplasma species, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeast, and endocervical Mycoplasma species, U. urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Specific attention was focused on important sexually transmitted disease organisms, and differences in isolations by age, sexual activity, ethnicity, contraception, and the diagnosis of nonspecific vaginitis were measured. Sexually active subjects had a mean of 6.05 organisms (SD = 3.16), compared with 3.12 organisms (SD = 3.92) in non-sexually active subjects (P = 0.001). Sexually active subjects had significantly more vaginal G. vaginalis, lactobacilli, Mycoplasma species, and U. urealyticum, as well as endocervical Mycoplasma species and U. urealyticum, compared with non-sexually active subjects; C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoea, and T. vaginalis were isolated exclusively from the sexually active group. Significant differences in isolation rates by ethnicity were found in vaginal Mycoplasma species and U. urealyticum, and endocervical Mycoplasma species, U. urealyticum, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis. In general, organisms were isolated from blacks most frequently; N. gonorrhoea was isolated from blacks exclusively. Differences were found in microbiologic isolations by the presence or absence of nonspecific vaginitis. Vaginal G. vaginalis and Mycoplasma species and endocervical Mycoplasma species and U. urealyticum were found significantly more often in isolates from the group with nonspecific vaginitis. It is important to define the microbial flora of the lower genital tract in adolescent girls in order to understand its role in the pathogenesis of acute salpingitis.
Romero-Morelos, Pablo; Bandala, Cindy; Jiménez-Tenorio, Julián; Valdespino-Zavala, Mariana; Rodríguez-Esquivel, Miriam; Gama-Ríos, Reyna Anaid; Bandera, Artfy; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Mónica; Taniguchi, Keiko; Marrero-Rodríguez, Daniel; López-Romero, Ricardo; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Salcedo, Mauricio
Cervical cancer is an important health problem in our country. It is known that there are several risk factors for this neoplasm, and it has been suggested that cervical microbiome alterations could play a role in the development and progress of cancer. Bacterial vaginosis associated bacteria such as Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis has been suggested as potential risk factor for cervical lesions and cervical cancer. DNA from 177 cervical scraping samples was studied: 104 belonged to women without cytological or colposcopic alterations and 73 samples from precursor lesions with previous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection history. All samples were screened for Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and HPV by PCR. High HPV prevalence was found in precursor samples, and 30% of samples without lesions were positive for HPV. Virtually all samples contained sequences of both bacteria, and interestingly, there was not HPV association observed; these results could suggest that these microorganisms could be part of the cervical microbiome in Mexican population. The results obtained indicate that the bacteria analysed could be part of normal biome in Mexican women, suggesting a potential reconsideration of the pathogen role of these microorganisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Sabour, Sahar; Arzanlou, Mohsen; Vaez, Hamid; Rahimi, Giti; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Khademi, Farzad
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a vaginal disorder which occurs either symptomatic or asymptomatic because of an imbalance between H 2 O 2 -producing Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis in the vagina. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to determine the prevalence of BV in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Iran. We used national (SID, Irandoc, Iranmedex and Magiran) and international (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and ISI web of knowledge) electronic databases to systematically search and collect available studies using related keywords (up to 1 December 2017). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to select eligible studies. The overall prevalence of BV among Iranian women was 18.9% (95% CI 14-25). Gardnerella vaginalis was the most prevalent isolated bacteria. The prevalence of BV in non-pregnant women was 28% (95% CI 15.1-45.9) which was higher compared with pregnant women who had a prevalence of 16.5% (95% CI 12.5-21.6). The present review revealed a high prevalence of BV in non-pregnant women. Given that BV is associated with a series of reproductive complications such as infertility, taking preventive measures such as awareness of patients as well as monitoring and controlling of syndrome are essential.
Strus, Magdalena; Malinowska, Magdalena; Heczko, Piotr B
To assess antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vaginas of healthy women as compared to the most common bacterial agents related to vaginosis. Antagonistic activity of different Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vaginas of healthy women not treated for infections with an antibiotic for the previous three months was screened using an agar slab method. The activity was tested against test organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis and/or urinary tract infections: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Prevotella bivia. Many of the 146 Lactobacillus strains tested exerted apparent antagonistic activities against gram-positive aerobic cocci and gram-negative rods, such as S aureus and E coli, and a marked number of Lactobacillus strains inhibited facultative bacteria, such as Gardnerella vaginalis and the anaerobes P anaerobius and P bivia. Only a few lactobacilli were able to inhibit growth of E faecalis and S agalactiae. Indicator bacteria growth inhibition probably relies upon several different complementary mechanisms. The specific indicator bacteria species determines which mechanism predominates. Lactobacillus strains taken from normal vaginal flora demonstrated antagonistic activity against a variety of bacteria related to vaginal and urinary tract infections. The specific occurrence rates of active Lactobacillus strains are different, and this difference is dependent on the indicator bacteria species.
Strus, M; Malinowska, M
Bacterial vaginosis is caused by uncontrolled sequential overgrowth of some anaerobic bacteria: Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Mobiluncus sp. usually occurring in stable numbers in the bacterial flora of healthy women. On the other hand, different species of bacteria belonging to the genus Lactobacillus, most frequently L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus, form a group of aerobic bacteria dominating in the same environment. The diversity and density of their populations depend on the age and health conditions. Thanks to their antagonistic and adherence properties bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus can maintain a positive balance role in this ecosystem. The aim of this study was to assess the antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vagina of healthy women against most common agents of bacterial vaginosis. It was found that nearly all of the tested Lactobacillus strains exerted distinct antagonistic activity against anaerobic bacteria: Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and quite a number also against Gram-negative rods, while only some of them were able to inhibit Gram-positive aerobic cocci as Enterococcus faecalis or Staphylococcus aureus.
Geng, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Baoxue
Aquaporins (AQPs ) are a class of the integral membrane proteins, which are permeable to water , some small neutral solutes and certain gases across biological membranes. AQPs are considered as critical transport mediators that are involved in many physiological functions and pathological processes such as transepithelial fluid transport , cell migration, brain edema , neuro excitation and carcinoma. This chapter will provide information about the transport characteristics of AQPs .
Lee, Changgu; Carpick, Robert; Hone, James
The frictional characteristics of graphene were characterized using friction force microscopy (FFM). The frictional force for monolayer graphene is more than twice that of bulk graphite, with 2,3, and 4 layer samples showing a monotonic decrease in friction with increasing sample thickness. Measurements on suspended graphene membranes show identical results, ruling out substrate effects as the cause of the observed variation. Likewise, the adhesion force is identical for all samples. The frictional force is independent of load within experimental uncertainty, consistent with previous measurements on graphite. We consider several possible explanations for the origin of the observed thickness dependence.
Kato, I; Tominaga, S; Suzuki, T
We studied characteristics of past smokers according to the duration of cessation of smoking based on data from a population-based survey. Lifestyle, prevalences of various symptoms and diseases and other factors were compared among current smokers (8507 males and 2012 females), past smokers (4423 males and 684 females) and non-smokers (2431 males and 12,859 females) aged 40 years and over. Compared to current smokers, past smokers consumed more bread, milk, vegetables, fruit and black tea, and less rice, pickles, instant noodles, coffee and alcohol, had lower prevalences of cough, sputum and anorexia, participated more in cancer screening tests, weighed more, included more professional and administrative workers and had more non-smoking spouses. These characteristics resembled those of non-smokers. But past smokers had high prevalences of several cardiovascular and respiratory diseases compared to current smokers. Daily intake of coffee was inversely associated and daily intakes of fruit and milk were positively associated with the duration of abstinence from smoking after adjusting for other factors in both sexes. These results suggest that lifestyle of past smokers may contribute to risk reduction for several diseases.
Sopori, Bhushan L.
Various exemplary methods (800, 900, 1000, 1100) are directed to determining wafer thickness and/or wafer surface characteristics. An exemplary method (900) includes measuring reflectance of a wafer and comparing the measured reflectance to a calculated reflectance or a reflectance stored in a database. Another exemplary method (800) includes positioning a wafer on a reflecting support to extend a reflectance range. An exemplary device (200) has an input (210), analysis modules (222-228) and optionally a database (230). Various exemplary reflectometer chambers (1300, 1400) include radiation sources positioned at a first altitudinal angle (1308, 1408) and at a second altitudinal angle (1312, 1412). An exemplary method includes selecting radiation sources positioned at various altitudinal angles. An exemplary element (1650, 1850) includes a first aperture (1654, 1854) and a second aperture (1658, 1858) that can transmit reflected radiation to a fiber and an imager, respectfully.
Gatenby, Robert A.; Frieden, B. Roy
In this chapter a systems viewpoint is taken of the growth characteristics of normal and malignant tissue. We find that such growth is well analyzed by the concepts of Shannon and Fisher information. In Section 3.1 conventional mechanisms of information transmission via DNA, RNA, and proteins are identified, as well as unconventional structures such as lipids and ion gradients. Information storage, flow, and utilization are analyzed, both within cells and over a system of cells. In Section 3.2, malignant tissue growth is found to be accurately described by the use of Fisher information in particular. Cancer growth is seen to occur as a disease of information, in fact an information catastrophe due to the regression of cells to a minimally ordered state consistent with life. The analysis yields many predictions about the growth of healthy tissue and cancerous tissue, some of which are nonintuitive and have a strong bearing on cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Swidsinski, Alexander; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Swidsinski, Sonja; Verstraelen, Hans
Bacterial vaginosis is a recalcitrant polymicrobial biofilm infection that often resists standard antibiotic treatment. We therefore considered repeated treatment with octenidine, a local antiseptic that has previously been shown to be highly effective in several biofilm-associated infections. Twenty-four patients with recurrent BV were treated with a 7-day course of octenidine (octenidine dihydrochloride spray application with the commercial product Octenisept). In case of treatment failure or relapse within 6 months, patients were re-treated with a 28-day course of octenidine. In case of recurrence within 6 months after the second treatment course, patients were treated again with a 28-day course followed by weekly applications for 2 months. Treatment effect was evaluated by assessment of the presence of the biofilm on voided vaginal epithelial cells through fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The initial cure rate following a 7-day course of octenidine was as high as 87.5%. The 6-month relapse rate was, however, as high as 66.6%. Repeated treatment for 28 days led to an overall cure rate of 75.0%; however, it was also associated with emergence of complete resistance to octenidine in a subset of women. The overall cure rate after three treatment courses with 1-year follow-up was 62.5 %, with 37.5 % of the patients showing complete resistance to octenidine. Our preliminary results showed that octenidine dihydrochloride was initially highly effective, but the efficacy of repeated and prolonged treatment dropped quickly as challenge with the antiseptic rapidly led to bacterial resistance in a considerable subset of women.
Lin, Phylis Lan
The reason for studying the characteristics of a healthy family is to encourage and strengthen the family and to move toward an enriched family life by using the characteristics as bench marks. Six characteristics are discussed as the essence of a healthy family: (1) commitment; (2) togetherness; (3) appreciation; (4) good communication; (5)…
Steele, Natalie A.
This article discusses three characteristics that are often associated with successful music educators. The three characteristics discussed include nonverbal communication, teacher self-efficacy, and servant leadership. Although there is no magical combination of characteristics that will produce an effective music teacher, these three attributes…
Rubesa, Gordana; Gudelj, Lea; Makovac, Dolores
There are many theories about the etiology of schizophrenia. This paper presents the assumptions and latest findings about many immunological characteristics of schizophrenia. According to the neuroimunological theory, this disorder is due to neuroimunological disbalance, increased microglial activity and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Studies have found that intrauterine infections in pregnant women have an effect on the fetal brain development, and that infections with rubella, measles, herpes virus, and toxoplasma are associeted with schizophrenia onset in adult life. In the first episode of schizophrenia and during exacerbation in the serum of the patient, an increased level of proinflammatory cytokines was found. Increased levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β, and decreased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, Il-10. Interleukin 6 levels increase in the psychotic phase of the disease and normalize after the antipsychotic drug treatment. Increased level of IL-6 is associated with severe cognitive impairment and it is more common with patients who had been without adequate treatment for a long time and patients with therapeutic-resistant schizophrenia. Treatment of schizophrenia could be improved by the introduction of anti-inflammatory drug in the therapy.
Schoenhofen, Emily A.; Wyszynski, Diego F.; Andersen, Stacy; Pennington, JaeMi; Young, Robert; Terry, Dellara F.; Perls, Thomas T.
OBJECTIVES To report phenotypic characteristics of 32 age-validated supercentenarians. DESIGN Case series. SETTING U.S.-based recruitment effort. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-two supercentenarians. MEASUREMENTS Multiple forms of proof were used to validate age claims. Sociodemographic, activities of daily living, and medical history data were collected. RESULTS Age range was 110 to 119. Fifty-nine percent had Barthel Index scores in the partially to totally dependent range, whereas 41% required minimal assistance or were independent. Few subjects had a history of clinically evident vascular-related diseases, including myocardial infarction (n = 2, 6%) and stroke (n = 4, 13%). Twenty-two percent (n = 7) were taking medications for hypertension. Twenty-five percent (n = 8) had a history of cancer (all cured). Diabetes mellitus (n = 1, 3%) and Parkinson’s disease (n = 1, 3%) were rare. Osteoporosis (n = 14, 44%) and cataract history (n = 28, 88%) were common. CONCLUSION Data collected thus far suggest that supercentenarians markedly delay and even escape clinical expression of vascular disease toward the end of their exceptionally long lives. A surprisingly substantial proportion of these individuals were still functionally independent or required minimal assistance. PMID:16913991
Schoenhofen, Emily A; Wyszynski, Diego F; Andersen, Stacy; Pennington, Jaemi; Young, Robert; Terry, Dellara F; Perls, Thomas T
To report phenotypic characteristics of 32 age-validated supercentenarians. Case series. U.S.-based recruitment effort. Thirty-two supercentenarians. Multiple forms of proof were used to validate age claims. Sociodemographic, activities of daily living, and medical history data were collected. Age range was 110 to 119. Fifty-nine percent had Barthel Index scores in the partially to totally dependent range, whereas 41% required minimal assistance or were independent. Few subjects had a history of clinically evident vascular-related diseases, including myocardial infarction (n=2, 6%) and stroke (n=4, 13%). Twenty-two percent (n=7) were taking medications for hypertension. Twenty-five percent (n=8) had a history of cancer (all cured). Diabetes mellitus (n=1, 3%) and Parkinson's disease (n=1, 3%) were rare. Osteoporosis (n=14, 44%) and cataract history (n=28, 88%) were common. Data collected thus far suggest that supercentenarians markedly delay and even escape clinical expression of vascular disease toward the end of their exceptionally long lives. A surprisingly substantial proportion of these individuals were still functionally independent or required minimal assistance.
Saraykina, K. A.; Shamanov, V. A.
The article demonstrates that the mass use of basalt fiber concrete (BFC) is constrained by insufficient study of their durability and serviceability in a variety of environments. This research is aimed at the study of the basalt fiber corrosion processes in the cement stone of BFC, the control of the new products structure formation in order to protect the reinforcing fiber from alkaline destruction and thereby improve the exploitational characteristics of the composite. The research result revealed that the modification of basaltfiber concrete by the dispersion of MWNTs contributes to the directional formation of new products in the cement matrix. The HAM additive in basaltfiberconcrete provides for the binding of portlandite to low-basic calcium hydroaluminosilicates, thus reducing the aggressive effect of the cement environment on the reinforcing fibers properties. The complex modification of BFC with nanostructured additives provides for an increase in its durability and exploitational properties (strength, frost resistance and water resistance) due to basalt fiber protection from alkali corrosion on account of the compacting of the contact zone “basalt fiber - cement stone” and designing of the new products structure and morphology of cement matrix over the fiber surface.
Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.
This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.
Hamley, John A.
Experiments were conducted to define the interface characteristics and constraints of 1 kW class arcjets run on simulated decomposition products of hydrazine and power processors. The impacts of power supply output current ripple on arcjet performance were assessed by variation of the ripple frequency from 100 Hz to 100 kHz with 10 percent peak-to-peak ripple amplitude at 1.2 kW. Ripple had no significant effects on thrust, specific impulse or efficiency. The impact of output ripple on thruster lifetime was not assessed. The static and dynamic impedances of the arcjet were quantified with two thrusters of nearly identical configuration. Superposition of an AC component on the DC arc current was used to characterize the dynamic impedance as a function of flow rate and DC current level. A mathematical model was formulated from these data. Both the static and dynamic impedance magnitude were found to be dependent on mass flow rate. The amplitude of the AC component was found to have little effect on the dynamic impedance. Reducing the DC level from 10 to 8 amps led to a large change in the magnitude of the dynamic impedance with no observable phase change. The impedance data compared favorably between the two thrusters.
Sweeney, A. D.; Eble, M. C.; Mungov, G.
How long do tsunamis impact a coast? How often is the largest tsunami wave the first to arrive? How do measurements in the far field differ from those made close to the source? Extending the study of Eblé et al. (2015) who showed the prevalence of a leading negative phase, we assimilate and summarize characteristics of known tsunami events recorded on bottom pressure and coastal water level stations throughout the world oceans to answer these and other questions. An extensive repository of data from the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) archive for tsunami-ready U.S. tide gauge stations, housing more than 200 sites going back 10 years are utilized as are some of the more 3000 marigrams (analog or paper tide gauge records) for tsunami events. The focus of our study is on five tsunamis generated by earthquakes: 2010 Chile (Maule), 2011 East Japan (Tohoku), 2012 Haida Gwaii, 2014 Chile (Iquique), and 2015 Central Chile and one meteorologically generated tsunami on June 2013 along the U.S. East Coast and Caribbean. Reference: Eblé, M., Mungov, G. & Rabinovich, A. On the Leading Negative Phase of Major 2010-2014 Tsunamis. Pure Appl. Geophys. (2015) 172: 3493. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-015-1127-5
Troutman, Patrick A.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Mazanek, Daniel D.
In Jan. 1991, the LaRc SSFO performed an assessment of the configuration characteristics of the proposed pre-integrated Space Station Freedom (SSF) concept. Of particular concern was the relationship of solar array operation and orientation with respect to spacecraft controllability. For the man-tended configuration (MTC), it was determined that torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) seeking Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) control laws could not always maintain attitude. The control problems occurred when the solar arrays were tracking the sun to produce full power while flying in an arrow or gravity gradient flight mode. The large solar array articulations that sometimes result from having the functions of the alpha and beta joints reversed on MTC induced large product of inertia changes that can invalidate the control system gains during an orbit. Several modified sun tracking techniques were evaluated with respect to producing a controllable configuration requiring no modifications to the CMG control algorithms. Another assessment involved the permanently manned configuration (PMC) which has a third asymmetric PV unit on one side of the transverse boom. Recommendations include constraining alpha rotations for MTC in the arrow and gravity gradient flight modes and perhaps developing new non-TEA seeking control laws. Recommendations for PMC include raising the operational altitude and moving to a symmetric configuration as soon as possible.
Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.
The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systemsmore » through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information« less
Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka
Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
This manual describes various ways of generalizing streamflow characteristics and evaluates the applicability and reliability of each under various hydrologic conditions. Several alternatives to regionalization are briefly described.
Gergova, R; Tosheva, K; Shtereva, M; Iordanova, Tz; Konsulova, V; Petrova-Jerova, A; Mitov, I; Ilieva, T; Strateva, T
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common infection of the lower genital tract among women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of BV and the important etiological agent Gardnerella vaginalis in Bulgarian patients of different age groups, as well as, the risk factors forBV METHODS: One thousand five hundred and twenty-three (1523) women aged 16 to 45 years without previous antimicrobial therapy were included in this study. The methods used were: scoring of Gram staining of vaginal smear and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for G. vaginalis. Positive for BV according to the microscopic examination criteria were 47.80% from the 1523 tested women. In 88.87% from the positive samples G. vaginalis was detected using PCR, thus demonstrating high comparability of the both methods and the leading role of G. vaginalis. The most affected with BV is the age group of 21-25 years (33.21% of all subjects with BV). The most important detected risk factors were: smoking (more than 55% with BV), single marital status (only 15% with BV are married), more than I sexual partner (more than 36% had changed the sexual partner), early onset of sexual activity (75% of B V asocciated subjects started their sexual activity by the age 15-18 years). The established early age for aquiring BV among Bulgarian women is very important and alarming sign. This is the first study on the etiological role of G. vaginalis and on the risk factors for BV in Bulgaria.
Fernández-Alba, J; Valle-Gay, A; Dibildox, M; Vargas, J A; González, J; García, M; López, L H
Because of its potential as a low cost first-line monotherapy for the most common vulvovaginal infections, we evaluated fenticonazole nitrate in a prospective, open-label, multicenter pilot study with 101 sexually active women (per-protocol; 16 to 61 years of age) with vulvovaginitis involving single or mixed infections with Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, and/or Gardnerella vaginalis. Fenticonazole nitrate (1 g) was administered as vaginal ovules, once daily on days 1 and 3. Eradication (direct phase-contrast microscopy of vaginal swabs and/or microbiological culture) on day 8 was 90% (C. albicans, 26/29, p < 0.001), 70% (T. vaginalis, 7/10, p = 0.161), 67% (G. vaginalis, 22/33, p < 0.009), and 45% (mixed infection, 13/29, p = 0.001). After 28 days, relapse was 0% for candidiasis and trichomoniasis, 27% (6/22) for G. vaginalis, and 23% (3/13) for mixed infection. Overall, eradication of all offending pathogens was achieved in 67% of the total per-protocol population, with a relapse rate of only 16%. Score sums for symptoms improved from 7.0 (baseline) to 1.7 (day 8), and 0.71 (day 28), (p < 0.001). Treatment was safe and well tolerated. The results of our pilot study suggest that application of fenticonazole nitrate 1 g intravaginal ovules on 2 alternate days is a suitable first-line treatment of vulvovaginitis with acceptable broad-spectrum efficacy against the most commonly involved pathogens and with a low rate of early relapse, reserving antibiotics for patients with treatment failure or relapse of infection. Our results should encourage further examination of this approach in larger and well controlled clinical trials.
Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.
Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…
Ardichvili, Alexandre A.; Jondle, Douglas J.; Mitchell, James A.
The purpose of this study was to identify general characteristics attributed to ethical business cultures by executives from a variety of industries. Our research identified five clusters of characteristics: (1) Mission- and Values-Driven; (2) Stakeholder Balance; (3) Leadership Effectiveness; (4) Process Integrity; and (5) Long-term Perspective.…
Yaratan, Hüseyin; Muezzin, Emre
It is a known fact that every profession needs to be developed during its practice. To be able to acquire this we need to know the characteristics of teachers related to their professional development. For this purpose this study tries to develop a scale to measure teacher characteristics which would help in designing in-service training programs…
Von Koppen, Joachim
This report describes the development of airplane characteristics since the war and indicates the direction development should take in the immediate future. Some of the major topics include: the behavior of an airplane about its lateral, vertical, and longitudinal axes. Behavior at large angles of attack and landing characteristics are also included.
Lyakhovich, S. L.; Sharapov, A. A.
We define and study invariants which can be uniformly constructed for any gauge system. By a gauge system we understand an (anti-)Poisson supermanifold provided with an odd Hamiltonian self-commuting vector field called a homological vector field. This definition encompasses all the cases usually included into the notion of a gauge theory in physics as well as some other similar (but different) structures like Lie or Courant algebroids. For Lagrangian gauge theories or Hamiltonian first class constrained systems, the homological vector field is identified with the classical BRST transformation operator. We define characteristic classes of a gauge system as universal cohomology classes of the homological vector field, which are uniformly constructed in terms of this vector field itself. Not striving to exhaustively classify all the characteristic classes in this work, we compute those invariants which are built up in terms of the first derivatives of the homological vector field. We also consider the cohomological operations in the space of all the characteristic classes. In particular, we show that the (anti-)Poisson bracket becomes trivial when applied to the space of all the characteristic classes, instead the latter space can be endowed with another Lie bracket operation. Making use of this Lie bracket one can generate new characteristic classes involving higher derivatives of the homological vector field. The simplest characteristic classes are illustrated by the examples relating them to anomalies in the traditional BV or BFV-BRST theory and to characteristic classes of (singular) foliations.
Tchelougou, D; Karou, D S; Kpotsra, A; Balaka, A; Assih, M; Bamoke, M; Katawa, G; Anani, K; Simpore, J; de Souza, C
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the major microorganisms causing vaginal infections in pregnant women consulting at the Regional Hospital of Sokodé and to assess their sensitivity to antibiotics. This prospective study took place from June 2010 through August 2011 and included 302 pregnant women from whom a sample was taken by a vaginal swab. Samples were processed for parasitic, bacterial, and fungal agents, by microscopic examination and culture. We isolated 273 germs, alone or in association in 221 women. These germs were distributed as follows: Gardnerella vaginalis (55.31%), Candida spp (30.77%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.49%), Enterobacteriaceae (4.40%), Trichomonas vaginalis (3.66%) and Mobiluncus spp (0.37%). No Streptococcus strain was isolated during the study. Over 40% of women had bacterial vaginosis and 23.08% of them were coinfected. The occurrence of coinfection was statistically influenced by the stage of pregnancy (P = 0.05). The susceptibility tests revealed that S. aureus developed a strong resistance to aminopenicillins (66.67%) and cephalosporins (>44.44%), while Enterobacteriaceae was resistant to cephalosporins and quinolones. (16.67%). This study showed that pregnant women in Sokode are still exposed to vaginal infection, caused mostly by G. vaginalis and Candida species. These results underline the need for at least one vaginal swab culture for each woman during pregnancy.
Canigia, Liliana Fernández; Lanza, Alejandra; Bianchini, Hebe
Objective: To determine the prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobic bacteria and Mycoplasma hominis in vaginal specimens of women with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV) as well as to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the direct sialidase assay of vaginal fluid as a rapid test for diagnosing this syndrome. Methods: Vaginal cultures were obtained from 109 nonpregnant women (mean age 33 ± 7.1 years), 47 of them with clinical signs of BV (BV+) and 62 of them without BV (BV- ). In addition, we determined the vaginal sialidase activity in both groups, which may serve as a feature of this syndrome. Results: Anaerobic bacteria were isolated in 91% and 18% of the BV+and BV- groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Peptostreptococcus spp., Prevotella bivia and Porphyromonas spp. were strongly associated with BV. P. bivia and Prevotella spp. represented 44% of all the anaerobes isolated in the BV+ group. All the isolated P. bivia strains presented sialidase activity. G. vaginalis and M. hominis were isolated in 76% and 42% of the BV+ and 1% and 0% of the BV- women, respectively (p < 0.001). Mobiluncus morphotypeswere observed in 34% of the BV+and 0% of BV- women. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of sialidase activity were 81%, 94%, 90% and 86%, respectively. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate a strong association between G. vaginalis, M. hominis, and P. bivia and BV. Sialidase activity and Gram stain of vaginal fluid represent accurate methods for diagnosing BV. PMID:11368254
González-Pedraza, Alberto; Ortiz, Catalina; Mota, Ricardo; Dávila, Rocío; Dickinson, Eloísa
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the second most frequent type of infectious pathology treated in primary care clinics. The participation of microorganisms associated with sexually transmitted infection has been reported as a cause of UTI; nevertheless this concept is still controversial. To gather data on this subject, we carried out a search for Gardnerella vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Streptococcus agalactiae besides the common microorganisms involved in UTI. A total of 1507 urine cultures from patients with a clinical diagnosis of low UTI were analyzed. Samples were inoculated onto 5% sheep blood agar and McConkey agar, as well as HBT medium for G. vaginalis, and U9B broth and agar E broth for M. hominis and U. urealyticum. The following parameters were analyzed as possible risk factors: age, sex, pregnancy and diabetes status. RESULTS. There were 436 (28.9%) positive urine cultures. Escherichia coli was isolated in 44.34% of cases. Microorganisms associated with sexually transmitted disease were found in 162 (37%): G. vaginalis (25.7%), U. urealyticum (5.9%), S. agalactiae (3.4%) and M. hominis (2%). UTI were more frequent among the 20 to 40 year-old age group, in women and in diabetic patients. Microorganisms associated with sexually transmitted disease were found in a large percentage of cultures, indicating the need for studies to clarify their role in the etiology of UTI.
This report focuses on vehicle issues related to BRT systems. The characteristics of BRT systems described in this report are : developed based on existing or planned BRT systems. Information on the vendors offerings is based on information from t...
Work zones tend to cause hazardous conditions for drivers and construction workers since they generate conflicts between construction activities and traffic. A clear understanding of the characteristics of work zone crashes will enhance the selection...
A study of automobile characteristics as a supportive tool for auto energy consumption, fuel economy monitoring, and fleet analysis studies is presented. This report emphasizes the utility of efficient data retrieval methods in fuel economy analysis,...
The objective of this document is to provide a single source of sketch planning data on the most important performance characteristics of contemporary urban transportation systems in a format that lends itself to easy reference. This handbook does no...
This report describes the noise characteristics of Eight Helicopters during level flyovers, simulated approaches, and hover. The data was obtained during an FAA/DOT Helicopter Noise Program to acquire a data base for possible helicopter noise regulat...
Manjunatha, H. C.; Sridhar, K. N.
We have studied fusion barrier characteristics of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations. After the calculation of fusion barrier heights and positions, we have searched for their parameterization. We have achieved the empirical formula for fusion barrier heights (VB), positions (RB), curvature of the inverted parabola (ħω) of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations (6
Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru
In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.
Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru
In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing “meow” did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds. PMID:18567253
Khamutova, M. V.; Rezchikov, A. F.; Kushnikov, V. A.; Ivaschenko, V. A.; Bogomolov, A. S.; Filimonyuk, L. Yu; Dolinina, O. N.; Kushnikova, E. V.; Shulga, T. E.; Tverdokhlebov, V. A.; Fominykh, D. S.
The article presents the development of a mathematical model of the system dynamics. Mathematical model allows forecasting the characteristics of flood effects. Model is based on a causal diagram and is presented by a system of nonlinear differential equations. Simulated characteristics are the nodes of the diagram, and edges define the functional relationships between them. The numerical solution of the system of equations using the Runge-Kutta method was obtained. Computer experiments to determine the characteristics on different time interval have been made and results of experiments have been compared with real data of real flood. The obtained results make it possible to assert that the developed model is valid. The results of study are useful in development of an information system for the operating and dispatching staff of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM).
Space and terrestrial applications remote sensor systems are described. Each sensor is presented separately. Information is included on its objectives, description, technical characteristics, data products obtained, data archives location, period of operation, and measurement and potential derived parameters. Each sensor is cross indexed.
This paper explores the major characteristics of school choice in the Chinese context. It highlights the involvement of cultural and economic capital, such as choice fees, donations, prize-winning certificates and awards in gaining school admission, as well as the use of social capital in the form of "guanxi". The requirement for these…
The body of folk wisdom and research on the characteristics of successful developmental educators indicates, among other findings, that: (1) the single most important factor influencing learning is not the teacher but what the learner already knows; (2) excellence in teaching involves a genuine concern for students; (3) successful instructors are…
Abouellail, A. A.; Kostina, M. A.; Bortalevich, S. I.; Loginov, E. L.; Shinyakov, Y. A.; Sukhorukov, M. P.
Within this article, the investigation of the electrical characteristics of two thermocouples in parallel connection was mathematically simulated for further research of the effect of multi-point contact between the sensing thermocouple electrodes and the inspected sample in thermoelectric inspection devices.
Stein, Ann; Kahn, Malcolm
The attitudes and life-style characteristics of 58 undergraduate nonusers of illegal drugs were evaluated through comparisons with 47 regular marijuana users. The nonusers were found to be more settled in their values, more goal-directed, and more involved academically. They also had higher Grade Point Averages. The nonusers appeared to be both…
This study aims to analyse artistic understanding in primary and secondary education and the relationship between this understanding and motivational characteristics such as goal orientation, engagement in art activities and attitude to art education at school, which determine (according to prior research) learners' academic achievement, in…
Loper, Rodney G.
Psychological studies on personality characteristics obtained from individuals prior to being diagnosed as alcoholics are reviewed. Retrospective studies suggesting an association between childhood anti-social behavior and the subsequent problem of alcoholism are presented, supported by studies of the personality inventories of college students…
Hinrichsen, P. F.
Uses a computer interface to measure terminal voltage versus current characteristic of a variety of batteries, their series and parallel combinations, and the variation with discharge. The concept of an internal resistance demonstrates that current flows through the battery determine the efficiency and serve to introduce Thevenin's theorem.…
Eldar, Eitan; Talmor, Rachel
This paper describes the characteristics of student teachers who were evaluated as outstanding during their teacher education studies. Outstanding students were selected after 2 years of field experiences based on their teaching abilities and academic achievements. Data were collected at three points of time: before they commenced their studies at…
Wispe, Lauren; And Others
Procedures used in empathy-helping studies suggest results may be due to demand characteristics. Two studies were run to investigate especially the mood induction process. One reproduced the Aderman-Berkowitz main mood effects. Another showed that after seeing a help-non-help incident, mood effects were demonstrated only when Ss knew the research…
Kaye, Judith C.
This document chronicles a project called Model Nets, which studies the characteristics of computer networks that have a positive impact on K-12 learning. Los Alamos National Laboratory undertook the study so that their recommendations could help federal agencies wisely fund networking projects in an era when the national imperative has driven…
Leithwood, Kenneth; Azah, Vera Ndifor
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to inquire about the characteristics of effective school leadership networks and the contribution of such networks to the development of individual leaders' professional capacities. Design/methodology/approach: The study used path-analytic techniques with survey data provided by 450 school and district leaders…
Wetzler, Scott; And Others
Examines the characteristics of suicidality and psychopathology (including depression, aggression, impulsivity, and stressful life events) among four groups of depressed adolescent outpatients. The nonsuicidal group was differentiated from the three suicidal groups on the basis of suicidality and psychopathology. The three suicidal groups were…
Simon, M. K.; Yuen, J. H.
The basic design, principles of operation, and characteristics of deep space communications receivers are examined. In particular, the basic fundamentals of phase-locked loop and Costas loop receivers used for synchronization, tracking, and demodulation of phase-coherent signals in residual carrier and suppressed carrier systems are addressed.
Upitis, Rena; Abrami, Philip C.; Brook, Julia; Boese, Karen; King, Matthew
The purpose of the present study was to learn about the characteristics of independent music teachers, their beliefs about music teaching, and their studio practices. A self-report survey included questions about the teachers' (a) background experiences, (b) pedagogical approaches, (c) use of digital technologies, and (d) professional development…
A collection of data concerning the physical, operating, and performance characteristics of automobiles for the model years 1955, 1960, 1965, 1968, and 1970 to 1974. Data is to be added to the data base already established by DOT/TSC, for the 1975 mo...
Space and terrestrial applications remote sensor systems are described. Each sensor is presented separately. Information is included on its objectives, description, technical characteristics, data products obtained, data archives location, period of operation, and measurement and potential derived parameters. Each sensor is cross indexed.
Crotalaria genus belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae comprising about 600 species spread throughout tropical, neotropical and subtropical regions. In this study, seeds of Crolatalaria pallida were used to the isolation of usaramine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stap...
Portanova, Marc A.
An attempt was made to determine the failure modes of high altitude scientific balloons through an investigation of the fracture characteristics of the thin polyethylene films. Two films were the subject of the evaluation, Winzen Int.'s Stratafilm SF-85 and Raven Industries' Astro-E. Research began with an investigation of the film's cold brittleness point and it's effect on the ultimate strength and elasticity of the polyethylene film. A series of preliminary investigations were conducted to develop an understanding of the material characteristics. The primary focus of this investigation was on the notch sensitivity of the films. Simple stress strain tests were also conducted to enable analysis employing fracture toughness parameters. Studies were conducted on both film types at 23 C (room temperature), -60 C, -90 C, and -120 C.
Barnes, Harry Hawthorne
Color photographs and descriptive data are presented for 50 stream channels for which roughness coefficients have been determined. All hydraulic computations involving flow in open channels require an evaluation of the roughness characteristics of the channel. In the absence of a satisfactory quantitative procedure this evaluation remains chiefly an art. The ability to evaluate roughness coefficients must be developed through experience. One means of gaining this experience is by examining and becoming acquainted with the appearance of some typical channels whose roughness coefficients are known. The photographs and data contained in this report represent a wide range of channel conditions. Familiarity with the appearance, geometry, and roughness characteristics of these channels will improve the engineer's ability to select roughness coefficients for other channels .
Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.
The reasons and regularities of vapor flow and turbine parameter variation depending on the total pressure drop rate π* and rotor rotation frequency n are studied, as exemplified by a two-stage compressor turbine of a power-generating gas turbine installation. The turbine characteristic is calculated in a wide range of mode parameters using the method in which analytical dependences provide high accuracy for the calculated flow output angle and different types of gas dynamic losses are determined with account of the influence of blade row geometry, blade surface roughness, angles, compressibility, Reynolds number, and flow turbulence. The method provides satisfactory agreement of results of calculation and turbine testing. In the design mode, the operation conditions for the blade rows are favorable, the flow output velocities are close to the optimal ones, the angles of incidence are small, and the flow "choking" modes (with respect to consumption) in the rows are absent. High performance and a nearly axial flow behind the turbine are obtained. Reduction of the rotor rotation frequency and variation of the pressure drop change the flow parameters, the parameters of the stages and the turbine, as well as the form of the characteristic. In particular, for decreased n, nonmonotonic variation of the second stage reactivity with increasing π* is observed. It is demonstrated that the turbine characteristic is mainly determined by the influence of the angles of incidence and the velocity at the output of the rows on the losses and the flow output angle. The account of the growing flow output angle due to the positive angle of incidence for decreased rotation frequencies results in a considerable change of the characteristic: poorer performance, redistribution of the pressure drop at the stages, and change of reactivities, growth of the turbine capacity, and change of the angle and flow velocity behind the turbine.
Dehghanzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Kholasehzadeh, Golrasteh; Birjandi, Masoumeh; Antikchi, Ensieh; Sobhan, Mohamad Reza; Neamatzadeh, Hossein
Nurses are full partners with other health care professionals. Until fairly recently the scope of nurses potential in entrepreneurship has not been widely recognized. The present study tries to evaluate entrepreneurship psychological characteristics among nurses. The survey instrument included scales measuring entrepreneurship psychological characteristics including locus of control, need for achievement, risk taking propensity, ambiguity tolerance, and innovation, among nurses in the Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran in 2013. In this study average of entrepreneurship psychological characteristics of nurses which are higher than standard mark. The majority of the nurses have average entrepreneurship (20.4%). It means that they have some strong entrepreneurship. The result show that average of the need for achievement is 34.5%, the locus of control 33.8%, risk taking propensity 33.2%, ambiguity tolerance 34.2%, and innovation 41.6%. The results indicate that the 4 dimensions of the need for achievement, risk taking, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation were significant. However, the locus of control is not significant at a 0.05 significance level. In terms, entrepreneurially nurses are comparatively more innovative, have risk taking attitudes, need for achievement, Ambiguity Tolerance, and Innovation. Results largely support significant positive relationships between psychological traits and entrepreneurial orientations.
Clark, Noreen; Lachance, Laurie; Milanovich, Amy Friedman; Stoll, Shelley; Awad, Daniel F
We identified characteristics of interventions associated with positive asthma outcomes to understand how programs can be improved. We identified asthma interventions from the peer-reviewed literature or through a nomination process for unpublished programs. Initially, we identified 532 interventions. Of those, 223 met our eligibility criteria (e.g., focus on asthma, completed an evaluation, and demonstrated at least one asthma-related health outcome) and provided information on program components and processes, administration, evaluation, and findings through telephone interviews, program documents, and published reports. We analyzed bivariate relationships between programmatic factors and outcomes using Chi-square statistics, Fisher's exact tests, and unconditional logistic regression. We confirmed findings for all programs by analyzing the subset with published results in peer-reviewed journals. Our findings indicated that programs were more likely to report a positive impact on health outcomes if they (1) were community based, (2) engaged the participation of community-based organizations, (3) provided program components in a clinical setting, (4) provided asthma training to health-care providers, (5) collaborated with other organizations and institutions and with government agencies, (6) designed a program for a specific racial/ethnic group, (7) tailored content or delivery based on individual health or educational needs, and (8) conducted environmental assessments and tailored interventions based on these assessments. Positive asthma outcomes were associated with specific program characteristics: being community centered, clinically connected, and continuously collaborative. Program developers and implementers who build these characteristics into their interventions will be more likely to realize desired asthma outcomes.
Lefèvre, J C; Jean, M; Averous, S; Viraben, R; Blanc, C; Bauriaud, R; Lareng, M B
56 women who were diagnosed bioclinically as having a bacterial vaginal infection were studied, as were 35 women as a control group. The study was a semi-quantitative analysis of the vaginal bacterial flora, both aerobic and anaerobic. It shows that Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria such as Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroïdes, Veillonella and Mobiluncus were associated in a statistically significant way with bacterial vaginitis. On the other hand Lactobacilli were less frequently found (p less than 0.001) than in the control group of women. The way in which the microbial flora is changed has been observed during attacks of vaginitis and is discussed, as is the importance of making the diagnosis and of treating this syndrome.
Andersson, P; Klein, M; Lilliebridge, R A; Giffard, P M
Ultra-deep Illumina sequencing was performed on whole genome amplified DNA derived from a Chlamydia trachomatis-positive vaginal swab. Alignment of reads with reference genomes allowed robust SNP identification from the C. trachomatis chromosome and plasmid. This revealed that the C. trachomatis in the specimen was very closely related to the sequenced urogenital, serovar F, clade T1 isolate F-SW4. In addition, high genome-wide coverage was obtained for Prevotella melaninogenica, Gardnerella vaginalis, Clostridiales genomosp. BVAB3 and Mycoplasma hominis. This illustrates the potential of metagenome data to provide high resolution bacterial typing data from multiple taxa in a diagnostic specimen. ©2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection ©2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Tønjum, T; Bukholm, G; Bøvre, K
DNA-DNA hybridization using total genomic DNA probes may represent a way of differentiating between miscellaneous bacterial species. This was studied with type and reference strains of 20 species in Moraxella, Kingella, and other selected Gram-negative groups. Both radioactive and biotin labelling were employed. Most of the species examined were easily distinguished, such as Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, M.(B.) ovis, M. atlantae, M. phenylpyruvica, M. osloensis, Neisseria elongata, N. meningitidis, Kingella kingae, K. indologenes, K. dentrificans, Oligella urethralis, Eikenella corrodens, Cardiobacterium hominis, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Gardnerella vaginalis, and DF-2. This reflected the extent of the genetic distances between them as a basis for identification by hybridization. There was some clustering in the Moraxella group. Especially the closely related Moraxella nonliquefaciens, M. lacunata and M. bovis showed strong hybridization affinities. This leads to potential problems in distinguishing these three species from each other by DNA-DNA hybridization with total genomic probes alone.
Artemisia princeps Pamp. Essential oil and its constituents eucalyptol and α-terpineol ameliorate bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis in mice by inhibiting bacterial growth and NF-κB activation.
Trinh, Hien-Trung; Lee, In-Ah; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hyun
To investigate the inhibitory effects of Artemisia princeps Pamp. (family Asteraceae) essential oil (APEO) and its main constituents against bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis, their antimicrobial activities against Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans in vitro and their anti-inflammatory effects against G. vaginalis-induced vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis were examined in mice. APEO and its constituents eucalyptol and α-terpineol were found to inhibit microbe growths. α-Terpineol most potently inhibited the growths of G. vaginalis and C. albicans with MIC values of 0.06 and 0.125 % (v/v), respectively. The antimicrobial activity of α-terpineol was found to be comparable to that of clotrimazole. Intravaginal treatment with APEO, eucalyptol, or α-terpineol significantly decreased viable G. vaginalis and C. albicans numbers in the vaginal cavity and myeloperoxidase activity in mouse vaginal tissues compared with controls. These agents also inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β, IL-6, TNF- α), COX-2, iNOS, and the activation of NF- κB and increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In addition, they inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of NF- κB in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, and α-terpineol most potently inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and NF- κB activation. Based on these findings, APEO and its constituents, particularly α-terpineol, ameliorate bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis by inhibiting the growths of vaginal pathogens and the activation of NF- κB. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Roxby, Alison C; Fredricks, David N; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Kristjana; Masese, Linnet; Fiedler, Tina L; De Rosa, Stephen; Jaoko, Walter; Kiarie, James N; Overbaugh, Julie; McClelland, R Scott
Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is associated with HIV acquisition. We studied changes in vaginal microbiota and inflammatory milieu after DMPA initiation. In a cohort of HIV-negative Kenyan women, we collected monthly vaginal swabs over 1 year before and after DMPA. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we compared quantities of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus iners, Gardnerella vaginalis, and total bacterial load (16S ribosomal RNA gene levels). Six vaginal immune mediators were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Trends in the detection and quantity of bacteria were estimated by logistic and linear mixed-effects regression. From 2010 to 2012, 15 HIV-seronegative women initiated DMPA, contributing 85 visits (median, 6 visits/woman; range, 3-8 visits/woman). The median time of DMPA-exposed follow-up was 8.4 months (range, 1.5-11.6 months). Seven women (46%) had bacterial vaginosis within 70 days before DMPA start. L. iners was detected in 13 women (87%) before DMPA start, but other lactobacilli were rarely detected. Gardnerella vaginalis decreased by 0.21 log10 copies per swab per month after DMPA exposure (P = 0.01). Total bacterial load decreased by 0.08 log10 copies per swab per month of DMPA (P = 0.02). Sustained decreases in interleukin (IL)-6 (P = 0.03), IL-8 (P = 0.04), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (P < 0.001) were also noted. Nine women (60%) had L. crispatus detected post-DMPA, which significantly correlated with reduced IL-6 (P < 0.01) and IL-8 (P = 0.02). Initiation of DMPA led to sustained shifts in vaginal bacterial concentrations and levels of inflammatory mediators. Further studies are warranted to outline components of the vaginal microbiota influenced by DMPA use and impact on HIV susceptibility.
California streams exhibit a wide range of runoff characteristics that are related to the climatologic, topographic, and geologic characteristics of the basins they drain. The annual volume of runoff of a stream, expressed in inches, may be large or small, and daily discharge rates may be highly variable or relatively steady. The bulk of the annual runoff may be storm runoff, or snowmelt runoff, or a combination of both. The streamflow may be ephemeral, intermittent, or perennial; if perennial, base flow may be well sustained or poorly sustained. In this report the various runoff characteristics are identified by numerical index values. They are shown to be related generally to mean annual precipitation, altitude, latitude, and location with respect to the 11 geomorphic provinces in the California Region. With respect to mean annual precipitation on the watershed, streamflow is generally (1) ephemeral if the mean annual precipitation is less than 10 inches, (2) intermittent if the mean annual precipitation is between 10 and 40 inches, and (3) perennial if the mean annual precipitation is more than 40 inches. Departures from those generalizations are associated with (a) the areal variation of such geologic factors as the infiltration and storage capacities of the rocks underlying the watersheds, and (b) the areal variation of evapotranspiration loss as influenced by varying conditions of climate, soil, vegetal cover, and geologic structure. Latitude and altitude determine the proportion of the winter precipitation that will be stored for subsequent runoff in the late spring and summer. In general, if a watershed has at least 30 percent of its area above the normal altitude of the snowline on April 1, it will have significant snowmelt runoff. Snowmelt runoff in California is said to be significant if at least 30 percent of the annual runoff occurs during the 4 months, April through July. Storm runoff is said to be predominant if at least 65 percent of the annual
Simić-Ruzić, Budimirka; Jovanović, Aleksandar A
Stuttering is a functional impairment of speech, which is manifested by conscious, but nonintentionally interrupted, disharmonic and disrhythmic fluctuation of sound varying in frequency and intensity. Aetiology of this disorder has been conceived within the frame of theoretical models, which tend to connect genetic and epigenetic factors. The goal of the paper was to study the characteristics of the family functioning of stuttering children in comparison to the family functioning of children without speech disorder, which confirmed the justification of the introduction of family orientated therapeutic interventions into the therapy spectrum of child stuttering. Seventy-nine nucleus families of 3 to 6-year-old children were examined; of these, 39 families had stuttering children and 40 had children without speech disorder. The assessment of family characteristics was made using the Family Health Scale, an observer-rating scale which according to semistructured interview and operational criteria, measures 6 basic dimensions of family functioning: Emotional State, Communication, Borders, Alliances, Adaptability & Stability, Family Skills. A total score calculated from the basic dimensions, is considered as a global index of family health. Families with stuttering children compared to families with children without speech disorder showed significantly lower scores in all the basic dimension of family functioning, as well as in the total score on the Family Health Scale. Our research results have shown that stuttering children in comparison with children without speech disorder live in families with unfavourable emotional atmosphere, impaired communication and worse control over situational and developmental difficulties, which affect children's development and well-being. In the light of previous research, the application of family therapy modified according to the child's needs is now considered indispensable in the therapeutic approach to stuttering children. The
Griffith, Caitlin A.; Turner, Jake D.; Penteado, Paulo; Khamsi, Tymon B.; Soderblom, Jason M.
Cassini/Huygens and ground-based measurements of Titan reveal an eroded surface, with lakes, dunes, and sinuous washes. These features, coupled with measurements of clouds and rain, indicate the transfer of methane between Titan’s surface and atmosphere. The presence of methane-damp lowlands suggests further that the atmospheric methane (which is continually depleted through photolysis) may be supplied by sub-surface reservoirs. The byproducts of methane photolysis condense onto the surface, leaving layers of organic sediments that record Titan’s